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Sample records for prevalence clinical disease

  1. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of punding in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Ashley H; Rickards, Hugh; Fasano, Alfonso; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2011-03-01

    Punding (the display of stereotyped, repetitive behaviors) is a relatively recently discovered feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Little is known about the prevalence and clinical characteristics of punding in PD. In this review, four large scientific databases were comprehensively searched for literature in relation to punding prevalence and clinical correlates in the context of PD. Prevalence was found to vary greatly (between 0.34 to 14%), although there were large disparities in study populations, assessment methods, and criteria. We observed an association between punding, dopaminergic medications, and impulse control disorder. Other characteristics, which may be more common among punders, include a higher severity of dyskinesia, younger age of disease onset, longer disease duration, and male gender. More research in large clinical datasets is required in many areas before conclusions are drawn. The pathophysiology behind the punding phenomenon is also poorly understood at present, rendering it difficult to develop targeted therapy. The current mainstay of treatment is the reduction in the dose of dopaminergic medications, the evidence for other suggested therapies being purely empirical.

  2. Refractory coeliac disease in a country with a high prevalence of clinically-diagnosed coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Ilus, T; Kaukinen, K; Virta, L J; Huhtala, H; Mäki, M; Kurppa, K; Heikkinen, M; Heikura, M; Hirsi, E; Jantunen, K; Moilanen, V; Nielsen, C; Puhto, M; Pölkki, H; Vihriälä, I; Collin, P

    2014-02-01

    Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is thought to be a rare disorder, but the accurate prevalence is unknown. We aimed to identify the prevalence of and the risk factors for developing RCD in a Finnish population where the clinical detection rate of coeliac disease is high. The study involved 11 hospital districts in Finland where the number of treated RCD patients (n = 44), clinically diagnosed coeliac disease patients (n = 12 243) and adult inhabitants (n = 1.7 million) was known. Clinical characteristics at diagnosis of coeliac disease between the RCD patients and patients with uncomplicated disease were compared. The prevalence of RCD was 0.31% among diagnosed coeliac disease patients and 0.002% in the general population. Of the enrolled 44 RCD patients, 68% had type I and 23% type II; in 9% the type was undetermined. Comparing 886 patients with uncomplicated coeliac disease with these 44 patients that developed RCD later in life, the latter were significantly older (median 56 vs 44 years, P < 0.001), more often males (41% vs. 24%, P = 0.012) and seronegative (30% vs. 5%, P < 0.001) at the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Patients with evolving RCD had more severe symptoms at the diagnosis of coeliac disease, including weight loss in 36% (vs. 16%, P = 0.001) and diarrhoea in 54% (vs. 38%, P = 0.050). Refractory coeliac disease is very rare in the general population. Patients of male gender, older age, severe symptoms or seronegativity at the diagnosis of coeliac disease are at risk of future refractory coeliac disease and should be followed up carefully. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prevalence of clinical gallbladder disease in Mexican-American, Anglo, and black women.

    PubMed

    Diehl, A K; Stern, M P; Ostrower, V S; Friedman, P C

    1980-04-01

    Clinical observations have suggested that gallstones are increased in frequency in Mexican-Americans compared to other ethnic groups. Past autopsy surveys have demonstrated a low prevalence in blacks compared to whites. We retrospectively reviewed 1,018 charts to study the prevalence of cholelithiasis in ambulatory women of these three racial/ethnic backgrounds. Mexican-American women were found to have a prevalence of gallbladder disease approximately three times that of black women, with Anglo prevalences falling in an intermediate range. The prevalence of cholelithiasis was also positively associated with increasing age and diabetes, but not with serum cholesterol, use of oral contraceptives or conjugated estrogens, parity, hypertension, menstrual status, or smoking. An association with obesity was shown but could not be shown to be independent of other risk factors.

  4. Combat dermatology: the prevalence of skin disease in a deployed dermatology clinic in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Henning, J Scott; Firoz, Bahar F

    2010-03-01

    Since July 2004, the United States (U.S.) Army has operated a forward-deployed dermatology clinic in Baghdad, Iraq. This paper outlines the prevalence of skin disease among deployed service men and women in Operation Iraqi Freedom. A cross-sectional study was performed for all dermatology visits presenting to the Combat Dermatology Clinic, Ibn Sina, Iraq, between January 15, 2008 and July 15, 2008. In the six-month period reviewed, 2,696 total patients were evaluated. The most prevalent diagnoses included eczematous dermatitis [17%, n=462] and benign neoplasms [14%, n=375]. Eight percent (n=205) of the total visits were for skin cancer. This included: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma both in-situ and invasive, mycosis fungoides and melanoma. Actinic keratosis comprised 5% of the total visits (n=129). Bacterial infections comprised 6% (n=158) of the total visits and 31 of these cases were community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Cross-sectional study with referral bias. This is the largest publication of the prevalence of skin disease in an exclusively dermatologic clinic in a combat setting. For the first time the presence of skin cancer is noted in a combat setting. The prevalence of MRSA is noted and was exclusively seen in U.S. soldiers. There was a statistically significant rise in the prevalence of eczematous dermatitides when compared with previous conflicts. Dermatologists can have a significant and strategic impact on deployed military medicine.

  5. Patterns of service utilisation within Australian hepatology clinics: high prevalence of advanced liver disease.

    PubMed

    El-Atem, N A; Wojcik, K; Horsfall, L; Irvine, K M; Johnson, T; McPhail, S M; Powell, E E

    2016-04-01

    Liver diseases in Australia are estimated to affect 6 million people with a societal cost of $51 billion annually. Information about utilisation of specialist hepatology care is critical in informing policy makers about the requirements for delivery of hepatology-related healthcare. This study examined the aetiology and severity of liver disease seen in a tertiary hospital hepatology clinic, as well as the resource utilisation patterns. A longitudinal cohort study included consecutive patients booked in hepatology outpatient clinics during a 3-month period. Subsequent outpatient appointments for these patients over the following 12 months were then recorded. During the initial 3-month period, 1471 appointments were scheduled with a hepatologist, 1136 of which were attended. Twenty-one per cent of patients were 'new cases'. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) was the most common disease aetiology for new cases (37%). Advanced disease at presentation varied between aetiology; only 5% of HBV cases had advanced liver disease at presentation, in contrast with HCV, NAFLD and ALD, in which advanced disease was identified at presentation in 31%, 46% and 72% of cases, respectively. Most patients (83%) attended multiple hepatology appointments, and a range of referral patterns for procedures, investigations and other specialty assessments were observed. There is a high prevalence of HBV in new case referrals. Patients with HCV infection, NAFLD and ALD have a high prevalence of advanced liver disease at referral, requiring ongoing surveillance for development of decompensated liver disease and liver cancer. These findings that describe the patterns of health service utilisation among patients with liver disease provide useful information for planning sustainable health service provision for this clinical population. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. Intestinal protozoa infections among patients with ulcerative colitis: prevalence and impact on clinical disease course.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; Torijano-Carrera, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological and microbiologic studies suggest that enteropathogenic microorganisms play a substantial role in the clinical initiation and relapses of inflammatory bowel disease. To explore the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and its impact on clinical disease course. A total of 215 patients with definitive diagnosis of UC were studied. Fresh feces samples taken from all UC patients were examined immediately using trichrome-staining methods. A total of 103 female and 112 male UC patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 30.5 +/- 10.8 years. The prevalence of overall parasitic infections was 24% and distributed as follows: Blastocystis hominis in 22 patients (10%), Endolimax nana in 19 cases (9%), and Entamoebahistolytica in 11 cases (5%). A significantly increased frequency of protozoa infection was found in those patients with persistent activity and intermittent activity as compared to active than inactive group (p = 1 x 10(-7), OR 13.05, 95% CI 4.28-42.56, and p = 0.003, OR 1.42-14.47, respectively). Interestingly, this association remained significant when we compared the persistent activity group versus intermittent activity group (p = 0.003, OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.35-6.59). Subgroup analysis showed no association between protozoa infection (E. histolytica, B. hominis, and E. nana) and other clinical variables such as gender, extent of disease, extraintestinal complications, medical treatment and grade of disease activity. The prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections in Mexican UC patients was 24% and these microorganisms could be a contributing cause of persistent activity despite medical treatment in our population. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. ICARUS study: prevalence and clinical features of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Angelo; Barone, Paolo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Annoni, Karin; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Stanzione, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Impulse control disorders/other compulsive behaviours ('ICD behaviours') occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but prospective studies are scarce, and prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients are insufficiently defined. To assess the presence of ICD behaviours over a 2-year period, and evaluate patients' clinical characteristics. A prospective, non-interventional, multicentre study (ICARUS (Impulse Control disorders And the association of neuRopsychiatric symptoms, cognition and qUality of life in ParkinSon disease); SP0990) in treated Italian PD outpatients. Study visits: baseline, year 1, year 2. Surrogate primary variable: presence of ICD behaviours and five ICD subtypes assessed by modified Minnesota Impulsive Disorder Interview (mMIDI). 1069/1095 (97.6%) patients comprised the Full Analysis Set. Point prevalence of ICD behaviours (mMIDI; primary analysis) was stable across visits: 28.6% (306/1069) at baseline, 29.3% (292/995) at year 1, 26.5% (245/925) at year 2. The most prevalent subtype was compulsive eating, followed by punding, compulsive sexual behaviour, gambling and buying disorder. Patients who were ICD positive at baseline were more likely to be male, younger, younger at PD onset, have longer disease duration, more severe non-motor symptoms (including mood and sexual function), depressive symptoms, sleep impairment and poorer PD-related quality of life. However, they did not differ from the ICD-negative patients in their severity of PD functional disability, motor performance and cognitive function. Prevalence of ICD behaviours was relatively stable across the 2-year observational period. ICD-positive patients had more severe depression, poorer sleep quality and reduced quality of life. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Clinical outcome indicators, disease prevalence and test request variability in primary care.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, Maurice J; Casey, Lee; Lynch, P L Mark; McGowan, Noel; Corey, John

    2011-03-01

    To describe differences in biochemistry test request rates (adjusted for practice size) between general practices and to investigate whether differences in HbA(1c) and thyroid function test request rates are related either to the practice prevalence of hypothyroidism and diabetes or to Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) scores. Information on test request rates, prevalence of diabetes and hypothyroidism, and QOF data over a one-year period were obtained from 58 practices covering a population of 284,609 patients. Spearman's rank correlation tests were used to investigate relationships between adjusted test request rates. There was wide variability in adjusted test request rates (lowest for HbA(1c) and highest for immunoglobulins). The ranking of practices for different tests was highly correlated. There was no relationship between adjusted test request rates for HbA(1c) and thyroid function and the reported prevalence of diabetes and hypothyroidism, respectively, nor was there any relationship with QOF scores in diabetes and hypothyroidism. There is wide variability in test request rates in general practice that do not appear to be related to disease prevalence or crude clinical outcome measures.

  9. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in an HIV testing clinic; uptake and prevalence.

    PubMed Central

    Madge, S; Elford, J; Lipman, M C; Mintz, J; Johnson, M A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the acceptability of STD screening among people seeking an HIV antibody test in an established free standing HIV testing clinic. DESIGN: A 9 month period prevalence study conducted between August 1993 and April 1994. SETTING: The Same Day Testing Clinic (SDTC) for HIV antibodies at the Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust Hospital, London. SUBJECTS: 242 males and 160 females attending the Same Day Testing Clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of STDs including gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis and hepatitis B and the percentage of clinic attenders accepting an STD screen. RESULTS: Of those invited to take part in the study 69% of the males (242/350) and 59% (160/269) of the females agreed to be screened although for a variety of reasons not everyone agreed to a full screen. Two cases of untreated syphilis, no cases of gonorrhoea and six cases of chlamydia were detected. Four people had active, previously undiagnosed herpes while three had genital warts. Evidence of previously unknown hepatitis B infection was found in 26 people. Despite a high level of previous contact with genitourinary medicine services, uptake of hepatitis B vaccination among those homosexual men eligible for immunisation was low (28%; 23/83). Nine (4%) of the males, but none of the females screened for STD were found to be HIV antibody positive. CONCLUSION: Among people seeking an HIV antibody test in an established free standing HIV testing clinic, the prevalence of acute STDs was low. However, evidence of previously undiagnosed hepatitis B infection was found in a number of subjects and uptake of vaccination among those most at risk had been low. While opportunistic screening for STD was acceptable to almost two thirds of HIV testing clinic attenders, a substantial minority nonetheless declined this offer. Selective STD screening could be offered to those people seeking an HIV test who report never having been

  10. Helminths: an unrecognised disease burden prevalent among migrants in the gastroenterology clinic.

    PubMed

    Smith, P J; Theis, B; McCartney, S; Brown, M

    2011-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of, and implement a diagnostic strategy for, imported helminth infection in the gastroenterology clinic. A retrospective study of eosinophil count and probable tropical exposure (phase I) followed by a prospective study of parasitological investigation (phase II). Gastroenterology service of an inner London hospital. Adult patients newly attending general gastroenterology and inflammatory bowel disease clinics. In phase I, evidence of undiagnosed helminth infection was sought by analysing patient records for associations between eosinophil count and ethnicity. In phase II, a UK guideline for investigation of eosinophilia in migrants was implemented and diagnostic yield determined. In phase I, prevalence of eosinophilia was determined; in phase II, helminth prevalence and degree of eosinophilia before and after treatment were reported. Information on symptomatic response to treatment was recorded. Ethnicity was used as a proxy measure for tropical exposure. 426 new patients attended in a 12 month period. Eosinophilia was present in 27 (6.3%). 10/27 (37.0%) patients with eosinophilia were of African or Asian ethnicity whereas only 20% (85/426) of patients overall were from these ethnic groups (χ(2)=5.27, p=0.02). Following implementation of the protocol, 25/36 migrants with eosinophilia attended for parasitological investigations. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 10/25 (40%). Strongyloidiasis (six patients) and schistosomiasis (three patients) were the most common diagnoses. Median eosinophil count was 1.06×10(9)/l in those with helminths and 0.58×10(9)/l in those without (p=0.004). Eosinophil counts normalised in, and symptomatic improvement was reported by, most patients after treatment. Eosinophilia is associated with African or Asian ethnicity in an inner city gastroenterology service. This association is probably explained by imported helminths, which are prevalent in this setting, may be a cause of gastrointestinal symptoms and

  11. Republished research: Helminths: an unrecognised disease burden prevalent among migrants in the gastroenterology clinic.

    PubMed

    Smith, P J; Theis, B; McCartney, S; Brown, M

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of, and implement a diagnostic strategy for, imported helminth infection in the gastroenterology clinic. A retrospective study of eosinophil count and probable tropical exposure (phase I) followed by a prospective study of parasitological investigation (phase II). Gastroenterology service of an inner London hospital. Adult patients newly attending general gastroenterology and inflammatory bowel disease clinics. In phase I, evidence of undiagnosed helminth infection was sought by analysing patient records for associations between eosinophil count and ethnicity. In phase II, a UK guideline for investigation of eosinophilia in migrants was implemented and diagnostic yield determined. In phase I, prevalence of eosinophilia was determined; in phase II, helminth prevalence and degree of eosinophilia before and after treatment were reported. Information on symptomatic response to treatment was recorded. Ethnicity was used as a proxy measure for tropical exposure. 426 new patients attended in a 12 month period. Eosinophilia was present in 27 (6.3%). 10/27 (37.0%) patients with eosinophilia were of African or Asian ethnicity whereas only 20% (85/426) of patients overall were from these ethnic groups (χ(2)=5.27, p=0.02). Following implementation of the protocol, 25/36 migrants with eosinophilia attended for parasitological investigations. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 10/25 (40%). Strongyloidiasis (six patients) and schistosomiasis (three patients) were the most common diagnoses. Median eosinophil count was 1.06×10(9)/l in those with helminths and 0.58×10(9)/l in those without (p=0.004). Eosinophil counts normalised in, and symptomatic improvement was reported by, most patients after treatment. Eosinophilia is associated with African or Asian ethnicity in an inner city gastroenterology service. This association is probably explained by imported helminths, which are prevalent in this setting, may be a cause of gastrointestinal symptoms and

  12. PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF MALE PATIENTS WITH ANOGENITAL WARTS ATTENDING A SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE CLINIC PRIOR HPV VACCINE RECOMMENDATION.

    PubMed

    Jiamton, Sukhum; Leeyaphan, Charussri; Maneeprasopchoke, Pitchaya; Omcharoen, Viboon

    2014-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide among men who have sex with men (MSM). A quadrivalent HPV vaccine has been recommended for men in the United States since 2011. We conducted a retrospective study to determine the male anogenital wart burden and patient characteristics at a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic to provide baseline data regarding HPV infection. We reviewed the charts of male patients who attended a STD clinic between January 2007 and December 2011 and were diagnosed with having anogenital warts by clinical examination. A total of 181 patients were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 31.1 years, of which 22.7% were MSM and 14.9% had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The prevalences of anogenital warts were 22.6% among MSM and 15.1% among HIV infected patients. The prevalence of anogenital warts increased between 2007 and 2011. Compared with patients without anogenital warts at the same STD clinic, patients with anogenital warts were significantly younger and more likely to have multiple sexual partners. Among the HIV infected patients, 63% were MSM; they had a significantly higher anogenital wart recurrence rate. Male anogenital warts posed a significant burden at the STD clinic. A preventive program is needed for anogenital warts, especially among MSM.

  13. High Prevalence of Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Infection in Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Patricia Carr; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A.; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). Methods: This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Results: Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women <26 years of age (p=0.06) and those reporting sex while intoxicated/high on alcohol or drugs (p=0.05). For rectal CT, only age <26 years was associated with prevalent infection in unadjusted models; this association strengthened after multivariable adjustment (prevalence ratio: 6.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.29–15.90). Conclusion: Nearly one in five women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have

  14. PKD2-Related Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Mutation Spectrum, and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Emilie Cornec-Le; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Renaudineau, Eric; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Charasse, Christophe; Michez, Eric; Frouget, Thierry; Vigneau, Cécile; Dantal, Jacques; Siohan, Pascale; Longuet, Hélène; Gatault, Philippe; Ecotière, Laure; Bridoux, Frank; Mandart, Lise; Hanrotel-Saliou, Catherine; Stanescu, Corina; Depraetre, Pascale; Gie, Sophie; Massad, Michiel; Kersalé, Aude; Séret, Guillaume; Augusto, Jean-François; Saliou, Philippe; Maestri, Sandrine; Chen, Jian-Min; Harris, Peter C.; Férec, Claude; Le Meur, Yannick

    2017-01-01

    Background PKD2-related autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is widely acknowledged to be of milder severity than PKD1-related disease, but population-based studies depicting the exact burden of the disease are lacking. We aimed to revisit PKD2 prevalence, clinical presentation, mutation spectrum, and prognosis through the Genkyst cohort. Study Design Case series, January 2010 to March 2016. Settings & Participants Genkyst study participants are individuals older than 18 years from 22 nephrology centers from western France with a diagnosis of ADPKD based on Pei criteria or at least 10 bilateral kidney cysts in the absence of a familial history. Publicly available whole-exome sequencing data from the ExAC database were used to provide an estimate of the genetic prevalence of the disease. Outcomes Molecular analysis of PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Renal survival, age- and sex-adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rate. Results The Genkyst cohort included 293 patients with PKD2 mutations (203 pedigrees). PKD2 patients with a nephrology follow-up corresponded to 0.63 (95% CI, 0.54–0.72)/10,000 in Brittany, while PKD2 genetic prevalence was calculated at 1.64 (95% CI, 1.10–3.51)/10,000 inhabitants in the European population. Median age at diagnosis was 42 years. Flank pain was reported in 38.9%; macroscopic hematuria, in 31.1%; and cyst infections, in 15.3% of patients. At age 60 years, the cumulative probability of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was 9.8% (95% CI, 5.2%–14.4%), whereas the probability of hypertension was 75.2% (95% CI, 68.5%–81.9%). Although there was no sex influence on renal survival, men had lower kidney function than women. Nontruncating mutations (n = 36) were associated with higher age-adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rates. Among the 18 patients with more severe outcomes (ESRD before age 60), 44% had associated conditions or nephropathies likely to account for the early progression to ESRD. Limitations Younger patients

  15. Clinical-biochemical correlations in acromegaly at diagnosis and the real prevalence of biochemically discordant disease.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Moisés; Espinosa de los Monteros, Ana Laura; Sosa, Ernesto; Cheng, Sonia; Mendoza, Victoria; Hernández, Irma; Sandoval, Carolina; Guinto, Gerardo; Molina, Mario

    2004-01-01

    To analyze clinical-biochemical correlations in newly diagnosed acromegaly, focusing in particular on patients with discrepant parameters. Retrospective study. Data from 164 patients with acromegaly seen between 1995 and 2003. Patients were reviewed for the presence of headaches, arthralgias, hypertension, menstrual abnormalities, impotence, glucose intolerance or diabetes. Biochemical evaluation consisted of age- and gender-adjusted IGF-I levels and glucose-suppressed GH. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed macroadenoma in 127 patients and microadenoma in 37. Patients with macroadenomas were younger than those with microadenomas and the disease was more frequent in females. Excluding acral enlargement, which was present in all the patients, the most commonly reported complaints were headaches (66%) and arthralgias (52%). Hypertension was present in 37% of patients, whereas the prevalence of glucose intolerance and diabetes was 27 and 32%, respectively. Hyperprolactinemia was present in 20% of patients with microadenomas and in 40% of patients with macroadenomas. Hypogonadism was demonstrated in more than half of the patients and was not related to tumor size or prolactin level. Of all the clinical and metabolic abnormalities of acromegaly, only the presence of diabetes correlated with both basal and nadir post-glucose GH levels. Only 4 patients (2.4%) had glucose-suppressed GH values of <1 ng/ml in the presence of clinical evidence of acromegaly, an elevated IGF-I level and a pituitary adenoma on MRI. Clinical features of acromegaly correlate poorly with indices of biochemical activity. The prevalence of biochemically discordant acromegaly is considerably lower than recently reported.

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with autoimmune rheumatic disease: prevalence, risk factors, and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, Sarah P; Gamaletsou, Maria N; Mpanaka, Ioanna; Vlachou, Aggeliki; Goules, Andreas V; Ziogas, Dimitrios C; Syriou, Vassiliki; Tektonidou, Maria G; Kaltsas, Gregory; Manoussakis, Menelaos N; Sipsas, Nikolaos V

    2015-03-15

    Data regarding the prevalence and clinical significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) in women with autoimmune rheumatic disease (ARD) are scarce. In this prospective, case-control study, consecutive female outpatients with ARD were screened for AB. For each patient, demographics, type, duration, and treatment of underlying ARD, and risk factors for urinary tract infection (UTI), were recorded. Age-matched women with endocrine disease, without any autoimmune disease, not receiving immunosuppressive agents were used as controls. Subjects were followed up for 1 year for the development of symptomatic UTI. Two hundred sixty patients with ARD (mean age, 52.4 [standard deviation {SD}, 14.6] years) and 238 controls (mean age, 51.2 [SD, 16.5] years) were enrolled. The majority of patients with ARD (93.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 89.7%-95.9%) were receiving immunosuppressive agents. AB was detected in 24 patients with ARD (9.2%; 95% CI, 6.2%-13.4%) and in 22 controls (9.2%; 95% CI, 5.5%-12.9%) (P = 1.000). The most prevalent pathogen was Escherichia coli (16/24 [66%]). Independent predictors for AB among patients were diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 6.6; P = .008) and a longer ARD duration (>84 months; OR, 4.3; P = .018). During the 1-year follow-up, 9 patients with baseline AB remained persistently bacteriuric, whereas 11 were intermittently bacteriuric. Symptomatic UTI developed in 4 of 24 patients (16.7%; 95% CI, 6.1%-36.5%) with baseline AB vs 29 of 236 (12.3%; 95% CI, 8.6%-17.1%) without AB (P = .522). In our study, the prevalence of AB among women with ARD was not higher than that of controls, and AB was not associated with higher risk for symptomatic UTI. Risk factors for AB were longer duration of ARD and diabetes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Prevalence and clinical relevance of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor-blocking antibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Diana, T; Krause, J; Olivo, P D; König, J; Kanitz, M; Decallonne, B; Kahaly, G J

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence and clinical relevance of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) blocking antibodies (TBAb) in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) was investigated. Serum TBAb were measured with a reporter gene bioassay using Chinese hamster ovary cells. Blocking activity was defined as percentage inhibition of luciferase expression relative to induction with bovine TSH alone (cut-off 40% inhibition). All samples were measured for TSHR stimulatory antibody (TSAb) and TSHR binding inhibiting immunoglobulins (TBII). A total of 1079 unselected, consecutive patients with AITD and 302 healthy controls were included. All unselected controls were negative for TBAb and TSAb. In contrast, the prevalence of TBAb-positive patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease was 67 of 722 (9·3%) and 15 of 357 (4·2%). Of the 82 TBAb-positive patients, thirty-nine (48%), 33 (40%) and 10 (12%) were hypothyroid, euthyroid and hyperthyroid, respectively. Ten patients were both TBAb- and TSAb-positive (four hypothyroid, two euthyroid and four hyperthyroid). Thyroid-associated orbitopathy was present in four of 82 (4·9%) TBAb-positive patients, with dual TSHR antibody positivity being observed in three. TBAb correlated positively with TBII (r = 0·67, P < 0·001) and negatively with TSAb (r = -0·86, P < 0·05). The percentage of TBII-positive patients was higher the higher the level of inhibition in the TBAb assay. Of the TBAb-positive samples with  > 70% inhibition, 87% were TBII-positive. Functional TSHR antibodies impact thyroid status. TBAb determination is helpful in the evaluation and management of patients with AITD. The TBAb assay is a relevant and important tool to identify potentially reversible hypothyroidism. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  18. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Isospora species infections in pet cats with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Tzannes, Sophia; Batchelor, Daniel J; Graham, Peter A; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Wastling, Jonathan; German, Alexander J

    2008-02-01

    This study reports the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Isospora species in cats showing signs of gastrointestinal disease. Records from a United Kingdom commercial diagnostic laboratory between December 2003 and December 2005 were reviewed. Of 1355 cats, Cryptosporidium species oocysts were found in 13 cats (1%), Giardia species trophozoites in 74 (6%), and Isospora felis oocysts in 46 (3%). In a second group of 48 cats, prevalence of Giardia species was 15% using an immunoassay for detection of antigen compared to 4% detected with microscopy. Prevalence of Giardia (9%) and Isospora (9%) species was higher in cats less than 6 months old. Gender and breed did not affect prevalence. There was a trend for Cryptosporidium and Isospora species infections to be detected in late autumn and early winter. Regional differences in prevalence were not detected. None of these organisms show a characteristic pattern of clinical signs. This study demonstrates that enteric protozoal infection is common in domestic cats showing signs of alimentary disease.

  19. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with clinically prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Veneto region, northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Novelletto, Bruno Franco; Guzzinati, Stefano; Avogaro, Angelo

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more frequent in adults with metabolic syndrome than in those without. We wished to assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and the role of its specific components on prevalent CVD in a large cohort of subjects from the general population. Seventy-eight general practitioners among 3,542 were identified and participated in this study. Personal, anthropometric, and lifestyle data were obtained as was data relevant to CVD [coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke or both]. A stratified random sample of 6,347 subjects taken from the population of the Veneto region in northeastern Italy was analyzed. The prevalence [and its 95% confidence limits (CL)] of metabolic syndrome by gender and age classes was higher in men than women (21.9% vs. 16.8) and it increased with age (29.8% in ages 60-69 vs. 8.0 in ages 30-39). The most frequent triad of metabolic syndrome was waist circumference (WC)-blood pressure (BP)-hyperglycemia (GLYC) (33%). Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with CVD [odds ratio (OR)=1.53, 95% CL, 1.02-2.29] and gender (men have about six times the risk of women), and the risk of CVD increases with age (11% per additional year of age). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is the only component of metabolic syndrome associated with CVD: The OR was 2.12 (95% CL, 1.32-3.43) and remains significant in sex-specific models only in men. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Veneto region among subjects ages 30-69 is high. There is a significant association between prevalent CVD and metabolic syndrome, but the biological basis of association is strongly influenced by gender.

  20. Increased prevalence of clinical gallbladder disease in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Haffner, S M; Diehl, A K; Mitchell, B D; Stern, M P; Hazuda, H P

    1990-08-01

    The association between non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and the prevalence of gallbladder disease remains controversial. The authors investigated this association in 1,250 men and 1,656 women from the San Antonio Heart Study (1984-1988) a population-based study of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A total of 68% of the subjects were Mexican American, a population at high risk for both gallbladder disease and NIDDM. Gallbladder disease was assessed by self-report, and the prevalence of diabetes was determined using National Diabetes Data Group criteria. NIDDM was significantly associated with gallbladder disease in Mexican-American men and women and in non-Hispanic white women. After adjustment for age, body mass index, ratio of waist-to-hip circumference, and ethnicity, using multiple logistic regression, the odds of gallbladder disease in women was 1.6 times higher if NIDDM was present (odds ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.37). Mexican-American women also had a significantly increased prevalence of gallbladder disease relative to non-Hispanic white women (odds ratio = 2.21, 95% confidence interval 1.50-3.28). In nondiabetic women, fasting insulin was significantly related to prevalence of gallbladder disease in univariate analyses, but not in multivariate analyses. The authors conclude that women with diabetes have an increased prevalence of gallbladder disease relative to nondiabetic women and that this association is not explained by the greater adiposity or unfavorable body fat distribution of the diabetic subjects.

  1. Comparison of Clinical Trial and Systematic Review Outcomes for the 4 Most Prevalent Eye Diseases.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Ian J; Lindsley, Kristina; Do, Diana V; Chuck, Roy S; Meyerle, Catherine; Jones, Leslie S; Coleman, Anne L; Jampel, Henry D; Dickersin, Kay; Virgili, Gianni

    2017-09-01

    Suboptimal overlap in outcomes reported in clinical trials and systematic reviews compromises efforts to compare and summarize results across these studies. To examine the most frequent outcomes used in trials and reviews of the 4 most prevalent eye diseases (age-related macular degeneration [AMD], cataract, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and glaucoma) and the overlap between outcomes in the reviews and the trials included in the reviews. This cross-sectional study examined all Cochrane reviews that addressed AMD, cataract, DR, and glaucoma; were published as of July 20, 2016; and included at least 1 trial and the trials included in the reviews. For each disease, a pair of clinical experts independently classified all outcomes and resolved discrepancies. Outcomes (outcome domains) were then compared separately for each disease. Proportion of review outcomes also reported in trials and vice versa. This study included 56 reviews that comprised 414 trials. Although the median number of outcomes per trial and per review was the same (n = 5) for each disease, the trials included a greater number of outcomes overall than did the reviews, ranging from 2.9 times greater (89 vs 30 outcomes for glaucoma) to 4.9 times greater (107 vs 22 outcomes for AMD). Most review outcomes, ranging from 14 of 19 outcomes (73.7%) (for DR) to 27 of 29 outcomes (93.1%) (for cataract), were also reported in the trials. For trial outcomes, however, the proportion also named in reviews was low, ranging from 19 of 107 outcomes (17.8%) (for AMD) to 24 of 89 outcomes (27.0%) (for glaucoma). Only 1 outcome (visual acuity) was consistently reported in greater than half the trials and greater than half the reviews. Although most review outcomes were reported in the trials, most trial outcomes were not reported in the reviews. The current analysis focused on outcome domains, which might underestimate the problem of inconsistent outcomes. Other important elements of an outcome (ie, specific measurement

  2. Prevalence and associated factors of comorbid skin diseases in patients with schizophrenia: a clinical survey and national health database study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bai-Yao; Wu, Bo-Jian; Lee, Shin-Min; Sun, Hsiao-Ju; Chang, Yun-Ting; Lin, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    To examine the epidemiology of and possible risk factors for skin diseases in patients with schizophrenia. All of 337 patients with schizophrenia were recruited from the therapeutic community of a psychiatric hospital and underwent a detailed skin examination. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to compare the prevalence of skin diseases between patients with schizophrenia and those without. In the clinical survey, fungal infection (61.4%) and dermatitis (46.9%) were the most common skin diseases. Clozapine users had a lower risk of fungal infection than those on typical antipsychotics [odds ratio (OR)=0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.30-0.81]. Obese patients were more likely to have fungal infections than those without (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.20-3.09), and those with diabetes had an increased risk of bacterial infection than those without (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.06-3.75). NHIRD revealed that the overall prevalence of skin diseases, including infections, dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, pilosebaceous disease, androgenic alopecia, xerosis and stasis, were higher in patients with schizophrenia than in those without (75.1% vs. 72.6%, P=.01). The prevalence of skin diseases is high in patients with schizophrenia, for whom proper skin care is necessary to improve their life quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Antibody in Patients With Sexually Transmitted Diseases Attending a Harrisburg, PA, STD Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sharon; Weber, Daniel I.; LeBar, William D.; Heitjan, Daniel F.; Kopreski, Mary Magdalene C.; Curcio, Frederick D.

    1994-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic population was studied, along with the prevalence of various STD agents, in an attempt to identify possible STD markers for the hepatitis C virus and help delineate the role of hepatitis C as an STD. The hepatitis C antibody rates found in the STD clinic were also compared with those found among patients attending a local OB/GYN clinic and those enrolled in a blood donor program, all from the same geographical area. Methods: A total of 150 women attending an STD clinc were examined for each of the following agents: Chlamyadia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B core antibody, hepatitis B surface antibody, and hepatitis C virus antibody. Additionally, several patients who signed informed consent to be evaluated for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody were tested by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screen method. The prevalence of each agent was then compared with the other agents. Results: The overall prevalence rates detected were as follows: hepatitis B 16%, hepatitis C 4%, chlamydia 18.7%, gonorrhea 7.4%, syphilis 0.7%, and HIV 0%. Hepatitis C antibody was detected in 4% of patients in the STD clinic, 0.76% of volunteer blood donors from central Pennsylvania, and 0% of patiants studied from the Harrisburg Hospital (Harrisburg, PA) prentatal population. Conclusions: This screening study reveals an association between attending a Harrisburg, PA, area STD clinic and having an increased prevalence of hepatitis C antibody, but larger matched control studies will be needed to help clarify sexual transmission as a mode of transmission for the hepatitis C virus. PMID:18475350

  4. Clinical characteristics and prevalence of complications of chronic kidney disease in children: the Taiwan Pediatric Renal Collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsin-Hsu; Lin, Ching-Yuang; Chiou, Yee-Hsuan; Tain, You-Lin; Wang, Yi-Fan; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Chiou, Yuan-Yow

    2016-07-01

    Little information is available regarding the clinical characteristics and prevalence of complications in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in early disease stages. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and prevalence of complications in children with predialytic CKD. This multicenter, cross-sectional study enrolled children at all stages of predialytic CKD. Children who were between the ages of 1 year and 18 years and who fulfilled the clinical criteria of CKD were included in the study. Baseline demographic data, previous history, clinical characteristics, and laboratory data were collected. A total of 757 children were included in the study. The median age at the time of enrollment was 10.6 years; 397 patients (52.4 %) were males. A total of 39.0 % of the patients were in CKD stage 1, 37.6 % were in stage 2, 14.8 % were in stage 3, 3.0 % were in stage 4, and 5.5 % were in stage 5. Nonglomerular renal diseases were the primary cause of CKD, comprising 51.9 % of the patients with CKD. The age at disease onset, gender, CKD stage distribution, and proportion of co-morbidities varied between the glomerular and nonglomerular CKD cases. Anemia, hyperlipidemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia were more prevalent in patients with glomerular CKD. The overall prevalence of complications was as follows: uncontrolled blood pressure, 44.1 %; anemia, 34.2 %; hyperlipidemia, 44.9 %; short stature, 10.3 %; and failure to thrive, 8.2 %. Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP), anemia, and hyperlipidemia were common, even in the early CKD stages. The prevalence of CKD complications generally increased with the worsening stage of CKD. This study reveals differences in CKD etiology and prevalence of specific complications according to the stage of CKD. Early recognition and awareness of complications are mandatory for clinicians during the follow-up visits of children with CKD.

  5. Celiac disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus in a North American community: prevalence, serologic screening, and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Farid H; Murray, Joseph A; Kudva, Yogish C; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Dierkhising, Ross A; Lahr, Brian D; Dyck, Peter J; Kyle, Robert A; El-Youssef, Mounif; Burgart, Lawrence J; Van Dyke, Carol T; Brogan, Deanna L; Melton, L Joseph

    2005-11-01

    To estimate the prevalence of cellac disease (CD) in pediatric and adult type 1 diabetes melitus in a defined population and to describe clinical features and HLA class II genotypes predictive of CD in screened patients with type 1 diabetes. All residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, with type 1 diabetes mellitus on the prevalence date January 1, 2001, were identified with the use of an established medical records linkage system (Rochester Epidemiology Project) and defined clinical criteria. Consenting patients underwent serologic screening with endomyslal antibody and tissue transglutaminase antibody testing and Intestinal biopsies to confirm the diagnosis of CD. A subset of screened patients also underwent HLA class II genotyping. Quality-of-life screening (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey) was completed in a subset of patients at the time of serologic screening. Overall, 392 Olmsted County residents with type 1 diabetes on January 1, 2001, were Identified. A total of 158 patients with type 1 diabetes were tested, representing 40% (158/392) of the enumerated diabetic population, and 11 had biopsy-proven CD for an estimated point prevalence of 7.0% (95% confidence Interval, 3.5%-12.1%). Most CD-positive diabetic patients were asymptomatic and expressed an at-risk CD haplotype with at least one of but not both HLA DQ2 or DQ8. Celiac disease Is not rare In North American patients with type 1 diabetes, and most CD-positive diabetic patients are asymptomatic Irrespective of age at screening.

  6. Protein-energy wasting syndrome in advanced chronic kidney disease: prevalence and specific clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Almudena; González Garcia, M Elena; San José-Valiente, Belén; Bajo Rubio, M Auxiliadora; Celadilla Diez, Olga; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Selgas, Rafael

    2017-07-26

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with increased mortality and differs depending on the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage and the dialysis technique. The prevalence in non-dialysis patients is understudied and ranges from 0 to 40.8%. To evaluate the nutritional status of a group of Spanish advanced CKD patients by PEW criteria and subjective global assessment (SGA). Cross-sectional study of 186 patients (101 men) with a mean age of 66.1±16 years. The nutritional assessment consisted of: SGA, PEW criteria, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric parameters and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis. The prevalence of PEW was 30.1%, with significant differences between men and women (22.8 vs. 33.8%, p < 0.005), while 27.9% of SGA values were within the range of malnutrition. No differences were found between the 2methods. Men had higher proteinuria, percentage of muscle mass and nutrient intake. Women had higher levels of total cholesterol, HDL and a higher body fat percentage. The characteristics of patients with PEW were low albumin levels and a low total lymphocyte count, high proteinuria, low fat and muscle mass and a high Na/K ratio. The multivariate analysis found PEW to be associated with: proteinuria (OR: 1.257; 95% CI: 1.084-1.457, p=0.002), percentage of fat intake (OR: 0.903; 95% CI: 0.893-0.983, p=0.008), total lymphocyte count (OR: 0.999; 95% CI: 0.998-0.999, p=0.001) and cell mass index (OR: 0.995; 95% CI: 0.992-0.998). Malnutrition was identified in Spanish advanced CKD patients measured by different tools. We consider it appropriate to adapt new diagnostic elements to PEW criteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases and clinical significance of ANA profile: data from a tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zaixing; Ren, Yingpeng; Liu, Donghong; Lin, Feng; Liang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    It is necessary and useful to explore prevalence of various systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) in patients with suspicion of having SARDs and to characterize antinuclear antibodies (ANA) profile for identifying different populations (SARDs and non-SARDs). A total of 5024 consecutive patients with available medical records were investigated, whose sera had been tested for ANA profile, including ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies, between 31 January 2012 and 26 March 2014. Only 594 (11.8%) patients were diagnosed with SARDs of those suspected with SARDs. The prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was highest (3.2%), followed by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (2.5%), primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) (1.7%), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) (1.5%), etc. Of females, SLE also showed the highest prevalence (6%), while of males, AS showed the highest prevalence (1.9%). The prevalence of most SARDs was closely associated with age, except mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), and the variation characteristics among different age groups were different among various SARDs. The prevalence of ANA was significantly increased in most SARD patients [especially in SLE, systemic sclerosis (SSc) and MCTD]. For anti-ENA antibodies, in contrast to some autoantibodies associated with multiple SARDs (e.g. anti-SSA, SSB, nRNP), others were relatively specific for certain diseases, such as anti-dsDNA, Sm, histone, nucleosome and Rib-P for SLE, anti-SCL-70 for SSc and anti-Jo-1 for polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM). Of note, ANA profile appeared to be of little significance for AS, ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), polymyalgia rheumatic (PMR), adult-onset Still's disease (ASD) and Behcet's disease (BD). The younger were more likely to have the presence of anti-dsDNA, Sm, histone or Rib-P for SLE, and anti-SSA for RA or MCTD. No significant differences for frequencies of ANA and anti-ENA autoantibodies were found between sexes in most SARDs

  8. Genotype-phenotype correlations in a mountain population community with high prevalence of Wilson's disease: genetic and clinical homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Cocoş, Relu; Şendroiu, Alina; Schipor, Sorina; Bohîlţea, Laurenţiu Camil; Şendroiu, Ionuţ; Raicu, Florina

    2014-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by more than 500 mutations in ATP7B gene presenting considerably clinical manifestations heterogeneity even in patients with a particular mutation. Previous findings suggested a potential role of additional genetic modifiers and environment factors on phenotypic expression among the affected patients. We conducted clinical and genetic investigations to perform genotype-phenotype correlation in two large families living in a socio-culturally isolated community with the highest prevalence of Wilson's disease ever reported of 1 ∶ 1130. Sequencing of ATP7B gene in seven affected individuals and 43 family members identified a common compound heterozygous genotype, H1069Q/M769H-fs, in five symptomatic and two asymptomatic patients and detected the presence of two out of seven identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in all affected patients. Symptomatic patients had similar clinical phenotype and age at onset (18 ± 1 years) showing dysarthria and dysphagia as common clinical features at the time of diagnosis. Moreover, all symptomatic patients presented Kayser-Fleischer rings and lack of dystonia accompanied by unfavourable clinical outcomes. Our findings add value for understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations in Wilson's disease based on a multifamily study in an isolated population with high extent of genetic and environmental homogeneity as opposed to majority of reports. We observed an equal influence of presumed other genetic modifiers and environmental factors on clinical presentation and age at onset of Wilson's disease in patients with a particular genotype. These data provide valuable inferences that could be applied for predicting clinical management in asymptomatic patients in such communities.

  9. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes in celiac disease: prevalence and effect on clinical and histological presentation.

    PubMed

    Kylökäs, Antti; Kaukinen, Katri; Huhtala, Heini; Collin, Pekka; Mäki, Markku; Kurppa, Kalle

    2016-07-25

    Association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes in adults is still somewhat unclear, and that between celiac disease and type 2 diabetes even less known. We studied these issues in a large cohort of adult celiac disease patients. The prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in 1358 celiac patients was compared with the population-based values. Furthermore, patients with celiac disease and concomitant type 1 or type 2 diabetes and those with celiac disease only underwent comparisons of clinical and histological features and adherence to gluten-free diet. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes (men/women) was 8.0 % /1.8 % in celiac patients and 0.7 % /0.3 % in the population, and that of type 2 diabetes 4.3 % /2.5 % and 4.4 % /3.0 %, respectively. Celiac patients with concomitant type 1 diabetes were younger (45 years vs 65 years and 52 years, P < 0.001) and more often screen-detected (43 % vs 13 % and 14 %, P < 0.001), had less other gastrointestinal diseases (8 % vs 40 % and 25 %, P = 0.028), more thyroidal diseases (18 % vs 16 % and 13 %, P = 0.043) and lower dietary adherence (71 % vs 95 % and 96 %, P < 0.001) compared with celiac patients with concomitant type 2 diabetes and patients with celiac disease only. Patients with concomitant type 2 diabetes had more hypercholesterolemia than the other groups (8 % vs 6 % and 4 %, P = 0.024), and both diabetes groups more hypertension (47 % and 31 % vs 15 %, P < 0.001) and coronary artery disease (29 % and 18 % vs 3 %, P < 0.001) than the patients with celiac disease only. Type 1 diabetes was markedly overrepresented in celiac disease, especially in men, whereas the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was comparable with the population. Concomitant type 1 or type 2 diabetes predisposes celiac patients to severe co-morbidities and type 1 diabetes also to poor dietary adherence.

  10. Prevalence and clinical significance of nonorgan specific antibodies in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis as predictor markers for rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Elnady, Basant M.; Kamal, Naglaa M.; Shaker, Raneyah H.M.; Soliman, Amal F.; Hasan, Waleed A.; Alghamdi, Hamed A.; Algethami, Mohammed M.; Jajah, Mohamed Bilal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune diseases are considered the 3rd leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized countries. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are associated with high prevalence of nonorgan-specific autoantibodies, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antidouble-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (anti-dsDNA), antiextractable-nuclear antigens (anti-ENAs), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticyclic-citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) whose clinical significance is unknown. We aimed to assess the prevalence of various nonorgan-specific autoantibodies in patients with ATD, and to investigate the possible association between these autoantibodies and occurrence of rheumatic diseases and, if these autoantibodies could be considered as predictor markers for autoimmune rheumatic diseases in the future. This study had 2 phases: phase 1; in which 61 ATD patients free from rheumatic manifestations were assessed for the presence of these nonorgan-specific autoantibodies against healthy 61 control group, followed by 2nd phase longitudinal clinical follow-up in which cases are monitored systematically to establish occurrence and progression of any rheumatic disease in association to these autoantibodies with its influences and prognosis. Regarding ATD patients, ANA, anti-dsDNA, Anti-ENA, and RF were present in a percentage of (50.8%), (18%), (21.3%), and (34.4%), respectively, with statistically significance difference (P < 0.5) rather than controls. Nearly one third of the studied group (32.8%) developed the rheumatic diseases, over 2 years follow-up. It was obvious that those with positive anti-dsDNA had higher risk (2.45 times) to develop rheumatic diseases than those without. There was a statistically significant positive linear relationship between occurrence of disease in months and (age, anti-dsDNA, anti-CCP, RF, and duration of thyroiditis). Anti-dsDNA and RF are the most significant predictors (P < 0.0001). ATD is more associated with rheumatic

  11. Ultrasonography-diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is not associated with prevalent ischemic heart disease among diabetics in a multiracial Asian hospital clinic population.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wah-Kheong; Tan, Alexander Tong-Boon; Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna; Tah, Pei-Chien; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2014-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular diseases are both common among patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to determine if ultrasonography-diagnosed NAFLD is associated with prevalent ischemic heart disease (IHD) among patients with diabetes mellitus. This is a cross-sectional study on consecutive patients seen at the Diabetic Clinic, University of Malaya Medical Centre. The medical record for each patient was reviewed for documented IHD. Patients without documented IHD but had symptoms and/or electrocardiographic changes suggestive of IHD were referred for cardiac evaluation. Data for 399 patients were analyzed. Mean age was 62.8±10.5 years with 43.1% male. NAFLD and IHD were present in 49.6 and 26.6%, respectively. The prevalence of IHD among patients with and without NAFLD was 24.7 and 28.4%, respectively (P=0.414). The prevalence of IHD was highest among the Indians (34.1%) followed by the Malays (29.2%) and the Chinese (20.1%). No association was found between NAFLD and IHD when analyzed according to ethnicity. On multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with IHD were older age, lower levels of physical activity, greater waist circumference and higher serum glycated hemoglobin level. Ultrasonography-diagnosed NAFLD was not associated with prevalent IHD among patients with diabetes mellitus in a multiracial Asian hospital clinic population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. High prevalence of clinically unsuspected dengue disease among children in Ribeirao Preto city, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Poloni, Telma Regina; Dornas, Fabio Pio; Dos Santos, Nilton Nascimento; Soares, Adriana Moreira; Amarilla, Alberto Anastacio; Alfonso, Helda Liz; Trigueiro, Sabrina; Lavrador, Marco Aurélio Sicchiroli; Yamamoto, Aparecida Yulie; Aquino, Victor Hugo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of Dengue virus (DENV)-infected children and the accuracy of dengue diagnosis based on clinical presentations. The inclusion criteria were children ≥1-year-old presenting febrile illness with 1-7 days of onset. Children (n = 110) aged 2-15 years were included in this study. DENV infection was confirmed with virological tests using serum, salvia, and/or urine samples. The attending pediatricians classified 56/110 (50.91%) of the children as suspected dengue cases. The DENV infection was confirmed by specific laboratory tests in 52/56 (92.9%) of the suspected dengue cases but also in 44/54 (81.5%) of the unsuspected dengue cases; total of 96/110 (87.27%) confirmed dengue cases. The clinical diagnosis gave an overall sensitivity of 54.2% (52/96) and a specificity of 71.4% (10/14). The positive predictive value of the clinical diagnosis was 92.8% and negative predictive value was 18.5%. After the third day of onset of symptoms, the DENV genome detection rate was similar in serum and saliva samples, suggesting that saliva samples represent an alternative to blood samples for early dengue diagnosis. Vaccination against Yellow fever virus did not influence the antibody response against DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3, which circulated during the study period. Although the signs and symptoms were compatible with dengue, the attending pediatricians did not suspect the disease in several children. Therefore, the inclusion of virological tests for early diagnosis in the protocols for dengue surveillance would help in the implementation of prompt treatment of patients and epidemic containment strategies. J. Med. Virol. 88:1711-1719, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Mental Stress–Induced Myocardial Ischemia in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Samad, Zainab; Boyle, Stephen; Becker, Richard C.; Williams, Redford; Kuhn, Cynthia; Ortel, Thomas L.; Rogers, Joseph; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; O’Connor, Christopher; Velazquez, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia. Background Mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia is prevalent and a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease, but past studies mainly studied patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Methods Eligible patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease, regardless of exercise stress testing status, underwent a battery of 3 mental stress tests followed by a treadmill test. Stress-induced ischemia, assessed by echocardiography and electrocardiography, was defined as: 1) development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; 2) left ventricular ejection fraction reduction ≥8%; and/or 3) horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression ≥1 mm in 2 or more leads lasting for ≥3 consecutive beats during at least 1 mental test or during the exercise test. Results Mental stress–induced ischemia occurred in 43.45%, whereas exercise-induced ischemia occurred in 33.79% (p = 0.002) of the study population (N = 310). Women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.88), patients who were not married (OR: 1.99), and patients who lived alone (OR: 2.24) were more likely to have mental stress–induced ischemia (all p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that compared with married men or men living with someone, unmarried men (OR: 2.57) and married women (OR: 3.18), or living alone (male OR: 2.25 and female OR: 2.72, respectively) had higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia (all p < 0.05). Conclusions Mental stress-induced ischemia is more common than exercise-induced ischemia in patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease. Women, unmarried men, and individuals living alone are at higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia. (Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment [REMIT]; NCT00574847) PMID:23410543

  14. Prevalence, presentation and clinical evolution of Graves' disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, F; Messina, M F; Salzano, G; Rabbone, I; Lo Presti, D; Calcaterra, V; Aversa, T; De Luca, F; Wasniewska, M

    2011-01-01

    To ascertain the prevalence of Graves' disease (GD) in 1,323 Caucasian children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and to compare the course of GD in T1DM patients with the one observed in 109 Caucasian peer patients with GD but without T1DM (group B). Only 7 patients (0.53%) of the T1DM series also presented with GD (group A)which was diagnosed many years after diabetes presentation. At GD diagnosis, the prevalence of preclinical hyperthyroidism was higher in group A (p = 0.0001), whereas serum TSH receptor antibodies (TRABs) were higher in group B (p = 0.04). The subsequent course with methimazole therapy and after its withdrawal was very similar in both groups. GD prevalence in T1DM patients was 0.53%, i.e. almost identical to the one reported in the general population. GD was diagnosed many years after T1DM presentation. At GD diagnosis, the clinical picture was milder and TRAB serum levels were lower in diabetic patients. Preclinical diagnosis and early treatment of GD were not associated with better responsiveness to therapy. Screening programs based on periodical TRAB assessments are not useful in T1DM. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. PKD2-Related Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Mutation Spectrum, and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Cornec-Le Gall, Emilie; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Renaudineau, Eric; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Charasse, Christophe; Michez, Eric; Frouget, Thierry; Vigneau, Cécile; Dantal, Jacques; Siohan, Pascale; Longuet, Hélène; Gatault, Philippe; Ecotière, Laure; Bridoux, Frank; Mandart, Lise; Hanrotel-Saliou, Catherine; Stanescu, Corina; Depraetre, Pascale; Gie, Sophie; Massad, Michiel; Kersalé, Aude; Séret, Guillaume; Augusto, Jean-François; Saliou, Philippe; Maestri, Sandrine; Chen, Jian-Min; Harris, Peter C; Férec, Claude; Le Meur, Yannick

    2017-10-01

    PKD2-related autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is widely acknowledged to be of milder severity than PKD1-related disease, but population-based studies depicting the exact burden of the disease are lacking. We aimed to revisit PKD2 prevalence, clinical presentation, mutation spectrum, and prognosis through the Genkyst cohort. Case series, January 2010 to March 2016. Genkyst study participants are individuals older than 18 years from 22 nephrology centers from western France with a diagnosis of ADPKD based on Pei criteria or at least 10 bilateral kidney cysts in the absence of a familial history. Publicly available whole-exome sequencing data from the ExAC database were used to provide an estimate of the genetic prevalence of the disease. Molecular analysis of PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Renal survival, age- and sex-adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rate. The Genkyst cohort included 293 patients with PKD2 mutations (203 pedigrees). PKD2 patients with a nephrology follow-up corresponded to 0.63 (95% CI, 0.54-0.72)/10,000 in Brittany, while PKD2 genetic prevalence was calculated at 1.64 (95% CI, 1.10-3.51)/10,000 inhabitants in the European population. Median age at diagnosis was 42 years. Flank pain was reported in 38.9%; macroscopic hematuria, in 31.1%; and cyst infections, in 15.3% of patients. At age 60 years, the cumulative probability of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was 9.8% (95% CI, 5.2%-14.4%), whereas the probability of hypertension was 75.2% (95% CI, 68.5%-81.9%). Although there was no sex influence on renal survival, men had lower kidney function than women. Nontruncating mutations (n=36) were associated with higher age-adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rates. Among the 18 patients with more severe outcomes (ESRD before age 60), 44% had associated conditions or nephropathies likely to account for the early progression to ESRD. Younger patients and patients presenting with milder forms of PKD2-related disease may not be diagnosed

  16. Prevalence, clinical presentation, prognosis, and outcome of 17 dogs with spinal shock and acute thoracolumbar spinal cord disease.

    PubMed

    Full, Amanda M; Heller, Heidi L Barnes; Mercier, Miyu

    2016-05-01

    To describe the prevalence, signalment, clinical features, etiology, and outcome in dogs with acute thoracolumbar disease and suspected spinal shock. Retrospective clinical case study (2005-2010). Private specialty practice. Medical records of 263 dogs with thoracolumbar spinal magnetic resonance imaging were reviewed. If decreased or absent withdrawal reflexes were present in 1 or both pelvic limbs, in the absence of a spinal lesion in the lumbosacral intumescence, dogs were diagnosed with spinal shock. Dogs with suspected or confirmed spinal neoplasia, myelomalacia, or meningomyelitis were excluded. Seventeen of 263 dogs (6%) met inclusion criteria. None. Thoracic lesions were significantly more likely to result in spinal shock when compared to lumbar lesions (P = 0.03). Fibrocartilaginous embolism was the most commonly diagnosed etiology (7 of 17 dogs), and was more common in the thoracic spine compared to in the lumbar spine (P = 0.10). Six of 17 dogs (35%) were diagnosed with intervertebral disk herniation; 4 of 17 dogs (24%) with suspected acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusion. Two dogs were lost to follow-up. Fourteen of 15 (93%) dogs had improved or normal reflexes by 60 days post injury. Although the prevalence of spinal shock was low, it should be considered in any dog presenting with an acute history of thoracolumbar spinal injury with reduced or absent reflexes in the pelvic limbs. The presence of spinal shock should not dissuade a veterinarian from pursuing appropriate diagnostic testing and therapy for the underlying etiology. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  17. Prevalence of celiac disease and gluten sensitivity in the United States clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness study population.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Nicola G; Kryszak, Debra; Bhatti, Bushra; Gregory, Patricia; Kelly, Deanna L; Mc Evoy, Joseph P; Fasano, Alessio; Eaton, William W

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) and schizophrenia have approximately the same prevalence, but epidemiologic data show higher prevalence of CD among schizophrenia patients. The reason for this higher co-occurrence is not known, but the clinical knowledge about the presence of immunologic markers for CD or gluten intolerance in schizophrenia patients may have implications for treatment. Our goal was to evaluate antibody prevalence to gliadin (AGA), transglutaminase (tTG), and endomysium (EMA) in a group of individuals with schizophrenia and a comparison group. AGA, tTG, and EMA antibodies were assayed in 1401 schizophrenia patients who were part of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study and 900 controls. Psychopathology in schizophrenia patients was assessed using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS). Logistic regression was used to assess the difference in the frequency of AGA, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and tTG antibodies, adjusting for age, sex, and race. Linear regression was used to predict PANSS scores from AGA and tTG antibodies adjusting for age, gender, and race. Among schizophrenia patients, 23.1% had moderate to high levels of IgA-AGA compared with 3.1% of the comparison group (χ(2) = 1885, df = 2, P < .001.) Moderate to high levels of tTG antibodies were present in 5.4% of schizophrenia patients vs 0.80% of the comparison group (χ(2) = 392.0, df = 2, P < .001). Adjustments for sex, age, and race had trivial effects on the differences. Regression analyses failed to predict PANSS scores from AGA and tTG antibodies. Persons with schizophrenia have higher than expected titers of antibodies related to CD and gluten sensitivity.

  18. [Prevalence of congenital heart diseases in Koranic schools (daara) in Dakar: a cross-sectional study based on clinical and echocardiographic screening in 2019 school children].

    PubMed

    Bodian, M; Ngaïdé, A A; Mbaye, A; Sarr, S A; Jobe, M; Ndiaye, M B; Kane, A D; Aw, F; Gaye, N D; Ba, F G; Bah, M B; Tabane, A; Dioum, M; Diagne, D; Diao, M; Diack, B; Sarr, M; Kane, A; Bâ, S A

    2015-02-01

    Congenital heart diseases are one of the major cardiovascular diseases in developing countries. Most prevalence studies were based on clinical examination of children with echocardiographic confirmation of suspected cases and underestimate its prevalence. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of congenital heart disease in "daara" (Koranic schools) in the city of Dakar and its suburbs on the basis of clinical examination and Doppler echocardiography in school children. This cross-sectional survey was carried out from 9(th) August to 24(th) December 2011, and included a population of 2019 school children aged 5 to 18 years in 16 selected "daaras" under the Academic Inspectorate of Dakar and its suburbs. Anamnestic, clinical and echocardiographic data were recorded in a validated questionnaire. A p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant in bivariate analysis. 2 019 school children were included out of which 60.1% were male (sex-ratio: 0.66). The average age was 9.7 years (± 3.3 years). 18 cases of congenital heart diseases were detected being a prevalence of 8.9 per 1 000 (95 % CI: 1.8 to 7.9). This included 6 cases of inter-atrial septal aneurysm, 5 cases of peri-membranous ventricular septal defects, 4 cases of patent ductusarteriosus and 3 cases of tetralogy of Fallot. Factors correlated with the presence of congenital heart disease were ageless than 8 (p <0.001) and residence in the suburbs of Dakar (p <0.001). We also detected 10 cases of rheumatic valvular disease, a prevalence of 4.9 per 1 000 (95% CI: 2.4 to 9.1). Our study shows a high prevalence of congenital heart diseases, which is almost identical to the WHO estimates and that ultrasound screening is more sensitive than clinical screening. Reducing the prevalence of these diseases requires implementation of appropriate policies, focusing on awareness and early detection.

  19. Renal disease in adult Nigerians with sickle cell anemia: a report of prevalence, clinical features and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, R A; Akinlade, K S; Kuti, M A O; Olawale, O O; Akinola, N O

    2012-01-01

    Renal abnormalities in adult Nigerians with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have not been extensively studied. To determine the prevalence, pattern and the associated risk factors of renal disease, 72 subjects with SCA from two centers in the southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Socio-demographic data, body mass index and clinical findings were documented. The urine analysis, serum bio-chemistry, hemogram and renal factors attributable to SCA were determined. Presence of albuminuria of at least 1+ or microalbuminuria in those negative with dipstick; and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Cockcroft-Gault formula categorized subjects to various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Subjects with and without albuminuria were compared to determine the relative risk associated with renal disease. Four (5.6%) subjects had macro-albuminuria, while 32 (44.4%) had micro-albuminuria and 30 (41.7%) had hemoglobinuria. In the subjects with albuminuria, age, hematocrit, systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, urea and creatinine clearance were numerically higher while the eGFR was numerically lower. There was no significant difference in the clinical parameters studied in the two groups of subjects. The diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the albuminuric group. Based on eGFR, 22 (30.6%) subjects had hyperfiltration (GFR > 140 mL/min/1.73 m2), of whom 36.4% had albuminuria, 18 (25.0%) had stage 1 CKD, 30 (41.7%) had stage 2 CKD and two (2.7%) subjects had stage 3 CKD with albuminuria. None had stage 4 and 5 CKD. We conclude that renal abnormalities, importantly albuminuria, is common in adult Nigerians with SCA and the pattern and incidence are similar to those reported from other parts of the world. Regular blood pressure monitoring, early diagnosis and active intervention are advocated to delay progression to end-stage kidney disease in view of poor outcomes of renal replacement therapy in SCA patients with nephropathy.

  20. Lyme disease: prevalence and clinical importance of Borrelia burgdorferi specific IgG in forestry workers.

    PubMed

    Guy, E C; Bateman, D E; Martyn, C N; Heckels, J E; Lawton, N F

    1989-03-04

    41 forestry workers, who had a high occupational risk of tick-bites, were screened for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi by ELISA and western blotting techniques, and questioned about possible symptoms of Lyme disease. Antibodies were detected in 10 of the 40 men who had been bitten by ticks. Definite symptoms of Lyme disease, in the form of erythema migrans, were reported by only 2 workers and none had a history of neurological illness.

  1. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypersexuality in patients with Parkinson's disease following dopaminergic therapy: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Nakum, Shivanee; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2016-04-01

    A range of impulse control disorders have been identified as possible behavioural effects of brain dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Among the behavioural problems associated with dysregulation of dopaminergic pathways underlying reward processing, hypersexuality carries significant social and legal repercussions, in addition to embarrassment for the patient with PD and his/her family. The present article evaluates the prevalence and characteristics of hypersexuality in the context of PD, focusing on the best available evidence. We conducted a systematic literature review according to the Prisma guidelines on large-scale epidemiological studies (n > 250) assessing hypersexuality in patients with PD treated with DRT. Our systematic literature review identified 10 relevant studies characterised by medium-to-large sample sizes (n = 268-3090). Average lifetime prevalence of hypersexuality in patients with PD on DRT was found to be 2.7% (7.4% in patients on dopamine agonists). In general, hypersexuality was associated with male gender and higher doses of dopamine agonists. Other clinically relevant associations included younger age, earlier PD onset and history of behavioural symptoms prior to dopamine agonist use. Hypersexuality is not rare in patients with PD treated with DRT, particularly in those on dopamine agonists. These findings indicate that PD specialists should regularly screen and monitor for hypersexuality, paying particular attention to younger male patients, with an early PD onset and previous history of behavioural problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Characteristics, Mutation Spectrum, and Prevalence of Åland Eye Disease/Incomplete Congenital Stationary Night Blindness in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Marianne N.; Kilic-Biyik, Kevser Z.; Trotter, Alana; Grønskov, Karen; Sander, Birgit; Larsen, Michael; Carroll, Joseph; Bech-Hansen, Torben; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess clinical characteristics, foveal structure, mutation spectrum, and prevalence rate of Åland eye disease (AED)/incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (iCSNB). Methods A retrospective survey included individuals diagnosed with AED at a national low-vision center from 1980 to 2014. A subset of affected males underwent ophthalmologic examinations including psychophysical tests, full-field electroretinography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Results Over the 34-year period, 74 individuals from 35 families were diagnosed with AED. Sixty individuals from 29 families participated in a follow-up study of whom 59 harbored a CACNA1F mutation and 1 harbored a CABP4 mutation. Among the subjects with a CACNA1F mutation, subnormal visual acuity was present in all, nystagmus was present in 63%, and foveal hypoplasia was observed in 25/43 subjects. Foveal pit volume was significantly reduced as compared to normal (P < 0.0001). Additionally, outer segment length at the fovea was measured in 46 subjects and found to be significantly reduced as compared to normal (P < 0.001). Twenty-nine CACNA1F variations were detected among 34 families in the total cohort, and a novel CABP4 variation was identified in one family. The estimated mean birth prevalence rate was 1 per 22,000 live-born males. Conclusions Our data support the viewpoint that AED, iCSNB, and X-linked cone–rod dystrophy 3 are designations that refer to a broad, continuous spectrum of clinical appearances caused in the majority by a variety of mutations in CACNA1F. We argue that the original designation AED should be used for this entity. PMID:28002560

  3. IgA and IgG tissue transglutaminase antibody prevalence and clinical significance in connective tissue diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, and primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Bizzaro, N; Villalta, D; Tonutti, E; Doria, A; Tampoia, M; Bassetti, D; Tozzoli, R

    2003-12-01

    An association between celiac disease (CD) and other autoimmune diseases such as connective tissue diseases (CTD), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has been reported in several studies. However, a high rate of false positives in autoantibody testing was noted, especially when tissue transglutaminase (tTG) from guinea pig liver was used. Thus, the real prevalence of CD in CTD, IBD, and PBC is unclear. In a case-control study, 400 patients with CTD, 170 with IBD, 48 with PBC, and 120 healthy subjects were investigated for CD by the analysis of IgA and IgG tTG antibodies using the more specific human recombinant tTG immunoenzymatic assay. Patients and controls with positive findings were further tested for antiendomysial antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence and HLA typing, and those found positive by either of these tests underwent duodenal biopsy to confirm a possible diagnosis of CD. Twelve patients were positive for IgA or IgG tTG antibodies, showing an overall prevalence of 1.9%. Only 1 healthy subject (0.8%) had a low level positive reaction for IgA anti-tTG. Among the 12 patients and the healthy subject, only 2 (1 SLE and 1 ulcerative colitis patient) were subsequently confirmed to be affected with CD by positive EMA, HLA, and small bowel biopsy findings. The highest rate of false positives was found in PBC patients (10.4%). For these reasons, serological screening testing for CD is not recommended in CTD patients or in subjects affected with IBD or PBC, unless there is a relevant clinical suspicion of CD.

  4. Does the low prevalence affect the sample size of interventional clinical trials of rare diseases? An analysis of data from the aggregate analysis of clinicaltrials.gov.

    PubMed

    Hee, Siew Wan; Willis, Adrian; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Day, Simon; Miller, Frank; Madan, Jason; Posch, Martin; Zohar, Sarah; Stallard, Nigel

    2017-03-02

    Clinical trials are typically designed using the classical frequentist framework to constrain type I and II error rates. Sample sizes required in such designs typically range from hundreds to thousands of patients which can be challenging for rare diseases. It has been shown that rare disease trials have smaller sample sizes than non-rare disease trials. Indeed some orphan drugs were approved by the European Medicines Agency based on studies with as few as 12 patients. However, some studies supporting marketing authorisation included several hundred patients. In this work, we explore the relationship between disease prevalence and other factors and the size of interventional phase 2 and 3 rare disease trials conducted in the US and/or EU. We downloaded all clinical trials from Aggregate Analysis of ClinialTrials.gov (AACT) and identified rare disease trials by cross-referencing MeSH terms in AACT with the list from Orphadata. We examined the effects of prevalence and phase of study in a multiple linear regression model adjusting for other statistically significant trial characteristics. Of 186941 ClinicalTrials.gov trials only 1567 (0.8%) studied a single rare condition with prevalence information from Orphadata. There were 19 (1.2%) trials studying disease with prevalence <1/1,000,000, 126 (8.0%) trials with 1-9/1,000,000, 791 (50.5%) trials with 1-9/100,000 and 631 (40.3%) trials with 1-5/10,000. Of the 1567 trials, 1160 (74%) were phase 2 trials. The fitted mean sample size for the rarest disease (prevalence <1/1,000,000) in phase 2 trials was the lowest (mean, 15.7; 95% CI, 8.7-28.1) but were similar across all the other prevalence classes; mean, 26.2 (16.1-42.6), 33.8 (22.1-51.7) and 35.6 (23.3-54.3) for prevalence 1-9/1,000,000, 1-9/100,000 and 1-5/10,000, respectively. Fitted mean size of phase 3 trials of rarer diseases, <1/1,000,000 (19.2, 6.9-53.2) and 1-9/1,000,000 (33.1, 18.6-58.9), were similar to those in phase 2 but were statistically significant

  5. Prevalence and clinical significance of IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sood, Ajit; Khurana, Manbir Singh; Mahajan, Ramit; Midha, Vandana; Puri, Sandeep; Kaur, Amandeep; Gupta, Nishit; Sharma, Suresh

    2017-02-01

    Celiac disease is a multi-systemic disease, which can affect any organ system including liver. However, the prevalence of celiac disease and the sensitivity and specificity of anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) in diagnosing celiac disease in patients with cirrhosis of liver is not well established. We screened a cohort of patients with chronic liver disease for an associated diagnosis of celiac disease. Anti-tTG was carried out in all patients, and those with a high value were subjected to duodenal biopsy for histological confirmation. In patients where biopsy was contraindicated or refused, anti-endomysial antibody (anti-EMA) was tested. Of a total of 595 patients with chronic liver disease, high levels of anti-tTG were noted in 150 (25.2%) patients, and celiac disease was diagnosed in 14 patients (2.4%). Celiac autoimmunity (high levels of both anti-tTG and anti-EMA) was noted in seven patients (1.2%). Although a large number of cirrhotic patients have high levels of anti-tTG, duodenal histology and/or anti-EMA is normal in majority of these patients. This suggests high false positivity of anti-tTG in patients with cirrhosis and highlights the need of duodenal biopsy for histological confirmation of the diagnosis of celiac disease. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of clinical and subclinical middle ear disease in cats undergoing computed tomographic scans of the head.

    PubMed

    Shanaman, Miriam; Seiler, Gabriela; Holt, David E

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred and ten cats that had CT imaging of the head between January 2000 and December 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. Data that were recorded included signalment, presenting complaint, clinical signs, presence of upper respiratory tract disease, and CT findings. One hundred and one cats had evidence of middle ear disease on CT. Thirty-four of the 101 cats (34%) did not have a primary complaint of ear-related disease, clinical signs or physical findings consistent with ear disease, suggesting that the middle ear disease was subclinical. Twenty-seven of the 34 cats (79%) had concurrent nasal disease. Middle ear lesions were chronic in appearance. With the exception of tympanic bulla lysis, CT findings were similar in cats presenting with primary aural disease versus cats with presumptive subclinical middle ear disease. The majority of the cats did not return for treatment of the identified middle ear abnormalities. Subclinical middle ear disease is relatively frequent in cats undergoing CT imaging of the head. Few cats required subsequent treatment for ear disease although follow up was limited. Identification of subclinical middle ear abnormalities on CT should prompt acquisition of a detailed patient history and bilateral otoscopic examination.

  7. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of chronic venous disease in patients seen in primary care in Spain: results of the international study Vein Consult Program.

    PubMed

    Escudero Rodríguez, José-Román; Fernández Quesada, Fidel; Bellmunt Montoya, Sergi

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics and management of chronic venous disease (CVD) in patients seen at primary care clinics This cross-sectional study was carried-out in Spain by 999 primary care physicians. They recruited 20 consecutive patients who were attending their clinics for any reason except for a medical emergency. The following Information was collected: demographic data, CVD risk factors, physical examination, clinical characteristics of the CVD and how it was managed. 19,800 patients were included, predominantly women (63%), with a mean age of 53.7 ± 20 years. The prevalence of CVD (CEAP categories C1 to C6) was 48.5% (95% CI, 47.8 to 49.2), significantly higher in women (58.5%; 95% CI, 57.6 to 59.4) than in men (32.1%; 95% CI, 31.0 to 33.1). The greater the age the higher the prevalence and the more advanced the CVD. Ninety-nine percent of the patients required some form of treatment, with a greater proportion among women (72% vs. 39%, P<.0001). Sclerotherapy, endothermal ablation or surgery was required by 4% of the patients. Referral to the specialist was considered for 7% of the patients. Chronic venous disease is highly prevalent among patients seen at primary care clinics in Spain, especially in women and elderly patients. Referral to a specialist and/or the use of the more invasive treatment procedures is uncommon. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Low T3 Syndrome in Non-Dialysis Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jingxian; Yan, Peng; Wang, Yingdeng; Shen, Bo; Ding, Feng; Liu, Yingli

    2016-01-01

    Background There are few data on the prevalence of low T3 (triiodothyronine) syndrome in patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) and it is unclear whether low T3 can be used to predict the progression of CKD. Material/Methods We retrospectively studied 279 patients who had been definitively diagnosed with CKD, without needing maintenance dialysis. Thyroid function was analyzed in all enrolled subjects and the incidence of thyroid dysfunction (low T3 syndrome, low T4 syndrome, and subclinical hypothyroidism) in patients at different stages of CKD was determined. Results Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of CKD patients was estimated as follows: 145 subjects (52%) had GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2; 47 subjects (16.8%) had GFR between 30 and 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 98 subjects (35.1%) had GFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Among all enrolled subjects, 4.7% (n=13) had subclinical hypothyroidism, 5.4% (n=15) had low T4 syndrome, and 47% (n=131) had low T3 syndrome. In 114 CKD patients in stages 3–5, serum T3 was positively related to protein metabolism (STP, PA, and ALB) and anemia indicators (Hb and RBC), and negatively related to inflammatory status (CRP and IL-6). Conclusions A high prevalence of low T3 syndrome was observed in CKD patients without dialysis, even in early stages (1 and 2). The increasing prevalence of low T3 as CKD progresses indicates its value as a predictor of worsening CKD. Furthermore, low T3 syndrome is closely associated with both malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) and anemia. PMID:27056188

  9. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Low T3 Syndrome in Non-Dialysis Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jingxian; Yan, Peng; Wang, Yingdeng; Shen, Bo; Ding, Feng; Liu, Yingli

    2016-04-08

    BACKGROUND There are few data on the prevalence of low T3 (triiodothyronine) syndrome in patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) and it is unclear whether low T3 can be used to predict the progression of CKD. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively studied 279 patients who had been definitively diagnosed with CKD, without needing maintenance dialysis. Thyroid function was analyzed in all enrolled subjects and the incidence of thyroid dysfunction (low T3 syndrome, low T4 syndrome, and subclinical hypothyroidism) in patients at different stages of CKD was determined. RESULTS Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of CKD patients was estimated as follows: 145 subjects (52%) had GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2; 47 subjects (16.8%) had GFR between 30 and 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 98 subjects (35.1%) had GFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Among all enrolled subjects, 4.7% (n=13) had subclinical hypothyroidism, 5.4% (n=15) had low T4 syndrome, and 47% (n=131) had low T3 syndrome. In 114 CKD patients in stages 3-5, serum T3 was positively related to protein metabolism (STP, PA, and ALB) and anemia indicators (Hb and RBC), and negatively related to inflammatory status (CRP and IL-6). CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of low T3 syndrome was observed in CKD patients without dialysis, even in early stages (1 and 2). The increasing prevalence of low T3 as CKD progresses indicates its value as a predictor of worsening CKD. Furthermore, low T3 syndrome is closely associated with both malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) and anemia.

  10. Higher prevalence of autoimmune diseases and longer spells of vertigo in patients affected with familial Ménière's disease: A clinical comparison of familial and sporadic Ménière's disease.

    PubMed

    Hietikko, Elina; Sorri, Martti; Männikkö, Minna; Kotimäki, Jouko

    2014-06-01

    PURPOSE This study compared clinical features, predisposing factors, and concomitant diseases between sporadic and familial Ménière's disease (MD). METHOD Retrospective chart review and postal questionnaire were used. Participants were 250 definite patients with MD (sporadic, n =149; familial, n = 101) who fulfilled the American Academy of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (1995) criteria. RESULTS On average, familial patients were affected 5.6 years earlier than sporadic patients, and they suffered from significantly longer spells of vertigo (p = .007). The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (p = .002) and other autoimmune diseases (p = .046) was higher among the familial patients, who also had more migraine (p = .036) and hearing impairment (p = .002) in their families. CONCLUSION The clinical features of familial and sporadic MD are very similar in general, but some differences do exist. Familial MD patients are affected earlier and suffer from longer spells of vertigo.

  11. Prevalence of Major Depression and Its Associations With Demographic and Clinical Characteristics and Quality of Life in Chinese Patients With HBV-related Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Li, Lu; Zheng, Su-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Ungvari, Gabor S; Hall, Brian J; Duan, Zhong-Ping; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-06-01

    There are no data about the frequency of major depression in patients with liver disease related to Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in China. This study examined the prevalence of major depression and its clinical correlates and association with quality of life (QOL) in patients with HBV-related liver diseases. Altogether 634 patients with HBV-related liver diseases met study entry criteria and completed the survey. The diagnosis of major depression was established with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and QOL were measured. The prevalence of major depression was 6.4%. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that insomnia (P=0.01, OR=5.5, 95%CI=1.4-21.6) and global functioning (P<0.001, OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.5-0.7) were independently associated with major depression. Major depression was associated with both poor physical (F (1, 634)=4.0, P=0.04) and mental QOL (F (1, 634)=26.2, P<0.001). Given the negative impact of depression on patients' QOL, more attempts should be made to identify and treat it in HBV-related diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Genotype-Phenotype Correlations in a Mountain Population Community with High Prevalence of Wilson’s Disease: Genetic and Clinical Homogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Cocoş, Relu; Şendroiu, Alina; Schipor, Sorina; Bohîlţea, Laurenţiu Camil; Şendroiu, Ionuţ; Raicu, Florina

    2014-01-01

    Wilson’s disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by more than 500 mutations in ATP7B gene presenting considerably clinical manifestations heterogeneity even in patients with a particular mutation. Previous findings suggested a potential role of additional genetic modifiers and environment factors on phenotypic expression among the affected patients. We conducted clinical and genetic investigations to perform genotype-phenotype correlation in two large families living in a socio-culturally isolated community with the highest prevalence of Wilson’s disease ever reported of 1∶1130. Sequencing of ATP7B gene in seven affected individuals and 43 family members identified a common compound heterozygous genotype, H1069Q/M769H-fs, in five symptomatic and two asymptomatic patients and detected the presence of two out of seven identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in all affected patients. Symptomatic patients had similar clinical phenotype and age at onset (18±1 years) showing dysarthria and dysphagia as common clinical features at the time of diagnosis. Moreover, all symptomatic patients presented Kayser-Fleischer rings and lack of dystonia accompanied by unfavourable clinical outcomes. Our findings add value for understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations in Wilson’s disease based on a multifamily study in an isolated population with high extent of genetic and environmental homogeneity as opposed to majority of reports. We observed an equal influence of presumed other genetic modifiers and environmental factors on clinical presentation and age at onset of Wilson’s disease in patients with a particular genotype. These data provide valuable inferences that could be applied for predicting clinical management in asymptomatic patients in such communities. PMID:24897373

  13. Somatotype and disease prevalence in adults.

    PubMed

    Koleva, M; Nacheva, A; Boev, M

    2002-01-01

    We examined the association between the somatotype and its main components (endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy), and the prevalence of several chronic diseases. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey designed to assess somatotype and morbidity with special reference to most often diagnosed diseases. The study population comprised 524 men and 250 women. The subjects underwent laboratory tests and clinical and anthropometric examinations. Of all examined workers, 94.8% fell into the five somatotype categories; of these, 394 were endomorphic mesomorphs. The most common somatotype was endomorphic mesomorph for men and mesomorph-endomorph for women. In five disease groups, prevalence was significantly related to a somatotype. Mesomorphic endomorphs most frequently suffered from digestive system diseases (40.6%, p < 0.05), neuroses (30.1%, p < 0.05), and radiculitis lumbosacralis (15.4%). The prevalence of arterial hypertension in mesomorph-endomorphs (37.1%), endomorphic mesomorphs (35.5%), and mesomorphic endomorphs (34.3%) was equal. In both genders, those with the highest endomorphy and mesomorphy and the lowest ectomorphy, grouped by cluster analysis, were those who suffered most frequently from arterial hypertension and liver disease. The authors conclude that the somatotype having a dominant mesomorphy and marked endomorphy constitutes a risk factor as a particular predisposition toward certain diseases and requires body weight control.

  14. Prevalence of anti- beta2GPI antibodies and their isotypes in patients with renal diseases and clinical suspicion of antiphospholipid syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Anis, Sabiha; Ahmed, Ejaz; Muzaffar, Rana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are autoantibodies that are associated with a clinical state of hypercoagulability and diverse clinical manifestations collectively known as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of anti-beta2glycoproteinI-antibodies (anti-β2GPI) and their isotypes in patients with renal diseases and clinical suspicion of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study in which we have analyzed the prevalence of anti-β2GPI and its isotypes in 170 patients on initial testing and in 29 patients repeated after 12 weeks for confirmation of APS.  The clinical information was provided by the treating physicians or retrieved from the clinical records. The tests for anti-β2GPI screening and its isotypes (IgG, IgM and IgA) detection were assessed. Results: On initial samples, anti-β2GPI was positive in 118patients.  IgA-β2GPI positivity (93; 79%) was significantly higher than IgM and IgG isotypes.  Out of anti-β2GPI positive patients, clinical features in 95 patients were suggestive of APS or had SLE.  Of these, IgA isotypes was found in 66% (P = 0.010), IgM in 31% (P = 0.033), and IgG in 11% (P = 0.033). On repeat testing, anti-β2GPI was persistently found In 22 patients with a continual predominance of IgA-anti-β2GPI over IgM and IgG isotypes (91% vs. 45.5% and 18% respectively). Conclusions:   Our results show that IgA-anti-β2GPI antibodies are the most prevalent isotypes in patients with renal disease or on renal replacement therapy in our population.  Thus inclusion of IgA-anti-β2GPI in the testing repertoire may increase the diagnostic sensitivity for APS in patients with renal diseases. PMID:24475447

  15. Prevalence of Skin Diseases in Children with Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome Infection in Paediatric HIV Clinic of A Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osinaike, B O; Temiye, E O; Odusote, O; Akinsulie, A O; Iroha, E

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection/AIDS being a multi-systemic disease affects the skin at various stages in course of the illness. A knowledge of the common skin diseases associated with HIV infection can lead to early detection, appropriate staging and commencement of appropriate care in the infected patients. The study was to document the prevalence and pattern of skin diseases in children with HIV infection seen at the Paediatric department of a tertiary centre in Nigeria. HIV positive children attending the PEPFAR HIV clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria were examined for the presence of skin lesions. Anthropometric measurements were also obtained. Blood samples Were taken for CD4+ cell count, viral load and full blood count. Two hundred and fourteen (214) patients were studied, consisting of 107 HIV infected children and 107 uninfected children as controls. Skin lesions were observed in 89 (83%) of the HIV infected patients, while only 72 uninfected controls had skin lesions. (p = 0.035). The predominant skin disease in the HIV infected children was Pruritic papular eruption (PPE) with a frequency of 25.9%, followed by fungal infections (24.6%). Herpes zoster was found only in HIV infected children (p = 0.041). There was a strong correlation between the degree of immunosuppression (as reflected by the value of age dependent CD4+ cell count/CD4+ percentage). and the prevalence of skin disease in the HIV infected patients. The presence of pruritic papular eruptions and Herpes zoster was associated with advanced immunosuppression. Skin diseases are common in HIV infection in our environment. Early detection of HIV infection can be made in the presence of skin diseases like Pruritic papular eruption and Herpes zoster.

  16. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in diabetics--prevalence and predictive factors in a multiracial hospital clinic population in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wah-Kheong; Tan, Alexander Tong-Boon; Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna; Tah, Pei-Chien; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2013-08-01

    There is currently no published study comparing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated factors among diabetics of different ethnicity in the Asia-Pacific region. Cross-sectional study of consecutive patients in the Diabetic Clinic in University of Malaya Medical Centre. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire were used to assess physical activity and dietary intake, respectively. Diagnosis of NAFLD was ultrasound-based and following exclusion of significant alcohol intake. Data for 399 patients were analyzed (mean age 62.3 ± 10.5 years, 43.1% men). The racial distribution was Chinese 43.6%, Indian 33.1%, Malay 22.3%, and others 1.0%. The prevalence of NAFLD was 49.6%. On univariate analysis, factors associated with NAFLD were age < 65 years, race, obesity, central obesity, glycated hemoglobin ≥ 7.0%, and elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. Patients with low physical activity were more likely to have NAFLD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-2.63, P = 0.020). The prevalence of NAFLD was highest among Malays (60.7%), followed by Indians (51.5%), and lowest among Chinese (42.0%) consistent with higher prevalence of central obesity and higher percentage calorie intake from fat in the former groups of patients. On multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with NAFLD were central obesity (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.29-3.75, P = 0.004) and elevated serum ALT level (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.21-3.25, P = 0.007). NAFLD was seen in half of a cohort of diabetic patients and was independently associated with central obesity and elevated serum ALT level. Prevalence of NAFLD was different and paralleled the difference in prevalence of central obesity and in percentage calorie intake from fat among the different ethnic groups. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia

  17. Prevalence and prognosis of mild anemia in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease: a prospective cohort study in outpatient renal clinics.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Luca; Minutolo, Roberto; Chiodini, Paolo; Zamboli, Pasquale; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Nappi, Felice; Signoriello, Simona; Conte, Giuseppe; Zoccali, Carmine; SIN-TABLE CDK Study Group

    2010-01-01

    we evaluated prevalence and prognosis of mild anemia, defined as Hb (g/dl) 11-13.5 in males and 11-12 in females, in a prospective cohort of stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. we enrolled 668 consecutive patients in 25 renal clinics during 2003. Patients with frank anemia (Hb <11 or erythropoiesis-stimulating agents) at enrolment were excluded. Mild anemia was evaluated at two visits planned with an interval of 18 ± 6 months to identify four categories: no anemia at both visits, mild anemia at visit 1 resolving at visit 2 (RES), mild anemia persisting at both visits (PER), and progression from no anemia or mild anemia at visit 1 to mild or frank anemia at visit 2 (PRO). mild anemia was present in 41.3% at visit 1 and 34.1% at visit 2. We identified PER in 22% patients, RES in 10%, and PRO in 26%. In the subsequent 40 months, 125 patients developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 94 died. At competing risk model, PER predicted ESRD (hazard ratio, HR, 1.82, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.01-3.29) while PRO predicted both ESRD (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.02-3.23) and death (HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.04-3.37). in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease, mild anemia is prevalent and it is a marker of risk excess when persistent or progressive over time. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Prevalence, determinants and clinical correlates of vitamin D deficiency in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Jolliffe, David A; James, Wai Yee; Hooper, Richard L; Barnes, Neil C; Greiller, Claire L; Islam, Kamrul; Bhowmik, Angshu; Timms, Peter M; Rajakulasingam, Raj K; Choudhury, Aklak B; Simcock, David E; Hyppönen, Elina; Walton, Robert T; Corrigan, Christopher J; Griffiths, Christopher J; Martineau, Adrian R

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), yet a comprehensive analysis of environmental and genetic determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration in patients with this condition is lacking. We conducted a multi-centre cross-sectional study in 278 COPD patients aged 41-92 years in London, UK. Details of potential environmental determinants of vitamin D status and COPD symptom control and severity were collected by questionnaire, and blood samples were taken for analysis of serum 25(OH)D concentration and DNA extraction. All participants performed spirometry and underwent measurement of weight and height. Quadriceps muscle strength (QS) was measured in 134 participants, and sputum induction with enumeration of lower airway eosinophil and neutrophil counts was performed for 44 participants. Thirty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 11 genes in the vitamin D pathway (DBP, DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, CYP3A4, LRP2, CUBN, RXRA, and VDR) were typed using Taqman allelic discrimination assays. Linear regression was used to identify environmental and genetic factors independently associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration and to determine whether vitamin D status or genetic factors independently associated with % predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), % predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1:FVC), daily inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose, respiratory quality of life (QoL), QS, and the percentage of eosinophils and neutrophils in induced sputum. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 45.4nmol/L (SD 25.3); 171/278 (61.5%) participants were vitamin D deficient (serum 25[OH]D concentration <50nmol/L). Lower vitamin D status was independently associated with higher body mass index (P=0.001), lower socio-economic position (P=0.037), lack of vitamin D supplement consumption (P<0.001), sampling in Winter or Spring (P for trend=0.006) and

  19. Demographic characteristics and prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-positive patients seen in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru.

    PubMed

    Choon, S E; Mathew, M; Othman, B S

    2000-06-01

    The demographic characteristics, risk behaviourand prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were determined in 132 HIV-infected individuals seen in a Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru. Sixty-one (46.2%) were Malays, 37.9% Chinese, 10.6% Indians and 5.3% were of other ethnic groups. The male to female ratio was 4.5:1. Most of the patients (82.5%) were between 20 to 40 years-old. Seventy (53.0%) were single, 34.1% were married and 7.5% were divorcees. The majority of them (97.7%) were heterosexual. Fifty seven (53.3%) of our male patients patronised commercial workers. Eighty-one (61.8%) were not intravenous drug users (IVDU). Of the 50 IVDUs, 24 had multiple sexual exposures. Fifty-three (48.2%) of the 109 patients screened for STDs had one or more other STDs. Thirty-four patients (31.9%) reported one STD in the past and 3.6% reported two STDs in the past. Fifty-six patients (42.4%) had developed AIDS. Thirteen had passed away. The main mode of transmission of HIV infection in this population is through heterosexual intercourse and the prevalence of STDs is high. These findings indicate a need to advocate responsible sexual behaviour and to detect as well as treat STDs early to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV.

  20. Restless legs syndrome in patients with Parkinson's disease: a comparative study on prevalence, clinical characteristics, quality of life and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Fereshtehnejad, S-M; Shafieesabet, M; Shahidi, G A; Delbari, A; Lökk, J

    2015-04-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder that can coexist with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the association between these two movement disorders is quite poorly explored and previous findings are controversial in different aspects. To compare prevalence of RLS in Iranian PD population with a matched control group and to investigate the impact of comorbid RLS on quality of life (QoL), nutritional status, and clinical characteristics in PD population. This study was conducted on 108 individuals with idiopathic PD (IPD) and 424 matched controls. RLS was diagnosed using the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) criteria. Further assessments were performed on clinical characteristics, PD severity scales, psychiatric features, nutritional status, fatigue, and QoL in PD patients with and without RLS. Restless legs syndrome was significantly more common among the patients with IPD (14.8%) compared to the controls (7.5%) [OR = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1-4.0)]. IPD subjects with RLS had significantly higher anxiety score [10.1 (SD = 5.1) vs 5.9 (SD = 5.0); P = 0.003], worse nutritional status [23.7 (SD = 2.7) vs 25.4 (SD = 3.7); P = 0.008], and poorer QoL [26.9 (SD = 13.1) vs 17.0 (SD = 13.2); P = 0.006]. The number of positive answers to the IRLSSG diagnostic criteria had significant direct correlation with unpredictability of the off periods and the presence of symptomatic orthostasis. Our study demonstrated a higher prevalence of RLS in patients with PD compared to general population. PD patients with RLS suffer from more anxiety, worse nutritional status, and worse QoL. RLS negatively accompanies with psychiatric problems, emotional behaviors, stigma, and cognitive impairment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Psychogenic tics: clinical characteristics and prevalence].

    PubMed

    Janik, Piotr; Milanowski, Lukasz; Szejko, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Clinical characteristics and the prevalence of psychogenic tics (PT) METHODS: 268 consecutively examined patients aged 4 to 54 years (221 men, 47 females; 134 children, 134 adults) with tic phenotype: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS, n = 255), chronic motor tics (n = 6), chronic vocal tics (n= 1), transient tics (n = 1), tics unclassified (n = 2), PT (n= 5) were analyzed. The diagnosis of tic disorders was made on the DSM-IV-TR criteria and mental disorders by psychiatrists. PT were found in 5 patients (1.9%), aged 17 to 51 years, four men and one woman. The phenotype included vocalizations and complex movements. In none of the patients simple motor facial tics, inability to tic suppress, unchanging clinical pattern, peak severity from the beginning of the disease, lack of concern about the disease were present. The absence of premonitory urges, regression in unexpected positions, and the presence of atypical for GTS mental disorders were found in two persons. PT occurred in three persons in whom organic tics were present in childhood. Pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy were unsuccessful. In two persons spontaneous resolution occurred, in two patients the tics persist, in one person the course of PT is unknown. PT are rare and may occur in patients with organic tics. The most typical features of PT are: early onset in adulthood, lack of simple motor tics, inability to tic suppress. The diagnosis is established if a few atypical symptoms for organic tics occur.

  2. Prevalence of bacterial species in cats with clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease: recognition of Staphylococcus felis as a possible feline urinary tract pathogen.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette; Moss, Susan M; Honnery, Mary; Rees, Bob; Trott, Darren J

    2007-03-31

    This study investigated the prevalence of bacterial pathogens of the urinary tract in Australian cats. Urine was collected by cystocentesis and subjected to urinalysis, bacterial culture and susceptibility testing. A total of 126 isolates were obtained from 107 culture-positive cats. Escherichia coli was most commonly isolated (37.3% of isolates) with the majority of isolates showing susceptibility to the 14 antimicrobials tested. Just over a quarter of isolates (27.0%) were Enterococcus faecalis, which showed resistance to cephalosporins and clindamycin. Staphylococcus felis, a previously unreported feline urinary tract pathogen which was susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, comprised 19.8% of the isolates. S. felis was significantly associated with urine that had a higher specific gravity (p=0.011) and pH (p=0.006) and was more likely to contain crystals (p=0.002) than urine from which other bacterial species were isolated. This is the first published study that associates the isolation of S. felis with clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease in cats.

  3. Prevalence and clinical picture of musculoskeletal sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Salari, Masoumeh; Rezaieyazdi, Zahra

    2014-07-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease affecting different organs with different frequency rates depending on geographical location. Musculoskeletal abnormalities includes osseous lesions (small and large bone sarcoidosis), sarcoidal arthropathy, and sarcoidal myopathy. Musculoskeletal involvement is reported in a significant number of patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical picture of musculoskeletal sarcoidosis in Iranian cohort of patients with sarcoidosis. We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study including 30 patients with sarcoidosis who had hospitalized in the Rheumatology Department at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The patients were evaluated for musculoskeletal symptoms using history, physical examination, and paraclinical data. Of the 30 studied patients, 24 were female (80%) and six were male (20%). The mean age at diagnosis was 38 years. Sarcoidal arthropathy (arthritis and periarthritis) was observed in 26 patients (86.6%). Furthermore, the initial presentation was associated with joint symptoms in 19 cases (63.3%); acute arthritis developed in 17 (65%) while bone and muscle involvements each occurred in 2 (6.6%). Sarcoidosis is a common disease in women aged 20 to 40 years. The most common involved joint were consecutively ankles, knees, and wrists, reaching a accumulated frequency of 86.6%; however, bone and muscle involvements were uncommon.

  4. Prevalence of Dupuytren disease in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Lanting, Rosanne; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Westerink, Bram; Werker, Paul M N

    2013-08-01

    Dupuytren disease is a fibroproliferative disease of palmar fascias of the hand. The prevalence of Dupuytren disease and the association with potential risk factors have been the subject of several studies, although there is a paucity of such data from The Netherlands. To study the prevalence of Dupuytren disease, the authors drew a random sample of 1360 individuals, stratified by age, from the northern part of The Netherlands. Of this sample, 763 individuals aged 50 to 89 years participated in this cross-sectional study. The authors examined both hands for signs of Dupuytren disease, and a questionnaire was conducted to identify potential risk factors. The effects of these risk factors were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Additional analyses were performed to develop a logistic prediction model for the prevalence of Dupuytren disease. The prevalence of Dupuytren disease was 22.1 percent. Nodules and cords were seen in 17.9 percent, and flexion contractures were present in 4.2 percent of the study population. Prevalence increased with age, from 4.9 percent in participants aged 50 to 55 years to 52.6 percent among those aged 76 to 80 years. Men were more often affected than women; 26.4 percent versus 18.6 percent, respectively (p=0.007). Other significant risk factors were previous hand injury, excessive alcohol consumption, familial occurrence of Dupuytren disease, and presence of Ledderhose disease. The results show a high prevalence of Dupuytren disease in The Netherlands, particularly the nodular form. Using the developed logistic prediction model, the prevalence of Dupuytren disease can be estimated, based on the presence of significant risk factors. Risk, III.

  5. Celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, Naiyana; Freeman, Hugh J; Thomson, Alan BR

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common diseases, resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes]. The prevalence of CD has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world. However, the population with diabetes, autoimmune disorder or relatives of CD individuals have even higher risk for the development of CD, at least in part, because of shared HLA typing. Gliadin gains access to the basal surface of the epithelium, and interact directly with the immune system, via both trans- and para-cellular routes. From a diagnostic perspective, symptoms may be viewed as either “typical” or “atypical”. In both positive serological screening results suggestive of CD, should lead to small bowel biopsy followed by a favourable clinical and serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) to confirm the diagnosis. Positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody or anti-endomysial antibody during the clinical course helps to confirm the diagnosis of CD because of their over 99% specificities when small bowel villous atrophy is present on biopsy. Currently, the only treatment available for CD individuals is a strict life-long GFD. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD allows alternative future CD treatments to hydrolyse toxic gliadin peptide, prevent toxic gliadin peptide absorption, blockage of selective deamidation of specific glutamine residues by tissue, restore immune tolerance towards gluten, modulation of immune response to dietary gliadin, and restoration of intestinal architecture. PMID:23155333

  6. [Prevalence of anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Turró-Garriga, Oriol; Conde-Sala, Josep Lluís; Reñé-Ramírez, Ramón; López-Pousa, Secundino; Gascón-Bayarri, Jordi; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2014-07-07

    Anosognosia is a disorder that affects the clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), increasing in frequency with the evolution of AD. The objective was to determine the prevalence of anosognosia and analyze the associated factors and predictors. Multicenter transversal and observational study of 345 AD patients. Anosognosia was assessed by Anosognosia Questionnaire-Dementia and the evolutionary stage with the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS). Tests used were Mini-Mental State Examination, Disability Assessment for Dementia and Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess cognition, functional status and neuropsychiatric symptoms, respectively. We adjusted linear regression models to determine the associated variables and binary logistic regression (RLog) to identify predictors of anosognosia. The overall prevalence of anosognosia was 46.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 41.3 to 52.1). The prevalence in stages was 28.4% (GDS 4), 64.6% (GDS 5) and 91.4% (GDS 6). The RLog identified as predictors older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.09), lower functional capacity (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.93-0.98), lower cognitive level (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.88-0.99), and greater apathy (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.03-1.18), disinhibition (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.09-1.50), irritability (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.09-1.50) and motor disorders (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.09-1.50). Anosognosia increases with further deterioration. In patients with a mild impairment, predictor variables were apathy, disinhibition and motor disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. The incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cornutiu, Gavril

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has grown progressively over the past 100 years. The present study monitored the evolution of AD incidence in relation to several factors known as favoring it, in a county in Romania, between 1980 and 2006. The annual incidence of AD in our clinic over a period of 27 years was determined along with 17 hereditary, medical, sociodemographic and environmental parameters. The results show a relatively steady curve until 1994, followed by a doubling of the incidence with a tendency to continuous growth. During this period, none of the known pathogenic factors--medical, psychological or sociodemographic--suffered any mathematically significant transformation. The only significant change for this population was the access to industrialized and preserved food and fizzy drinks which came from the western world, immediately after the borders had opened (1989). Therefore, the cause of the increased AD incidence must be looked for in food hygiene, and we must accept the notion of an ecologically caused disease. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Spatial prevalence and associations among respiratory diseases in Maine.

    PubMed

    Farah, Christopher; Hosgood, H Dean; Hock, Janet M

    2014-10-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases rank among the leading global disease burdens. Maine's respiratory disease prevalence exceeds the US average, despite limited urbanization/industrialization. To provide insight into potential etiologic factors among this unique, rural population, we analyzed the spatial distributions of, and potential associations among asthma, COPD, pneumonia, and URI adult outpatient data (n=47,099) from all outpatient transactions (n=5,052,900) in 2009 for Maine hospitals and affiliate clinics, using spatial scan statistic, geographic weighted regression (GWR), and a Delaunay graph algorithm. Non-random high prevalence regions were identified, the majority of which (84% of the population underlying all regions) exhibited clusters for all four respiratory diseases. GWR provided further evidence of spatial correlation (R(2)=0.991) between the communicable and noncommunicable diseases under investigation, suggesting spatial interdependence in risk. Sensitivity analyses of known respiratory disease risks did not fully explain our results. Prospective epidemiology studies are needed to clarify all contributors to risk.

  9. Koala retrovirus genotyping analyses reveal a low prevalence of KoRV-A in Victorian koalas and an association with clinical disease.

    PubMed

    Legione, Alistair R; Patterson, Jade L S; Whiteley, Pam; Firestone, Simon M; Curnick, Megan; Bodley, Kate; Lynch, Michael; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2017-02-01

    Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is undergoing endogenization into the genome of koalas in Australia, providing an opportunity to assess the effect of retrovirus infection on the health of a population. The prevalence of KoRV in north-eastern Australia (Queensland and New South Wales) is 100 %, whereas previous preliminary investigations in south-eastern Australia (Victoria) suggested KoRV is present at a lower prevalence, although the values have varied widely. Here, we describe a large study of free-ranging koalas in Victoria to estimate the prevalence of KoRV and assess the clinical significance of KoRV infection in wild koalas. Blood or spleen samples from 648 koalas where tested for KoRV provirus, and subsequently genotyped, using PCRs to detect the pol and env genes respectively. Clinical data was also recorded where possible and analysed in comparison to infection status. The prevalence of KoRV was 24.7 % (160/648). KoRV-A was detected in 141/160 cases, but KoRV-B, a genotype associated with neoplasia in captive koalas, was not detected. The genotype in 19 cases could not be determined. Genomic differences between KoRV in Victoria and type strains may have impacted genotyping. Factors associated with KoRV infection, based on multivariable analysis, were low body condition score, region sampled, and 'wet bottom' (a staining of the fur around the rump associated with chronic urinary incontinence). Koalas with wet bottom were nearly twice as likely to have KoRV provirus detected than those without wet bottom (odds ratio=1.90, 95 % confidence interval 1.21, 2.98). Our findings have important implications for the conservation of this iconic species, particularly regarding translocation potential of Victorian koalas.

  10. The Prevalence and Clinical Features of Non-responsive Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease to Practical Proton Pump Inhibitor Dose in Korea: A Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hong Jun; Park, Soo Heon; Shim, Ki Nam; Kim, Yong Sung; Kim, Hyun Jin; Han, Jae Pil; Kim, Yong Sik; Bang, Byoung Wook; Kim, Gwang Ha; Baik, Gwang Ho; Kim, Hyung Hun; Park, Seon Young; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-07-25

    In Korea, there are no available multicenter data concerning the prevalence of or diagnostic approaches for non-responsive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) which does not respond to practical dose of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in Korea. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and the symptom pattern of non-responsive GERD. A total of 12 hospitals who were members of a Korean GERD research group joined this study. We used the composite score (CS) as a reflux symptom scale which is a standardized questionnaire based on the frequency and severity of typical symptoms of GERD. We defined "non-responsive GERD" as follows: a subject with the erosive reflux disease (ERD) whose CS was not decreased by at least 50% after standard-dose PPIs for 8 weeks or a subject with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) whose CS was not decreased by at least 50% after half-dose PPIs for 4 weeks. A total of 234 subjects were analyzed. Among them, 87 and 147 were confirmed to have ERD and NERD, respectively. The prevalence of non-responsive GERD was 26.9% (63/234). The rates of non-responsive GERD were not different between the ERD and NERD groups (25.3% vs. 27.9%, respectively, p=0.664). There were no differences between the non-responsive GERD and responsive GERD groups for sex (p=0.659), age (p=0.134), or BMI (p=0.209). However, the initial CS for epigastric pain and fullness were higher in the non-responsive GERD group (p=0.044, p=0.014, respectively). In conclusion, this multicenter Korean study showed that the rate of non-responsive GERD was substantially high up to 26%. In addition, the patients with the non-responsive GERD frequently showed dyspeptic symptoms such as epigastric pain and fullness.

  11. Prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and pathological features of duodenitis in children

    PubMed Central

    Alper, Arik; Hardee, Steven; Rojas-velasquez, Danilo; Escalera, Sandra; Morotti, Raffaella A; Pashankar, Dinesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While gastritis and esophagitis are well studied in children, there is very limited literature on duodenitis in children. We aimed to assess the prevalence, etiology, clinical, endoscopic, and pathological features in a large cohort of unselected children with duodenitis. Methods We reviewed the pathology reports of all upper endoscopies performed at our institution over 5 years to identify children with duodenitis. Biopsy sections were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of duodenitis. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic data and presence of associated gastritis and esophagitis were noted in all children with duodenitis. Etiology of duodenitis was correlated with the patient's clinical diagnosis. Results Out of 2772 children who had endoscopy, 352 had duodenitis with the prevalence rate of 12.7%. Gastritis was seen in 64% of children with duodenitis compared with 46% of children without duodenitis (P < 0.001). Common indications for endoscopy in children with duodenitis were abdominal pain, positive celiac serology and diarrhea. The most common etiology was celiac disease (32%), followed by Crohn's disease (13%), ulcerative colitis (3%), and Helicobacter pylori infection (6%). In 63% of cases, endoscopic appearance of duodenum was normal. Cryptitis, villous changes and cellular infiltration were noted on histology. Conclusions Prevalence of duodenitis is 12.7% in children undergoing endoscopy. Celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease are common causes of duodenitis. Associated gastritis is common in children with duodenitis and correlation of endoscopic appearance with histology is poor. PMID:26252915

  12. [Prevalence of allergic diseases in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    López Pérez, Gerardo; Morfín Maciel, Blanca María; Huerta López, José; Mejía Covarrubias, Francisco; López López, Jorge; Aguilar, Gustavo; Rivera Pérez, José Luis; López Medina, Leobardo; Vargas, Florencia

    2009-01-01

    There is a considerable variation in the prevalence of allergic disorders in developing countries. These differences may be attributable to different methodological problems and to the lack of operational definitions. Several studies suggest that the prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing worldwide in recent years. However, in Mexico, there is no data in open population. To know in open population the prevalence of allergic diseases in the counties of Mexico City, the frequence of symptoms in each allergic disease, the therapeutic modalities that patients seek, the school and work annual absences and the amount of money that each patient spends in antiallergic drugs. It was an open-population, cross-sectional trial, in two phases with a random sample size of 8,000 individuals from 214 public health centers. Statistical analysis was made with Excel 97-2004: Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables and chi-square-test for discrete variables, p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of allergic diseases in Mexico City was 42.6%, allergic rhinitis was the most frequent. Children are the largest age group affected. The highest prevalence was found in Tlahuac county. Coexistence of allergic diseases was found in 19.9%. The 44.2% of allergic patients attended to their general practitioner. 20.4% of all patients spent 10-20% of their income in medicines and 26% do not have money to buy antiallergic drugs. School and work annual absences are 3.37 +/- 3.86 and 6.2 +/- 12.84 days, respectively. Allergic diseases must be considered a public-health problem in Mexico City.

  13. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) genotyping analyses reveal a low prevalence of KoRV-A in Victorian koalas and an association with clinical disease.

    PubMed

    Legione, Alistair Raymond; Patterson, Jade L S; Whiteley, Pam; Firestone, Simon M; Curnick, Megan; Bodley, Kate; Lynch, Michael; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2016-12-28

    Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is currently undergoing endogenisation into the genome of koalas in Australia, providing an opportunity to assess the effect of retrovirus infection on the health of a population. The prevalence of KoRV in north eastern Australia (Queensland and New South Wales) is 100%, whereas previous preliminary investigations in south eastern Australia (Victoria) suggested KoRV is present at a lower prevalence, although the values have varied widely. Here we describe a large study of free ranging koalas in Victoria to estimate the prevalence of KoRV and assess the clinical significance of KoRV infection in wild koalas. Blood or spleen samples from 648 koalas where tested for KoRV provirus using PCRs to detect pol and env genes. The prevalence of KoRV in these Victorian koalas was 24.7% (160/648) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.3, 28.1%). KoRV-A was detected in 141/160 cases but KoRV-B, a genotype associated with neoplasia in captive koalas, was not detected. Detection may have been precluded by genomic differences between KoRV in Victoria and type strains. Factors associated with KoRV infection, based on multivariable analysis, were low body condition score, region sampled, and 'wet bottom'(a staining of the fur around the rump associated with chronic urinary incontinence). Koalas with wet bottom were nearly twice as likely to have KoRV provirus detected than those without wet bottom (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% CI 1.21, 2.98). Our findings have important implications for the conservation of this iconic species, particularly in regards to translocation potential.

  14. Prevalence of Lyme disease infection in Oklahoma.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, C. H.; Botchlet, R.; Silberg, S. L.; Flournoy, D. J.; Guthrie, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    Even though Lyme disease probably existed in Oklahoma prior to 1975 when the disease was first reported in Connecticut and even though ecological conditions favor a high prevalence, an unexpectedly low rate was evidenced in both a serological survey and the number of cases reported to the Oklahoma State Department of Health. Lyme disease does not appear to pose a significant public health threat in Oklahoma at the present time; however, the the presence of all the necessary factors for transmission and the rapidly increasing number of cases reported in nearby areas merits continued surveillance in this state. The need for consistent case definition is discussed. PMID:1404480

  15. INCREASING PREVALENCE OF ADDISON DISEASE: RESULTS FROM A NATIONWIDE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Olafsson, Andri Snaer; Sigurjonsdottir, Helga Agusta

    2016-01-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is a life-threatening endocrine disease unless properly treated. However, few studies on the prevalence, concomitances of the disease, and prescribing of drugs have been published. The goal of the study was to establish the prevalence of primary adrenal insufficiency in Iceland and additionally, to study the most common concomitant diseases in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency, as well as the mode of glucocorticoid replacement therapies. To achieve this, the medical records of all patients in Iceland who had received the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, diagnosis code E27, were evaluated for true primary adrenal insufficiency. Additionally, these records were evaluated for concomitant diseases, as well as the mode of glucocorticoid replacement therapy. The study covered the whole population of Iceland over 18 years of age. It was thus a nationwide study. The records were retrieved from large hospitals and clinics and every practicing specialist in endocrinology. Primary adrenal insufficiency was found in 53 individuals, 26 women and 27 men, yielding a prevalence of 22.1 per 100,000 population. Hypothyroidism was by far the most common concomitant disease. Most patients had their glucocorticoid deficiency replaced with short-acting glucocorticoids. The prevalence of primary adrenal insufficiency in Iceland is higher than in earlier reports, with comorbidities being in line with recent studies. Treatment is according to the latest protocols.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    Salinas, G; Velásquez, C; Saavedra, L; Ramírez, E; Angulo, H; Tamayo, J C; Orellana, A; Huivin, Z; Valdivia, C; Rodríguez, W

    2004-10-01

    Gallstone disease is a main public health problem. The overall prevalence data range from 3.9% in the pre-echographic era to 13.7% when ultrasonography was used as a diagnostic tool. This study is aimed to determine the prevalence of gallstone disease in a medium income level population in Lima, as well as the relationship with some risk factors: age, sex, familiar history and obesity. A total of 534 adult men and women from a medium economic level underwent ultrasonographic examination of abdomen for detection of gallstone disease (July 2003). The echographic evaluation was performed by 10 general surgeons trained in ultrasonography. Likewise, 4 risk factors--age, gender, familial history, and obesity--were analyzed. Pearson chi2 test (2-sided) was used with a probability of <0.05 for statistical significance and logistic regression analyses for assessment of confounding factors. The prevalence founded was 15%. Eighty-one of 534 participants had lithiasis. Compared to the age group under 30, the odds ratio for the 31 to 50 years and >50 years of age group was 0.9 and 1.1, respectively. The female-male ratio was 1.07 and the odds ratio 0.8. The prevalence of gallstone disease in people reporting a first-degree relative with lithiasis was 21%, whereas in participants without such a condition, it was 13%. On the other hand, a familial history was present in 38% of the lithiasis group and in 25% of the nonlithiasis group. The odds ratio for familial history was 1.8 (P = 0.01, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.9). The prevalence of the disease for body mass index <24, 25 to 29, and higher than 30 was 17%, 14% and 13%, respectively. Compared to the reference group (body mass index <24), the other 2 groups (body mass index 25-29 and >30) both had a similar odds ratio, 0.8. Logistic regression analyses showed an odds ratio of 1.9 for familiar history (95% confidence interval 1.1-3.2), whereas the odds ratio of the overweight (body mass index 25-29) and obese group (body mass

  17. Prevalence of celiac disease in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is a common systemic disease related to a permanent intolerance to gluten and is often associated with different autoimmune and neurological diseases. Its mean prevalence in the general population is 1-2% worldwide. Our aim was to study the prevalence of celiac disease in a prospective series of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients and their first-degree relatives. Methods We analyzed the prevalence of serological, histological and genetic CD markers in a series of 72 MS patients and in their 126 first-degree relatives, compared to 123 healthy controls. Results Tissue IgA-anti-transglutaminase-2 antibodies were positive in 7 MS patients (10%), compared to 3 healthy controls (2.4%) (p < 0.05). OR: 5.33 (CI-95%: 1.074-26.425). No differences were found in HLA-DQ2 markers between MS patients (29%) and controls (26%) (NS). We detected mild or moderate villous atrophy (Marsh III type) in duodenal biopsies, in 8 MS patients (11.1%). We also found a high proportion of CD among first-degree relatives: 23/126 (32%). Several associated diseases were detected, mainly dermatitis 41 (57%) and iron deficiency anemia in 28 (39%) MS patients. We also found in them, an increased frequency of circulating auto-antibodies such as anti-TPO in 19 (26%), ANA in 11 (15%) and AMA in 2 (3%). Conclusions We have found an increased prevalence of CD in 8 of the 72 MS patients (11.1%) and also in their first-degree relatives (23/126 [32%]). Therefore, increased efforts aimed at the early detection and dietary treatment of CD, among antibody-positive MS patients, are advisable. PMID:21385364

  18. Clinical manifestation of mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Magner, Martin; Kolářová, Hana; Honzik, Tomáš; Švandová, Ivana; Zeman, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MD) represent a clinically, biochemically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases associated with dysfunction of the oxidative phosphorylation system and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Our aim was to illustrate the most common clinical presentation of MD on the example of selected diseases and syndromes. The minimal prevalence of MD is estimated as 1 to 5,000. MD may manifest at any age since birth until late-adulthood with acute manifestation or as a chronic progressive disease. Virtually any organ may be impaired, but the organs with the highest energetic demands are most frequently involved, including brain, muscle, heart and liver. Some MD may manifest as a characteristic cluster of clinical features (e.g. MELAS syndrome, Kearns-Sayre syndrome). Diagnostics includes detailed history, the comprehensive clinical examination, results of specialized examinations (especially cardiology, visual fundus examination, brain imaging, EMG), laboratory testing of body fluids (lactate, aminoacids, organic acids), and analysis of bioptic samples of muscle, skin, and liver, eventually. Normal lactate level in blood does not exclude the possibility of MD. Although the aimed molecular genetic analyses may be indicated in some of mitochondrial diseases, the methods of next generation sequencing come into focus. Examples of treatment are arginine supplementation in MELAS syndrome, ketogenic diet in pyruvate oxidation disorders or quinone analogs in patients with LHON. Conclusion: The clinical suspicion of a mitochondrial disorder is often delayed, or the disease remains undiagnosed. The correct diagnosis and adequate treatment can improve prognosis of the patient. Access to genetic counseling is also of great importance.

  19. Gorham's disease: clinical case.

    PubMed

    Sá, Pedro; Marques, Pedro; Oliveira, Carolina; Rodrigues, André Sá; Amorim, Nelson; Pinto, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Gorham's disease, also known as idiopathic massive osteolysis, is a rare pathological condition characterized by vascular proliferation that results in destruction and reabsorption of the bone matrix, of unknown etiology. It was first described by Jackson in 1838, but it was Gorham and Stout, in 1955, who defined this disease as a specific entity. It has variable clinical presentation and generally has progressive behavior. Controversy continues regarding the treatment and there is no standard treatment. This pathological condition generally presents a favorable prognosis. Here, a case of Gorham's disease with involvement of the left hip is presented, in a male patient without relevant antecedents.

  20. Sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review of prevalence.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Elisabete Rodrigues; Maia, Ana Claudia Ornelas; Pereira, Valeska; Soares-Filho, Gastão; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. An article search of the ISI Web of Science and PubMed databases using the search terms "sexual dysfunction", "cardiovascular diseases", "coronary artery disease", "myocardial infarct" and "prevalence" was performed. In total, 893 references were found. Non-English-language and repeated references were excluded. After an abstract analysis, 91 references were included for full-text reading, and 24 articles that evaluated sexual function using validated instruments were selected for this review. This research was conducted in October 2012, and no time restrictions were placed on any of the database searches. Reviews and theoretical articles were excluded; only clinical trials and epidemiological studies were selected for this review. The studies were mostly cross-sectional, observational and case-control in nature; other studies used prospective cohort or randomized clinical designs. In women, all domains of sexual function (desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual dissatisfaction and pain) were affected. The domains prevalent in men included erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and orgasm. Sexual dysfunction was related to the severity of cardiovascular disease. When they resumed sexual activity, patients with heart disease reported significant difficulty, including a lack of interest in sex, sexual dissatisfaction and a decrease in the frequency of sexual activity.

  1. [Diabetes and autoimmune diseases: prevalence of celiac disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Mont-Serrat, Camila; Hoineff, Claudio; Meirelles, Ricardo M R; Kupfer, Rosane

    2008-12-01

    Determine the prevalence of celiac disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) in attendance in Instituto Estadual de Diabetes e Endocrinologia Luiz Capriglione (IEDE). Blood samples were analyzed in 120 children and adolescents with DM1 from IEDE Diabetes Clinic for the IgA antitissue-transglutaminase antibody and dosage of the seric IgA. Those with positive serology were guided for upper endoscopy with small-bowel biopsy to confirm the celiac disease. The antibody was positive in 3 of the 120 patients. The small-bowel biopsy was confirmatory in all of the positive patients, leading to a prevalence of celiac disease of 2.5% in the studied group. The prevalence of celiac disease is increased in children and adolescents with DM1 when compared with normality. As most are asymptomatic, it is recommended periodical screening of celiac disease in children with DM1.

  2. Validation of the Dudley Inflammatory Bowel Symptom Questionnaire for the assessment of bowel symptoms in axial SpA: prevalence of clinically relevant bowel symptoms and association with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Stebbings, Simon; Jenks, Katey; Treharne, Gareth J; García, José A; Schultz, Michael; Highton, John; Dudley-Brown, Sharon

    2012-05-01

    To validate the Dudley Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (DISQ) for determining the presence and severity of bowel symptoms in axial SpA. Seventy-seven SpA patients were assessed for disease activity using the BASDAI. All participants, including 32 healthy controls and 29 patients with Crohn's Disease (CD), completed the DISQ and an assessment of stool form and frequency. Validation of the DISQ was undertaken in accordance with OMERACT criteria. Validity of the DISQ for measuring bowel symptoms in SpA was confirmed (Cronbach's α 0.79). Mean DISQ scores (s.d.) were: controls 2.6 (2.6), SpA 8.7 (6.1) and CD 17.1 (10.2). Differences were significant between controls and SpA, and SpA and CD, and correlated with disease activity (ρ 0.27, P = 0.02). In SpA, DISQ scores of those taking NSAIDs (n = 59) did not differ from those not taking NSAIDs (n = 18) (P = 0.31). Stool form and frequency differed significantly between SpA patients and healthy controls (P < 0.001). Using the DISQ the prevalence of clinically relevant bowel symptoms in SpA is 31%, and 7.8% experience bowel symptoms equivalent to active CD. The DISQ is a valid measure of bowel symptoms in SpA. Bowel symptoms are prevalent in SpA and correlate with disease activity. Symptoms do not relate to treatment with NSAIDs. We conclude that bowel symptoms should be included as a domain in the clinical assessment of patients with SpA and that the DISQ has potential as an outcome measure in clinical trials.

  3. Disease profile of children under 5 years attending primary health care clinics in a high HIV prevalence setting in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Christiane; Butler, Lisa M; Vermaak, Kerry; Rollins, Nigel; Haskins, Lyn; Nkosi, Phumla; Neilands, Torsten B; Qazi, Shamim

    2011-01-01

    To describe the presenting complaints and disease profile of children attending primary health care (PHC) clinics in two provinces of South Africa. Participants were sick children 2-59 months old presenting for care at PHC clinics in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and Limpopo provinces from 2006-2007. Children were assessed by an expert Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) practitioner. Children for whom parental/guardian consent was obtained were tested for HIV. A total of 1357 children attending one of 74 clinics were assessed. HIV seroprevalence overall was 7.1%, but was significantly higher in KZN than Limpopo (7.5 vs. 2.4%; OR = 3.3, 95%CI 1.9-5.8%). Commonest presenting complaints were cough (72%), skin conditions (22%) and diarrhoea (19%). Of 1349 children, 120 (8.9%) had a weight below the third percentile; 108/1357 (8.0%) children required urgent referral, most commonly for severe pneumonia (53.7%) and severe malnutrition (16.7%). In multivariate analyses, severe pneumonia, growth faltering and urgent referral were independently associated with younger age, residence in KZN and HIV infection (P < 0.05). Many children with severe illnesses and undiagnosed HIV infection present to PHC facilities. PHC staff require skills to correctly manage these conditions and undertake HIV testing. Although IMCI provides evidence-based guidelines, implementation must be improved to achieve adequate coverage of life-saving interventions. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Age-related prevalence of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and anticoagulation therapy use in a urolithiasis population and their effect on outcomes: the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Ureteroscopy Global Study.

    PubMed

    Daels, F Pedro J; Gaizauskas, Andrius; Rioja, Jorge; Varshney, Anil K; Erkan, Erkan; Ozgok, Yasar; Melekos, Michael; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of risk factors for urological stone surgery and their possible influence on outcome and complications following ureteroscopy (URS). The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Ureteroscopy Global Study collected prospective data on consecutive patients with urinary stones treated with URS at centers around the world for 1 year. The prevalence of common comorbidities and anticoagulation therapy and their relationship with complications and age were examined. Of 11,719 patients, 2,989 patients (25.8%) had cardiovascular disease, including 22.6% with hypertension, and 1,266 patients (10.9%) had diabetes mellitus. Approximately six percent of patients were receiving oral anticoagulation therapy, including aspirin (3.7%) and clopidogrel (0.8%). The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus and the proportion of patients receiving anticoagulant medication and/or antidiabetes treatment increased with age. Elderly were more likely to develop a postoperative complication when they had diabetes, a cardiovascular disease or received anticoagulation therapy. Post-operative bleeding was higher in patients receiving anticoagulants than those not receiving them (1.1 vs. 0.4%; p < 0.01). Patients with risk factors for stone formation had more complications than those without (4.9 vs. 3.0%, p < 0.001). This is the first study confirming in a global population that URS can effectively and safely be performed in a population with high comorbidity. The risk of a complication was highest among elderly patients presenting with comorbidities.

  5. The prevalence of clinically diagnosed ankylosing spondylitis and its clinical manifestations: a nationwide register study.

    PubMed

    Exarchou, Sofia; Lindström, Ulf; Askling, Johan; Eriksson, Jonas K; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena; Neovius, Martin; Turesson, Carl; Kristensen, Lars Erik; Jacobsson, Lennart T H

    2015-05-09

    Prevalence estimates of ankylosing spondylitis vary considerably, and there are few nationwide estimates. The present study aimed to describe the national prevalence of clinically diagnosed ankylosing spondylitis in Sweden, stratified according to age, sex, geographical, and socio-economic factors, and according to subgroups with ankylosing spondylitis-related clinical manifestations and pharmacological treatment. All individuals diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Disease codes, between 1967 and 2009, were identified from the National Patient Register. Data regarding disease manifestations, patient demographics, level of education, pharmacological treatment, and geographical region were retrieved from the National Patient Register and other national registers. A total of 11,030 cases with an ankylosing spondylitis diagnosis (alive, living in Sweden, and 16 to 64 years old in December 2009) were identified in the National Patient Register, giving a point prevalence of 0.18% in 2009. The prevalence was higher in northern Sweden, and lower in those with a higher level of education. Men had a higher prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis (0.23% versus 0.14%, P < 0.001), a higher frequency of anterior uveitis (25.5% versus 20.0%, P < 0.001) and were more likely to receive tumor necrosis factor inhibitors than women (15.6% versus 11.8% in 2009, P < 0.001). Women were more likely than men to have peripheral arthritis (21.7% versus 15.3%, P < 0.001), psoriasis (8.0% versus 6.9%, P = 0.03), and treatment with oral corticosteroids (14.0% versus 10.4% in 2009, P < 0.001). This nationwide, register-based study demonstrated a prevalence of clinically diagnosed ankylosing spondylitis of 0.18%. It revealed phenotypical and treatment differences between the sexes, as well as geographical and socio-economic differences in disease prevalence.

  6. Estimating disease prevalence using census data

    PubMed Central

    CHOY, M.; SWITZER, P.; De MARTEL, C.; PARSONNET, J.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY We describe a method of working on publicly available data to estimate disease prevalence in small geographic areas using Helicobacter pylori as a model infection. Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, risk parameters for H. pylori infection were obtained by logistic regression and validated by predicting 737·5 infections in an independent cohort with 736 observed infections. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in the San Francisco Bay Area was estimated with the probabilities obtained from a predictive logistic model, using risk parameters with individual-level 1990 U.S. Census data as input. Predicted H. pylori prevalence was also compared to gastric cancer incidence obtained from the Northern California Cancer Center and showed a positive correlation with gastric cancer incidence (P<0·001, R2=0·87), and no statistically significant association with other malignancies. By exclusively using publicly available data, these methods may be applied to selected conditions with strong demographic predictors. PMID:18047747

  7. The clinical features of papillary thyroid cancer in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients from an area with a high prevalence of Hashimoto’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to identify the clinicopathological factors of co-existing papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and provide information to aid in the diagnosis of such patients. Methods This study included 6109 patients treated in a university-based tertiary care cancer hospital over a 3-year period. All of the patients were categorised based on their final diagnosis. Several clinicopathological factors, such as age, gender, nodular size, invasive status, central compartment lymph node metastasis (CLNM) and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, were compared between the various groups of patients. Results There were 653 patients with a final diagnosis of HT. More PTC was found in those with HT (58.3%; 381 of 653) than those without HT (2416 of 5456; 44.3%; p < 0.05). The HT patients with co-occurring PTC were more likely to be younger, be female, have smaller nodules and have higher TSH levels than those without PTC. A multivariate analysis indicated that the presence of HT and higher TSH levels were risk factors for a diagnosis of PTC. In the PTC patients, the presence of HT or another benign nodule was a protective factor for CLNM, whereas no significant association was found for TSH levels. Conclusion PTC and HT have a close relationship in this region of highly prevalent HT disease. Based on the results of our study, we hypothesise that long-term HT leads to elevated serum TSH, which is the real risk factor for thyroid cancer. PMID:23256514

  8. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and the Framingham Risk Score in patients undergoing percutaneous intervention over the last 17 years by gender: time-trend analysis from the Mayo Clinic PCI Registry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moo-Sik; Flammer, Andreas J; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Hong, Jee-Young; Li, Jing; Lennon, Ryan J; Lerman, Amir

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to investigate trends of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profiles over 17 years in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients at the Mayo Clinic. We performed a time-trend analysis within the Mayo Clinic PCI Registry from 1994 to 2010. Results were the incidence and prevalence of CVD risk factors as estimate by the Framingham risk score. Between 1994 and 2010, 25 519 patients underwent a PCI. During the time assessed, the mean age at PCI became older, but the gender distribution did not change. A significant trend towards higher body mass index and more prevalent hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes was found over time. The prevalence of current smokers remained unchanged. The prevalence of ever-smokers decreased among males, but increased among females. However, overall CVD risk according to the Framingham risk score (FRS) and 10-year CVD risk significantly decreased. The use of most of medications elevated from 1994 to 2010, except for β-blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors decreased after 2007 and 2006 in both baseline and discharge, respectively. Most of the major risk factors improved and the FRS and 10-year CVD risk declined in this population of PCI patients. However, obesity, history of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, and medication use increased substantially. Improvements to blood pressure and lipid profile management because of medication use may have influenced the positive trends. This study aims to investigate trends of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profiles over 17 years in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients at the Mayo Clinic. We performed a time-trend analysis within the Mayo Clinic PCI Registry from 1994 to 2010. Results were the incidence and prevalence of CVD risk factors as estimate by the Framingham risk score. Between 1994 and 2010, 25 519 patients underwent a PCI. During the time assessed, the mean age at PCI became older, but the gender

  9. Prevalence and differentiation of diseases in Maryland backyard flocks.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jennifer M; Zimmermann, Nickolas G; Timmons, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2013-09-01

    Several epidemiologic surveillance studies have implicated backyard flocks as a reservoir for poultry diseases; however, much debate still exists over the risk these small flocks pose. To evaluate this concern, the prevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Salmonella was determined in 39 Maryland backyard flocks. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds throughout nine counties in Maryland. Through PCR and ELISA analysis, disease prevalence and seroprevalence were determined in flocks, respectively, for the following: ND (0%, 23%); ILT (26%, 77%); MG (3%, 13%); and Salmonella (0%, not done). Vaccine status could not be accurately confirmed. Premise positives were further differentiated and identified by partial nucleotide sequencing. Screening of the 10 ILT premise positives showed that most were live attenuated vaccines: eight matched a tissue culture origin vaccine, one matched a chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine, and one was CEO related. The single MG-positive flock, also positive for the CEO-related sequence, was identified as the infectious S6 strain. The prevalence rates for these economically important poultry diseases ranged from none to relatively low, with the vast majority of sampled flocks presenting no clinical signs.

  10. Huntington's disease: a clinical review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by unwanted choreatic movements, behavioral and psychiatric disturbances and dementia. Prevalence in the Caucasian population is estimated at 1/10,000-1/20,000. Mean age at onset of symptoms is 30-50 years. In some cases symptoms start before the age of 20 years with behavior disturbances and learning difficulties at school (Juvenile Huntington's disease; JHD). The classic sign is chorea that gradually spreads to all muscles. All psychomotor processes become severely retarded. Patients experience psychiatric symptoms and cognitive decline. HD is an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by an elongated CAG repeat (36 repeats or more) on the short arm of chromosome 4p16.3 in the Huntingtine gene. The longer the CAG repeat, the earlier the onset of disease. In cases of JHD the repeat often exceeds 55. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and signs in an individual with a parent with proven HD, and is confirmed by DNA determination. Pre-manifest diagnosis should only be performed by multidisciplinary teams in healthy at-risk adult individuals who want to know whether they carry the mutation or not. Differential diagnoses include other causes of chorea including general internal disorders or iatrogenic disorders. Phenocopies (clinically diagnosed cases of HD without the genetic mutation) are observed. Prenatal diagnosis is possible by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation diagnosis with in vitro fertilization is offered in several countries. There is no cure. Management should be multidisciplinary and is based on treating symptoms with a view to improving quality of life. Chorea is treated with dopamine receptor blocking or depleting agents. Medication and non-medical care for depression and aggressive behavior may be required. The progression of the disease leads to a complete dependency in daily life, which results in patients

  11. Huntington's disease: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Roos, Raymund A C

    2010-12-20

    Huntington disease (HD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by unwanted choreatic movements, behavioral and psychiatric disturbances and dementia. Prevalence in the Caucasian population is estimated at 1/10,000-1/20,000. Mean age at onset of symptoms is 30-50 years. In some cases symptoms start before the age of 20 years with behavior disturbances and learning difficulties at school (Juvenile Huntington's disease; JHD). The classic sign is chorea that gradually spreads to all muscles. All psychomotor processes become severely retarded. Patients experience psychiatric symptoms and cognitive decline. HD is an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by an elongated CAG repeat (36 repeats or more) on the short arm of chromosome 4p16.3 in the Huntingtine gene. The longer the CAG repeat, the earlier the onset of disease. In cases of JHD the repeat often exceeds 55. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and signs in an individual with a parent with proven HD, and is confirmed by DNA determination. Pre-manifest diagnosis should only be performed by multidisciplinary teams in healthy at-risk adult individuals who want to know whether they carry the mutation or not. Differential diagnoses include other causes of chorea including general internal disorders or iatrogenic disorders. Phenocopies (clinically diagnosed cases of HD without the genetic mutation) are observed. Prenatal diagnosis is possible by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation diagnosis with in vitro fertilization is offered in several countries. There is no cure. Management should be multidisciplinary and is based on treating symptoms with a view to improving quality of life. Chorea is treated with dopamine receptor blocking or depleting agents. Medication and non-medical care for depression and aggressive behavior may be required. The progression of the disease leads to a complete dependency in daily life, which results in patients

  12. Prevalence of Ischemic Heart Disease and Management of Coronary Risk in Daily Clinical Practice: Results from a Mediterranean Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Echeverría, Patricia; Domingo, Pere; Llibre, Josep-María; Gutierrez, Mar; Mateo, Gracia; Puig, Jordi; Bonjoch, Anna; Pérez-Alvarez, Nuria; Sirera, Guillem; Clotet, Bonaventura; Negredo, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Background. There are conflicting data on the prevalence of coronary events and the quality of the management of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in HIV-infected patients. Methods. We performed a retrospective descriptive study to determine the prevalence of coronary events and to evaluate the management of CVRF in a Mediterranean cohort of 3760 HIV-1-infected patients from April 1983 through June 2011. Results. We identified 81 patients with a history of a coronary event (prevalence 2.15%); 83% of them suffered an acute myocardial infarction. At the time of the coronary event, CVRF were highly prevalent (60.5% hypertension, 48% dyslipidemia, and 16% diabetes mellitus). Other CVRF, such as smoking, hypertension, lack of exercise, and body mass index, were not routinely assessed. After the coronary event, a significant decrease in total cholesterol (P = 0.025) and LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.004) was observed. However, the percentage of patients who maintained LDL-cholesterol > 100 mg/dL remained stable (from 46% to 41%, P = 0.103). Patients using protease inhibitors associated with a favorable lipid profile increased over time (P = 0.028). Conclusions. The prevalence of coronary events in our cohort is low. CVRF prevalence is high and their management is far from optimal. More aggressive interventions should be implemented to diminish cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. PMID:25170515

  13. Prevalence and clinical significance of rare antinuclear antibody patterns.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Pieter; Bossuyt, Xavier

    2013-08-01

    While some of the more frequent antinuclear (auto)antibodies (ANA) patterns such as homogenous nuclear staining have been extensively studied, the prevalence and clinical significance of rare antinuclear antibody patterns are not well understood. For the purpose of this review, we defined rare patterns as patterns occurring in less than 1% of patients that test positive on indirect immunofluorescence. The prevalence of different ANA patterns was determined in 68,128 consecutive patients who attended the outpatient clinic or were hospitalized at the University Hospitals Leuven over a 14-year period (1998-2011). To avoid bias, we only included the first sample for each patient and patients who tested positive in the period 1980-1997 were excluded. There were 9268 patients who tested positive for ANA. With the exception of the clinical association of anti-multiple nuclear dots (at higher titers) and anti-nuclear envelope autoantibodies with autoimmune liver disease, there was no good clinical association of rare ANA patterns with the diagnosis of auto-immune disorders. The most important non-autoimmune cause of rare ANA patterns was carcinoma, particularly in patients with rare cell-cycle related ANAs.

  14. Otomycosis: prevalence, clinical symptoms, therapeutic procedure.

    PubMed

    Kurnatowski, P; Filipiak, A

    2001-12-01

    Local lesions observed in otitis, create favourable conditions for the growth of fungi and development of mycoses both in the external and middle ear, as well as in post-operative cavities, especially in cases of open-type surgery. The objective of this study was: (1) to determine the prevalence of mycotic infections in inflammatory conditions of the ear; (2) to evaluate the relationship between the presence of fungi and clinical symptoms of inflammation; and (3) to construct a model of therapeutic procedure. The study concerned 345 individuals, including 295 patients (381 ears) who presented with symptoms of otitis. The mycological examinations revealed presence of fungi in 30.4% cases (116 ears). Positive culture results were obtained predominantly in patients with post-operative suppuration (52.8%). Otomycosis was more often associated with fungi of the genus Candida (3/5) than with fungi of the genus Aspergillus (2/5). The analysis of symptoms in otomycoses showed that in bacteria-induced otitis, pruritus, discharge, post-operative defective hearing and headaches are most common; the analysis of signs showed that reddened epidermis and lining of the tympanic cavity are statistically more frequent. The therapeutic protocol adopted in otomycoses yields good results: 89%--complete cure.

  15. [Prevalence of Lyme disease among forestry workers].

    PubMed

    Kocbach, Piotr Paweł; Kocbach, Bartłomiej Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the incidence of Lyme disease, established diagnosis based on medical history and clinical symptoms, serology, duration of exposure in the workplace and occupational disease certification among forestry workers in selected districts of the Warmia and Mazury region. The study consisted of annual screening of 332 employees in 6 forest districts under the supervision of the Health Center Medica in Ostróda. Serological tests were performed in all serum samples and IgG and IgM antibodies were determined by ELISA test. Positive results were confirmed by Western-blot test. Diagnosis was made based on medical history and clinical symptoms. Results were presented by the division of selected forest districts, gender, duration of exposure in the workplace and genospecies of spirochete Borrelia responsible for the disease development. Lyme disease incidence was found in all selected forest districts. Positive results in Western-blot test were determined in 120 people (63.1% of all the surveyed). However, after taking a detailed medical history of the patients Lyme disease was diagnosed in 91 people which makes 27.4% of all the examined. Among patients with diagnosed disease, IgG antibodies were found in 76 people, IgM in 25 people, while both IgM and IgG in 10 people. There was also variation in the involvement of genospecies generating the disease; spirochete B. afzeli--46% for IgG antibodies, whereas spirochete B. burgdorferi--50% of all cases for IgM antibodies. At the same time the relationship between the extended duration of occupational exposure to tick bites and the increased incidence of Lyme disease was confirmed, indicating the group of workers employed for at least 25 years. Forestry districts of the Warmia and Mazury region, creates extremely dangerous occupational conditions because of exposure to tick bites. At the same time the duration of employment significantly increases the risk of Lyme. The analysis of serological tests

  16. Clinical significance and prevalence of Blastocystis hominis in Van, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Beyhan, Yunus E.; Yilmaz, Hasan; Cengiz, Zeynep T.; Ekici, Abdurrahman

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the associated clinical symptoms and prevalence of Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis). Methods: Stool samples of 50,185 patients (26,784 males and 23,401 females) who were received at the Parasitology Laboratory of Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Van, Turkey in the last 5 years were inspected microscopically using saline and iodine-stained wet-mount preparations. Age, gender, and symptoms of patients were recorded and their significance was evaluated. Results: The prevalence of B. hominis in the total sample was 0.54% (275/50185). Out of 275 infected patients, 143 (52%) were males, and 132 (48%) were female (χ2=0.884; p=0.348). The distribution of B. hominis infection was high in 7-13 aged children (34.9%) (χ2=306.8; p=0.001). Blastocystis was higher among symptomatic patients (70.2%) compared with asymptomatic patients (29.8%) (χ2=107.13; p=0.001). The most frequent clinical symptoms associated with the disease were abdominal pain (27.3%) and diarrhea (19.6%) followed by anorexia, fever, saliva, anal itching, and nausea. Conclusion: Blastocystis hominis is considered a causative agent of human disease in patients with recurrent symptoms. Due to the significant risk for zoonotic transmission, molecular techniques must be used to determine the route and source of infection. PMID:26318472

  17. [Multivascular disease in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Despotović, Nebojsa; Zdravković, Mihajlo

    2002-01-01

    Multiple arterial disease is presented by coexistence of ischaemic heart disease, carotid disease and peripheral obliterate arterial disease. Atherosclerosis is the main factor for onset of the disease. Among 150 patients with clinical manifestations of obliterate disease of at least two aforementioned arterial systems, we examined by many noninvasive and invasive procedures the existence and degree of obliterate arterial disease of coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries of the lower extremities. The results revealed the statistically significant correlation among: ischaemic heart disease and carotid disease (r = 0.939; p < 0.01); ischaemic heart disease and peripheral arterial disease (r = 0.834; p < 0.05); ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease and carotid disease (r = 0.986; p < 0.01). The results pointed out that whenever clinical manifestations of obliterate disease of peripheral arteries are present, there is also need for routine examination of existent coronary artery disease.

  18. Prevalence and treatment pattern of Parkinson's disease dementia in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoon-Sang; Kim, Joong-Seok; Park, In-Seok; Shim, Yong-Soo; Song, In-Uk; Park, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Phil-Hyu; Lyoo, Chul-Hyung; Ahn, Tae-Beom; Ma, Hyo-Il; Kim, Yong-Duk; Koh, Seong-Beom; Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Kwang-Soo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the point prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A total of 1200 patients with PD from 12 hospitals were included in the study. All patients were grouped into normal cognition, MCI and dementia subgroups. General cognitive status and dementia severity were assessed by the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating and Global Deterioration Scale, and parkinsonian motor status was assessed by the Hoehn and Yahr staging score. Associated sleep behaviors and other medical conditions were checked. Prescribing patterns of antidementia medications were analyzed. Cognitive impairment was frequent in patients with PD; MCI was found in 38.9% of patients, whereas dementia was in 38.3% of patients. The prevalence of cognitive impairment increased with increasing age and longer disease duration, and the symptoms of postural instability and symptoms mimicking rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder were associated with cognitive impairment. Many dementia patients (95.2%) and 23.6% of MCI patients were treated with antidementia drugs, with rivastigmine the most frequently used. The point prevalence of cognitive impairment in patients with PD was 77.2%. Cognitive impairment was associated with age, disease duration and specific parkinsonian motor/non-motor symptoms. Over 90% of the patients with dementia were treated with antidementia medication, and rivastigmine was the most frequently used for the management of dementia. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Prevalence of medication overuse headache in an interdisciplinary pain clinic

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication overuse headache (MOH) has been recognized as an important problem in headache patients although the pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. The diagnosis of MOH is based on clinical characteristics defined by the International Headache Society. The aim was the evaluation of the diagnostic criteria of MOH in a mixed population of chronic pain patients to gain information about the prevalence and possible associations with MOH. Methods Data of all patients referred to the interdisciplinary pain clinic at the University Hospital of Zurich between September 2005 and December 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data (age, sex, history of migration), as well as data about duration of pain disease, category of pain disease (neurological, psychiatric, rheumatologic, other), use of medication, history of trauma, and comorbidity of depression and anxiety have been collected. Results Totally 178 of 187 consecutive chronic pain patients were included in the study. A total of 138 patients (78%) used analgesics on 15 or more days per month. Chronic headache was more prevalent among patients with analgesic overuse (39.8%) than without analgesic overuse (18%). The prevalence of MOH was 29%. The odds ratio (OR) for a patient with medication overuse to have chronic headache was 13.1 if he had a history of primary headache, compared to a patient without a primary headache syndrome. Furthermore, history of headache (OR 2.5, CI [1.13;5.44]), history of migration (OR 2.9, CI [1.31;6.32]) and comorbid depression (OR 3.5, CI [1.46;8.52]) were associated with overuse of acute medication, in general. Conclusions Primary headaches have a high risk for chronification in patients overusing analgesics for other pain disorders. Whereas history of headache, history of migration and comorbidity of depression are independentely associated with analgesic overuse in this group of patients. PMID:23565761

  20. Prevalence of oral allergy syndrome in children with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bedolla-Barajas, M; Kestler-Gramajo, A; Alcalá-Padilla, G; Morales-Romero, J

    The oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is a particular type of food allergy rarely explored in the paediatric population that is already considered an adult problem. Identify the prevalence of OAS, symptoms and pollen species associated with its presence in children affected by allergic diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Consecutive sampling included children from 6 to 14 years who needed allergy treatment for the first time. A structured questionnaire was carried out to collect demographic and clinical data and history of OAS. Besides sensitisation to various allergens, the skin prick-by-prick test was performed to corroborate sensitisation to food related to OAS. Prevalence of OAS and its association with pollens was established following the covariate adjusted logistic regression. 267 subjects were included. Overall prevalence of OAS was 8.9% (95%CI 6.1-13.1%). Prevalence of OAS for allergic rhinitis and asthma were 8.8% and 9.1%, respectively. In patients sensitised to pollen, the prevalence ranged from 9.6% to 12.2% depending on the type of pollen. 62.5% of children with OAS were sensitive to pineapple. After adjusting for gender and family history of atopic disease, trees from the Quercus species showed an association with OAS (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-6.2). OAS is not uncommon in our environment. Pineapple, a typical fruit from the region, was the main food related. Quercus sp., but not birch nor olive, was the pollen associated with this syndrome. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalences of skin diseases among primary schoolchildren in Damietta, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Khateeb, Ekramy A; Lotfi, Ranya A; Abd Elaziz, Khaled M; Abdel-Aziz, Khaled M; El-Shiekh, Suzan E

    2014-05-01

    Information on prevalences of pediatric dermatoses in Egypt is scanty. This study aimed to supplement existing data. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Damietta, Egypt between October 2011 and March 2012. It involved 6162 pupils randomly selected from 30 primary schools. The sample was equally divided (3081 pupils/15 schools) between urban and rural areas. Each participant was interviewed for age, gender, residence and complaint. Hygiene status was evaluated and a clinical examination was carried out for skin diseases. Data were coded and analyzed. Although most children revealed more than one dermatosis, the majority (76.2%) had not complained of disease. The most common disease group included benign neoplasms (87.0%), followed by pigmentary disorders (68.3%), infections (50.9%), adnexal disorders (14.1%), hypersensitivity diseases (14.0%), genodermatoses (0.3%) and papulosquamous diseases (0.2%). The most common subgroup of diseases comprised parasitic infections (47.5%), among which pediculosis prevailed (47.5%), followed by dermatitis (10.0%) in which pityriasis alba dominated (6.0%), followed by hair disorders (9.3%), bacterial infections (5.9%), urticaria (4.4%), sebaceous gland disorders (2.7%), sweat gland disorders (2.3%), viral infections (1.6%) and fungal infections (0.7%). The most commonly found diseases included, in descending order, acquired melanocytic nevus, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, pediculosis, leukoderma, café au lait spots, atrophic scar, cicatricial alopecia, hypertrophic scar, pityriasis alba, papular urticaria, xerosis and impetigo. The high prevalence of skin diseases, especially of trauma-related disorders and infections, may be mainly attributable to a lack of appropriate health awareness and care, which has created a tendency within the population to adapt without complaining or seeking medical help. Such circumstances, unfortunately, have resulted in a growing community of silent patients. © 2013 The International

  2. The prevalence of hearing impairment in the 6 months-5 years HIV/AIDS-positive patients attending paediatric infectious disease clinic at Mulago Hospital.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Ndoleriire; Edward, Turitwenka; Sabrina, Bakeera-Kitaaka; Agnes, Nyabigambo

    2013-02-01

    Hearing impairment is one form of disability in children living with HIV/AIDS. It greatly interferes with their language development, communication and performance. These are stressful to the children and their caretakers. With increasing availability of free anti-retroviral therapy, children with HIV/AIDS are living much longer. Therefore efforts must be made to reduce the disability resulting from hearing impairment among children living with HIV. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, types and severity of hearing loss in HIV positive pediatric patients between 6 months and 5 years of age attending PIDC, Mulago Hospital Uganda. This was a descriptive cross sectional study among 370 HIV/AIDS pediatric patients between 6 months and 5 years of age at PIDC Mulago. In this study, hearing impairment was defined as any auditory brainstem response (ABR) average threshold of over 25 dBnHL at frequencies of 500 Hz to 4000 Hz. This was done using a VIVOSONIC VIVOLINK ABR machine and a tympanogram was acquired from each ear. Systematic random sampling was carried out to reach individual participants. Proportions were used to estimate prevalence of hearing impairment in this age group. A total of 370 participants were recruited, with mean age of 38 months and median age of 36 months. The ratio of male to female was 1:1. The majority 172/370 (46.5%) of the participants were of WHO stage III. The prevalence of hearing loss in the 6 months to 5 years HIV/AIDS positive patients was found to be 121/370 (33.0%). The majority 77/121 (64.0%) of the participants had sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Of these with SNHL 44% had mild (26-40 dBHL) hearing loss. The prevalence of hearing among pediatric HIV/AIDS patients between the 6 months and 5 years was found to be high with sensorineural hearing loss being the most prevalent. Therefore HIV/AIDS paediatric patients should have routine screening for hearing impairment. A prospective cohort study should be

  3. College students' perceived disease risk versus actual prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B; Sosa, Erica T; J McKyer, E Lisako; Ory, Marcia G

    2012-01-01

    To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and overweight/obesity. Respondents estimated their risk of developing heart disease as lower than cancer, yet rated their risk of developing heart disease as higher than diabetes and being overweight/obese. Incongruence between college students' perceived disease risk and disease prevalence rates calls for improved public health education.

  4. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fuenmayor, Gabriela; Redondo, Ana Carolina Costa; Shiraishi, Karen Saori; Souza, Rogerio; Elias, Patrícia Figueiredo; Jatene, Ieda Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is one of the main risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases. Few data on the impacts of congenital heart diseases are available with regard to the prevalence of dyslipidemia in children. Our study evaluated the lipid profile in children with congenital heart disease at a referral center. From January 2011 to July 2012, 52 pediatric patients had their lipid, metabolic and clinical profiles traced. The mean age was 10.4 ± 2.8 years and male/female rate of 1.38:1. Our population had 53.8% patients with high levels of total cholesterol and 13.4% (CI 95 %, from 6.6 to 25.2%) of them also presenting LDL levels ≥ 130 mg/dL, which characterizes dyslipidemia. The group of dyslipidemic patients presented only two obese individuals. Our data show that the presence of congenital heart disease does not lead to higher risk associated with the prevalence of dyslipidemia. Therefore, the screening of this specific population should follow the regular pediatric guidelines, which are also independent of the nutritional status of the children tested. PMID:24061754

  5. Hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: prevalence, phenomenology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fénelon, G; Mahieux, F; Huon, R; Ziégler, M

    2000-04-01

    Hallucinations, mainly of a visual nature, are considered to affect about one-quarter of patients with Parkinson's disease. They are commonly viewed as a side-effect of antiparkinsonian treatment, but other factors may be involved. The aim of this study was to determine the phenomenology, prevalence and risk factors of hallucinations in Parkinson's disease. Two-hundred and sixteen consecutive patients fulfilling clinical criteria for Parkinson's disease were studied. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded, including motor and cognitive status, depressive symptoms and sleep-wake disturbances. Patients with and without hallucinations were compared using non-parametric tests, and logistic regression was applied to significant data. Hallucinations had been present during the previous 3 months in 39.8% of the patients, and fell into three categories: minor forms, consisting of a sensation of a presence (person), a sideways passage (commonly of an animal) or illusions were present in 25.5% of the patients (an isolated occurrence in 14.3%), formed visual hallucinations were present in 22.2% (isolated in 9.3%) and auditory hallucinations were present in 9.7% (isolated in 2.3%). Patients with minor hallucinations had a higher depression score than non-hallucinators but did not differ in other respects. Logistic regression analysis identified three factors independently predictive of formed visual hallucinations: severe cognitive disorders, daytime somnolence and a long duration of Parkinson's disease. These findings indicate that, when minor hallucinations are included, the total prevalence is much higher than previously reported. A simple side-effect of dopaminergic treatment is not sufficient to explain the occurrence of all visual hallucinations. The main risk factor in treated patients is cognitive impairment, although sleep-wake cycle disturbances, and possibly other factors related to the duration of the disease, act as cofactors.

  6. Poikilocytosis in Rabbits: Prevalence, Type, and Association with Disease

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Mary M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Burton, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes) have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs) were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 150/482 (31%) rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 127/482 (27%) of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7%) rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs) fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes) were found in 25/403 (6%) diseased and 0/79 (0%) healthy rabbits (P = 0.0240). Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (P<0.01). The % fragmented cells correlated with % polychromasia, RDW, and heterophil, monocyte, globulins, and fibrinogen concentrations (P<0.05). Echinocytosis was significantly associated with renal failure, azotemia, and acid-base/electrolyte abnormalities (P<0.05). Serum cholesterol concentration correlated significantly with % acanthocytes (P<0.0001), % echinocytes (P = 0.0069), and % fragmented cells (P = 0.0109), but correlations were weak (Spearman ρ <0.02). These findings provide important insights into underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that appear to affect the prevalence and type of naturally-occurring poikilocytosis in rabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research

  7. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  8. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  9. Prevalence of estimated GFR reporting among US clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Accetta, Nancy A; Gladstone, Elisa H; DiSogra, Charles; Wright, Elizabeth C; Briggs, Michael; Narva, Andrew S

    2008-10-01

    Routine laboratory reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) may help clinicians detect kidney disease. The current national prevalence of eGFR reporting in clinical laboratories is unknown; thus, the extent of the situation of laboratories not routinely reporting eGFR with serum creatinine results is not quantified. Observational analysis. National Kidney Disease Education Program survey of clinical laboratories conducted in 2006 to 2007 by mail, web, and telephone follow-up. A national random sample, 6,350 clinical laboratories, drawn from the Federal Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments database and stratified by 6 major laboratory types/groupings. Laboratory reports serum creatinine results. Reporting eGFR values with serum creatinine results. Percentage of laboratories reporting eGFR along with reporting serum creatinine values, reporting protocol, eGFR formula used, and style of reporting cutoff values. Of laboratories reporting serum creatinine values, 38.4% report eGFR (physician offices, 25.8%; hospitals, 43.6%; independents, 38.9%; community clinics, 47.2%; health fair/insurance/public health, 45.5%; and others, 43.2%). Physician office laboratories have a reporting prevalence lower than other laboratory types (P < 0.001). Of laboratories reporting eGFR, 66.7% do so routinely with all adult serum creatinine determinations; 71.6% use the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation; and 45.3% use the ">60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)" reporting convention. Independent laboratories are least likely to routinely report eGFR (50.6%; P < 0.05) and most likely to report only when specifically requested (45.4%; P < 0.05). High-volume laboratories across all strata are more likely to report eGFR (P < 0.001). Self-reporting by laboratories, federal database did not have names of laboratory directors/managers (intended respondents), assumed accuracy of federal database for sample purposes. Routine eGFR reporting with serum creatinine

  10. Variation of a test's sensitivity and specificity with disease prevalence.

    PubMed

    Leeflang, Mariska M G; Rutjes, Anne W S; Reitsma, Johannes B; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M M

    2013-08-06

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test may vary with disease prevalence. Our objective was to investigate the associations between disease prevalence and test sensitivity and specificity using studies of diagnostic accuracy. We used data from 23 meta-analyses, each of which included 10-39 studies (416 total). The median prevalence per review ranged from 1% to 77%. We evaluated the effects of prevalence on sensitivity and specificity using a bivariate random-effects model for each meta-analysis, with prevalence as a covariate. We estimated the overall effect of prevalence by pooling the effects using the inverse variance method. Within a given review, a change in prevalence from the lowest to highest value resulted in a corresponding change in sensitivity or specificity from 0 to 40 percentage points. This effect was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for either sensitivity or specificity in 8 meta-analyses (35%). Overall, specificity tended to be lower with higher disease prevalence; there was no such systematic effect for sensitivity. The sensitivity and specificity of a test often vary with disease prevalence; this effect is likely to be the result of mechanisms, such as patient spectrum, that affect prevalence, sensitivity and specificity. Because it may be difficult to identify such mechanisms, clinicians should use prevalence as a guide when selecting studies that most closely match their situation.

  11. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  12. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  13. Prevalence of autoimmune disease in moyamoya disease patients in Western Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Bin; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Sun, Hong; He, Min; You, Chao

    2015-04-15

    The pathogenesis of moyamoya remains to be elucidated and an immunologic basis has been suggested. For gaining further insight into the pathogenesis of moyamoya, we explored the epidemiological characteristics of autoimmune disease in moyamoya disease (MMD) in Western Chinese population. Retrospective clinical characteristic analysis of patients with angiographically confirmed MMD was performed and compared with the general Chinese population. A significantly higher prevalence of autoimmune disease was observed, particularly type 1 diabetes mellitus (P<0.001, 7.0% vs 1.2%, χ(2) test) and Graves disease (P<0.001, 7.0% vs 0.34%, χ(2) test) in the general Chinese population. The overall prevalence of autoimmune disease in MMD was up to 31.0% (44/142). This study suggested higher overall prevalence of autoimmune disease in MMD in Western China when compared with the general Chinese population. The findings further supported that autoimmune abnormality might associate with MMD and autoimmune component to pathogenesis of moyamoya vasculopathy.

  14. Disease prevalence in the English population: a comparison of primary care registers and prevalence models.

    PubMed

    Martin, David; Wright, James A

    2009-01-01

    The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) is a UK system for monitoring general practitioner (GP) activity and performance, introduced in 2004. The objective of this paper is to explore the potential of QOF datasets as a basis for better understanding geographical variations in disease prevalence in England. In an ecological study, prevalence estimates for four common disease domains (coronary heart disease (CHD), asthma, hypertension and diabetes) were derived from the 2004-2005 QOF primary care disease registers for 354 English Local Authority Districts (LADs). These were compared with synthetic estimates from four prevalence models and with self-reported measures of general health from the 2001 census. Prevalence models were recalculated for LADs using demographic and deprivation data from the census. Results were mapped spatially and cross-tabulated against a national classification of local authorities. The four disease domains display different spatial distributions and different spatial relationships with the corresponding prevalence model. For example, the prevalence model for CHD under-estimated QOF cases in northern England, but this north-south pattern was not evident for the other disease domains. The census-derived health measures were strongly correlated with CHD, but not with the other disease domains. The relationship between modelled prevalence and QOF disease registers differs by disease domain, implying that there is no simple cross-domain effect of the QOF process on prevalence figures. Given reliable synthetic estimates of small area prevalence for the QOF disease domains, one potential application of the QOF dataset may be in assessing the geographical extent of under-diagnosis for each domain.

  15. The prevalence of disease clusters in older adults with multiple chronic diseases--a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Sinnige, Judith; Braspenning, Jozé; Schellevis, François; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Westert, Gert; Korevaar, Joke

    2013-01-01

    Since most clinical guidelines address single diseases, treatment of patients with multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of multiple (chronic) diseases within one person, can become complicated. Information on highly prevalent combinations of diseases can set the agenda for guideline development on multimorbidity. With this systematic review we aim to describe the prevalence of disease combinations (i.e. disease clusters) in older patients with multimorbidity, as assessed in available studies. In addition, we intend to acquire information that can be supportive in the process of multimorbidity guideline development. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library for all types of studies published between January 2000 and September 2012. We included empirical studies focused on multimorbidity or comorbidity that reported prevalence rates of combinations of two or more diseases. Our search yielded 3070 potentially eligible articles, of which 19 articles, representing 23 observational studies, turned out to meet all our quality and inclusion criteria after full text review. These studies provided prevalence rates of 165 combinations of two diseases (i.e. disease pairs). Twenty disease pairs, concerning 12 different diseases, were described in at least 3 studies. Depression was found to be the disease that was most commonly clustered, and was paired with 8 different diseases, in the available studies. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were found to be the second most clustered diseases, both with 6 different diseases. Prevalence rates for each disease combination varied considerably per study, but were highest for the pairs that included hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus. Twenty disease pairs were assessed most frequently in patients with multimorbidity. These disease combinations could serve as a first priority setting towards the development of multimorbidity guidelines, starting with the diseases with the highest observed prevalence

  16. Prevalence and severity of hypertension in a dental hygiene clinic.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ana Luz; Collins, Marie A; Downey, Mary Cannon; Herman, Wayne W; Konzelman, Joseph Louis; Ward, Sue Tucker; Hughes, Cynthia T

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of hypertension in a dental hygiene clinic and evaluate factors related to the disease. Records of 615 patients, treated by dental hygiene students during 2003, were reviewed. Data collected included systolic and diastolic blood pressure, presence of diabetes and renal disease, non-modifiers (race, gender, and age), and modifiers (marital status, smoking habits, and occupation). According to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7) classification, 154 (25%) of the subjects had normal blood pressure readings, 374 (60.8%) had prehypertension, and 87 (14.1%) had stage 1 hypertension. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the JNC7 classification between groups when considering the non-modifiers' race (p=.02) and the modifiers' smoking habits (p=.03) and occupation (p=.01). A statistically significant difference in the JNC7 classification existed between groups with diabetes (p=.00). The majority of patients had blood pressure readings in the prehypertension stage. Based on these results, the researchers recommend clinical policy modifications which include: additional documentation for blood pressure readings in the prehypertension stage, lowering the systolic reading from 160 mmHg to 140 mmHg when adding hypertension alert labels, and noting prehypertension/hypertension on the dental hygiene care plan with the appropriate interventions.

  17. [Prevalence for clinically proved carpal tunnel syndrome is 4 percent].

    PubMed

    Atroshi, I; Gummesson, C; Johnsson, R; Ornstein, E; Ranstam, J; Rosén, I

    2000-04-05

    This article summarizes the results of a large-scale population-based study conducted to determine the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in the Swedish general population. The study utilized a health questionnaires as well as clinical and electrophysiological examinations. Population prevalence rates of carpal tunnel syndrome, based on clinical diagnosis and electrophysiological criteria, were calculated. Obesity and specific work-related hand activities were shown to be risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome.

  18. Prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection and associated factors among non-commercial men who have sex with men attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wenjie; Luo, Zhenzhou; Xu, Ruiwei; Zhao, Guanglu; Tu, Dan; Yang, Lin; Wang, Feng; Cai, Yumao; Lan, Lina; Hong, Fuchang; Yang, Tubao; Feng, Tiejian

    2017-01-18

    Although HIV and syphilis co-infection has been frequently observed in men who have sex with men (MSM), only few studies have focused on it. Different subgroups of MSM might exhibit heterogeneous HIV and syphilis risk profiles, indicating that interventions for HIV and HIV-related co-infections may vary with different subgroups of MSM. However, no previous study has investigated HIV and syphilis co-infection among non-commercial MSM (ncMSM) attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection and associated factors among ncMSM attending an STD clinic in Shenzhen, China. NcMSM attending the STD clinic of Shenzhen Center for Chronic Disease Control were recruited in this cross-sectional study every Monday between March 2013 and August 2015 using a site based convenience sampling method. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data regarding socio-demographic characteristics, risky sexual behaviors and HIV-related knowledge. Blood samples were collected to perform HIV and syphilis tests. Totally 533 participants were enrolled in this study and the prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection among them was 13.13%. Multivariable analyses indicated that having lived in Shenzhen for less than one year (aOR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.30-6.05), having first anal sexual intercourse before the age of 18 (aOR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.29-5.89), having 3 to 5 anal sexual partners in the past six months (aOR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.19-5.40), playing exclusively receptive (aOR = 6.87, 95% CI = 3.02-15.61) or both insertive and receptive (aOR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.64-8.09) roles in anal sexual intercourse and not always using condom in anal sexual intercourse (aOR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.08-4.19) were associated risk factors for HIV and syphilis co-infection, relative to the non-infected ncMSM. Compared with the mono-infected ncMSM, associated risk factors for the co

  19. Nonfamilial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Prevalence, Natural History, and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Jodie; Burns, Charlotte; Bagnall, Richard D; Lam, Lien; Yeates, Laura; Sarina, Tanya; Puranik, Rajesh; Briffa, Tom; Atherton, John J; Driscoll, Tim; Semsarian, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Yield of causative variants in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is increased in some probands, suggesting different clinical subgroups of disease occur. We hypothesized that a negative family history and no sarcomere mutations represent a nonfamilial subgroup of HCM. We sought to determine the prevalence, natural history, and potential clinical implications of this nonfamilial subgroup of HCM. Four hundred and thirteen unrelated probands with HCM seen in a specialized HCM center between 2002 and 2015 and genetic testing performed were included in this retrospective cohort study. There were 251 (61%) probands with no reported family history of HCM, including 166 (40% of total) probands with no sarcomere mutation, that is, nonfamilial HCM. Quantified family pedigree data revealed no difference in mean number of first-degree relatives screened between nonfamilial and sarcomere-positive groups. Adjusted predictors of nonfamilial status were older age (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.06; P=0.0001), male sex (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-3.45; P=0.02), hypertension (odds ratio, 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-5.00; P=0.0005), and nonasymmetric septal morphology (odds ratio, 3.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.64-7.08; P=0.001). They had a less severe clinical course with greater event-free survival from major cardiac events (P=0.04) compared with sarcomere-positive HCM probands. Genotype prediction scores showed good performance in identifying genotype-positive patients (area under the curve, 0.71-0.75) and, in combination with pedigree characteristics, were further improved. Approximately 40% of HCM probands have a nonfamilial subtype, with later onset and less severe clinical course. We propose a revised clinical pathway for management, highlighting the role of genetic testing, a detailed pedigree, and refined clinical surveillance recommendations for family members. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in clinically healthy German sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current epidemiological data on the situation of Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in sheep are missing, making risk assessment and the implementation of counteractive measures difficult. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the estimated sero-, and antigen prevalence of C. burnetii (10% and 25%, respectively) was assessed at flock level in 39/252 randomly selected clinically healthy sheep flocks with more than 100 ewes and unknown abortion rate. Results The CHECKIT™ Q-fever Test Kit identified 11 (28%) antibody positive herds, whereas real-time PCR revealed the presence of C. burnetii DNA in 2 (5%) of the flocks. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis of 9 isolates obtained from one flock revealed identical profiles. All isolates contained the plasmid QpH1. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. burnetii is present in clinically inconspicuous sheep flocks and sporadic flare-ups do occur as the notifications to the German animal disease reporting system show. Although C. burnetii infections are not a primary veterinary concern due to the lack of significant clinical impact on animal health (with the exception of goats), the eminent zoonotic risk for humans should not be underestimated. Therefore, strategies combining the interests of public and veterinary public health should include monitoring of flocks, the identification and culling of shedders as well as the administration of protective vaccines. PMID:22429653

  1. Clinical features of legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A

    1998-06-01

    Legionnaires' disease is a systemic infectious disease primarily involving the lungs, with multisystemic extrapulmonary manifestations. Any species of Legionella may cause legionnaires' disease in normal and compromised hosts. The clinical diagnosis of legionnaires' disease may be made on the basis of associated extrapulmonary clinical and laboratory findings. Although no single finding in legionnaires' disease is pathognomonic, the association of key extrapulmonary constitutes a typical pattern that is diagnostically characteristic. The syndromic approach based on a weighted point evaluation system described in the article gives physicians a system to arrive at a rapid presumptive clinical diagnosis of legionnaires' disease. Definitive diagnosis of legionnaires' disease is by direct fluorescent antibody testing of respiratory specimens, serological methods, Legionella urinary antigenuria, or culture.

  2. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the Americas.

    PubMed

    López-Velázquez, Jorge A; Silva-Vidal, Karen V; Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Arrese, Marco; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an alarming public health problem. The disease is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide and is directly linked to the increased prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the general population. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD has been estimated at 20-30%, but the prevalence is unknown in the Americas because of a lack of epidemiological studies. However, given the trends in the prevalence of diabetes and obesity, the prevalence of NAFLD and its consequences are expected to increase in the near future. The aim of the present study is to present the current data on the prevalence of NAFLD in the Americas. We performed an electronic search of the main databases from January 2000 to September 2013 and identified 356 reports that were reviewed. We focused on the epidemiology and prevalence of known NAFLD risk factors including obesity, T2DM, and the metabolic syndrome (MS). The prevalence of the MS was highest in the United States, Mexico, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Chile, and Venezuela. In addition, Puerto Rico, Guyana, and Mexico have the highest prevalence of T2DM in the Americas, while USA has the most people with T2DM. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of NAFLD and obesity were highest in the United States, Belize, Barbados, and Mexico.

  3. Increased prevalence of autoimmune disease in patients with unilateral compared with bilateral moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Bin; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Sun, Hong; He, Min; You, Chao

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT This study explored whether there were differences between the autoimmune disease prevalence rates in unilateral and bilateral moyamoya disease (MMD). METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of data obtained from the medical records of their hospital, analyzing and comparing the clinical characteristics and prevalence rates of all autoimmune diseases that were associated with unilateral and bilateral MMD in their hospital from January 1995 to October 2014. RESULTS Three hundred sixteen patients with bilateral MMD and 68 with unilateral MMD were identified. The results indicated that patients with unilateral MMD were more likely to be female than were patients with bilateral MMD (67.6% vs 51.3%, p = 0.014, odds ratio [OR] 1.99). Overall, non-autoimmune comorbidities tended to be more prevalent in the unilateral MMD cases than in the bilateral MMD cases (17.6% vs 9.8%, p = 0.063, OR 1.97, chi-square test). Autoimmune thyroid disease and other autoimmune diseases also tended to be more prevalent in the unilateral MMD cases than in the bilateral MMD cases (19.1% vs 10.8%, p = 0.056, OR 1.96 and 8.8% vs 3.5%, p = 0.092, OR 2.77, respectively, chi-square test). The overall autoimmune disease prevalence in the unilateral MMD cases was significantly higher than in the bilateral MMD cases (26.5% vs 13.6%, p = 0.008, OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.22-4.28, chi-square test). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that autoimmune disease was more likely to be associated with unilateral than with bilateral MMD (p = 0.039, OR 10.91, 95% CI 1.13-105.25). CONCLUSIONS This study indicated a higher overall autoimmune disease prevalence in unilateral than in bilateral MMD. Unilateral MMD may be more associated with autoimmune disease than bilateral MMD. Different pathogenetic mechanisms may underlie moyamoya vessel formation in unilateral and bilateral MMD.

  4. Influence of marine reserves on coral disease prevalence.

    PubMed

    Page, Cathie A; Baker, David M; Harvell, C Drew; Golbuu, Yimnang; Raymundo, Laurie; Neale, Stephen J; Rosell, Kathryn B; Rypien, Krystal L; Andras, Jason P; Willis, Bette L

    2009-11-16

    Predicted increases in disease with climate warming highlight the need for effective management strategies to mitigate disease effects in coral communities. We examined the role of marine protected areas (MPAs) in reducing disease in corals and the hypothesis that the composition of fish communities can influence coral health, by comparing disease prevalence between MPA and non-protected (control) reefs in Palau. Overall, the prevalence of diseases pooled, as well as the prevalence of skeletal eroding band (SEB), brown band disease (BrB) and growth anomalies (GAs) individually in major disease hosts (families Acroporidae and Poritidae), were not significantly reduced within MPAs. In fact, the prevalence of SEB was 2-fold higher within MPAs overall; however, the 4 studied MPAs were ineffective in enhancing coral assemblage or fish stock health. A negative association between the prevalence of SEB and richness of a fish species targeted by fishers in Palau highlights the potential role that well-managed MPAs could play in reducing SEB. The composition of coral communities and their susceptibility to bleaching also influenced the prevalence of disease on the studied reefs. The prevalence of diseases pooled and SEB were positively associated with the cover of major disease hosts (families Acroporidae and Poritidae), and the prevalence of BrB and bleaching were also positively associated. Although our study did not show positive effects of MPAs on coral heath, we did identify the potential for increased fish diversity within MPAs to reduce coral disease. Our study also highlights the complexity of relationships between fish assemblages, coral community composition and coral health on Indo-Pacific reefs.

  5. Prevalence of coeliac disease in Italian patients affected by Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Federico; Campanella, Jonia; Soriani, Alessandra; Vailati, Alberto; Corazza, Gino R

    2006-03-01

    It is well known that coeliac disease is associated with autoimmune endocrine diseases, such as autoimmune thyroid disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Recently, coeliac disease has been shown in approximately 10% of patients with autoimmune Addison's disease. Addison's disease is the most common cause of primary adrenocortical insufficiency and it shares several clinical features with coeliac disease. Although hyperpigmentation and hypotension are the most specific signs, gastrointestinal symptoms are common and can be the first complaints of the patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of coeliac disease in Italian patients with Addison's disease. Seventeen consecutive patients affected by Addison's disease (14 F, mean age 53.9 years, range 26-79 years) were enrolled in the study. Eleven of them were affected by Addison's disease associated with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; the other 6 patients were suffering from isolated Addison's disease. Diagnosis had been performed at the age of 40.5 years (range 23-55). Steroid treatment had already been started in 16 of the patients. Endomysial antibodies were tested in all of them and a duodenal biopsy was taken in those found to be positive for antiendomysial antibody (EMA). One out of 17 patients was found to be EMA positive. Duodenal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of coeliac disease by showing subtotal villous atrophy. Although we studied only a small sample, our preliminary results confirmed that Addison's disease is associated with coeliac disease, being present in 5.9% of patients with Addison's disease. Since the symptoms can be similar and treatment of Addison's disease can mask coeliac disease, this association should always be actively investigated.

  6. Prevalence and Severity of Voice and Swallowing Difficulties in Mitochondrial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Jennifer L.; Whittaker, Roger G.; Miller, Nick; Clark, Sue; Taylor, Robert; McFarland, Robert; Turnbull, Douglass

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Anecdotal evidence suggests that voice and swallow problems are a common feature of these diseases. Aims: To characterize accurately the prevalence and severity of voice and swallow problems in a large cohort of patients with mitochondrial disease.…

  7. Prevalence and Severity of Voice and Swallowing Difficulties in Mitochondrial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Jennifer L.; Whittaker, Roger G.; Miller, Nick; Clark, Sue; Taylor, Robert; McFarland, Robert; Turnbull, Douglass

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Anecdotal evidence suggests that voice and swallow problems are a common feature of these diseases. Aims: To characterize accurately the prevalence and severity of voice and swallow problems in a large cohort of patients with mitochondrial disease.…

  8. Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Pagadala, Mangesh R.; Zein, Claudia O.; Dasarathy, Srinivasan; Yerian, Lisa; Lopez, Rocio; McCullough, Arthur J.

    2014-01-01

    Background A possible association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hypothyroidism has been suggested. Possible explanations for this association are the recognized links between hypothyroidism and various elements of the metabolic syndrome which is often present in NAFLD. To further explore this association, we determined the prevalence of hypothyroidism in a cohort of patients with NAFLD and analyzed the potential factors associated with hypothyroidism in this patient population. Methods Two hundred and forty six patients with biopsy proven NAFLD attending hepatology clinics at the Cleveland Clinic between October 2006 to June 2009 and 430 age, gender, race and BMI matched control subjects seen in the general internal medicine clinic were included. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism who were on thyroid replacement therapy were considered to be hypothyroid. Results Hypothyroidism was more frequent among patients with NAFLD (21%vs 9.5%.; P<0.01) compared to controls and was higher in NASH patients than NAFLD patients without NASH (25% vs 12.8%, P=0.03). Subjects with hypothyroidism were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.9,P=0.02)) and 3.8 (95% CI:2,6.9, P<0.001) times more likely to have NAFLD and NASH respectively. By Multivariate analysis, female gender (P<0.001) and increased BMI (P=.03) were associated with hypothyroidism. NAFLD subjects who reported mild alcohol consumption were less likely to have hypothyroidism compared to those who reported complete abstinence (OR 0.37, P=0.008). Conclusions A higher prevalence of hypothyroidism was demonstrated in patients with NAFLD compared to controls. Patients with hypothyroidism were more likely to have NASH. Among subjects with NALFD, female gender, increased BMI and history of abstinence from alcohol were associated with hypothyroidism. Further studies are needed in order to confirm and better characterized these findings as well as the described associations and their pathogenesis. PMID

  9. Hydroxychloroquine-induced hyperpigmentation in systemic diseases: prevalence, clinical features and risk factors: a cross-sectional study of 41 cases.

    PubMed

    Bahloul, E; Jallouli, M; Garbaa, S; Marzouk, S; Masmoudi, A; Turki, H; Bahloul, Z

    2017-10-01

    Introduction Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial agent widely prescribed in internal medicine, rheumatology and dermatology. Its use can be complicated by various side effects including skin pigmentation. Objectives The aim of the study is to review epidemiological, clinical features and risk factors of hydroxychloroquine-induced pigmentation. Materials and methods We performed a cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 5 months. During this period, patients who had been treated with hydroxychloroquine for over 6 months, in the internal medicine department, underwent a complete dermatological examination. All patients completed a structured questionnaire to collect demographic data, dosage and treatment duration of hydroxychloroquine, other drug intake, hydroxychloroquine indication, and presence of pigmentary changes on the skin, nail, hair, and mucosa. Results A total of 41 patients (38 women and 3 men) were included in the study. The mean age was 39.2 ± 15.4 years. The hydroxychloroquine was indicated for systemic lupus erythematosus in 73.2%, dermatomyositis in 12.2%, rheumatoid arthritis in 9.8%, actinic lichen and sarcoidosis each in 2.4%. Cutaneous pigmented lesions were found in 21 cases (51%), mucous pigmentation in 5 cases (12%) and nail pigmentation in 1 case (2.5%). In 12 of 41 (29%) of the hydroxychloroquine users, we conclude a hydroxychloroquine-induced pigmentation. There were 11 women and one man with a mean age of 43 years and all of them were systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Pigmented lesions were located on the lower limbs in seven cases, the face in two cases, lips in two cases and the gum in two cases. Pigmentation appeared after a median duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment of 32 months with a median cumulative dose of 361 g. Overall, two patients reported that the appearance of pigmented lesions was preceded by the occurrence of ecchymotic areas following microtrauma. Significant association was found between

  10. Cardiovascular Disease in Women: Clinical Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Mariana; Mulvagh, Sharon L.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey; Buring, Julie E.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of death among women in the United States, accounting for approximately one of every three female deaths. Sex-specific data focused on CVD has been increasing steadily, yet is not routinely collected nor translated into practice. This comprehensive review focuses on novel and unique aspects of cardiovascular health in women and sex-differences as they relate to clinical practice in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of CVD. This review also provides current approaches to the evaluation and treatment of acute coronary syndromes that are more prevalent in women, including: myocardial infarction associated with non-obstructive coronary arteries, spontaneous coronary artery dissection, and stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo Syndrome). Other CVD entities with higher prevalence or unique considerations in women, such as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, peripheral arterial disease and abdominal aortic aneurysms, are also briefly reviewed. Lastly, recommendations for cardiac rehabilitation are addressed. PMID:27081110

  11. Clinical neurogenetics: huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Bordelon, Yvette M

    2013-11-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, adult-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the triad of abnormal movements (typically chorea), cognitive impairment, and psychiatric problems. It is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the gene encoding the protein huntingtin on chromosome 4 and causes progressive atrophy of the striatum as well as cortical and other extrastriatal structures. Genetic testing has been available since 1993 to confirm diagnosis in affected adults and for presymptomatic testing in at-risk individuals. This review covers HD signs, symptoms, and pathophysiology; current genetic testing issues; and current and future treatment strategies.

  12. Prevalence of vitamin d insufficiency in patients with Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Evatt, Marian L; Delong, Mahlon R; Khazai, Natasha; Rosen, Ami; Triche, Shirley; Tangpricha, Vin

    2008-10-01

    A role for vitamin D deficiency in Parkinson disease (PD) has recently been proposed. To compare the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a research database cohort of patients with PD with the prevalence in age-matched healthy controls and patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Survey study and blinded comparison of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations of stored samples in a clinical research database at Emory University School of Medicine. Referral center (PD and AD patients), primary care clinics, and community setting (controls). Participants were recruited into the study between May 1992 and March 2007. Every fifth consecutively enrolled PD patient was selected from the clinical research database. Unrelated AD (n = 97) and control (n = 99) participants were randomly selected from the database after matching for age, sex, race, APOE genotype, and geographic location. Prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D and mean 25(OH)D concentrations. Significantly more patients with PD (55%) had insufficient vitamin D than did controls (36%) or patients with AD (41%; P = .02, chi(2)test). The mean (SD) 25(OH)D concentration in the PD cohort was significantly lower than in the AD and control cohorts (31.9 [13.6] ng/mL vs 34.8 [15.4] ng/mL and 37.0 [14.5] ng/mL, respectively; P = .03). This report of 25(OH)D concentrations in a predominantly white PD cohort demonstrates a significantly higher prevalence of hypovitaminosis in PD vs both healthy controls and patients with AD. These data support a possible role of vitamin D insufficiency in PD. Further studies are needed to determine the factors contributing to these differences and elucidate the potential role of vitamin D in pathogenesis and clinical course of PD.

  13. A global systematic review of Chagas disease prevalence among migrants.

    PubMed

    Conners, Erin E; Vinetz, Joseph M; Weeks, John R; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2016-04-01

    Human migration has been identified as a potential factor for increased Chagas disease risk and has transformed the disease from a Latin American problem to a global one. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature between 2004-2014 in order to: summarize recent seroprevalence estimates of Chagas disease among Latin American migrants, in both endemic and non-endemic settings; compare seroprevalence estimates in migrants to countrywide prevalence estimates; and identify risk factors for Chagas disease among migrants. A total of 320 studies were screened and 23 studies were included. We found evidence that the prevalence of Chagas disease is higher than expected in some migrant groups and that reliance on blood donor screening prevalence estimates underestimates the burden of disease. Overall there is a dearth of high quality epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of Chagas disease in migrants, especially among intra-regional migrants within Latin America. Given that this zoonotic disease cannot likely be eradicated, improved surveillance and reporting is vital to continuing control efforts. More accurate health surveillance of both Latin American migrants and the Chagas disease burden will help countries appropriately scale up their response to this chronic disease. Overall, improved estimates of Chagas disease among migrants would likely serve to highlight the real need for better screening, diagnostics, and treatment of individuals living with the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and Clinical Features of Focal Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ken; Kitahara, Hideki; Fujimoto, Yoshihide; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Ishibashi, Iwao; Himi, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2016-07-25

    Because it is difficult to distinguish between focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy and aborted myocardial infarction, there is little information about the prevalence and clinical features of focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Our cardiac catheterization databases were queried to identify patients with focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy and other types of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We defined focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy as hypo-, a- or dyskinesis in both anterolateral and septal segments without obstructive coronary artery disease explaining the wall motion abnormality. A total of 10 patients were diagnosed with focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The control group comprised patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy with apical, mid-ventricular, or basal ballooning. Clinical features and in-hospital outcomes were compared between patients with focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy and those with other types of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Among the 144 patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, the apical, mid-ventricular, basal, and focal types occurred in 85 (59.0%), 49 (34.0%), 0 (0%), and 10 patients (6.9%), respectively. The left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in the focal group compared with the apical and mid-ventricular group (56±13 vs. 45±13 vs. 46±12%, P=0.03). In-hospital outcome was not significantly different among the 3 groups. Focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy is not rare. Biplane left ventriculography is useful for its diagnosis. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1824-1829).

  15. Reliability of clinical diagnosis in identifying infectious trachoma in a low-prevalence area of Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Baral, K.; Osaki, S.; Shreshta, B.; Panta, C. R.; Boulter, A.; Pang, F.; Cevallos, V.; Schachter, J.; Lietman, T.

    1999-01-01

    The WHO Alliance for Global Elimination of Trachoma by 2020 has increased the need to identify ocular chlamydial infections by clinical examination in areas of both high and low prevalence. The relationship between clinically active trachoma (as defined by clinical examination) and chlamydial infection is known for areas with hyperendemic trachoma, but not for areas with a low prevalence of the clinical disease. In the present study, we examined, photographed, and DNA tested the conjunctivae of children in the Surkhet district of mid-western Nepal, an area known to have a low prevalence of clinically active trachoma. Although 6% of the children aged 10 years and under were found to have clinically active trachoma, none were found to have chlamydia infection by the most sensitive DNA amplification tests available. A very low prevalence of clinically active trachoma is not necessarily evidence of the presence of chlamydial infection. Therefore, the WHO policy of not recommending an intensive trachoma control effort when the prevalence of clinically active trachoma is less than 10% in children is appropriate for this area of Nepal. PMID:10427930

  16. ECOLOGIC STUDY OF MESOSCALE ENVIRONMENTS WITH EXCESS DISEASE PREVALENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work employs an ecologic epidemiological approach to assess the relationship between environmental stressors and excess disease prevalence in small communities. Specifically, the childhood leukemia cluster in Fallon Nevada is used as an example; heavy metals (tungsten and c...

  17. ECOLOGIC STUDY OF MESOSCALE ENVIRONMENTS WITH EXCESS DISEASE PREVALENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work employs an ecologic epidemiological approach to assess the relationship between environmental stressors and excess disease prevalence in small communities. Specifically, the childhood leukemia cluster in Fallon Nevada is used as an example; heavy metals (tungsten and c...

  18. Disease prevalence and mortality among agricultural workers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Jin; Cha, Eun Shil; Moon, Eun Kyeong

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of mortality and disease prevalence related to occupational diseases among agricultural workers in Korea. We evaluated the age-standardized mortality rates and the prevalence of chronic diseases and compared them with those of other populations using death registration data from 2004 through 2008 and the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In addition, we conducted a literature review on published articles examining the health status of farmers in Korea. Agricultural workers have a significantly higher mortality of cancer, tuberculosis, chronic respiratory diseases, liver diseases, suicide, motor and non-motor vehicle accidents. Compared to other populations, farmers have higher prevalence rates of arthritis and intervertebral disc disorders. The literature review revealed a number of work-related diseases among farmers, such as musculoskeletal diseases, pesticide poisoning, infections, and respiratory and neurologic diseases. Korean farmers demonstrate a distinct pattern of mortality and disease prevalence compared to other populations. Although lifestyle factors remain important contributors to those deaths and diseases, our study suggests that occupation is a major determinant as well. Intensive programs such as surveillance systems, therefore, should be developed in order to identify and prevent work-related diseases among agricultural workers in Korea.

  19. Prevalence and concordance between the clinical and the post-mortem diagnosis of dementia in a psychogeriatric clinic.

    PubMed

    Grandal Leiros, B; Pérez Méndez, L I; Zelaya Huerta, M V; Moreno Eguinoa, L; García-Bragado, F; Tuñón Álvarez, T; Roldán Larreta, J J

    2016-06-18

    The aim of our study is to describe the types of dementia found in a series of patients and to estimate the level of agreement between the clinical diagnosis and post-mortem diagnosis. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the prevalence of the types of dementia found in our series and we established the level of concordance between the clinical and the post-mortem diagnoses. The diagnosis was made based on current diagnostic criteria. 114 cases were included. The most common clinical diagnoses both at a clinical and autopsy level were Alzheimer disease and mixed dementia but the prevalence was quite different. While at a clinical level, prevalence was 39% for Alzheimer disease and 18% for mixed dementia, in the autopsy level, prevalence was 22% and 34%, respectively. The agreement between the clinical and the autopsy diagnoses was 62% (95% CI 53-72%). Almost a third of our patients were not correctly diagnosed in vivo. The most common mistake was the underdiagnosis of cerebrovascular pathology. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Smokeless tobacco and prevalence of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Nasir; Beebe, Laura A; Thompson, David M; Skaggs, Valerie J

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the possible increased risk of cardiovascular disease with smokeless tobacco. Existing studies have yielded inconsistent results and have been based on limited populations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the use of smokeless tobacco increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and to identify higher risk groups. Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from 1999 to 2001 for the state of Oklahoma were analyzed. We analyzed 10332 complete records to assess association of any use of smokeless tobacco (over the respondent's life time) with cardiovascular disease. Similarly, the association between cardiovascular disease and individual socio-demographic covariates such as age, gender, smoking, and BMI was checked. As a secondary analysis we explored associations among three categories for smokeless tobacco users, current, former, and never users, with cardiovascular disease. Logistic regression models, which controlled for age, sex, race-ethnicity, obesity, and smoking, estimated the odds of having cardiovascular disease were 1.18 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.45) times higher among smokeless tobacco users. This odds ratio was more than two fold in the Non-White/Hispanic group (O.R. 2.31, 95% CI: 1.42, 3.73). Similarly the odds of cardiovascular disease were higher among female ST users than among females who were non-users of ST (O.R. 1.72 95% CI: 1.12, 2.65). A modest increase in the odds of cardiovascular disease was associated with smokeless tobacco. Two risk groups were identified, females and Non-Whites/Hispanics, whose odds of cardiovascular disease increased with the use of smokeless tobacco.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of heart disease among adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and it has been well established that it is associated with both mental and physical conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of heart disease with mental disorders and other chronic physical conditions among the Singapore resident population. Data were from the Singapore Mental Health Study which was a representative, cross-sectional epidemiological survey undertaken with 6616 Singapore residents, between December 2009 and December 2010. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 was used to establish the diagnosis of mental disorders, while a chronic medical conditions checklist was used to gather information on 15 physical conditions, including various forms of heart disease. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Euro-Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D). The lifetime prevalence of heart disease was 2.8%. Socio-demographic correlates of heart disease included older age, Indian ethnicity, secondary education (vs. tertiary) and being economically inactive. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and other comorbid physical and mental disorders, the prevalence of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder were significantly higher among those with heart disease, as were diabetes, arthritis, kidney failure and lung disease. These findings highlight important associations between heart disease and various socio-demographic correlates, mental disorders and physical conditions. Given the high prevalence of mood disorders among heart disease patients, timely and appropriate screening and treatment of mental disorders among this group is essential.

  2. Spine and sacroiliac joints on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis: prevalence of lesions and association with clinical and disease activity indices from the Italian group of the SPACE study.

    PubMed

    Lorenzin, M; Ortolan, A; Frallonardo, P; Vio, S; Lacognata, C; Oliviero, F; Punzi, L; Ramonda, R

    2016-09-09

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of spine and sacroiliac joint (SIJ) lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and their correlation with disease activity indices. Sixty patients with low back pain (LBP) (≥3 months, ≤2 years, onset ≤45 years), attending the SpA-clinic of the Unità Operativa Complessa Reumatologia of Padova [SpondyloArthritis-Caught-Early (SPACE) study], were studied following a protocol including physical examination, questionnaires, laboratory tests, X-rays and spine and SIJ MRI. Positive spine and SIJ MRI and X-rays images were scored independently by 2 readers using the SPARCC method, modified Stoke ankylosing spondylitis spine score and New York criteria. The axial pain and localization of MRI-lesions were referred to 4 sites: cervical/thoracic/lumbar spine and SIJ. All patients were classified into three groups: patients with signs of radiographic sacroiliitis (r-axSpA), patients without signs of r-axSpA but with signs of sacroiliitis on MRI (nr-axSpA MRI SIJ+), patients without signs of sacroiliitis on MRI and X-rays (nr-axSpA MRI SIJ-). The median age at LBP onset was 29.05±8.38 years; 51.6% of patients showed bone marrow edema (BME) in spine-MRI and 56.7% of patients in SIJ-MRI. Signs of enthesitis were found in 55% of patients in the thoracic district. Of the 55% of patients with BME on spine-MRI, 15% presented presented a negative SIJMRI. There was a significant difference between these cohorts with regard to the prevalence of radiographic sacroiliitis, active sacroiliitis on MRI and SPARCC SIJ score. The site of pain correlated statistically with BME lesions in thoracic and buttock districts. Since positive spine-MRI images were observed in absence of sacroiliitis, we can hypothesize that this finding could have a diagnostic significance in axSpA suspected axSpA.

  3. Wildlife disease prevalence in human-modified landscapes.

    PubMed

    Brearley, Grant; Rhodes, Jonathan; Bradley, Adrian; Baxter, Greg; Seabrook, Leonie; Lunney, Daniel; Liu, Yan; McAlpine, Clive

    2013-05-01

    Human-induced landscape change associated with habitat loss and fragmentation places wildlife populations at risk. One issue in these landscapes is a change in the prevalence of disease which may result in increased mortality and reduced fecundity. Our understanding of the influence of habitat loss and fragmentation on the prevalence of wildlife diseases is still in its infancy. What is evident is that changes in disease prevalence as a result of human-induced landscape modification are highly variable. The importance of infectious diseases for the conservation of wildlife will increase as the amount and quality of suitable habitat decreases due to human land-use pressures. We review the experimental and observational literature of the influence of human-induced landscape change on wildlife disease prevalence, and discuss disease transmission types and host responses as mechanisms that are likely to determine the extent of change in disease prevalence. It is likely that transmission dynamics will be the key process in determining a pathogen's impact on a host population, while the host response may ultimately determine the extent of disease prevalence. Finally, we conceptualize mechanisms and identify future research directions to increase our understanding of the relationship between human-modified landscapes and wildlife disease prevalence. This review highlights that there are rarely consistent relationships between wildlife diseases and human-modified landscapes. In addition, variation is evident between transmission types and landscape types, with the greatest positive influence on disease prevalence being in urban landscapes and directly transmitted disease systems. While we have a limited understanding of the potential influence of habitat loss and fragmentation on wildlife disease, there are a number of important areas to address in future research, particularly to account for the variability in increased and decreased disease prevalence. Previous studies

  4. High Prevalence of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases in Patients with Menière's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gazquez, Irene; Soto-Varela, Andres; Aran, Ismael; Santos, Sofia; Batuecas, Angel; Trinidad, Gabriel; Perez-Garrigues, Herminio; Gonzalez-Oller, Carlos; Acosta, Lourdes; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Autoimmunity appears to be associated with the pathophysiology of Meniere's disease (MD), an inner ear disorder characterized by episodes of vertigo associated with hearing loss and tinnitus. However, the prevalence of autoimmune diseases (AD) in patients with MD has not been studied in individuals with uni or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Methods and Findings We estimated the prevalence of AD in 690 outpatients with MD with uni or bilateral SNHL from otoneurology clinics at six tertiary referral hospitals by using clinica criteria and an immune panel (lymphocyte populations, antinuclear antibodies, C3, C4 and proinflammatory cytokines TNFα, INFγ). The observed prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was higher than expected for the general population (1.39 for RA, 0.87 for SLE and 0.70 for AS, respectively). Systemic AD were more frequently observed in patients with MD and diagnostic criteria for migraine than cases with MD and tension-type headache (p = 0.007). There were clinical differences between patients with uni or bilateral SNHL, but no differences were found in the immune profile. Multiple linear regression showed that changes in lymphocytes subpopulations were associated with hearing loss and persistence of vertigo, suggesting a role for the immune response in MD. Conclusions Despite some limitations, MD displays an elevated prevalence of systemic AD such as RA, SLE and AS. This finding, which suggests an autoimmune background in a subset of patients with MD, has important implications for the treatment of MD. PMID:22053211

  5. Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the pediatric populations: prevalence and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Melamed, Michal L; Kumar, Juhi

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is becoming increasingly common in the USA. In this review we provide estimates of the prevalence of deficiency, and review the risk factors and the evidence of clinical consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency causes the pediatric disease rickets. In addition, there is some evidence that vitamin D deficiency may lead to other diseases including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, infections, asthma and dyslipidemia. PMID:20490283

  6. Determining disease prevalence from incidence and survival using simulation techniques.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Simon; Smith, Alex; Painter, Dan; Li, Jinlei; Roman, Eve

    2014-04-01

    We present a new method for determining prevalence estimates together with estimates of their precision, from incidence and survival data using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques. The algorithm also provides for the incidence process to be marked with the values of subject level covariates, facilitating calculation of the distribution of these variables in prevalent cases. Disease incidence is modelled as a marked stochastic process and simulations are made from this process. For each simulated incident case, the probability of remaining in the prevalent sub-population is calculated from bootstrapped survival curves. This algorithm is used to determine the distribution of prevalence estimates and of the ancillary data associated with the marks of the incidence process. This is then used to determine prevalence estimates and estimates of the precision of these estimates, together with estimates of the distribution of ancillary variables in the prevalent sub-population. This technique is illustrated by determining the prevalence of acute myeloid leukaemia from data held in the Haematological Malignancy Research Network (HMRN). In addition, the precision of these estimates is determined and the age distribution of prevalent cases diagnosed within twenty years of the prevalence index date is calculated. Determining prevalence estimates by using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques provides a means of calculation more flexible that traditional techniques. In addition to automatically providing precision estimates for the prevalence estimates, the distribution of any measured subject level variables can be calculated for the prevalent sub-population. Temporal changes in incidence and in survival offer no difficulties for the method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical Aspects of Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rhia; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. Symptoms progress over 15-20 years, and there are currently no disease-modifying therapies. The causative genetic mutation is an expanded CAG repeat in the HTT gene encoding the Huntingtin protein, and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. In this chapter we discuss the genetics, clinical presentation, and management of this condition, as well as new data from large-scale clinical research studies on the natural history of HD.

  8. Pediatric nail diseases: clinical pearls.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Kate E

    2017-02-01

    This article highlights pearls shared during a unique and enlightening lecture by Antonella Tosti, MD, a professor at the University of Miami Health System, Florida, on the presentation and management of common pediatric nail diseases. These clinical pearls are shared to help deliver utmost care to our pediatric patients presenting with nail pathology and may help shed light on the management of pediatric nail diseases.

  9. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with peptic disease.

    PubMed

    Sirinthornpunya, Siam

    2012-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infections worldwide. It has been established as etiology of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosal associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT). During this decade, there have been some reports showing a decline in global prevalence of H. pylori infection and peptic diseases including in many Asian countries. To study the H. pylori infection in patients with peptic diseases, association with other factors and comparison to previous data. Retrospective observational study of endoscopic reports for upper gastrointestinal tract diseases in patients with peptic diseases from October 2009 to September 2010 at the Endoscopic Unit, Department of Medicine, Rajavithi Hospital. Patients were examined for the presence of H. pylori infection by rapid urease test (RUT) or histology staining. Five hundred and seventy patients with a mean age of 55.0 +/- 16.02 years with peptic diseases were studies. Endoscopic findings showed 106 GU patients (18.6%), 29 DU patients (5.1%), 3 combined GU and DU patients (0.5%) and 432 NUD patients (75.8%). The prevalence of H. pylori infection were 64% (365 of 570 patients). Prevalence of H. pylori infection were 61.3% of NUD cases, 68.9% of GU cases, 82.8% in DU cases and 100% in combined GU and DU cases. Comparison with previous data (Anantapunpong S. Rajavithi Med J 1999; 10: 17-26), the prevalence of H. pylori infection overall and in DU are not changed but in NUD and GU are increased. The prevalence of H. pylori infection is still high in peptic diseases. The patients with age more than 50 years have more GU, less NUD than the younger groups. In comparison with a previous study, the prevalence of H. pylori infection in overall and in DU are not changed but in NUD and GU are increased.

  10. Different prevalence of chronic-non-infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    El-Tawil, Am

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, tumours, are examples of chronic degenerative diseases that have a high prevalence in developed nations. These chronic-non-communicable diseases have multifactorial aetiologies that considered to be caused by the interaction of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. Genetic researches on these diseases have traditionally focused on investigation aimed at identifying disease-susceptibility genes. Recent evidence suggests that somatically acquired DNA mutations may also contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of these disease states such as coronary artery disease indicating a similarity between the atherosclerotic and carcinogenic processes. The high incidences and prevalence of these chronic diseases in the Western World in comparison with the East and changing trends in disease incidence (seen in many countries) provide strong evidence that those environmental factors as playing a major influence in disease-expression. There is an ample reason to believe that environmental factors have contributed to inducing alterations in genetic code in precedent generations, which were subsequently inherited and further modified by modern life style activities. Consequently, we now see the appearance of chronic degenerative diseases and their higher incidences in the Western nations as compared with the Eastern ones.

  11. Cardiovascular risks associated with incident and prevalent periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic stroke and total CVD. In a prospective cohort of 39,863 predominantly white women, age ≥45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status [prevalent (18%), incident (7.3%) versus never (74.7%)] were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14-1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25-2.38) for MI, 1.41 (1.02-1.95) for ischaemic stroke and 1.27 (1.06-1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00-1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04-1.56) for MI, 1.12 (0.91-1.37) for ischaemic stroke and 1.15 (1.03-1.28) for total CVD. New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Incident and Prevalent Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Aim While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke and total CVD. Material and Methods In a prospective cohort of 39863 predominantly white women, age ≥ 45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status (prevalent [18%], incident [7.3%] vs. never [74.7%]) were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Results Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14–1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25–2.38) for MI, 1.41(1.02–1.95) for ischemic stroke, and 1.27(1.06–1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00–1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04–1.56) for MI, 1.12(0.91–1.37) for ischemic stroke, and 1.15(1.03–1.28) for total CVD. Conclusion New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. PMID:25385537

  13. The prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis at the Clinical Hospital of the State University of Campinas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Roberto Damian Pacheco; Lira, Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti; Arieta, Carlos Eduardo Leite; Castro, Rosane Silvestre de; Bonon, Sandra Helena Alves

    2015-11-01

    Viral conjunctivitis is a common, highly contagious disease that is often caused by an adenovirus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis by analyzing data from a prospective clinical study of 122 consecutively enrolled patients who were treated at the Clinical Hospital of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) after a clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis between November 2011 and June 2012. Polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate all cases of clinically diagnosed infectious conjunctivitis and based on the laboratory findings, the prevalence of adenoviral infections was determined. The incidence of subepithelial corneal infiltrates was also investigated. Of the 122 patients with acute infectious conjunctivitis included, 72 had positive polymerase chain reaction results for adenoviruses and 17 patients developed subepithelial corneal infiltrates (13.93%). The polymerase chain reaction revealed that the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis was 59% in all patients who presented with a clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis from November 2011 to June 2012. The prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis in the study population was similar to its prevalence in other regions of the world.

  14. The prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis at the Clinical Hospital of the State University of Campinas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Roberto Damian Pacheco; Lira, Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti; Arieta, Carlos Eduardo Leite; de Castro, Rosane Silvestre; Bonon, Sandra Helena Alves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Viral conjunctivitis is a common, highly contagious disease that is often caused by an adenovirus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis by analyzing data from a prospective clinical study of 122 consecutively enrolled patients who were treated at the Clinical Hospital of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) after a clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis between November 2011 and June 2012. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate all cases of clinically diagnosed infectious conjunctivitis and based on the laboratory findings, the prevalence of adenoviral infections was determined. The incidence of subepithelial corneal infiltrates was also investigated. RESULTS: Of the 122 patients with acute infectious conjunctivitis included, 72 had positive polymerase chain reaction results for adenoviruses and 17 patients developed subepithelial corneal infiltrates (13.93%). CONCLUSIONS: The polymerase chain reaction revealed that the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis was 59% in all patients who presented with a clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis from November 2011 to June 2012. The prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis in the study population was similar to its prevalence in other regions of the world. PMID:26602522

  15. Embarrassment in essential tremor: prevalence, clinical correlates and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Rios, Eileen

    2009-08-01

    Embarrassment is a commonly described feature of essential tremor (ET) but has not been the focus of clinical research. To estimate the prevalence, identify susceptible patient groups, and quantify the therapeutic correlates of reported embarrassment. A total of 106 ET cases from a population-based sample and 349 ET cases from a clinical sample were asked, "Does your tremor often embarrass you?" In the clinical sample, the prevalence of embarrassment was high (58.2%). Even in those ET cases with no head tremor and mild arm tremor, nearly one-half (29/61 [47.5%]) reported embarrassment. While the prevalence of embarrassment was lower in the population-based sample, it was not negligible (18.9%). Embarrassment was associated with younger age of onset (p=0.003) and women were nearly twice as likely as men to report embarrassment (OR=1.85, p=0.01). Independent of tremor severity, embarrassment nearly doubled the odds of using tremor medication (OR=1.86, p=0.01). Embarrassment may be a source of disability in ET. Even among clinic patients with mild tremor, nearly one-half reported embarrassment. We identified a number of patient characteristics linked to embarrassment. Embarrassment alone (i.e., independent of tremor severity) was responsible for a doubling of tremor medication usage. The majority of clinical trials do not assess the therapeutic effects of medication on embarrassment. These trials may benefit from scaled assessments of level of embarrassment.

  16. [Prevalence of positive serology to Trypanosoma cruzi in patients with clinical diagnosis of dilated myocardiopathy in the state of Campeche].

    PubMed

    Alducin-Téllez, César; Rueda-Villegas, Enrique; Medina-Yerbes, Isaí; Hernández, Oscar; López, Ruth; Peña-Hernández, Virginia; Monteón, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic Chagas' heart disease as a cause of dilated cardiomyopathy is unknown in the State of Campeche, Mexico. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of positive serology for Trypanosoma cruzi in patients with clinical diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. Of a total of 127 patients diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy, we studied 91 with two positive serological tests for T. cruzi. We identified 14 positive cases for a prevalence of 15 % of chronic Chagas' heart disease. This prevalence is similar to that reported for the rest of the Yucatan Peninsula.

  17. Prevalence and clinical outcome of subclinical bacteriuria in female dogs.

    PubMed

    Wan, Stephanie Y; Hartmann, Faye A; Jooss, Michelle K; Viviano, Katrina R

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria and its natural clinical course over a 3-month period in healthy female dogs. Observational, prospective, cross-sectional study. 101 healthy client-owned female dogs. In all dogs, screening clinicopathologic tests and bacteriologic culture of urine were performed. In culture-positive dogs, subclinical bacteriuria was confirmed by 2 positive culture results within 2 weeks and dogs were reevaluated at 3 months. The prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria in healthy female dogs was 9 of 101 (8.9%). Three-month follow-up data were available for 8 of 9 dogs with subclinical bacteriuria. Four dogs had persistent bacteriuria, and 4 had transient bacteriuria. No dogs with subclinical bacteriuria developed clinical signs during the 3-month observation period. Subclinical bacteriuria was diagnosed in 6 of 51 (12%) young and middle-aged dogs and 3 of 50 (6.0%) senior and geriatric dogs. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria with age. Results suggested that subclinical bacteriuria is a nonprogressive condition in healthy female dogs and can be persistent or transient. No significant difference in the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria in young and middle-aged dogs versus senior and geriatric dogs was detected. No dogs with subclinical bacteriuria developed clinical signs requiring antimicrobial treatment during the 3-month observation period. Healthy female dogs with subclinical bacteriuria may be a population of dogs in which antimicrobial treatment is unnecessary.

  18. A systematic review of prevalence studies of depression in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Reijnders, Jennifer S A M; Ehrt, Uwe; Weber, Wim E J; Aarsland, Dag; Leentjens, Albert F G

    2008-01-30

    Prevalence rates of depressive disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) vary widely across studies, ranging from 2.7% to more than 90%. The aim of this systematic review was to calculate average prevalences of depressive disorders taking into account the different settings and different diagnostic approaches of studies. Using Medline on Pubmed, a systematic literature search was carried out for studies of depression in Parkinson's disease. A total of 104 articles were included and assessed for quality; 51 articles fulfilled the quality criteria. Multiple publications from the same database were not included in the meta-analysis. In the remaining 36 articles, the weighted prevalence of major depressive disorder was 17% of PD patients, that of minor depression 22% and dysthymia 13%. Clinically significant depressive symptoms, irrespective of the presence of a DSM defined depressive disorder, were present in 35%. In studies using a (semi) structured interview to establish DSM criteria, the reported prevalence of major depressive disorder was 19%, while in studies using DSM criteria without a structured interview, the reported prevalence of major depressive disorder was 7%. Population studies report lower prevalence rates for both major depressive disorder and the clinically significant depressive symptoms than studies in other settings. This systematic review suggests that the average prevalence of major depressive disorder in PD is substantial, but lower than generally assumed.

  19. [Prevalence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy in a pregnant women population].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Cruz, Edgar Alonso; Ramírez-Torres, Aurora; Pimentel-Nieto, Diana; Roque Sánchez, Armando Miguel

    2014-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in a group of pregnant patients attending antenatal care at the National Institute of Perinatology and to meet cases not detected by universal screening. Was conducted from October 2012 to March 2013, in a group of pregnant patients attending to National Institute of Perinatology, thyroid profile was performed according to the recom- mendations of the American Thyroid Association. Patients were referred to endocrinology consultation and treatment was started in case of abnormal thyroid profile. We used central tendency and non-parametric measures for description of the sample. The prevalence of thyroid disease in pregnancy was 33.9% (n = 37), 12.8% (n = 14) with clinical hypothyroidism and 21.1% (n = 23) subclinical hypothyroidism. The 87.1% (n = 95) of patients reported at least one symptom or risk factor history for thyroid disease, only 12.8% (n = 14), had no history or symptoms related to thyroid disease. There is no relationship between a history or symptoms reported and the presence of thyroid disease. The prevalence of thyroid clinical and subclinical disease is greater than that reported in the literature. There is not relationship with each risk factor for thyroid disease. Perform universal screening detects almost twice thyroid disease during pregnancy.

  20. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Among an Abortion Clinic Population

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Anne B.; Shochet, Tara; Harland, Karisa K.; Dickey, Penny; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    In this cross-sectional, clinic-based study, we estimated 1-year prevalence of intimate partner violence among 986 patients who had elective abortions. We assessed physical, sexual, and battering intimate partner violence via self-administered, computer-based questionnaires. Overall, physical and sexual intimate partner violence prevalence was 9.9% and 2.5%, respectively; 8.4% of those in a current relationship reported battering. Former partners perpetrated more physical and sexual assaults than did current partners. Violence severity increased with frequency. Abortion patients experience high intimate partner violence rates, indicating the need for targeted screening and community-based referral. PMID:20558796

  1. How common is adenomyosis? A prospective study of prevalence using transvaginal ultrasound in a gynaecology clinic.

    PubMed

    Naftalin, J; Hoo, W; Pateman, K; Mavrelos, D; Holland, T; Jurkovic, D

    2012-12-01

    What is the prevalence of adenomyosis in a population of women attending a general gynaecological clinic? Adenomyosis was present in 206 of 985 [20.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 18.5-23.6%] women included in the study. Previous studies of occurrence of adenomyosis have been limited to women who underwent hysterectomy, which is likely to overestimate its prevalence compared with the general population of women. There are no large prospective studies on the prevalence of adenomyosis, either in the general population of women or in a general gynaecology clinic setting. This was a prospective observational study set in the general gynaecology clinic of a university teaching hospital between January 2009 and January 2010. There were 985 consecutive women who attended the clinic and underwent structured clinical and transvaginal ultrasound examination in accordance with the study protocol. Morphological features of adenomyosis were systematically recorded with the ultrasound scan to determine its prevalence and factors which may affect its occurrence. Adenomyosis was present in 206/985 [20.9% (95% CI: 18.5-23.6%)] women included in the study. Multivariate analysis showed that the prevalence of adenomyosis was significantly associated with women's age, gravidity and pelvic endometriosis (P< 0.001). In women who subsequently underwent hysterectomy, there was a good level of agreement between the ultrasound and histological diagnosis of adenomyosis [κ = 0.62 (P = 0.001), 95% CI (0.324, 0.912)]. Our estimate of prevalence of adenomyosis is likely to be higher than in the general population as we studied symptomatic women attending a gynaecology clinic. Better estimates of the prevalence of adenomyosis can improve our understanding of the burden of the disease, help to identify women at high risk of developing the condition and facilitate the development of preventative strategies and effective treatment. The authors have no competing interests to declare. The study was

  2. [Features of cardiologic diseases prevalence among individuals engaged into geology].

    PubMed

    Zinenko; Petrichenko, S I; Miroshnikov, M P; Dasaeva, L A; Vermel', A E

    2005-01-01

    The authors studied influence of work and living conditions on geologists' health state. A cohort under study demonstrated paradoxical epidemiologic situation with high mortality risk of arterial hypertension, whereas prevalence of this disease among specialists working on expeditionary shifted mode is nearly equal to that among general population. Unfavorable situation concerning cardiovascular diseases could be caused by high prevalence of cardiovascular risks and some occupational hazards. The situation is deteriorated by insufficient medical observation and psychologic traits of the specialists working on expeditionary shifted mode.

  3. [Hallucinations and dementia. Prevalence, clinical presentation and pathophysiology].

    PubMed

    Fénelon, G; Mahieux, F

    2004-04-01

    Hallucinations are a common feature of certain degenerative diseases with a risk of dementia such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, and Parkinson's disease. Obtaining valid epidemiological data is nevertheless quite difficult because of methodological problems. As a rule, hallucinations are more prevalent in Lewy body disease than Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. The prevalence in parkinsonian dementia is about the same as in Lewy body disease. Complex visual hallucinations predominate, auditory or tactile hallucinations are more exceptional. Minor forms (illusions, sensation of presence) are also observed. Recurrence is common, mainly in the evening or at night. Patients with advanced mental impairment generally take the hallucinations for reality. The hallucinations can be associated with psychological and behavioral disorders such as delusionnal idea or identification disorders. It is important to search for other causes of hallucinations such as drugs, ocular disorders, or depression, but many of these disorders are common comorbidities in elderly patients with degenerative disease. There is no unique model fitting all the hypothesized pathogenic mechanisms. Complex visual hallucinations most likely arise from abnormal activation of the extra-striat temporal associative regions, but only hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed. Genetic studies and functional imaging have not provided convincing evidence. Current focus is placed on an imbalance between deficient cholinergic transmission and preserved or augmented monoaminergic transmission at the cortical level, but other neurotransmission systems could be involved. The dream dysregulation mechanism proposed in Parkinson's disease cannot be generalized. The link between cognitive disorders and hallucination is also poorly understood: hallucinations are associated with more severe cognitive impairments or more rapid cognitive deline in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, but the

  4. Incidence, Prevalence, and Clinical Course of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Craig E.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; St. Sauver, Jennifer; Hartman, Thomas E.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Yi, Eunhee S.; Ryu, Jay H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Limited data exist regarding the population-based epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The objective of the study was to describe the trends in the incidence, prevalence, and clinical course of IPF in the community. Methods: We conducted a population-based study of adult patients with IPF in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1997 to 2005. Two methods were used to identify IPF cases, as defined by the 2002 American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society consensus statement: (1) usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) on a surgical lung biopsy specimen or a definite UIP pattern on a high-resolution CT image (narrow criteria) and (2) UIP on a surgical lung biopsy specimen or a definite or possible UIP pattern on CT image (broad criteria). Results: Of 596 patients screened for the possibility of pulmonary disease or pulmonary fibrosis over 9 years of follow-up, 47 cases had IPF. Of these, 24 met the narrow criteria. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence was 8.8/100,000 and 17.4/100,000 person-years, for narrow and broad criteria, respectively. The age-adjusted incidence was higher in men than in women, and among patients aged 70-79 years. During the study period, the incidence of IPF decreased (P < .001). On December 31, 2005, the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence was 27.9/100,000 and 63/100,000 persons by narrow and broad criteria, respectively. Thirty-seven patients experienced a total of 53 respiratory exacerbations (26 IPF related, 27 non-IPF related), and 34 (72%) patients died. The primary cause of death was IPF related in 16 (47%) patients. Median survival for narrow-criteria and broad-criteria incidence cases was 3.5 and 4.4 years, respectively. Conclusions: The incidence of IPF in Olmsted County decreased over the study period. Nonprimary IPF respiratory exacerbations are as frequent as primary IPF respiratory exacerbations and an important cause of death. PMID:19749005

  5. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in non-communicating hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Eide, Per Kristian; Pripp, Are Hugo

    2016-10-01

    Hydrocephalus (HC) caused by blockade of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways is denoted non-communicating HC. One issue not previously addressed is how the prevalence of cardiovascular disease compares between patients with non-communicating HC and the general population. We examined whether the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (arterial hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac infarction, and diabetes) differed between cases with non-communicating HC and a general control population, represented by participants of the North-Trøndelag Health 3 Survey (The HUNT3 Survey). A second control group consisted of patients with communicating hydrocephalus (idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, iNPH). The study included 50 cases with non-communicating HC (53.4+10.5years), and two control cohorts: 35,413 participants of the HUNT3 Survey (52.8+9.6years), and 176 iNPH patients (61.2+8.3years). All individuals were aged 35-70 years. Among the non-communicating HC patients, the results showed increased prevalence for arterial hypertension (males), cardiac infarction (females), and diabetes (females), as compared with the HUNT3 control group with significant odds ratio estimates. However, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease did not significantly differ between patients with non-communicating HC or iNPH. In patients with either non-communicating HC or iNPH and elevated pulsatile intracranial pressure (ICP) during overnight monitoring, the prevalence of diabetes was increased. This study showed significantly increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease in non-communicating HC, indicating an association between cardiovascular disease and the development of non-communicating HC. Further, diabetes was associated with abnormal pulsatile ICP in both non-communicating HC and iNPH patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Prevalence of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease in Fuzhou region of China].

    PubMed

    Chen, X M; Li, Y; Guo, W L; Wang, W T; Lu, M

    2016-12-07

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD) in the Fuzhou region. Methods: A total of 4100 subjects who aged from 10 to 70 years derived from a random cluster sampling in fourty districts of Fuzhou region and they were asked to complete questionnaires. According to the grade standard of reflux symptom index (RSI), subjects with total score more than 13 were defined as having LPRD. The factors associated with LPRD were evaluated with corrective analysis. Results: Effective questionnaires were obtained from 4 063 of 4 100 subjects. The prevalence of LPRD was 5.00%(203/4 063). The prevalence of LPRD in subjects of 30-39 years old was significantly higher than that in subjects of 10-19 years old (χ(2)=8.532, P=0.003). The prevalence of LPRD in men was higher than that in women (P<0.001). There were significant difference in the prevalence of LPRD between different occupations (P<0.001). The prevalence of LPRD in industrial workers was 7.89% (24/304), higher than that in students (4/196, 3.14%). RSI was correlated with clearing throat, with a correlation coefficient of 0.687. LPRD was also correlated with dysphagia and pharyngeal foreign body sensation. Conclusions: The prevalence of LPRD in Fuzhou region is 5.00% and LPRD is closely related to age, sex, occupation, clearing throat, dysphagia and pharyngeal foreign body sensation.

  7. The prevalence and clinical associations of HTLV-1 infection in a remote Indigenous community.

    PubMed

    Einsiedel, Lloyd J; Pham, Hai; Woodman, Richard J; Pepperill, Clinton; Taylor, Kerry A

    2016-10-03

    Hospital and laboratory data indicate that human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic to central Australia, but no community-based studies of its prevalence or disease burden have been reported. We determined the prevalence rates of HTLV-1 infection and of HTLV-1-associated diseases in a remote Indigenous community. A remote Northern Territory community. All residents were asked to complete a health survey and offered a limited clinical examination, together with serological tests for HTLV-1 and Strongyloides, and HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) assessment. HTLV-1 seropositivity rates; HTLV-1 PVL (copies/105 peripheral blood leucocytes [PBL]); presentation with HTLV-1-related clinical disease. HTLV-1 serostatus was determined for 97 of 138 residents (70%). The prevalence of HTLV-1 infection was significantly higher among adults (30 of 74 people tested) than children (1 of 23; P = 0.001). Nine of 30 HTLV-1-positive adults had a clinical syndrome that was potentially attributable to HTLV-1 infection (chronic lung disease, seven; symptomatic strongyloidiasis, two). The median HTLV-1 PVL was significantly higher for adults with chronic lung disease than for those who were asymptomatic (chronic lung disease, 649 copies/105 PBL [IQR, 162-2220]; asymptomatic adults, 40 copies/105 PBL [IQR, 0.9-229]; P = 0.017). Ten of 72 adults tested were seropositive for Strongyloides (six of 28 HTLV-1-positive participants and four of 44 HTLV-1-negative participants; P = 0.17), as were three of 15 children tested; the three children were HTLV-1-negative. The prevalence of HTLV-1 infection and the rate of disease potentially attributable to HTLV-1 were high among adults in this remote community.

  8. Interconnectivity of human cellular metabolism and disease prevalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Deok-Sun

    2010-12-01

    Fluctuations of metabolic reaction fluxes may cause abnormal concentrations of toxic or essential metabolites, possibly leading to metabolic diseases. The mutual binding of enzymatic proteins and ones involving common metabolites enforces distinct coupled reactions, by which local perturbations may spread through the cellular network. Such network effects at the molecular interaction level in human cellular metabolism can reappear in the patterns of disease occurrence. Here we construct the enzyme-reaction network and the metabolite-reaction network, capturing the flux coupling of metabolic reactions caused by the interacting enzymes and the shared metabolites, respectively. Diseases potentially caused by the failure of individual metabolic reactions can be identified by using the known disease-gene association, which allows us to derive the probability of an inactivated reaction causing diseases from the disease records at the population level. We find that the greater the number of proteins that catalyze a reaction, the higher the mean prevalence of its associated diseases. Moreover, the number of connected reactions and the mean size of the avalanches in the networks constructed are also shown to be positively correlated with the disease prevalence. These findings illuminate the impact of the cellular network topology on disease development, suggesting that the global organization of the molecular interaction network should be understood to assist in disease diagnosis, treatment, and drug discovery.

  9. The Radiological Prevalence of Incidental Kienböck Disease

    PubMed Central

    Golay, Saroj K.; Rust, Philippa; Ring, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: To determine the prevalence of incidental Kienböck disease. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 150,912 radiological reports or images obtained over a five year period was performed of 76,174 patients who underwent a radiograph or computed tomography scan which included the wrist, in Edinburgh and Lothian, UK. Results: There were 5 cases of incidental Kienböck disease and 13 cases of symptomatic Kienböck disease. There were no significant differences in age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities, smoking status, excess alcohol use or Lichtman stage between the incidental and symptomatic Kienböck groups. Conclusion: The radiological prevalence of incidental Kienböck disease was 0.0066% or 7 in 100,000 patients. PMID:27517065

  10. Prevalence, demographics and clinical characteristics of multiple sclerosis in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Deleu, Dirk; Mir, Danial; Al Tabouki, Ahmed; Mesraoua, Rim; Mesraoua, Boulenouar; Akhtar, Naveed; Al Hail, Hassan; D'souza, Atlantic; Melikyan, Gayane; Imam, Yahia Z B; Osman, Yasir; Elalamy, Osama; Sokrab, Tageldin; Kamran, Sadaat; Ruiz Miyares, Francisco; Ibrahim, Faiza

    2013-05-01

    No published epidemiologic data on multiple sclerosis (MS) in Qatar exist. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence, demographics and clinical characteristics of MS in the Middle Eastern country of Qatar. We analyzed data for Qatari MS patients fulfilling the McDonald diagnostic criteria. A total of 154 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. On 31 April 2010, the crude prevalence of MS in Qatar was 64.57 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI: 58.31-70.37). The female-to-male ratio was 1.33:1. A positive family history was found in 10.4% of included MS patients. We conclude that Qatar is now a medium-to-high risk area for MS, with some important differences in clinical characteristics as compared to other countries in the region.

  11. Gastroesophageal reflux disease prevalence in the city of Sivas.

    PubMed

    Yönem, Özlem; Sivri, Bülent; Özdemir, Levent; Nadir, Işılay; Yüksel, Seçkin; Uygun, Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data of gastroesophageal reflux disease from Turkey is scarce. For this reason, we aimed to determine the gastroesophageal reflux disease prevalence in our region and to compare it with both the Western part of Turkey and with other countries in the world. We used a previously validated reflux questionnaire and applied it to a random sample of 1345 subjects stratified by socio-economic status, who were older than 20 years and were living in the city center of Sivas. The questionnaire was conducted by medical students who were attending Public Health internship. We estimated a prevalence rate of 19.3% for gastroesophageal reflux disease, defined as heartburn and/or acid regurgitation at least once a week or more frequent. We found a significant association of gastroesophageal reflux disease with age, obesity, lying down within two hours after meals, and being under stress within the last one year, but not with smoking. Comorbid diseases associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease presence included recurrent pharyngitis, chronic cough, asthma, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but not coronary heart disease. 50.8% of our subjects had visited a physician for gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms. The most common drug they used was proton pump inhibitors. The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in a city of the Middle Anatolian region of Turkey was similar to that in developed countries and also to the results of another study performed in the Western part of Turkey. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of environmental factors in the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  12. Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Economy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin-Zhou; Dai, Yi-Ning; Wang, Yu-Ming; Zhou, Qin-Yi; Yu, Chao-Hui; Li, You-Ming

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing health issue around the world. This study is to investigate whether adult prevalence of NAFLD correlates with national economic status. Literature search on PubMed database was conducted to identify eligible records fully published before September 2014. Gross national income (GNI) per capita was chosen to evaluate national economic status. Pearson coefficient, linear regression, and unpaired t test were performed in the statistical analyses. Twenty-one population-based surveys (seven in East Asia, five in South Asia, three in Middle East, and six in Europe) were included. The pooled prevalence of NAFLD was 24.24%, and the global prevalence was positively correlated with GNI per capita (r = 0.4782, P = 0.0283). Europe witnessed a higher prevalence (28.04%) than Middle East (12.95%, P = 0.0092) and East Asia (19.24%, P = 0.0083). Male presented a higher prevalence than female (P = 0.019), especially in Europe (P = 0.0132) and in Caucasians (P = 0.0383). Furthermore, male prevalence and rural prevalence individually were correlated with economic status (r = 0.5725, P = 0.0257 and r = 0.7389, P = 0.0060). Lastly, the urban (23.93%) witnessed a higher prevalence than the rural or the urban + rural (12.65%, P = 0.0141) in the countries of GNI per capita <$10,000. This study suggested that countries with higher economic status tend to present a higher prevalence of NAFLD. It is believed to provide a distinctive epidemiologic perspective to global situation of NAFLD.

  13. Prevalence and Clinical, Endoscopic, and Pathological Features of Duodenitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Alper, Arik; Hardee, Steven; Rojas-Velasquez, Danilo; Escalera, Sandra; Morotti, Raffaella A; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2016-02-01

    Although gastritis and esophagitis are well studied in children, there is very limited literature on duodenitis in children. We aimed to assess the prevalence, etiology, clinical, endoscopic, and pathological features in a large cohort of unselected children with duodenitis. We reviewed the pathology reports of all the upper endoscopies performed at our institution during 5 years to identify children with duodenitis. Biopsy sections were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of duodenitis. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic data, and the presence of associated gastritis and esophagitis were noted in all of the children with duodenitis. The etiology of duodenitis was correlated with the patients' clinical diagnosis. Out of 2772 children who had endoscopy, 352 had duodenitis with the prevalence rate of 12.7%. Gastritis was seen in 64% of children with duodenitis compared with 46% of children without duodenitis (P < 0.001). Common indications for endoscopy in children with duodenitis were abdominal pain, positive celiac serology, and diarrhea. The most common etiology was celiac disease (32%), followed by Crohn disease (13%), ulcerative colitis (3%), and Helicobacter pylori infection (6%). In 63% of cases, the endoscopic appearance of duodenum was normal. Cryptitis, villous changes, and cellular infiltration were noted on histology. Prevalence of duodenitis is 12.7% in children undergoing endoscopy. Celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease are common causes of duodenitis. Associated gastritis is common in children with duodenitis, and the correlation of endoscopic appearance with histology is poor.

  14. Prevalence and clinical correlates of explosive outbursts in Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kevin; Budman, Cathy L.; Herrera, Luis Diego; Witkin, Joanna E.; Weiss, Nicholas T.; Lowe, Thomas L.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Reus, Victor I.; Mathews, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and clinical correlates of explosive outbursts in two large samples of individuals with TS, including one collected primarily from non-clinical sources. Participants included 218 TS-affected individuals who were part of a genetic study (N=104 from Costa Rica (CR) and N=114 from the US). The relationship between explosive outbursts and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), tic severity, and prenatal and perinatal complications were examined using regression analyses. Twenty percent of participants had explosive outbursts, with no significant differences in prevalence between the CR (non-clinical) and the US (primarily clinical) samples. In the overall sample, ADHD, greater tic severity, and lower age of tic onset were strongly associated with explosive outbursts. ADHD, prenatal exposure to tobacco, and male gender were significantly associated with explosive outbursts in the US sample. Lower age of onset and greater severity of tics were significantly associated with explosive outbursts in the CR sample. This study confirms previous studies that suggest that clinically significant explosive outbursts are common in TS and associated with ADHD and tic severity. An additional potential risk factor, prenatal exposure to tobacco, was also identified. PMID:23040794

  15. Prevalence and clinical correlates of explosive outbursts in Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kevin; Budman, Cathy L; Diego Herrera, Luis; Witkin, Joanna E; Weiss, Nicholas T; Lowe, Thomas L; Freimer, Nelson B; Reus, Victor I; Mathews, Carol A

    2013-02-28

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and clinical correlates of explosive outbursts in two large samples of individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS), including one collected primarily from non-clinical sources. Participants included 218 TS-affected individuals who were part of a genetic study (N=104 from Costa Rica (CR) and N=114 from the US). The relationships between explosive outbursts and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), tic severity, and prenatal and perinatal complications were examined using regression analyses. Twenty percent of participants had explosive outbursts, with no significant differences in prevalence between the CR (non-clinical) and the US (primarily clinical) samples. In the overall sample, ADHD, greater tic severity, and lower age of tic onset were strongly associated with explosive outbursts. ADHD, prenatal exposure to tobacco, and male gender were significantly associated with explosive outbursts in the US sample. Lower age of onset and greater severity of tics were significantly associated with explosive outbursts in the CR sample. This study confirms previous studies that suggest that clinically significant explosive outbursts are common in TS and associated with ADHD and tic severity. An additional potential risk factor, prenatal exposure to tobacco, was also identified.

  16. Prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kalf, J G; de Swart, B J M; Bloem, B R; Munneke, M

    2012-05-01

    Dysphagia is a potentially harmful feature, also in Parkinson's disease (PD). As published prevalence rates vary widely, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in PD in a meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic literature search in February 2011 and two independent reviewers selected the papers. We computed the estimates of the pooled prevalence weighted by sample size. Twelve studies were suitable for calculating prevalence rates. Ten studies provided an estimate based on subjective outcomes, which proved statistically heterogeneous (p < 0.001), with a pooled prevalence estimate with random effect analysis of 35% (95% CI 28-41). Four studies provided an estimate based on objective measurements, which were statistically homogeneous (p = 0.23), with a pooled prevalence estimate of 82% (95% CI 77-87). In controls the pooled subjective prevalence was 9% (95% CI 2-17), while the pooled objective prevalence was 23% (95% CI 13-32). The pooled relative risk was 3.2 for both subjective outcomes (95% CI 2.32-4.41) and objective outcomes (95% CI 2.08-4.98). Clinical heterogeneity between studies was chiefly explained by differences in disease severity. Subjective dysphagia occurs in one third of community-dwelling PD patients. Objectively measured dysphagia rates were much higher, with 4 out of 5 patients being affected. This suggests that dysphagia is common in PD, but patients do not always report swallowing difficulties unless asked. This underreporting calls for a proactive clinical approach to dysphagia, particularly in light of the serious clinical consequences.

  17. Estimating disease prevalence in two-phase studies.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Todd A; Pepe, Margaret Sullivan; Lumley, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    Disease prevalence is ideally estimated using a 'gold standard' to ascertain true disease status on all subjects in a population of interest. In practice, however, the gold standard may be too costly or invasive to be applied to all subjects, in which case a two-phase design is often employed. Phase 1 data consisting of inexpensive and non-invasive screening tests on all study subjects are used to determine the subjects that receive the gold standard in the second phase. Naive estimates of prevalence in two-phase studies can be biased (verification bias). Imputation and re-weighting estimators are often used to avoid this bias. We contrast the forms and attributes of the various prevalence estimators. Distribution theory and simulation studies are used to investigate their bias and efficiency. We conclude that the semiparametric efficient approach is the preferred method for prevalence estimation in two-phase studies. It is more robust and comparable in its efficiency to imputation and other re-weighting estimators. It is also easy to implement. We use this approach to examine the prevalence of depression in adolescents with data from the Great Smoky Mountain Study.

  18. Embarrassment in Essential Tremor: Prevalence, Clinical Correlates and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Rios, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Background Embarrassment is a commonly described feature of essential tremor (ET) but has not been the focus of clinical research. Objective To estimate the prevalence, identify susceptible patient groups, and quantify the therapeutic correlates of reported embarrassment. Methods 106 ET cases from a population-based sample and 349 ET cases from a clinical sample were asked, “Does your tremor often embarrass you?” Results In the clinical sample, the prevalence of embarrassment was high (58.2%). Even in those ET cases with no head tremor and mild arm tremor, nearly one-half (29/61 [47.5%]) reported embarrassment. While the prevalence of embarrassment was lower in the population-based sample, it was not negligible (18.9%). Embarrassment was associated with younger age of onset (p = 0.003) and women were nearly twice as likely as men to report embarrassment (OR = 1.85, p = 0.01). Independent of tremor severity, embarrassment nearly doubled the odds of using tremor medication (OR = 1.86, p = 0.01). Conclusions Embarrassment may be a source of disability in ET. Even among clinic patients with mild tremor, nearly one-half reported embarrassment. We identified a number of patient characteristics linked to embarrassment. Embarrassment alone (i.e., independent of tremor severity) was responsible for a doubling of tremor medication usage. The majority of clinical trials do not assess the therapeutic effects of medication on embarrassment. These trials may benefit from scaled assessments of level of embarrassment. PMID:19028131

  19. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Camiciottoli, Gianna; Bigazzi, Francesca; Magni, Chiara; Bonti, Viola; Diciotti, Stefano; Bartolucci, Maurizio; Mascalchi, Mario; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH), ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema) and severity (mild and severe diseases) were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide %) and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively). IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed significantly in predominant emphysema, and ischemic heart disease and PVD prevailed in mild COPD. All cardiovascular comorbidities prevailed significantly in predominant airway phenotype of COPD and mild COPD severity. Conclusion Specific comorbidities prevail in different phenotypes of COPD; this fact may be relevant to identify patients at risk for specific, phenotype-related comorbidities. The highest prevalence of comorbidities in patients with mild disease indicates that these patients should be investigated for coexisting diseases or syndromes even in the less severe, pauci-symptomatic stages of COPD. The simple method employed to phenotype and

  20. Prevalence of Masked Hypertension Among US Adults With Nonelevated Clinic Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Claire; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul; Moran, Andrew E; Krakoff, Lawrence R; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2017-02-01

    Masked hypertension (MHT), defined as nonelevated blood pressure (BP) in the clinic setting and elevated BP assessed by ambulatory monitoring, is associated with increased risk of target organ damage, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Currently, no estimate of MHT prevalence exists for the general US population. After pooling data from the Masked Hypertension Study (n = 811), a cross-sectional clinical investigation of systematic differences between clinic BP and ambulatory BP (ABP) in a community sample of employed adults in the New York City metropolitan area (2005-2012), and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 2005-2010; n = 9,316), an ongoing nationally representative US survey, we used multiple imputation to impute ABP-defined hypertension status for NHANES participants and estimate MHT prevalence among the 139 million US adults with nonelevated clinic BP, no history of overt cardiovascular disease, and no use of antihypertensive medication. The estimated US prevalence of MHT in 2005-2010 was 12.3% of the adult population (95% confidence interval: 10.0, 14.5)-approximately 17.1 million persons aged ≥21 years. Consistent with prior research, estimated MHT prevalence was higher among older persons, males, and those with prehypertension or diabetes. To our knowledge, this study provides the first estimate of US MHT prevalence-nearly 1 in 8 adults with nonelevated clinic BP-and suggests that millions of US adults may be misclassified as not having hypertension. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A questionnaire for determining prevalence of diabetes related foot disease (Q-DFD): construction and validation.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Shan M; Brand, Caroline A; Colman, Peter G; Campbell, Donald A

    2009-11-25

    Community based prevalence for diabetes related foot disease (DRFD) has been poorly quantified in Australian populations. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey tool to facilitate collection of community based prevalence data for individuals with DRFD via telephone interview. Agreed components of DRFD were identified through an electronic literature search. Expert feedback and feedback from a population based construction sample were sought on the initial draft. Survey reliability was tested using a cohort recruited through a general practice, a hospital outpatient clinic and an outpatient podiatry clinic. Level of agreement between survey findings and either medical record or clinical assessment was evaluated. The Questionnaire for Diabetes Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD) comprised 12 questions aimed at determining presence of peripheral sensory neuropathy (PN) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD), based on self report of symptoms and/or clinical history, and self report of foot ulceration, amputation and foot deformity. Survey results for 38 from 46 participants demonstrated agreement with either clinical assessment or medical record (kappa 0.65, sensitivity 89.0%, and specificity 77.8%). Correlation for individual survey components was moderate to excellent. Inter and intrarater reliability and test re-test reliability was moderate to high for all survey domains. The development of the Q-DFD provides an opportunity for ongoing collection of prevalence estimates for DRFD across Australia.

  2. A questionnaire for determining prevalence of diabetes related foot disease (Q-DFD): construction and validation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Community based prevalence for diabetes related foot disease (DRFD) has been poorly quantified in Australian populations. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey tool to facilitate collection of community based prevalence data for individuals with DRFD via telephone interview. Methods Agreed components of DRFD were identified through an electronic literature search. Expert feedback and feedback from a population based construction sample were sought on the initial draft. Survey reliability was tested using a cohort recruited through a general practice, a hospital outpatient clinic and an outpatient podiatry clinic. Level of agreement between survey findings and either medical record or clinical assessment was evaluated. Results The Questionnaire for Diabetes Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD) comprised 12 questions aimed at determining presence of peripheral sensory neuropathy (PN) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD), based on self report of symptoms and/or clinical history, and self report of foot ulceration, amputation and foot deformity. Survey results for 38 from 46 participants demonstrated agreement with either clinical assessment or medical record (kappa 0.65, sensitivity 89.0%, and specificity 77.8%). Correlation for individual survey components was moderate to excellent. Inter and intrarater reliability and test re-test reliability was moderate to high for all survey domains. Conclusion The development of the Q-DFD provides an opportunity for ongoing collection of prevalence estimates for DRFD across Australia. PMID:19939276

  3. Higher Prevalence of Sexual Transmitted Diseases and Correlates of Genital Warts among Heterosexual Males Attending Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: Implication for the Up-Taking of STD Related Service

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing burden of STDs is one of China’s major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. Method The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Results Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94–15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08–4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00–3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00–4.04), respectively. Conclusion Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently. PMID:25811185

  4. Cachexia research in Japan: facts and numbers on prevalence, incidence and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Ishida, Junichi; Springer, Jochen; Anker, Stefan D; von Haehling, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Even though most clinical data on cachexia have been reported from Western countries, cachexia may be a growing problem in Asia as well, as the population in this area of the world is considerably larger. Considering the current definitions of obesity and sarcopenia in Japan, which are different from the ones in Western countries, the lack of a distinct cachexia definition in Japan is strinking. Only one epidemiological study has reported the prevalence of cachexia using weight loss as part of the definition in patients with stage III or IV non-small cell lung cancer. Although the reported prevalence of 45.6% is within the range of that in Western countries (28-57% in advanced cancer), we cannot compare the prevalence of cachexia in other types of cancer, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and kidney disease (CKD) between Japan and Western countries. In patients with heart failure, one third of Japanese patients has a body mass index <20.3 kg/m(2) whereas the prevalence of underweight is 13.6% in reports from Western countries. These results may suggest that there are more cachectic heart failure patients in Japan, or that using the same definition like Western countries leads to gross overestimation of the prevalence of cachexia in Japan. The rate of underweight patients in COPD has been reported as 31-41% in COPD and seems to be high in comparison to the prevalence of cachexia in Western countries (27-35%). The reported lowest quartile value of BMI (19.6 kg/m(2)) in CKD may match with the prevalence of cachexia in Western countries (30-60%). The number of clinical trials targeting cachexia is very limited in Japan so far.

  5. The prevalence of autoimmune disease in patients with esophageal achalasia.

    PubMed

    Booy, J D; Takata, J; Tomlinson, G; Urbach, D R

    2012-04-01

    Achalasia is a rare disease of the esophagus that has an unknown etiology. Genetic, infectious, and autoimmune mechanisms have each been proposed. Autoimmune diseases often occur in association with one another, either within a single individual or in a family. There have been separate case reports of patients with both achalasia and one or more autoimmune diseases, but no study has yet determined the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in the achalasia population. This paper aims to compare the prevalence of autoimmune disease in patients with esophageal achalasia to the general population. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 193 achalasia patients who received treatment at Toronto's University Health Network between January 2000 and May 2010 to identify other autoimmune diseases and a number of control conditions. We determined the general population prevalence of autoimmune diseases from published epidemiological studies. The achalasia sample was, on average, 10-15 years older and had slightly more men than the control populations. Compared to the general population, patients with achalasia were 5.4 times more likely to have type I diabetes mellitus (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-19), 8.5 times as likely to have hypothyroidism (95% CI 5.0-14), 37 times as likely to have Sjögren's syndrome (95% CI 1.9-205), 43 times as likely to have systemic lupus erythematosus (95% CI 12-154), and 259 times as likely to have uveitis (95% CI 13-1438). Overall, patients with achalasia were 3.6 times more likely to suffer from any autoimmune condition (95% CI 2.5-5.3). Our findings are consistent with the impression that achalasia's etiology has an autoimmune component. Further research is needed to more conclusively define achalasia as an autoimmune disease.

  6. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Prevalence of rheumatic and congenital heart disease in school children of Andhra Pradesh, South India

    PubMed Central

    Rama Kumari, N.; Bhaskara Raju, I.; Patnaik, Amar N.; Barik, Ramachandra; Singh, Amarpal; Pushpanjali, A.; Laxmi, V.; Satya Ramakrishna, L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and congenital heart disease (CHD) using clinical and echocardiographic criteria in rural and urban school children in Andhra Pradesh, South India. Materials and methods A total of 4213 school children between 5 and 16 years of age were screened. 1177 were from rural schools and 3036 from urban schools. Prevalence of RHD and CHD was estimated. Results Clinically RHD was present in 3 (prevalence 0.7/1000). Using echocardiography RHD was detected in 32 (7.6/1000), 11 (7.3/1000) from rural and 21 (7/1000) from urban schools. (P = 0.000, O.R = 0.093 and C.I. = 0.023–0.317). Total prevalence of RHD is 8.3/1000. Clinically CHD was present in 39 (9.2/1000) children, rural 9 (7.6/1000) and urban 30 (9.9/1000). Using echocardiography CHD was detected in 44 (10.4/1000) children, rural 11 (9.3/1000) and urban 33 (10.8/1000). Conclusion RHD was detected several fold using echocardiographic screening than by clinical examination alone. Longitudinal follow-up of children with echocardiographically diagnosed subclinical RHD is needed. PMID:24023464

  8. Clinical manifestations and management of Gaucher disease

    PubMed Central

    Linari, Silvia; Castaman, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Gaucher disease is a rare multi-systemic metabolic disorder caused by the inherited deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase, which leads to the accumulation of its normal substrate, glucocerebroside, in tissue macrophages with damage to haematological, visceral and bone systems. Anaemia, thrombocytopenia, enlargement of liver and/or spleen, skeletal abnormalities (osteopenia, lytic lesions, pathological fractures, chronic bone pain, bone crisis, bone infarcts, osteonecrosis and skeletal deformities) are typical manifestations of the most prevalent form of the disease, the so-called non-neuronopathic type 1. However, severity and coexistence of different symptoms are highly variable. The determination of deficient β-glucocerebrosidase activity in leukocytes or fibroblasts by enzymatic assay is the gold standard for the diagnosis of Gaucher disease. Comprehensive and reproducible evaluation and monitoring of all clinically relevant aspects are fundamental for the effective management of Gaucher disease patients. Enzyme replacement therapy has been shown to be effective in reducing glucocerebroside storage burden and diminishing the deleterious effects caused by its accumulation. Tailored treatment plan for each patient should be directed to symptom relief, general improvement of quality of life, and prevention of irreversible damage. PMID:26604942

  9. Cataract and Cataract Surgery: Nationwide Prevalence and Clinical Determinants.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Ju Hyun; Kang, Se Woong; Hyon, Joon Young; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical determinants of cataract and cataract surgery in Korean population. The 2008-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed, which included 20,419 participants aged ≥ 40 years. The survey is a multistage, probability-cluster survey, which can produce nationally representative estimates. Prevalence of cataract and cataract surgery was estimated. Clinical determinants for those were investigated using logistic regression analyses (LRAs). The prevalence of cataract was 42.28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.67-43.89); 40.82% (95% CI, 38.97-42.66) for men and 43.62% (95% CI, 41.91-45.33) for women (P = 0.606). The prevalence of cataract surgery was 7.75% (95% CI, 7.30-8.20); 6.38% (95% CI, 5.80-6.96) for men and 9.01% (95% CI, 8.41-9.61) for women (P < 0.001). Cataract was associated with older age (P < 0.001), men (P = 0.032), lower household income (P = 0.031), lower education (P < 0.001), hypertension (P < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (P < 0.001). Cataract surgery was consistently associated with older age, occupation, DM, asthma, and anemia in two LRAs, which compared participants with cataract surgery to those without cataract surgery and those having a cataract but without any cataract surgery, respectively. Hypertension, arthritis, and dyslipidemia were associated with cataract surgery at least in one of these LRAs. These results suggest that there are 9.4 million individuals with cataract and 1.7 million individuals with cataract surgery in Korea. Further studies are warranted to reveal the causality and its possible mechanism of developing/exacerbating cataract in novel determinants (i.e., anemia, asthma, and arthritic conditions) as well as well-known determinants.

  10. Cataract and Cataract Surgery: Nationwide Prevalence and Clinical Determinants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical determinants of cataract and cataract surgery in Korean population. The 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed, which included 20,419 participants aged ≥ 40 years. The survey is a multistage, probability-cluster survey, which can produce nationally representative estimates. Prevalence of cataract and cataract surgery was estimated. Clinical determinants for those were investigated using logistic regression analyses (LRAs). The prevalence of cataract was 42.28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.67–43.89); 40.82% (95% CI, 38.97–42.66) for men and 43.62% (95% CI, 41.91–45.33) for women (P = 0.606). The prevalence of cataract surgery was 7.75% (95% CI, 7.30–8.20); 6.38% (95% CI, 5.80–6.96) for men and 9.01% (95% CI, 8.41–9.61) for women (P < 0.001). Cataract was associated with older age (P < 0.001), men (P = 0.032), lower household income (P = 0.031), lower education (P < 0.001), hypertension (P < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (P < 0.001). Cataract surgery was consistently associated with older age, occupation, DM, asthma, and anemia in two LRAs, which compared participants with cataract surgery to those without cataract surgery and those having a cataract but without any cataract surgery, respectively. Hypertension, arthritis, and dyslipidemia were associated with cataract surgery at least in one of these LRAs. These results suggest that there are 9.4 million individuals with cataract and 1.7 million individuals with cataract surgery in Korea. Further studies are warranted to reveal the causality and its possible mechanism of developing/exacerbating cataract in novel determinants (i.e., anemia, asthma, and arthritic conditions) as well as well-known determinants. PMID:27247507

  11. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in a racially diverse population.

    PubMed

    Collins, Tracie C; Petersen, Nancy J; Suarez-Almazor, Maria; Ashton, Carol M

    2003-06-23

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in white, African American, and English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic patients. We screened patients older than 50 years for PAD at 4 primary care clinics located in the Houston Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the Harris County Hospital District. The disease was diagnosed by an ankle-brachial index of less than 0.9. Patients also completed questionnaires to ascertain symptoms of intermittent claudication, walking difficulty, medical history, and quality of life. We enrolled 403 patients (136 whites; 136 African Americans; and 131 Hispanics, 81 of whom were Spanish speaking). The prevalence of PAD was 13.2% among whites, 22.8% among African Americans, and 13.7% among Hispanics (P =.06). African Americans had a significantly higher prevalence of PAD than whites and Hispanics combined (P =.02). Among all patients who were diagnosed as having PAD on the basis of their ankle-brachial index, only 5 (7.5%) had symptoms of intermittent claudication. Peripheral arterial disease is a prevalent illness in the primary care setting. Its prevalence varies by race and is higher in African Americans than in whites and Hispanics. Relative to the prevalence of PAD, the prevalence of intermittent claudication is low. Since measurement of the ankle-brachial index is not part of the routine clinic visit, many patients with PAD are not diagnosed unless they develop symptoms of intermittent claudication. Because of this, it is likely that many patients remain undiagnosed. Efforts are needed to improve PAD detection in the primary care setting.

  12. Prevalence and progression of mitochondrial diseases: a study of 50 patients.

    PubMed

    Arpa, Javier; Cruz-Martínez, Antonio; Campos, Yolanda; Gutiérrez-Molina, Manuel; García-Rio, Francisco; Pérez-Conde, Concepción; Martín, Miguel A; Rubio, Juan C; Del Hoyo, Pilar; Arpa-Fernández, Ana; Arenas, Joaquín

    2003-12-01

    We report 50 patients with various clinical phenotypes of mitochondrial disease studied over the past 10 years in a large urban area (Madrid Health Area 5). The clinical phenotypes showed a large variety of abnormalities in molecular biology and biochemistry. The prevalence of mitochondrial diseases was found to be 5.7 per 100,000 in the population over 14 years of age. Clinical and electrophysiological assessment reveal signs of neuropathy in 10 patients. Electromyographic findings consistent with myopathy were obtained in 37 cases. Six patients died of medical complications. Disease phenotype influenced survival to some degree (P < 0.01). Age of onset and gender were not associated with differences in survival. Mitochondrial disease is thus far more common than expected and a common cause of chronic morbidity.

  13. Is Metabolic Syndrome Predictive of Prevalence, Extent, and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease beyond Its Components? Results from the Multinational Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcome: An International Multicenter Registry (CONFIRM)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Amir; Leipsic, Jonathon; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Gransar, Heidi; Kalra, Dan; Heo, Ran; Achenbach, Stephan; Andreini, Daniele; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Berman, Daniel S.; Budoff, Matthew; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin; Cury, Ricardo C.; Delago, Augustin; Gomez, Millie J.; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Hindoyan, Niree; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lin, Fay; Maffei, Erica; Pontone, Gianluca; Raff, Gilbert L.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Villines, Todd C.; Dunning, Allison; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Although metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and events, its added prognostic value beyond its components remains unknown. This study compared the prevalence, severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), and prognosis of patients with metabolic syndrome to those with individual metabolic syndrome components. The study cohort consisted of 27125 consecutive individuals who underwent ≥64-detector row coronary CT angiography (CCTA) at 12 centers from 2003 to 2009. Metabolic syndrome was defined as per NCEP/ATP III criteria. Metabolic syndrome patients (n=690) were matched 1:1:1 to those with 1 component (n=690) and 2 components (n=690) of metabolic syndrome for age, sex, smoking status, and family history of premature CAD using propensity scoring. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined by a composite of myocardial infarction (MI), acute coronary syndrome, mortality and late target vessel revascularization. Patients with 1 component of metabolic syndrome manifested lower rates of obstructive 1-, 2-, and 3-vessel/left main disease compared to metabolic syndrome patients (9.4% vs 13.8%, 2.6% vs 4.5%, and 1.0% vs 2.3%, respectively; p<0.05), while those with 2 components did not (10.5% vs 13.8%, 2.8% vs 4.5% and 1.3% vs 2.3%, respectively; p>0.05). At 2.5 years, metabolic syndrome patients experienced a higher rate of MACE compared to patients with 1 component (4.4% vs 1.6%; p=0.002), while no difference observed compared to individuals with 2 components (4.4% vs 3.2% p=0.25) of metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, Metabolic syndrome patients have significantly greater prevalence, severity, and prognosis of CAD compared to patients with 1 but not 2 components of metabolic syndrome. PMID:25734639

  14. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in paramedics.

    PubMed

    Hegg-Deloye, S; Brassard, P; Prairie, J; Larouche, D; Jauvin, N; Poirier, P; Tremblay, A; Corbeil, P

    2015-10-01

    Occupational stress and obesity are very prevalent in emergency workers. Some studies have also associated high tobacco consumption rates with occupational stress. Each of these factors is known to increase cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of occupational stress, overweight and tobacco consumption in paramedics. This cross-sectional study of paramedics consisted in a self-report survey of 44 questions divided into two sections. The first section collected demographic information and the second evaluated occupational stressors. The questions were designed to determine the prevalence of work-related psychosocial factors, overweight (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) and tobacco consumption (cig/day ≥ 1). The demand-control-social support model and the effort-reward model were used to estimate job strain, iso-strain and imbalance in effort and reward. More than 88 % of paramedics reported at least one cardiovascular risk factor, with males reporting more risk factors than females. Ninety percent of male paramedics reported occupational stress, 12 % reported smoking, and 79 % were overweight or obese by self-report. The prevalence of occupational stress and smoking was similar for female paramedics, but with a lower prevalence of overweight (37 %). By self-report, nine out of ten paramedics are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Both individual and organizational efforts should be made to educate and support paramedics and their organizations in reducing these workers' cardiovascular risk.

  15. Prevalence of hepatitis C serum antibody in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Ram, Maya; Barzilai, Ori; Porat-Katz, Bat Sheva; Parikman, Ronit; Selmi, Carlo; Gershwin, M Eric; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Youinou, Pierre; Bizzaro, Nicola; Tincani, Angela; Tzioufas, Athanasios G; Cervera, Ricard; Stojanovich, Ljudmila; Martin, Javier; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel Angel; Valentini, Gabriele; Blank, Miri; SanMarco, Marielle; Rozman, Blaz; Bombardieri, Stefano; De Vita, Salvatore; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of serum antibodies against hepatitis C virus and other infectious agents in a large cohort of well-characterized patients with autoimmune diseases (AID). We utilized 1322 sera from patients with 18 different AID and 236 sera from healthy controls from the same countries and with similar age and sex distribution. All sera were tested for the presence of serum anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies as well as antibodies directed at other infectious agents and autoantibodies. Anti-HCV antibody was detected in 115/1322 (8.7%) of patients with AID and 0.4% of matched healthy controls (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of anti-HCV antibody was significantly higher in 7/18 different AID (i.e. cryoglobulinemia, mixed cryoglobulinemia pemphigus vulgaris, vasculitis, secondary anti-phospholipid syndrome, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and inflammatory bowel disease) compared to controls. Patients with AID and serum anti-HCV positivity had an increased prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis B virus, Toxoplasma gondii and Cytomegalovirus as opposed to a lower frequency of serum autoantibodies. The enhanced prevalence of anti-HCV serum antibodies in AID may suggest a role for HCV in tolerance to breakdown, similarly to its established role in mixed cryoglobulinemia. This immune mediated effect does not rule out the role of other infectious agents.

  16. Primary breast sarcoma: prevalence, clinical signs, and radiological features.

    PubMed

    Surov, Alexey; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Ruschke, Kathrin; Spielmann, Rolf Peter

    2011-07-01

    Primary breast sarcoma is very rare. Most reports regarding sarcoma of the breast are clinical observations or pathological series and provide either no or inconstant radiological information. Radiological publications consist predominantly of isolated case reports or small series. To determine the prevalence, clinical signs, and radiological features of primary breast sarcoma. This is a retrospective review of 21 patients with breast sarcoma. All patients were female and their median age was 66 years (range 27-86). In all patients the diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically. The prevalence of breast sarcoma was 0.1% of all identified cases with breast malignancies. Clinically, all patients presented with solitary painless breast lumps. There was no uni- or bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. On mammography (n = 19), two mammographic patterns could be identified: breast masses (68%), and architectural distortion (32%). On ultrasound (n = 8), most lesions were homogeneously hypoechoic, lobular or oval in shape with microlobulated or indistinct margins. On magnetic resonance imaging (n = 3), marked inhomogeneous contrast enhancement was seen in all investigated cases. The imaging findings of primary breast sarcoma are not pathognomonic. However, they should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions.

  17. Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, and Differential Diagnosis of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Birmaher, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the past 20 years, the evidence regarding pediatric bipolar disorder (BP) has increased substantially. As a result, recent concerns have focused primarily on prevalence and differential diagnosis. Method Selective review of the literature. Results BP as defined by rigorously applying diagnostic criteria has been observed among children and especially adolescents in numerous countries. In contrast to increasing diagnoses in clinical settings, prevalence in epidemiologic studies has not recently changed. BP-spectrum conditions among youth are highly impairing and confer high risk for conversion to BP-I and BP-II. Compared to adults, youth with BP have more mixed symptoms, more changes in mood polarity, are more often symptomatic and seem to have worse prognosis. The course, clinical characteristics, and comorbidities of BP among children and adolescents are in many ways otherwise similar to those of adults with BP. Nonetheless, many youth with BP receive no treatment and most do not receive BP-specific treatment. Conclusion Despite increased evidence supporting the validity of pediatric BP, discrepancies between clinical and epidemiologic findings suggest that diagnostic misapplication may be common. Simultaneously, low rates of treatment of youth with BP suggest that withholding of BP diagnoses may also be common. Clinicians should apply diagnostic criteria rigorously in order to optimize diagnostic accuracy and ensure appropriate treatment. PMID:22652925

  18. Clinical associations of Dupuytren's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hart, M; Hooper, G

    2005-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a common progressive fibrotic condition affecting the palmar and digital fascia. Although its management is undertaken by hand surgeons, it is commonly seen by other doctors as an incidental finding. In many cases it is believed to be associated with other medical conditions, although the evidence for such associations is not always clear. This review considers the evidence behind these associations and discusses the aetiology of DD. By doing so, it is hoped that this review will permit a better understanding of the relevance of DD as a clinical sign. PMID:15998816

  19. [Prevalence and distribution of genetic diseases in Quebec: impact of the past on the present].

    PubMed

    Laberge, Anne-Marie

    2007-11-01

    The prevalence and distribution of genetic diseases in the province of Quebec has been influenced by its population history. The current French Canadian population stems from 8,500 pioneers who left France for Nouvelle-France between 1608 and 1759. After the English conquest of Nouvelle-France in 1759, the French Canadian population remained mostly genetically isolated, for linguistic, cultural, and religious reasons. The migration of a small number of French individuals to Nouvelle-France created a founder effect. Subsequent migrations inland have created smaller regional founder effects. The limited size of the population favoured genetic drift, and the social context encouraged endogamy, i.e. unions between French Canadians with little admixture with English and other immigrants. Founder effects, genetic drift, and endogamy have all played a role in the current prevalence and distribution of genetic diseases now found in Quebec. The prevalence and distribution of genetic diseases in Quebec need to be taken into account in clinical practice. When clinicians are knowledgeable about the genetic diseases prevalent in the population they treat, they know to consider these diseases in differential diagnoses when appropriate and prioritize investigations accordingly. When developing a new diagnostic test for a genetic disease, the prevalence of the disease and the nature of the mutations found in the target population need to be taken into account. The performance of the test will depend on how well it accounts for the particularities of the disease in that population. In other words, how well does it detect the mutations found in that population? Interpretation of individual genetic test results will also depend on how well the test is expected to perform in the individual's population.

  20. Autoinflammatory diseases in adults. Clinical characteristics and prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    González García, A; Patier de la Peña, J L; Ortego Centeno, N

    2017-03-01

    Autoinflammatory diseases are clinical conditions with inflammatory manifestations that present in a periodic or persistent manner and are caused by acquired or hereditary disorders of the innate immune response. In general, these diseases are more common in childhood, but cases have been reported in adults and are therefore important for all specialists. There are few references on these diseases in adults due to their low prevalence and underdiagnosis. The aim of this study is to review the scientific literature on these disorders to systematise their clinical, prognostic and treatment response characteristics in adults.

  1. Prevalence of visual impairment and eye diseases in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Irak-Dersu, Inci; Balamurugan, Appathurai

    2010-09-01

    Visual impairment and eye diseases are major public health concerns of the 21st century, particularly as our population ages. The prevalence of these conditions has not been described in Arkansas. We analyzed the vision module of the Arkansas behavioral risk factor surveillance system to estimate the burden due to these disabling conditions. The prevalence of glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract among Arkansans > 40 years was found to be 5.5% (95% CI, 4.7 - 6.3), 5.3% (95% CI, 4.5 - 6.0), and 13.7% (95% CI, 12.6 - 14.8), respectively. Vision related quality of life was also studied. Public health strategies to reduce the burden due to visual impairment and eye diseases are the need of the hour.

  2. 76 FR 78740 - Agency Information Collection (Prevalence and Clinical Course of Depression Among Patients With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Prevalence and Clinical Course of Depression Among Patients With... Control No. 2900- 0719.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: Prevalence and Clinical Course of Depression.... Abstracts: The data collected will be used to evaluate the prevalence of clinical depression and depressive...

  3. Prevalence of oral lesions in hospitalized patients with infectious diseases in northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gemaque, Karina; Giacomelli Nascimento, Gustavo; Cintra Junqueira, José Luiz; Cavalcanti de Araújo, Vera; Furuse, Cristiane

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral lesions in infectious-contagious diseases patients being treated in the University Hospital of the Federal University of Pará, northern Brazil. One hundred seven patients with infectious diseases were clinically investigated for oral lesions at the University Hospital of Pará, northern Brazil. From total sample, most patients were men (65.7%) with a mean age of 45.4 years. About prevalence of systemic diseases, tuberculosis was the most frequent illness, followed by AIDS, hepatitis types B and C, leishmaniasis, and meningitis. Analyzing oral manifestations, periodontal diseases and candidiasis were the most prevalent diseases in both genders, followed by recurrent aphthous ulcers, saburral tongue, simplex herpes, and squamous cell carcinoma. Of all 107 patients, only 10 males and 6 females did not present any oral manifestation. There was no statistical difference between genders with any systemic condition (P>0.05). The great prevalence of oral manifestations in hospitalized patients with systemic disorder emphasizes the need of integral dental care in this context, aiming at a multidisciplinary approach of patients. Therefore, presence of some oral conditions, such as candidiasis, should be an alert to different systemic conditions, once in assistance with physicians; dentists can influence the early diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Maíta Poli de; Kleine, Henrique Truffa; Parmigiano, Tathiana Rebizzi; Gomes, Natalia Tavares; Caparroz, Graziela Pascom; Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro da; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes. An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted including 50 female athletes with mean age of 20 ± 3 years. Colposcopy, pap smear, and polymerase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were performed. Blood samples were collected to test for the human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B and C. The athletes presenting clinical diseases or conditions identifiable by laboratory tests were treated and followed up in the unit. Forty-six percent of the participants were unaware of sexually transmitted diseases. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among athletes was 48% (24 cases). Human papillomavirus was the most frequent agent (44%). Considering the human papillomavirus genotypes, subtype 16 was the most prevalent (53%), followed by 11-6 (22%) and 18 (13%). Two athletes tested positive for C. trachomatis. There were no cases diagnosed of infection by N. gonorrhoeae, syphilis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. However, only 26 athletes had been vaccinated for hepatitis B. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes was high. Primary prevention measures (hepatitis B and human papillomavirus vaccination) and secondary (serology, pap smears) must be offered to this specific group of women. The matter should be further approached in sports.

  5. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Maíta Poli; Kleine, Henrique Truffa; Parmigiano, Tathiana Rebizzi; Gomes, Natalia Tavares; Caparroz, Graziela Pascom; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted including 50 female athletes with mean age of 20±3 years. Colposcopy, pap smear, and polymerase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were performed. Blood samples were collected to test for the human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B and C. The athletes presenting clinical diseases or conditions identifiable by laboratory tests were treated and followed up in the unit. Results: Forty-six percent of the participants were unaware of sexually transmitted diseases. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among athletes was 48% (24 cases). Human papillomavirus was the most frequent agent (44%). Considering the human papillomavirus genotypes, subtype 16 was the most prevalent (53%), followed by 11-6 (22%) and 18 (13%). Two athletes tested positive for C. trachomatis. There were no cases diagnosed of infection by N. gonorrhoeae, syphilis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. However, only 26 athletes had been vaccinated for hepatitis B. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes was high. Primary prevention measures (hepatitis B and human papillomavirus vaccination) and secondary (serology, pap smears) must be offered to this specific group of women. The matter should be further approached in sports. PMID:24728243

  6. Estimating the incidence, prevalence and clinical burden of hepatitis C over time in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Andrea; Scalia Tomba, Gianpaolo; Tosti, Maria Elena; Spada, Enea; Mele, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to estimate HCV clinical burden over time in Italy. A national age-specific HCV prevalence in 1995 was obtained from studies conducted in general population samples and intravenous drug users. Age profile of new HCV infections and trend of incidence since 1985 were derived from a database of reported acute HCV infections. These incidence and prevalence data were used to estimate HCV burden from 1950 to 2030 by mathematical modelling. Different rates of HCV related liver disease progression were tested to assess the robustness of estimates. It is estimated that HCV had a major spread in Italy in 1945-1969. HCV RNA-positive subjects peaked around 1970; their prevalence in 2005 was 3.2%, 58% of them being >65 y of age. The number of individuals with HCV related cirrhosis and that of HCV liver related deaths peaked in 1980-1985. In 2005, they were approximately 230,000 (range 150,000-240,000, according to lower or higher disease progression rates) and approximately 7,000 (range 2200-12,300), respectively: both will be halved by 2025. In conclusion, unlike other industrialized countries, the burden of clinically relevant HCV-positive cases in Italy is already on the decline and will further reduce in the future. This is due to differences in the age-specific prevalence, most of HCV-positive Italians currently being >65 y of age.

  7. Prevalence of referral reasons and clinical symptoms for endodontic referrals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of different primary reasons for endodontic referrals and the clinical symptoms of the referred cases. Materials and Methods Clinical data of total endodontic treatment cases (1,014 teeth) including endodontic referral cases (224 teeth) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012, at Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, were investigated retrospectively. The one major reason for referral, the clinical symptoms, and the resulting treatment procedures of referral cases were recorded. The percentages of clinical symptoms of the endodontic referral cases and the total endodontic treatment cases were compared by χ2 test for each symptom. Results Persistent pain was the most frequent reason for endodontic referral (29.5%), followed by presence of gingival swelling and sinus tract (24.1%), and apical radiolucency (12.9%). Referrals in cases involving endodontic difficulties such as canal calcification, broken instruments, post, perforation, and resorption were less than 5.0%, respectively. The percentages of four major clinical symptoms of pain, apical radiolucency, previous endodontic treatment, and gingival swelling and sinus tract were significantly higher in the endodontic referral cases than those in the total endodontic cases (p = 0.001). Among the included referral cases, 72.8% were treated with nonsurgical endodontic treatment only. Teeth other than the referred teeth were diagnosed as the origin of the problem in 5.8% of the referrals. Conclusions The high prevalence of pain, apical radiolucency, previous treatment, and gingival swelling and sinus tract in endodontic referral cases suggest that these symptoms may be what general practitioners consider to be difficult and refer to endodontists. PMID:25110645

  8. Increased prevalence of autoimmune disease within C9 and FTD/MND cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Virginia E.; Camsari, Gamze Balci; Karydas, Anna; Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Boxer, Adam L.; Rosen, Howard J.; Rankin, Katherine P.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Rademakers, Rosa; Seeley, William W.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of autoimmune disease in symptomatic C9ORF72 (C9) mutation carriers and frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease (FTD/MND) cohorts. Methods: In this case-control study, we reviewed the clinical histories of 66 patients with FTD/MND and 57 symptomatic C9 carriers (24 overlapping cases), a total of 99 charts, for history of autoimmune disease. The prevalence of autoimmune disease in C9 and FTD/MND cohorts was determined by χ2 and Fisher exact comparisons between the combined C9 and FTD/MND group with normal control, Alzheimer disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy cohorts, as well as comparisons within C9 and FTD/MND cohorts. Results: Our combined C9 and FTD/MND cohort has a 12% prevalence of nonthyroid autoimmune disease. The prevalence of nonthyroid autoimmune disease in C9 and FTD/MND is similar to the rates in previously detailed progranulin and semantic variant primary progressive aphasia cohorts and elevated in comparison to previously collected normal control and typical Alzheimer disease cohorts, as well as a newly screened progressive supranuclear palsy cohort. Furthermore, the types of autoimmune disease in this combined C9 and FTD/MND cohort cluster within the same 3 categories previously described in progranulin and semantic variant primary progressive aphasia: inflammatory arthritides, cutaneous conditions, and gastrointestinal disorders. Conclusions: The association between selective autoimmune disease and neurodegenerative disorders unified by the underlying pathology frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43–positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP) extends to C9 and FTD/MND cohorts, providing further evidence that select autoimmune inflammation may be intrinsically linked to FTLD-TDP pathophysiology. PMID:27844039

  9. Seronegative celiac disease: Shedding light on an obscure clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Volta, Umberto; Caio, Giacomo; Boschetti, Elisa; Giancola, Fiorella; Rhoden, Kerry J; Ruggeri, Eugenio; Paterini, Paola; De Giorgio, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Although serological tests are useful for identifying celiac disease, it is well established that a minority of celiacs are seronegative. To define the prevalence and features of seronegative compared to seropositive celiac disease, and to establish whether celiac disease is a common cause of seronegative villous atrophy. Starting from 810 celiac disease diagnoses, seronegative patients were retrospectively characterized for clinical, histological and laboratory findings. Of the 810 patients, fourteen fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for seronegative celiac disease based on antibody negativity, villous atrophy, HLA-DQ2/-DQ8 positivity and clinical/histological improvement after gluten free diet. Compared to seropositive, seronegative celiac disease showed a significantly higher median age at diagnosis and a higher prevalence of classical phenotype (i.e., malabsorption), autoimmune disorders and severe villous atrophy. The most frequent diagnosis in the 31 cases with seronegative flat mucosa was celiac disease (45%), whereas other diagnoses were Giardiasis (20%), common variable immunodeficiency (16%) and autoimmune enteropathy (10%). Although rare seronegative celiac disease can be regarded as the most frequent cause of seronegative villous atrophy being characterized by a high median age at diagnosis; a close association with malabsorption and flat mucosa; and a high prevalence of autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Non Allergic Rhinitis: Prevalence, Clinical Profile and Knowledge Gaps in Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Deepa; Bhargava, Kamlesh; Al-Abri, Ahmed; Al-Bassam, Wameedh; Al-Abri, Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Although Nasal symptoms induced by Non-allergic rhinitis| (NAR) are a cause of wide spread morbidity; the disease is trivialized. There is a lack of Epidemiological studies on the prevalence of non-allergic rhinitis. In spite of being one of the commonest conditions presenting to the General practitioner and otolaryngologists, the clinical profile, diagnosis, and management outcomes are unknown. The objectives of the study were to examine the prevalence and clinical profile of non-allergic rhinitis in Oman. Secondary objective was to identify Knowledge gaps in literature with the aim of directing future research. Methods A cross sectional study of 610 consecutive adult patients presenting to the Ear, Nose and Throat clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital is presented in this paper. The diagnosis of NAR was mainly based on step wise fashion; including a thorough clinical history and exclusion of other causes of rhinitis; all consecutive patients diagnosed with rhinitis (n=113) had a detailed history, nasal endoscopy, nasal smears, CT scans and an antihistamine response trial. The prevalence of NAR with its clinical profile was subsequently determined. Primary research articles and meta-analysis evaluated for the knowledge gap study were identified through MEDLINE search of English language literature published between 2000-2011. Results A total of 610 consecutive patients were studied. The overall prevalence of rhinitis was 18.5% (n=113). The prevalence of NAR was 7.5% (n=46). Cases of allergic rhinitis (5.7%; n=35), Chronic rhinosinusitis (1.8%; n=11), and miscellaneous causes (3.4%; n=21) were excluded. Among the rhinitis population (n=113), the prevalence of NAR was 57% (n=46). The major presenting symptoms included nasal obstruction (93%; n=43), postnasal drainage (78%; n=36), and rhinorrhea (62%; n=29). For the knowledge gap study; 115 Medline titles were reviewed, four systematic reviews, and 34 research papers were reviewed. The text of two

  11. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Gayton, Johnny L

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This review article examines the prevalence, etiology, and current therapies of dry eye disease, with special focus on postmenopausal women. Method: A systematic literature search utilizing MEDLINE was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles related to dry eye published prior to September 2008. The terms “dry eye” and “women” were searched in combination with one or more of the following words or phrases: prevalence, postmenopausal, etiology, risk factors, therapy, medications, surgery, tear film, and quality of life. Articles were selected based on their direct applicability to the subject matter. A manual search was also conducted based on citations in the published literature. Results: Epidemiologic studies identified prevalence rates ranging from 7% in the United States to 33% in Taiwan and Japan. Risk factors include advanced age, female sex, smoking, extreme heat or cold weather conditions, low relative humidity, use of video display terminals, refractive surgery, contact lens wear, and certain medications. Conclusion: The last decade has brought about a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye disease. New therapies that can alleviate the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease and, consequently, improve the quality of life of dry eye patients are available in the market. PMID:19688028

  12. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Gayton, Johnny L

    2009-01-01

    This review article examines the prevalence, etiology, and current therapies of dry eye disease, with special focus on postmenopausal women. A systematic literature search utilizing MEDLINE was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles related to dry eye published prior to September 2008. The terms "dry eye" and "women" were searched in combination with one or more of the following words or phrases: prevalence, postmenopausal, etiology, risk factors, therapy, medications, surgery, tear film, and quality of life. Articles were selected based on their direct applicability to the subject matter. A manual search was also conducted based on citations in the published literature. Epidemiologic studies identified prevalence rates ranging from 7% in the United States to 33% in Taiwan and Japan. Risk factors include advanced age, female sex, smoking, extreme heat or cold weather conditions, low relative humidity, use of video display terminals, refractive surgery, contact lens wear, and certain medications. The last decade has brought about a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye disease. New therapies that can alleviate the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease and, consequently, improve the quality of life of dry eye patients are available in the market.

  13. Moyamoya Disease: Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong S.

    2016-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic, occlusive cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive stenosis at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. Although its etiology remains unknown, recent genetic studies identified RNF213 in the 17q25-ter region as an important susceptibility gene of MMD among East Asian populations. Possibly because of genetic differences, MMD is relatively common in people living in East Asian countries such as Korea and Japan, compared to those in the Western Hemisphere. The prevalence of MMD appears to be slightly lower among Chinese, compared to Koreans or Japanese. There are two peaks of incidence with different clinical presentations, at around 10 years and 30-40 years. The peak appears to occur later in women than men. In children, ischemic symptoms, especially transient ischemic attacks, are predominant. Intellectual decline, seizures, and involuntary movements are also more common in this age group. In contrast, adult patients present with intracranial hemorrhage more often than pediatric patients. In patients with MMD, intracerebral hemorrhage is more often accompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage than in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. These different age peaks and different clinical presentations in each age group are also observed in MMD patients in the USA. Catheter angiography is the diagnostic method of choice. Magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and computed tomographic angiography are noninvasive diagnostic methods. High-resolution vessel wall MR imaging also helps diagnose MMD by revealing concentric vessel wall narrowing with basal collaterals. PMID:26846755

  14. MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL CLASSIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Ajvazi, Alil; Lutaj, Pajtim; Goranci, Ilhami

    2014-01-01

    To ascertain the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy--DR, based on the duration of the diabetes mellitus--DM and to compare it with data from relevant literature and other referent clinics. In this study are included the patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 insulin-dependent--DMID and diabetes mellitus type 2 non-insulin-dependent--DMNID. The duration of diabetes in the examined patients varied from 5 till 30 years. We have applied examination by ophthalmoscope, slit lamp bio-microscopy with Volk and Goldman lens, optical coherence tomography--OCT as well as fluorescein angiography--FAG. Have been included the treated patients with DR, from September 2004-2014. In diabetic patients suffering for a period of 5 years, the prevalence of DR is 10%. In diabetic patients suffering over 30 years, the prevalence of DR is varied from 82% until 97%. Diabetic retinopathy, undertakes a multidisciplinary approach in all patients with diabetes to achieve optimal blood glucose control HbA1c levels 7.0% or lower and to adequately manage systolic blood pressure less than 140 mmHg and serum LDL cholesterol of less than 2.5 mmol/L and triglycerides of less than 2.0 mmol/L. Always should be assessed visual acuity at the time of DR examination.

  15. Bayesian inference for disease prevalence using negative binomial group testing

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Nicholas A.; Tebbs, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Group testing, also known as pooled testing, and inverse sampling are both widely used methods of data collection when the goal is to estimate a small proportion. Taking a Bayesian approach, we consider the new problem of estimating disease prevalence from group testing when inverse (negative binomial) sampling is used. Using different distributions to incorporate prior knowledge of disease incidence and different loss functions, we derive closed form expressions for posterior distributions and resulting point and credible interval estimators. We then evaluate our new estimators, on Bayesian and classical grounds, and apply our methods to a West Nile Virus data set. PMID:21259308

  16. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are prevalent both in developed and developing countries and affect about 20-50% of global population. High prevalence of periodontal disease in adolescents, adults, and older individuals makes it a public health concern. Several risk factors such as smoking, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, medication, age, hereditary, and stress are related to periodontal diseases. Robust evidence shows the association of periodontal diseases with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Periodontal disease is likely to cause 19% increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, and this increase in relative risk reaches to 44% among individuals aged 65 years and over. Type 2 diabetic individuals with severe form of periodontal disease have 3.2 times greater mortality risk compared with individuals with no or mild periodontitis. Periodontal therapy has been shown to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Periodontitis is related to maternal infection, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. Oral disease prevention strategies should be incorporated in chronic systemic disease preventive initiatives to curtail the burden of disease in populations. The reduction in the incidence and prevalence of periodontal disease can reduce its associated systemic diseases and can also minimize their financial impact on the health-care systems. It is hoped that medical, dental practitioners, and other health-care professionals will get familiar with perio-systemic link and risk factors, and need to refer to the specialized dental or periodontal care.

  17. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are prevalent both in developed and developing countries and affect about 20-50% of global population. High prevalence of periodontal disease in adolescents, adults, and older individuals makes it a public health concern. Several risk factors such as smoking, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, medication, age, hereditary, and stress are related to periodontal diseases. Robust evidence shows the association of periodontal diseases with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Periodontal disease is likely to cause 19% increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, and this increase in relative risk reaches to 44% among individuals aged 65 years and over. Type 2 diabetic individuals with severe form of periodontal disease have 3.2 times greater mortality risk compared with individuals with no or mild periodontitis. Periodontal therapy has been shown to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Periodontitis is related to maternal infection, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. Oral disease prevention strategies should be incorporated in chronic systemic disease preventive initiatives to curtail the burden of disease in populations. The reduction in the incidence and prevalence of periodontal disease can reduce its associated systemic diseases and can also minimize their financial impact on the health-care systems. It is hoped that medical, dental practitioners, and other health-care professionals will get familiar with perio-systemic link and risk factors, and need to refer to the specialized dental or periodontal care. PMID:28539867

  18. The Changing Landscape of Randomized Clinical Trials in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, W Schuyler; Roe, Matthew T; Antman, Elliott M; Pletcher, Mark J; Harrington, Robert A; Rothman, Russell L; Oetgen, William J; Rao, Sunil V; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Curtis, Lesley H; Hernandez, Adrian F; Masoudi, Frederick A

    2016-10-25

    Large randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular disease have proliferated over the past 3 decades, with results that have influenced every aspect of cardiology practice. Despite these advances, there remains a substantial need for more high-quality evidence to inform cardiovascular clinical practice, given the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease around the world. Traditional clinical trials are increasingly challenging due to rising costs, increasing complexity and length, and burdensome institutional and regulatory requirements. This review will examine the current landscape of cardiovascular clinical trials in the United States, highlight recently conducted registry-based clinical trials, and discuss the potential attributes of the recently launched pragmatic clinical trial by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute's National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network, called the ADAPTABLE (Aspirin Dosing: A Patient-centric Trial Assessing the Benefits and Long-term Effectiveness) trial.

  19. Prevalence of Clinical Periodontitis and Putative Periodontal Pathogens among South Indian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Tellapragada, Chaitanya; Eshwara, Vandana Kalwaje; Acharya, Shashidhar; Bhat, Parvati; Kamath, Asha; Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2014-01-01

    In view of recent understanding of the association of periodontal infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the present investigation was undertaken to study the periodontal infections among 390 asymptomatic pregnant women and to find an association of bacterial etiologies with the disease. Prevalence of gingivitis was 38% and clinical periodontitis was 10% among the study population. Subgingival plaque specimens were subjected to multiplex PCR targeting ten putative periodontopathogenic bacteria. Among the periodontitis group, high detection rates of Porphyromonas gingivalis (56%), Prevotella nigrescens (44%), Treponema denticola (32%), and Prevotella intermedius (24%) were noted along with significant association with the disease (P < 0.05). PMID:24899898

  20. [Prevalence of asymmetrical blood pressure in uncontrolled hypertensive patients is high and highly related with cardiovascular diseases prevalence].

    PubMed

    Allaert, F-A; Fouchères, G; Elias-Billon, I; Maigret, P

    2016-06-01

    A meta-analysis has shown that an asymmetry of the blood pressure (ABP) between arm≥15mmHg and perhaps≥10mmHg is associated with an increase of cardiovascular diseases. To describe the prevalence of ABP in patients presenting an uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) under treatment, an observational cross sectional study was conducted. Factors influencing prevalence of ABP were identified and relation of ABP with the frequency of the cardiovascular diseases or subclinicals organs damages was evaluated. A total of 2417 patients, 63.3±11.0years old, presenting uncontrolled BP (according ESC criteria) by a previous antihypertensive therapy were included. Only 36.8% (95% CI [34.9-38.7]) were presenting a between-arm difference in systolic blood pressure≥10mmHg, and 17.1% (95% CI [15.6-18.6])≥15mmHg. MRA shows systolic ABP≥10mmHg prevalence was influenced by dyslipidemia (OR: 1.5 [1.2-1.7], P<0.0001) and by family history of early cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.6 [1.3-1.9], P<0.0001). MRA adjusted on CVRF shows that besides the dyslipidemia effect, systolic ABP≥10mmHg influences the frequency of sub-clinical impairment of target organ (OR: 1.6 [1.3-1.9], P<0.0001), of coronary heart disease (OR: 1.8 [1.4-2.4], P<0.0001), and globally the presence of a cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.7 [1.4-2.1], P<0.0001). The effect on stroke frequency was showed with an systolic ABP≥15mmHg (OR: 1.6 [1.1-2.4], P<0.02). In uncontrolled hypertensive patients, screening of an ABP should help to identify clinically patients with high risk of cardiovascular diseases or with subclinical organs damages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Tumefactive Gallbladder Sludge at US: Prevalence and Clinical Importance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mimi; Kang, Tae Wook; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Seong Hyun; Ha, Sang Yun; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Gu, Seonhye

    2016-11-15

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of tumefactive sludge of the gallbladder detected at ultrasonography (US) and to assess whether any clinical and imaging differences exist between benign and malignant tumefactive sludge. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. The requirement for informed consent was waived. The study included a cohort (n = 6898) of patients with gallbladder sludge drawn from all adults (n = 115 178) who underwent abdominal US between March 2001 and March 2015. Tumefactive sludge was identified according to the following US findings: (a) nonmovable mass-like lesion and (b) absence of posterior acoustic shadowing at B-mode US and vascularity at color Doppler US. Follow-up examinations were arranged to ascertain whether the results showed true sludge or gallbladder cancer. Risk factors for malignant tumefactive sludge based on clinical and US characteristics were identified with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of gallbladder and tumefactive sludge at abdominal US during the observation period was 6.0% (6898 of 115 178) and 0.1% (135 of 115 178), respectively. Twenty-eight (20.7%) patients were lost to follow-up. Of the 107 with tumefactive sludge, 15 (14%) were confirmed to have malignant tumefactive sludge. The risk factors for malignant tumefactive sludge were old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; P = .035), female sex (OR, 5.48; P = .014), and absence of hyperechoic spots within the sludge (OR, 6.78; P = .008). Conclusion Although the prevalence of tumefactive sludge at US was rare, a considerable proportion of patients had a malignancy. Careful follow-up is essential, especially for older patients, women, and those with an absence of hyperechoic spots at US. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  2. Prevalence of Hypertension among Patients Attending Mobile Medical Clinics in the Philippines after Typhoon Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    Mobula, Linda Meta; Fisher, Mary Lou; Lau, Nathan; Estelle, Abi; Wood, Tom; Plyler, William

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: On November 8, 2013, Super Typhoon Haiyan struck the Philippines, causing a humanitarian emergency. According to the World Health Organization, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, are the leading cause of death and disability around the world. NCDs kill 38 million people each year.  Sixteen million NCD deaths occur before the age of 70; 82% of which occurred in low- and middle-income countries.  NCDs are further exacerbated during a crisis, and addressing them should be a concern of any medical disaster response. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study to determine the prevalence of hypertension among patients seeking medical care at mobile medical clinics after Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. Results: A total of 3,730 adults were evaluated at the mobile medical clinics. Analysis of the medical records revealed that the overall prevalence of hypertension among adult patients was 47%. Approximately 24% of adult females and 27% of adult males were classified with stage 2 Hypertension. Conclusions: Evidence-based guidelines on the management of hypertension and other NCDs (diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease and mental health) during humanitarian emergencies are limited. Clinical care of victims of humanitarian emergencies suffering with NCDs should be a critical part of disaster relief and recovery efforts.  We therefore recommend the development of best practices and evidence based management guidelines of hypertension and other NCDs in post-disaster settings. PMID:28286697

  3. Body dysmorphic disorder among dermatologic patients: Prevalence and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Conrado, Luciana Archetti; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Fossaluza, Victor; Torres, Albina Rodrigues; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Rivitti, Evandro Ararigboia

    2010-08-01

    An impairing preoccupation with a nonexistent or slight defect in appearance is the core symptom of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a psychiatric condition common in dermatology settings. We sought to determine the prevalence of BDD in dermatologic patients, comparing general and cosmetic settings, and describing some demographic and clinical characteristics. In all, 300 patients were consecutively assessed. Screening and diagnoses were performed with validated instruments plus a best estimate diagnosis procedure. The final sample comprised 150 patients in the cosmetic group, 150 patients in the general dermatology group, and 50 control subjects. Standard statistical analyses were performed (chi(2), nonparametric tests, logistic regression). The current prevalence was higher in the cosmetic group (14.0%) compared with general (6.7%) and control (2.0%) groups. No patient had a previous diagnosis. Frequently the reason for seeking dermatologic treatment was not the main BDD preoccupation. Patients with BDD from the cosmetic group were in general unsatisfied with the results of dermatologic treatments. Cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital is a limitation. It is uncertain if the findings can be generalized. Retrospective data regarding previous treatments are not free from bias. BDD is relatively common in a dermatologic setting, especially among patients seeking cosmetic treatments. These patients have some different features compared with general dermatology patients. Dermatologists should be aware of the clinical characteristics of BDD to identify and refer these patients to mental health professionals. Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hairdressing and the prevalence of scalp disease in African adults.

    PubMed

    Khumalo, N P; Jessop, S; Gumedze, F; Ehrlich, R

    2007-11-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that certain scalp disorders are common in Africans and may be associated with hairstyles. This study of 874 African adults in Cape Town was performed to test this hypothesis. A questionnaire was administered and scalp examinations performed, after ethics approval. Participants included 30.9% men and 69.1% women (median age 36.1 years, range 18-99). Most men had natural hair: 91.7% vs. 24.3% women. The majority of men had recent haircuts (< 4 weeks): 74.8% vs. 9.9% women. The overall prevalence of acne (folliculitis) keloidalis nuchae (AKN) was 3.5%: higher in men than women (10.5% vs. 0.3%). AKN prevalence was not associated with whether clippers or blades were used. However, it was associated with haircut symptoms. Haircut-associated symptoms, i.e. at least one episode of transient pimples (or crusts) and bleeding (however small) were reported in 37% and 18.9% of men, respectively. The latter may have implications for disease transmission. Most women (58.7%) had chemically treated hair (49.2% relaxed and 9.6% permed hair) vs. 2.3% men. The prevalences of traction alopecia (TA) and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) were 22.6% and 1.9%: higher in women (31.7% vs. 2.2% and 2.7% vs. 0%, respectively). CCCA was highest in women > 50 years (6.7% vs. 1.2%). TA prevalence was highest if the usual hairstyle was extensions attached to relaxed hair (48%). We found associations between specific scalp diseases, hairstyles, gender, and age. These associations need further study, better to elucidate determinants and to improve disease prevention and treatment.

  5. [Low prevalence of autoimmune antiphospholipid antibodies in hepatic diseases].

    PubMed

    de Larrañaga, G F; Harris, N; Pierangeli, S S; Alonso, B S; Schroder, T; Fainboim, H

    2000-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have been associated with different diseases. They are defined as a large family of immunoglobulins (Ig) of either alloantibodies or autoantibodies. The autoimmune antibodies are associated with venous and/or arterial thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and recurrent fetal loss in the so-called antiphospholipid syndrome or in systemic lupus erythematosus. These antibodies are directed against proteins or phospholipid-protein complexes. On the contrary, antiphospholipid antibodies (alloantibodies) which are found in infectious diseases sera (syphilis, HIV, and other viral diseases), disappear with illness remission and are directed to phospholipids alone (particularly cardiolipin) and are not associated with thrombosis or recurrent fetal loss. However, the role and type of aPL found during hepatic diseases is still unclear. To investigate the prevalence of autoimmune aPL (IgG and IgM) during different hepatic diseases, we have studied 128 patients with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatic autoimmune diseases without treatment as well as 40 healthy control subjects. We have used a specific ELISA kit, that uses a mixture of phospholipid instead of cardiolipin alone, and allows a better detection of aPL of the autoimmune type. Our results show that autoimmune aPL are not significantly increased in viral hepatic diseases (2%) or autoimmune diseases of the liver (3%) when compared to the control group (0%).

  6. Prevalence and prevention of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Maung-U, Khin; Jagadeesh, Gowraganahalli

    2016-11-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become important causes of mortality on a global scale. According to the report of World Health Organization (WHO), NCDs killed 38 million people (out of 56 million deaths that occurred worldwide) during 2012. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for most NCD deaths (17.5 million NCD deaths), followed by cancers (8.2 million NCD deaths), respiratory diseases (4.0 million NCD deaths) and diabetes mellitus (1.5 million NCD deaths). Globally, the leading cause of death is cardiovascular diseases; their prevalence is incessantly progressing in both developed and developing nations. Diabetic patients with insulin resistance are even at a greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Obesity, high cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and elevated blood pressure are mainly considered as major risk factors for diabetic patients afflicted with cardiovascular disease. The present review sheds light on the global incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, measures to be taken to reduce the global encumbrance of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus are highlighted.

  7. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Peruvian primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Añazco, Percy; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Lazo-Porras, María; Alberto Quintanilla, E; Ortiz-Soriano, Victor Manuel; Hernandez, Adrian V

    2017-07-19

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. There are few studies in Latin America, especially in primary care settings. Our objective was to determine the prevalence, stages, and associated factors of CKD in primary care setting. We did a retrospective secondary analysis of a database from the Diabetes and Hypertension Primary Care Center of the Peruvian Social Security System (EsSalud) in Lima, Peru. We defined CKD as the presence of eGFR <60 mL/min and/or albuminuria >30 mg/day in 24 h, according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Factors associated with CKD were evaluated with Poisson Regression models; these factors included age, gender, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), hypertension (HTN), body mass index (BMI), and uric acid. Associations were described as crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). We evaluated 1211 patients (women [59%], mean age 65.8 years [SD: 12.7]). Prevalence of CKD was 18%. Using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the prevalence was 9.3% (95% CI 5.3 - 13.3) in patients without HTN or DM2; 20.2% (95% CI 17.6 - 22.8) in patients with HTN, and 23.9% (95% CI 19.4 - 28.4) in patients with DM2. The most common stages were 1 and 2 with 41.5% and 48%, respectively. Factors associated with CKD in the adjusted analysis were: age in years (PR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.04), DM2 (PR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.09 - 10.39), HTN plus DM2 (PR = 3.90, 95% CI 1.54 - 9.88), and uric acid from 5 to <7 mg/dL (PR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.31 - 3.19) and ≥7 mg/dL (PR = 5.19, 95% CI 3.32 - 8.11). Prevalence of CKD in the primary care setting population was high. CKD is more frequent in the early stages of the disease, and individuals with hypertension, DM2, older age and hyperuricemia have higher prevalence of CKD.

  8. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Bolouri, Ahmad; Mahmoudi Mozaffar, Milad; Karajibani, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a worldwide health problem, which is growing in Iranian adults. MetS is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of MetS and its individual components in CAD patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 200 CAD patients who had undergone elective coronary angiography at the cardiology department. Anthropometric indices including waist circumference (WC) and body mass index were measured. Blood samples were obtained to determine glucose and lipid profile. MetS components were defined according to the modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Results The prevalence of MetS among patients was 49.5% (women: 55.9%; men: 40.2%; P < 0.05). The prevalence increased with age. The low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (low HDL-C) (84.8%), high fasting blood glucose (high FBG) (77.8%) and high WC (75.8%) were the most prevalent risk factors in CAD patients with MetS. Conclusions Recent data indicate that the dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and abdominal obesity are crucial predictors of MetS in CAD patients. Further prospective studies are recommended for more clarification. PMID:28197293

  9. Prevalence and Clinical Features of Atopic Dermatitis in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Da-yu; Shen, Yi-wei

    2016-01-01

    Background. The epidemiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Chinese outpatients is yet to be clarified. Objectives. To investigate population-based prevalence and clinical features of AD in Chinese outpatients. Methods. A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in outpatients with eczema or dermatitis from 39 tertiary hospitals in 15 provinces. Results. This study included 682 patients diagnosed with AD, with the mean age of 28.8 ± 20.1 years and the median course of 5.3 ± 6.9 years. AD patients had more severe itching (30.4% versus 13.8%, p < 0.001) and clinically suspected bacterial infection (21.7% versus 16.1%, p < 0.001) than those of other types of dermatitis. Older patients were more susceptible to have a history of flexion dermatitis (p < 0.001), bacterial infection (p = 0.005), and severe itching (p < 0.001). Outpatients with clinically suspected bacterial infection had 3.53-fold increased risk of AD than those without it (p < 0.001). The morbidity rate of AD in the (20–25°N) region is 2.86 times higher than that in the (40–45°N) region [OR (95% CI): 0.352 (0.241–0.514), p < 0.001]. Conclusions. AD is characterized by unique clinical/demographic features. Bacterial infection and latitude region may have an impact on the incidence of AD in China. PMID:27957490

  10. Prevalence of Rheumatic Heart Disease in Children and Young Adults in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Paar, John A.; Berrios, Nubia M.; Rose, John D.; Cáceres, Mercedes; Peña, Rodolfo; Pérez, Wilton; Chen-Mok, Mario; Jolles, Erik; Dale, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) results in morbidity and mortality that is disproportionate among people in developing countries compared to those living in economically developed countries. The global burden of disease is uncertain because most previous studies to determine the prevalence of RHD in children relied on clinical screening criteria that lacked the sensitivity to detect most cases. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of RHD in children and young adults in León, Nicaragua, an area previously thought to have a high prevalence of RHD. This was an observational study of 3150 children, ages 5–15, and 489 adults, ages 20–35, randomly selected from urban and rural areas of León. Cardiopulmonary exams and echo-Doppler studies were performed on all subjects. Echo-Doppler diagnosis of RHD was based on pre-defined consensus criteria that were developed by a WHO/NIH working group. The overall prevalence of RHD in children was 48/1000 (95% C.I. = 35/1000–60/1000. The prevalence in urban children was 34/1000 and in rural children it was 80/1000. Using more stringent echo-Doppler criteria designed to diagnose definite RHD in adults, the prevalence was 22/1000 (95% C.I.=8/1000–37/1000). In conclusion, the prevalence of RHD among children and adults in this economically disadvantaged population far exceeds previously predicted rates. The findings underscore the potential health and economic burden of acute rheumatic fever and RHD and support the need for more effective measures of prevention, which may include safe, effective and affordable vaccines to prevent the streptococcal infections that trigger the disease. PMID:20538135

  11. Prevalence and predictors of coronary artery disease in adults with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Garg, Jalaj; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Paudel, Rajiv; Chatterjee, Saurav; Ahmad, Hasan; Snyder, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Accelerated coronary atherosclerosis in patients with Kawasaki disease, in conjunction with coronary artery aneurysm and stenosis that characterise this disease, are potential risk factors for developing coronary artery disease in young adults. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of coronary artery disease in adult patients with Kawasaki disease. All patients aged 18-55 years of age diagnosed with Kawasaki disease were sampled from Nationwide Inpatient Sample database using International Classification of Diseases 9th revision (ICD 9 code 446.1) from 2009 to 2010. Demographics, prevalence of coronary artery disease, and other traditional risk factors in adult patients with Kawasaki disease were analysed using ICD 9 codes. The prevalence of Kawasaki disease among adults was 0.0005% (n=215) of all in-hospital admissions in United States. The mean age was 27.3 years with women (27.6 years) older than men (27.1 years). Traditional risk factors were hypertension (21%), hyperlipidaemia (15.6%), diabetes (11.5%), tobacco use (8.8%), and obesity (8.8%), with no significant difference between men and women. Coronary artery disease (32.4%), however, was more prevalent in men (44.7%) than in women (12.1%; p=0.03). In multivariate regression analysis, after adjusting for demographics and traditional risk factors, hypertension (OR=13.2, p=0.03) was an independent risk factor of coronary artery disease. There was increased preponderance of coronary artery disease in men with Kawasaki disease. On multivariate analysis, hypertension was found to be the only independent predictor of coronary artery disease in this population after adjusting for other risk factors.

  12. Prevalence of celiac disease in patients with severe food allergy.

    PubMed

    Pillon, R; Ziberna, F; Badina, L; Ventura, A; Longo, G; Quaglia, S; De Leo, L; Vatta, S; Martelossi, S; Patano, G; Not, T; Berti, I

    2015-10-01

    The association between food allergy and celiac disease (CD) is still to be clarified. We screened for CD 319 patients with severe food allergy (IgE > 85 kU/l against food proteins and a history of severe allergic reactions) who underwent specific food oral immunotherapy (OIT), together with 128 children with mild allergy who recovered without OIT, and compared the prevalence data with our historical data regarding healthy schoolchildren. Sixteen patients (5%) with severe allergy and one (0.8%) with mild allergy tested positive for both genetic and serological CD markers, while the prevalence among the schoolchildren was 1%. Intestinal biopsies were obtained in 13/16 patients with severe allergy and in the one with mild allergy, confirming the diagnosis of CD. Sufferers from severe food allergy seem to be at a fivefold increased risk of CD. Our findings suggest that routine screening for CD should be recommended in patients with severe food allergy.

  13. Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: population based study.

    PubMed

    Amarapurkar, Deepak; Kamani, Prafull; Patel, Nikhil; Gupte, Parijat; Kumar, Pravin; Agal, Subhash; Baijal, Rajiv; Lala, Somesh; Chaudhary, Dinesh; Deshpande, Anjali

    2007-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease and liver transplantation in western countries. Increasing incidence of NAFLD has been well documented from Asian countries like Japan and China. Diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, hyperinsulinemia are predisposing factors for NAFLD. There is increase in incidence of DM, obesity and insulin resistance in India in last two decades. Hence it is logical to expect increase in incidence of NAFLD in India. There is limited data on the prevalence of NAFLD from India. Majority of data comes from hospital based studies including small number of patients. Therefore this study was planned to estimate the prevalence of NAFLD in general population. Residents of two Railway colonies were evaluated on history, clinical examination, anthropometric measurements, biochemical tests and abdominal ultrasound. 1,168 participants were evaluated. Persons with any amount of alcohol consumption, HBs Ag positive, Anti HCV positive, persons with other known liver diseases and taking medications causing liver disease were excluded. Prevalence of NAFLD on ultrasound was 16.6%. Out of 730 subjects above the age of 20 years (341 male 384 female 389) mean age 39.08 +/- 12.3 years, 4% had diabetes, 57% had central obesity. Prevalence of NAFLD based on the ultrasound above 20 years of age was 18.9%. NAFLD was more prevalent in male than female (24.6% vs 13.6%, p < 0.001). Risk factors associated with NAFLD were age more than 40 years, male gender, central obesity, high BMR > 25, elevated fasting blood sugar, raised AST and ALT. Prevalence of NAFLD in Indian population is comparable to the west.

  14. Disaggregating tropical disease prevalence by climatic and vegetative zones within tropical west Africa

    Treesearch

    Carl S. Beckley; Salisu Shaban; Guy H. Palmer; Andrew T. Hudak; Susan M. Noh; James E. Futse

    2016-01-01

    Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly...

  15. Disaggregating tropical disease prevalence by climatic and vegetative zones within tropical West Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions...

  16. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Cabrera López, Carlos; Juliá Serdá, Gabriel; Cabrera Lacalzada, Cristina; Martín Medina, Ana; Gullón Blanco, José Antonio; García Bello, Miguel Ángel; Cabrera Navarro, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) varies significantly among the different geographical areas reported. In Spain, two epidemiological studies have shown a prevalence of 9-10% in the population aged over 40. However, neither of these studies included the Canary Islands, which are of interest due to their climatic conditions and high incidence of smoking. A random group of 1,353 subjects aged between 40 and 70years was selected from a sample population of 596,478 individuals. Participants completed a questionnaire and then performed spirometry with bronchodilator testing if obstruction was observed. COPD was diagnosed when the post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio was less than 0.70. The prevalence of COPD was 7.3% (95%CI: 5.5-9.5) and was higher in males than in females (8.7% vs. 6.3%, P=.134). The incidence of smoking was 29.4% (95%CI: 25.4-33.1) and was also higher in males than in females (35.1% vs 25.4%, P<.001). The prevalence of COPD stratified by severity of obstruction, according to the GOLD criteria, was 16% in groupi, 69.9% in groupii, 10.4% in groupiii and 3.3% in groupiv. 71.6% of the subjects were underdiagnosed and 63.5% undertreated. Despite having one of the highest rates of smoking in Spain, the prevalence of COPD in the Canary Islands is lower than in most of the Spanish regions studied. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chonchol, Michel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gianluca; Zoppini, Giacomo; Muggeo, Michele; Targher, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    Subclinical primary hypothyroidism is highly prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly. However, the prevalence of subclinical primary hypothyroidism in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not requiring chronic dialysis is not well defined. Cross-sectional data from 3089 adult outpatients, who were consecutively referred by general practitioners for routine blood testing over the last two years, were analyzed. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the independent association between prevalent subclinical primary hypothyroidism and estimated GFR. Among 3089 adult participants, 293 (9.5%) had subclinical primary hypothyroidism and 277 (9%) had an estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). The prevalence of subclinical primary hypothyroidism increased from 7% at an estimated GFR >or=90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) to 17.9% at an estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (P < 0.0001 for trend). Compared with participants with an estimated GFR >or=60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), those with estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) had an increased odds of subclinical primary hypothyroidism after adjusting for age, gender, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations. These findings suggest that subclinical primary hypothyroidism is a relatively common condition ( approximately 18%) among persons with CKD not requiring chronic dialysis, and it is independently associated with progressively lower estimated GFR in a large cohort of unselected outpatient adults.

  18. Socioeconomic inequality and peripheral artery disease prevalence in US adults.

    PubMed

    Pande, Reena L; Creager, Mark A

    2014-07-01

    Lower socioeconomic status is associated with cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine whether there is a higher prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in individuals with lower socioeconomic status. We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2004. PAD was defined based on an ankle.brachial index .0.90. Measures of socioeconomic status included poverty.income ratio,a ratio of self-reported income relative to the poverty line, and attained education level. Of 6791 eligible participants,overall weighted prevalence of PAD was 5.8% (SE, 0.3). PAD prevalence was significantly higher in individuals with low income and lower education. Individuals in the lowest of the 6 poverty.income ratio categories had more than a2-fold increased odds of PAD compared with those in the highest poverty-income ratio category (odds ratio, 2.69; 95%confidence interval, 1.80.4.03; P<0.0001). This association remained significant even after multivariable adjustment(odds ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.04.2.6; P=0.034). Lower attained education level also associated with higher PAD prevalence (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.96.4.0; P<0.0001) but was no longer significant after multivariable adjustment. Low income and lower attained education level are associated with PAD in US adults. These data suggest that individuals of lower socioeconomic status remain at high risk and highlight the need for education and advocacy efforts focused on these at-risk populations.

  19. 1:1 atrial-flutter. Prevalence and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice; Laporte, Franck; Sellal, Jean Marc; Schwartz, Jérôme; Olivier, Arnaud; Zinzius, Pierre Yves; Manenti, Vladimir; Beurrier, Daniel; Andronache, Marius; Louis, Pierre; Selton, Olivier; de la Chaise, Arnaud Terrier; De Chillou, Christian

    2013-10-09

    Little is known about the epidemiology of 1:1 atrial flutter (AFL). Our objectives were to determine its prevalence and predisposing conditions. 1037 patients aged 16 to 93 years (mean 64±12) were consecutively referred for AFL ablation. 791 had heart disease (HD). Patients admitted with 1/1 AFL were collected. Patients were followed 3±3 years. 1:1 AFL-related tachycardiomyopathy was found in 85 patients, 59 men (69%) with a mean age of 59±12 years. The prevalence was 8%. They were compared to 952 patients, 741 men (78%, 0.04), with a mean age of 65±12 years (0.002) without 1:1 AFL. Factors favoring 1:1 AFL was the absence of HD (35 vs 23%, 0.006), the history of AF (42 vs 30.5%)(0.025) and the use of class I antiarrhythmic drugs (34 vs 13%)(p<0.0001), while use of amiodarone or beta blockers was less frequent in patients with 1:1 AFL (5, 3.5%) than in patients without 1:1 AFL (25, 15%) (p<0.0001, 0.03). The failure of ablation (9.4 vs 11%), ablation-related complications (2.3 vs 1.4%), risk of subsequent atrial fibrillation (AF) (20 vs 24%), risk of AFL recurrences (19 vs 13%) and risk of cardiac death (5 vs 6%) were similar in patients with and without 1:1 AFL. The prevalence of 1:1 AFL in patients admitted for AFL ablation was 8%. These patients were younger, had less frequent HD, had more frequent history of AF and received more frequently class I antiarrhythmic drugs than patients without 1:1 AFL. Their prognosis was similar to patients without 1:1 AFL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatitis-C prevalence in an urban native-American clinic: a prospective screening study.

    PubMed Central

    Neumeister, Amy S.; Pilcher, LaVada E.; Erickson, Judi M.; Langley, Lora L.; Murphy, Mary M.; Haukaas, Nicole M.; Mailliard, Mark E.; Larsen, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Native-American populations are disproportionately burdened by chronic liver disease, and the prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) in native Americans is unknown. PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C in a local native-American population via a prospective screening study. PROCEDURES: Two-hundred-forty-three native Americans (161 females/82 males) using an urban clinic and representing > 30 tribes from across the United States were screened. Mean age was 41 +/- 1 years. Hepatitis-C screening was by anti-HCV with confirmation by HCV RNA. A questionnaire assessed potential risk factors for HCV. FINDINGS: Anti-HCV antibodies were found in 11.5% (95% CI: 7.5-15.5%). HCV RNA was present by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 8.6% (95% CI: 5.1-12.1%) and was more common in males [13.4% (95% CI: 6.0-20.8%)] than females [6.2% (95% CI: 2.5-9.9%)]. The most common potential risk factors for chronic HCV infection were intravenous (IV) drug or cocaine use (p < 0.0001), tattoos > 5 years old (p < 0.0001) and having a sexual partner with HCV (p = 0.0063). CONCLUSION: HCV prevalence is higher in an urban native-American clinic population than reported in the general U.S. population. Use of IV drugs is the most prevalent risk factor, but tattoos and sexual transmission may also be important. PMID:17444428

  1. Anti-nuclear antibodies in daily clinical practice: prevalence in primary, secondary, and tertiary care.

    PubMed

    Avery, Thomas Y; van de Cruys, Mart; Austen, Jos; Stals, Frans; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C

    2014-01-01

    For the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD), patients are screened for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). ANA, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), have a poor specificity. This hampers interpretation of positive results in clinical settings with low pretest probability of SARD. We hypothesized that the utility of positive ANA IIF results increases from primary to tertiary care. We retrospectively determined ANA, anti-ENA, and anti-dsDNA antibody prevalence in patient cohorts from primary (n = 1453), secondary (n = 1621), and tertiary (n = 1168) care settings. Results reveal that from primary care to tertiary care, ANA prevalence increases (6.2, 10.8, and 16.0%, resp.). Moreover, in primary care low titres (70% versus 51% and 52% in secondary and tertiary care, resp.) are more frequent and anti-ENA/dsDNA reactivities are less prevalent (21% versus 39% in secondary care). Typically, in tertiary care the prevalence of anti-ENA/dsDNA reactivities (21%) is lower than expected. From this descriptive study we conclude that positive ANA IIF results are more prone to false interpretation in clinical settings with low pretest probabilities for SARD, as in primary care. Whether alternative approaches, that is, immunoadsorption of anti-DFS70 antibodies or implementation of anti-ENA screen assays, perform better, needs to be determined.

  2. Prevalence and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries using PUFA index in suburban Nigerian school children.

    PubMed

    Oziegbe, E O; Esan, T A

    2013-08-01

    Dental caries is the most common childhood disease and the most frequent non-communicable disease worldwide. In developing countries, a vast majority of the caries remains unrestored. However, the severity and consequences of untreated dental caries among Nigerian children is unknown. To determine the prevalence using the DMFT/dmft index and severity of oral conditions related to dental caries using the PUFA/pufa index in suburban Nigerian children. The study population consisted of 1,266 randomly selected school children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT/dmft index, described by WHO for epidemiological studies. The PUFA/pufa index was used to assess the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries. The mean dmft was 0.58 for the 4-6 years age group while the mean pufa score was 0.16 for the same age group. The mean DMFT score (0.16) was highest for the 13-16 years age group, while the mean PUFA score was 0.05 for the same age group. The prevalence of dmft > 0 was highest in the 4-6 years age group (16.9 %) while the prevalence of DMFT > 0 was highest in the 13-16 years age group (7.2 %). The mean pufa > 0 was highest in the 4-6 years age group (9.2 %). The overall caries prevalence was highest in the 4-6 years age group (17.4 %). Thirty-three percent of decayed teeth in the permanent dentition and 28.2 % of the primary dentition had signs of odontogenic infections. Despite the increase in the consumption of westernised diets by Nigerian children coupled with limited access to dental care, the prevalence was low but the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries was still high.

  3. [Prevalence of bilateral abnormalities of unilateral Meniére disease].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wu, Ziming; Liu, Xingjian; Chen, Xianbing; Xu, Dadao

    2016-03-01

    To analyze the abnormal conditions of the affected ear and the contralateral ear of patients with unilateral Meniere's disease and the prevalence of bilateral abnormalities among these unilateral Meniere disease population, providing reference for the clinical treatment strategies for Meniére disease. A retrospective analysis of 106 Meni6re disease cases was performed, the abnormal incidence of the affected ears, the contralateral ears and the bilateral abnormalities were calculated, and the disease characteristics were analyzed. The bilateral ears abnormal incidence of unilateral Meniére disease was 35. 85% (38/106); the cochlear symptoms of the contralateral ears often occurred 2. 25 years later of the symptoms of Meni6re disease; contralateral cochlear symptoms included at least two symptoms of tinnitus, deafness and ear fullness; 39. 47%(15/38) patients with bilateral abnormalities would appear binaural hearing impairment. This study showed that about one-third of unilateral Meniére diseases have binaural symptoms, among which about one-third would occur bilateral hearing loss. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the course of disease and the symptoms of the contralateral ear before taking damage or destructive method for treating Meniére's disease clinically.

  4. Impulsive and compulsive behaviors among Danish patients with Parkinson's disease: prevalence, depression, and personality.

    PubMed

    Callesen, M B; Weintraub, D; Damholdt, M F; Møller, A

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic medication administered to ameliorate motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is associated with impulse control disorders, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying, and binge eating. Studies indicate a prevalence of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease of 6-16%. To estimate the prevalence of impulsive and compulsive behaviors among Danish patients with Parkinson's disease and to explore the relation of such behavioral disorders to depression and personality. 490 patients with Parkinson's disease (303 males), identified through the National Danish Patient Registry, were evaluated with: 1) the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease; 2) the Geriatric Depression Scale; and 3) the NEO-Personality Inventory. 176 (35.9%) patients reported impulsive and compulsive behaviors sometime during Parkinson's disease (current symptoms in 73, 14.9%). Hereof, 114 (23.3%) reported multiple behavioral symptoms. Patients with behavioral symptoms were significantly younger, were younger at PD onset, had longer disease duration, displayed more motor symptoms, and received higher doses of dopaminergic medication than patients without behavioral symptoms. Furthermore, they reported significantly more depressive symptoms and scored significantly higher on neuroticism and lower on both agreeableness and conscientiousness than patients without behavioral symptoms. A history of impulsive and compulsive behaviors are common in Danish patients with Parkinson's disease and have clinical correlates that may allow identification of patients at risk for developing these behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuropathological survey reveals underestimation of the prevalence of neuroinfectious diseases in cattle in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Truchet, Laura; Walland, Julia; Wüthrich, Daniel; Boujon, Céline L; Posthaus, Horst; Bruggmann, Rémy; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Oevermann, Anna; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2017-09-01

    Neuroinfectious diseases in livestock represent a severe threat to animal health, but their prevalence is not well documented and the etiology of disease often remains unidentified. The aims of this study were to generate baseline data on the prevalence of neuroinfectious diseases in cattle in Switzerland by neuropathological survey, and to identify disease-associated pathogens. The survey was performed over a 1-year period using a representative number of brainstem samples (n=1816) from fallen cattle. In total, 4% (n=73) of the animals had significant lesions, the most frequent types of which were indicative of viral (n=27) and bacterial (n=31) etiologies. Follow-up diagnostics by immunohistochemistry, PCR protocols and next-generation sequencing identified infection with Listeria monocytogenes (n=6), ovine herpesvirus 2 (n=7), bovine astrovirus CH13 (n=2), bovine herpesvirus 6 (n=6), bovine retrovirus CH15 (n=2), posavirus 1 (n=2), and porcine astroviruses (n=2). A retrospective questionnaire-based investigation indicated that animals' owners observed clinical signs of neurological disease in about one-third of cases with lesions, which was estimated to correspond to approximately 85 cases per year in the adult fallen cattle population in Switzerland. This estimate stands in sharp contrast to the number of cases reported to the authorities and reveals a gap in disease surveillance. Systematic neuropathological examination and follow-up molecular testing of neurologically diseased cattle could significantly enhance the efficiency of disease detection for the purposes of estimating the prevalence of endemic diseases, identifying new or re-emerging pathogens, and providing "early warnings" of disease outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and Morbidity of Undiagnosed Celiac Disease From a Community-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Choung, Rok Seon; Larson, Scott A; Khaleghi, Shahryar; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; King, Katherine S; Larson, Joseph J; Lahr, Brian D; Poland, Gregory A; Camilleri, Michael J; Murray, Joseph A

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and burden of undiagnosed celiac disease in individuals younger than age 50. We determined the prevalence and morbidity of undiagnosed celiac disease in individuals younger than age 50 in a community. We tested sera from 31,255 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota (<50 y), without a prior diagnosis of celiac disease assay using an assay for IgA against tissue transglutaminase; in subjects with positive test results, celiac disease was confirmed using an assay for endomysial IgA. We performed a nested case-control study to compare the proportion of comorbidities between undiagnosed cases of celiac disease and age- and sex-matched seronegative controls (1:2). Medical records were abstracted to identify potential comorbidities. We identified 338 of 30,425 adults with positive results from both serologic tests. Based on this finding, we estimated the prevalence of celiac disease to be 1.1% (95% confidence interval, 1.0%-1.2%); 8 of 830 children tested positive for IgA against tissue transglutaminase (1.0%; 95% confidence interval, 0.4%-1.9%). No typical symptoms or classic consequences of diagnosed celiac disease (diarrhea, anemia, or fracture) were associated with undiagnosed celiac disease. Undiagnosed celiac disease was associated with increased rates of hypothyroidism (odds ratio, 2.2; P < .01) and a lower than average cholesterol level (P = .03) and ferritin level (P = .01). During a median follow-up period of 6.3 years, the cumulative incidence of a subsequent diagnosis with celiac disease at 5 years after testing was 10.8% in persons with undiagnosed celiac disease vs 0.1% in seronegative persons (P < .01). Celiac disease status was not associated with overall survival. Based on serologic tests of a community population for celiac disease, we estimated the prevalence of undiagnosed celiac disease to be 1.1%. Undiagnosed celiac disease appeared to be clinically silent and remained undetected, but long-term outcomes have

  7. Prevalence of systemic diseases among patients requesting dental consultation in the public and private systems

    PubMed Central

    Garea-Gorís, Rafael; Fernández-Varela, Marta; Tomás-Carmona, Inmaculada; Diniz-Freitas, Marcio; Limeres-Posse, Jacobo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and aetiology of systemic disease among patients requesting dental treatment in public and private practice. Study Design: A retrospective analysis was performed of the medical histories of 2000 patients requesting dental treatment during the year 2009. One thousand patients came from the Fontiñas Primary Care Oral and Dental Health Unit of the Galician Health Service (SERGAS), Spain, and the other thousand from a private clinic; both clinics were situated in Santiago de Compostela, La Coruña, Spain. The data collected were the following: demographic data (age and sex), presence or absence of systemic diseases and the nosologic categories, and drug history (type and number of drugs). Results: The prevalence of systemic disease was significantly higher among patients seen in the public system (35.2% in the public system versus 28.1% in the private system; p= 0.003). The differences between the two systems were more marked when considering patients aged under 65 years, particularly with respect to rheumatic and endocrine-metabolic (diabetes) disorders. The prevalence of patients receiving polypharmacy (>4 drugs/day) was significantly higher among patients seen in the public system (5.7% in the public system versus 2.7% in the private system; p= 0.009). Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of medical disorders and of patients receiving polypharmacy among individuals requesting dental care, particularly in the public health system. Dentists must have adequate training in medical disease and must be fully integrated into primary care health teams in order to prevent or adequately resolve complications. Key words: Dentistry, medical history, systemic disease, polypharmacy. PMID:22157672

  8. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of simple renal cyst.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chang-Chi; Kuo, Junne-Yih; Chan, Wan-Leong; Chen, Kuang-Kuo; Chang, Luke S

    2007-11-01

    We investigated simple renal cysts to understand the prevalence in healthy individuals and evaluate their clinical characteristics to determine whether or not there are any risk factors associated with simple renal cysts. Abdominal sonography was performed in 577 individuals (317 men, 260 women; mean age, 48.84 years; age range, 20-94 years) who received health check-up in January to February 2005. Data including age, sex, renal sonographic findings (cyst number, site, diameter, renal stones), values of serum cholesterol, glucose and creatinine, urine analysis (proteinuria, hematuria, pyuria), and smoking habit were analyzed. The overall prevalence of simple renal cysts was 10.7%, ranging from 2.38% in the 2nd to 35.29% in the 7th or later decade of life. The prevalence increased with age (p<0.001). The mean age of individuals with cysts was significantly older than those without cysts (57.65+/-13.35 vs. 47.78+/-12.40 years; p<0.001). Male-to-female ratio was 2.81 (15.14% vs. 5.38%; p<0.001). The majority of cysts were solitary (82.3%). Mean largest diameter of cysts was 20.89+/-12.62 mm. The mean size of cysts in every age group was not statistically different. Factors significantly associated with simple renal cysts were age (odds ratio [OR], 4.37; p<0.001), sex (OR, 0.32; p<0.001), serum creatinine (OR, 11.77; p=0.001), proteinuria (OR, 3.11; p=0.004), renal stone (OR, 2.47; p=0.006), and smoking (OR, 2.80; p<0.001). However, in multivariate analysis, except proteinuria, all of the above factors were significantly related to the occurrence of simple renal cysts. The overall prevalence of simple renal cysts in healthy individuals was 10.7%. Age, sex, renal stone, serum creatinine, and smoking were found to be risk factors for the presence of simple renal cysts.

  9. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of dyslexia in primary school students.

    PubMed

    Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Visudhiphan, Pongsak; Santikul, Kanitta

    2002-11-01

    Dyslexia is the most common subtype of learning disabilities with a prevalence ranging from 5-10 per cent. The central difficulty in dyslexia is the phonological awareness deficit. The authors have developed a screening test to assess the reading ability of Thai primary school students. 1. To study the prevalence of dyslexia in first to sixth grade students at Wat Samiannaree School. 2. To study the clinical characteristics such as sex, neurological signs, verbal intelligence and comorbid attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) of the dyslexia group. A total of 486 first to sixth grade students were administered "Raven's progressive matrices test" for estimation of intellectual functioning. Those who scored below the fifth percentile were labeled as mental retardation and excluded from the study. The students' reading ability was evaluated by 3 steps; first by classroom teachers using some items of the screening test, second by the researchers examining some more items individually, and third by the special educator assessing more details in reading and phonology. The students who had a reading ability two-grade levels below their actual grades and impairment in phonology were diagnosed with dyslexia. The prevalence of dyslexia and probable dyslexia were found to be 6.3 per cent and 12.6 per cent, respectively. The male to female ratio of dyslexia was 3.4:1. The dyslexia group had significantly lower Thai language scores than those of the normal group (p < 0.05). All of the dyslexia group had a normal grossly neurological examination but 90 per cent showed positive soft neurological signs. Mean verbal intellectual quotient score in the dyslexia group assessed by using Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children--Revised was 76 +/- 7. The comorbid ADHD was 8.7 per cent in the dyslexia group. Dyslexia was a common problem among primary school students in this study. Further studies in a larger population and different socioeconomic statuses are required to

  10. Achromobacter xylosoxidans in cystic fibrosis: prevalence and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    De Baets, Frans; Schelstraete, Petra; Van Daele, Sabine; Haerynck, Filomeen; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is increasingly cultured in sputum from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients; nevertheless, there are few published data on the clinical impact of this infection or chronic colonisation. Relying on DNA fingerprinting techniques we studied the prevalence of A. xylosoxidans in our CF population. In a retrospective case control study the clinical status of patients with at least 3 sputum cultures positive for A. xylosoxidans over at least 9 months, at the moment of the first positive culture and during the period of colonisation were compared to age (+/-1 year), gender and to Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation controlled CF patients who had never A. xylosoxidans positive sputum cultures. The prevalence of patients with at least one positive A. xylosoxidans culture was 17.9%. 5.3% of the patients fulfilled the criteria of our definition of colonisation. Colonised patients had a median age of 20 years (range 11-27 years) and a mean colonisation period of 1.5 (+/-0.9) years. At the moment of the first positive culture we found significantly lower Bhalla scores on HRCT scans of the lungs (11+/-3 versus 16+/-3, p<0.002), lower Brasfield chest X-ray scores (14+/-3 versus 18+/-3, p<0.019), lower FVC values (70%+/-22 versus 94%+/-12, p<0.017) and lower FEV(1) values (55%+/-32 versus 78%+/-23, p=0.123), although the latter did not reach significance. There was no significant difference in body mass index (BMI) (18.7+/-3 kg/m2 versus 19.6+/-3 kg/m2, p=0.8). Over the study period A. xylosoxidans-colonised patients did have more need for intravenous antibiotic treatment courses (19 versus 5, p<0.001); nevertheless, there was no significant difference in lung function decline over the study period (FVC: -6.25+/-12.34% versus -5.62+/-8.30%, p 0.77, FEV1: -5.62+/-8.30% versus -1.87+/-11.58%, p<0.47). The prevalence of A. xylosoxidans infection or colonisation is probably underestimated. Colonised patients are mostly older, with more pronounced lung damage and

  11. Impulsive Behavior and Associated Clinical Variables in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Abosch, Aviva; Gupte, Akshay; Eberly, Lynn E.; Tuite, Paul J.; Nance, Martha; Grant, Jon E.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative brain disorder accompanied by the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of motor and non-motor symptoms. We performed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based analysis of impulsive behavior in our PD clinic population to assess prevalence and associated characteristics. We found a higher prevalence of impulsive behavior (29.7%) than previously reported, and found multiple, concurrent impulsive behaviors in 26% of subjects reporting impulsive behavior. Our findings contribute to the growing awareness of impulsive behavior in PD, and support the need for longitudinal studies to assess changes in impulsive behaviors in Parkinson's patients. PMID:21300194

  12. Coagulopathy in the prostate cancer patient: prevalence and clinical relevance.

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, A. S.; Francis, J. L.; Witherow, R. O.; Snell, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Carcinoma of the prostate has historically been associated with the bleeding diathesis which accompanies disseminated intravascular coagulation. We have performed a prospective study into the prevalence of coagulopathy in patients with untreated prostate cancer using matched patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) as controls. Haemostatic activation was assessed by measuring fibrinopeptide A (FpA) by an ELISA and D-dimer by a latex agglutination assay. FpA and D-dimer levels were correlated with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and bone scan status. Of the cancer patients, 40% had elevated FpA, levels being higher in those with bone scan positive disease (P < 0.05). D-dimer was detectable in 24% of those with prostate cancer but in none with BPH. Neither FpA nor D-dimer were related to serum PSA but D-dimer appeared to be a predictor of bone scan status with a positive predictive value of 91%. It is concluded that changes compatible with subclinical DIC are common in patients presenting with prostate cancer and that measurement of FpA and D-dimer may have roles as tumour markers in this disease. PMID:7682795

  13. The prevalence and clinical profile of angiographic coronary ectasia.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Riffat; Sultana, Nuzhat; Ishaq, Muhammad; Samad, Abdus

    2011-04-01

    To determine the incidence of Coronary Artery Ectasia (CAE) at our teaching hospital to describe the patients and angiographic characteristics. A retrospective analysis was conducted on all coronary angiograms performed at the catheterization laboratory of Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases, a tertiary care center, between the period of August 2006 and August 2008. A one year follow up was performed to look for primary and secondary endpoints. Data were collected from catheterization films, and medical records. Five thousand coronary angiograms were performed during the periof of the study. A total of 140 (2.8%) angiograms showed coronary ectasia of both mixed and pure types. Pure ectasia with no coronary obstructive lesions was seen in 75 (1.5%). The left anterior descending artery (LAD) was the most commonly affected vessel (63%) followed by the right coronary artery (RCA) 25% and 10% patients had circumflex artery involvement. The primary composite endpoint showed 6 (4.2%) patients with non-ST elevation MI, 5 (3.6%) with ST elevation inferior wall myocardial infarction, 70 (50%) with unstable angina and 2 (1.4%) deaths due to pulmonary oedema. Secondary endpoints showed 50% of the patients still complaining of chest pain. Prevalence of Coronary ectasia in the population presenting to KIHD during the study period was 1.5%. Majority of patients were males, associated with dyslipidaemia, hypertension and smoking. CAE was associated with obstructive coronary artery disease in about 80% of cases. LAD was the most commonly affected vessel.

  14. Prevalence of Parkinson Disease Among the Navajo; a Preliminary Examination

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Paul H.; Zhao, Hongwei; Bartley, Denise; Sims, LT James G.; Begay, Mae-Gilene; Richardson, Sarah Pirio; Lewis, Johnnye; Rowland, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of Parkinson disease (PD) varies by geographic location and ethnicity, but has never been studied among the Navajo. METHODS Period prevalence was calculated using the number of people diagnosed with PD in the Shiprock Service Unit Indian Health Service database during 1995–1999, 2000–2004, and 2005–2009 as the numerator, and the number seen for any reason as the denominator. Age-standardized rates were calculated using the 2000 US population. RESULTS During 2005–2009, 126 people were seen with PD (crude prevalence = 203.7/100,000 population). The age-adjusted rate was 335.9 (95% C. I. 277.8–394.0) overall, 438.5 (95% C.I. 336.5–540.5) in men and 259.7 (95% C.I. 192.8–326.7; p=0.004) in women. The adjusted rate increased with age: 788.8 (95% C.I. 652.0–925.7) for age 40 and above to 1964.9 (95% C.I. 1613.7–2316.1) for age 60 and above. Adjusted rates were 246.6 (95% C.I. 187.2–306.0) in 1995–1999 and 284.7 (95% C.I. 227.0–342.4) in 2000–2004. CONCLUSION Parkinson disease appears common among the Navajo. Estimates increased with age and time, and were higher in men. In-person interviews are needed to confirm these estimates, and to determine incidence, quality of care, and risk factors for PD among the Navajo. PMID:23938348

  15. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in asymptomatic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sansores, Raúl H; Velázquez-Uncal, Mónica; Pérez-Bautista, Oliver; Villalba-Caloca, Jaime; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Physicians do not routinely recommend smokers to undergo spirometry unless they are symptomatic. Objective To test the hypothesis that there are a significant number of asymptomatic smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we estimated the prevalence of COPD in a group of asymptomatic smokers. Methods Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-one smokers with a cumulative consumption history of at least 10 pack-years, either smokers with symptoms or smokers without symptoms (WOS) were invited to perform a spirometry and complete a symptom questionnaire. Results Six hundred and thirty-seven (21.5%) smokers had no symptoms, whereas 2,324 (78.5%) had at least one symptom. The prevalence of COPD in subjects WOS was 1.5% when considering the whole group of smokers (45/2,961) and 7% when considering only the group WOS (45/637). From 329 smokers with COPD, 13.7% were WOS. Subjects WOS were younger, had better lung function and lower cumulative consumption of cigarettes, estimated as both cigarettes per day and pack-years. According to severity of airflow limitation, 69% vs 87% of subjects were classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I–II in the WOS and smokers with symptoms groups, respectively (P<0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that forced expiratory volume in 1 second (mL) was the only predictive factor for COPD in asymptomatic smokers. Conclusion Prevalence of COPD in asymptomatic smokers is 1.5%. This number of asymptomatic smokers may be excluded from the benefit of an “early” intervention, not just pharmacological but also from smoking cessation counseling. The higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second may contribute to prevent early diagnosis. PMID:26586941

  16. Prevalence, incidence and clinical impact of cachexia: facts and numbers-update 2014.

    PubMed

    von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Stefan D

    2014-12-01

    Cachexia is a serious but underrecognised consequence of many chronic diseases. Its prevalence ranges from 5-15 % in end-stage chronic heart failure to 50-80 % in advanced cancer. Cachexia is also part of the terminal course of many patients with chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and rheumatoid arthritis. Mortality rates of patients with cachexia range from 10-15 % per year in COPD through 20-30 % per year in chronic heart failure and chronic kidney disease to 80 % in cancer. The condition is also associated with poor quality of life. In the industrialised world, the overall prevalence of cachexia (due to any disease and not necessarily associated with hospital admission) is growing and it currently affects around 1 % of the patient population, i.e. around 9 million people. It is also a significant health problem in other parts of the globe. Recently there have been advances in our understanding of the multifactorial nature of the condition, and particularly of the role of inflammatory mediators and the imbalance of anabolism and catabolism. Several promising approaches to treatment have failed to live up to the challenge of phase III clinical trials, but the ghrelin receptor agonist anamorelin seems to have fulfilled at least some early promise. Further advances are urgently needed.

  17. Atherogenic dyslipidemia: prevalence and management in lipid clinics.

    PubMed

    Pedro-Botet, J; Flores-Le Roux, J A; Mostaza, J M; Pintó, X; de la Cruz, J J; Banegas, J R

    2014-12-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia, which is characterized by increased triglyceride levels and reduced HDL cholesterol levels, is underestimated and undertreated in clinical practice. We assessed its prevalence and the achievement of therapeutic objectives for HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients treated at lipid and vascular risk units in Spain. This was an observational, longitudinal, retrospective, multicenter study performed in 14 autonomous Spanish communities that consecutively included 1828 patients aged ≥18 years who were referred for dyslipidemia and vascular risk to 43 lipid clinics accredited by the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis. We collected information from the medical records corresponding to 2 visits conducted during 2010 and 2011-12, respectively. Of the 1649 patients who had a lipid profile in the first visit (90.2%), 295 (17.9%) had atherogenic dyslipidemia. The factors associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia were excess weight/obesity, not taking hypolipidemic drugs (statins and/or fibrates), diabetes, myocardial infarction and previous heart failure. Of the 273 (92.5%) patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia that had a lipid profile in the last visit, 44 (16.1%) achieved the therapeutic objectives for HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The predictors of therapeutic success were normal weight and normoglycemia. One of every 6 patients treated in lipid and vascular risk units had atherogenic dyslipidemia. The degree to which the therapeutic goals for HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were achieved in these patients was very low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical supervision among family physicians: prevalence, needs, and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Torppa, Martina A; Toivola, Kristiina; Ruskoaho, Juho; Pitkälä, Kaisu H

    2013-10-01

    Clinical supervision (CS) is not an established support system among physicians. Family physicians (FPs) have used Balint groups as a form of clinical supervision. In all, not much is known about the prevalence of physicians' attendance to or needs for CS. We studied what proportion of FPs compared with other physicians have attended or report they would need CS and whether having patients who request certain tests or medicines is associated with FPs' attendance to or need for CS. A postal survey for all working-aged Finnish physicians was performed in 2008. Special questions concerning CS (eg, Balint) and patients' requests were included. Response rate for the survey was 74% (N = 13 708). Special questions were responded by 10 559 physicians of whom 1252 were FPs. FPs had attended CS more often than other physicians (42% vs 29%, P < .001). Of FPs, 25% reported a need for CS with no availability of it. FPs experienced with or needing for CS were more often than other FPs females, had participated in continuing medical education, and reported that patients with requests have increased in recent years. Both experience of CS and a need for CS with no availability are common among Finnish FPs. Experiences of patients with requests may reflect a need for CS among FPs. Studies on the content, significance and effectiveness CS among FPs are needed.

  19. Maremar, prevalence of chronic kidney disease, how to avoid over-diagnosis and under-diagnosis.

    PubMed

    De Broe, Marc E; Gharbi, Mohammed Benghanem; Elseviers, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered as a major public health problem. Recent studies mention a prevalence rate between 8%-12%. Several editorials, comments, short reviews described the weaknesses (lack of confirmation of proteinuria, and of chronicity of decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate) of a substantial number of studies and the irrational of using a single arbitrary set point, i.e. diagnosis of chronic kidney disease whenever the estimated glomerular filtration rate is less than 60mL/min/1.73m(2). Maremar (Maladies rénales chroniques au Maroc) is a prevalence study of chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes and obesity in a randomized, representative, high response rate (85%), sample of the adult population of Morocco, strictly applying the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Compared to the vast majority of the available studies, Maremar has a low prevalence of chronic kidney disease (2.9% adjusted to the actual adult population of Morocco). The population pyramid, and particularly the confirmation of proteinuria and "chronicity" of the decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate are the main reasons for this low prevalence of chronic kidney disease. The choice of arbitrary single threshold of estimated glomerular filtration rate for classifying stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease inevitably leads to "over-diagnosis" (false positives) of the disease in the elderly, particularly those without proteinuria, hematuria or hypertension, and to "under-diagnosed" (false negatives) in younger individuals with an estimated glomerular filtration rate above 60mL/min/1.73m(2) and below the 3rd percentile of their age/gender category. There is an urgent need for quality studies using in a correct way the recent KDIGO guidelines when investigating the prevalence of chronic kidney disease, in order to avoid a 50 to 100% overestimation of a disease state with potential dramatic consequences. The combination of the general population

  20. Cardiovascular disease in the developing world: prevalences, patterns, and the potential of early disease detection.

    PubMed

    Celermajer, David S; Chow, Clara K; Marijon, Eloi; Anstey, Nicholas M; Woo, Kam S

    2012-10-02

    Over the past decade or more, the prevalence of traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has been increasing in the major populous countries of the developing world, including China and India, with consequent increases in the rates of coronary and cerebrovascular events. Indeed, by 2020, cardiovascular diseases are predicted to be the major causes of morbidity and mortality in most developing nations around the world. Techniques for the early detection of arterial damage have provided important insights into disease patterns and pathogenesis and especially the effects of progressive urbanization on cardiovascular risk in these populations. Furthermore, certain other diseases affecting the cardiovascular system remain prevalent and important causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries, including the cardiac effects of rheumatic heart disease and the vascular effects of malaria. Imaging and functional studies of early cardiovascular changes in those disease processes have also recently been published by various groups, allowing consideration of screening and early treatment opportunities. In this report, the authors review the prevalences and patterns of major cardiovascular diseases in the developing world, as well as potential opportunities provided by early disease detection. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic kidney disease in dogs in UK veterinary practices: prevalence, risk factors, and survival.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D G; Elliott, J; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs varies widely (0.05-3.74%). Identified risk factors include advancing age, specific breeds, small body size, and periodontal disease. To estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors associated with CKD diagnosis and survival in dogs. Purebred dogs were hypothesized to have higher CKD risk and poorer survival characteristics than crossbred dogs. A merged clinical database of 107,214 dogs attending 89 UK veterinary practices over a 2-year period (January 2010-December 2011). A longitudinal study design estimated the apparent prevalence (AP) whereas the true prevalence (TP) was estimated using Bayesian analysis. A nested case-control study design evaluated risk factors. Survival analysis used the Kaplan-Meier survival curve method and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. The CKD AP was 0.21% (95% CI: 0.19-0.24%) and TP was 0.37% (95% posterior credibility interval 0.02-1.44%). Significant risk factors included increasing age, being insured, and certain breeds (Cocker Spaniel, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel). Cardiac disease was a significant comorbid disorder. Significant clinical signs included halitosis, weight loss, polyuria/polydipsia, urinary incontinence, vomiting, decreased appetite, lethargy, and diarrhea. The median survival time from diagnosis was 226 days (95% CI 112-326 days). International Renal Interest Society stage and blood urea nitrogen concentration at diagnosis were significantly associated with hazard of death due to CKD. Chronic kidney disease compromises dog welfare. Increased awareness of CKD risk factors and association of blood biochemistry results with survival time should facilitate diagnosis and optimize case management to improve animal survival and welfare. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Feline heartworm disease: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette L; Atwell, Richard B

    2008-04-01

    Feline heartworm disease is caused by the filarial nematode Dirofilaria immitis, and is transmitted by mosquitoes in heartworm-endemic areas worldwide. While dogs are the definitive hosts for this parasite, cats can also be infected, and the overall prevalence in cats is between 5% and 10% of that in dogs in any given area. The spectrum of feline presentations varies from asymptomatic infections to chronic respiratory signs, sometimes accompanied by chronic vomiting to acute death with no premonitory signs. Ante-mortem diagnosis can be challenging and relies on a combination of tests, including antigen and antibody serology, thoracic radiography and echocardiography. As treatment with heartworm adulticidal drugs can be life-threatening and heartworm infection in cats is often self-limiting, infected cats are frequently managed with supportive treatment (corticosteroids, bronchodilators, and anti-emetics). Surgical removal of filariae using extraction devices may be considered in some acute cases where immediate curative treatment is necessary, but filarial breakage during the procedure may result in an acute fatal shock-like reaction. Necropsy findings are mainly pulmonary and include muscular hypertrophy of the pulmonary arteries and arterioles on histopathology. A number of safe and effective macrocytic lactone drugs are available for prophylaxis in cats. These drugs can kill a range of larval and adult life-cycle stage heartworms, which may be advantageous in cases of owner compliance failure or when heartworm infection status is undetermined at the time prophylaxis is commenced. An index of suspicion for feline heartworm disease is warranted in unprotected cats with respiratory signs, and perhaps chronic vomiting, in areas where canine heartworm disease is endemic. Many cats, once diagnosed and with appropriate supportive care and monitoring, will resolve their infection and be free of clinical signs.

  3. Consanguinity and prevalence patterns of inherited disease in the UK Pakistani community.

    PubMed

    Corry, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the current knowledge about inherited diseases in UK children of Pakistani origin, who now number over 300,000, and to investigate disease associations with parental consanguinity. Published data on the overall prevalence of inherited diseases were reviewed in conjunction with published and unpublished information from the city of Bradford where there is a large resident Pakistani community. There is significant literature on infant mortality, congenital anomalies, disabilities and many clinical conditions, often drawing attention to ethnic variations and an increased disease prevalence in UK Pakistani children. A further analysis is frequently necessary to differentiate both between genetic and non-genetic causes, and Pakistani and non-Pakistani children, who collectively have been labelled as 'Asian' or 'South Asian'. The analysis suggests that much of the increased mortality and morbidity in UK Pakistani children is due to autosomal recessive conditions. Evidence suggests that this finding is associated with the custom of consanguineous marriage, but future studies might also explore the role of community endogamy. Prevalence data from the first and second post-migration generations could additionally be useful in informing health planning in Pakistan. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Prevalence of gingival biotype and its relationship to clinical parameters

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rucha; Sowmya, N. K.; Mehta, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The dimensions of gingiva and different parts of the masticatory mucosa have a profound impact in periodontics as it governs the way; the gingival tissue reacts to various physical, chemical, or bacterial insults. The purpose of the following study was to assess the gingival thickness (GT) and correlate it to gender, presence of recession, and width of keratinized gingiva (WKG) in a subset of the Indian population. Methods: A total of 400 subjects in the age range of 20–35 years (200 males and 200 females) were included in the study. Clinical parameters such as probing depth, recession depth, WKG, and GT were recorded for all the patients. Results: The prevalence of thin biotype was 43.25%, and that of thick gingival biotype was 56.75%. The mean GT of central incisor, lateral incisor, and canine in Group I was 1.11 ± 0.17, 1.01 ± 0.16, and 0.82 ± 0.17 mm, respectively. No significant association was observed between the gender and the presence of gingival recession to GT. The mean WKG of central incisor, lateral incisor, and canine in Group I was 4.38 ± 1.18, 5.18 ± 1.25, 4.16 ± 1.16 mm, respectively. A positive correlation exists between WKG and the GT (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that the prevalence of thick and thin gingival biotype is 56.75% versus 43.25%, respectively, and there is no significant relationship between age, gender, and the presence of recession to gingival biotype. A positive correlation exists between WKG and the GT. PMID:26604569

  5. The effect of clinical outbreaks of salmonellosis on the prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding among dairy cattle in New York.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kevin J; Warnick, Lorin D; Elton, Mara; Gröhn, Yrjo T; McDonough, Patrick L; Siler, Julie D

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the within-herd prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding is higher in dairy herds with clinical outbreaks of disease, as compared to herds with subclinical infections only. Data were collected prospectively from dairy herds throughout New York that had at least 150 lactating cows and that received clinical service from participating veterinarians. After enrollment, Salmonella surveillance consisted of both environmental screening and disease monitoring within the herd. Herds positive by either environmental or fecal culture were sampled during three visits to estimate the within-herd prevalence of Salmonella. We characterized isolates by serovar and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Among 57 enrolled herds, 44 (77%) yielded Salmonella-positive samples during the study period; 27 (61%) of the positive herds had Salmonella isolated from environmental samples only, and 17 (39%) had one or more laboratory-confirmed clinical cases. The within-herd prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding ranged from 0 to 53%. Salmonella Cerro was the predominant serovar, accounting for 56% of all isolates. Antimicrobial resistance ranged from zero to nine drugs, and 14 (32%) of the positive farms generated multidrug-resistant isolates. Herds with laboratory-confirmed clinical cases had a higher prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding than herds that only generated positive environmental samples, as estimated by a Poisson regression model (prevalence ratio, 2.7; p = 0.01). An association between dairy herd outbreaks of salmonellosis and a higher prevalence of asymptomatic shedding should help guide strategies for reducing the public health threat of Salmonella, as the ability to recognize high-risk herds by clinical laboratory submissions presents an obvious opportunity to maximize food safety at the preharvest level. This is in contrast with other foodborne zoonotic pathogens, such as Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O157:H7, which

  6. Anosognosia in Alzheimer disease: Prevalence, associated factors, and influence on disease progression.

    PubMed

    Castrillo Sanz, A; Andrés Calvo, M; Repiso Gento, I; Izquierdo Delgado, E; Gutierrez Ríos, R; Rodríguez Herrero, R; Rodríguez Sanz, F; Tola-Arribas, M A

    2016-06-01

    Anosognosia is a frequent symptom in Alzheimer disease (AD). The objective of this article is to describe prevalence of this condition at time of diagnosis and analyse any predisposing factors and their influence on disease progression. Observational, prospective, and analytical multi-centre study in an outpatient setting. Patients recently diagnosed with AD (NINCDS-ADRDA criteria) were included. Each patient underwent two cognitive, functional, and neuropsychiatric assessments separated by an interval of 18 months. The Clinical Insight Rating Scale was employed as a measure of anosognosia (CIR, scored 0-8). Progression was defined as an increase in the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale-sum of boxes of more than 2.5 points. The predictor variables were analysed using binary logistic regression. The study included 127 patients, and 94 completed both assessments. Of the total, 31.5% displayed severe anosognosia (CIR 7-8); 39.4%, altered level of consciousness (CIR 3-6); and 29.1%, normal awareness (CIR 0-2). The median baseline CIR in this cohort was 4 (Q1-Q3: 1-7), and at 18 months, 6 (Q1-Q3: 3-8), P<.001. Advanced age (odds ratio (OR) 2.43; CI 95%:1.14-5.19), lower educational level (OR 2.15; CI 95%:1.01-4.58), and more marked neuropsychiatric symptoms (OR 2.66; CI 95%:1.23-5.74) were predictor variables of anosognosia. Baseline CIR was similar in the groups with and without significant clinical progression. The large majority of patients with AD at the time of diagnosis showed significant anosognosia, and this condition was associated with advanced age, lower educational level, and more marked behavioural symptoms. Our results did not show that anosognosia had an effect on the initial clinical progression of AD after diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Mixture models for undiagnosed prevalent disease and interval-censored incident disease: applications to a cohort assembled from electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Li C; Pan, Qing; Hyun, Noorie; Schiffman, Mark; Fetterman, Barbara; Castle, Philip E; Lorey, Thomas; Katki, Hormuzd A

    2017-09-30

    For cost-effectiveness and efficiency, many large-scale general-purpose cohort studies are being assembled within large health-care providers who use electronic health records. Two key features of such data are that incident disease is interval-censored between irregular visits and there can be pre-existing (prevalent) disease. Because prevalent disease is not always immediately diagnosed, some disease diagnosed at later visits are actually undiagnosed prevalent disease. We consider prevalent disease as a point mass at time zero for clinical applications where there is no interest in time of prevalent disease onset. We demonstrate that the naive Kaplan-Meier cumulative risk estimator underestimates risks at early time points and overestimates later risks. We propose a general family of mixture models for undiagnosed prevalent disease and interval-censored incident disease that we call prevalence-incidence models. Parameters for parametric prevalence-incidence models, such as the logistic regression and Weibull survival (logistic-Weibull) model, are estimated by direct likelihood maximization or by EM algorithm. Non-parametric methods are proposed to calculate cumulative risks for cases without covariates. We compare naive Kaplan-Meier, logistic-Weibull, and non-parametric estimates of cumulative risk in the cervical cancer screening program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Kaplan-Meier provided poor estimates while the logistic-Weibull model was a close fit to the non-parametric. Our findings support our use of logistic-Weibull models to develop the risk estimates that underlie current US risk-based cervical cancer screening guidelines. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Acne vulgaris: prevalence and clinical forms in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Bagatin, Ediléia; Timpano, Denise Lourenço; Guadanhim, Lilia Ramos dos Santos; Nogueira, Vanessa Mussupapo Andraus; Terzian, Luiz Roberto; Steiner, Denise; Florez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne is a common disease in adolescents, but there are no epidemiological data for acne in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence and degree of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo and study socio-demographic factors, family history and lifestyle, associated with the disease. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 452 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 (mean=13.3 years), students from elementary and high school, examined by 3 independent evaluators. RESULTS 62.4% were female, 85.8% white and 6.4% were aged 14. The prevalence was 96.0% and increased with age - all students over 14 had acne. The most prevalent form of acne was comedonal (61.1%), followed by mild (30.6%) and moderate (7.6%) papular-pustular, which affected mostly the face (97.5%). About half of the adolescents reported family history for acne in mother or father, and 20.6% reported previous treatment for acne. There was a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age (p<0.001). DISCUSSION The prevalence of acne in adolescents varies widely due to the clinical features and diagnostic methods used. Adolescents whose brothers/sisters had acne (OR=1.7-p=0.027) and those over 13 (OR=8.3-p<0.001), were more likely to have non-comedonal acne. CONCLUSION This study showed high prevalence of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo, predominantly the comedonal form on the face, with a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age. PMID:24937816

  9. Change of prevalence and clinical aspects of fungal ball according to temporal difference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Seok; Shin, Seung Youp; Lee, Kun Hee; Kim, Sung Wan; Cho, Joong Saeng

    2013-05-01

    Fungal ball in paranasal sinus was reported to be rare, but these days we have encountered numerous cases. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 4,485 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) who underwent sinus surgery from 1999 to 2010. Patients were categorized into group A (patients from 1999 to 2004) and group B (patients from 2005 to 2010). We compared the prevalence and clinical aspects of fungal ball between the two groups by analyzing the medical records, PNS CT findings, surgical findings, and pathologic reports. One hundred and twelve patients were diagnosed with fungal ball during the study periods. The prevalence of fungal ball was 0.9 % (23/2,333) in group A and 4.1 % (89/2,152) in group B, showing that it increased 4.6 times over 6 years. The prevalence of underlying diseases was 21.7 % (5/23) for hypertension and 8.7 % (2/23) for diabetes in group A, and 23.6 % (21/89) for hypertension and 14.6 % (13/89) for diabetes in group B. On PNS CT examination, calcification was identified in 78.2 % (18/23) of cases in group A and 44.9 % (40/89) in group B. The most involved paranasal sinus in group A was the co-involved maxillary and ethmoid sinuses at 26.1 % (6/23), whereas, the most prevalent involved sinus in group B was the maxillary sinus at 33.7 % (30/89). We found that the prevalence of fungal ball has increased steadily each year since 2005, accompanied by changes in the clinical aspects. These facts should be kept in mind when diagnosing and treating patients with medically intractable CRS.

  10. REM sleep behavior disorder in the Korean elderly population: prevalence and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kang, Suk-Hoon; Yoon, In-Young; Lee, Sang Don; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Kim, Ki Woong

    2013-08-01

    To examine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and subclinical RBD in the Korean elderly population. A community-based Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia and time-synchronized video-polysomnography (vPSG) in a laboratory. Sleep laboratory in a university hospital. 348 individuals aged 60 years or older. N/A. Among 696 subjects who were invited to participate in a vPSG study, 348 completed the vPSG. RBD was diagnosed when subjects showed REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) in the vPSG, and had history of complex and vigorous behaviors during sleep or abnormal REM sleep behaviors in the vPSG. Subjects with RSWA but no abnormal REM sleep behaviors were diagnosed with subclinical RBD. Seven subjects (5 male, 2 female) had RBD, three of whom (1 male, 2 female) had Parkinson disease. Two subjects reported history of sleep-related injury. The crude prevalence of RBD and idiopathic RBD was 2.01% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54% to 3.49%) and 1.15% (95% CI = 0.03% to 2.27%). An age and sex-adjusted prevalence estimate of RBD and idiopathic RBD in the Korean elderly was 2.01% and 1.34%. Eighteen subjects were diagnosed with subclinical RBD, and the prevalence of subclinical RBD was estimated to be 4.95%. RBD and subclinical RBD are not rare in the elderly in the community with abnormal REM sleep behaviors of RBD being mild to injurious and violent. The clinical significance and long-term progression of subclinical RBD needs to be further explored, given the prevalence and its possible relation to RBD.

  11. Prevalence and presentation of chronic venous disease in Pakistan: a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Khan, A F A; Chaudhri, R; Ashraf, M A; Mazaffar, M S; Zawar-ul-Imam, S; Tanveer, M

    2013-03-01

    Our objective was to study the prevalence and clinical pattern of chronic venous disease (CVD) in the Pakistani population. This was a multicentre cross-sectional study in which 100 primary care physicians examined 3000 subjects. The study population was aged 18-95 years (mean ± SD = 39 ± 13.2) comprised 47.4% women and 52.6% men. The prevalence of CVD was 34.8%, being significantly higher (P < 0.04) among men (36.4%) than women (33.0%). The maximum prevalence was of C3 (36.7%), followed by C2 (15.8%). The most frequent symptom was pain in the legs (59.2%) followed by heavy legs (42.7%) and night cramps (34.4%). The prevalence of symptoms increased with age but was similarly distributed between men and women. Family history of CVD, blood clots in veins and lack of exercise were significant risk factors. The roles of age or gender as risk factors could not be established. In conclusion, the prevalence and presentation of CVD in Pakistan is similar to most other countries.

  12. Prevalence of macroprolactinaemia in regularly menstruating women with non-toxic goitre or autoimmune thyroid disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The so called “big-big” prolactin (Prl), also known as macroprolactin is formed by Prl-immunoglobulin (Prl-IgG) complexes and may cause elevation of serum Prl concentrations measured by standard assays, potentially leading to unnecessary investigations and/or treatment. In our study, we have endeavoured to assess the prevalence of macroprolactinaemia in euthyroid, regularly menstruating women with thyroid disease, as well as to assess whether autoimmune thyroid disease may result in an increased prevalence of macroprolactinaemia. Material and methods We measured serum Prl in 182 regularly menstruating women aged 32.7 ± 7.5 years (mean ± SD, range 17–46 years) who attended endocrine clinic either for investigation of non-toxic goitre (n = 86, age 33.2 ± 7.8 years) or with autoimmune thyroid disease (n = 96, age 32.3 ± 7.2 years). Autoimmune thyroid disease was defined as raised titre of at least one anti-thyroid antibody [anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) and/or anti-TSH-receptor (anti-TSH-R) antibodies]. All women were clinically and biochemically euthyroid, either without or on treatment with L-thyroxine. In those with raised Prl (i.e., above 530 mIU/l) we ruled out the presence of macroprolactinaemia by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation method. Results There was no significant age difference between women with and without autoimmune thyroid disease (p = 0.84). Raised Prl concentrations were found in 10 women with thyroid disease (5.5%), and of those a significant macroprolactinaemia (i.e., reduction of Prl concentrations of more than 60% after PEG precipitation) was found in 9 subjects (4.94%). There were no differences in the prevalence of macroprolactinaemia between women with autoimmune thyroid disease (4 out of 96), and without autoimmune thyroid disease (5 out of 86, p = 0.75). Conclusions Approximately one out of twenty women with regular menses is likely to have

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for peri-implant diseases in Japanese adult dental patients.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yorimasa; Nakayama, Yohei; Tatsumi, Junichi; Kubota, Takehiko; Sato, Shuichi; Nishida, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Onitsuka, Tokuya; Sakagami, Ryuji; Nozaki, Takenori; Murakami, Shinya; Matsubara, Naritoshi; Tanaka, Maki; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Ota, Junya; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Ishihara, Yuichi; Ito, Taichi; Saito, Atsushi; Yamaki, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Etsuko; Hidaka, Toshirou; Sasaki, Daisuke; Yaegashi, Takashi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Shibutani, Toshiaki; Noguchi, Kazuyuki; Araki, Hisao; Ikumi, Noriharu; Aoyama, Yukihiko; Kogai, Hideki; Nemoto, Kenji; Deguchi, Shinji; Takiguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Inokuchi, Keita; Ito, Takatoshi; Kado, Takashi; Furuichi, Yasushi; Kanazashi, Mikimoto; Gomi, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Yukie; Kubokawa, Keita; Yoshinari, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Hirose, Tetsushi; Sase, Toshinaga; Arita, Hirokazu; Kodama, Toshiro; Shin, Kitetsu; Izumi, Yuichi; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2017-03-31

    We investigated the prevalences and risk factors for peri-implant diseases in Japanese adult dental patients attending a follow-up visit at dental hospitals or clinics as part of their maintenance program. This cross-sectional multicenter study enrolled patients with dental implants who attended regular check-ups as part of a periodontal maintenance program during the period from October 2012 through September 2013. Patients with implants with at least 3 years of loading time were included in the study. The condition of peri-implant tissue was examined and classified into the following categories: healthy, peri-implant mucositis, and peri-implantitis. Patients were also evaluated for implant risk factors. A total of 267 patients (110 men, 157 women; mean age: 62.5 ± 10.7 years) were analyzed. The prevalence of patient-based peri-implant mucositis was 33.3% (n = 89), and the prevalence of peri-implantitis was 9.7% (n = 26). Poor oral hygiene and a history of periodontitis were strong risk factors for peri-implant disease. The present prevalences were lower than those previously reported. The quality of periodontal therapy before and after implant installation and patient compliance and motivation, as indicated by plaque control level, appear to be important in maintaining peri-implant tissue health.

  14. Prevalence and evaluation of B12 deficiency in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Nabriski, Dan A; Braverman, Lewis E; Shilo, Lotan; Weiss, Eliahu; Reshef, Tamar; Shapiro, Menachem S; Shenkman, Louis

    2006-09-01

    Patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) have a higher prevalence of pernicious anemia compared with the general population. Clinical signs of B12 deficiency may be subtle and missed, particularly in patients with known autoimmune disease. We assessed the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with AITD and whether their evaluation may be simplified by measuring fasting gastrin levels. Serum B12 levels was measured in 115 patients with AITD (7 men and 108 women), with a mean age of 47 +/- 15 years. In patients with low serum B12 levels (< or =133 pmol/L), fasting serum gastrin and parietal cell antibodies (PCA) were measured. Thirty-two patients (28%) with AITD had low B12 levels. Fasting serum gastrin was measured in 26 and was higher than normal in 8 patients. PCA were also measured in 27 patients with B12 deficiency and were positive in 8 patients. Five patients with high gastrin levels underwent gastroscopy with biopsy, and atrophic gastritis was diagnosed in all. The prevalence of pernicious anemia as assessed by high serum gastrin levels in patients with low B12 was 31%. Patients with AITD have a high prevalence of B12 deficiency and particularly of pernicious anemia. The evaluation of B12 deficiency can be simplified by measuring fasting serum gastrin and, if elevated, referring the patient for gastroscopy.

  15. Epidemiological studies in incidence, prevalence, mortality, and comorbidity of the rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Sherine E; Michaud, Kaleb

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. Over the past decade there has been considerable progress in our understanding of the fundamental descriptive epidemiology (levels of disease frequency: incidence and prevalence, comorbidity, mortality, trends over time, geographic distributions, and clinical characteristics) of the rheumatic diseases. This progress is reviewed for the following major rheumatic diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, giant cell arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, and ankylosing spondylitis. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of the incidence and prevalence of these conditions--a reflection of the impact of genetic and environmental factors. The past decade has also brought new insights regarding the comorbidity associated with rheumatic diseases. Strong evidence now shows that persons with RA are at a high risk for developing several comorbid disorders, that these conditions may have atypical features and thus may be difficult to diagnose, and that persons with RA experience poorer outcomes after comorbidity compared with the general population. Taken together, these findings underscore the complexity of the rheumatic diseases and highlight the key role of epidemiological research in understanding these intriguing conditions.

  16. Clinical characterization of dystonia in adult patients with Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    van de Zande, N A; Massey, T H; McLauchlan, D; Pryce Roberts, A; Zutt, R; Wardle, M; Payne, G C; Clenaghan, C; Tijssen, M A J; Rosser, A E; Peall, K J

    2017-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative movement disorder, typically characterized by chorea. Dystonia is also recognized as part of the HD motor phenotype, although little work detailing its prevalence, distribution, severity and impact on functional capacity has been published to date. Patients (>18 years of age) were recruited from the Cardiff (UK) HD clinic, each undergoing a standardized videotaped clinical examination and series of functional assessment questionnaires (Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale and modified version of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale). The presence and severity of dystonia were scored by four independent neurologists using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale and Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale. Statistical analysis included Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon test, anova and calculation of correlation coefficients where appropriate. Forty-eight patients [91% (48/53)] demonstrated evidence of dystonia, with the highest prevalence in the left upper limb (n = 44, 83%), right upper limb most severely affected and eyes least affected. Statistically significant positive correlations (P < 0.05) were observed between dystonia severity and increasing HD disease stage and motor disease duration. Deterioration in functional capacity also correlated with increasing dystonia severity. No significant relationship was observed with age at motor symptom onset or CAG repeat length. We report a high prevalence of dystonia in adult patients with HD, with worsening dystonia severity with increasing HD disease stage and motor disease duration. The recognition and management of dystonic symptoms in routine clinical practice will aid overall symptomatic treatment and functional improvement. © 2017 EAN.

  17. An investigation into the prevalence of thyroid disease on Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, T.; Fujimori, K.; Kimura, N.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain thyroid disease rate statistics on as much of the population as possible that was alive during the years of nuclear testing and to test the hypothesis that described a linearly decreasing prevalence of palpable nodules with increasing distance from the Bikini test site. 1,322 Marshallese born before 1965 were given a thyroid examination using neck palpation, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and high resolution ultrasound imaging. Approximately 40% of the total population living on this island who are at risk from exposure to radioactive fallout during the years 1946-1958 were screened. Of that group, 815 were alive at the time of the BRAVO test on 1 March 1954. Two hundred sixty-six people with thyroid nodules were found (32.6%): 132 were palpable nodules (16.2%), and 134 were nodules that could be diagnosed with ultrasound only (15.7%). Prevalence of palpable nodules was particularly high in men and women older than 60 y, in men who were 6 to 15 y of age at the time of the BRAVO test, and in women 1 to 10 y of age at the time of the BRAVO test. In 22 people, the clinical diagnosis was most likely cancer though histopathological evidence was only available from 11 operated cases. Of the 11 operated cases, 10 were cancer. Cancer prevalence was particularly high in those women born between 1944 and 1953 (7/220 = 3.2%), i.e., who were children during the early years of nuclear testing. The Ebeye data showed a marginally significant correlation between palpable nodule prevalence among women and distance to Bikini (r = -0.44, p = 0.06). This report summarizes the clinical findings of the thyroid examinations, the age distributions for nodular disease and cancer, and examines the relationship between prevalence of nodules and present day levels of {sup 137}Cs in the environment of each atoll. 22 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. A multilevel model for cardiovascular disease prevalence in the US and its application to micro area prevalence estimates.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Peter

    2009-01-30

    Estimates of disease prevalence for small areas are increasingly required for the allocation of health funds according to local need. Both individual level and geographic risk factors are likely to be relevant to explaining prevalence variations, and in turn relevant to the procedure for small area prevalence estimation. Prevalence estimates are of particular importance for major chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease. A multilevel prevalence model for cardiovascular outcomes is proposed that incorporates both survey information on patient risk factors and the effects of geographic location. The model is applied to derive micro area prevalence estimates, specifically estimates of cardiovascular disease for Zip Code Tabulation Areas in the USA. The model incorporates prevalence differentials by age, sex, ethnicity and educational attainment from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Influences of geographic context are modelled at both county and state level, with the county effects relating to poverty and urbanity. State level influences are modelled using a random effects approach that allows both for spatial correlation and spatial isolates. To assess the importance of geographic variables, three types of model are compared: a model with person level variables only; a model with geographic effects that do not interact with person attributes; and a full model, allowing for state level random effects that differ by ethnicity. There is clear evidence that geographic effects improve statistical fit. Geographic variations in disease prevalence partly reflect the demographic composition of area populations. However, prevalence variations may also show distinct geographic 'contextual' effects. The present study demonstrates by formal modelling methods that improved explanation is obtained by allowing for distinct geographic effects (for counties and states) and for interaction between geographic and person variables. Thus an appropriate

  19. Cardiovascular disease prevalence and relevance in haemophilia: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, I; Minuk, L; Jackson, S; Iorio, A

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and events in patients with haemophilia (PWH) is expected to increase as the longevity of this cohort increases due to treatment advances since the 1950s. The aims of this study were to assess publications of CVD and haemophilia for robustness, determine if the increasing longevity of PWH and associated age-related CVD risk factors result in CVD events; assess the need for an extension of the circle of care for ageing PWH due to the shift in comorbidities. A scoping review was conducted, resulting in a final pool of 30 articles which were organized based on publication dates. A matrix was created to illustrate which articles cited articles published prior to its own publication. This led to the identification of the primary articles, receiving the highest number of citations by other publications, which drive the research pertaining to the study of age-related risk factors of CVD in PWH. The scoping review revealed 14 original articles, four of which indicated a protective effect of haemophilia toward CVD. Twelve articles demonstrated a similar prevalence of CVD in PWH compared to the general population while seven articles concluded a difference in the prevalence of CVD in the ageing haemophilia population. The existing literature presented conflicting evidence regarding the possibility of a protective effect of haemophilia against CVD. The scoping review was not able to finalize whether the longevity of PWH and their associated age-related CVD risk factors result in CVD events because the articles assessed reported conflicting results.

  20. Prevalence of vitreomacular adhesion: an optical coherence tomography analysis in the retina clinic setting

    PubMed Central

    Reichel, Elias; Jaffe, Glenn J; Sadda, Srinivas R; Schuman, Stefanie; Hariri, Amir H; Skidmore, Keegan; Duker, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) in a random sample of clinical patients at three US retina clinics and to assess comorbid retinal conditions, ocular diseases, prior treatment history, and other medical histories. Patients and methods This observational, retrospective cohort study was based on patients from the Doheny Eye Centers, Duke Eye Center, and Tufts Medical Center who received a bilateral spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scan (one scan/eye) for clinical evaluation with available medical records. The study had three phases: 1) collection of retrospective patient data; 2) review of OCT scans at a reading center to assess VMA and associated conditions; and 3) analyses and reporting of data on the prevalence of VMA, patient demographics, and comorbid conditions. Data were obtained from electronic health records and OCT grading forms. Outcome measures from bilateral SD-OCT scans and medical records included OCT evaluation of VMA and retinal comorbid conditions. Results In 719 patients with 1,483 reviewable OCT scans, the prevalence of VMA was estimated at 14.74% (90% CI, 12.58%–16.92%). The prevalence of unilateral VMA was estimated at 12.39%, while bilateral VMA was 2.36%. In patients with VMA, 34 out of 123 eyes with VMA (27.64%) also had fovea deformed by vitreomacular traction. Macular hole (MH) was significantly more prevalent in VMA-diagnosed eyes versus non-VMA-diagnosed eyes (6.5% versus 1.9%; P=0.02). There was a significantly higher incidence of full-thickness MH (P=0.008), operculum/flaps (P<0.0001), and lamellar or pseudo-holes (P=0.048) in VMA-diagnosed versus non-VMA-diagnosed eyes. Age, MH as a comorbid condition, full-thickness MH, lamellar or pseudo-holes, and operculum were predictive of a VMA diagnosis. Conclusion The prevalence of VMA was estimated at 14.74% in a random sample of patients from three retina clinics. VMA diagnosis can be predicted by factors

  1. Time-trend analysis on the Framingham risk score and prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention without prior history of coronary vascular disease over the last 17 years: a study from the Mayo Clinic PCI registry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moo-Sik; Flammer, Andreas J; Li, Jing; Lennon, Ryan J; Singh, Mandeep; Holmes, David R; Rihal, Charanjit S; Lerman, Amir

    2014-07-01

    There is a paucity of data on the temporal trends of cardiovascular risk factors in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We investigated the secular trends of risk profiles of patients undergoing PCI without prior history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD risk factors are changed over time. This time-trend analysis from 1994 to 2010 was performed within the Mayo Clinic PCI Registry. Outcome measures were prevalence of CVD risk factors, including the Framingham risk score (FRS), at the time of admission for PCI. During this period, 12,055 patients without a history of CVD (mean age, 65.0 ± 12.4 years, 67% male) underwent PCI at the Mayo Clinic. Age distribution slightly shifted toward older age (P for trend <0.05), but sex did not change over time. Despite a higher prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus over time, actual blood pressure and lipid profiles improved (P for trend <0.001). Over time, FRS and 10-year CVD risk improved significantly (7.3 ± 3.2 to 6.5 ± 3.3, P for trend <0.001; and 11.0 to 9.0, P for trend <0.001, respectively). Body mass index, not included in the FRS, increased significantly (29.0 ± 5.2 to 30.1 ± 6.2 kg/m(2) , P for trend <0.001), whereas smoking prevalence did not change. The current study demonstrates that although traditional FRS and its associated predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk declined over time, the prevalence of risk factors increased in patients undergoing PCI. The study suggests the need for a new risk-factor assessment in this patient population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Clinical variability and diagnosis steps in childhood mitochondrial disease].

    PubMed

    Mercier, S; Josselin de Wasch, M; Labarthe, F; Jardel, C; Lombès, A; Munnich, A; Toutain, A; Nivet, H; Saliba, E; Chantepie, A; Castelnau, P

    2009-04-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiencies are known for their high clinical variability. Difficult to diagnose, the prevalence of these diseases is probably underestimated. We report 18 children diagnosed with respiratory chain deficiency at the Tours University Hospital over the past 10 years. Three clinical profiles can be distinguished depending on the age at onset of the first symptoms: the neonatal period (4 cases), between 1 month and 2 years of age (10 cases), and after 10 years (4 cases). However, no clinical feature appears specific of any age group. In contrast, respiratory chain analysis on liver biopsy was very informative for all our patients at any age and with any clinical presentation, even with predominant neurological symptoms. These biochemical analyses support the diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders in view of molecular analysis, which nevertheless frequently remains inconclusive. These investigations should benefit from the new molecular screening technologies based on DNA chips that can identify the genomic mutations responsible for these severe and relatively frequent diseases.

  3. Prevalence of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension among Sickle Cell Disease Patients in AL Hassa

    PubMed Central

    AL-Khoufi, Emad Ali Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in Saudi adults with sickle cell disease (SCD), the mechanism of its development, and its prospective prognostic significance are unknown. Objective: To assess the prevalence of PAH among sickle cell disease patients attended hematology outpatient clinic at King Fahad Hospital, Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Doppler echocardiography was performed for assessments of pulmonary- arterial systolic pressure (PASP) on 203 consecutive patients (102 men and 101 women) aged > 11 years, attending hematology clinic at King Fahad Hospital, Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Pulmonary hypertension was prospectively defined as a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRJV) of at least 2.5 m per second which can be estimate PASP equal or more than 25 mmHg. Results: Doppler-defined pulmonary arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 37.1% among 202 patients included in study (after one female patient was excluded) using a cutoff of PASP ≥25 mmHg. Conclusion: The prevalence of PAH among adults Saudis with SCD is higher than that reported from the developed countries. Further assessment using invasive techniques is required coupled employing analytical study design to predict the factors that favor the development of PAH among Saudi patients are required. PMID:23985119

  4. High prevalence of skin disorders among HTLV-1 infected individuals independent of clinical status.

    PubMed

    Okajima, Renata; Oliveira, Augusto C P; Smid, Jerusa; Casseb, Jorge; Sanches, Jose Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection can increase the risk of developing skin disorders. This study evaluated the correlation between HTLV-1 proviral load and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells count among HTLV-1 infected individuals, with or without skin disorders (SD) associated with HTLV-1 infection [SD-HTLV-1: xerosis/ichthyosis, seborrheic dermatitis or infective dermatitis associated to HTLV-1 (IDH)]. A total of 193 HTLV-1-infected subjects underwent an interview, dermatological examination, initial HTLV-1 proviral load assay, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells count, and lymphproliferation assay (LPA). A total of 147 patients had an abnormal skin condition; 116 (79%) of them also had SD-HTLV-1 and 21% had other dermatological diagnoses. The most prevalent SD-HTLV-1 was xerosis/acquired ichthyosis (48%), followed by seborrheic dermatitis (28%). Patients with SD-HTLV-1 were older (51 vs. 47 years), had a higher prevalence of myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) (75%), and had an increased first HTLV-1 proviral load and basal LPA compared with patients without SD-HTLV-1. When excluding HAM/TSP patients, the first HTLV-1 proviral load of SD-HTLV-1 individuals remains higher than no SD-HTLV-1 patients. There was a high prevalence of skin disorders (76%) among HTLV-1-infected individuals, regardless of clinical status, and 60% of these diseases are considered skin disease associated with HTLV-1 infection.

  5. [Prevalence and features of coeliac disease in the Mediterranean area of Spain].

    PubMed

    Navalón-Ramon, E; Juan-García, Y; Pinzón-Rivadeneira, A

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of coeliac disease in patients of a basic health area in Valencia, on the Mediterranean coast, and describe their sociodemographic and clinical features. A descriptive, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on a target population of the inhabitants of the Basic Health Area 14(th), Health Department Xàtiva-Ontinyent, in Valencia, comprising the municipalities of Ontinyent, Aielo de Malferit, and Fontanars dels Alforins. the patient belongs to a quota of Primary Care in the basic health area and the diagnosis of coeliac disease was active in the computerised medical records. the patient did not have any serology or intestinal biopsy compatible with coeliac disease. The study included 115 patients, selected to complete an interviewer-administered questionnaire. As 9 patients did not respond, the study was performed with 106 people. The prevalence of coeliac disease is 0.26%, and higher among women than among men (2.31: 1), with a statistically significant difference. The mean age of the patients was 29.71 years. The mean diagnostic delay was 5.15 years, and among the paediatric population it was 0.68 years. There were no statistically significant differences between patients (60) born in spring and summer, and the 46 born in autumn and winter. The prevalence of coeliac disease among first-degree relatives was 7.06%. Coeliac disease is an underdiagnosed condition in our environment, especially among adults, so knowledge and awareness about this disease by general practitioners is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and clinical features of hypoadrenocorticism in Great Pyrenees dogs in a referred population: 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Decôme, Magali; Blais, Marie-Claude

    2017-10-01

    Naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease) is uncommon, with an estimated prevalence in the canine population between 0.06% and 0.28%. This retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and clinical features of hypoadrenocorticism in Great Pyrenees (GP) dogs presented to the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire of the University of Montreal between March 2005 and October 2014. During this period, 100 dogs were diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism, representing 0.38% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26% to 0.5%] of the canine population studied. The highest prevalence was observed in GP (9.73%, 95% CI: 9.12% to 10.35%, P < 0.0001), followed by West Highland white terriers (4.66%, 95% CI: 4.24% to 5.09%, P < 0.0001), Great Danes (1.87%, 95% CI: 1.6% to 2.14%, P < 0.0001), standard poodles (1.76%, 95% CI: 1.5% to 2.02%, P = 0.0001), Saint Bernards (1.72%, 95% CI: 1.47% to 1.98%, P = 0.018), and Jack Russell terriers (1.48%, 95% CI: 1.24% to 1.72%, P = 0.003). Although most clinical features were nonspecific, Great Pyrenees dogs were more frequently presented with anemia, azotemia, and eosinophilia, or with hypotension and cachexia compared with dogs of other breeds.

  7. An emerging double burden of disease: the prevalence of individuals with cardiovascular disease and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kreatsoulas, C; Anand, S S; Subramanian, S V

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the two leading causes of death in the United States; at the same time, the number of survivors is increasing as therapies continue to improve. The primary objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and characteristics of individuals affected by both CVD and cancer. We conducted a prevalence study using the 2009 and 2010 national Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System population survey. Data from a random sample of individuals (aged 25-99 years) from all states were collected. All participants provided information regarding their CVD and cancer status. Multivariable regression identified associations between participants' characteristics and the prevalence of double disease burden. Amongst 442,964 study participants, the overall prevalence rates were 11% for CVD and 15% for cancer; 3% of participants reported being survivors of both CVD and cancer. The prevalence of CVD+cancer increased twofold by 65 years of age (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-2.5) and doubled again at ≥75 years (OR 4.9, 95% CI 4.6-5.1) and was higher amongst men (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.6-1.7), multiracial individuals (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.0) and those without a high school diploma (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). Amongst individuals with CVD, 25% also reported having cancer, whilst 19% of all cancer survivors reported having CVD. The prevalence of the double burden of disease increased with age; this is particularly important as the 'baby boomers' reach this high-risk age group. Future studies should explore potential common upstream or downstream mechanisms of CVD and cancer as well as public health strategies to cope with the double burden of disease. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  8. Prevalence of Inconsistencies in the Recorded Outcomes of Clinical Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Zola; Spirko, Blake; Smithline, Howard; Garb, Jane

    2017-04-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of variations in the recorded outcomes of clinical evaluations by 2 different physicians during a single patient visit and to comment on observations of physician practices regarding history taking and physical examination. Structured interviews were conducted with both junior and supervising physicians after they had evaluated patients in a pediatric emergency department who presented with complaints of fever (temperature, >100.4°F) in infants younger than 3 months, fever (temperature, >102.2°F) in infants aged 3 to 12 months, headache in patients older than 5 years, abdominal pain in patients older than 5 years, and head injury in patients younger than 18 years. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Most of the data reported by both junior and supervising physicians showed response disagreement. The questions on fever (temperature, >102.2°F) in infants aged 3 to 12 months showed 29% (10/34) disagreement on fever duration and 45% (5/11) on fever height. Questions on abdominal pain in children older than 5 years showed 24% (24/100) disagreement on reporting right lower quadrant pain and 10% (11/106) on right lower quadrant tenderness on examination; however, the discrepancy rates were 56% (56/100) when considering less than complete agreement on all painful sites and 53% (56/106) on all tender sites. Supervising physicians questioned and examined patients presenting with abdominal pain more often than those presenting with other complaints. There are significant variations in the recorded outcome of clinical evaluations by 2 different physicians during a single patient visit. Supervising physicians are more cautious to question and examine patients presenting with abdominal pain compared with other chief complaints.

  9. Estimating Disease Prevalence Using Inverse Binomial Pooled Testing

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Nicholas A.; Tebbs, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring populations of hosts as well as insect vectors is an important part of agricultural and public health risk assessment. In applications where pathogen prevalence is likely low, it is common to test pools of subjects for the presence of infection, rather than to test subjects individually. This technique is known as pooled (group) testing. In this paper, we revisit the problem of estimating the population prevalence p from pooled testing, but we consider applications where inverse binomial sampling is used. Our work is unlike previous research in pooled testing, which has largely assumed a binomial model. Inverse sampling is natural to implement when there is a need to report estimates early on in the data collection process and has been used in individual testing applications when disease incidence is low. We consider point and interval estimation procedures for p in this new pooled testing setting, and we use example data sets from the literature to describe and to illustrate our methods. PMID:21743789

  10. Prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Coll, J; Rives, A; Griñó, M C; Setoain, J; Vivancos, J; Balcells, A

    1987-01-01

    Investigations were carried out in 122 patients in order to identify features of Sjögren's syndrome (keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia). There were 78 patients with autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis 21, scleroderma 16, sicca syndrome 16, primary biliary cirrhosis 14, and other autoimmune disorders 11), 11 patients with chronic liver disease other than primary biliary cirrhosis, and 33 patients with a variety of non-autoimmune conditions or no obvious disease. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca was diagnosed by Schirmer's test and rose bengal staining. The oral component was diagnosed by labial biopsy and salivary scintigraphy. Forty nine patients had a definite Sjögren's syndrome, and 77 patients had the syndrome definitely or probably. Definite Sjögren's syndrome occurred in 62% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, in 69% of patients with scleroderma, and in 71% of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Sjögren's syndrome was not present in any of the patients with non-autoimmune conditions. These results show that in an unselected group of patients with Sjögren's syndrome the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (26%), scleroderma (22%), sicca syndrome (22%), and primary biliary cirrhosis (20%) is similar. Also the occurrence of Sjögren's syndrome in primary biliary cirrhosis is even higher than that in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:3592784

  11. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Associated Outcomes in the Clinical Setting.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Sarah J; Braunschweig, Carol A

    2016-02-01

    Sarcopenia refers to age-associated decrease in muscle mass and function. The condition was originally described in the elderly, but emerging evidence suggests that it is also a concern among the chronically ill nonelderly. Currently there are a number of definitions for diagnosing sarcopenia; however, in the clinical setting, abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans completed for diagnostic purposes can be utilized to identify CT-defined sarcopenia. Recent studies suggest that prevalence of CT-defined sarcopenia is high among chronically ill patients, ranging from 15%-50% in patients with cancer, 30%-45% with liver failure, and 60%-70% for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit. Depleted muscle mass is associated with infectious complications, prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, longer hospitalization, greater need for rehabilitation care after hospital discharge, and higher mortality. In consideration of the growing population of older adults with multiple comorbidities, more research is needed to identify sarcopenia and develop interventions that are directed at attenuating or reversal muscle loss.

  12. [Prevalence of protozoans in children with acute diarrheal disease].

    PubMed

    Tavarez, L A; Pena, F; Placencia, F; Mendoza, H R; Polanco, D

    1991-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-September 1991 in the oral rehydration unit of a children's hospital in Santo Domingo to determine the prevalence of enteric protozoa as a cause of diarrhea. The 100 randomly selected children were aged 3-35 months and had light to moderate dehydration and diarrhea of less than 15 days' duration. The relationship between the presence of protozoans and various risk factors was assessed following the model of a case control study, with children having protozoa infections considered cases and those with diarrhea but not protozoa infections considered controls. 79 of the children were under 1 year old. 36% were malnourished. 60% of the children's families had inadequate garbage disposal facilities, 23% lived in crowded conditions (defined as more than 3 persons per room), 10% drank nonpotable water, 7% lacked piped water, and 2% had no toilet facilities. 66% of the children were found to be positive for protozoa, with 26% positive for Giardia lamblia, 19% for Entamoeba histolytica, 17% for Cryptosporidium, 2% for Dientamoeba fragilis, and 2% for Isospora belli. 6 cases of mixed infection were observed. A significant relationship was found between infection and garbage disposal in the open air and between infection and ingestion of nonpotable water. The high prevalence of protozoa infection is consistent with recent clinical observations. Public health measures should be taken to improve sanitation and personal hygiene.

  13. Disease-mongering through clinical trials.

    PubMed

    González-Moreno, María; Saborido, Cristian; Teira, David

    2015-06-01

    Our goal in this paper is to articulate a precise concept of at least a certain kind of disease-mongering, showing how pharmaceutical marketing can commercially exploit certain diseases when their best definition is given through the success of a treatment in a clinical trial. We distinguish two types of disease-mongering according to the way they exploit the definition of the trial population for marketing purposes. We argue that behind these two forms of disease-mongering there are two well-known problems in the statistical methodology of clinical trials (the reference class problem and the distinction between statistical and clinical significance). Overcoming them is far from simple.

  14. Overweight is more prevalent in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Morales-Briceño, Hugo; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Calleja-Castillo, Juan; Corona, Teresa

    2012-11-01

    Underweight and malnutrition are well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD), while overweight has been less reported. We carried out a cross-sectional study including 177 healthy controls and 177 PD patients attending a tertiary care center. We recorded weight and height for all participants. A statistically significant difference was found in body mass index (BMI) between controls and PD patients (29.1±5.4 versus 27.2±4.7, p<0.001). In the PD Group, two patients were underweight, 32.7% were within normal range, 46.9% had overweight, and 19.2% were obese. Overweight and normal weight were more prevalent in the PD Group (p=<0.01 and <0.001, respectively) when compared to controls. In conclusion, overweight/obesity are common among patients with PD, while underweight is almost negligible.

  15. Sickle cell anemia in Guadeloupean children: pattern and prevalence of acute clinical events.

    PubMed

    Tarer, Vanessa; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Diara, Jean-Pierre; Belloy, Marie Sylvaine; Mukizi-Mukaza, Martin; Elion, Jacques; Romana, Marc

    2006-03-01

    We analyzed the records of 153 Guadeloupean children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), for whom clinical and laboratory data were prospectively collected (mean follow-up duration 8.4 +/- 4.6 yr). Prevalence and age-specific frequencies of acute clinical events were determined and correlations between complications, hematological parameters and potential modulating factors investigated. Painful crisis and acute chest syndrome (ACS) were the two most common complications, affecting 65.4% and 58.8% of the patients, respectively. The frequency of acute anemia was 49.7% (acute splenic sequestration 24.8%; acute aplastic anemia 15.0%). Prevalences of septicemia-meningitis and osteomyelitis were 15.7% and 16.3%, respectively. A higher incidence of infections, painful crises and acute anemia was detected in patients who developed ACS. The well-documented protective effect of HbF level on the overall disease expression was observed with higher HbF level in asymptomatic than in symptomatic patients (17.5% +/- 8% vs. 9.9% +/- 6.4%, P = 0.01) with similar ages and sex ratio. It was also confirmed on ACS and, for the first time, further extended to acute anemic events and septicemia. Besides its effect on hematological parameters, alpha-thalassemia seems to have little impact on the prevalence of complications, as do beta(S)-globin haplotypes. Comparison with other series suggests that the natural history of SCA in Guadeloupe is more similar to that in Jamaica with regard to those reported in Europe and the United States, suggesting a potential impact of environmental factors on the clinical course of the disease.

  16. Prevalence and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease at the mild cognitive impairment stage.

    PubMed

    Vos, Stephanie J B; Verhey, Frans; Frölich, Lutz; Kornhuber, Johannes; Wiltfang, Jens; Maier, Wolfgang; Peters, Oliver; Rüther, Eckart; Nobili, Flavio; Morbelli, Silvia; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Drzezga, Alexander; Didic, Mira; van Berckel, Bart N M; Simmons, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Mecocci, Patrizia; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Lovestone, Simon; Muscio, Cristina; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Salmon, Eric; Bastin, Christine; Wallin, Anders; Nordlund, Arto; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Silva, Dina; Santana, Isabel; Lemos, Raquel; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Van der Mussele, Stefan; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Wallin, Åsa K; Hampel, Harald; van der Flier, Wiesje; Scheltens, Philip; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-05-01

    Three sets of research criteria are available for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: the International Working Group-1, International Working Group-2, and National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer Association criteria. We compared the prevalence and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease at the mild cognitive impairment stage according to these criteria. Subjects with mild cognitive impairment (n = 1607), 766 of whom had both amyloid and neuronal injury markers, were recruited from 13 cohorts. We used cognitive test performance and available biomarkers to classify subjects as prodromal Alzheimer's disease according to International Working Group-1 and International Working Group-2 criteria and in the high Alzheimer's disease likelihood group, conflicting biomarker groups (isolated amyloid pathology or suspected non-Alzheimer pathophysiology), and low Alzheimer's disease likelihood group according to the National Institute of Ageing-Alzheimer Association criteria. Outcome measures were the proportion of subjects with Alzheimer's disease at the mild cognitive impairment stage and progression to Alzheimer's disease-type dementia. We performed survival analyses using Cox proportional hazards models. According to the International Working Group-1 criteria, 850 (53%) subjects had prodromal Alzheimer's disease. Their 3-year progression rate to Alzheimer's disease-type dementia was 50% compared to 21% for subjects without prodromal Alzheimer's disease. According to the International Working Group-2 criteria, 308 (40%) subjects had prodromal Alzheimer's disease. Their 3-year progression rate to Alzheimer's disease-type dementia was 61% compared to 22% for subjects without prodromal Alzheimer's disease. According to the National Institute of Ageing-Alzheimer Association criteria, 353 (46%) subjects were in the high Alzheimer's disease likelihood group, 49 (6%) in the isolated amyloid pathology group, 220 (29%) in the suspected non

  17. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in an adult population.

    PubMed

    Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M; Cortés-Sanabria, Laura; Martínez-Ramírez, Héctor R; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Gómez-Navarro, Benjamin; Castillero-Manzano, Marcelo

    2014-08-01

    One strategy to prevent and manage chronic kidney disease (CKD) is to offer screening programs. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage prevalence and risk factors of CKD in a screening program performed in an adult general population. This is a cross-sectional study. Six-hundred ten adults (73% women, age 51 ± 14 years) without previously known CKD were evaluated. Participants were subjected to a questionnaire, blood pressure measurement and anthropometry. Glomerular filtration rate estimated by CKD-EPI formula and urine tested with albuminuria dipstick. More than 50% of subjects reported family antecedents of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and obesity, and 30% of CKD. DM was self-reported in 19% and hypertension in 29%. During screening, overweight/obesity was found in 75%; women had a higher frequency of obesity (41 vs. 34%) and high-risk abdominal waist circumference (87 vs. 75%) than men. Hypertension (both self-reported and diagnosed in screening) was more frequent in men (49%) than in women (38%). CKD was found in 14.7%: G1, 5.9%; G2, 4.5%; G3a, 2.6%; G3b, 1.1%, G4, 0.3%; and G5, 0.3%. Glomerular filtration rate was mildly/moderately reduced in 2.6%, moderately/severely reduced in 1.1%, and severely reduced in <1%. Abnormal albuminuria was found in 13%. CKD was predicted by DM, hypertension and male gender. A percentage CKD prevalence of 14.7% was found in this sample of an adult population, with most patients at early stages. Screening programs constitute excellent opportunities in the fight against kidney disease, particularly in populations at high risk. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased Prevalence of Methanosphaera stadtmanae in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blais Lecours, Pascale; Marsolais, David; Cormier, Yvon; Berberi, Marie; Haché, Chantal; Bourdages, Raymond; Duchaine, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Background The gut microbiota is associated with the modulation of mucosal immunity and the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Previous studies focused on the impact of bacterial species on IBD but seldom suspected archaea, which can be a major constituent of intestinal microbiota, to be implicated in the diseases. Recent evidence supports that two main archaeal species found in the digestive system of humans, Methanobrevibacter smithii (MBS) and Methanosphaera stadtmanae (MSS) can have differential immunogenic properties in lungs of mice; with MSS but not MBS being a strong inducer of the inflammatory response. We thus aimed at documenting the immunogenic potential of MBS and MSS in humans and to explore their association with IBD. Methods To validate the immunogenicity of MBS and MSS in humans, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects were stimulated with these two microorganisms and the production of inflammatory cytokine TNF was measured by ELISA. To verify MBS and MSS prevalence in IBD, stool samples from 29 healthy control subjects and 29 patients suffering from IBD were collected for DNA extraction. Plasma was also collected from these subjects to measure antigen-specific IgGs by ELISA. Quantitative PCR was used for bacteria, methanogens, MBS and MSS quantification. Results Mononuclear cells stimulated with MSS produced higher concentrations of TNF (39.5 ng/ml) compared to MBS stimulation (9.1 ng/ml). Bacterial concentrations and frequency of MBS-containing stools were similar in both groups. However, the number of stool samples positive for the inflammatory archaea MSS was higher in patients than in controls (47% vs 20%). Importantly, only IBD patients developed a significant anti-MSS IgG response. Conclusion The prevalence of MSS is increased in IBD patients and is associated with an antigen-specific IgG response. PMID:24498365

  19. The Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emma L; Howe, Laura D; Jones, Hayley E; Higgins, Julian P T; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fraser, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Narrative reviews of paediatric NAFLD quote prevalences in the general population that range from 9% to 37%; however, no systematic review of the prevalence of NAFLD in children/adolescents has been conducted. We aimed to estimate prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in young people and to determine whether this varies by BMI category, gender, age, diagnostic method, geographical region and study sample size. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies reporting a prevalence of NAFLD based on any diagnostic method in participants 1-19 years old, regardless of whether assessing NAFLD prevalence was the main aim of the study. The pooled mean prevalence of NAFLD in children from general population studies was 7.6% (95%CI: 5.5% to 10.3%) and 34.2% (95% CI: 27.8% to 41.2%) in studies based on child obesity clinics. In both populations there was marked heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 98%). There was evidence that prevalence was generally higher in males compared with females and increased incrementally with greater BMI. There was evidence for differences between regions in clinical population studies, with estimated prevalence being highest in Asia. There was no evidence that prevalence changed over time. Prevalence estimates in studies of children/adolescents attending obesity clinics and in obese children/adolescents from the general population were substantially lower when elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was used to assess NAFLD compared with biopsies, ultrasound scan (USS) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our review suggests the prevalence of NAFLD in young people is high, particularly in those who are obese and in males.

  20. The Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emma L.; Howe, Laura D.; Jones, Hayley E.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Fraser, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Narrative reviews of paediatric NAFLD quote prevalences in the general population that range from 9% to 37%; however, no systematic review of the prevalence of NAFLD in children/adolescents has been conducted. We aimed to estimate prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in young people and to determine whether this varies by BMI category, gender, age, diagnostic method, geographical region and study sample size. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies reporting a prevalence of NAFLD based on any diagnostic method in participants 1–19 years old, regardless of whether assessing NAFLD prevalence was the main aim of the study. Results The pooled mean prevalence of NAFLD in children from general population studies was 7.6% (95%CI: 5.5% to 10.3%) and 34.2% (95% CI: 27.8% to 41.2%) in studies based on child obesity clinics. In both populations there was marked heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 98%). There was evidence that prevalence was generally higher in males compared with females and increased incrementally with greater BMI. There was evidence for differences between regions in clinical population studies, with estimated prevalence being highest in Asia. There was no evidence that prevalence changed over time. Prevalence estimates in studies of children/adolescents attending obesity clinics and in obese children/adolescents from the general population were substantially lower when elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was used to assess NAFLD compared with biopsies, ultrasound scan (USS) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Conclusions Our review suggests the prevalence of NAFLD in young people is high, particularly in those who are obese and in males. PMID:26512983

  1. THERAPIES FOR CROHN'S DISEASE: a clinical update.

    PubMed

    Sobrado, Carlos Walter; Leal, Raquel Franco; Sobrado, Lucas Faraco

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of clinical therapy in Crohn's disease are clinical and endoscopic remission without the use of corticosteroids for long periods of time, prevention of hospitalization and surgery, and improvement of quality of life. The main limitation of drug therapy is the loss of response over the long term, which makes incorporation of new drugs to the therapeutic arsenal necessary. This review analyses the main drugs currently used in clinical treatment of Crohn's disease.

  2. Prevalence of pediatric aspiration associated extra-esophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Parakininkas, Daiva E.; Werlin, Steven L.; Southern, James F.; Johnston, Nikki; Kerschner, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Importance The role of aspiration associated extra-esophageal reflux disease (AERD) in patients with chronic respiratory symptoms is not well defined. Identifying the frequency of AERD in these patients may provide us with further guidance in treatment and management of these patients. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of AERD in patients with chronic respiratory symptoms compared to controls and, secondly, to assess the utility of pepsin as a new marker for AERD. Design Case-control study performed from 2008-2012. Setting Tertiary referral center. Participants Patients (4.5 months-24 years) with chronic pulmonary disease, both with and without tracheostomy, were compared to controls with no prior history of pulmonary disease undergoing elective surgery. Interventions: Lavage fluid specimen was obtained from each participant. Main Outcome Measures Western blot analysis for pepsin and oil red O staining for lipid-laden macrophages (LLM) was performed on lavage fluid specimens to assess for AERD. Results Seventy-six total patients were enrolled: 65 study patients, of which, 34 patients underwent bronchoscopy, 31 patients had tracheostomy for sampling, and 11 controls. Pepsin positive lavage fluid specimens were identified in 25 (74%) bronchoscopy patients and 22 (71%) tracheostomy patients. All control specimens were negative for pepsin. Presence of LLM was identified in 91% of bronchoscopy group, 52% of tracheostomy patients, and 64% of controls, with a similar distribution of the quantity of LLM in each lavage fluid specimen amongst the groups. Conclusions and Relevance Patients with chronic pulmonary disease have a high prevalence of AERD, which may have important treatment implications. The presence of pepsin was a better predictor of AERD in patients with respiratory symptoms compared to controls than LLM. Detection of pepsin in BAL can serve as a biomarker for AERD and is potentially superior to the current method of measuring

  3. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stojceva-Taneva, Olivera; Otovic, Natasa Eftimovska; Taneva, Borjanka

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) became a new epidemic of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal failure as a result of the diabetes epidemic worldwide. AIM: The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of CKD in the Republic of Macedonia and its association with diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a part of a study conducted in 2006 in terms of screening for early detection of kidney disease. It was a cross-sectional study based on a random sample of patients aged > 20, consecutively consulting their primary physician for any cause. Fifty physicians throughout the country were included in the study. A total of 2637 patients have been analyzed based on integrity data. GFR was estimated using corrected values of serum creatinine and calculating kidney function by the Cockroft & Gault formula, adjusted for body surface using the Gehan & George formula. Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min were considered as having CKD. Blood pressure, body weight, height, serum creatinine, glucose, hemoglobin, hematocrit, urinalysis and medical history for presence of cardiovascular diseases or diabetes were also assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 45.97 ± 16.55 SD and 17.97% were older than 60. Regarding gender, 44.14% were males. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 13.9%. Subjects with CKD (eGFR less than 60 ml/min) were 7.53% of the total. Subjects aged 60 or above, had 20 times higher risk of having CKD (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Out of the total group of subjects, 13.9% had diabetes mellitus and they had 3.13 times higher risk of having CKD stage 3-5 (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) when compared to non-diabetics. The results showed that diabetes was significantly more associated with lower eGFR (less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) in younger subjects (age less than 60) compared to older ones (odds ratio 3

  4. Prevalence of heart disease demonstrated in 60 years of the Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia.

    PubMed

    Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Nather, Julio Cesar; Rodrigues, Alfredo José

    2014-01-01

    Considering the historical and academic relevance of the Brazilian Archives of Cardiology (ABC), as its MEDLINE indexing began in 1950, it was assumed as a hypothesis that the analysis of the publications over the last 60 years could reflect the changing trends of heart disease in Brazil. The study data were collected using a program developed for this purpose, allowing the automatic extraction of information from the MEDLINE database. The study information were collected by searching "Brazilian Archives of Cardiology AND selected parameter in English". Four observational groups were determined: (1) major groups of heart diseases (coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathies); (2) relevant diseases in clinical practice (cardiac arrhythmias, cor pulmonale, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure); (3) cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis); and (4) group determined due to the growing trend of publications on congestive heart failure seen in previous groups (congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, rheumatic heart disease and Chagasic heart disease) All publications within the established groups were described, highlighting the increasing importance of heart failure and diabetes as risk factors. A relatively easy search was carried out, using the computer program developed for literature search covering six decades. Emphasizing the limitations of the study, we suggest the existence of an epidemiological link between cardiac diseases that are prevalent in Brazil and the publications of the Brazilian Archives of Cardiology.

  5. Prevalence of Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes in Children With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Newton, Kimberly P; Hou, Jiayi; Crimmins, Nancy A; Lavine, Joel E; Barlow, Sarah E; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Africa, Jonathan; Behling, Cynthia; Donithan, Michele; Clark, Jeanne M; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B

    2016-10-03

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major chronic liver disease in children in the United States and is associated with insulin resistance. In adults, NAFLD is also associated with type 2 diabetes. To our knowledge, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children with NAFLD is unknown. To determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes in children with NAFLD and assess type 2 diabetes and prediabetes as risk factors for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study at 12 pediatric clinical centers across the United States participating in the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases NASH Clinical Research Network. Children younger than 18 years with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD enrolled in the NASH Clinical Research Network. The presence of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes as determined by American Diabetes Association screening criteria using clinical history and fasting laboratory values. There were 675 children with NAFLD included in the study with a mean age of 12.6 years and mean body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 32.5. Most of the children were boys (480 of 675) and Hispanic (445 of 675).The estimated prevalence of prediabetes was 23.4% (95% CI, 20.2%-26.6%), and the estimated prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 6.5% (95% CI, 4.6%-8.4%). Girls with NAFLD had 1.6 (95% CI, 1.04-2.40) times greater odds of having prediabetes and 5.0 (95% CI, 2.49-9.98) times greater odds of having type 2 diabetes than boys with NAFLD. The prevalence of NASH was higher in those with type 2 diabetes (43.2%) compared with prediabetes (34.2%) or normal glucose (22%) (P < .001). The odds of having NASH were significantly higher in those with prediabetes (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.21-2.9) or type 2 diabetes (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.5-6.2) compared with those with normal glucose. In this study, nearly 30% of children with NAFLD also had type 2 diabetes or prediabetes

  6. Prevalence and changes in chronic diseases among South Korean farmers: 1998 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Shil; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin

    2009-07-29

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested a unique pattern of disease among farmers in Western countries, but limited information is available about the magnitude of disease prevalence and their changes over time in Asian farmers. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and changes in chronic diseases among farmers with those of other occupational groups in South Korea. Using data from three consecutive cross-sectional national surveys: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998 (n = 39,060), 2001 (n = 37,769), and 2005 (n = 34,145), we calculated age and gender-standardized prevalence of chronic diseases by the direct method and compared the prevalence changes from 1998 to 2005. Female farmers had significantly higher chronic disease prevalence than other occupational groups in all three surveys. Arthritis was the most prevalent chronic disease among farmers for both men and women. Compared with other populations, farmers demonstrated a higher prevalence of arthritis and intervertebral disc disorders. Farmers showed higher prevalence changes for intervertebral disc disorders than other occupational workers. Our findings support that South Korean farmers have a distinct pattern of diseases prevalence from other populations. More detailed studies investigating the risk of musculoskeletal diseases and intensive intervention efforts to reduce the prevalence these diseases, particularly among female farmers, are required.

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Insomnia and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shahbaj; Gupta, Manan; Gupta, Ravi; Dhyani, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Poor sleep quality, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome (RLS) and sleep apnea are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinical correlates of these problems are poorly understood. Aims: This study was to find out the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and subjects with ‘high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)’ in adults with chronic kidney disease. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four adults with CKD were included. Their demographic data, details regarding kidney disease and hemodialysis (HD) were recorded. Presence of insomnia and its severity was assessed. They were screened for sleep apnea using a validated questionnaire. Results: Average age was 54.17 (± 12.96) years. 89.4% had stage 5 nephropathy and 78.8% subjects were on regular HD. Males outnumbered females. Insomnia was reported by 35.5%. Among these, 50% had chronic insomnia. Insomnia subjects had higher prevalence of diabetes (P = 0.01) and depression (P < 0.001). Fifty-one percent subjects were at “high risk for sleep apnea”. They had higher prevalence of diabetes (P < 0.001), coronary disease (P = 0.02), insomnia (P = 0.008), and experienced daytime symptoms of insomnia (P < 0.001). However, in the logistic regression, only male gender (odds ratio, OR = 13.59) and daytime symptoms of insomnia (OR = 7.34) were found to be associated with “higher risk for sleep apnea”. Conclusion: Insomnia was prevalent in CKD. Nearly half of these patients are at high risk for sleep apnea and a third of them suffer from insomnia. Hence, these patients should be screened for sleep disorders. PMID:24404542

  8. Vitamin D deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease: prevalence and predictors in a Norwegian outpatient population.

    PubMed

    Frigstad, Svein Oskar; Høivik, Marte; Jahnsen, Jørgen; Dahl, Sandra Rinne; Cvancarova, Milada; Grimstad, Tore; Berset, Ingrid Prytz; Huppertz-Hauss, Gert; Hovde, Øistein; Torp, Roald; Bernklev, Tomm; Moum, Bjørn; Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to identify clinical and epidemiological variables associated with vitamin D deficiency in an outpatient population with IBD. Participants were recruited from nine hospitals in the southeastern and western regions of Norway as part of an observational, multicentre study from March 2013 to April 2014. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected by interview and from medical records. All analyses of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) were performed in the same laboratory. In total, 49% (200/408) of the patients had a 25-OH-D concentration <50 nmol/L, including 53% (122/230) of the Crohn's disease (CD) patients and 44% (78/178) of the ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. In CD patients, disease activity, measured as the HBI, was inversely associated with vitamin D deficiency. No such association was observed with the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) scores in UC, but in UC patients, vitamin D deficiency was associated with elevated faecal calprotectin >100 mg/kg. In patients with CD, there were significantly more relapses during the previous year in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was common, especially in CD, and was associated with increased disease activity, a relapsing disease course and higher inflammatory activity.

  9. Ledderhose Disease: Clinical, Radiological (Ultrasound and MRI), and Anatomopathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Omor, Y; Dhaene, B; Grijseels, S; Alard, S

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age, with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be useful to confirm the diagnosis. A 44-year-old man with Ledderhose disease who underwent ultrasound and MR is described in this paper.

  10. Ledderhose Disease: Clinical, Radiological (Ultrasound and MRI), and Anatomopathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Omor, Y.; Dhaene, B.; Grijseels, S.; Alard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age, with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be useful to confirm the diagnosis. A 44-year-old man with Ledderhose disease who underwent ultrasound and MR is described in this paper. PMID:26425380

  11. Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in two districts of Sri Lanka: a hospital based survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is being increasingly diagnosed in Asia. However there are few epidemiological data from the region. Methods To determine prevalence and clinical characteristics of IBD, a hospital-based survey was performed in the Colombo and Gampaha districts (combined population 4.5 million) in Sri Lanka. Patients with established ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), who were permanent residents of these adjoining districts, were recruited from hospital registries and out-patient clinics. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and patient interviews. Results There were 295 cases of IBD (UC = 240, CD = 55), of which 34 (UC = 30, CD = 4) were newly diagnosed during the study year. The prevalence rate for UC was 5.3/100,000 (95% CI 5.0-5.6/100,000), and CD was 1.2/100,000 (95% CI 1.0-1.4/100,000). The incidence rates were 0.69/100,000 (95% CI 0.44-0.94/100,000) for UC and 0.09/100,000 (95% CI 0.002-0.18/100,000) for CD. Female:male ratios were 1.5 for UC and 1.0 for CD. Mean age at diagnosis was (males and females) 36.6 and 38.1y for UC and 33.4 and 36.2y for CD. Among UC patients, 51.1% had proctitis and at presentation 58.4% had mild disease. 80% of CD patients had only large bowel involvement. Few patients had undergone surgery. Conclusions The prevalence of IBD in this population was low compared to Western populations, but similar to some in Asia. There was a female preponderance for UC. UC was mainly mild, distal or left-sided, while CD mainly involved the large bowel. PMID:20302651

  12. Celiac disease in children from Madeira island and its prevalence in first degree relatives.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joana Raquel Henriques; Cabral, António Jorge; Ferreira, Elena; Capelinha, Filipa; Spínola, Hélder; Gonçalves, Rute

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that celiac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disorder highly prevalent among relatives of celiac patients. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in a group of first degree relatives of celiac children, and to access the frequency of human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 in celiac disease patients and their affected relatives. A survey was conducted of 39 children with celiac disease with follow-up in the Pediatric outpatient's clinic of Dr. Nélio Mendonça Hospital, in Madeira Island, Portugal. Were invited 110 first degree relatives to undergo serological screen for celiac disease with IgA antibody to human recombinant tissue transglutaminase (IgA-TGG) quantification. In all seropositive relatives, small intestinal biopsy and HLA typing was recommended. HLA- typing was performed in 38 celiac patients, 28/74% DQ2 positive, 1/2% DQ8 positive and 9/24% incomplete DQ2. Positive IgA-TGG was found in five out of the 95 relatives, and CD was diagnosed in three of them. Three relatives had the presence of HLA-DQ2, two were DQ2 incomplete (DQB1*02). The prevalence of celiac disease among first degree celiac patients´ relatives was 3.1%, 4.5 times higher than the general Portuguese population (0,7%) witch reinforces the need of extensive diagnostic screening in this specific group. HLA-DQ2 typing may be a tool in the diagnostic approach.

  13. Prevalence, risk factors and clinical signs predictive for equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in aged horses.

    PubMed

    McGowan, T W; Pinchbeck, G P; McGowan, C M

    2013-01-01

    Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is an ageing-related neurodegenerative disorder. The prevalence and risk factors for PPID using seasonally adjusted basal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations in aged horses have not been previously reported. To determine the prevalence, risk factors and clinical signs predictive for PPID in a population of horses aged ≥ 15 years in Queensland, Australia. Owner-reported data was obtained using a postal questionnaire distributed to an equestrian group. A subgroup of surveyed owners were visited and a veterinary physical examination performed on all horses aged ≥ 15 years. Blood samples were analysed for basal plasma alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and ACTH concentrations, routine haematology and selected biochemistry. Aged horses with elevations above seasonally adjusted cut-off values for basal plasma ACTH were considered positive for PPID. Positive horses were compared with their aged counterparts to determine risk factors and clinical signs associated with PPID. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction was prevalent in aged horses (21.2%) despite owners infrequently reporting it as a known or diagnosed disease or disorder. Numerous clinical or historical signs were associated with an increased risk of PPID in the univariable model, but only age (odds ratio (OR) 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.25, P<0.001) and owner-reported history of hirsutism (OR 7.80; 95% CI 3.67-16.57, P<0.001) remained in the final multivariable model. There were no routine haematological or biochemical variables supportive of a diagnosis of PPID. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction occurs commonly in aged horses despite under-recognition by owners. The increased risk of PPID with age supports that this is an ageing associated condition. Aged horses with clinical or historical signs consistent with PPID, especially owner-reported hirsutism (delayed shedding and/or long hair coat), should be tested and

  14. Celiac disease in non-clinical populations of Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Mai; Ishimura, Norihisa; Fukuyama, Chika; Izumi, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Nahoko; Araki, Asuka; Oka, Akihiko; Mishiro, Tomoko; Ishihara, Shunji; Maruyama, Riruke; Adachi, Kyoichi; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2017-04-07

    Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune enteropathy caused by gluten ingestion. While its prevalence in Western countries is reported to be as high as 1%, the prevalence has not been evaluated in a large-scale study of a Japanese population. The aim of our study was to clarify the possible presence of celiac disease in a Japanese non-clinical population as well as in patients showing symptoms suggestive of the disease. Serum samples were collected from 2008 non-clinical adults and 47 patients with chronic unexplained abdominal symptoms between April 2014 and June 2016. The anti-tissue transglutaminase (TTG) immunoglobulin A antibody titer was determined as a screening test for celiac disease in all subjects, and individuals with a value of >2 U/mL subsequently underwent testing for the presence of serum endomysial IgA antibody (EMA) as confirmation. Those testing positive for EMA or with a high concentration (>10 U/mL) of TTG were further investigated by histopathological examinations of duodenal mucosal biopsy specimens and HLA typing tests. Of the 2008 non-clinical adults from whom serum samples were collected, 161 tested positive for TTG, and all tested negative for EMA. Four subjects who had a high TTG titer were invited to undergo confirmatory testing, and the histopathological results confirmed the presence of celiac disease in only a single case (0.05%). Of the 47 symptomatic patients, one (2.1%) was found to have a high TTG titer and was diagnosed with celiac disease based on duodenal histopathological findings. The presence of celiac disease in a non-clinical Japanese population was low at 0.05% and was rarely found in patients with unexplained chronic abdominal symptoms.

  15. Fibromyalgia in patients with thyroid autoimmunity: prevalence and relationship with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Haliloglu, Sema; Ekinci, Bilge; Uzkeser, Hulya; Sevimli, Hakan; Carlioglu, Ayse; Macit, Pinar Mazlum

    2017-02-07

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome characterised by chronic musculoskeletal pain, tenderness and other somatic symptoms. The prevalence of FM is approximately 2-7% in the general global population and is 30-40% in the population of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) with a structural pathology. In 2010, new classification criteria for FM were proposed, as an alternative to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1990 criteria. The objectives of the present study were to identify the prevalence of FM in the HT population and evaluate the associated features by using the new diagnostic criteria. The study group included 79 consecutive patients with HT with or without FM. Recorded data included age, gender, laboratory parameters, sociodemographic features and clinical findings, presence of somatic symptoms, and disease activity indices. The prevalence of FM in patients with HT was 62%. Antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) positivity, duration of disease, and waist circumference were significantly associated with concomitant FM (p = 0.000, p = 0.000, and p = 0.015, respectively). A strong positive correlation was noted between fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) scores and disease duration, age, values of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and TPOAb, waist circumference and marital status. TPOAb was found to be independent of body mass index, age and TSH. Concomitant FM is a common clinical problem in HT and its recognition is important for the optimal management of the disease. The new set of diagnostic criteria for FM reinforces this situation. Consideration of the FM component in the management of HT increases the likelihood of treatment success.

  16. [Prevalence of chronic diseases and risk factors among the Spanish prison population].

    PubMed

    Vera-Remartínez, E J; Borraz-Fernández, J R; Domínguez-Zamorano, J A; Mora-Parra, L M; Casado-Hoces, S V; González-Gómez, J A; Blanco-Quiroga, A; Armenteros-López, B; Garcés-Pina, E

    2014-01-01

    chronic diseases are responsible for 60% of deaths and 75% of spending on public health. There are few works on the prevalence of this type of pathology in prison. Describe the prevalence of chronic major diseases in the population and the major risk factors observed. Multicenter transversal descriptive study. The sample size was 1,170 people, who were selected through sampling stratified with simple allocation by strata among 9 prisons in the country. There were interviews and physical examinations between May and June 2013. Variables were collected: socio-demographic, diagnostic, anthropometric, clinical-analytical and risk factors. A descriptive and subsequent comparative analysis was carried out using non-parametric tests for quantitative variables using the Mann-Whitney test and a Ji-square test for categorical variables. Subsequently, binary logistic regression models to evaluate the influence of factors of risk in major pathologies. The manuscript was approved by the Ethics Committee for clinical research of the University General Hospital of Castellon. 1 of every 2 inmates has some type of chronic disease out of the 1,077 participated (92.1). Median age of 37.4 years IQR (30.0 to 44.8). 95 males, 40.6 foreigners. Prevalence: dyslipidemias (34.8); arterial hypertension (17.8); Diabetes (5.3); asthma (4.6); COPD (2.2); ischaemic heart disease (1.8) and (1.5) cardio-circulatory pathologies. Main risk factors: smoking, obesity, abdominal fat distribution, consumption of cocaine and age. It would be interesting to establish early diagnosis, encourage giving up smoking, and physical activity and dietary advice to combat the major modifiable risk factors.

  17. Prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Nanda, Satyan; Tripathi, Adarsh; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Gupta, Kamlesh Kumar; Himanshu, D; Verma, Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Psychiatric disorders, especially anxiety and depression have been reported to have an increased prevalence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but there is a paucity of data from India. Aims and Objectives: Aim of our study is to study the frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in COPD patients and their correlation with severity of COPD, as per global initiative for obstructive lung disease guidelines. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital (King George's Medical University). A total of 74 COPD patients were included in this study and compared with 74 controls. The diagnosis and severity of COPD were assessed by spirometry. Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview questionnaire. Results: The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in COPD patients (28.4%) as compared to controls (2.7%). As regards to severity, the frequency was significantly increased in severe and very severe COPD. The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in COPD patients increased significantly with the increase in duration of symptoms being present in 67% of patients with duration of symptoms more than 10 years and only 23% of patients with duration of symptoms ≤5 years. Conclusion: The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities is increased in COPD patients as compared to controls. We recommend that all patients with COPD should be screened for psychiatric comorbidity, if any. PMID:27051106

  18. The Clinical Course of Glycogen Disease

    PubMed Central

    van Creveld, Simon

    1963-01-01

    The various types of glycogen disease, of which the author gave the first clinical description in 1928, that can at present be distinguished, are described in terms of the differing clinical and biochemical findings and the enzyme deficiencies more or less characteristic for each type. The clinical course of the author's first two patients with glycogen disease, at present 42 and 38 years old, is given in detail; they have type III of the disease. Some cases of glycogen disease cannot be fitted into the clinical classification of the different types, and for some no definite enzymatic defect to account for the glycogen accumulation has been found. The therapy of glycogen disease is discussed briefly. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 1bFig. 2Fig. 8 PMID:14023832

  19. The Prevalence of Chagas Disease Among Latin American Immigrants with Pacemakers in Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Park, Sandy; Sanchez, Daniel R; Traina, Mahmoud I; Bradfield, Jason S; Hernandez, Salvador; Ufion, Alvaro Joaquin Altamirano; Dufani, Jalal; Bergin, Patrick; Wachsner, Robin Y; Meymandi, Sheba K

    2017-05-01

    AbstractChagas disease (CD), with associated conduction abnormalities, is a common indication for pacemaker implantation in Latin America. The prevalence of CD in Latin American immigrants with pacemakers residing in the United States has never been studied. This single-center cross-sectional study included pacemaker patients who were aged 18 years or more with a previous residence in Latin America for at least 6 months. Patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, cardiac resynchronization therapy, or iatrogenic and/or congenital heart block were excluded. Serological testing for Trypanosoma cruzi was performed at enrollment. A total of 80 patients were enrolled, and CD was diagnosed in six patients (7.5%). Patients with CD were more likely to be from El Salvador (P = 0.001). Other clinical, therapeutic, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic variables were similar between the CD and non-CD groups. There is a high prevalence of CD among Latin American immigrants with pacemakers in Los Angeles.

  20. Prevalence, location and concurrent diseases of ultrasonographic cyst-like lesions of abdominal lymph nodes in dogs.

    PubMed

    Liotta, A; Billen, F; Heimann, M; Hamaide, A; Rizza, M; Etienne, A L; Bolen, G

    2017-04-01

    Lymph nodal cyst-like lesions are occasionally identified during abdominal ultrasound in dogs. However, a study evaluating their prevalence and clinical significance is lacking. The aim of this observational cross-sectional study was to evaluate prevalence, most common location and concurrent diseases of cyst-like lymph nodes detected during abdominal ultrasound. Affected lymph nodes, patient signalment and concurrent diseases of dogs with cyst-like lymph nodal lesions having undergone abdominal ultrasound over a one-year period were recorded. Twenty-three affected lymph nodes were observed in 17/553 dogs (prevalence=3 per cent). The most commonly affected was the lumbar lymphocenter (7/23), followed by the coeliac (6/23), the cranial mesenteric (5/23) and the iliosacral (5/23). Twenty-three concurrent diseases were diagnosed in 17 dogs, among which 16/23 were non-neoplastic (70 per cent). The most common concurrent disease was renal insufficiency (8/23), followed by neoplasia (7/23), gastroenteropathy (3/23), benign prostatic disease (2/23), pancreatitis (1/23), peritonitis (1/23) and neurological disease (1/23). No statistical correlation existed between cyst-like lymph nodal lesion and a specific neoplastic or non-neoplastic disease. In conclusion, in the present study, cyst-like lymph nodal lesions have a low prevalence, involve different lymphocenters and were found in dogs affected by different diseases, including both non-neoplastic and neoplastic aetiologies.

  1. 76 FR 63355 - Proposed Information Collection (Prevalence and Clinical course of Depression Among patients with...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Collection (Prevalence and Clinical course of Depression Among patients with Heart Failure); Comment Request... information needed to identify the patterns of depression in heart failure patients. DATES: Written comments...: Prevalence and Clinical Course of Depression Among Patients with Heart Failure, VA HSR&D, Nursing Research...

  2. Clinical features of HIV disease in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Grant, A

    2002-06-01

    HIV disease progresses from an asymptomatic period of variable duration, through mild symptoms, to severe disease characteristic of cellular immunodeficiency. The rate of progression from infection to severe disease is probably similar world-wide. However, individuals in developing countries have more symptomatic disease, in keeping with the high incidence of morbidity in the general population, and poor survival with advanced disease. The clinical manifestations of severe HIV-related immunosuppression vary with geographical region. Tuberculosis (TB) is the most important severe opportunistic disease in developing countries: the clinical presentation may differ from TB in the immunocompetent. Bacterial infections, particularly due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typhoid Salmonella spp., are also important causes of morbidity and mortality. Fungal diseases such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis and penicilliosis vary in prevalence in different geographical regions. A high index of suspicion of HIV infection and knowledge of the local spectrum of HIV disease are important for early diagnosis and appropriate management of HIV-related disease.

  3. Prevalence and clinical manifestations of malaria in Aligarh, India.

    PubMed

    Asma, Umm-e; Taufiq, Farha; Khan, Wajihullah

    2014-12-01

    Malaria is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of tropical countries with an estimated 207 million cases globally. In India, there are endemic pockets of this disease, including Aligarh. Hundreds of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax cases with severe pathological conditions are recorded every year in this district. The aim of this study is to find out changes in liver enzymes and kidney markers. Specific diagnosis for P. falciparum and P. vivax was made by microscopic examination of Giemsa stained slides. Clinical symptoms were observed in both of these infections. Liver enzymes, such as AST, ALT, and ALP, and kidney function markers, such as creatinine and urea, were estimated by standard biochemical techniques. In Aligarh district, P. vivax, P. falciparum, and mixed infections were 64%, 34%, and 2%, respectively. In case of P. falciparum infection, the incidences of anemia, splenomegaly, renal failure, jaundice, and neurological sequelae were higher compared to those in P. vivax infection. Recrudescence and relapse rates were 18% and 20% in P. falciparum and P. vivax infections, respectively. Liver dysfunctions and renal failures were more common in P. falciparum patients, particularly in elderly patients. Artesunate derivatives must, therefore, be introduced for the treatment of P. falciparum as they resist to chloroquine as well as sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combinations.

  4. Prevalence and Clinical Manifestations of Malaria in Aligarh, India

    PubMed Central

    Asma, Umm-e; Taufiq, Farha

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of tropical countries with an estimated 207 million cases globally. In India, there are endemic pockets of this disease, including Aligarh. Hundreds of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax cases with severe pathological conditions are recorded every year in this district. The aim of this study is to find out changes in liver enzymes and kidney markers. Specific diagnosis for P. falciparum and P. vivax was made by microscopic examination of Giemsa stained slides. Clinical symptoms were observed in both of these infections. Liver enzymes, such as AST, ALT, and ALP, and kidney function markers, such as creatinine and urea, were estimated by standard biochemical techniques. In Aligarh district, P. vivax, P. falciparum, and mixed infections were 64%, 34%, and 2%, respectively. In case of P. falciparum infection, the incidences of anemia, splenomegaly, renal failure, jaundice, and neurological sequelae were higher compared to those in P. vivax infection. Recrudescence and relapse rates were 18% and 20% in P. falciparum and P. vivax infections, respectively. Liver dysfunctions and renal failures were more common in P. falciparum patients, particularly in elderly patients. Artesunate derivatives must, therefore, be introduced for the treatment of P. falciparum as they resist to chloroquine as well as sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combinations. PMID:25548413

  5. Prevalence of insomnia and its clinical correlates in a general population in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Benbir, Gulcin; Demir, Ahmet Ugur; Aksu, Murat; Ardic, Sadik; Firat, Hikmet; Itil, Oya; Ozgen, Fuat; Yılmaz, Hikmet; Karadeniz, Derya

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of insomnia is influenced by environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of insomnia and its sociodemographic and clinical correlates in a general population-based survey in Turkey. This population-based study included 4758 subjects among 5021 who participated in the Turkish Adult Population Epidemiology of Sleep Disorders study. Questionnaire items evaluating insomnia were adapted from the International Classification of Sleep Disorders II and the DSM-IV-TR. Subjects with restless legs syndrome were excluded. Insomnia was found to be associated with older age (18-24 years, 9.8%; 25-44 years, 11.7%; 45-64 years, 13.8%; 65 years or older, 13.9%), lower income level (<500 USD, 16.5%), time spent watching TV (6-8 h or more, 18.4%), tea consumption in the evening (≥6 glasses, 14.5%) and smoking status (current and ex-smoker, both 14.2%) in multiple logistic regression analysis. In respect to other medical disorders, insomnia was significantly associated with the presence of hypertension, diabetes and heart diseases after the adjustment for relevant risk factors for each disease, across all age and sex groups. Insomnia is a major health problem in our population, affecting subjects in the working age group and those of lower socioeconomic status. It should especially be screened in patients with chronic diseases. A relatively low proportion of insomnia diagnosed as a sleep disorder suggests that this condition and its clinical correlates are possibly under-recognized. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and degree of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Sıdıka Gülkan; Yazısız, Hatice; Behlül, Ahmet; Gökbelen, Yüksel Aslı; Borlu, Fatih; Yazısız, Veli

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and degree of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Material and Methods We performed a cross-sectional study on 102 adult patients with PsA and a control group of 102 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MetS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. The Framingham risk scores of 10-year risk of CVDs and coronary heart disease (CHD) were also calculated. Results The prevalence of MetS was higher in patients with PsA than in those with RA, according to the NCEP-ATP III (40.6% vs. 24.7%, respectively; p=0.019) and IDF (46.8% vs. 27.9%, respectively; p=0.05) criteria. The prevalence of MetS was higher in female patients with PsA (p=0.009) than in male patients. A significantly increased prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was determined in patients with PsA (p=0.019). No significant difference existed between the two groups with respect to 10-year CVD (p=0.333) and CHD (p=0.798) risks. Additionally, there were no significant differences between the clinical subtypes of PsA with regard to MetS (p=0.229). Conclusion MetS prevalence increased in patients with PsA compared with those with RA, whereas the risks were similar for CVDs and CHD. For this reason, optimal protection measures should be taken and guidelines should be applied to achieve adequate metabolic control in patients with PsA. PMID:28293452

  7. NCL diseasesclinical perspectives☆

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Angela; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Mink, Jonathan; Simonati, Alessandro; Williams, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are lysosomal storage disorders and together are the most common degenerative brain diseases in childhood. They are a group of disorders linked by the characteristic accumulation of abnormal storage material in neurons and other cell types, and a degenerative disease course. All NCLs are characterized by a combination of dementia, epilepsy, and motor decline. For most childhood NCLs, a progressive visual failure is also a core feature. The characteristics of these symptoms can vary and the age at disease onset ranges from birth to young adulthood. Genetic heterogeneity, with fourteen identified NCL genes and wide phenotypic variability render diagnosis difficult. A new NCL classification system based on the affected gene and the age at disease onset allows a precise and practical delineation of an individual patient’s NCL type. A diagnostic algorithm to identify each NCL form is presented here. Precise NCL diagnosis is essential not only for genetic counseling, but also for the optimal delivery of care and information sharing with the family and other caregivers. These aspects are challenging because there are also potential long term complications which are specific to NCL type. Therefore care supported by a specifically experienced team of clinicians is recommended. As the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear for all NCL forms, the development of curative therapies remains difficult. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses or Batten Disease. PMID:23602993

  8. Million hearts: prevalence of leading cardiovascular disease risk factors--United States, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, Matthew D; Wall, Hilary K; Gillespie, Cathleen; George, Mary G; Jamal, Ahmed

    2014-05-30

    Each year, approximately 1.5 million U.S. adults have a heart attack or stroke, resulting in approximately 30 deaths every hour and, for nonfatal events, often leading to long-term disability. Overall, an estimated 14 million survivors of heart attacks and strokes are living in the United States. In 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, in collaboration with nonprofit and private organizations, launched Million Hearts (http://www.millionhearts.hhs.gov), an initiative focused on implementing clinical and community-level evidence-based strategies to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and prevent a total of 1 million heart attacks and strokes during the 5-year period 2012-2016. From 2005-2006 to the period with the most current data, analysis of the Million Hearts four "ABCS" clinical measures (for aspirin, blood pressure, cholesterol, and smoking) showed 1) no statistically significant change in the prevalence of aspirin use for secondary prevention (53.8% in 2009-2010), 2) an increase to 51.9% in the prevalence of blood pressure control (in 2011-2012), 3) an increase to 42.8% in the prevalence of cholesterol management (in 2011-2012), and 4) no statistically significant change in the prevalence of smoking assessment and treatment (22.2% in 2009-2010). In addition, analysis of two community-level indicators found 1) a decrease in current tobacco product smoking (including cigarette, cigar, or pipe use) prevalence to 25.1% in 2011-2012 and 2) minimal change in mean daily sodium intake (3,594 mg/day in 2009-2010). Although trends in some measures are encouraging, further reductions of CVD risk factors will be needed to meet Million Hearts goals by 2017.

  9. Prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain (EPISER 2016 study): Aims and methodology.

    PubMed

    Seoane-Mato, Daniel; Sánchez-Piedra, Carlos; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Sivera, Francisca; Blanco, Francisco J; Pérez Ruiz, Fernando; Juan-Mas, Antonio; Pego-Reigosa, José M; Narváez, Javier; Quilis Martí, Neus; Cortés Verdú, Raúl; Antón-Pagés, Fred; Quevedo Vila, Víctor; Garrido Courel, Laura; Del Amo, Natividad Del Val; Paniagua Zudaire, Inmaculada; Añez Sturchio, Gustavo; Medina Varo, Fermín; Ruiz Tudela, María Del Mar; Romero Pérez, Antonio; Ballina, Javier; Brandy García, Anahy; Fábregas Canales, Dolores; Font Gayá, Teresa; Bordoy Ferrer, Carolina; González Álvarez, Beatriz; Casas Hernández, Laura; Álvarez Reyes, Fátima; Delgado Sánchez, Mónica; Martínez Dubois, Cristina; Sánchez-Fernández, Simón Ángel; Rojas Vargas, Luisa Marena; García Morales, Paula Virginia; Olivé, Alejandro; Rubio Muñoz, Paula; Larrosa, Marta; Navarro Ricos, Noemí; Graell Martín, Eduard; Chamizo, Eugenio; Chaves Chaparro, Lara; Rojas Herrera, Sara; Pons Dolset, Jordi; Polo Ostariz, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Alejos Garrido, Susana; Macía Villa, Cristina; Cruz Valenciano, Ana; González Gómez, María Luisa; Morcillo Valle, Mercedes; Palma Sánchez, Deseada; Moreno Martínez, María José; Mayor González, Marta; Atxotegi Sáenz de Buruaga, Joana; Urionagüena Onaindia, Irati; Blanco Cáceres, Boris Anthony; Díaz-González, Federico; Bustabad, Sagrario

    2017-07-31

    To describe the methodology of the EPISER 2016 (study of the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain), as well its strengths and limitations. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), osteoarthritis (knee, hip, hands, and cervical and lumbar spine), fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. Population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional study, with the participation of 45 municipalities in the 17 Spanish autonomous communities. The reference population will consist of adults aged 20 years and over residing in Spain. A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system will be used for data collection. Diagnostic suspicions and diagnoses received by the participants will be studied by rheumatologists in the referral hospitals in the selected municipalities. the prevalence of the rheumatic diseases will be calculated using estimators and their 95% confidence intervals. Weights will be calculated in each of the sampling stages in accordance with the probability of selection. The distribution of the population in Spain will be obtained from the Spanish Statistics Institute. Sociodemographic and lifestyle changes over the last 16 years justify EPISER 2016. This study will provide current data about the prevalences of RA, AS, PsA, SLE, SS, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. The results will allow comparisons with studies from other countries and EPISER 2000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  10. The prevalence and clinical significance of premature ventricular beats in the athlete.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzi, F; Zorzi, A; Alvino, F; Bonifazi, M; Corrado, D; Mondillo, S

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents and adults with cardiovascular disease who are engaged in sports activity have an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) that is three times greater than that of their non-athletic counterparts. Sport acts as a trigger for cardiac arrest in the presence of underlying cardiovascular diseases predisposing to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Frequent and complex premature ventricular beats (PVBs) detected during the cardiovascular screening of the athletic population may be a sign of an underlying cardiovascular disease at risk of SCD, but are also often recorded in trained athletes without cardiovascular abnormalities. Thus, the interpretation of PVBs could represent a clinical dilemma, particularly in the athlete. However, while some characteristics of PVBs can be considered common and benign, others occur uncommonly in the athletic population and raise the suspicion of an underlying cardiovascular disease. This review discusses the prevalence and clinical significance of PVBs in the athlete, with a focus on exercise-induced PVBs, on the analysis of PVB's morphology at 12-lead ECG, and on the morphological substrates identified by imaging techniques. The implications on eligibility for competitive sports participation are also discussed, according to the relevance of PVB detection for disqualifying athletes from competitions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Prevalence and Association of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis with Disease Course in Patients with Ulcero-Constrictive Ileocolonic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imteyaz Ahmad; Pilli, Sucharita; A, Surendranath; Rampal, Ritika; Chauhan, Sudhir Kumar; Tiwari, Veena; Mouli, Venigalla Pratap; Kedia, Saurabh; Nayak, Baibaswata; Das, Prasenjit; Makharia, Govind K.; Ahuja, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    Background Association of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Crohn’s disease (CD) has been controversial due to contradictory reports. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of MAP in patients with CD and intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) and its association with clinical course. Methodology Blood and intestinal biopsies were taken from 69 CD, 32 ITB patients and 41 patients with haemorrhoidal bleed who served as controls. qPCR targeting of MAP-specific IS900 gene was used to detect the presence of MAP DNA. qPCR results were further validated by sequencing. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the presence of MAP antigen in biopsy specimens. CD and ITB patients were followed-up for disease course and response to therapy. Principal Findings The frequency of MAP-specific DNA in biopsies by qPCR was significantly higher in CD patients (23.2%, p = 0.03) as compared to controls (7.3%). No significant difference in intestinal MAP presence was observed between ITB patients (12.5%, p = 0.6) and controls (7.3%). MAP presence in blood of CD patients was 10.1% as compared to 4.9% in controls while no patients with ITB were found to be positive (p = 0.1). Using IHC for detection of MAP antigen, the prevalence of MAP in CD was 2.9%, 12.5% in ITB patients and 2.4% in controls. However, long-term follow-up of the patients revealed no significant associations between clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes with MAP positivity. Conclusion We report significantly high prevalence of MAP in intestinal biopsies of CD patients. However, the presence of MAP does not affect the disease course and treatment outcomes in either CD or ITB patients. PMID:27019109

  12. Prevalence of celiac disease in Argentina: screening of an adult population in the La Plata area.

    PubMed

    Gomez, J C; Selvaggio, G S; Viola, M; Pizarro, B; la Motta, G; de Barrio, S; Castelletto, R; Echeverría, R; Sugai, E; Vazquez, H; Mauriño, E; Bai, J C

    2001-09-01

    Up to now, the epidemiological characteristic of celiac disease among adults in South America remains unknown. The present prospective screening was designed to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in adults from the general population in an urban area of Argentina. Between January. 1998, and May, 2000, all couples attending a centralized laboratory for an obligatory prenuptial examination in the La Plata area were offered participation in a screening program for celiac disease. The study included 2000 subjects (996 women; median age 29 yr, range 16-79 yr). All individuals completed a clinical questionnaire at the time that serum samples were obtained. A three-step screening protocol was used, as follows: 1) all samples were tested for antigliadin antibodies (AGAs) (type IgA and IgG); 2) samples that were IgA AGA positive were tested for antiendomysial antibody (EmA type IgA); samples that were positive for AGA-G but negative for IgA AGAs were tested for total IgA serum levels and EmA type IgG; and 3) subjects who were EmA-positive were referred for intestinal biopsy. At the end of the screening we detected 10 subjects who were EmA-A positive and two others who were IgA-deficient (both were EmA-G positive). Up to now, 11 of the 12 subjects (including nine EmA-positive and two IgA-deficient subjects) had endoscopic intestinal biopsies showing the characteristic celiac histology. The remaining EmA-positive individual was considered to be affected by celiac disease. The overall prevalence assessed was 1:167 (6.0 x 1000 subjects; 95% CI = 3.1-10.5). Eight of the 12 (67%) subjects were female (1:124; 8.0 x 1000; 95% CI = 3.5-15.8) and four (33%) were male (1:251; 4.0 x 1000; 95% Cl = 1.1-10.2). Although eight new patients were considered to be asymptomatic, three presented with a subclinical course and one was classically symptomatic. Only one patient had been previously diagnosed with celiac disease. Our screening protocol showed a very high prevalence of celiac

  13. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in patients with diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Rabia, K; Khoo, E M

    2007-06-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in diabetic patients and in different ethnic groups at a primary care setting, and to evaluate risk factors associated with PAD in these diabetic patients. A cross sectional study of 200 diabetic patients over 18 years old who attended a primary care clinic at a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was carried out. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using structured questionnaires for demographic characteristics and risk factors evaluation. Blood pressure measurements, assessment of peripheral neuropathy and ankle brachial pressures were performed. PAD was diagnosed by an ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) of <0.9 on either leg. The overall prevalence of PAD was 16% in this diabetic population. The prevalence of PAD was 5.8% in Malays, 19.4% in Chinese and 19.8% in Indians. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was 41%, foot ulcer 9.5%, and gangrene 3.0%. The presence of foot ulcer was weakly associated with PAD (P=0.052). No significant relationships were found between age, gender, smoking status, duration of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and PAD. PAD is common in the diabetic population of this study.

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in Patients with Osteoarthritis, Gout, or Both.

    PubMed

    Bang, Daisy; Xu, Jinfeng; Keenan, Robert; Pike, Virginia; Lehmann, Robert; Tenner, Craig; Crittenden, Daria; Pillinger, Michael; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana

    2016-06-01

    factors at baseline, and higher prevalence of CVD outcomes, than patients with OA only. • After adjusting for traditional CVD risk factors, gout-only and gout+OA subjects continued to have increased rates of multiple CVD outcomes, suggesting an intrinsic CVD risk to the diagnosis of gout, compared with OA. • These observations underline that gout patients represent a group at increased CVD risk, for whom both rheumatic disease management and CVD prevention need to be addressed.

  15. A comparison of symptom prevalence in far advanced cancer, AIDS, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Solano, Joao Paulo; Gomes, Barbara; Higginson, Irene J

    2006-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the symptom management needs of patients with life-threatening diseases other than cancer. In this study, we aimed to determine to what extent patients with progressive chronic diseases have similar symptom profiles. A systematic search of medical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) and textbooks identified 64 original studies reporting the prevalence of 11 common symptoms among end-stage patients with cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or renal disease. Analyzing the data in a comparative table (a grid), we found that the prevalence of the 11 symptoms was often widely but homogeneously spread across the five diseases. Three symptoms-pain, breathlessness, and fatigue-were found among more than 50% of patients, for all five diseases. There appears to be a common pathway toward death for malignant and nonmalignant diseases. The designs of symptom prevalence studies need to be improved because of methodological disparities in symptom assessment and designs.

  16. Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Brazil: high prevalence, high burden of disease, and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lago, E G; Gennari, S M; Su, C; Jones, J L

    2012-09-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and animals in Brazil. The burden of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans is considered to be very high. The high prevalence and encouragement of the Brazilian Government provides a unique opportunity for international groups to study the epidemiology and control of toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Many early papers on toxoplasmosis in Brazil were published in Portuguese and often not available to scientists in English-speaking countries. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum, molecular epidemiology, and control of T. gondii in humans and animals in Brazil. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians, and physicians. Brazil has a very high rate of T. gondii infection in humans. Up to 50% of elementary school children and 50-80% of women of child-bearing age have antibodies to T. gondii. The risks for uninfected women to acquire toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and fetal transmission are high because the environment is highly contaminated with oocysts. The burden of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected children is also very high. From limited data on screening of infants for T. gondii IgM at birth, 5-23 children are born infected per 10 000 live births in Brazil. Based on an estimate of 1 infected child per 1000 births, 2649 children with congenital toxoplasmosis are likely to be born annually in Brazil. Most of these infected children are likely to develop symptoms or signs of clinical toxoplasmosis. Among the congenitally infected children whose clinical data are described in this review, several died soon after birth, 35% had neurological disease including hydrocephalus, microcephaly and mental retardation, 80% had ocular lesions, and in one report 40% of children had hearing loss. The severity of clinical toxoplasmosis in Brazilian children may be associated with the genetic characteristics of T. gondii isolates prevailing in

  17. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in subjects with moderate cardiovascular risk: Italian results from the PANDORA study Data from PANDORA (Prevalence of peripheral Arterial disease in subjects with moderate CVD risk, with No overt vascular Diseases nor Diabetes mellitus).

    PubMed

    Sanna, Guido; Alesso, Donatella; Mediati, Malek; Cimminiello, Claudio; Borghi, Claudio; Fazzari, Amalia Lucia; Mangrella, Mario

    2011-10-07

    The PANDORA study has recently examined the prevalence of low ankle brachial index (ABI) in subjects with moderate risk of cardiovascular disease. This sub-analysis of the PANDORA study examines the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD), as determined by ABI, in Italian subjects presenting with moderate cardiovascular risk, in the absence of diabetes or overt vascular disease. PANDORA is a non-interventional, cross-sectional study that was performed in 6 European countries, involving subjects with at least one cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. The primary objective was to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic PAD using ABI. For this post-hoc sub-analysis, data were extracted for subjects enrolled in Italy, comprising 51.5% (n = 5298) of subjects from the original PANDORA study. Secondary objectives were to establish the prevalence and treatment of CV risk factors. The mean age was 63.9 years and 22.9% (95% CI 21.7-24.0) of subjects presented with asymptomatic PAD. A range of risk factors comprising smoking, hypertension, low HDL-cholesterol, family history of coronary heart disease and habit of moderate-high alcohol intake were significantly associated with asymptomatic PAD (p < 0.0001). Statin treatment had the lowest incidence in Italian subjects. Furthermore, patients treated with statins were significantly less likely to have asymptomatic PAD than those who were not (p = 0.0001). Asymptomatic PAD was highly prevalent in Italian subjects, the majority of whom were not candidates for ABI assessment according to current guidelines. Findings from this study suggest that these patients should be carefully examined in clinical practice and ABI measured so that therapeutic interventions known to decrease their CV risk may be offered.

  18. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Cystic Renal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Cysts are frequently found in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and they have a different prognostic significance depending on the clinical context. Simple solitary parenchymal cysts and peripelvic cysts are very common and they have no clinical significance. At US, simple cyst appears as a round anechoic pouch with regular and thin profiles. On the other hand, hereditary polycystic disease is a frequent cause of CKD in children and adults. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) are the best known cystic hereditary diseases. ADPKD and ARPKD show a diffused cystic degeneration with cysts of different diameters derived from tubular epithelium. Medullary cystic disease may be associated with tubular defects, acidosis and lithiasis and can lead to CKD. Acquired cystic kidney disease, finally, is secondary to progressive structural end-stage kidney remodelling and may be associated with renal cell carcinoma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. High prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 in Italian patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sartori, M; Andorno, S; Avogadro, E; Ballarè, M; La Terra, G; Leone, F; Quaglia, V; Fortina, G; Aglietta, M

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of different genotypes of Hepatitis C virus may vary between geographic areas and it is possible that various genotypes have different pathogenic characteristics. Therefore, 90 consecutive Italian patients anti-Hepatitis C Virus positive with a broad spectrum of chronic liver disease, have been analysed to observe prevalence of various genotypes of Hepatitis C Virus. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction with a set of nested biotinylated primers, located in 5'UTR region. Genotype 1b and genotype 2a were the most commonly encountered (respectively, 50% and 37%) whereas other genotypes were rare. The unexpected high prevalence of genotype 2a allowed direct comparison of clinical characteristics and response to therapy between patients with genotype 2a and those with 1b. Genotype 1b was more prevalent than 2a in patients over 60 years (29 vs 12) and in those with more severe liver disease (34 vs 16). In a univariate analysis, genotype 2a was associated with less severe liver disease (p = 0.02) and younger age (p = 0.018), in comparison with genotype 1b. Patients with genotype 2a responded to interferon alpha therapy better than those with 1b (p = 0.007). In a multivariate analysis, only younger age was associated with genotype 2a. Genotype 2a (in comparison with 1b) and absence of cirrhosis were independent predictors of response to interferon alpha. In conclusion, genotype 2a is playing an emerging role in younger Italian patients and seems more sensitive than 1b to interferon alpha therapy.

  20. Prevalence of anaemia associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Study of associated variables.

    PubMed

    Comeche Casanova, Lorena; Echave-Sustaeta, Jose María; García Luján, Ricardo; Albarrán Lozano, Irene; Alonso González, Pablo; Llorente Alonso, María Jesús

    2013-09-01

    Anaemia is one of the extrapulmonary manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its real prevalence, physiopathology and clinical repercussion are unknown. The objectives of our study were: to determine the prevalence of anaemia in patients with stable COPD not attributable to other causes and to establish the relationship of anaemia with clinical, prognostic and inflammatory markers with an important role in COPD. The study included stable COPD patients with no other known causes of anaemia. The following tests were carried out: respiratory function tests; serum determination of erythropoietin and inflammatory markers: high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Body mass index (BMI), Charlson and BODE indices, the number of exacerbations in the previous year, dyspnoea and quality of life were also calculated. One hundred and thirty patients were included. Anaemia prevalence was 6.2%. Mean haemoglobin value in anaemic patients was 11.9±0.95g/dL. Patients with anaemia had a lower BMI (P=.03), higher Charlson index (P=.002), more elevated erythropoietin levels (P=.016), a tendency to present a lower FEV1% value (P=.08) and significantly lower IL-6 values when compared to non-anaemic patients (P=.003). In our series, the anaemia associated with COPD was less prevalent than that published in the literature to date, and was related to certain clinical and inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis and its Association with Coronary Artery Disease in a Brazilian Subpopulation

    PubMed Central

    Câmara, Andréa Cruz; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP) and its association with coronary artery disease (CAD) in a Brazilian subpopulation, and to examine the correlation of AAP with gender, age and most frequently affected dental elements. Methods The data were collected from medical records of the patients (n = 1346) treated at the Specialization in Endodontics Clinic of the Federal University of Pernambuco in the period between 2003 and 2010. From each patient, the following variables were recorded: gender, age, endodontically compromised teeth, endodontic diseases diagnosed and the history of CAD. The data were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test adopting a significance level of 5%. Results AAP was diagnosed in 574 patients (42.6%), corresponding to 641 teeth (40.1%). Both genders (p = 0.082), and all age groups (p = 0.190) were affected similarly. The upper incisors (52.8%, p <0.001) had a higher prevalence of AAP. The patients with AAP showed 1.45 times more chance of exhibiting CAD (p = 0.307). Conclusions The results pointed out that the prevalence of AAP in this population was high and similar to that observed in other countries. A positive association, but not statistically significant, between AAP and CAD was found. PMID:28827847

  2. White-coat effect among older patients with suspected cognitive impairment: prevalence and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Bo, Mario; Mario, Bo; Massaia, Massimiliano; Massimiliano, Massaia; Merlo, Chiara; Chiara, Merlo; Sona, Alessandro; Alessandro, Sona; Canadè, Antonella; Antonella, Canadè; Fonte, Gianfranco; Gianfranco, Fonte

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of white-coat effect (WCE), and its association with individual anxiety and insight of disease, among older patients evaluated for suspected cognitive impairment. This prospective cohort study, conducted in an Alzheimer Evaluation Unit, involved patients aged 55 years or older with suspected cognitive impairment. WCE was defined as a difference of at least 20 mmHg in systolic or 10 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure (BP) measured either by a physician during the visit or by a nurse (before and after the visit), compared with home self-blood pressure measurement (SBPM). Severity of cognitive impairment was evaluated through the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); the Clinical Insight Rating Scale (CIR) and the Guidelines for the Rating for Awareness Deficits (GRAD) were used to evaluate the subject's insight; anxiety disorder was evaluated using the seven-question Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). Among 273 subjects, prevalence of WCE was 52%, 32.6% and 30.4%, according to physician and nurse BP measurements, respectively (p = 0.000). Prevalence of WCE did not differ between patients diagnosed with and without dementia, but was higher among patients with than in those without anxiety disorder (70.7% vs 38.2%, p = 0.000). Positive relations were observed between severity of anxiety and insight of disease, which were both inversely related with severity of cognitive impairment. WCE is extremely common and is correlated to individual anxiety and insight of disease among older outpatients with suspected cognitive impairment; overestimation of hypertension severity might lead to unnecessary drug treatment and greater health costs in this setting. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Defining the relationship between infection prevalence and clinical incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Ewan; Battle, Katherine E.; Bhatt, Samir; Weiss, Daniel J.; Bisanzio, Donal; Mappin, Bonnie; Dalrymple, Ursula; Hay, Simon I.; Smith, David L.; Griffin, Jamie T.; Wenger, Edward A.; Eckhoff, Philip A.; Smith, Thomas A.; Penny, Melissa A.; Gething, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    In many countries health system data remain too weak to accurately enumerate Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. In response, cartographic approaches have been developed that link maps of infection prevalence with mathematical relationships to predict the incidence rate of clinical malaria. Microsimulation (or ‘agent-based') models represent a powerful new paradigm for defining such relationships; however, differences in model structure and calibration data mean that no consensus yet exists on the optimal form for use in disease-burden estimation. Here we develop a Bayesian statistical procedure combining functional regression-based model emulation with Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling to calibrate three selected microsimulation models against a purpose-built data set of age-structured prevalence and incidence counts. This allows the generation of ensemble forecasts of the prevalence–incidence relationship stratified by age, transmission seasonality, treatment level and exposure history, from which we predict accelerating returns on investments in large-scale intervention campaigns as transmission and prevalence are progressively reduced. PMID:26348689

  4. Huntington's disease: clinical characteristics, pathogenesis and therapies.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ken; Aminoff, Michael J

    2007-02-01

    Huntington's disease is a devastating disorder with no known cure. The disease results from an expanded sequence of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene and leads to a movement disorder with associated cognitive and systemic deficits. Huntington's disease is diagnosed by genetic testing and disease progression can be followed with a variety of imaging modalities. The accumulation of aggregated huntingtin with associated striatal degeneration is evident at autopsy. The pathophysiology of Huntington's disease remains unknown, although protein aggregation, excitotoxicity, deficits in energy metabolism, transcriptional dysregulation and apoptosis may all be involved. Current pharmacologic therapy for Huntington's disease is limited and exclusively symptomatic. However, the disease is being heavily researched, and a wide range of disease-modifying therapies is currently under development. The efficacy of these therapies is being evaluated in transgenic models of Huntington's disease and in preliminary clinical trials.

  5. Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis in France: a point prevalence study in people screened for sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Pereyre, S; Laurier Nadalié, C; Bébéar, C

    2017-02-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis are common causes of sexually transmitted infections, but limited prevalence data are available in France. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis infections and to assess prevalence by gender, age, sample collection sites and clinical symptoms. A multicentre collection of specimens was intended to obtain a nationwide overview of the epidemiology. Between September 2014 and January 2015, a total of 2652 consecutive urogenital specimens submitted to the microbiology diagnostic departments of 16 French university hospitals for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection were collected. M. genitalium and T. vaginalis prevalence were evaluated using a commercial real-time PCR kit. Clinical data from patients were anonymously collected. T. vaginalis and M. genitalium prevalence were 1.7% (95% confidence interval 1.3-2.4) and 3.4% (95% confidence interval 2.8-4.2), respectively, and did not differ between gender or age groups, except M. genitalium prevalence between men and women in the 35- to 44-year age group (5.9 vs. 1.5%; p 0.03). M. genitalium prevalence was significantly higher in patients receiving care in sexually transmitted infection clinics, abortion centres, family planning clinics and prisons than in gynaecologic, obstetric and reproduction centres (4.0 vs. 1.7%, p 0.009). Among M. genitalium- and T. vaginalis-positive patients, 70.9 and 61.5% were asymptomatic, respectively. The low T. vaginalis prevalence does not justify systematic screening for this organism in France. Conversely, selective screening for M. genitalium may be warranted in care settings that receive presumably high-risk sexual behaviour patients, regardless of symptoms. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical and Histologic Mimickers of Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, Amrit K; Oxentenko, Amy S

    2017-08-17

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel, classically associated with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and malabsorption. The diagnosis of celiac disease is made when there are compatible clinical features, supportive serologic markers, representative histology from the small bowel, and response to a gluten-free diet. Histologic findings associated with celiac disease include intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia, villous atrophy, and a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria. It is important to recognize and diagnose celiac disease, as strict adherence to a gluten-free diet can lead to resolution of clinical and histologic manifestations of the disease. However, many other entities can present with clinical and/or histologic features of celiac disease. In this review article, we highlight key clinical and histologic mimickers of celiac disease. The evaluation of a patient with serologically negative enteropathy necessitates a carefully elicited history and detailed review by a pathologist. Medications can mimic celiac disease and should be considered in all patients with a serologically negative enteropathy. Many mimickers of celiac disease have clues to the underlying diagnosis, and many have a targeted therapy. It is necessary to provide patients with a correct diagnosis rather than subject them to a lifetime of an unnecessary gluten-free diet.

  7. Clinical update in sexually transmitted diseases-2014.

    PubMed

    Fanfair, Robyn Neblett; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2014-02-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their associated syndromes are extremely common in clinical practice. Early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and partner management are important to ensure sexual, physical, and reproductive health in our patients.

  8. A high prevalence of beak and feather disease virus in non-psittacine Australian birds.

    PubMed

    Amery-Gale, Jemima; Marenda, Marc S; Owens, Jane; Eden, Paul A; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M

    2017-07-01

    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is a circovirus and the cause of psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD). This disease is characterized by feather and beak deformities and is a recognized threat to endangered Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos). The role that non-psittacine birds may play as reservoirs of infection is unclear. This study aimed to begin addressing this gap in our knowledge of PBFD. Liver samples were collected from birds presented to the Australian Wildlife Health Centre at Zoos Victoria's Healesville Sanctuary for veterinary care between December 2014 and December 2015, and tested for BFDV DNA using polymerase chain reaction coupled with sequencing and phylogenetic analyses.Results/Key findings. Overall BFDV was detected in 38.1 % of 210 birds. BFDV was detected at high prevalence (56.2 %) in psittacine birds, in the majority of cases without any observed clinical signs of PBFD. We also found that BFDV was more common in non-psittacine species than previously recognized, with BFDV detected at 20.0 % prevalence in the non-psittacine birds tested, including species with no clear ecological association with psittacines, and without showing any detectable clinical signs of BFDV infection. Further research to determine the infectivity and transmissibility of BFDV in non-psittacine species is indicated. Until such work is undertaken the findings from this study suggest that every bird should be considered a potential carrier of BFDV, regardless of species and clinical presentation. Veterinary clinics and wildlife rehabilitation facilities caring for birds that are susceptible to PBFD should reconsider biosecurity protocols aimed at controlling BFDV.

  9. [Prevalence and pattern of distribution of cerebrovascular diseases in 242 hospitalized elderly patients, in a general hospital, autopsied in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 1976 to 1997].

    PubMed

    Pittella, José Eymard H; Duarte, Juliana Elias

    2002-03-01

    To describe the prevalence and the types of cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) in autopsied elderly individuals. Consecutive clinical charts and neuropathological reports of 242 patients aged 61 years or older were reviewed. The patients died in Hospital das Clínicas, Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 1976 to 1997. The prevalent diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) found in decreasing order were: CVDs (71.9%), infections (12.4%), neoplasms (7.1%), head trauma (3.7%), nutritional diseases (2.5%) and degenerative diseases (1.7%). The most common CVDs were cerebral atherosclerosis (61.2%), hypertensive cerebrovascular disease (25.6%) and cerebral infarct (14.9%). There was an increase in prevalence and severity of atherosclerosis and an increase in prevalence of hypertensive cerebrovascular disease with advancing age. A significant association between hypertensive cerebrovascular disease and atherosclerosis was found. The CVDs patients had clinical stroke and this was the direct cause of death in 42,7% and 17,3% of the cases, respectively. The CVDs were the most prevalent group of diseases of the CNS in elderly patients. Atherosclerosis and hypertensive cerebrovascular disease were the most common CVDs, and its prevalence increased with advancing age. Hypertensive cerebrovascular disease was significantly associated with atherosclerosis.

  10. Clinical Epidemiology, Evaluation, and Management of Dementia in Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Safarpour, Delaram; Willis, Allison W

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease (PD) will increase substantially, due to the aging of the population and improved treatments leading to better disease-related outcomes. Dementia is the most common nonmotor symptom in PD, and most patients with PD will have cognitive dysfunction and cognitive decline in the course of their disease. The development of cognitive dysfunction in PD greatly limits the ability to participate in activities of daily living and can be a tipping point for nursing home placement or major caregiver stress. Understanding the different causes of dementia and how to reduce the incidence and impact of secondary cognitive dysfunction in PD are necessary skills for primary care physicians and neurologists. In this review, we discuss the clinical epidemiology of dementia in PD with an emphasis on preventable cognitive dysfunction, present tools for outpatient evaluation of cognitive dysfunction, and describe current pharmacological treatments for dementia in PD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. The Prevalence of Chagas Heart Disease in a Central Bolivian Community Endemic for Trypanosoma Cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Yager, Jessica E.; Lozano Beltran, Daniel F.; Torrico, Faustino; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Though the incidence of new Trypanosoma cruzi infections has decreased significantly in endemic regions in the Americas, medical professionals continue to encounter a high burden of resulting Chagas disease among infected adults. The current prevalence of Chagas heart disease in a community setting is not known; nor is it known how recent insecticide vector control measures may have impacted the progression of cardiac disease in an infected population. Objectives and Methods Nested within a community serosurvey in rural and periurban communities in central Bolivia, we performed a cross-sectional cardiac substudy to evaluate adults for historical, clinical, and electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease. All adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old with T. cruzi infection and those with a clinical history, physical exam, or ECG consistent with cardiac abnormalities were also scheduled for echocardiography. Results and conclusions Of the 604 cardiac substudy participants with definitive serology results, 183 were seropositive for infection with T. cruzi (30.3%). Participants who were seropositive for T. cruzi infection were more likely to have conduction system defects (1.6% versus 0 for complete right bundle branch block and 10.4% versus 1.9% for any bundle branch block; p=0.008 and p<0.001, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of bradycardia among seropositive versus seronegative participants. Echocardiogram findings were not consistent with a high burden of Chagas cardiomyopathy: valvulopathies were the most common abnormality, and few participants were found to have low ejection fraction or left ventricular dilatation. No participants had significant heart failure. Though almost one third of adults in the community were seropositive for T. cruzi infection, few had evidence of Chagas heart disease. PMID:26407509

  12. Prevalence, significance and predictive value of antiphospholipid antibodies in Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Sipeki, Nora; Davida, Laszlo; Palyu, Eszter; Altorjay, Istvan; Harsfalvi, Jolan; Antal Szalmas, Peter; Szabo, Zoltan; Veres, Gabor; Shums, Zakera; Norman, Gary L; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence and stability of different antiphospholipid antibodies (APLAs) and their association with disease phenotype and progression in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) patients. METHODS: About 458 consecutive patients [Crohn’s disease (CD): 271 and ulcerative colitis (UC): 187] were enrolled into a follow-up cohort study in a tertiary IBD referral center in Hungary. Detailed clinical phenotypes were determined at enrollment by reviewing the patients’ medical charts. Disease activity, medical treatment and data about evolvement of complications or surgical interventions were determined prospectively during the follow-up. Disease course (development f complicated disease phenotype and need for surgery), occurrence of thrombotic events, actual state of disease activity according to clinical, laboratory and endoscopic scores and accurate treatment regime were recorded during the follow-up, (median, 57.4 and 61.6 mo for CD and UC). Sera of IBD patients and 103 healthy controls (HC) were tested on individual anti-β2-Glycoprotein-I (anti-β2-GPI IgA/M/G), anti-cardiolipin (ACA IgA/M/G) and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (anti-PS/PT IgA/M/G) antibodies and also anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA IgA/G) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a subgroup of CD (n = 198) and UC patients (n = 103), obtaining consecutive samples over various arbitrary time-points during the disease course, we evaluated the intraindividual stability of the APLA status. Additionally, we provide an overview of studies, performed so far, in which significance of APLAs in IBD were assessed. RESULTS: Patients with CD had significantly higher prevalence of both ACA (23.4%) and anti-PS/PT (20.4%) antibodies than UC (4.8%, P < 0.0001 and 10.2%, P = 0.004) and HC (2.9%, P < 0.0001 and 15.5%, P = NS). No difference was found for the prevalence of anti-β2-GPI between different groups (7.2%-9.7%). In CD, no association was found between APLA and ASCA

  13. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciddio, Manuela; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea; Casagrandi, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. In this work, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model for its transmission and dynamics with the purpose of explaining both intra- and inter-annual fluctuations of disease severity and prevalence. The model takes the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations that incorporate biological complexity associated with schistosome's life cycle, including a prepatent period in snails (i.e., the time between initial infection and onset of infectiousness). Nonlinear analysis is used to explore the parametric conditions that produce different temporal patterns (stationary, endemic, periodic, and chaotic). For the time-invariant model, we identify a transcritical and a Hopf bifurcation in the space of the human and snail infection parameters. The first corresponds to the occurrence of an endemic equilibrium, while the latter marks the transition to interannual periodic oscillations. We then investigate a more realistic time-varying model in which fertility of the intermediate host population is assumed to seasonally vary. We show that seasonality can give rise to a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos for larger, though realistic, values of the amplitude of the seasonal variation of fertility.

  14. Prevalence of congenital heart diseases in oral cleft patients.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M M; Rocha, C M G; Katina, T; Caldas, M; Codorniz, A; Medeiros, C

    2003-01-01

    To establish the prevalence of congenital heart diseases (CHDs) in cleft patients, the type of cleft and the presence of a syndrome were coded in 220 patients. A Doppler echocardiogram with color-flow mapping (DE) was obtained in all patients. Mean age was 112.0 +/- 101.2 months (range, 1-576 months), and 56.8% (125) were males. Cleft lip and palate occurred in 144 patients (65.5%), cleft lip in 40 (18.2%), and cleft palate in 36 (16.4%). Cleft palates were more frequent among females. Twenty-four CHDs were diagnosed in 21 of 220 patients (9.5%): 7 mitral valve prolapses, 6 atrial septal defects, 4 patent ductus arteriosus, 3 ventricular septal defects, 2 cases of tetralogy of Fallot, 1 pulmonary stenosis, and 1 bicuspid aortic valve. The presence of CHD did not correlate with the type of cleft. Syndromes occurred in 28 patients (12.7%), and this association was higher among patients with a cleft palate.

  15. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Passananti, V.; Siniscalchi, M.; Zingone, F.; Bucci, C.; Tortora, R.; Iovino, P.; Ciacci, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

  16. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Ciddio, Manuela; Gatto, Marino Casagrandi, Renato

    2015-03-15

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. In this work, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model for its transmission and dynamics with the purpose of explaining both intra- and inter-annual fluctuations of disease severity and prevalence. The model takes the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations that incorporate biological complexity associated with schistosome's life cycle, including a prepatent period in snails (i.e., the time between initial infection and onset of infectiousness). Nonlinear analysis is used to explore the parametric conditions that produce different temporal patterns (stationary, endemic, periodic, and chaotic). For the time-invariant model, we identify a transcritical and a Hopf bifurcation in the space of the human and snail infection parameters. The first corresponds to the occurrence of an endemic equilibrium, while the latter marks the transition to interannual periodic oscillations. We then investigate a more realistic time-varying model in which fertility of the intermediate host population is assumed to seasonally vary. We show that seasonality can give rise to a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos for larger, though realistic, values of the amplitude of the seasonal variation of fertility.

  17. Depression as a disease of modernity: explanations for increasing prevalence.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Brandon H

    2012-11-01

    There has been much speculation about modern environments causing an epidemic of depression. This review aims to (1) determine whether depression rates have increased and (2) review evidence for possible explanations. While available data indicate rising prevalence and an increased lifetime risk for younger cohorts, strong conclusions cannot be drawn due to conflicting results and methodological flaws. There are numerous potential explanations for changing rates of depression. Cross-cultural studies can be useful for identifying likely culprits. General and specific characteristics of modernization correlate with higher risk. A positive correlation between a country's GDP per capita, as a quantitative measure of modernization, and lifetime risk of a mood disorder trended toward significance (p=0.06). Mental and physical well-being are intimately related. The growing burden of chronic diseases, which arise from an evolutionary mismatch between past human environments and modern-day living, may be central to rising rates of depression. Declining social capital and greater inequality and loneliness are candidate mediators of a depressiogenic social milieu. Modern populations are increasingly overfed, malnourished, sedentary, sunlight-deficient, sleep-deprived, and socially-isolated. These changes in lifestyle each contribute to poor physical health and affect the incidence and treatment of depression. The review ends with a call for future research and policy interventions to address this public health crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Discriminants of prevalent fractures in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Nickolas, Thomas L; Cremers, Serge; Zhang, Amy; Thomas, Valeri; Stein, Emily; Cohen, Adi; Chauncey, Ryan; Nikkel, Lucas; Yin, Michael T; Liu, Xiaowei S; Boutroy, Stephanie; Staron, Ronald B; Leonard, Mary B; McMahon, Donald J; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Shane, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have higher rates of fracture than the general population. Increased bone remodeling, leading to microarchitectural deterioration and increased fragility, may accompany declining kidney function, but there are no reliable methods to identify patients at increased risk for fracture. In this cross-sectional study of 82 patients with predialysis CKD, high-resolution imaging revealed that the 23 patients with current fractures had significantly lower areal density at the femoral neck; total, cortical, and trabecular volumetric bone density; cortical area and thickness; and trabecular thickness. Compared with levels in the lowest tertile, higher levels of osteocalcin, procollagen type-1 N-terminal propeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b were associated with higher odds of fracture, even after adjustment for femoral neck T-score. Discrimination of fracture prevalence was best with a femoral neck T-score of -2.0 or less and a value in the upper two tertiles for osteocalcin, procollagen type-1 N-terminal propeptide, or tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b; these values corresponded to the upper half of the normal premenopausal reference range. In summary, these cross-sectional data suggest that measurement of bone turnover markers may increase the diagnostic accuracy of densitometry to identify patients with CKD at high risk for fracture.

  19. Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-tailed Deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Richards, Bryan J.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Shelton, Paul; Nicholas S. Keuler,; Timothy R. Van Deelen,

    2013-01-01

    Host-parasite dynamics and strategies for managing infectious diseases of wildlife depend on the functional relationship between disease transmission rates and host density. However, the disease transmission function is rarely known for free-living wildlife, leading to uncertainty regarding the impacts of diseases on host populations and effective control actions. We evaluated the influence of deer density, landscape features, and soil clay content on transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in young (<2-year-old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin, USA. We evaluated how frequency-dependent, density-dependent, and intermediate transmission models predicted CWD incidence rates in harvested yearling deer. An intermediate transmission model, incorporating both disease prevalence and density of infected deer, performed better than simple density- and frequency-dependent models. Our results indicate a combination of social structure, non-linear relationships between infectious contact and deer density, and distribution of disease among groups are important factors driving CWD infection in young deer. The landscape covariates % deciduous forest cover and forest edge density also were positively associated with infection rates, but soil clay content had no measurable influences on CWD transmission. Lack of strong density-dependent transmission rates indicates that controlling CWD by reducing deer density will be difficult. The consequences of non-linear disease transmission and aggregation of disease on cervid populations deserves further consideration.

  20. Differences in clinical and biological characteristics and prevalence of chronic complications related to aging in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Basanta-Alario, María Luisa; Ferri, Jordi; Civera, Miguel; Martínez-Hervás, Sergio; Ascaso, Juan Francisco; Real, José Tomás

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic, highly prevalent disease that increases with age. Because of this, and due to its chronic complications, T2DM causes high human, social, and financial costs. In addition, the elderly population with T2DM has a marked clinical heterogeneity. Therefore, our main objective was to analyze the relationship of age with the clinical and biological manifestations of the disease and the prevalence of chronic complications in patients with T2DM. A cross-sectional study of a large population with T2DM (n=405) randomly selected from a Diabetes Unit and 2 health care centers (60%). The clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical variables of the subjects were collected using standard methods to assess the effect of age on the clinical and biochemical phenotype of patients with T2DM. We have noted that patients with T2DM > 70 years old have a clinical and biochemical phenotype different from younger subjects (<60 years) including longer times since diabetes onset, higher diastolic blood pressure levels, and lower body mass index (BMI) values. As regards to biological variables, these patients have lower triglyceride levels, impaired kidney function, and lower HbA1c values. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is lower in patients with T2DM > 70 years of age. Age was inversely related to parameters associated to metabolic syndrome (BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and triglyceride levels). We have defined the clinical and biochemical profile of patients with T2DM > 70 years attending health care centers. In addition, the prevalence of stroke, kidney disease, and distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is higher in patients with T2DM >70 years as compared to younger patients (<60 years). Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, and Management of Functional Constipation at Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Soo Hee; Park, Kie Young; Kang, Sung Kil; Kang, Ki Soo; Na, So Young; Yang, Hye Ran; Uhm, Ji Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and management of functional constipation at pediatric gastroenterology clinics. A prospective survey using the Rome III criteria was distributed to a group of parents of children with a constipation history and its control group in May 2008. The mean prevalence of constipation was 6.4%, which was similar to those in other countries. Statistically significant variables for children without constipation were that more children had a body mass index of below the 10th percentile even though they received more mother's care and ate balanced meals compared to the constipation group. Meanwhile, the constipation group frequently showed a history of constipation in infancy, picky-eating, lack of exercise, and retentive posturing. When analyzed with the Rome III criteria, the children showed greater than 60% rate of hard stools, painful stools, a history of large fecal mass in rectum, and its disappearance of constipation symptoms after passing a large stool. Our study found different approaches amongst pediatric gastroenterologists like rectal examinations, disimpaction, or drug treatment. Several factors addressed in our study can provide better guidelines for clinicians treating constipation and its future research. PMID:24015043

  2. [Prevalence of dry eye in Hansen's disease patients from a colony hospital in Goiânia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Frazão, Karys Carvalho; Picolo, Naira Bernardes; Hanouche, Rosana Zacarias; Santos, Procópio Miguel dos; Santos, Regina Cândido Ribeiro dos

    2005-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of dry eye in Hansen's disease patients from the "Hospital de Dermatologia Sanitária de Goiânia". The sample of the present study included 70 patients with Hansen's disease, from the "Hospital de Dermatologia Sanitária de Goiânia", and 30 controls, from the "Fundação Banco de Olhos de Goiás", both located in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. Ophthalmologic examination and Schirmer I, break-up time (BUT) and rose Bengal staining tests were carried out for all patients in a single evaluation. For the diagnosis of dry eye the Schirmer I equal or less than 5 mm and rose Bengal grade II or III, in at least one eye were considered. Forty-four (63.0%) patients with Hansen's disease were male and 22 (73.3%) controls were female (p=0.001). The mean age of the patients with Hansen's disease was 61.1+/-12.5 years and in the control group, it was 55.7+/-9.6 years. Fifteen (21.4%) patients with Hansen's disease and four (13.3%) controls presented with dry eye diagnosis (p=0.429). The lepromatous type (74.2%) of Hansen's disease was the most prevalent and dry eye (66.7%) was more frequent in this clinical form of the disease. The dry eye disease was more prevalent in patients with Hansen's disease, although the difference was not statistically significant.

  3. Sickle cell disease: clinical management.

    PubMed

    Ballas, S K

    1998-03-01

    Sickle cell syndromes are a group of inherited disorders of haemoglobin structure that have no cure in adults at the present time. Bone marrow transplantation in children has been shown to be curative in selected patients. The phenotypic expression of these disorders and their clinical severity vary greatly among patients and longitudinally in the same patient. They are multisystem disorders and influence all aspects of the life of affected individuals including social interactions, family relations, peer interaction, intimate relationships, education, employment, spiritual attitudes and navigating the complexities of the health care system, providers and their ancillary functions. The clinical manifestations of these syndromes are protean. In this review emphasis is placed on four sets of major complications of these syndromes and their management. The first set pertains to the management of anaemia and its sequelae; the second set addresses painful syndromes both acute and chronic; the third set discusses infections; the fourth section deals with organ failure. New experimental therapies for these disorders are briefly mentioned at the end. Efforts were made to include several tables and figures to clarify the message of this review.

  4. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence in Brindisi Province (Southern Italy) for the years 2005-2009].

    PubMed

    Bruni, Antonella; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Faustini, Annunziata

    2014-01-01

    to estimate the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Brindisi Province (Southern Italy) during the period 2005-2009. longitudinal approach using electronic health data. prevalence of COPD cases where defined as: 35+ year-old residents in Brindisi Province discharged from hospital with a diagnosis of COPD, recorded in any of the diagnostic fields, during the period 2005-2009; residents discharged in the previous 4 years and still alive at the beginning of the year considered; residents who died of COPD without previous hospital admissions for the same disease. Diagnoses codes selected from discharge data and cause of mortality archive were 490-492, 494 and 496, of the International Classification of Diseases - IX Revision - Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). crude prevalence and age standardized prevalence (per 100 residents), with confidence intervals (95%CI), by gender. COPD prevalence rates did not change in Brindisi Province over the period of study and the rate was around 6.6%. Prevalence was higher in males and increased with age both among males and females. The rates were higher among the females resident in Brindisi town than those observed among females resident in the rest of the municipalities of the Province considered. Among males, prevalence rates were similar between males living in the selected areas. this study is the first to present COPD prevalence rates estimated for the Brindisi Province based on electronic health data. The results showed a higher COPD prevalence in Brindisi then in other Italian cities and spatial and temporal differences by gender among Brindisi and the rest of the municipalities considered. Results require additional investigations. In particular, the use of additional health data sources not considered in the present study might help in better explaining the differences observed.

  5. Variation of a test’s sensitivity and specificity with disease prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Leeflang, Mariska M.G.; Rutjes, Anne W.S.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anecdotal evidence suggests that the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test may vary with disease prevalence. Our objective was to investigate the associations between disease prevalence and test sensitivity and specificity using studies of diagnostic accuracy. Methods: We used data from 23 meta-analyses, each of which included 10–39 studies (416 total). The median prevalence per review ranged from 1% to 77%. We evaluated the effects of prevalence on sensitivity and specificity using a bivariate random-effects model for each meta-analysis, with prevalence as a covariate. We estimated the overall effect of prevalence by pooling the effects using the inverse variance method. Results: Within a given review, a change in prevalence from the lowest to highest value resulted in a corresponding change in sensitivity or specificity from 0 to 40 percentage points. This effect was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for either sensitivity or specificity in 8 meta-analyses (35%). Overall, specificity tended to be lower with higher disease prevalence; there was no such systematic effect for sensitivity. Interpretation: The sensitivity and specificity of a test often vary with disease prevalence; this effect is likely to be the result of mechanisms, such as patient spectrum, that affect prevalence, sensitivity and specificity. Because it may be difficult to identify such mechanisms, clinicians should use prevalence as a guide when selecting studies that most closely match their situation. PMID:23798453

  6. Prevalence and overlap of Disease Management Program diseases in older hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Juul-Larsen, Helle Gybel; Petersen, Janne; Sivertsen, Ditte Maria; Andersen, Ove

    2017-09-01

    Many countries, like Denmark, have tailored Disease Management Programs (DMPs) based on patients having single chronic diseases [defined institutionally as "program diseases" (PDs)], which can complicate treatment for those with multiple chronic diseases. The aims of this study were (a) to assess the prevalence and overlap among acutely hospitalized older medical patients of PDs defined by the DMPs, and (b) to examine transitions between different departments during hospitalization and mortality and readmission within two time intervals among patients with the different PDs. We conducted a registry study of 4649 acutely hospitalized medical patients ≥65 years admitted to Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark, in 2012, and divided patients into six PD groups (type 2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disease, dementia and cancer), each defined by several ICD-10 codes predefined in the DMPs. Of these patients, 904 (19.4%) had 2 + PDs, and there were 47 different combinations of the six different PDs. The most prevalent pair of PDs was type 2 diabetes with cardiovascular disease in 203 (22.5%) patients, of whom 40.4% had an additional PD. The range of the cumulative incidence of being readmitted within 90 days was between 28.8% for patients without a PD and 46.6% for patients with more than one PD. PDs overlapped in many combinations, and all patients had a high probability of being readmitted. Hence, developing strategies to create a new generation of DMPs applicable to older patients with comorbidities could help clinicians organize treatment across DMPs.

  7. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of renal transplant patients with true resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Arias-Rodríguez, Manuel; Fernández-Fresnedo, Gema; Campistol, Josep M; Marín, Rafael; Franco, Antonio; Gómez, Ernesto; Cabello, Virginia; Díaz, Joan Manuel; Osorio, José Manuel; Gallego, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Arterial hypertension is a prevalent complication that occurs in 75-90% of kidney-transplant recipients. Data about resistant arterial hypertension are scarce. The aim of this multicenter, cross-sectional, and observational study was to assess the prevalence and the clinical features of true resistant hypertension among renal-transplant patients. Eligible patients included hypertensive cadaveric kidney-transplant recipients aged below 70 years, with functioning kidney for at least 1 year, and with an estimated glomerular filtration rate at least 30 ml/min per 1.73 m and serum creatinine below 2.5 mg/dl. Recorded data included demographic characteristics, office blood pressure, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and laboratory investigations. A total of 868 patients (mean age 53.2 ± 11.6 years) were included. Mean systolic and diastolic office blood pressure was 140.2 ± 18 and 80.4 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. Mean 24-h ambulatory SBP and DBP was 131.5 ± 14 and 77.4 ± 8.7 mmHg and the prevalence of true resistant hypertension was 18.9%. Those with resistant hypertension were older and men, with a worse cardiovascular risk profile and history of cardiovascular disease. Apart from this, these patients had worse graft function and treatment with steroids. The present study provides evidence about the prevalence of true resistant hypertension in renal-transplant patients. It also shows the very high cardiovascular risk of true resistant hypertension and the elevated association of this condition with renal failure, organ damage, and history of cardiovascular events.

  8. The prevalence of coeliac disease in patients fulfilling Rome III criteria for irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Sayed A; Sayed, Moataz M; Ibrahim, Wesam A; Abdelhakam, Sara M; Rushdy, Marwa

    2016-06-01

    The clinical presentation of coeliac disease can vary from a classical malabsorption syndrome to more subtle atypical gastrointestinal manifestations similar to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of coeliac disease in Egyptian patients with clinically diagnosed diarrhoea-predominant IBS (according to Rome III criteria). This study was conducted on 100 patients with clinically diagnosed diarrhoea-predominant IBS (fulfilling Rome III criteria). They were subjected to complete clinical evaluation, routine laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasonography and serum anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTG) test as a predictor marker for coeliac disease. All patients who tested positive for serum anti-tTG underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with four to eight biopsy samples collected from the second part of the duodenum. All of the studied 100 patients presented with abdominal pain or discomfort, flatulence and diarrhoea. Eight patients (8%) exhibited high levels of serum anti-tTG, and their duodenal biopsy samples satisfied the histopathological criteria of coeliac disease. The studied patients were divided into two groups: Group I comprising 92 patients with IBS and negative anti-tTG results and Group II comprising eight patients with IBS and positive anti-tTG results. A non-significant difference was noted between the two groups in age, gender and duration of abdominal pain (p>0.05). The haemoglobin level was found to be significantly reduced in anti-tTG-positive patients (p<0.01), as was the Na level in anti-tTG-negative patients (p<0.05). A highly statistically significant inverse correlation was noted between anti-tTG and both serum total protein and serum albumin. Some symptoms overlap between coeliac disease and IBS. A lack of awareness may lead to a diagnostic delay in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and patterns of comorbid cognitive impairment in low vision rehabilitation (LVR) for macular disease

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Heather E.; Ansah, Deidra; Whitaker, Diane; Potter, Guy; Cousins, Scott W.; MacDonald, Heather; Pieper, Carl F.; Landerman, Lawrence; Steffens, David C.; Cohen, Harvey J.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of comorbid cognitive impairment among older adults referred to LVR for macular disease is unknown. We performed cognitive testing on 101 adults aged 65 years or older with macular disease who were referred to The Duke LVR Clinic between September 2007 and March 2008. Scores on the telephone interview for cognitive status-modified (TICS-m) ranged from 7 to 44, with 18.8% of scores below an established cutoff for cognitive impairment (≤ 27) and an additional 27.7% of scores considered marginal (28-30). On letter fluency, 46% of participants scored at least 1 × S.D. below the mean for their age, gender, race, and education level, and 18% of participants scored at least 2 × S.D. below their demographic mean. On logical memory, 26% of participants scored at least 1 × S.D. below the mean for their age group and race and 6% scored at least 2 × S.D. below their demographic mean. High prevalence of cognitive impairment, with particular difficulty in verbal fluency and verbal memory, may compromise the success of low vision rehabilitation interventions among macular disease patients. Additional work is needed to develop strategies to maximize function in older adults with this common comorbidity. PMID:19427045

  10. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in employees of the Research Center at Petrobras.

    PubMed

    Matos, Maria de Fátima Duarte; Souza e Silva, Nelson Albuquerque; Pimenta, Armando Jorge Marques; da Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in employees of the research center at Petrobras. In a cross-sectional study, employees of the research center at Petrobras were assessed clinically and by laboratory testing from March 2000 and February 2001. Those who did not attend the periodical annual medical examination of 2000 were excluded from the study. The percentage of risk factor occurrence and the mean standard deviation of the biochemical variables, blood pressure, and body mass index were calculated. Of 1,911 employees, 970 were studied, 75.4% were men and 24.6% were women with a mean age of 42.2 years old. The risk factors were lack of exercise (67.3%), cholesterol > 200 mg/dL (56.6%), overweight (42%), obesity (17%), blood hypertension (18.2%), smoking (12.4%), and diabetes mellitus (2.5%). The high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young individuals draws attention to the need for the adoption of workplace programs to encourage healthy lifestyles and to prevent diseases.

  11. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in high-risk women in the Republic of Panama.

    PubMed

    Reeves, W C; Quiroz, E

    1987-01-01

    This study enrolled 1,032 sexually active women attending social hygiene clinics in Panama City; clinic attendance is mandatory for women employed in houses of prostitution, bars, and cabarets. Women were interviewed, and endocervical specimens were obtained for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus. Four occupational groups attended the social hygiene clinics: prostitutes, bar girls denying prostitution, cabaret entertainers, and streetwalkers detained by the police. Prevalence of sexually transmitted disease, nationality, race, contraceptive method, and self-medication varied significantly by occupation; 31% of streetwalkers had gonorrhea as did 10% of prostitutes, 5% of bar girls, and 3% of cabaret entertainers. Rates of positive serologic tests for syphilis followed the same trend: 23% in streetwalkers, 7% in prostitutes, and 3% in nonprostitutes. Rates of chlamydial infection were significantly higher in cabaret entertainers (8%) than in any other occupational group (2%). Cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus infections were uncommon and were found in 5% and 1% of the women, respectively. Prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae varied with self-medication and years of "professional" experience. Only one of 160 N. gonorrhoeae isolates was resistant to penicillin and also beta-lactamase-positive.

  12. Prevalence rates for dementia and Alzheimer's disease in African Americans: 1992 versus 2001.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kathleen S; Gao, Sujuan; Baiyewu, Olusegun; Lane, Kathleen A; Gureje, Oye; Shen, Jianzhao; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Murrell, Jill R; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Dickens, Jeanne; Smith-Gamble, Valerie; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2009-05-01

    This study compares age-specific and overall prevalence rates for dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in two nonoverlapping, population-based cohorts of elderly African Americans in Indianapolis in 2001 and 1992. We used a two-stage design. The first stage involves the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSI-D). The CSI-D scores are grouped into good, intermediate, and poor performance before selection for clinical assessment. Diagnoses were performed using standard criteria in a consensus diagnosis conference; clinicians were blind to performance groups. In 1992, interviewers visited randomly sampled addresses to enroll self-identified African Americans aged > or =65 years. Of 2582 eligible, 2212 enrolled (9.6% refused, and 4.7% were too sick). In 2001, Medicare rolls were used for African Americans aged >70 years. Of 4260 eligible, 1892 (44%) enrolled, 1999 (47%) refused, and the remainder did not participate for other reasons. The overall age-adjusted prevalence rate for dementia at age > or =70 years in 2001 was 7.45% (95 confidence interval [CI], 4.27-10.64), and in the 1992 cohort, this prevalence rate was 6.75% (95% CI, 5.77-7.74). The overall age-adjusted prevalence rate at age > or =70 years for AD in the 2001 cohort was 6.77% (95% CI, 3.65-9.90), and for the 1992 cohort, it was 5.47% (95% CI, 4.51-6.42). Rates for dementia and AD were not significantly different in the two cohorts (dementia, P = .3534; AD, P = .2649). We found no differences in the prevalence rates of dementia and AD between 1992 and 2001, despite significant differences in medical history and medical treatment within these population-based cohorts of African American elderly.

  13. Global coral disease prevalence associated with sea temperature anomalies and local factors.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Moreno, Diego; Willis, Bette L; Page, A Cathie; Weil, Ernesto; Cróquer, Aldo; Vargas-Angel, Bernardo; Jordan-Garza, Adán Guillermo; Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric; Raymundo, Laurie; Harvell, C Drew

    2012-09-12

    Coral diseases are taking an increasing toll on coral reef structure and biodiversity and are important indicators of declining health in the oceans. We implemented standardized coral disease surveys to pinpoint hotspots of coral disease, reveal vulnerable coral families and test hypotheses about climate drivers from 39 locations worldwide. We analyzed a 3 yr study of coral disease prevalence to identify links between disease and a range of covariates, including thermal anomalies (from satellite data), location and coral cover, using a Generalized Linear Mixed Model. Prevalence of unhealthy corals, i.e. those with signs of known diseases or with other signs of compromised health, exceeded 10% on many reefs and ranged to over 50% on some. Disease prevalence exceeded 10% on 20% of Caribbean reefs and 2.7% of Pacific reefs surveyed. Within the same coral families across oceans, prevalence of unhealthy colonies was higher and some diseases were more common at sites in the Caribbean than those in the Pacific. The effects of high disease prevalence are potentially extensive given that the most affected coral families, the acroporids, faviids and siderastreids, are among the major reef-builders at these sites. The poritids and agaricids stood out in the Caribbean as being the most resistant to disease, even though these families were abundant in our surveys. Regional warm temperature anomalies were strongly correlated with high disease prevalence. The levels of disease reported here will provide a much-needed local reference point against which to compare future change.

  14. Factors associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease in low-risk pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Marianna; Sallum, Antonio W; Cecatti, José G; Morais, Sirlei S

    2012-01-24

    To evaluate the prevalence of periodontal disease (PD) among Brazilian low-risk pregnant women and its association with sociodemographic factors, habits and oral hygiene. This cross-sectional study included 334 low-risk pregnant women divided in groups with or without PD. Indexes of plaque and gingival bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and gingival recession were evaluated at one periodontal examination below 32 weeks of gestation. Independent variables were: age, race/color, schooling, marital status, parity, gestational age, smoking habit, alcohol and drugs consumption, use of medication, presence of any systemic diseases and BMI (body mass index). Statistical analyses provided prevalence ratios and their respective 95%CI and also a multivariate analysis. The prevalence of PD was 47% and significantly associated with higher gestational age (PR 1.40; 1.01-1.94 for 17-24 weeks and PR 1.52; 1.10-2.08 for 25-32 weeks), maternal age 25-29 years, obesity (PR 1.65; 1.02-2.68) and the presence of gingival bleeding on probing (OR(adj) 2.01, 95%CI 1.41-2.88). Poor oral hygiene was associated with PD by the mean values of plaque and bleeding on probing indexes significantly greater in PD group. The prevalence of PD is high and associated with gingival bleeding on probing, more advanced gestational age and obesity. A program of oral health care should be included in prenatal care for early pregnancy, especially for low-income populations.

  15. Prevalence and Anatomic Distribution of Serrated and Adenomatous Lesions in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lik Hang; Fort Gasia, Miriam; Ghosh, Subrata; Panaccione, Remo; Urbanski, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Background. Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) have not been well characterized in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study assesses the prevalence and anatomic distribution of SSA/Ps, TSAs, and conventional adenomas/dysplasia (Ad/Ds) in IBD patients. Methods. IBD patients with serrated, adenomatous, or hyperplastic lesions between 2005 and 2009 were identified in the regional tertiary-care hospital database. Clinicopathological information was reviewed and the histology of biopsies was reevaluated. Results. Ninety-six Ad/Ds, 25 SSA/Ps, and 4 TSAs were identified in 83 patients. Compared to Ad/Ds, serrated lesions were more prevalent in females (p = 0.046). The prevalence of Ad/Ds was 4.95%, SSA/Ps was 1.39%, and TSAs was 0.31%. No relationship was identified between lesion type and IBD type. Comparing all IBD patients, the distribution of lesion types was significantly different (p = 0.02) with Ad/Ds more common distally, SSA/Ps more common proximally, and TSAs evenly distributed. Among Crohn's disease (CD) patients, a similar distribution difference was noted (p < 0.001). However, ulcerative colitis (UC) patients had a uniform distribution of lesion types (p = 0.320). Conclusions. IBD patients have a lower prevalence of premalignant lesions compared to the general population, and the anatomic distribution of lesions differed between CD and UC patients. These findings may indicate an interaction between lesion and IBD pathogenesis with potential clinical implications. PMID:28182112

  16. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic subjects in south-west Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    OlaOlorun, Akintayo D.; Odeigah, Louis O.; Amole, Isaac O.; Adediran, Olufemi S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is rarely sought for and generally under-diagnosed even in diabetics in developing countries like Nigeria. PAD is easily detected and diagnosed by the ankle-brachial index, a simple and reliable test. Objectives To determine the prevalence of PAD in diabetic subjects aged 50–89 years and the value of ankle-brachial index measurement in the detection of PAD. Method A cross-sectional descriptive study of 219 diabetic subjects aged 50–89 years was carried out. The participants were administered a pre-tested questionnaire and measurement of ankle-brachial index (ABI) was done. The ankle-brachial index < 0.90 was considered equivalent to peripheral arterial disease. Results The overall prevalence of PAD was 52.5%. The prevalence of symptomatic PAD was 28.7% whilst that of asymptomatic PAD was 71.3%. There were a number of associations with PAD which included, age (p < 0.05), sex (p < 0.05), and marital status (p < 0.05). The use of the ankle-brachial index in the detection of PAD was clearly more reliable than the clinical methods like history of intermittent claudication and absence or presence of pedal pulses. Conclusion The prevalence of PAD is relatively high in diabetic subjects in the south-western region of Nigeria. Notable is the fact that a higher proportion was asymptomatic. Also the use of ABI is of great value in the detection of PAD as evidenced by a clearly more objective assessment of PAD compared to both intermittent claudication and absent pedal pulses.

  17. Comorbidities and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Prevalence, Influence on Outcomes, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Putcha, Nirupama; Drummond, M. Bradley; Wise, Robert A.; Hansel, Nadia N.

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidities impact a large proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with over 80% of patients with COPD estimated to have at least one comorbid chronic condition. Guidelines for the treatment of COPD are just now incorporating comorbidities to their management recommendations of COPD, and it is becoming increasingly clear that multimorbidity as well as specific comorbidities have strong associations with mortality and clinical outcomes in COPD, including dyspnea, exercise capacity, quality of life, healthcare utilization, and exacerbation risk. Appropriately, there has been an increased focus upon describing the burden of comorbidity in the COPD population and incorporating this information into existing efforts to better understand the clinical and phenotypic heterogeneity of this group. In this article, we summarize existing knowledge about comorbidity burden and specific comorbidities in COPD, focusing on prevalence estimates, association with outcomes, and existing knowledge about treatment strategies. PMID:26238643

  18. High prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Hauser, A C; Gessl, A; Lorenz, M; Voigtländer, T; Födinger, M; Sunder-Plassmann, G

    2005-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease is a rare lysosomal storage disorder. It results from a deficiency of the lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A and leads to progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in the endothelium and tissue cells of various organs. Some of the typical clinical findings such as tiredness, dry skin, myalgia and arthralgia as well as vague gastrointestinal complaints are also symptoms of hypothyroidism. Therefore, we studied the thyroid function in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease. Thyroid function was studied in 11 patients (6 female, 5 male) with Anderson-Fabry disease by measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine serum levels. Nine patients had chronic kidney disease with stage 1 and two with stage 5. Subclinical hypothyroidism (normal serum free thyroxine concentrations along with elevated serum TSH levels) was found in 4 of 11 patients (36.4%). Subclinical hypothyroidism was observed in both male and female patients as well as in patients with stage 1 and stage 5 kidney disease. Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common finding in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease, showing an excess prevalence as compared to the normal population. The high frequency seems to be relevant regarding the potential consequences of a hypothyroid state.

  19. Multisource ascertainment of Huntington disease in Canada: prevalence and population at risk.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Emily R; Hayden, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    There is uncertainty surrounding the accuracy of prevalence estimates for Huntington's disease (HD). The aims of this study were to provide a best estimate of the prevalence and population at risk for HD in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada, in 2012. HD patients with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of HD and individuals at risk for HD were ascertained from multiple sources. Clinical and genetic data were obtained from all available medical, social service, and genetic testing records. Six hundred and thirty-one HD patients and 3,763 individuals at 25% or 50% risk for HD were identified. Prevalence of HD was estimated at 13.7 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.6-14.8 per 100,000) in the general population, and 17.2 per 100,000 (95% CI: 15.8-18.6 per 100,000) in the Caucasian population. The population at 25% to 50% risk was estimated at 81.6 per 100,000 (95% CI: 79.0-84.2 per 100,000) individuals. These figures suggest there may be up to 4,700 individuals affected with HD and 14,000 at 50% risk for HD in Canada as well as up to 43,000 individuals affected with HD and 123,000 at 50% risk for HD in the United States. This is the first direct assessment of HD epidemiology in Canada in over three decades. These findings suggest that underascertainment may have led to previous underestimates of prevalence, namely, in Caucasian populations, and will aid in the planning of appropriate resource allocation and service delivery for the HD community. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Relapsing polychondritis: prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and its risk factors, and general disease features according to gender.

    PubMed

    Pallo, Pablo Arturo Olivo; Levy-Neto, Maurício; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki

    The comorbidities in relapsing polychondritis have been scarcely described in the literature. Moreover, apart from a few relapsing polychondritis epidemiological studies, no studies specifically addressing relapsing polychondritis distribution according to gender are available. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were: (a) to analyze the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and its risk factors in a series of patients with relapsing polychondritis; (b) to determine the influence of gender on relapsing polychondritis. A cross-sectional tertiary single center study evaluating 30 relapsing polychondritis cases from 1990 to 2016 was carried out. To compare comorbidities, 60 healthy individuals matched for age-, gender-, ethnicity- and body mass index were recruited. The mean age of relapsing polychondritis patients was 49.0±12.4 years, the median disease duration 6.0 years, and 70% were women. A higher frequency of arterial hypertension (53.3% vs. 23.3%; p=0.008) and diabetes mellitus (16.7% vs. 3.3%; p=0.039) was found in the relapsing polychondritis group, compared to the control group. As an additional analysis, patients were compared according to gender distribution (9 men vs. 21 women). The clinical disease onset features were comparable in both genders. However, over the follow-up period, male patients had a greater prevalence of hearing loss, vestibular disorder and uveitis events, and also received more cyclophosphamide therapy (p<0.05). There was a high prevalence of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and the male patients seemed to have worse prognosis than the female patients in the follow up. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  1. Relapsing polychondritis: prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and its risk factors, and general disease features according to gender.

    PubMed

    Pallo, Pablo Arturo Olivo; Levy-Neto, Maurício; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki

    2017-02-20

    The comorbidities in relapsing polychondritis (RP) have been scarcely described in the literature. Moreover, apart from a few RP epidemiological studies, no studies specifically addressing RP distribution according to gender are available. Therefore, the objetives of the present study were: (a) to analyse the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and its risk factors in a series of patients with RP; (b) to determine the influence of gender on RP. A cross-sectional tertiary single center study evaluating 30 RP cases from 1990 to 2016 was carried out. To compare comorbidities, 60 healthy individuals matched for age-, gender-, ethnicity- and body mass index were recruted. The mean age of RP patientes was 49.0±12.4 years, the median disease duration 6.0 years, and 70% were women. A higher frequency of arterial hypertension (53.3% vs. 23.3%; p=0.008) and diabetes mellitus (16.7% vs. 3.3%; p=0.039) was found in the RP group, compared to the control group. As an additional analysis, patients were compared according to gender distribution (9 men vs. 21 women). The clinical disease onset features were comparable in both genders. However, over the follow-up period, male patients had a greater prevalence of hearing loss, vestibular disorder and uveitis events, and also received more cyclophosphamide therapy (p<0.05). There was a high prevalence of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and the male patients seemed to have worse prognosis than the female patients in the follow up.

  2. Autism and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Prevalence and Clinical Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Peggy; Piven, Joseph; Sato, Yutaka

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the incidence of autism in 20 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The prevalence of autistic disorder was conservatively estimated at 20%. Data suggest a possible association between both hypsarrythmia and TSC-related cardiac abnormalities with autism in this subgroup of individuals with TSC. (Author/CR)

  3. Prevalence and clinical significance of eosinophilia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Chiardola, Flavia; Schneeberger, Emilce Edith; Citera, Gustavo; Rosemffet, Gabriel Marcos; Kuo, Lien; Santillan, Graciela; Maldonado-Cocco, Jose Antonio

    2008-08-01

    The presence of eosinophilia in peripheral blood has been considered by some authors as an indicator of bad prognosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the methodology and the number of patients included in those studies were not appropriate. To determine the prevalence and possible causes of eosinophilia in patients with RA, and its relationship with a more severe disease. Patients with RA (American College of Rheumatology '87) were included, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. The presence of eosinophilia was defined as an eosinophil absolute count above 350/mm. Disease activity, health assessment questionnaire, and hand x-rays were performed in all patients. A coproparasitologic test and serology for Toxocara by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were determined in patients with eosinophilia. One hundred nine patients were included, 95 women (87.2%), mean age 50.6 +/- 13 years, mean disease duration 10.8 +/- 7.6 years. Eight patients (7.33%) showed eosinophilia. When demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with or without eosinophilia were compared, the former showed a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels and significantly more frequency of dry mouth, anal pruritus, and paresthesia. The remaining clinical variables, as well as radiologic structural damage were comparable. Parasites in feces (Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis) were found in 2 patients with eosinophilia. Seven patients with eosinophilia (87.5%) versus 4 (19%) without eosinophilia showed positive serology for Toxocara (P = 0.001). The frequency of eosinophilia in our population of patients with RA was 7.33%. It was not an indicator of severity of the disease and in all cases evidence for secondary causes (parasitosis) was found.

  4. Epidemiology and clinical management of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Phin, Nick; Parry-Ford, Frances; Harrison, Timothy; Stagg, Helen R; Zhang, Natalie; Kumar, Kartik; Lortholary, Olivier; Zumla, Alimuddin; Abubakar, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    Legionnaires' disease is an important cause of community-acquired and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Although uncommon, Legionnaires' disease continues to cause disease outbreaks of public health significance. The disease is caused by any species of the Gram-negative aerobic bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella; Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is the causative agent of most cases in Europe. In this Review we outline the global epidemiology of Legionnaires' disease, summarise its diagnosis and management, and identify research gaps and priorities. Early clinical diagnosis and prompt initiation of appropriate antibiotics for Legionella spp in all patients with community-acquired or hospital-acquired pneumonias is a crucial measure for management of the disease. Progress in typing and sequencing technologies might additionally contribute to understanding the distribution and natural history of Legionnaires' disease, and inform outbreak investigations. Control of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks relies on rapid ascertainment of descriptive epidemiological data, combined with microbiological information to identify the source and implement control measures. Further research is required to define the actual burden of disease, factors that influence susceptibility, key sources of infection, and differences in virulence between strains of Legionella species. Other requirements are improved, specific, sensitive, and rapid diagnostic tests to accurately inform management of Legionnaires' disease, and controlled clinical trials to ascertain the optimum antibiotics for treatment.

  5. Comparison of prevalence of periodontal disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Rahiminejad, Mohammad Ehsan; Moaddab, Amirhossein; Zaryoun, Hassan; Rabiee, Soghra; Moaddab, Arta; Khodadoustan, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, affecting 4-18% of them. Previous studies also showed that periodontal diseases are associated with different components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the association between PCOS and periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 196 women (98 with PCOS and 98 healthy controls) were enrolled. PCOS diagnosis was confirmed by history, clinical signs, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and ultrasound studies. Both cases and controls were examined by the same periodontist. Periodontal parameters including bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth, clinical attachment loss (CAL), plaque index, and tooth loss were investigated in all participants. Pregnant women, smokers, individuals with a history of malignancy or osteoporosis, and those taking prophylactic antibiotics for dental procedures or receiving periodontal treatment during the 6-month period before examination were excluded. Data were analyzed using t-test, Chi-square test, and linear regression. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: CAL and sites with BOP were significantly higher in women with PCOS (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in the tooth loss rate between PCOS and non-PCOS participants (P = 0.384). Conclusion: The prevalence of periodontal disease seems to be higher in women with PCOS. This may be related to the role of chronic systemic inflammation in the pathophysiology of both PCOS and periodontal diseases. PMID:26759585

  6. [Clinical aspects of the Niigata Minamata disease].

    PubMed

    Shimohata, Takayoshi; Hirota, Koichi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo

    2015-01-01

    The Minamata disease was discovered in the Minamata region, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan, in 1956. Symptoms of this disease included cerebellar ataxia, sensory disturbance, narrowing of the visual field, and hearing and speech disturbances. In 1965, similar conditions were identified in persons living around the Agano River area, Niigata Prefecture, Japan and accordingly termed as the Niigata Minamata disease or the second Minamata disease. Both the diseases have been attributed to poisoning with methyl mercury that was generated during the production of acetaldehyde using mercury as a catalyst. The discharged methyl mercury accumulated in fishes and shellfishes and caused poisoning on consumption. This review discusses the history, clinical presentation including atypical forms, and autopsy findings of the Niigata Minamata disease. In addition, it highlights the problems about criteria for official recognition and the therapeutic trial for this disease.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease in a rural region of Haiti.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, Felix; Sannon, Herriot; Mayr, Michael; Dickenmann, Michael; Ernst, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the Caribbean region chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing challenge. High rates of non-communicable and infectious diseases and the rise in people suffering from diabetes and hypertension explain the observed and further expected increase of CKD. However, data about the magnitude of the problem are rare and in some countries such as Haiti completely lacking. The aim of our study was to generate data about the prevalence and risk factors for CKD in a rural region in Haiti. In this prospective cross-sectional study, adult patients visiting the medical outpatient clinic of the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer (HAS) in Deschapelles Haiti were included. CKD was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and measurement of proteinuria by dipstick test. Risk factors for CKD were assessed by clinical examinations and questionnaires. Overall 608 patients were screened for CKD, of whom 27% had CKD. CKD stages 1 to 2 were found in 15.3% and stages 3 to 5 in 11.7%. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 49.2% and 36.3%, respectively. Risk factors independently associated with CKD were hypertension (p = 0.0002) and HIV infection (p = 0.019) and age >60 years (p = 0.0052), whereas diabetes mellitus was not independently associated (p = 0.72). Our data show a high prevalence of CKD and traditional risk factors, and their association with CKD in Haiti. These findings have now to be confirmed in other regions in longitudinal analyses as a basic step to build up screening and prevention programmes for CKD.

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of ophthalmological extra-intestinal manifestations in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying-Chao; Li, Wei-Zhi; Wu, Chang-Rui; Feng, Yun; Ren, Li; Mi, Chen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prevalence of ophthalmological extra-intestinal manifestations (O-EIMs) in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to identify risk factors for the development of O-EIMs. METHODS The study population consisted of Chinese patients with a definite diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) in a large teaching hospital between January 1995 and December 2014. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were extracted retrospectively. RESULTS In this twenty-year cohort, 645 IBD patients (517 with UC, 128 with CD) were registered. Among them 122 (18.9%) exhibited at least one EIM. Of 13 patients (2.0%) developed O-EIMs, 7 of CD (5.5%) and 6 of UC (1.2%). Clinical ophthalmological manifestations included redness (76.9%), burning (61.5%), pain (38.5%), itching (15.4%) of eyes and vision change (7.7%). O-EIMs included episcleritis (7), uveitis (5) and dry eye (1). O-EIMs were more prevalent in female (odds ratio for male 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.52-0.73, P<0.0001), and patients who had IBD diagnosis at young age (odds ratio for patients aged >30 years 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.65-0.88, P<0.0001). CONCLUSION The frequency of O-EIMs in Chinese patients with IBD is lower than the rates reported in the studies of European and American countries. Episcleritis and uveitis are the most common O-EIMs. O-EIMs are more frequent in patients with CD and more prevalent in female and patients who have IBD diagnosis at young age. PMID:27803867

  9. Menkes disease in affected females: the clinical disease spectrum.

    PubMed

    Smpokou, Patroula; Samanta, Monisha; Berry, Gerard T; Hecht, Leah; Engle, Elizabeth C; Lichter-Konecki, Uta

    2015-02-01

    Menkes disease (MD; OMIM 309400) is an X-linked, neurodegenerative disorder resulting from deficient activity of copper-dependent enzymes and caused by alterations in the APT7A gene. In its classic form, it manifests in boys with hypotonia, seizures, skin and joint laxity, hair twisting (pili torti), cerebrovascular tortuosity, and bladder diverticulae. Menkes disease phenotypes have been reported in females with X; autosome translocations-disrupting ATP7A gene function- or ATP7A gene alterations. Those females manifest variable clinical findings, some of which, such as pili torti, seizure presence and/or age of onset, cerebrovascular tortuosity, degree of intellectual disability, and bladder divericulae are largely under-reported and under-studied. Here, we report on three females with Menkes disease and variant phenotypes, sharing characteristic features, one with classic Menkes disease and two with Menkes disease variants. We conclude that Menkes disease in females manifests with a variable spectrum of clinical findings but a few are uniformly present such as neurodevelopmental disability, hypotonia, and connective tissue findings. Others, such as seizures, cerebral atrophy, and cerebrovascular tortuosity may be present but are under-reported and under- studied. We propose that the diagnosis of Menkes disease or variants in females with suspicious clinical findings is an important one to consider as early treatment with parenteral copper may be considered. The effect of this treatment on the disease course in females with MD is unknown and remains to be seen. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in children with psoriatic disease.

    PubMed

    Goldminz, Ari M; Buzney, Catherine D; Kim, Noori; Au, Shiu-Chung; Levine, Danielle E; Wang, Andrew C; Volf, Eva M; Yaniv, Shimrat S; Kerensky, Todd A; Bhandarkar, Manasa; Dumont, Nicole M; Lizzul, Paul F; Loo, Daniel S; Kulig, John W; Brown, Mary E; Lopez-Benitez, Jorge M; Miller, Laurie C; Gottlieb, Alice B

    2013-01-01

    Adults with psoriasis have a greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but few studies have investigated the prevalence of MetS and other risk factors for CVD in children with psoriasis. In an assessor-blinded study, 20 children ages 9-17 years with a current or previously documented history of psoriasis involving 5% or more of their body surface area or psoriatic arthritis were compared with a cohort of age- and sex-matched controls with benign nevi, warts, or acne. MetS, our primary endpoint, was defined by the presence of abnormal values in at least three of the following measures: triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), waist circumference, and blood pressure. Secondary endpoints included high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Thirty percent (6/20) of children with psoriasis met the criteria for MetS, compared with 5% (1/20) of the control group (p < 0.05). Subjects with psoriasis had higher mean FBG (91.1 mg/dL) than the control group (82.9 mg/dL) (p = 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in the other four components of MetS, BMI, BMI percentile, hs-CRP, TC, or LDL-C. The results of this trial demonstrate that children with psoriasis have higher rates of MetS than age- and sex-matched controls. It may therefore be important to evaluate children with psoriasis for components of MetS to prevent future CVD morbidity and mortality.

  11. The Relationship Between Child Mortality Rates and Prevalence of Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Federico; Raiteri, Alberto; Schiepatti, Annalisa; Klersy, Catherine; Corazza, Gino R

    2017-07-27

    Some evidence suggests that prevalence of celiac disease in the general population is increasing over time. Since the prognosis of celiac disease was a dismal one before discovering the role of gluten, our aim was to investigate a possible relationship between children under five-mortality rates and prevalence rates of celiac disease. Thanks to a literature review, we found 27 studies performed in 17 different countries describing the prevalence of celiac disease in schoolchildren; between 1995 and 2011, 4 studies were performed in Italy. A meta-analysis of prevalence rates was performed. Prevalence was compared between specific-country under-five mortality groups, publication year and age. In the last decades, under-five mortality rates have been decreasing all over the world. This reduction is paralleled by an increase of the prevalence of celiac disease. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -63%, 95%CI -82% to -33% (p < 0.001). So, the higher the mortality rate, the lower the prevalence of CD. This finding is confirmed by the meta-analysis of the 4 studies conducted in Italy over time. The under five-mortality rate seems to influence the prevalence of celiac disease in the general population. In the near future, the number of celiac disease patients will increase, thanks to the better environmental conditions that nowadays allow a better survival of celiac children.

  12. [Clinical condition and therapy of bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Miura, Kohji; Oznono, Keiichi

    2013-12-01

    Skeletal dysplasia is the term which represents disorders including growth and differentiation of bone, cartilage and ligament. A lot of diseases are included, and new disorders have been added. However, the therapy of most bone diseases is less well-established. Achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and osteogenesis imperfecta are most frequent bone diseases. There is no curative treatment for these diseases, however, supportive therapies are available ; for example, growth-hormone therapy for achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia, and bisphosphonate therapy for osteogenesis imperfecta. In addition, enzyme replacement therapy for hypophosphatasia is now on clinical trial.

  13. Dental enamel defects in adult coeliac disease: prevalence and correlation with symptoms and age at diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Lucia; Biagi, Federico; Bianchi, Paola I; Marchese, Alessandra; Vattiato, Claudia; Balduzzi, Davide; Collesano, Vittorio; Corazza, Gino R

    2013-12-01

    Coeliac disease is a condition characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Any organ can be affected and, among others, dental enamel defects have been described. Our aims were to study the prevalence of dental enamel defects in adults with coeliac disease and to investigate a correlation between the grade of teeth lesion and clinical parameters present at the time of diagnosis of coeliac disease. A dental examination was performed in 54 coeliac disease patients (41 F, mean age 37 ± 13 years, mean age at diagnosis 31 ± 14 years). Symptoms leading to diagnosis were diarrhoea/weight loss (32 pts.), anaemia (19 pts.), familiarity (3 pts.); none of the patients was diagnosed because of enamel defects. At the time of evaluation, they were all on a gluten-free diet. Enamel defects were classified from grade 0 to 4 according to its severity. Enamel defects were observed in 46/54 patients (85.2%): grade 1 defects were seen in 18 patients (33.3%) grade 2 in 16 (29.6%), grade 3 in 8 (14.8%), and grade 4 in 4 (7.4%). We also observed that grades 3 and 4 were more frequent in patients diagnosed with classical rather than non-classical coeliac disease (10/32 vs. 2/20). However, this was not statistically significant. This study confirms that enamel defects are common in adult coeliac disease. Observation of enamel defects is an opportunity to diagnose coeliac disease. Copyright © 2013 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatiotemporal patterns of coral disease prevalence on Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapkylä, J.; Melbourne-Thomas, J.; Flavell, M.; Willis, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    Despite increasing research effort on coral diseases, little is known about factors driving disease dynamics on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). This is the first study to investigate the temporal patterns of coral disease prevalence and potential drivers of disease around Heron Island, in the southern Capricorn Bunker sector of the GBR. Surveys were conducted in two austral summers and three winters between November 2007 and August 2009 on six sites around the island. Six diseases were detected: brown band syndrome (BrB), growth anomalies (GA), ulcerative white spots (UWS), white syndrome (WS), skeletal eroding band disease (SEB) and black band disease (BBD). The lowest overall mean disease prevalence was 1.87 ± 0.75% (mean ± SE) in November 2007 and the highest 4.22 ± 1.72% in August 2008. There was evidence of seasonality for two diseases: BrB and UWS. This is the first study to report a higher prevalence of BrB in the winter. BrB had a prevalence of 3.29 ± 0.58% in August 2008 and 1.53 ± 0.28% in August 2009, while UWS was the most common syndrome in the summer with a prevalence of 1.12 ± 0.31% in November 2007 and 2.67 ± 0.52% prevalence in January 2008. The prevalence of GAs and SEB did not depend on the season, although the prevalence of GAs increased throughout the study period. WS had a slightly higher prevalence in the summer, but its overall prevalence was low (<0.5%). Sites with high abundance of staghorn Acropora and Montipora were characterised by the highest disease prevalence (12% of Acropora and 3.3% of Montipora species were diseased respectively). These results highlight the correlations between coral disease prevalence, seasonally varying environmental parameters and coral community composition. Given that diseases are likely to reduce the resilience of corals, seasonal patterns in disease prevalence deserve further research.

  15. Headache in children with sickle cell disease: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Niebanck, Alison E; Pollock, Avrum N; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Raffini, Leslie J; Zimmerman, Robert A; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Kwiatkowski, Janet L

    2007-07-01

    To compare the prevalence of frequent headache in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) to that of black control subjects and to assess factors associated with headache in SCD. In this cross-sectional study, a headache questionnaire was administered to subjects with SCD and black control subjects. Subjects answered supplementary questions about SCD complications. Clinical and radiographic information were abstracted from medical charts for subjects with SCD. Children (n = 241) with SCD and 141 control subjects were studied; 32.4% (95% CI 26.5%-38.7%) of subjects with SCD reported having headaches at least weekly, similar to control subjects at 27% (95% CI 19.8%-35.1%, P = NS); however, in children <13 years, headache was more common in subjects with SCD than in control subjects (24% vs 9.7%, P = .013). The prevalence of headache was similar among the different SCD genotypes. Factors associated with frequent headaches in subjects with SCD included older age, frequent vaso-occlusive pain episodes, symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea, and cerebral vessel stenosis detected by magnetic resonance angiography. The prevalence of headaches in children with SCD is similar to the general population; however, younger children with SCD report headaches more frequently than control subjects. The cause of headache is likely multifactorial, and SCD-specific factors may contribute.

  16. Prevalence of and factors associated with sarcopenia in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Choi, Sun Ryoung; Choi, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Gyun; Lee, Young Ki; Noh, Jung Woo; Kim, Hyung Jik; Song, Young Rim

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and its relationship with various markers of nutrition, cognitive function, depressive symptoms, inflammation and β2-microglobulin. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 95 patients having ESRD aged over 50 years. Sarcopenia was defined as a decline in both muscle mass and strength. The mean age was 63.9 ± 10.0 years; 56.8% were men and 52.6% had diabetes. Sarcopenia was highly prevalent in elderly patients with ESRD (37.0% in men and 29.3% in women). Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), inflammatory markers and β2-microglobulin levels were significantly associated with sarcopenia, even after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, and body mass index. Additionally, patients with depressive symptoms showed a higher risk of sarcopenia relative to those without depressive symptoms (odds ratio, OR = 6.87, 95% confidence interval, CI = 2.06-22.96) and sarcopenia was more likely to be present in patients with mild cognitive dysfunction (OR = 6.35, 95% CI = 1.62-34.96). Sarcopenia is highly prevalent in elderly patients with ESRD and is closely associated with SGA, inflammatory markers, β2-microglobulin, depression and cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of Parkinson's disease in retired Thai traditional boxers.

    PubMed

    Lolekha, Praween; Phanthumchinda, Kammant; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj

    2010-09-15

    Boxing is often believed to be a frequent cause for parkinsonism caused by chronic repetitive head injury, with Muhammad Ali frequently cited as an example. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) in retired Thai traditional boxers. Two standardized screening questionnaires were sent to all registered Thai traditional boxers. Subjects who screened positive for parkinsonism were invited for clinical examinations by two independent neurologists. Among 704 boxers (70%) who completed the questionnaires, 8 boxers (1.14%) had parkinsonism: 5 with PD, 1 with progressive supranuclear palsy and 2 with vascular parkinsonism. Boxers with PD were found to have an older mean age than those without PD (P = 0.003). The analysis of probable risk factors disclosed an association between the number of professional bouts (>100 times) and PD (P = 0.01). The crude prevalence of PD in Thai boxers was 0.71% (95% CI: 0.09-1.33), with a significant increase with age. The prevalence rate of PD in those aged 50 and above was 0.17% (95% CI: 0.15-0.20), age-adjusted to the USA 1970 census, which is comparable to that of the general populations. The analysis determined that the number of professional bouts is a risk factor among these boxers, supporting the notion that repetitive head trauma may pose an additional risk to certain individuals who are already susceptible to PD.

  18. Prevalence and Prognosis of Anemia in Dogs with Degenerative Mitral Valve Disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ivarosa Bing-Ye; Huang, Hui-Pi

    2016-01-01

    In humans, heart failure (HF) and renal insufficiency (RI) have negative reciprocal effects, and anemia can exacerbate their progression. In this retrospective study, the prevalence and prognostic significance of anemia in 114 dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) was investigated. Pretreatment clinical parameters, prevalence of anemia and azotemia, and survival time were analyzed in relation to HF severity. The prevalence of anemia was highest in dogs with the modified New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV HF (33.3%), followed by classes III (15.2%) and II (0%; p < 0.001). The presence of anemia was associated with HF severity and blood creatinine > 1.6 mg/dL (both p < 0.001). Anemic dogs had a shorter median survival [13 months; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7-19.1] than nonanemic dogs (28 months; 95% CI: 15.3-40.7; p < .001). NYHA class IV (hazard ratio (HR): 3.1, 95% CI: 2.2-4.3; p < 0.001), left atrium/aorta ratio > 1.7 (HR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.7-4.2; p = 0.001), and presence of anemia (HR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9; p = 0.004) emerged as predictors of mortality. A cardiorenal-anemia syndrome-like triangle was observed and anemia was a prognostic factor for survival in dogs with DMVD.

  19. Prevalence and Prognosis of Anemia in Dogs with Degenerative Mitral Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ivarosa Bing-Ye

    2016-01-01

    In humans, heart failure (HF) and renal insufficiency (RI) have negative reciprocal effects, and anemia can exacerbate their progression. In this retrospective study, the prevalence and prognostic significance of anemia in 114 dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) was investigated. Pretreatment clinical parameters, prevalence of anemia and azotemia, and survival time were analyzed in relation to HF severity. The prevalence of anemia was highest in dogs with the modified New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV HF (33.3%), followed by classes III (15.2%) and II (0%; p < 0.001). The presence of anemia was associated with HF severity and blood creatinine > 1.6 mg/dL (both p < 0.001). Anemic dogs had a shorter median survival [13 months; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7–19.1] than nonanemic dogs (28 months; 95% CI: 15.3–40.7; p < .001). NYHA class IV (hazard ratio (HR): 3.1, 95% CI: 2.2–4.3; p < 0.001), left atrium/aorta ratio > 1.7 (HR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.7–4.2; p = 0.001), and presence of anemia (HR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.1–1.9; p = 0.004) emerged as predictors of mortality. A cardiorenal-anemia syndrome-like triangle was observed and anemia was a prognostic factor for survival in dogs with DMVD. PMID:27840827

  20. Trichomonas vaginalis Prevalence and Correlates in Women and Men Attending STI Clinics in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Gratrix, Jennifer; Plitt, Sabrina; Turnbull, LeeAnn; Smyczek, Petra; Brandley, Judith; Scarrott, Ron; Naidu, Prenilla; Bertholet, Lindsay; Chernesky, Max; Read, Ron; Singh, Ameeta E

    2017-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence (2.8%) in female sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees was within the prevalence of chlamydia (5.8%) and gonorrhea (1.8%), while being very low for male attendees (0.2%). Correlates among women were indigenous ethnicity, other ethnicity, and being symptomatic.

  1. Prevalence and clinical impact of cachexia in chronic illness in Europe, USA, and Japan: facts and numbers update 2016.

    PubMed

    von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Markus S; Anker, Stefan D

    2016-12-01

    Cachexia is a serious clinical consequence of almost all chronic diseases when reaching advanced stages. Its prevalence ranges from 5-15% in end-stage chronic heart failure to 50-80% in advanced malignant cancer. Cachexia is also frequently occurring in patients with chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or neurological diseases, and rheumatoid arthritis. Mortality rates of patients with cachexia range from 15-25% per year in severe COPD through 20-40% per year in patients with chronic heart failure or chronic kidney disease to 20-80% in cancer cachexia. In the industrialized world (North America, Europe, and Japan) where epidemiological data are to some degree available, the overall prevalence of cachexia (due to any disease and not necessarily associated with hospital admission) is growing with the growth of the chronic illness prevalence, and it currently affects around 0.5-1.0% of the population, i.e. around 6-12 million people. From this, one can estimate that 1.5-2 million deaths are occurring in patients with cachexia per year. It is also a very significant health problem in other parts of the globe, but epidemiological data are scarce. The multifactorial nature of cachexia is now much better understood, and particularly, the role of inflammatory mediators and the imbalance of anabolism and catabolism are considered important therapeutic targets. Several approaches to develop cachexia and muscle wasting treatments have failed to be successful in phase III clinical trials, but new approaches are in development. Given the high prevalence and very high mortality associated with cachexia, advances are urgently needed for patients worldwide.

  2. Prevalence and clinical impact of cachexia in chronic illness in Europe, USA, and Japan: facts and numbers update 2016

    PubMed Central

    von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Markus S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cachexia is a serious clinical consequence of almost all chronic diseases when reaching advanced stages. Its prevalence ranges from 5–15% in end‐stage chronic heart failure to 50–80% in advanced malignant cancer. Cachexia is also frequently occurring in patients with chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or neurological diseases, and rheumatoid arthritis. Mortality rates of patients with cachexia range from 15–25% per year in severe COPD through 20–40% per year in patients with chronic heart failure or chronic kidney disease to 20–80% in cancer cachexia. In the industrialized world (North America, Europe, and Japan) where epidemiological data are to some degree available, the overall prevalence of cachexia (due to any disease and not necessarily associated with hospital admission) is growing with the growth of the chronic illness prevalence, and it currently affects around 0.5–1.0% of the population, i.e. around 6–12 million people. From this, one can estimate that 1.5–2 million deaths are occurring in patients with cachexia per year. It is also a very significant health problem in other parts of the globe, but epidemiological data are scarce. The multifactorial nature of cachexia is now much better understood, and particularly, the role of inflammatory mediators and the imbalance of anabolism and catabolism are considered important therapeutic targets. Several approaches to develop cachexia and muscle wasting treatments have failed to be successful in phase III clinical trials, but new approaches are in development. Given the high prevalence and very high mortality associated with cachexia, advances are urgently needed for patients worldwide. PMID:27891294

  3. [Sex differences in infectious diseases and their clinical consequences].

    PubMed

    Beisel, Claudia; van Lunzen, Jan; Lohse, Ansgar W; Addo, Marylyn M; Altfeld, Marcus

    2015-09-01

    Differences between women and men range from their anatomy, their natural social behavior to their susceptibility and response to different pathologies, including infectious diseases. The underlying mechanisms of sex differences in infectious diseases are manifold, including differences in exposure to common pathogens, genetic factors that modulate immune responses against pathogens and hormonal factors that may alter susceptibility or disease progression, and responsiveness to treatment. On one hand, these mechanisms lead to higher innate and adaptive immune responses in females, which result in faster clearance of acute infections and higher antibody responses to several vaccines, on the other hand this contributes to an increased susceptibility to chronic inflammatory diseases. In this review we summarize the underlying causes of sex differences in prevalence, clinical course of disease and treatment outcome of infectious diseases. In order to develop individualized treatment concepts, a fair balance between the sexes should be maintained in basic science, preclinical and clinical studies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Coexistence of systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis: prevalence, clinical characteristics, and natural history.

    PubMed

    Fanouriakis, Antonis; Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Pamfil, Cristina; Papadaki, Efrosini; Sidiropoulos, Prodromos; Plaitakis, Andreas; Amoiridis, George; Bertsias, George; Boumpas, Dimitrios T

    2014-06-01

    The coexistence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis (MS) in the same individual has rarely been described. Our objective was to report on the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of cases fulfilling the criteria for both SLE and MS. We utilized existing patient cohorts from the Departments of Rheumatology and Neurology, University of Crete, and screened patients diagnosed with either SLE (n = 728) or MS (n = 819) for features of both diseases. The clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging findings were assessed. We identified nine patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for both SLE and MS, corresponding to a prevalence rate of 1.0-1.2% in each cohort. All patients were women, with an average age at SLE diagnosis of 42.1 years (range: 34-56 years). The diagnosis of SLE preceded the development of MS in five patients, with a time lag ≤ 5 years in four of them. Initial presentation of MS included spinal symptoms in seven patients. All patients had features of mild SLE with predominantly cutaneous, mucosal, and musculoskeletal manifestations. Accordingly, therapeutic decisions were mainly guided by the severity of the neurological syndrome. During the median follow-up of 4 years (range: 1-10 years), three patients remained stable and the remaining experienced gradual deterioration in their neurological status. SLE remained quiescent in all patients while on standard immunomodulatory MS therapy. Occurrence of both diseases in the same individual is rare, corroborating data that suggest distinct molecular signatures. SLE and MS coexistence was not associated with a severe phenotype for either entity. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Dyslipidemia in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jee-Sun

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Koreans 30 years old and over was 19.5% in 2015 according to the Korean Nutrition and Health Examination Survey, which means that one-fifth of adults had hypercholesterolemia. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in adults 30 years of age and older was 16.8% in 2015, and men had a 2-fold higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia than women (23.9% vs. 10.4%). The awareness of hypercholesterolemia in Koreans was higher in women than among men (62.4% vs. 51.4%). It increased with age; the level of awareness in participants 30 to 49 years of age (32.1% in men and 32.6% in women) was less than half of that observed among respondents ≥65 years old (77.5% in men and 78.0% in women). Regular check-ups for dyslipidemia and the active management thereof are urgent in Korean men aged 30 to 49. In women, the perimenopausal period is crucial for the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome, including dyslipidemia. Overall, improvements in awareness and treatment in the age group of 30 to 49 years in both men and women remain necessary. PMID:28345314

  6. Clinical prodromes of neurodegeneration in Anderson-Fabry disease

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Derralynn; Milligan, Alan; Richfield, Linda; Reichmann, Heinz; Mehta, Atul; Schapira, Anthony H.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of prodromal clinical features of neurodegeneration in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) in comparison to age-matched controls. Methods: This is a single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study in 167 participants (60 heterozygous females and 50 hemizygous males with genetically confirmed AFD, 57 age-matched controls) using a clinical screening program consisting of structured interview, quantitative tests of motor function, and assessments of cognition, depression, olfaction, orthostatic intolerance, pain, REM sleep behavior disorder, and daytime sleepiness. Results: In comparison to age-matched controls (mean age 48.3 years), patients with AFD (mean age 49.0 years) showed slower gait and transfer speed, poorer fine manual dexterity, and lower hand speed, which was independent of focal symptoms due to cerebrovascular disease. Patients with AFD were more severely affected by depression, pain, and daytime sleepiness and had a lower quality of life. These motor and nonmotor manifestations significantly correlated with clinical disease severity. However, patients with AFD did not reveal extrapyramidal motor features or signs of significant cognitive impairment, hyposmia, orthostatic intolerance, or REM sleep behavior disorder, which commonly precede later neurodegenerative disease. In our cohort, there were no differences in neurologic manifestations of AFD between heterozygous females and hemizygous males. Conclusions: Aside from cerebrovascular manifestations and small fiber neuropathy, AFD results in a distinct neurologic phenotype comprising poorer motor performance and specific nonmotor features. In contrast to functional loss of glucocerebrosidase in Gaucher disease, α-galactosidase deficiency in AFD is not associated with a typical cluster of clinical features prodromal for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson disease. PMID:25762709

  7. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Beckley, Carl S.; Shaban, Salisu; Palmer, Guy H.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Noh, Susan M.; Futse, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B. bigemina prevalence

  8. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Carl S; Shaban, Salisu; Palmer, Guy H; Hudak, Andrew T; Noh, Susan M; Futse, James E

    2016-01-01

    Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B. bigemina prevalence

  9. Prevalence and outcomes of comorbid illnesses in elderly patients with respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Bahadir, Ayse; Ortakoylu, Mediha Gonenc; Iliaz, Sinem; Kanmaz, Zehra Dilek; Bagci, Belma Akbaba; Iliaz, Raim; Caglar, Emel

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of comorbidities in very elderly patients hospitalized as a result of acute respiratory diseases and to analyze sex-specific differences, and to examine the effects of these comorbidities on their treatment outcomes. A total of 3316 patients were admitted to our pulmonary inpatient clinic between 2009 and 2011, and 243 of them (aged over 80 years) with acute respiratory disease were included in our study. Data were retrospectively collected, and included demographic features, comorbidities, laboratory findings, length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality. In total of 243, 144 patients (59.3%) were men and 99 patients (40.7%) were women. The mean age was 84 ± 3 years. The prevalence of comorbidity was 75.7% (n = 184). The most common comorbid disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was congestive heart failure (32.9%), and it was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (49.4%) in patients with pneumonia. The rate of having one comorbidity was 58.2% (n = 107) and 35.3% (n = 65) had two. Approximately half (52.6%) of the in-hospital deaths occurred within the first 48 hours of hospitalization. The number of comorbidities was higher in the deceased patients compared with the living patients (P = 0.01). The present study showed that the majority of our patients had at least one comorbidity. The first 48 hours of hospitalization was very important, especially for the patients with comorbidities, to determine the need for intensive care unit and prognosis. The coexistence of comorbidities can increase the risk of mortality in the elderly. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 791-796. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. [Lyme disease--clinical manifestations and treatment].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is a systemic infectious disease that can present in a variety of clinical manifestations. The disease is caused by a group of spirochaetes--Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato or Lyme borrelia--that are transmitted to humans by the bite of Ixodes ticks. Lyme disease is the most common arthropode-borne infectious disease in many European countries including Germany. Early localized infection is typically manifested by an erythema migrans skin lesion, in rarer cases as a borrelial lymphocytoma. The most common early disseminated manifestation is (early) neuroborreliosis. In adults, neuroborreliosis appe