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Sample records for prevent liver damage

  1. Preventing gut leakiness by oats supplementation ameliorates alcohol-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzian, A; Choudhary, S; Holmes, E W; Yong, S; Banan, A; Jakate, S; Fields, J Z

    2001-11-01

    Only 30% of alcoholics develop liver disease (ALD) suggesting that additional factors are needed. Endotoxin is one such factor, but its etiology is unclear. Since the gut is the main source of endotoxin, we sought to determine whether an increase in intestinal permeability (leaky gut) is required for alcohol-induced endotoxemia and liver injury and whether the gut leakiness is preventable. For 10 weeks, rats received by gavage increasing alcohol doses (to 8 g/kg/day) and either oats (10 g/kg) or chow b.i.d. Intestinal permeability was then assessed by urinary excretion of lactulose and mannitol. Liver injury was evaluated histologically, biochemically (liver fat content), and by serum aminotransferase. Alcohol caused gut leakiness that was associated with both endotoxemia and liver injury. Oats prevented these changes. We conclude that chronic gavage of alcohol in rats is a simple experimental model that mimics key aspects of ALD, including endotoxemia and liver injury, and can be useful to study possible mechanisms of endotoxemia in ALD. Since preventing the gut leakiness by oats also prevented the endotoxemia and ameliorated liver damage in rat, our results suggest that alcohol-induced gut leakiness 1) may cause alcohol-induced endotoxemia and liver injury and 2) may be the critical cofactor in the 30% of alcoholics who develop ALD. Further studies are needed to determine whether ALD in humans can be prevented by preventing alcohol-induced gut leakiness, studies that should lead to the development of useful therapeutic agents for the prevention of ALD.

  2. Enzyme replacement prevents neonatal death, liver damage, and osteoporosis in murine homocystinuria.

    PubMed

    Majtan, Tomas; Hůlková, Helena; Park, Insun; Krijt, Jakub; Kožich, Viktor; Bublil, Erez M; Kraus, Jan P

    2017-08-16

    Classical homocystinuria (HCU) is an inborn error of sulfur amino acid metabolism caused by deficient activity of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), resulting in an accumulation of homocysteine and a concomitant decrease of cystathionine and cysteine in blood and tissues. In mice, the complete lack of CBS is neonatal lethal. In this study, newborn CBS knockout (KO) mice were treated with recombinant polyethyleneglycolylated human truncated CBS (PEG-CBS). Full survival of the treated KO mice, along with a positive impact on metabolite levels in plasma, liver, brain, and kidneys, was observed. The PEG-CBS treatment prevented an otherwise fatal liver disease characterized by steatosis, death of hepatocytes, and ultrastructural abnormalities of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Furthermore, treatment of the KO mice for 5 mo maintained the plasma metabolite balance and completely prevented osteoporosis and changes in body composition that characterize both the KO model and human patients. These findings argue that early treatment of patients with HCU with PEG-CBS may prevent clinical symptoms of the disease possibly without the need of dietary protein restriction.-Majtan, T., Hůlková, H., Park, I., Krijt, J., Kožich, V., Bublil, E. M., Kraus, J. P. Enzyme replacement prevents neonatal death, liver damage, and osteoporosis in murine homocystinuria. © FASEB.

  3. Betulinic acid prevents alcohol-induced liver damage by improving the antioxidant system in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wei; Wu, Jianping; Yuan, Liyun; Wu, Jing; Tu, Di; Fang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic lupane-type triterpene, has a wide range of bioactivities. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of BA and the potential mechanism underlying the ability of this compound to prevent liver damage induced by alcohol in vivo. Mice were given oral doses of BA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) daily for 14 days, and induced liver injury by feeding 50% alcohol orally at the dosage of 10 ml/kg after 1 h last administration of BA. BA pretreatment significantly reduced the serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total cholesterol, and triacylglycerides in a dose-dependent manner in the mice administered alcohol. Hepatic levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were remarkably increased, while malondialdehyde contents and microvesicular steatosis in the liver were decreased by BA in a dose-dependent manner after alcohol-induced liver injury. These findings suggest that the mechanism underlying the hepatoprotective effects of BA might be due to increased antioxidant capacity, mainly through improvement of the tissue redox system, maintenance of the antioxidant system, and decreased lipid peroxidation in the liver. PMID:24378582

  4. Cranberry flavonoids prevent toxic rat liver mitochondrial damage in vivo and scavenge free radicals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lapshina, Elena A; Zamaraeva, Maria; Cheshchevik, Vitali T; Olchowik-Grabarek, Ewa; Sekowski, Szymon; Zukowska, Izabela; Golovach, Nina G; Burd, Vasili N; Zavodnik, Ilya B

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid biological activity, focusing on the antioxidative and protective effects of cranberry flavonoids in free radical-generating systems and those on mitochondrial ultrastructure during carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication. Treatment of rats with cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) during chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication led to prevention of mitochondrial damage, including fragmentation, rupture and local loss of the outer mitochondrial membrane. In radical-generating systems, cranberry flavonoids effectively scavenged nitric oxide (IC50  = 4.4 ± 0.4 µg/ml), superoxide anion radicals (IC50  = 2.8 ± 0.3 µg/ml) and hydroxyl radicals (IC50  = 53 ± 4 µg/ml). The IC50 for reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) was 2.2 ± 0.3 µg/ml. Flavonoids prevented to some extent lipid peroxidation in liposomal membranes and glutathione oxidation in erythrocytes treated with UV irradiation or organic hydroperoxides as well as decreased the rigidity of the outer leaflet of the liposomal membranes. The hepatoprotective potential of cranberry flavonoids could be due to specific prevention of rat liver mitochondrial damage. The mitochondria-addressed effects of flavonoids might be related both to radical-scavenging properties and modulation of various mitochondrial events.

  5. The failure of selenium supplementation to prevent copper-induced liver damage in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed Central

    Aburto, E M; Cribb, A; Fuentealba, I C; Ikede, B O; Kibenge, F S; Markham, F

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates the ability of selenium (Se) supplementation to prevent experimental copper (Cu)-induced hepatocellular damage. Weanling male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to groups of 15, 3 groups (A,B,C) were fed Cu-loaded diets (containing 2000 microg/g copper, added as CuSO4) and different levels of Se (added as Na2SeO3 x 5H2O) as follows: A) Cu-loaded/Se adequate diet (0.4 microg/g Se, fed basis); B) Cu-loaded/Se-supplemented diet (2 microg/g Se); and C) Cu-loaded/Se-deficient diet (< 0.2 microg/g). Three additional groups (D,E,F) were fed diets containing adequate levels of Cu (14 microg/g Cu, fed basis) and different levels of Se as follows: D) Cu-adequate/Se-adequate diet; E) Cu-adequate/Se-supplemented diet (2 microg/g Se); and F) Cu-adequate/Se-deficient (< 0.2 microg/g) diet. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks on the experimental diets, liver samples were processed for histology, histochemistry, metal analysis, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) measurement, and quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA). Morphologic changes characteristic of Cu-associated hepatitis, without an increase in hepatic MDA levels, were seen in all Cu-loaded rats in each sampling. Similar changes occurred in rats fed Se-adequate, Se-supplemented and Se-deficient diets. This study demonstrates that Fischer 344 rats fed 2000 microg/g Cu develop morphologic changes due to Cu toxicity without evidence of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, Se supplementation does not result in protection against Cu-induced liver injury. Images Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:11346254

  6. The failure of selenium supplementation to prevent copper-induced liver damage in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Aburto, E M; Cribb, A; Fuentealba, I C; Ikede, B O; Kibenge, F S; Markham, F

    2001-04-01

    This study evaluates the ability of selenium (Se) supplementation to prevent experimental copper (Cu)-induced hepatocellular damage. Weanling male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to groups of 15, 3 groups (A,B,C) were fed Cu-loaded diets (containing 2000 microg/g copper, added as CuSO4) and different levels of Se (added as Na2SeO3 x 5H2O) as follows: A) Cu-loaded/Se adequate diet (0.4 microg/g Se, fed basis); B) Cu-loaded/Se-supplemented diet (2 microg/g Se); and C) Cu-loaded/Se-deficient diet (< 0.2 microg/g). Three additional groups (D,E,F) were fed diets containing adequate levels of Cu (14 microg/g Cu, fed basis) and different levels of Se as follows: D) Cu-adequate/Se-adequate diet; E) Cu-adequate/Se-supplemented diet (2 microg/g Se); and F) Cu-adequate/Se-deficient (< 0.2 microg/g) diet. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks on the experimental diets, liver samples were processed for histology, histochemistry, metal analysis, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) measurement, and quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA). Morphologic changes characteristic of Cu-associated hepatitis, without an increase in hepatic MDA levels, were seen in all Cu-loaded rats in each sampling. Similar changes occurred in rats fed Se-adequate, Se-supplemented and Se-deficient diets. This study demonstrates that Fischer 344 rats fed 2000 microg/g Cu develop morphologic changes due to Cu toxicity without evidence of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, Se supplementation does not result in protection against Cu-induced liver injury.

  7. Caloric restriction protects livers from ischemia/reperfusion damage by preventing Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Filho, Sergio L; Amigo, Ignacio; Prado, Fernanda M; Ferreira, Natalie C; Koike, Marcia K; Pinto, Isabella F D; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Montero, Edna F S; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2017-09-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) promotes lifespan extension and protects against many pathological conditions, including ischemia/reperfusion injury to the brain, heart and kidney. In the liver, ischemia/reperfusion damage is related to excessive mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation, leading to the mitochondrial permeability transition. Indeed, liver mitochondria isolated from animals maintained on CR for 4 months were protected against permeability transition and capable of taking up Ca(2+) at faster rates and in larger quantities. These changes were not related to modifications in mitochondrial respiratory activity, but rather to a higher proportion of ATP relative to ADP in CR liver mitochondria. Accordingly, both depletion of mitochondrial adenine nucleotides and loading mitochondria with exogenous ATP abolished the differences between CR and ad libitum (AL) fed groups. The prevention against permeability transition promoted by CR strongly protected against in vivo liver damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Overall, our results show that CR strongly protects the liver against ischemia/reperfusion and uncover a mechanism for this protection, through a yet undescribed diet-induced change in liver mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling related to elevated intramitochondrial ATP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Propolis prevents aluminium-induced genetic and hepatic damages in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Türkez, Hasan; Yousef, Mokhtar I; Geyikoglu, Fatime

    2010-10-01

    Aluminium is present in several manufactured foods and medicines and is also used in water purification. Therefore, the present experiment was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of propolis in modulating the aluminium chloride (AlCl(3)) induced genotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in liver of rats. Animals were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control; 34 mg AlCl(3)/kg bw; 50mg propolis/kg bw; AlCl(3) (34 mg/kg bw) plus propolis (50mg/kg bw), respectively. Rats were orally administered their respective doses daily for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were anesthetized and hepatocytes (HEP) were isolated for counting the number of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs). In addition, the levels of serum enzymes and histological alterations in liver were investigated. AlCl(3) caused a significant increase in MNHEPs, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases (AST and ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Furthermore, severe pathological damages such as: sinusoidal dilatation, congestion of central vein, lipid accumulation and lymphocyte infiltration were established in liver. On the contrary, treatment with propolis alone did not cause any adverse effect on above parameters. Moreover, simultaneous treatments with propolis significantly modulated the toxic effects of AlCl(3). It can be concluded that propolis has beneficial influences and could be able to antagonize AlCl(3) toxicity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preventive Effect of Carvacrol Against Oxidative Damage in Aged Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-11-21

    The present study was designed to investigate the changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level in the liver of 2, 10 and 20 months old rats, and to see whether these changes are restored to those of the two month old rats after carvacrol treatment. Male rats of 2, 10, and 20 months (n = 10 for each group) were used for all the experiments. The aged rats (10 and 20 months old) were given carvacrol (15 mg/day per body weight) for 30 days. Control animals received an equal volume of vehicle. After the treatment, livers were removed for estimation of superoxide dismutase-SOD, glutathione-S-transferase-GST, catalase-CAT activities and lipid peroxidation level. The present findings determined that normal aging was associated with a significant decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD; 11.87 ± 0.6 (2 months old) vs 7.56 ± 0.1 (20 months old); P < 0.001) in liver, as well as an increase in lipid peroxidation level (MDA; 0.15 ± 0.01 (2 months old) vs 0.41 ± 0.01 (20 months old); P < 0.001) in aged rats. Also, the results of this study indicated that carvacrol treatment increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in 20 months old animals versus the aged matched control group (SOD; 9.87 ± 0.4; P < 0.01). Furthermore, carvacrol decreased lipid peroxidation content in 10 and 20 months old animals compared with the aged matched control (MDA; 9.87 ± 0.4; P < 0.001). Our data shows that carvacrol could be a candidate to inhibit the development of age-induced liver damage through inhibition of oxidative stress and also increasing antioxidant defenses.

  10. Ligusticum chuanxiong prevents ovariectomy-induced liver and vascular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Mei; Wu, Jian-Hong; Yang, Ri-Fu; Dong, Xiao-Li; He, Zhen-Yu; Tian, Xue-Lian; Guo, De-Jian; Wong, Man-Sau; Qiu, Tai-Qiu; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2013-01-01

    Post-menopause, there is an increase in body weight, visceral adiposity, and risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which leads to various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Some natural products have proven useful for counteracting the detrimental effects of menopause. The rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (LC) is a well-known medicinal herb widely used in Chinese communities for the treatment of CVDs. The hepatic and vascular protective effects of LC ethanolic extract under postmenopausal conditions were investigated on ovariectomized (OVX) rats supplemented with or without LC ethanolic extract (600 mg/kg body weight/day, p.o.) or 17β-estradiol (1 mg/kg body weight/day, p.o.) for 12 weeks. The current findings demonstrated that consumption of LC ethanolic extract could reduce the body weight gain, improve serum lipid profile (lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol but raising high density lipoprotein cholesterol), combat NAFLD, and protect vascular endothelium in the OVX rats. The beneficial effects of LC may be associated with its antioxidant or vasorelaxant compounds, which enhance the levels of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and up-regulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression, respectively. Taken together, LC may be a promising natural supplement for postmenopausal women to prevent NAFLD and CVDs.

  11. Lipid droplet accumulation is associated with an increase in hyperglycemia-induced renal damage: prevention by liver X receptors.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Eva; Kränzlin, Bettina; Wagenblaβ, Katja; Bonrouhi, Mahnaz; Thiery, Joachim; Gröne, Elisabeth; Nordström, Viola; Teupser, Daniel; Gretz, Norbert; Malle, Ernst; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2013-03-01

    Dyslipidemia is a frequent component of the metabolic disorder of diabetic patients contributing to organ damage. Herein, in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient hyperlipidemic and streptozotozin-induced diabetic mice, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia acted reciprocally, accentuating renal injury and altering renal function. In hyperglycemic-hyperlipidemic kidneys, the accumulation of Tip47-positive lipid droplets in glomeruli, tubular epithelia, and macrophages was accompanied by the concomitant presence of the oxidative stress markers xanthine oxidoreductase and nitrotyrosine, findings that could also be evidenced in renal biopsy samples of diabetic patients. As liver X receptors (LXRα,β) regulate genes linked to lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis and inhibit inflammatory gene expression in macrophages, the effects of systemic and macrophage-specific LXR activation were analyzed on renal damage in hyperlipidemic-hyperglycemic mice. LXR stimulation by GW3965 up-regulated genes involved in cholesterol efflux and down-regulated proinflammatory/profibrotic cytokines, inhibiting the pathomorphology of diabetic nephropathy, renal lipid accumulation, and improving renal function. Xanthine oxidoreductase and nitrotyrosine levels were reduced. In macrophages, GW3965 or LXRα overexpression significantly suppressed glycated or acetylated low-density lipoprotein-induced cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Specifically, in mice, transgenic expression of LXRα in macrophages significantly ameliorated hyperlipidemic-hyperglycemic nephropathy. The results demonstrate the presence of lipid droplet-induced oxidative mechanisms and the pathophysiologic role of macrophages in diabetic kidneys and indicate the potent regulatory role of LXRs in preventing renal damage in diabetes.

  12. Anzer honey prevents N-ethylmaleimide-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Asli; Kolankaya, Dürdane

    2009-07-01

    N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) is a sulphydryl blocker which impairs the sulphydryl dependent antioxidant system (mainly glutathione) in the body by alkylating endogenous sulphydryls. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Anzer honey on NEM-induced liver injury in rats. Thirty female Wistar albino rats were divided equally into three groups. Group 1: control; Group 2: NEM; Group 3: Anzer honey+NEM. NEM (0.075mg kg(-1)) was given to both group 2 and 3 administered subcutaneously (s.c.) for 30 days. The animals in the Anzer honey+NEM group were treated with Anzer honey at a dose of 0.275g kg(-1), (p.o.) at 1h prior to every NEM injection. At the end of the 30 day treatment period, liver samples were taken for determination of the glutathione levels and histological examination. NEM treatment alone caused a significant reduction of the liver glutathione levels in group 2. Furthermore, NEM treatment caused congestion and mononuclear cell infiltration in the liver when compared to the control group. In group 3, Anzer honey treatment reversed all the changes in glutathione level, as well as histopathological alterations, normally induced by NEM. The findings imply that depletion of glutathione concentration plays a causal role in NEM-induced liver injury, and that the hepatoprotective effect of Anzer honey may be mediated through sulfhydryl-sensitive processes. They further imply that it may also possess antioxidant properties.

  13. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... are being studied in clinical trials. Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer. Avoiding cancer risk factors ... lower your risk of cancer. The following risk factors may increase the risk of liver cancer: Hepatitis ...

  14. Kava Linked to Liver Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... of these countries to remove kava from the market. Although liver damage appears to be rare, the FDA believes consumers should be informed of this potential risk. Kava, a member of the pepper family, ...

  15. A water extract of Artemisia capillaris prevents 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Jeon, You-Jin; Athukorala, Yasantha; Choi, Kang-Duk; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Cho, Jin-Kook; Sekikawa, Mitsuo; Fukushima, Michiro; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2006-01-01

    A water extract of Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Compositae) was investigated for protective effects against oxidative stress induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Rats were orally administered A. capillaris water extract (ACWE; 7.5 g/kg) for 7 days before AAPH treatment (60 mg/kg). AAPH intoxication significantly elevated enzyme markers of liver injury (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase). The pre-administration of ACWE significantly reduced the liver-damaging effects of AAPH as indicated by the low levels of these enzymes. Moreover, the ACWE administration significantly attenuated the accumulation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in both plasma and liver tissues compared with those of rats administered AAPH alone. Furthermore, ACWE administration slightly improved the liver reduced glutathione levels and enhanced the production of antioxidant enzymes like catalase. A. capillaris contained 10.1 mg of catechin in 100 g of dried sample; the high-performance liquid chromatography results showed catechin composition in the ACWE to be 28% (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, 49% (-)- epigallocatechin, and 23% other catechins. These observations clearly indicate that ACWE contains antioxidant catechins capable of ameliorating the AAPH-induced hepatic injury by virtue of its antioxidant activity.

  16. Intrahepatic virus-specific IL-10-producing CD8 T cells prevent liver damage during chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Abel, Michal; Sène, Damien; Pol, Stanislas; Bourlière, Marc; Poynard, Thierry; Charlotte, Frédéric; Cacoub, Patrice; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie

    2006-12-01

    CD8 T cell killing of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected hepatocytes is thought to contribute to liver damage during chronic HCV infection, whereas the participation of HCV-nonspecific immune cells is unclear. To visualize the spatial relationship of HCV-specific CD8 T cells with parenchymal target cells, and to examine their local functional activity in relation to hepatocellular necrosis and fibrosis, we used HLA tetramers and confocal microscopy in biopsies from 23 HLA-A2 or HLA-B7 patients with chronic HCV infection. Intrahepatic tetramer+ (HCV-specific) CD8 T cells protected from hepatic necroinflammatory disease activity, independently of age, gender, viral load, and viral genotype. Indeed, tetramer+ cells were scattered in the liver within regions of weak fibrosis (low laminin expression) and low hepatocellular apoptosis (TUNEL method), and expressed IL-10 but not IFNgamma. By contrast, tetramer-negative CD8 T cells were associated with active necroinflammatory liver disease, colocalized with strong laminin expression and hepatocellular apoptosis, and expressed more frequently IFNgamma than IL-10. Overall, liver regions harboring HCV-specific CD8 T cells tended to be healthier than areas containing only inflammatory cells of undefined specificity. In conclusion, HCV-specific IL-10-producing CD8 T cells, although not cytotoxic and unable to control viral replication, can attenuate hepatocellular necrosis, liver fibrosis, and inflammation mediated by bystander T cells, and may thus represent antigen-induced regulatory CD8 T cells. Therapeutic modulation of the intrahepatic balance between specific and bystander CD8 T cells might be beneficial in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  17. Vitamin E prevents increase in oxidative damage to lipids and DNA in liver of ODS rats given total body X-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mika; Kashiba, Misato; Oka, Jun; Sugisawa, Ayako; Umegaki, Keizo

    2002-01-01

    We examined the effects of dietary vitamin E (VE) on oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in the liver a few days after total body irradiation (TBI). ODS rats, which lack vitamin C synthesis, were fed either a low VE diet (4.3 mg VE/kg) or a basal VE diet (75.6 mg VE/kg) for 5 weeks while vitamin C was supplied in the drinking water. The VE level in the liver of the low VE group was lower and the levels of lipid peroxides were higher compared to those of the basal VE group: the relative levels in the two groups were 1:30 for VE, 18:1 for 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and 10:1 for hexanal (HA). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, did not differ between the low VE and the basal VE groups. When the rats received TBI at the dose of 3 Gy and were killed on day 6, the levels of HNE, HA and 8OHdG increased by 2.2-, 2-, and 1.5-times, respectively, in the low VE group, but TBI did not cause such increases in the basal VE group. Changes in antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and Cu/Zn-SOD) in the liver could not explain the different responses of the two diet groups to TBI-induced oxidative damage. The concentrations of vitamin C and glutathione in the liver did not differ between the two groups. These results suggest that dietary VE can prevent the oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in the liver which appear a few days after TBI at dose of 3 Gy.

  18. Malnutrition, liver damage, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Grasso, P

    1981-01-01

    There is no clear indication that malnutrition, per se, is a principal cause of cancer in man, but the prevalence of liver cancer in areas where malnutrition exists supports this hypothesis. Liver damage and liver cancer have been induced in laboratory rats by diets consisting of peanut meal and proteins deficient in some essential amino acids. However, liver damage, but not cancer, was produced when the diets contained no peanut meal but consisted of a mixture of amino acids deficient in methionine and cysteine, so that it is possible that aflatoxin, a contaminant of peanut meal, may have been responsible for the malignancies seen in the earlier experiments. Liver cancer developes in a high proportion of mice allowed to feed ad libitum or given a diet containing a high proportion of fat (groundnut oil) or protein (casein). Dietary restriction reduced the incidences of this cancer. This findings lends some support to current thinking that diet may be a factor in the development of cancer in man.

  19. 6-Gingerol-Rich Fraction from Zingiber officinale Prevents Hematotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Kidney and Liver of Rats Exposed to Carbendazim.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Mariama; Ajayi, Babajide O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a globally marketed flavoring agent and cooking spice with a long history of human health benefits. The fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) is often detected in fruits and vegetables for human nutrition and has been reported to elicit toxic effects in different experimental animal models. The present study investigated the protective effects of 6-Gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) from ginger on hematotoxicity and hepatorenal damage in rats exposed to CBZ. CBZ was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg alone or simultaneously administered with 6-GRF at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, whereas control rats received corn oil alone at 2 mL/kg for 14 days. Hematological examination showed that CBZ-mediated toxicity to the total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets counts were normalized to the control values in rats cotreated with 6-GRF. Moreover, administration of CBZ significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase as well as glutathione level in the livers and kidneys of rats compared with control. However, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde were markedly elevated in kidneys and livers of CBZ-treated rats compared with control. The significant elevation in the plasma indices of renal and hepatic dysfunction in CBZ-treated rats was confirmed by light microscopy. Coadministration of 6-GRF exhibited chemoprotection against CBZ-mediated hematotoxicity, augmented antioxidant status, and prevented oxidative damage in the kidney and liver of rats.

  20. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, liver damage and dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rat are prevented by Spirulina supplementation.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Manel; Magné, Christian; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2016-11-01

    Medicinal plants have long been used against life-threatening diseases including diabetes, with more or less success. Some of these plants have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, which could help improving diabetes inconveniences. In that context, we investigated the effects of spirulina supplementation on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, hypothesizing that co-administration of spirulina with rat diet could ameliorate diabetes complications and provide as benefits as the common antidiabetic insulin. Following alloxan treatment, male Wistar rats were fed daily with 5% spirulina-enriched diet or treated with insulin (0.5 IU/rat) for 21 days. Both spirulina and insulin treatments of diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and an increase of glycogen level. Spirulina supplementation also impeded loss of body weight and ameliorated hepatic toxicity indices, i.e. alkaline phosphatases and transaminases activities, bilirubin levels and lipid peroxidation. Besides, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in the serum. Moreover, diabetic rats fed with spirulina exhibited sig changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver (ie, decrease in superoxide dismutase and increase in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). The beneficial effects of spirulina or insulin were confirmed by histological study of the liver of diabetic rats. Overall, this study indicates that treatment with spirulina decreased hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats, this amelioration being even more pronounced than that provided by insulin injection. Therefore, administration of this alga would be very helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Subchronic treatment with acai frozen pulp prevents the brain oxidative damage in rats with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    de Souza Machado, Fernanda; Kuo, Jonnsin; Wohlenberg, Mariane Farias; da Rocha Frusciante, Marina; Freitas, Márcia; Oliveira, Alice S; Andrade, Rodrigo B; Wannmacher, Clovis M D; Dani, Caroline; Funchal, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Acai has been used by the population due to its high nutritional value and its benefits to health, such as its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of acai frozen pulp on oxidative stress parameters in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of Wistar rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Thirty male Wistar rats (90-day-old) were orally treated with water or acai frozen pulp for 14 days (7 μL/g). On the 15th day, half of the animals received treatment with mineral oil and the other half with CCl4 (3.0 mL/kg). The cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected and used for analysis of creatine kinase activity (CK), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), carbonyl, sulfhydryl, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-test. CCl4 was able to inhibit CK activity in all tissues tested and to provoke lipid damage in cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and protein damage in the three tissues tested. CCl4 enhanced CAT activity in the cerebral cortex, and inhibited CAT activity in the hippocampus and cerebellum and reduced SOD activity in all tissues studied. Acai frozen pulp prevented the inhibition of CK, TBARS, carbonyl and CAT activity in all brain structures and only in hippocampus for SOD activity. Therefore, acai frozen pulp has antioxidant properties and maybe could be useful in the treatment of some diseases that affect the central nervous system that are associated with oxidative damage.

  2. Geranylgeranylacetone prevents acute liver damage after massive hepatectomy in rats through suppression of a CXC chemokine GRO1 and induction of heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Kanemura, Hirofumi; Kusumoto, Kenji; Miyake, Hidenori; Tashiro, Seiki; Rokutan, Kazuhito; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2009-01-01

    Acute liver failure after massive hepatectomy remains a challenging problem. In this study, using a microarray designed to monitor the side effects of drugs, we examined changes in gene expression in the remnant liver during the 24 h after hepatectomy and the effects of a nontoxic heat shock protein (HSP) 70 inducer, geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), after 90% hepatectomy in rats. A single oral administration of 100 mg/kg GGA significantly suppressed the release of aminotransferases and improved survival compared with vehicle administration. The hepatectomy upregulated 74 genes and downregulated 95. Interestingly, ten cytokine genes were upregulated, while no cytokine-related gene was downregulated. Among the ten cytokine genes, a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils, GRO1, was most rapidly and markedly upregulated after 90% hepatectomy. GGA effectively suppressed the up-regulation of GRO1 messenger ribonucleic acid, and this was validated by Northern hybridization. Microarray and immunoblot analyses showed that, in addition to HSP70 and HSP27, GGA preferentially induced an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, BIP. Considering hemodynamic and metabolic overloading as a primary cause of acute lever failure, the ER stress response enhanced by GGA may also play an important role in the prevention of overload-induced liver damage.

  3. Methamphetamine causes acute hyperthermia-dependent liver damage.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Laura E; Gunning, William T; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2013-10-01

    Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity has been correlated with damage to the liver but this damage has not been extensively characterized. Moreover, the mechanism by which the drug contributes to liver damage is unknown. This study characterizes the hepatocellular toxicity of methamphetamine and examines if hyperthermia contributes to this liver damage. Livers from methamphetamine-treated rats were examined using electron microscopy and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Methamphetamine increased glycogen stores, mitochondrial aggregation, microvesicular lipid, and hydropic change. These changes were diffuse throughout the hepatic lobule, as evidenced by a lack of hematoxylin and eosin staining. To confirm if these changes were indicative of damage, serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase were measured. The functional significance of methamphetamine-induced liver damage was also examined by measuring plasma ammonia. To examine the contribution of hyperthermia to this damage, methamphetamine-treated rats were cooled during and after drug treatment by cooling their external environment. Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, as well as plasma ammonia were increased concurrently with these morphologic changes and were prevented when methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was blocked. These findings support that methamphetamine produces changes in hepatocellular morphology and damage persisting for at least 24 h after drug exposure. At this same time point, methamphetamine treatment significantly increases plasma ammonia concentrations, consistent with impaired ammonia metabolism and functional liver damage. Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia contributes significantly to the persistent liver damage and increases in peripheral ammonia produced by the drug.

  4. Melatonin is able to prevent the liver of old castrated female rats from oxidative and pro-inflammatory damage.

    PubMed

    Kireev, R A; Tresguerres, A C F; Garcia, C; Ariznavarreta, C; Vara, E; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aging and ovariectomy on various physiological parameters related to inflammation and oxidative stress in livers obtained from old female rats, and the influence of chronic administration of melatonin on these animals. Twenty-four female Wistar rats of 22 months of age were used. Animals were divided into four experimental groups: two intact groups that were untreated or given melatonin (1 mg/kg/day), and two ovariectomized groups that also untreated and treated with melatonin (1 mg/kg/day). After 10 wk of treatment, rats were sacrificed by decapitation, and livers were collected and homogenized. A group of 2-month-old female rats was used as young controls. Protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta were determined by Western blot analysis. The levels of nitric oxide metabolites (NO(x)), lipid hydroperoxide (LPO), TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10 were determined. Levels of LPO in the liver homogenates as well as iNOS protein expression and NO(x) levels were increased in old rats as compared with young animals; this effect was more evident in ovariectomized animals. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 were significantly increased and anti-inflammatory IL-10 decreased during aging and after ovariectomy. Aging also significantly increased the expression of HO-1 protein, and ovariectomized rats showed an additional increase. Administration of melatonin, both to intact and to the ovariectomized animals significantly reduced NO(x), LPO levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver as compared with untreated rats. Significant rice in IL-10 and reductions in the iNOS, HO-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta protein expression were also found in rats treated with melatonin. Oxidative stress and inflammation induced during aging in the liver are more marked in castrated than in intact females. Administration of melatonin

  5. Mechanisms of Diabetes-Induced Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Jamaludin; Nazratun Nafizah, A. H.; Zariyantey, A. H.; Budin, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease that occurs in both developed and developing countries. This metabolic disease affects all systems in the body, including the liver. Hyperglycaemia, mainly caused by insulin resistance, affects the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and can lead to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can further progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and, finally, hepatocellular carcinomas. The underlying mechanism of diabetes that contributes to liver damage is the combination of increased oxidative stress and an aberrant inflammatory response; this activates the transcription of pro-apoptotic genes and damages hepatocytes. Significant involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines—including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α—exacerbates the accumulation of oxidative damage products in the liver, such as malondialdehyde, fluorescent pigments and conjugated dienes. This review summarises the biochemical, histological and macromolecular changes that contribute to oxidative liver damage among diabetic individuals. PMID:27226903

  6. [Early liver damage caused by alcohol].

    PubMed

    Garcá Vigil, J L; Aguirre García, J; Pérez Muñoz, H A; López Bárcena, J J; Lifshitz Guinzberg, A

    1980-01-01

    Liver biopsy was taken from 20 patients with chronic and acute alcoholism. The patients had been hospitalized for diverse reasons, had no clinical manifestations of alcoholic hepatitis nor cirrhosis, but did have abnormal liver function tests. The most common abnormal test results were low serum albumin, polyclonal gamma-globulin elevation, and S G O T and Alk P rise. In all patients one or more types of hepatic lesiones were found: steatosis (15), polynuclear and mononuclear infiltrates (15), and portal (7), interstitial (13), or centriobular (8) fibrosis. Two patients had cirrhosis. None had hepatic cell necrosis. These findings justify a motivated search for liver damage in patients with alcoholism who have slight alterations in liver function tests, even in the absence of clinical manifestations of liver disease.

  7. Parents: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... whole word or may have the abbreviation "APAP." Liver damage: Giving your child more acetaminophen than directed ...

  8. Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract prevents fat diet induced oxidative stress in mice and protects liver cell-nuclei from hydroxyl radical mediated damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjan; Ganguli, Debdutta; Dey, Sanjit

    2015-12-01

    High fat diet (HFD) prompts metabolic pattern inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria thereby triggering multitude of chronic disorders in human. Antioxidants from plant sources may be an imperative remedy against this disorder. However, it requires scientific validation. In this study, we explored if (i) Moringa oleifera seed extract (MoSE) can neutralize ROS generated in HFD fed mice; (ii) protect cell-nuclei damage developed by Fenton reaction in vitro. Swiss mice were fed with HFD to develop oxidative stress model (HFD group). Other groups were control, seed extract alone treated, and MoSE simultaneously (HS) treated. Treatment period was of 15 days. Antioxidant enzymes with tissue nitrite content (TNC) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated from liver homogenate. HS group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) compared to only HFD fed group. Further, TNC and LPO decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in HS group compared to HFD fed group. MoSE also protected hepatocytes nuclei from the hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction. MoSE was found to be polyphenol rich with potent reducing power, free radicals and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity. Thus, MoSE exhibited robust antioxidant prospective to neutralize ROS developed in HFD fed mice and also protected the nuclei damage from hydroxyl radicals. Hence, it can be used as herbal medication against HFD induced ROS mediated disorders.

  9. Quercetin protection against ciprofloxacin induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Taslidere, E; Dogan, Z; Elbe, H; Vardi, N; Cetin, A; Turkoz, Y

    2016-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a common, broad spectrum antibacterial agent; however, evidence is accumulating that ciprofloxacin may cause liver damage. Quercetin is a free radical scavenger and antioxidant. We investigated histological changes in hepatic tissue of rats caused by ciprofloxacin and the effects of quercetin on these changes using histochemical and biochemical methods. We divided 28 adult female Wistar albino rats into four equal groups: control, quercetin treated, ciprofloxacin treated, and ciprofloxacin + quercetin treated. At the end of the experiment, liver samples were processed for light microscopic examination and biochemical measurements. Sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and a histopathologic damage score was calculated. The sections from the control group appeared normal. Hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration and intracellular vacuolization were observed in the ciprofloxacin group. The histopathological findings were reduced in the group treated with quercetin. Significant differences were found between the control and ciprofloxacin groups, and between the ciprofloxacin and ciprofloxacin + quercetin groups. Quercetin administration reduced liver injury caused by ciprofloxacin in rats. We suggest that quercetin may be useful for preventing ciprofloxacin induced liver damage.

  10. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon; Larcher, Steven; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Over the years there have been several occurrences of damage to Space Shuttle Orbiter cold plates during removal and replacement of avionics boxes. Thus a process improvement team was put together to determine ways to prevent these kinds of damage. From this effort there were many solutions including, protective covers, training, and improved operations instructions. The focus of this paper is to explain the cold plate damage problem and the corrective actions for preventing future damage to aerospace avionics cold plate designs.

  11. Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil enhances the non-specific immune system and prevents oxidative damage in Rhamdia quelen experimentally infected by Aeromonas hydrophila: Effects on cholinergic and purinergic systems in liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Júnior, Guerino B; de Vargas, Agueda C; Boligon, Aline A; de Campos, Marli M A; Stefani, Lenita M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of M. alternifolia essential oil used to treat silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) experimentally infected by Aeromonas hydrophila on oxidative stress variables, and for the first time, on hepatic enzymes of the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems. For that, fish were divided into six groups (A-F), each containing seven animals. Groups A, B and C were composed of uninfected animals, while animals in groups D, E and F were intramuscularly inoculated with A. hydrophila. Groups B and E received a prophylactic bath with M. alternifolia essential oil (50 μL/L, diluted in ethanol) for seven days, while groups C and F were exposed to ethanol. After the prophylactic baths, groups D, E and F were inoculated with 100 μL of A. hydrophila solution (2.1 × 10(9) colony-forming unit). Two days after inoculation, the animals were euthanized and liver samples were collected. Infected animals (the group D) showed increased TBARS and protein carbonylation levels, while CAT, AChE and ADA activities decreased compared to uninfected animals (the group A). The prophylactic treatment with M. alternifolia essential oil (the group E) prevented the alterations caused by A. hydrophila, but it did not change AChE activity. Thus, the prophylactic treatment prevents damage caused by lipids and proteins, as well as alterations of the adenosinergic system, demonstrating that the anti-inflammatory effect of TTO is mediated by the adenosinergic pathway. In addition, TTO prophylactic treatment might be considered an important approach to prevent the hepatic damage caused by A. hydrophila.

  12. Rescuing fluoride-induced damages in liver with gamma aminobutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haoyue; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-09-09

    Fluorine poisoning affects human health all over the world and an urgent task is to develop alleviative medicine to recover or ameliorate the damages to the body. Here we studied the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a liver protector reported previously, on fluoride-induced damage in the mouse liver. Through microscope imaging of the liver tissue, TUNEL immunostaining, real-time RT-PCR, enzyme immunoassay and colorimetric method, we found that GABA supplementation prevented the metabolic toxicity caused by fluoride treatment in mice. This detoxification was reflected by the reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis, enhanced neuron protection and liver function. Collectively, this study provided evidence of the beneficial effects of GABA supplement on liver damage, implicating its therapeutic potential in fluorosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of phytosterol protects rats against 4-nitrophenol-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaqin; Song, Meiyan; Li, Yansen; Zhang, Yonghui; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Li, ChunMei

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of phytosterol (PS) in regard to liver damage induced by 4-nitrophenol (PNP). Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups (Control, PS, PNP, and PNP+PS). The PS and PNP+PS groups were pretreated with PS for one week. The PNP and PNP+PS groups were injected subcutaneously with PNP for 28 days. The control group received a basal diet and was injected with vehicle alone. Treatment with PS prevented the elevation of the total bilirubin levels, as well as an increase in serum alkaline transaminase and aspartate transaminase, which are typically caused by PNP-induced liver damage. Histopathologically showed that liver damage was significantly mitigated by PS treatment. However, there was no significant change in antioxidant enzyme activities, and the Nrf2-antioxidant system was not activated after treatment with PS. These results suggest that PS could mitigate liver damage induced by PNP, but does not enhance antioxidant capacity.

  14. Copper deficiency potentiates ethanol induced liver damage

    SciTech Connect

    Zidenberg-Cherr, S.; Han, B.; Graham, T.W.; Keen, C.L. )

    1992-02-26

    Copper sufficient (+Cu) and deficient ({minus}Cu) rats were fed liquid diets with EtOH or dextrose at 36% of kcals for 2 mo. Consumption of either the {minus}Cu diet or EtOH resulted in lower liver CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were lowest in EtOH/{minus}Cu rats; being 20% and 50% of control values, respectively. Ethanol resulted in higher MnSOD activity in +Cu and {minus}Cu rats. Low Cu intake as well as EtOH resulted in lower mitochondrial (Mit) TBARS relative to controls. TBARS were lowest in Mit from EtOH/{minus}Cu rats. Microsomal (Micro) TBARS were lower in {minus}Cu and EtOH-fed rats than in controls. The peroxidizability index (PI) was calculated as an index of substrate availability for lipid peroxidation. Ethanol feeding resulted in lower PI's in Mit and Micro than measured in non-EtOH rats. There was a positive correlation between Micro PI's and TBARS. These results show that despite reductions in components of antioxidant defense, compensatory mechanism arise resulting in reduction in peroxidation targets and/or an increase in alternate free radical quenching factors. Histological examination demonstrated increased portal and intralobular connective tissue and cell necrosis in EtOH/{minus}Cu rats, suggesting that Cu may be a critical modulator of EtOH induced tissue damage.

  15. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; establish an administrative process for making... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; and establish the adjudication process for...

  16. Uridine Prevents Fenofibrate-Induced Fatty Liver

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thuc T.; Urasaki, Yasuyo; Pizzorno, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, can modulate liver lipid metabolism although its specific acting targets have not been identified. Using mice with fenofibrate-induced fatty liver as a model system, the effects of uridine on liver lipid metabolism are examined. At a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg, fenofibrate treatment causes reduction of liver NAD+/NADH ratio, induces hyper-acetylation of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (ECHD) and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1), and induces excessive accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). Uridine co-administration at a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg raises NAD+/NADH ratio, inhibits fenofibrate-induced hyper-acetylation of ECHD, ACOX1, and reduces accumulation of LCFA and VLCFA. Our data indicates a therapeutic potential for uridine co-administration to prevent fenofibrate-induced fatty liver. PMID:24475249

  17. Coffee prevents CCl(4)-induced liver cirrhosis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Mario G; Chávez, Enrique; Aldaba-Muruato, Liseth R; Segovia, José; Vergara, Paula; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Shibayama, Mineko; Rivera-Espinoza, Yadira; Muriel, Pablo

    2011-09-01

    Previous clinical observations suggested that coffee may have beneficial effects on the liver. In fact, an inverse relationship between coffee consumption and liver cirrhosis has been reported in humans. However, the causative role of coffee has not been established; therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effect of coffee in an experimental model of liver damage. In this work, cirrhosis was induced by chronic CCl(4) administration and soluble or grain coffee (SC, GC, respectively) were co-administered for 8 weeks. CCl(4) administration elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotranspherase, liver lipid peroxidation, collagen content (fourfold) and TGF-β mRNA, and protein levels; depleted liver glycogen and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. Coffee prevented most of the changes produced by CCl(4). Histopathological analysis was in agreement with biochemical and molecular data. The best effect was produced by GC. It is worth noting that GC preserved the normal collagen content as well as the normal TGF-β mRNA and protein levels. Our results suggest (1) that coffee plays a causative role in preventing cirrhosis (at least experimental cirrhosis); (2) that action mechanisms are probably associated with down regulation of the profibrogenic cytokine TGF-β and to its antioxidant properties and, (3) that GC is more potent than SC. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of coffee on the liver. However, more clinical and basic studies must be performed before reaching a final recommendation.

  18. Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Fever Reducers Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... ingredient in many over-the-counter and prescription medicines that help relieve pain and reduce fever. More ...

  19. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Larchar, Steven W.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Problem Introduction: 1. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Space Shuttle. 1a. The number of cold plate problems had increased from an average of 16.5 per/year between 1990 through 2000, to an average of 39.6 per year between 2001through 2005. 1b. Each complete set of 80 cold plates cost approximately $29 million, an average of $362,500 per cold plate. 1c It takes four months to produce a single cold plate. 2. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Future Space Vehicles.

  20. Decreasing mitochondrial fission prevents cholestatic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianzheng; Wang, Li; Lee, Hakjoo; O'Brien, Dawn K; Bronk, Steven F; Gores, Gregory J; Yoon, Yisang

    2014-12-05

    Mitochondria frequently change their shape through fission and fusion in response to physiological stimuli as well as pathological insults. Disrupted mitochondrial morphology has been observed in cholestatic liver disease. However, the role of mitochondrial shape change in cholestasis is not defined. In this study, using in vitro and in vivo models of bile acid-induced liver injury, we investigated the contribution of mitochondrial morphology to the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disease. We found that the toxic bile salt glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) rapidly fragmented mitochondria, both in primary mouse hepatocytes and in the bile transporter-expressing hepatic cell line McNtcp.24, leading to a significant increase in cell death. GCDC-induced mitochondrial fragmentation was associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. We found that preventing mitochondrial fragmentation in GCDC by inhibiting mitochondrial fission significantly decreased not only ROS levels but also cell death. We also induced cholestasis in mouse livers via common bile duct ligation. Using a transgenic mouse model inducibly expressing a dominant-negative fission mutant specifically in the liver, we demonstrated that decreasing mitochondrial fission substantially diminished ROS levels, liver injury, and fibrosis under cholestatic conditions. Taken together, our results provide new evidence that controlling mitochondrial fission is an effective strategy for ameliorating cholestatic liver injury. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Acrolein scavengers, cysteamine and N-benzylhydroxylamine, reduces the mouse liver damage after acetaminophen overdose.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Ryo; Mizuta, Ryushin

    2017-01-10

    Our previous study suggested that the highly toxic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, a byproduct of oxidative stress, plays a major role in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. In this study, to determine the involvement of acrolein in the liver injury and to identify novel therapeutic options for the liver damage, we examined two putative acrolein scavengers, a thiol compound cysteamine and a hydroxylamine N-benzylhydroxylamine, in cell culture and in mice. Our results showed that cysteamine and N-benzylhydroxylamine effectively prevented the cell toxicity of acrolein in vitro and acetaminophen-induced liver injury in vivo, which suggested that acrolein is involved in the liver damage, and these two drugs can be potential therapeutic options for this condition.

  2. Acrolein scavengers, cysteamine and N-benzylhydroxylamine, reduces the mouse liver damage after acetaminophen overdose

    PubMed Central

    KOYAMA, Ryo; MIZUTA, Ryushin

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study suggested that the highly toxic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, a byproduct of oxidative stress, plays a major role in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. In this study, to determine the involvement of acrolein in the liver injury and to identify novel therapeutic options for the liver damage, we examined two putative acrolein scavengers, a thiol compound cysteamine and a hydroxylamine N-benzylhydroxylamine, in cell culture and in mice. Our results showed that cysteamine and N-benzylhydroxylamine effectively prevented the cell toxicity of acrolein in vitro and acetaminophen-induced liver injury in vivo, which suggested that acrolein is involved in the liver damage, and these two drugs can be potential therapeutic options for this condition. PMID:27594275

  3. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Hepatitis B and C, cirrhosis, and aflatoxin (poison from certain foods) are important risk factors for liver cancer. Learn about all of the risk factors for liver cancer and how to prevent liver cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  4. Curcumin prevents paracetamol-induced liver mitochondrial alterations.

    PubMed

    Granados-Castro, Luis Fernando; Rodríguez-Rangel, Daniela Sarai; Fernández-Rojas, Berenice; León-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Eugenio-Pérez, Dianelena; Pinzón, Enrique; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2016-02-01

    In the present study was evaluated if curcumin is able to attenuate paracetamol (PCM)-induced mitochondrial alterations in liver of mice. Mice (n = 5-6/group) received curcumin (35, 50 or 100 mg/kg bw) 90 min before PCM injection (350 mg/kg bw). Plasma activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was measured; histological analyses were done; and measurement of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP synthesis, aconitase activity and activity of respiratory complexes was carried out. Curcumin prevented in a dose-dependent manner PCM-induced liver damage. Curcumin (100 mg/kg) attenuated PCM-induced liver histological damage (damaged hepatocytes from 28.3 ± 7.7 to 8.3 ± 0.7%) and increment in plasma ALT (from 2300 ± 150 to 690 ± 28 U/l) and AST (from 1603 ± 43 to 379 ± 22 U/l) activity. Moreover, curcumin attenuated the decrease in oxygen consumption using either succinate or malate/glutamate as substrates (evaluated by state 3, respiratory control ratio, uncoupled respiration and adenosine diphosphate/oxygen ratio), in membrane potential, in ATP synthesis, in aconitase activity and in the activity of respiratory complexes I, III and IV. These results indicate that the protective effect of curcumin in PCM-induced hepatotoxicity is associated with attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Oncostatin M gene therapy attenuates liver damage induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Tetsuhiro; Sato, Ayuko; Hirano, Tadamichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Son, Gakuhei; Onodera, Masayuki; Torii, Ikuko; Nishigami, Takashi; Tanaka, Minoru; Miyajima, Atsushi; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Fujimoto, Jiro; Tsujimura, Tohru

    2007-09-01

    To assess the usefulness of oncostatin M (osm) gene therapy in liver regeneration, we examined whether the introduction of OSM cDNA enhances the regeneration of livers damaged by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in rats. Repeated injection of OSM cDNA enclosed in hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope into the spleen resulted in the exclusive expression of OSM protein in Kupffer cells of the liver, which was accompanied by increases in body weight, liver weight, and serum albumin levels and the reduction of serum liver injury parameters (bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase) and a serum fibrosis parameter (hyaluronic acid). Histological examination showed that osm gene therapy reduced centrilobular necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration and augmented hepatocyte proliferation. The apoptosis of hepatocytes and fibrosis were suppressed by osm gene therapy. Time-course studies on osm gene therapy before or after DMN treatment showed that this therapy was effective not only in enhancing regeneration of hepatocytes damaged by DMN but in preventing hepatic cytotoxicity caused by subsequent treatment with DMN. These results indicate that OSM is a key mediator for proliferation and anti-apoptosis of hepatocytes and suggest that osm gene therapy is useful, as preventive and curative means, for the treatment of patients with liver damage.

  6. Connexins and pannexins in liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Crespo Yanguas, Sara; Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Veloso Alves Pereira, Isabel; Cogliati, Bruno; Zaidan Dagli, Maria Lucia; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Connexins and pannexins are key players in the control of cellular communication and thus in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Inherent to this function these proteins are frequently involved in pathological processes. The present paper reviews the role of connexins and pannexins in liver toxicity and disease. As they act both as sensors and effectors in these deleterious events connexins and pannexins could represent a set of novel clinical diagnostic biomarkers and drug targets. PMID:27065778

  7. Understanding and preventing mitochondrial oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative damage has long been known to contribute to damage in conditions such as ischaemia–reperfusion (IR) injury in heart attack. Over the past years, we have developed a series of mitochondria-targeted compounds designed to ameliorate or determine how this damage occurs. I will outline some of this work, from MitoQ to the mitochondria-targeted S-nitrosating agent, called MitoSNO, that we showed was effective in preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in IR injury with therapeutic implications. In addition, the protection by this compound suggested that ROS production in IR injury was mainly coming from complex I. This led us to investigate the mechanism of the ROS production and using a metabolomic approach, we found that the ROS production in IR injury came from the accumulation of succinate during ischaemia that then drove mitochondrial ROS production by reverse electron transport at complex I during reperfusion. This surprising mechanism led us to develop further new therapeutic approaches to have an impact on the damage that mitochondrial ROS do in pathology and also to explore how mitochondrial ROS can act as redox signals. I will discuss how these approaches have led to a better understanding of mitochondrial oxidative damage in pathology and also to the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27911703

  8. 1,25-(OH){sub 2}-vitamin D{sub 3} prevents activation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro and ameliorates inflammatory liver damage but not fibrosis in the Abcb4{sup −/−} model

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, Florian P.; Hohenester, Simon; Nagel, Jutta M.; Wimmer, Ralf; Artmann, Renate; Wottke, Lena; Makeschin, Marie-Christine; Mayr, Doris; Rust, Christian; Trauner, Michael; Denk, Gerald U.

    2015-04-03

    Background/Purpose of the study: Vitamin D{sub 3}-deficiency is common in patients with chronic liver-disease and may promote disease progression. Vitamin D{sub 3}-administration has thus been proposed as a therapeutic approach. Vitamin D{sub 3} has immunomodulatory effects and may modulate autoimmune liver-disease such as primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although various mechanisms of action have been proposed, experimental evidence is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that active 1,25-(OH){sub 2}-vitamin D{sub 3} inhibits activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro and modulates liver-injury in vivo. Methods: Proliferation and activation of primary murine HSC were assessed by BrdU- and PicoGreen{sup ®}-assays, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence-microscopy, quantitative-PCR, and zymography following calcitriol-treatment. Wild-type and ATP-binding cassette transporter b4{sup −/−} (Abcb4{sup −/−})-mice received calcitriol for 4 weeks. Liver-damage, inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed by serum liver-tests, Sirius-red staining, quantitative-PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and hydroxyproline quantification. Results: In vitro, calcitriol inhibited activation and proliferation of murine HSC as shown by reduced α-smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-β-protein-levels, BrdU and PicoGreen®-assays. Furthermore, mRNA-levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 13 were profoundly increased. In vivo, calcitriol ameliorated inflammatory liver-injury reflected by reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase in Abcb4{sup −/−}-mice. In accordance, their livers had lower mRNA-levels of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 and a lower count of portal CD11b positive cells. In contrast, no effect on overall fibrosis was observed. Conclusion: Calcitriol inhibits activation and proliferation of HSCs in vitro. In Abcb4{sup −/−}-mice, administration of calcitriol ameliorates inflammatory liver-damage but has

  9. Using multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging to characterize liver damage and fluorescein disposition in liver in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Studier, Hauke; Crawford, Darrell; Roberts, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Liver disease is the fifth most common cause of death and unlike many other major causes of mortality, liver disease rates are increasing rather than decreasing. There is no ideal measurement of liver disease and although biopsies are the gold standard, this only allows for a spot examination and cannot follow dynamic processes of the liver. Intravital imaging has the potential to extract detailed information over a larger sampling area continuously. The aim of this project was to investigate whether multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy could detect early liver damage and to assess whether it could detect changes in metabolism of fluorescein in normal and diseased livers. Four experimental groups were used in this study: 1) control; 2) ischemia reperfusion injury; 3) steatosis and 4) steatosis with ischemia reperfusion injury. Results showed that multiphoton microscopy could visualize morphological changes such as decreased fluorescence of endogenous fluorophores and the presence of lipid droplets, characteristic of steatosis. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy showed increase in NADPH in steatosis with and without ischemia reperfusion injury and could detect changes in metabolism of fluorescein to fluorescein monoglurcuronide, which was impaired in steatosis with ischemia reperfusion injury. These results concluded that the combination of multiphoton microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging is a promising method of assessing early stage liver damage and that it can be used to study changes in drug metabolism in the liver as an indication of liver disease and has the potential to replace the traditional static liver biopsy currently used.

  10. The effects of melatonin on liver functions in arsenic-induced liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Bali, İlhan; Bilir, Bülent; Emir, Seyfi; Turan, Filiz; Yılmaz, Ahsen; Gökkuş, Tuba; Aydın, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objective Arsenic exposure is increasing in communities due to environmental pollution and industrial development. Arsenic is toxic to organ systems because it causes oxidative stress, enzymatic inhibition, and damage to protein structures. The liver, for example, is an organ that may be damaged by arsenic, and this damage may cause various clinical conditions like hepatic failure or cancer. Melatonin is a hormone that acts like an antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory agent, and a cytoprotective agent. In this study, we aimed to evaluate melatonin’s protective effects on livers damaged by arsenic toxicity. Materials and Methods Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats were classified into three groups: a control group, an arsenic applied group, and an arsenic plus 10 mg/kg melatonin applied group. At the end of the fifteen-day experiment, the rats were sacrificed. Albumin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), total protein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 measurements were obtained. Results In rats with liver damage due to arsenic exposure, melatonin administration significantly decreased the levels of IL-6, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (p<0.001, p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively). Conclusion After evaluating liver enzymes and inflammatory markers, this study determined that melatonin exposure improves liver tissue damage caused by arsenic exposure, with the degree of improvement varying based on the levels of arsenic exposure. PMID:28149117

  11. Dandelion-enriched diet of mothers alleviates lead-induced damages in liver of newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, M; Magné, C; Ben Amara, I; Ben Saad, H; El Feki, A

    2017-02-28

    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic metal present in the environment. It causes disturbances of several functions, including hematologic, renal, reproductive and nervous ones. Preventive or curative use of medicinal plants against these disorders may be a promising and safe therapeutic strategy. This study evaluated the hepatic toxic effects of prenatal exposure to lead in rats and the possible protective effect of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) added to the diet. Female rats were given a normal diet (control) or a diet enriched with dandelion (treated). In addition, lead acetate was administered to half of the rats through drinking water from the 5th day of gestation until the 14th day postpartum. Lead toxicity was evaluated in their offspring by measuring body and liver weights, plasma biochemical parameters, liver damage, as well as protein content and activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver tissues. Lead poisoning of mothers caused lead deposition in blood and stomach of their pups as well as hepatic tissue damages. Moreover, significant decreases in liver weight and protein content were found. Lead treatment caused oxidative stress and marked changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. However, no damages or biochemical changes were observed in puppies from the rats co-treated with lead and dandelion. These results indicate that supplementation of pregnant and lactating rats with dandelion protects their offspring against lead poisoning, likely through reduction of oxidative stress and liver damages.

  12. Liver damage with the amoxicillin-clavulanate combination.

    PubMed

    2008-02-01

    Liver damage associated with the amoxicillin-clavulanate combination is more frequent in patients over the age of 50 and during long-term treatment. It is mainly due to the clavulanic acid component of the drug. It is better to reserve this combination for infections due to bacteria that are resistant to amoxicillin.

  13. 49 CFR 195.442 - Damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damage prevention program. 195.442 Section 195.442... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.442 Damage prevention program. (a) Except as provided in paragraph... section. (1) The state has adopted a one-call damage prevention program under § 198.37 of this chapter; or...

  14. 49 CFR 192.614 - Damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damage prevention program. 192.614 Section 192.614... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.614 Damage prevention program. (a... section (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section. (1) The state has adopted a one-call damage prevention program...

  15. 49 CFR 195.442 - Damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Damage prevention program. 195.442 Section 195.442... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.442 Damage prevention program. (a) Except as provided in paragraph... section, a written program to prevent damage to that pipeline from excavation activities. For the purpose...

  16. 49 CFR 192.614 - Damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Damage prevention program. 192.614 Section 192.614... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.614 Damage prevention program. (a... carry out, in accordance with this section, a written program to prevent damage to that pipeline from...

  17. 49 CFR 195.442 - Damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Damage prevention program. 195.442 Section 195.442... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.442 Damage prevention program. (a) Except as provided in paragraph... section, a written program to prevent damage to that pipeline from excavation activities. For the...

  18. 49 CFR 192.614 - Damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Damage prevention program. 192.614 Section 192.614... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.614 Damage prevention program. (a... carry out, in accordance with this section, a written program to prevent damage to that pipeline...

  19. Hepatoprotective Activity of Heptoplus on Isoniazid and Rifampicin Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, M.; Rajkumar, Johanna; Sridhar, Dorai

    2015-01-01

    The present study is designed to evaluate the efficacy of heptoplus a polyherbal formulation as an oral supplementary agent for isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in rats. 50 and 100 mg/kg of heptoplus supplement were fed orally to the rats along with isoniazid and rifampicin and compared to rats treated with 100 mg/kg Liv 52 standard drug. Rats treated with isoniazid and rifampicin suffered from severe oxidative stress by the virtue of free radicals induced lipid per oxidation. As a result abnormal index of serum biochemical markers for liver function and increased liver lysosomal enzymes activity was observed. However rats nourished with 100 mg/kg of heptoplus and Liv 52 protected the liver from oxidative damage by maintaining normal antioxidant profile status and restored normal serum liver biochemical markers. Increased liver lysosomal enzymes activity is prevented in the rats supplemented with heptoplus and Liv 52. Histopathological analysis also revealed severe vascular changes and lobular necrosis in the treatment of isoniazid and rifampicin. Heptoplus (100 mg/kg) and Liv 52 supplemented rats liver apparently revealed normal architecture of liver. This study confirms that heptoplus has liver protective activity against Isoniazid and Rifampicin induced liver injury in rats, in par with Liv 52. PMID:26798170

  20. Techniques for preventing accidental damage to pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Lothon, A.; Akel, S.

    1996-12-31

    Following a survey of all of the techniques capable of preventing third-party damage to its gas transmission pipelines, Gaz de France has selected two of them, Electromagnetic Detection and Positioning by Satellite. The first technique is based on detection of the magnetic field existing around transmission pipes excited by a driving current. A receiver is mounted on the excavation equipment to detect the magnetic field, thereby preventing any risk of hitting the pipe. The second technique consists in locating excavators by satellite. Each excavator needs to be equipped with a GPS beacon to know its position. Using the map of the transmission network stored in data-base form, i.e., digitized, the system calculates the position of the excavator relative to the pipes buried in its vicinity so as to avoid any accidental contact. The main features, advantages and drawbacks of the two techniques are presented in this paper.

  1. Leukocyte involvement in renal reperfusion-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Khastar, Hossein; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza; Seifi, Behjat; Hadjati, Jamshid; Delavari, Fatemeh; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2011-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induces organ damage in remote organs. The aim of this study was to assess the role of leukocytes in the induction of liver damage after renal IR injury. Inbred mice were subjected to either sham operation or bilateral renal IR injury (60 min ischemia followed by 3 h reperfusion). Mice were then anesthetized for collection of leukocytes by heart puncture. Isolated leukocytes were transferred to two other groups: intact recipient mice that received leukocytes from IR mice and intact recipient mice that received leukocytes from sham-operated control mice. After 24 h, recipient mice were anesthetized and samples were collected. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and hepatic malondialdehyde increased significantly, and hepatic glutathione decreased significantly in intact recipient mice that received leukocytes from IR mice in comparison with intact recipient mice that received leukocytes from sham-operated control mice. Loss of normal liver architecture, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and focal infiltration of leukocytes were seen. These results suggest that leukocytes are one of the possible factors that contribute to liver damage after renal IR injury and this damage is partly due to the induction of oxidative stress.

  2. Experimental protoporphyria: effect of bile acids on liver damage induced by griseofulvin.

    PubMed

    Martinez, María Del Carmen; Ruspini, Silvina Fernanda; Afonso, Susana Graciela; Meiss, Roberto; Buzaleh, Ana Maria; Batlle, Alcira

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bile acids administration to an experimental mice model of Protoporphyria produced by griseofulvin (Gris) was investigated. The aim was to assess whether porphyrin excretion could be accelerated by bile acids treatment in an attempt to diminish liver damage induced by Gris. Liver damage markers, heme metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in mice treated with Gris and deoxycholic (DXA), dehydrocholic (DHA), chenodeoxycholic, or ursodeoxycholic (URSO). The administration of Gris alone increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GRed), superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as total porphyrins, glutathione (GSH), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels in liver. Among the bile acids studied, DXA and DHA increased PROTO IX excretion, DXA also abolished the action of Gris, reducing lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH and CYP levels, and the activities of GGT, AP, SOD, and GST returned to control values. However, porphyrin accumulation was not prevented by URSO; instead this bile acid reduced ALA-S and the antioxidant defense enzymes system activities. In conclusion, we postulate that DXA acid would be more effective to prevent liver damage induced by Gris.

  3. Experimental Protoporphyria: Effect of Bile Acids on Liver Damage Induced by Griseofulvin

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, María del Carmen; Ruspini, Silvina Fernanda; Afonso, Susana Graciela; Meiss, Roberto; Buzaleh, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bile acids administration to an experimental mice model of Protoporphyria produced by griseofulvin (Gris) was investigated. The aim was to assess whether porphyrin excretion could be accelerated by bile acids treatment in an attempt to diminish liver damage induced by Gris. Liver damage markers, heme metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in mice treated with Gris and deoxycholic (DXA), dehydrocholic (DHA), chenodeoxycholic, or ursodeoxycholic (URSO). The administration of Gris alone increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GRed), superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as total porphyrins, glutathione (GSH), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels in liver. Among the bile acids studied, DXA and DHA increased PROTO IX excretion, DXA also abolished the action of Gris, reducing lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH and CYP levels, and the activities of GGT, AP, SOD, and GST returned to control values. However, porphyrin accumulation was not prevented by URSO; instead this bile acid reduced ALA-S and the antioxidant defense enzymes system activities. In conclusion, we postulate that DXA acid would be more effective to prevent liver damage induced by Gris. PMID:25945334

  4. Hepatoprotective Effect of Low Doses of Caffeine on CCl4-Induced Liver Damage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cachón, Andrés Uc; Quintal-Novelo, Carlos; Medina-Escobedo, Gilberto; Castro-Aguilar, Gaspar; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2017-03-04

    Several studies have shown the hepatoprotective effect of the consumption of coffee and tea, which is mainly attributed to caffeine. Many experimental studies have demonstrated this effect; however, these studies used high caffeine doses that are not related to human consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of low doses of caffeine on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats. Low doses of caffeine (CAFF) 5 and 10 mg/kg (CAFF5 and CAFF10) were evaluated in chronic liver damage induced by CCl4 (0.75 mL/kg) in rats. CAFF treatment was administered once a day and CCl4 administration was twice weekly for 10 weeks. Liver function tests (biochemical markers) and functional (sleeping time) and histological (hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome stains) parameters were carried out at the end of damage treatment. Daily treatments of CAFF5 and CAFF10 exhibited a hepatoprotective effect supported by a decrease of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) serum activities and bilirubin serum levels compared with control and also restored serum albumin levels and liver glutathione (GSH). Moreover, CAFF prevented CCl4-induced prolongation in pentobarbital sleeping time and a decrease of liver fibrosis and cell death. Our results demonstrated that low doses of CAFF exert a hepatoprotective effect against CCl4 -induced liver damage in rats.

  5. TRPM2 channels mediate acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpezhouh, Ehsan; Ma, Linlin; Morphett, Arthur; Barritt, Greg J.; Rychkov, Grigori Y.

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most frequently used analgesic and antipyretic drug available over the counter. At the same time, acetaminophen overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure and the leading cause of chronic liver damage requiring liver transplantation in developed countries. Acetaminophen overdose causes a multitude of interrelated biochemical reactions in hepatocytes including the formation of reactive oxygen species, deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, covalent modification and oxidation of proteins, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation. Although an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in hepatocytes is a known consequence of acetaminophen overdose, its importance in acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity is not well understood, primarily due to lack of knowledge about the source of the Ca2+ rise. Here we report that the channel responsible for Ca2+ entry in hepatocytes in acetaminophen overdose is the Transient Receptor Potential Melanostatine 2 (TRPM2) cation channel. We show by whole-cell patch clamping that treatment of hepatocytes with acetaminophen results in activation of a cation current similar to that activated by H2O2 or the intracellular application of ADP ribose. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TRPM2 in hepatocytes inhibits activation of the current by either acetaminophen or H2O2. In TRPM2 knockout mice, acetaminophen-induced liver damage, assessed by the blood concentration of liver enzymes and liver histology, is significantly diminished compared with wild-type mice. The presented data strongly suggest that TRPM2 channels are essential in the mechanism of acetaminophen-induced hepatocellular death. PMID:24569808

  6. [Prevention in general practice: what is dangerous for liver cells?].

    PubMed

    Riemann, J F

    1978-11-16

    The liver is engaged in detoxication and elimination of toxic-nutritional foreign material. In addition it is of high affinity to viruses and parasites. Different influences may cause pathological reactions, which are of great consequence to the normal and even more to the previously damaged liver. In general, interactions and cumulative effects of different toxic agents occur. The increase of chronic hepatic disorders in the last years has to be noticed considering economic and social medical aspects. At the first place of agents with a toxic effect to the liver there is alcohol, followed by hyperalimentation and malnutrition. Numerous drugs with different reactions to liver morphology, liver impairment caused by environmental influences and infections retain further places. Prophylaxis and therapy of toxic-nutritional liver damage is based on recognition and elimination of the noxes. Patients with chronic liver disease need a special management and consultation by their physician.

  7. Prevention of oxidative DNA damage in rats by brussels sprouts.

    PubMed

    Deng, X S; Tuo, J; Poulsen, H E; Loft, S

    1998-03-01

    The alleged cancer preventive effects of cruciferous vegetables could be related to protection from mutagenic oxidative DNA damage. We have studied the effects of Brussels sprouts, some non-cruciferous vegetables and isolated glucosinolates on spontaneous and induced oxidative DNA damage in terms of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in groups of 6-8 male Wistar rats. Excess oxidative DNA damage was induced by 2-nitropropane (2-NP 100 mg/kg). Four days oral administration of 3 g of cooked Brussels sprouts homogenate reduced the spontaneous urinary 8-oxodG excretion by 31% (p<0.05) whereas raw sprouts, beans and endive (1:1), isolated indolyl glucosinolates and breakdown products had no significant effect. An aqueous extract of cooked Brussels sprouts (corresponding to 6.7 g vegetable per day for 4 days) decreased the spontaneous 8-oxodG excretion from 92 +/- 12 to 52 +/- 15 pmol/24 h (p<0.05). After 2-NP administration the 8-oxodG excretion was increased to 132 +/- 26 pmol/24 h (p<0.05) whereas pretreatment with the sprouts extract reduced this to 102 +/- 30 pmol/24 h (p<0.05). The spontaneous level of 8-oxodG in nuclear DNA from liver and bone marrow was not significantly affected by the sprouts extract whereas the level decreased by 27% in the kidney (p<0.05). In the liver 2-NP increased the 8-oxodG levels in nuclear DNA 8.7 and 3.8 times (p<0.05) 6 and 24 h after dose, respectively. The sprouts extract reduced this increase by 57% (p<0.05) at 6 h whereas there was no significant effect at 24 h. In the kidneys 2-NP increased the 8-oxodG levels 2.2 and 1.2 times (p<0.05) 6 and 24 h after dose, respectively. Pretreatment with the sprouts extract abolished these increases (p<0.05). Similarly, in the bone marrow the extract protected completely (p<0.05) against a 4.9-fold 2-NP induced increase (p<0.05) in the 8-oxodG level. These findings demonstrate that cooked Brussels sprouts contain bioactive substance(s) with a potential for reducing the physiological

  8. Impact of Propionic Acid on Liver Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al- Daihan, Sooad; Shafi Bhat, Ramesa

    2015-01-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is a short chain fatty acid, a common food preservative and metabolic end product of enteric bacteria in the gut. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of PA on liver injury in male rats. Male western albino rats were divided into two groups. The first group served as normal control, the second was treated with PA. The activities of serum hepatospecific markers such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase were estimated. Antioxidant status in liver tissues was estimated by determining the level of lipid peroxidation and activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Sodium and potassium levels were also measured in liver tissue. PA treatment caused significant changes in all hepatospecific markers. Biochemical analysis of liver homogenates from PA-treated rats showed an increase in oxidative stress markers like lipid peroxidation and lactate dehydrogenase, coupled with a decrease in glutathione, vitamin C and glutathione S- transferase. However, PA exposure caused no change in sodium and potassium levels in liver tissue. Our study demonstrated that PA persuade hepatic damage in rats. PMID:26629488

  9. Green tea extract (Camellia sinensis) fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum attenuates alcohol-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Ho; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun

    2012-01-01

    Here, the impact of an extract derived from green tea (Camellia sinensis) and fermentation with Lactobacilli fermentum strain OCS19 was explored with acute alcohol-induced liver damage. The study employed the HepG2 hepatic cell line and an in vivo murine model of liver damage. L. fermentum-fermented green tea extract (FGTE) was found to possess pronounced alcohol metabolizing enzyme activity. It significantly enhanced the cell viability of HepG2 cells following of them exposure, to ethanol (p<0.05) as compared with an extract derived from Hovenia dulcis, a positive control that is known for its action as an alcohol antagonist. Our in vivo studies indicated that prior administration of FGTE to alcohol-exposed mice significantly prevented subsequent increases in blood alcohol concentration (p<0.05), in addition to the induction of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and triglycerides (p<0.05). Furthermore, the activity of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and its mRNA expression level both increased in the livers of mice treated with FGTE, similarly to the H. dulcis-treated group. Taken together, these results may suggest that green tea extract coupled with L. fermentum fermentation attenuates the risk of ethanol-induced liver damage.

  10. Nesfatin-1 alleviates extrahepatic cholestatic damage of liver in rats

    PubMed Central

    Solmaz, Ali; Gülçiçek, Osman Bilgin; Erçetin, Candaş; Yiğitbaş, Hakan; Yavuz, Erkan; Arıcı, Sinan; Erzik, Can; Zengi, Oğuzhan; Demirtürk, Pelin; Çelik, Atilla; Çelebi, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice (OJ) can be defined as cessation of bile flow into the small intestine due to benign or malignant changes. Nesfatin-1, recently discovered anorexigenic peptide derived from nucleobindin-2 in hypothalamic nuclei, was shown to have anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. This study is aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of nesfatin-1 on OJ in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar-Hannover rats were randomly assigned to three groups: sham (n = 8), control (n = 8), and nesfatin (n = 8). After bile duct ligation, the study groups were treated with saline or nesfatin-1, for 10 days. Afterward, blood and liver tissue samples were obtained for biochemical analyses, measurement of cytokines, determination of the oxidative DNA damage, DNA fragmentation, and histopathologic analyses. Alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels were decreased after the nesfatin treatment; however, these drops were statistically non-significant compared to control group (p = 0.345, p = 0.114). Malondialdehyde levels decreased significantly in nesfatin group compared to control group (p = 0.032). Decreases in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels from the liver tissue samples were not statistically significant in nesfatin group compared to control group. The level of oxidative DNA damage was lower in nesfatin group, however this result was not statistically significant (p = 0.75). DNA fragmentation results of all groups were similar. Histopathological examination revealed that there was less neutrophil infiltration, edema, bile duct proliferation, hepatocyte necrosis, basement membrane damage, and parenchymal necrosis in nesfatin compared to control group. The nesfatin-1 treatment could alleviate cholestatic liver damage caused by OJ due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. PMID:27524109

  11. Liver resection for cancer: New developments in prediction, prevention and management of postresectional liver failure.

    PubMed

    van Mierlo, Kim M C; Schaap, Frank G; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Olde Damink, Steven W M

    2016-12-01

    Hepatic failure is a feared complication that accounts for up to 75% of mortality after extensive liver resection. Despite improved perioperative care, the increasing complexity and extensiveness of surgical interventions, in combination with an expanding number of resections in patients with compromised liver function, still results in an incidence of postresectional liver failure (PLF) of 1-9%. Preventive measures aim to enhance future remnant liver size and function. Numerous non-invasive techniques to assess liver function and predict remnant liver volume are being developed, along with introduction of novel surgical strategies that augment growth of the future remnant liver. Detection of PLF is often too late and treatment is primarily symptomatic. Current therapeutic research focuses on ([bio]artificial) liver function support and regenerative medicine. In this review we discuss the current state and new developments in prediction, prevention and management of PLF, in light of novel insights into the aetiology of this complex syndrome.

  12. Liver regeneration microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma for prevention and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanmin; Zhang, Lisheng

    2017-01-01

    Research on liver cancer prevention and treatment has mainly focused on the liver cancer cells themselves. Currently, liver cancers are no longer viewed as only collections of genetically altered cells but as aberrant organs with a plastic stroma, matrix, and vasculature. Improving the microenvironment of the liver to promote liver regeneration and repair by affecting immune function, inflammation and vasculature can regulate the dynamic imbalance between normal liver regeneration and repair and abnormal liver regeneration, thus improving the microenvironment of liver regeneration for the prevention and treatment of liver cancer. This review addresses the basic theory of the liver regeneration microenvironment, including the latest findings on immunity, inflammation and vasculature. Attention is given to the potential design of molecular targets in the microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In an effort to improve the liver regeneration microenvironment of HCC, researchers have extensively utilized the enhancement of immunity, anti-inflammation and the vasculature niche, which are discussed in detail in this review. In addition, the authors summarize the latest pro-fibrotic transition characteristics of the vascular niche and review potential cell therapies for liver disease. PMID:27655683

  13. Stellate Cells Orchestrate Concanavalin A-Induced Acute Liver Damage.

    PubMed

    Rani, Richa; Tandon, Ashish; Wang, Jiang; Kumar, Sudhir; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R

    2017-09-01

    Concanavalin A (ConA) causes immune cell-mediated liver damage, but the contribution of resident nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) is also evident. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) induce hepatic inflammation and immunological reactions; we therefore investigated their role in ConA-induced liver injury. ConA was administered i.v. to control or HSC-depleted mice; hepatic histopathology and cytokines/chemokines were determined after 6 hours. In vitro, effects of ConA-conditioned HSC medium on hepatocytes were determined. ConA induced inflammation, sinusoidal congestion, and extensive midzonal hepatocyte death in control mice, which were strongly minimized in HSC-depleted mice. CD4 and natural killer T cells and neutrophils were markedly reduced in ConA-treated HSC-depleted mice compared with control mice. The increase in cytokines/chemokines of hepatic injury was much higher in ConA-treated control mice than in HSC-depleted mice. ConA-treated HSCs showed increased expression of interferon-β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and CXCL1, induced oxidative stress in hepatocytes, and caused hepatocyte apoptosis. ConA induced nuclear translocation of interferon-regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) in hepatocytes in vivo, and ConA/HSC induced a similar effect in cultured hepatocytes. IRF1-knockout mice were resistant to ConA-induced liver damage, and anti-interferon β antibody mitigated ConA/HSC-induced injury. In HSC-NPC co-culture, ConA-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines was significantly augmented compared with NPCs alone. HSCs play an essential role in ConA-induced liver injury directly via the interferon-β/IRF1 axis, and by modulating properties of NPCs. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cryoglobulinemia in chronic liver diseases: role of hepatitis C virus and liver damage.

    PubMed

    Lunel, F; Musset, L; Cacoub, P; Frangeul, L; Cresta, P; Perrin, M; Grippon, P; Hoang, C; Valla, D; Piette, J C

    1994-05-01

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia is frequently associated with liver diseases. The respective role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and liver damage in the pathogenesis of cryoglobulinemia is investigated in this study. The prevalence of cryoglobulinemia in 226 consecutive patients with chronic liver diseases (hepatitis C, 127; hepatitis B, 40; other diseases, 59) was studied, and the epidemiological, biological, histological, and virological features in these three groups were analyzed. Anti-HCV antibodies, HCV proteins, and HCV RNA were searched in the cryoprecipitates. The prevalence of mixed cryoglobulinemia was high (41.5%) in patients with liver diseases and higher in patients with hepatitis C (54.3%) than in patients with hepatitis B (15%) or other causes of liver disease (32%). Patients with cryoglobulinemia had cirrhosis more frequently and had a longer history of hepatitis. In patients with hepatitis C, HCV RNA sequences and HCV proteins were detected in the cryoprecipitate. Cryoglobulins became undetectable in 21 of 43 patients treated with interferon. These findings suggest that HCV is a major cause of cryoglobulinemia. Besides viral infection itself, multiple factors appear to be responsible for the production of cryoglobulins, including cirrhosis and duration of liver disease.

  15. New perspectives for preventing hepatitis C virus liver graft infection.

    PubMed

    Felmlee, Daniel J; Coilly, Audrey; Chung, Raymond T; Samuel, Didier; Baumert, Thomas F

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease that necessitates liver transplantation. The incidence of virus-induced cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase, making liver transplantation increasingly common. Infection of the engrafted liver is universal and accelerates progression to advanced liver disease, with 20-30% of patients having cirrhosis within 5 years of transplantation. Treatments of chronic HCV infection have improved dramatically, albeit with remaining challenges of failure and access, and therapeutic options to prevent graft infection during liver transplantation are emerging. Developments in directed use of new direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) to eliminate circulating HCV before or after transplantation in the past 5 years provide renewed hope for prevention and treatment of liver graft infection. Identification of the ideal regimen and use of DAAs reveals new ways to treat this specific population of patients. Complementing DAAs, viral entry inhibitors have been shown to prevent liver graft infection in animal models and delay graft infection in clinical trials, which shows their potential for use concomitant to transplantation. We review the challenges and pathology associated with HCV liver graft infection, highlight current and future strategies of DAA treatment timing, and discuss the potential role of entry inhibitors that might be used synergistically with DAAs to prevent or treat graft infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A synthetic biology-based device prevents liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Bai, Peng; Ye, Haifeng; Xie, Mingqi; Saxena, Pratik; Zulewski, Henryk; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Djonov, Valentin; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The liver performs a panoply of complex activities coordinating metabolic, immunologic and detoxification processes. Despite the liver's robustness and unique self-regeneration capacity, viral infection, autoimmune disorders, fatty liver disease, alcohol abuse and drug-induced hepatotoxicity contribute to the increasing prevalence of liver failure. Liver injuries impair the clearance of bile acids from the hepatic portal vein which leads to their spill over into the peripheral circulation where they activate the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor TGR5 to initiate a variety of hepatoprotective processes. By functionally linking activation of ectopically expressed TGR5 to an artificial promoter controlling transcription of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), we created a closed-loop synthetic signalling network that coordinated liver injury-associated serum bile acid levels to expression of HGF in a self-sufficient, reversible and dose-dependent manner. After implantation of genetically engineered human cells inside auto-vascularizing, immunoprotective and clinically validated alginate-poly-(L-lysine)-alginate beads into mice, the liver-protection device detected pathologic serum bile acid levels and produced therapeutic HGF levels that protected the animals from acute drug-induced liver failure. Genetically engineered cells containing theranostic gene circuits that dynamically interface with host metabolism may provide novel opportunities for preventive, acute and chronic healthcare. Liver diseases leading to organ failure may go unnoticed as they do not trigger any symptoms or significant discomfort. We have designed a synthetic gene circuit that senses excessive bile acid levels associated with liver injuries and automatically produces a therapeutic protein in response. When integrated into mammalian cells and implanted into mice, the circuit detects the onset of liver injuries and coordinates the production of a protein pharmaceutical which prevents liver

  17. Effective protection of Terminalia catappa L. leaves from damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinhui; Gao, Jing; Wang, Yanping; Fan, Yi-Mei; Xu, Li-Zhi; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Xu, Qiang; Qian, Zhong Ming

    2006-03-01

    The protective effects of chloroform extracts of Terminalia catappa L. leaves (TCCE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage and the possible mechanisms involved in the protection were investigated in mice. We found that increases in the activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and the level of liver lipid peroxidation (2.0-fold, 5.7-fold and 2.8-fold) induced by CCl4 were significantly inhibited by oral pretreatment with 20, 50 or 100 mg/kg of TCCE. Morphological observation further confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of TCCE. In addition, the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (14.8%), intramitochondrial Ca2+ overload (2.1-fold) and suppression of mitochondrial Ca2+-ATPase activity (42.0%) in the liver of CCl4-insulted mice were effectively prevented by pretreatment with TCCE. It can be concluded that TCCE have protective activities against liver mitochondrial damage induced by CCl4, which suggests a new mechanism of the hepatoprotective effects of TCCE.

  18. Significance of liver biopsy for the evaluation of methotrexate-induced liver damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Osuga, Tatsuya; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Kadota, Chikara; Hirano, Seiichi; Iwai, Yasuhiro; Hayakumo, Takanobu

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that long-term administration of methotrexate (MTX) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can induce liver fibrosis via a steatohepatitis-like inflammatory process. Several non-invasive tests have been investigated as alternatives to liver biopsy, which is, however, still recognized as a final diagnostic modality to detect the MTX-induced liver damage. To clarify whether there is a significant discrepancy between clinical estimations and pathologic findings of this hepatic condition, we performed a following comparative study. Four RA patients (4 women, age 67-80 yr) with MTX-induced liver damage were reviewed. The severity of hepatic damage estimated clinically was compared with histopathologic findings. Consequently, the liver biopsies showed the relatively earlier stages of and milder degrees of hepatic damages than the clinical estimations. The histopathologic findings were more reliable and useful than any other clinical examinations, to plan and modify the treatment strategies, especially in cases of liver damages with multiple etiologies besides MTX. These findings suggest that liver biopsy is an unavoidable examination to assess precisely MTX-induced liver damage. Non-invasive tests may be useful to monitor the hepatic condition of RA patients receiving MTX but do not constitute an acceptable alternative to liver biopsy. PMID:25973089

  19. Protective effect of curcumin against heavy metals-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2014-07-01

    Occupational or environmental exposures to heavy metals produce several adverse health effects. The common mechanism determining their toxicity and carcinogenicity is the generation of oxidative stress that leads to hepatic damage. In addition, oxidative stress induced by metal exposure leads to the activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1/antioxidant response elements (Nrf2/Keap1/ARE) pathway. Since antioxidant and chelating agents are generally used for the treatment of heavy metals poisoning, this review is focused on the protective role of curcumin against liver injury induced by heavy metals. Curcumin has shown, in clinical and preclinical studies, numerous biological activities including therapeutic efficacy against various human diseases and anti-hepatotoxic effects against environmental or occupational toxins. Curcumin reduces the hepatotoxicity induced by arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and mercury, prevents histological injury, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) depletion, maintains the liver antioxidant enzyme status and protects against mitochondrial dysfunction. The preventive effect of curcumin on the noxious effects induced by heavy metals has been attributed to its scavenging and chelating properties, and/or to the ability to induce the Nrf2/Keap1/ARE pathway. However, additional research is needed in order to propose curcumin as a potential protective agent against liver damage induced by heavy metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Lai, M.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Lin, J.M.; Chiang, J.R.; Shiau, S.J.; Chang, W.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Prevalence of liver injury associated with dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure was determined. Medical examinations, liver function tests, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations were performed on 183 of 204 (76%) employees of a synthetic leather factory. Air concentrations of solvents were measured with personal samplers and gas chromatography. The concentration of DMF in air to which each worker was exposed was categorized. High exposure concentrations of DMF (i.e., 25-60 ppm) were significantly associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT greater than or equal to 35 IU/l), a result that did not change even after stratification by hepatitis B carrier status. Modeling by logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DMF was associated with an elevated ALT (p = .01), whereas hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was slightly but independently associated with an elevated ALT (p = .07). In those workers who had normal ALT values, there occurred still significantly higher mean ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, especially among those who were not HBsAg carriers. A significant association existed between elevated CPK levels and exposure to DMF. However, an analysis of the CPK isoenzyme among 143 workers did not reveal any specific damage to muscles. This outbreak of liver injury among synthetic leather workers is ascribed to DMF. It is recommended that the occupational standard for DMF and its toxicity among HBsAg carriers be evaluated further.

  1. Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in Male and Female Army Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    intervention, an Army-specific video, and the comparison nutrition , fitness and injury prevention intervention. Based on our focus group discussions, it is...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0159 TITLE: Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in...NUMBER Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in Male and Female Army Recruits 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0159 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  2. Commensal microbiota is hepatoprotective and prevents liver fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mazagova, Magdalena; Wang, Lirui; Anfora, Andrew T.; Wissmueller, Max; Lesley, Scott A.; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Eckmann, Lars; Dhungana, Suraj; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Sumner, Susan; Westwater, Caroline; Brenner, David A.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Translocation of bacteria and their products across the intestinal barrier is common in patients with liver disease, and there is evidence that experimental liver fibrosis depends on bacterial translocation. The purpose of our study was to investigate liver fibrosis in conventional and germ-free (GF) C57BL/6 mice. Chronic liver injury was induced by administration of thioacetamide (TAA) in the drinking water for 21 wk or by repeated intraperitoneal injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Increased liver fibrosis was observed in GF mice compared with conventional mice. Hepatocytes showed more toxin-induced oxidative stress and cell death. This was accompanied by increased activation of hepatic stellate cells, but hepatic mediators of inflammation were not significantly different. Similarly, a genetic model using Myd88/Trif-deficient mice, which lack downstream innate immunity signaling, had more severe fibrosis than wild-type mice. Isolated Myd88/Trif-deficient hepatocytes were more susceptible to toxin-induced cell death in culture. In conclusion, the commensal microbiota prevents fibrosis upon chronic liver injury in mice. This is the first study describing a beneficial role of the commensal microbiota in maintaining liver homeostasis and preventing liver fibrosis.—Mazagova, M., Wang, L., Anfora, A. T., Wissmueller, M., Lesley, S. A., Miyamoto, Y., Eckmann, L., Dhungana, S., Pathmasiri, W., Sumner, S., Westwater, C., Brenner, D. A., Schnabl, B. Commensal microbiota is hepatoprotective and prevents liver fibrosis in mice. PMID:25466902

  3. New perspectives for preventing hepatitis C virus liver graft infection

    PubMed Central

    Felmlee, Daniel J.; Coilly, Audrey; Chung, Raymond T.; Samuel, Didier; Baumert, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease that necessitates liver transplantation. The incidence of virus-induced cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase, making liver transplantation increasingly common1–3. Infection of the engrafted liver is universal and increases progression to advanced liver disease, with 20–30% displaying cirrhosis within 5 years. While treatments of chronic HCV infection have improved dramatically, albeit with remaining challenges of failure and access, therapeutic options to prevent graft infection during liver transplantation are emerging. Recent developments in directed use of novel direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents4–6 to eliminate circulating HCV prior or following transplantation bring renewed hope for prevention and treatment of liver graft infection. Identifying the ideal regimen and use of DAAs reveals new paradigms of treatment for this special population6–8. Complementing DAAs, entry inhibitors have been shown to prevent liver graft infection in animal models9–13 and delay graft infection in clinical trials14, providing a perspective to be used concomitant to transplantation. We review the challenges and pathology associated with HCV liver graft infection, highlight current and future strategies of DAA treatment timing, and discuss the potential role of entry inhibitors that might be employed synergistically with DAAs to inhibit graft infection. PMID:27301929

  4. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting–refeeding process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon No; Dutta, Raghbendra Kumar; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Yoo, Kyeong-Won; Song, Seung Ryel; Park, Do-Sim; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •A fasting–refeeding high fat diet (HDF) model mimics irregular eating habit. •A fasting–refeeding HFD induces liver ballooning injury. •A fasting–refeeding HDF process elicits hepatic triglyceride accumulation. •Fenofibrate, PPARα ligand, prevents liver damage induced by refeeding HFD. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24 h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determined by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24 h. Also, NF-κB is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-α, IL1-β, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting–refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-κB target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting–refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation.

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of pecan nut shells on ethanol-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Müller, Liz Girardi; Pase, Camila Simonetti; Reckziegel, Patrícia; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Boufleur, Nardeli; Prado, Ana Cristina P; Fett, Roseane; Block, Jane Mara; Pavanato, Maria Amália; Bauermann, Liliane F; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the shells of pecan nut was investigated against ethanol-induced liver damage. This by-product of the food industry is popularly used to treat toxicological diseases. We evaluated the phytochemical properties of pecan shell aqueous extract (AE) and its in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant activity. The AE was found to have a high content of total polyphenols (192.4±1.9 mg GAE/g), condensed tannins (58.4±2.2 mg CE/g), and antioxidant capacity, and it inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation (LP) in vitro. Rats chronically treated with ethanol (Et) had increased plasmatic transaminases (ALT, AST) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels (96%, 59.13% and 465.9%, respectively), which were effectively prevented (87; 41 and 383%) by the extract (1:40, w/v). In liver, ethanol consumption increased the LP (121%) and decreased such antioxidant defenses as glutathione (GSH) (33%) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (47%) levels, causing genotoxicity in erythrocytes. Treatment with pecan shell AE prevented the development of LP (43%), GSH and SOD depletion (33% and 109%, respectively) and ethanol-induced erythrocyte genotoxicity. Catalase activity in the liver was unchanged by ethanol but was increased by the extract (47% and 73% in AE and AE+Et, respectively). Therefore, pecan shells may be an economic agent to treat liver diseases related to ethanol consumption.

  6. Frequently mutated genes/pathways and genomic instability as prevention targets in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chinthalapally V; Asch, Adam S; Yamada, Hiroshi Y

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of liver cancer has increased in recent years. Worldwide, liver cancer is common: more than 600000 related deaths are estimated each year. In the USA, about 27170 deaths due to liver cancer are estimated for 2016. Liver cancer is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For all stages combined, the 5-year survival rate is 15-17%, leaving much to be desired for liver cancer prevention and therapy. Heterogeneity, which can originate from genomic instability, is one reason for poor outcome. About 80-90% of liver cancers are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and recent cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed frequently mutated genes in HCC. In this review, we discuss the cause of the tumor heterogeneity based on the functions of genes that are frequently mutated in HCC. We overview the functions of the genes that are most frequently mutated (e.g. TP53, CTNNB1, AXIN1, ARID1A and WWP1) that portray major pathways leading to HCC and identify the roles of these genes in preventing genomic instability. Notably, the pathway analysis suggested that oxidative stress management may be critical to prevent accumulation of DNA damage and further mutations. We propose that both chromosome instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MIN) are integral to the hepatic carcinogenesis process leading to heterogeneity in HCC and that the pathways leading to heterogeneity may be targeted for prognosis, prevention and treatment.

  7. Efficacy of urine bile acid as a non-invasive indicator of liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Hiroshi; Kudo, Naomi; Kawashima, Yoichi; Mitsumoto, Atsushi

    2009-02-01

    Estimation of liver damage is important in the pathophysiological and toxicological study of liver disease. As a novel, non-invasive marker of liver damage, we studied the efficacy of urine bile acids (UBA) in a rat model of liver disease. Thioacetamide (TAA)-treated rats were used in this study. Single intraperitoneal administration of high-dose TAA induces severe damage to the liver, and thus is used as a model of acute hepatitis. Continuous administration of low-dose TAA yields mild damage to the liver, and induces cirrhosis and hepatic tumors. In this study, it was found that both acute and chronic administration of TAA was associated with a dose-dependent elevation of UBA. The elevation of UBA content correlated with the alteration of blood biochemical indicators, and UBA screening showed a remarkable ability to distinguish liver-damaged rats from healthy rats. In particular, UBA analysis was found to have high sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for the screening of rats with abnormal serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity due to chronic liver damage, which was confirmed to include cholestasis and subsequent cirrhosis by liver histological analysis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that measurement of UBA is a simple, non-invasive and effective method for the screening of cholestasis in TAA-treated rats. We suggest that UBA analysis may have potent applicability for monitoring the progress of liver damage in animal models of chronic liver disease, such as cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy.

  8. Uridine prevents tamoxifen-induced liver lipid droplet accumulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen, an agonist of estrogen receptor, is widely prescribed for the prevention and long-term treatment of breast cancer. A side effect of tamoxifen is fatty liver, which increases the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Prevention of tamoxifen-induced fatty liver has the potential to improve the safety of long-term tamoxifen usage. Methods Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside with reported protective effects against drug-induced fatty liver, was co-administered with tamoxifen in C57BL/6J mice. Liver lipid levels were evaluated with lipid visualization using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scatting (CARS) microscopy, biochemical assay measurement of triacylglyceride (TAG), and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurement of membrane phospholipid. Blood TAG and cholesterol levels were measured. Mitochondrial respiration of primary hepatocytes in the presence of tamoxifen and/or uridine was evaluated by measuring oxygen consumption rate with an extracellular flux analyzer. Liver protein lysine acetylation profiles were evaluated with 1D and 2D Western blots. In addition, the relationship between endogenous uridine levels, fatty liver, and tamoxifen administration was evaluated in transgenic mice UPase1−/−and UPase1-TG. Results Uridine co-administration prevented tamoxifen-induced liver lipid droplet accumulation in mice. The most prominent effect of uridine co-administration with tamoxifen was the stimulation of liver membrane phospholipid biosynthesis. Uridine had no protective effect against tamoxifen-induced impairment to mitochondrial respiration of primary hepatocytes or liver TAG and cholesterol export. Uridine had no effect on tamoxifen-induced changes to liver protein acetylation profile. Transgenic mice UPase1−/−with increased pyrimidine salvage activity were protected against tamoxifen-induced liver lipid droplet accumulation. In contrast, UPase1-TG mice with increased pyrimidine catabolism activity had

  9. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  10. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-10

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  11. Preventing Arc Welding From Damaging Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Noel; Mareen, D.

    1988-01-01

    Shielding technique developed to protect sensitive electronic equipment from damage due to electromagnetic disturbances produced by arc welding. Established acceptable alternative in instances in which electronic equipment cannot be removed prior to arc welding. Guidelines established for open, unshielded welds. Procedure applicable to robotics or computer-aided manufacturing.

  12. Fine-particle filter prevents damage to vacuum pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlamert, P., Jr.

    1964-01-01

    A filter system for mechanical pumps is designed with a baffle assembly that rotates in a circulating oil bath which traps destructive particles. This prevents severe damage to the pump and is serviceable for long periods before it requires cleaning.

  13. N-Acetyl cysteine and erdosteine treatment in acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Saritas, Ayhan; Kandis, Hayati; Baltaci, Davut; Yildirim, Umran; Kaya, Halil; Karakus, Ali; Colakoglu, Serdar; Memisogullari, Ramazan; Kara, Ismail Hamdi

    2014-08-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the efficacy of erdosteine usage in acetaminophen-induced liver damage and to compare it with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in the treatment and prevention of liver toxicity due to overdose of acetaminophen. The rats were separated into the following six groups of seven rats each: control group; acetaminophen (1 g/kg, orally); acetaminophen (1 g/kg, orally) + erdosteine (150 mg/kg/day, orally); acetaminophen (1 g/kg, orally) + NAC (140 mg/kg loading dose, followed by 70 mg/kg, orally); NAC (140 mg/kg loading dose, followed by 70 mg/kg, orally); erdosteine (150 mg/kg/kg, orally), subsequently. In all the groups, potential liver injuries were evaluated using biochemical and hematological analyses, oxidant-antioxidant parameters and histopathological parameters. In acetaminophen-treated group, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total oxidant status (TOS) in the blood, prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) were significantly increased when compared with controls. However, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased in group treated with acetaminophen, when compared with control group. Levels of AST, ALT and TOS, PT and INR were decreased in groups treated with NAC and erdosteine after acetaminophen administration, but the levels of TAC and GSH were increased. Histopathological improvements were observed in the groups treated with NAC and erdosteine after acetaminophen administration. The present study demonstrated that, in the prevention of liver damage induced by acetaminophen intoxication, an early treatment with a single dose of erdosteine was beneficial instead of NAC administration. © The Author(s) 2012.

  14. Preventing Ultraviolet Light-Induced Damage: The Benefits of Antioxidants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Cheng-Wai

    2007-01-01

    Extracts of fruit peels contain antioxidants that protect the bacterium "Escherichia coli" against damage induced by ultraviolet light. Antioxidants neutralise free radicals, thus preventing oxidative damage to cells and deoxyribonucleic acid. A high survival rate of UV-exposed cells was observed when grapefruit or grape peel extract was…

  15. Preventing Ultraviolet Light-Induced Damage: The Benefits of Antioxidants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Cheng-Wai

    2007-01-01

    Extracts of fruit peels contain antioxidants that protect the bacterium "Escherichia coli" against damage induced by ultraviolet light. Antioxidants neutralise free radicals, thus preventing oxidative damage to cells and deoxyribonucleic acid. A high survival rate of UV-exposed cells was observed when grapefruit or grape peel extract was…

  16. DNA damage response and sphingolipid signaling in liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Yasunobu; Moro, Kazuki; Tsuchida, Junko; Soma, Daiki; Hirose, Yuki; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Takabe, Kazuaki; Komatsu, Masaaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cannot generally be cured by systemic chemotherapy or radiotherapy due to their poor response to conventional therapeutic agents. The development of novel and efficient targeted therapies to increase their treatment options depends on the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of HCC. The DNA damage response (DDR) is a network of cell-signaling events that are triggered by DNA damage. Its dysregulation is thought to be one of the key mechanisms underlying the generation of HCC. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator, has emerged as an important signaling molecule that has been found to be involved in many cellular functions. In the liver, the alteration of S1P signaling potentially affects the DDR pathways. In this review, we explore the role of the DDR in hepatocarcinogenesis of various etiologies, including hepatitis B and C infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Furthermore, we discuss the metabolism and functions of S1P that may affect the hepatic DDR. The elucidation of the pathogenic role of S1P may create new avenues of research into therapeutic strategies for patients with HCC. PMID:26514817

  17. Genistein attenuates D-GalN induced liver fibrosis/chronic liver damage in rats by blocking the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ganai, Ajaz Ahmad; Husain, Mohammad

    2017-01-05

    Genistein is a major isoflavonoid abundantly found in soy. Earlier genistein has been reported to possess protective effect against a multitude of disorders including cancer. Previously we demonstrated the protective effects of Genistein in d-Galactosamine (D-GalN) induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in rats. In present study, we evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of Genistein in rat model of chronic liver damage and liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of D-GalN (250 mg/kg BW) twice a week for 12 weeks. Genistein (5 mg/kg BW) was given via intra-gastric route as co-treatment daily for 12 weeks. Genistein co-treatment significantly attenuated D-GalN-induced chronic liver damage and liver fibrosis as evident from a significant amelioration in functional impairment, including inhibition of the activation of Hepatic stellate cells (HSC), decreased expression in alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and accumulation of collagen matrix, and an elevation in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) level. In addition Genistein co-treatment was associated with elevated expression of hepatic Smad7, which ultimately blunts the expression of TGF-β and the activation of TGF-β/Smad signaling. Furthermore Genistein significantly prevented the histopathological changes induced by D-GalN. Our results suggest that Genistein could be a novel therapeutic/nutraceutical agent in treating chronic liver damage and liver fibrosis. In addition our study also suggests a possible mechanism of action in which Smad7-induced inhibition of TGF-β/Smad2/3 can be a central mechanism by which Genistein protects liver from chronic injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation-Induced Liver Damage: Correlation of Histopathology with Hepatobiliary Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Seidensticker, Max; Burak, Miroslaw; Kalinski, Thomas; Garlipp, Benjamin; Koelble, Konrad; Wust, Peter; Antweiler, Kai; Seidensticker, Ricarda; Mohnike, Konrad; Pech, Maciej; Ricke, Jens

    2015-02-15

    PurposeRadiotherapy of liver malignancies shows promising results (radioembolization, stereotactic irradiation, interstitial brachytherapy). Regardless of the route of application, a certain amount of nontumorous liver parenchyma will be collaterally damaged by radiation. The functional reserve may be significantly reduced with an impact on further treatment planning. Monitoring of radiation-induced liver damage by imaging is neither established nor validated. We performed an analysis to correlate the histopathological presence of radiation-induced liver damage with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing hepatobiliary contrast media (Gd-BOPTA).MethodsPatients undergoing local high-dose-rate brachytherapy for whom a follow-up hepatobiliary MRI within 120 days after radiotherapy as well as an evaluable liver biopsy from radiation-exposed liver tissue within 7 days before MRI were retrospectively identified. Planning computed tomography (CT)/dosimetry was merged to the CT-documentation of the liver biopsy and to the MRI. Presence/absence of radiation-induced liver damage (histopathology) and Gd-BOPTA uptake (MRI) as well as the dose applied during brachytherapy at the site of tissue sampling was determined.ResultsFourteen biopsies from eight patients were evaluated. In all cases with histopathological evidence of radiation-induced liver damage (n = 11), no uptake of Gd-BOPTA was seen. In the remaining three, cases no radiation-induced liver damage but Gd-BOPTA uptake was seen. Presence of radiation-induced liver damage and absence of Gd-BOPTA uptake was correlated with a former high-dose exposition.ConclusionsAbsence of hepatobiliary MRI contrast media uptake in radiation-exposed liver parenchyma may indicate radiation-induced liver damage. Confirmatory studies are warranted.

  19. Obesity and the extent of liver damage among adult New Zealanders: findings from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J. C.; Gray, A. R.; Schultz, M.; Mann, J. I.; Parnell, W. R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as excessive fat accumulation in hepatocytes when no other pathologic causes are present, is an increasingly common obesity‐related disorder. We sought to describe the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes, a marker of liver damage, among New Zealand adults, and high‐risk subgroups including those with an elevated body mass index and those with pre‐diabetes or diabetes, to gain a better understanding of the burden of liver disease. Methods A total of 4,721 New Zealanders aged 15+ years participated in a nationally representative nutrition survey. Liver enzymes, alanine transaminase (ALT) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were measured in serum. Results were available for 3,035 participants, of whom 10.8% were Māori and 4.5% Pacific. Results Overall, the prevalence of elevated ALT and elevated GGT was 13.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.2 – 15.0) and 13.7% (95% CI: 12.0 – 15.4), respectively. Odds ratios for an elevated ALT or GGT markedly increased with increasing body mass index. Men with obesity had the highest elevated ALT prevalence (28.5%; 95% CI: 21.7–35.4), and women with diabetes had the highest elevated GGT prevalence (36.5%; 95% CI: 26.0–47.0). Adding alcohol consumption categories to each of the adjusted models did not meaningfully change any results, although for women, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with an elevated GGT (overall p = 0.03). Conclusions Obesity‐related liver disease is likely to increasingly burden the New Zealand health sector and contribute to health disparities unless effective obesity treatment and prevention measures are given high priority. © 2015 The Authors. Obesity Science & Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, World Obesity and The Obesity Society. PMID:27774250

  20. Effect of galangin supplementation on oxidative damage and inflammatory changes in fructose-fed rat liver.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Allur Subramaniyan; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2011-09-05

    The study examined the effects of galangin (GA) on oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine levels and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in fructose-fed rat liver. Adult male albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Groups 1 and 4 received the control diet containing starch as the source of carbohydrate while groups 2 and 3 were fed a diet containing fructose. Groups 3 and 4 additionally received GA (100μg/kg, p.o) from the 15th day. At the end of 60 days, the levels of plasma glucose, insulin and triglycerides, insulin sensitivity indices and oxidative stress markers in the liver were determined. Cytokines of interest were assayed by ELISA and RT-PCR and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation by Western blot and RT-PCR. Compared to control diet-fed animals, fructose-fed animals developed hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance (IR) (all p<0.01). GA prevented the rise in plasma glucose, insulin and triglycerides and improved insulin sensitivity. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in plasma and the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β(1)) in liver were significantly higher in fructose-fed rats than control rats. However, treatment with GA downregulated the expression of these cytokines. Translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus was also increased in fructose diet-fed animals, which was prevented by GA. These results suggest that GA prevents oxidative damage and has a downregulatory effect on the inflammatory pathway in liver of fructose-fed rats.

  1. Prevention of Noise Damage to Cochlear Synapses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...affects hearing at normal sound levels. IEM-1460 blocks glutamate receptors used for synaptic transmission at the hair cell to spiral ganglion neuron (SGN...make a significant contribution to normal hearing at moderate sound levels. c) Determine definitively whether IEM-1460 prevents synaptopathy. We

  2. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheshchevik, V.T.; Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.; Reiter, R.J.; Prokopchik, N.I.; Zavodnik, I.B.

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  3. Prevention and Treatment of Recurrent Hepatitis B after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Maiwall, Rakhi; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a global health problem that leads to development of various complications, such as cirrhosis, liver cancer, and liver failure requiring liver transplantation. The recurrence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) post-liver transplantation is a major cause of allograft dysfunction, cirrhosis of the allograft, and graft failure. Patients with high viral load at the time of transplantation, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity, or those with a history of anti-viral drug resistance are considered as high-risk for recurrent HBV post-liver transplantation, while patients with low viral load, including HBeAg negative status, acute liver failure, and hepatitis D virus (HDV) co-infection are considered to be at low-risk for recurrent HBV post-liver transplantation. Antivirals for patients awaiting liver transplantation(LT) cause suppression of HBV replication and reduce the risk of recurrent HBV infection of the allograft and, therefore, all HBV patients with decompensated cirrhosis should be treated with potent antivirals with high genetic barrier to resistance (entecavir or tenofovir) prior to liver transplantation. Prevention of post-liver transplantation recurrence should be done using a combination of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and antivirals in patients at high risk of recurrence. Low dose HBIG, HBIG-free protocols, and monoprophylaxis with high potency antivirals can still be considered in patients at low risk of recurrence. Even, marginal grafts from anti-HBc positive donors can be safely used in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative, preferably in anti-hepatitis B core (HBc)/anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) positive recipients. In this article, we aim to review the mechanisms and risk factors of HBV recurrence post-LT in addition to the various treatment strategies proposed for the prevention of recurrent HBV infection PMID:27047773

  4. Molecular responses of radiation-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Xiao, Lei; Ainiwaer, Aimudula; Wang, Yunlian; Wu, Ge; Mao, Rui; Yang, Ying; Bao, Yongxing

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular responses involved in radiation‑induced liver damage (RILD). Sprague‑Dawley rats (6‑weeks‑old) were irradiated once at a dose of 20 Gy to the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. The rats were then sacrificed 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after irradiation and rats, which were not exposed to irradiation were used as controls. Weight measurements and blood was obtained from the rats and liver tissues were collected for histological and apoptotic analysis. Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blot analysis were performed to measure the expression levels of mRNAs and proteins, respectively. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were increased significantly in the RILD rats. Histological investigation revealed the proliferation of collagen and the formation of fibrotic tissue 12 weeks after irradiation. Apoptotic cells were observed predominantly 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation. The immunohistochemistry, RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis all revealed the same pattern of changes in the expression levels of the molecules assessed. The expression levels of transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1), nuclear factor (NF)‑κB65, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) and Smad7 and connective tissue growth factor were increased during the recovery period following irradiation up to 12 weeks. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α, Smad7 and Smad4 were only increased during the early phase (first 4 weeks) of recovery following irradiation. In the RILD rat model, the molecular responses indicated that the TGF‑β1/Smads and NF‑κB65 signaling pathways are involved in the mechanism of RILD recovery.

  5. Farnesoid X receptor inhibits gankyrin in mouse livers and prevents development of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanjun; Iakova, Polina; Jin, Jingling; Sullivan, Emily; Sharin, Vladislav; Hong, Il-Hwa; Anakk, Sayee; Mayor, Angela; Darlington, Gretchen; Finegold, Milton; Moore, David; Timchenko, Nikolai A

    2013-03-01

    One of the early events in the development of liver cancer is a neutralization of tumor suppressor proteins Rb, p53, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) α. The elimination of these proteins is mediated by a small subunit of proteasome, gankyrin, which is activated by cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms that repress gankyrin in quiescent livers and mechanisms of activation of gankyrin in liver cancer. We found that farnesoid X receptor (FXR) inhibits expression of gankyrin in quiescent livers by silencing the gankyrin promoter through HDAC1-C/EBPβ complexes. C/EBPβ is a key transcription factor that delivers HDAC1 to gankyrin promoter and causes epigenetic silencing of the promoter. We show that down-regulation of C/EBPβ in mouse hepatoma cells and in mouse livers reduces C/EBPβ-HDAC1 complexes and activates the gankyrin promoter. Deletion of FXR signaling in mice leads to de-repression of the gankyrin promoter and to spontaneous development of liver cancer at 12 months of age. Diethylnitrosoamine (DEN)-mediated liver cancer in wild-type mice also involves the reduction of FXR and activation of gankyrin. Examination of liver cancer in old mice and liver cancer in human patients revealed that FXR is reduced, while gankyrin is elevated during spontaneous development of liver cancer. Searching for animal models with altered levels of FXR, we found that long-lived Little mice have high levels of FXR and do not develop liver cancer with age and after DEN injections due to failure to activate gankyrin and eliminate Rb, p53, HNF4α and C/EBPα proteins. FXR prevents liver cancer by inhibiting the gankyrin promoter via C/EBPβ-HDAC1 complexes, leading to subsequent protection of tumor suppressor proteins from degradation. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. The effect of thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate on oxidative liver damage induced in rats with cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Turan, Mehmet Ibrahim; Siltelioglu Turan, Isil; Mammadov, Renad; Altınkaynak, Konca; Kisaoglu, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) on oxidative stress induced with cisplatin in liver tissue. Rats were divided into four groups; thiamine group (TG), TPP + cisplatin group (TPG), healthy animal group (HG), and cisplatin only group (CG). Oxidant and antioxidant parameters in liver tissue and AST, ALT, and LDH levels in rat sera were measured in all groups. Malondialdehyde levels in the CG, TG, TPG, and HG groups were 11 ± 1.4, 9 ± 0.5, 3 ± 0.5, and 2.2 ± 0.48  μ mol/g protein, respectively. Total glutathione levels were 2 ± 0.7, 2.8 ± 0.4, 7 ± 0.8, and 9 ± 0.6 nmol/g protein, respectively. Levels of 8-OH/Gua, a product of DNA damage, were 2.7 ± 0.4 pmol/L, 2.5 ± 0.5, 1.1 ± 0.3, and 0.9 ± 0.3 pmol/L, respectively. A statistically significant difference was determined in oxidant/antioxidant parameters and AST, ALT, and LDH levels between the TPG and CG groups (P < 0.05). No significant difference was determined between the TG and CG groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, cisplatin causes oxidative damage in liver tissue. TPP seems to have a preventive effect on oxidative stress in the liver caused by cisplatin.

  7. The Effect of Thiamine and Thiamine Pyrophosphate on Oxidative Liver Damage Induced in Rats with Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Mehmet Ibrahim; Siltelioglu Turan, Isil; Mammadov, Renad; Altınkaynak, Konca; Kisaoglu, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) on oxidative stress induced with cisplatin in liver tissue. Rats were divided into four groups; thiamine group (TG), TPP + cisplatin group (TPG), healthy animal group (HG), and cisplatin only group (CG). Oxidant and antioxidant parameters in liver tissue and AST, ALT, and LDH levels in rat sera were measured in all groups. Malondialdehyde levels in the CG, TG, TPG, and HG groups were 11 ± 1.4, 9 ± 0.5, 3 ± 0.5, and 2.2 ± 0.48 μmol/g protein, respectively. Total glutathione levels were 2 ± 0.7, 2.8 ± 0.4, 7 ± 0.8, and 9 ± 0.6 nmol/g protein, respectively. Levels of 8-OH/Gua, a product of DNA damage, were 2.7 ± 0.4 pmol/L, 2.5 ± 0.5, 1.1 ± 0.3, and 0.9 ± 0.3 pmol/L, respectively. A statistically significant difference was determined in oxidant/antioxidant parameters and AST, ALT, and LDH levels between the TPG and CG groups (P < 0.05). No significant difference was determined between the TG and CG groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, cisplatin causes oxidative damage in liver tissue. TPP seems to have a preventive effect on oxidative stress in the liver caused by cisplatin. PMID:23841092

  8. Liver targeting of catalase by cationization for prevention of acute liver failure in mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shen-Feng; Nishikawa, Makiya; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2006-01-10

    To achieve hepatic delivery of CAT for the prevention of CCl4-induced acute liver failure in mice, two types of cationized CAT derivatives, HMD- and ED-conjugated CAT, were developed. Slight structural changes occurred during cationization and the number of increased free amino groups was 3.1 in HMD-CAT and 13.6 in ED-CAT. 111In-cationized CAT derivatives showed an increased binding to HepG2 cells, and were rapidly taken up by the liver. H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells was significantly prevented by preincubation of the cells with cationized CAT derivatives. A bolus intravenous injection of the cationized CAT derivatives reduced the hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in mice. The ED-CAT, which showed more rapid and greater binding to the liver than the HMD-CAT, exhibited more beneficial effects as far as all the parameters examined (serum GOT, GPT, LDH and hepatic GSH) were concerned, suggesting that a high degree of cationization is effective in delivering CAT to the liver to prevent CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. These results suggest that cationized CAT derivatives are effective in preventing acute liver failure, and ED-based cationization is a suitable method for developing liver-targetable cationized CAT derivatives, because it provides CAT with a high degree of cationization and a high remaining enzymatic activity.

  9. Preventing alcohol related birth damage: a review.

    PubMed

    Waterson, E J; Murray-Lyon, I M

    1990-01-01

    Since 1974 numerous clinical studies have made it clear that heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy (in excess of 80 g or 8 units daily) can result in a child being born with a specific combination of physical and mental disabilities known as the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. More moderate levels of intake (as little as 10 g of 1 unit daily) are associated with other fetal problems known as Fetal Alcohol Effects. The most common of these is growth retardation. Reduction of alcohol consumption is beneficial to pregnancy outcome. However, despite this great clinical and research interest within the field there has been comparatively little attention paid to researching possible preventative strategies and appropriate policy development. This paper first describes the size of the problem posed by drinking in pregnancy in the U.S.A. and the U.K., detailing the contrasting policy response on either side of the Atlantic. It examines the difficulties of formulating appropriate advice and then assesses the available research reports on preventative measures. The strategies described include general publicity and counselling for pregnant women. In addition, attention has been paid to the problems of dissemination by emphasising professional education. One major shortcoming is that most of these studies appear to have been carried out with little reference to existing knowledge on health education and promotion, or educational work in the antenatal or alcohol fields. In addition, little attention appears to have been paid to the characteristics of the groups at whom intervention might be targeted or the underlying social or psychological factors which maintain drinking in these groups. The second part of this paper, therefore, attempts to suggest appropriate avenues for developing preventative strategies by presenting a wide-ranging review with special reference to British experience. Particular attention is given to the issues of form and content of appropriate messages

  10. Fortilin potentiates the peroxidase activity of Peroxiredoxin-1 and protects against alcohol-induced liver damage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Abhijnan; Pinkaew, Decha; Doan, Hung Q.; Jacob, Reed B.; Verma, Sunil K.; Friedman, Hana; Peterson, Alan C.; Kuyumcu-Martinez, Muge N.; McDougal, Owen M.; Fujise, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Fortilin, a pro-survival molecule, inhibits p53-induced apoptosis by binding to the sequence-specific DNA-binding domain of the tumor suppressor protein and preventing it from transcriptionally activating Bax. Intriguingly, fortilin protects cells against ROS-induced cell death, independent of p53. The signaling pathway through which fortilin protects cells against ROS-induced cell death, however, is unknown. Here we report that fortilin physically interacts with the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin-1 (PRX1), protects it from proteasome-mediated degradation, and keeps it enzymatically active by blocking its deactivating phosphorylation by Mst1, a serine/threonine kinase. At the whole animal level, the liver-specific overexpression of fortilin reduced PRX1 phosphorylation in the liver, enhanced PRX1 activity, and protected the transgenic animals against alcohol-induced, ROS-mediated, liver damage. These data suggest the presence of a novel oxidative-stress-handling pathway where the anti-p53 molecule fortilin augments the peroxidase PRX1 by protecting it against degradation and inactivation of the enzyme. Fortilin-PRX1 interaction in the liver could be clinically exploited further to prevent acute alcohol-induced liver damage in humans. PMID:26726832

  11. FXR inhibits gankyrin in mouse livers and prevents development of liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanjun; Iakova, Polina; Jin, Jingling; Sullivan, Emily; Sharin, Vladislav; Hong, Il-Hwa; Anakk, Sayee; Mayor, Angela; Darlington, Gretchen; Finegold, Milton; Moore, David; Timchenko, Nikolai A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the early events in development of liver cancer is a neutralization of tumor suppressor proteins Rb, p53, HNF4α and C/EBPα. The elimination of these proteins is mediated by a small subunit of proteasome, gankyrin, which is activated by cancer. The aim of this study was to determine mechanisms which repress gankyrin in quiescent livers and mechanisms of activation of gankyrin in liver cancer. We found that farnesoid X receptor, FXR, inhibits expression of gankyrin in quiescent livers by silencing the gankyrin promoter through HDAC1-C/EBPβ complexes. C/EBPβ is a key transcription factor which delivers HDAC1 to gankyrin promoter and causes epigenetic silencing of the promoter. We show that down-regulation of C/EBPβ in mouse hepatoma cells and in mouse livers reduces C/EBPβ-HDAC1 complexes and activates the gankyrin promoter. Deletion of FXR signaling in mice leads to de-repression of the gankyrin promoter and to spontaneous development of liver cancer at 12 months of age. DEN-mediated liver cancer in WT mice also involves the reduction of FXR and activation of gankyrin. Examination of liver cancer in old mice and liver cancer in human patients revealed that FXR is reduced; while gankyrin is elevated during spontaneous development of liver cancer. Searching for animal models with altered levels of FXR, we found that long-lived Little mice have high levels of FXR and do not develop liver cancer with age and after DEN injections due to failure to activate gankyrin and eliminate Rb, p53, HNF4α and C/EBPα proteins. CONCLUSION FXR prevents liver cancer by inhibiting the gankyrin promoter via C/EBPβ-HDAC1 complexes leading to subsequent protection of tumor suppressor proteins from degradation. PMID:23172628

  12. Tissue-dependent preventive effect of metallothionein against DNA damage in dyslipidemic mice under repeated stresses of fasting or restraint.

    PubMed

    Higashimoto, Minoru; Isoyama, Naohiro; Ishibashi, Satoshi; Inoue, Masahisa; Takiguchi, Masufumi; Suzuki, Shinya; Ohnishi, Yoshinari; Sato, Masao

    2009-04-24

    To investigate the effect of repeated stress on DNA damage in seven organs of dyslipidemic mice, and the preventive role of metallothionein (MT). Female adult 129/Sv wild-type and MT-null mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) were repeatedly subjected to mild stress of fasting or restraint in weeks 2 to 4 of 4-week study period. Serum cholesterol level, DNA damage in the liver, pancreas, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, lung and gastric mucosa, and other parameters were determined. Body weights were increased in both types of mice fed HFD compared to those fed standard diet (STD), and further increased by 12 h-fasting, while they were markedly decreased by 1-3 h-restraint. Fasting accelerated accumulation of fat in the liver, and increase in serum cholesterol of both types of mice fed HFD. Feeding of HFD increased DNA damage in the pancreas, spleen and bone marrow of both types of mice, compared with those fed STD. In the wild-type mice fed HFD, 24 h-fasting increased DNA damage in the liver and spleen, while restraint increased the damage in the liver, pancreas, spleen and bone marrow. DNA damage in the cells of organs was markedly increased in the MT-null mice. Specifically, damage in the liver, pancreas, spleen and bone marrow was greatly increased with the intensity of stress increased, and the damage was much greater in the restraint mice than in the fasting mice. MT plays a tissue-dependent preventive role against DNA damage in various murine organs induced by repeated stress.

  13. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Properties of Tofu (Curdle Soymilk) against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, Ndatsu; Oboh, Ganiyu; Olalekan, Amuzat Aliyu

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of tofu using acetaminophen to induce liver damage in albino rats were evaluated. Tofus were prepared using calcium chloride, alum, and steep water as coagulants. The polyphenols of tofu were extracted and their antioxidant properties were determined. The weight gain and feed intake of the rats were measured. The analysis of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and the concentrations of albumin, total protein, cholesterol, and bilirubin were analyzed. The result reveals that the antioxidant property of both soluble and bound polyphenolic extracts was significantly higher in all tofus, but the steep water coagulated tofu was recorded higher. Rats fed with various tofus and acetaminophen had their serum ALP, ALT, AST, and LDH activities; total cholesterol; and bilirubin levels significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, and total protein and albumin concentrations increased when compared with basal diet and acetaminophen administered group. Therefore, all tofus curdled with various coagulants could be used to prevent liver damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:23533782

  14. Multiple organ damage caused by tumor necrosis factor and prevented by prior neutrophil depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, A.A.; Ishizaka, A.; Stephens, K.E.; Hatherill, J.R.; Tazelaar, H.D.; Raffin, T.A. )

    1989-05-01

    The effect of TNF on nonpulmonary multiple organ damage (MOD) was studied. Since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are thought to play an important role in septic or TNF-induced MOD, we investigated both neutrophil sufficient (PMN+) and neutropenic (PMN-) guinea pigs. Sepsis was induced by Escherichia coli administration (2 x 10(9)/kg) or recombinant human TNF (1.4 x 10(6) U/kg) was infused into PMN+ and PMN- guinea pigs. During necropsy, the PMN+/TNF and PMN+/E coli animals exhibited marked damage in the adrenal glands, kidneys and liver as evidenced by hemorrhage, congestion, and PMN sequestration on histopathologic examination. There was also increased tissue albumin accumulation in the adrenal glands, kidneys, spleen, heart, and liver as demonstrated by {sup 125}I-labeled albumin determinations. In contrast, the PMN-/TNF group did not reveal histopathologic damage in any organ system and there was no abnormal organ accumulation of {sup 125}I-albumin. However, in PMN-/E coli animals, marked histopathologic damage in the adrenal glands and liver was evident. Furthermore, there were marked accumulations of {sup 125}I-albumin in the adrenals, heart, kidneys, liver, and spleen. Moreover, the PMN-/E coli guinea pigs had a much greater accumulation (p less than 0.01) of {sup 125}I-albumin in the kidneys than any other group including the PMN+/E coli group. Thus, nonpulmonary MOD in guinea pigs is caused by TNF administration and can be prevented by PMN depletion. However, while E coli administration also caused marked nonpulmonary MOD in neutrophil sufficient guinea pigs, equivalent or greater damage was produced in neutropenic animals. This suggests that while TNF-induced MOD may be primarily mediated by PMN, E coli-induced MOD seems to be mediated by more than PMN.

  15. Multiple organ damage caused by tumor necrosis factor and prevented by prior neutrophil depletion.

    PubMed

    Mallick, A A; Ishizaka, A; Stephens, K E; Hatherill, J R; Tazelaar, H D; Raffin, T A

    1989-05-01

    The effect of TNF on nonpulmonary multiple organ damage (MOD) was studied. Since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are thought to play an important role in septic or TNF-induced MOD, we investigated both neutrophil sufficient (PMN+) and neutropenic (PMN-) guinea pigs. Sepsis was induced by Escherichia coli administration (2 x 10(9)/kg) or recombinant human TNF (1.4 x 10(6) U/kg) was infused into PMN+ and PMN- guinea pigs. During necropsy, the PMN+/TNF and PMN+/E coli animals exhibited marked damage in the adrenal glands, kidneys and liver as evidenced by hemorrhage, congestion, and PMN sequestration on histopathologic examination. There was also increased tissue albumin accumulation in the adrenal glands, kidneys, spleen, heart, and liver as demonstrated by 125I-labeled albumin determinations. In contrast, the PMN-/TNF group did not reveal histopathologic damage in any organ system and there was no abnormal organ accumulation of 125I-albumin. However, in PMN-/E coli animals, marked histopathologic damage in the adrenal glands and liver was evident. Furthermore, there were marked accumulations of 125I-albumin in the adrenals, heart, kidneys, liver, and spleen. Moreover, the PMN-/E coli guinea pigs had a much greater accumulation (p less than 0.01) of 125I-albumin in the kidneys than any other group including the PMN+/E coli group. Thus, nonpulmonary MOD in guinea pigs is caused by TNF administration and can be prevented by PMN depletion. However, while E coli administration also caused marked nonpulmonary MOD in neutrophil sufficient guinea pigs, equivalent or greater damage was produced in neutropenic animals. This suggests that while TNF-induced MOD may be primarily mediated by PMN, E coli-induced MOD seems to be mediated by more than PMN.

  16. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is often associated with a cluster of increased health risks collectively known as "Metabolic Syndrome" (MS). MS is often accompanied by development of fatty liver. Sometimes fatty liver results in damage leading to reduced liver function, and need for a transplant. This condition is known...

  17. 49 CFR 198.37 - State one-call damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State one-call damage prevention program. 198.37... REGULATIONS FOR GRANTS TO AID STATE PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Adoption of One-Call Damage Prevention Program § 198.37 State one-call damage prevention program. A State must adopt a one-call damage prevention...

  18. 49 CFR 198.37 - State one-call damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State one-call damage prevention program. 198.37... REGULATIONS FOR GRANTS TO AID STATE PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Adoption of One-Call Damage Prevention Program § 198.37 State one-call damage prevention program. A State must adopt a one-call damage prevention...

  19. Taurocholic Acid Prevents Biliary Damage Induced by Hepatic Artery Ligation in Cholestatic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Shannon; Onori, Paolo; Gaudio, Eugenio; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Pannarale, Luigi; Franchitto, Antonio; Francis, Heather; Mancinelli, Romina; Carpino, Guido; Venter, Julie; White, Mellanie; Kopriva, Shelley; Vetuschi, Antonella; Sferra, Roberta; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischemic injury by hepatic artery ligation (HAL) during obstructive cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) results in bile duct damage, which can be prevented by administration of VEGF-A. The potential regulation of VEGF and VEGF receptor expression and secretion by bile acids in BDL with HAL is unknown. Aims We evaluated whether taurocholic acid (TC) can prevent HAL-induced cholangiocyte damage via the alteration of VEGFR-2 and/or VEGF-A expression. Methods Utilizing BDL, BDL+TC, BDL+HAL, BDL+HAL+TC, and BDL+HAL+wortmannin+TC treated rats, we evaluated cholangiocyte apoptosis, proliferation, and secretion as well VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 expression by immunohistochemistry. In vitro, we evaluated the effects of TC on cholangiocyte secretion of VEGF-A and the dependence of TC-induced proliferation on the activity of VEGFR-2. Results In BDL rats with HAL, chronic feeding of TC prevented HAL-induced loss of bile ducts and HAL-induced decreased cholangiocyte secretion. TC also prevented HAL-inhibited VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 expression in liver sections and HAL-induced circulating VEGF-A levels, which were blocked by wortmannin administration. In vitro, TC stimulated increased VEGF-A secretion by cholangiocytes, which was blocked by wortmannin and stimulated cholangiocyte proliferation that was blocked by VEGFR-2 kinase inhibitor. Conclusion TC prevented HAL-induced biliary damage by upregulation of VEGF-A expression. PMID:20303838

  20. Erythropoietin inhibits liver gelatinases during galactosamine-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Madro, Agnieszka; Kurzepa, Jacek; Czechowska, Grazyna; Słomka, Maria; Celiński, Krzysztof; Szymonik-Lesiuk, Stanisława

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 (gelatinases) participate in extracellular protein remodeling. Moreover, they are involved in the development of hepatic fibrosis. The goal of this study was to evaluate liver gelatinase activities after erythropoietin (Epo) treatment (1U/dose, sc) in experimentally damaged livers of rats treated with D-galactosamine (Gal, 800 mg/kg/dose, ip). Sixty rats were divided into six equal groups: I - received 5 doses of Epo and a single dose of Gal [the experiment duration (ED): 10 days]; II - received 5 doses of Epo and 3 doses of Gal (ED: 14 days); III - received only 5 doses of Epo (ED: 9 days); IV - received 3 doses of Gal (ED: 5 days);V - received a single dose of Gal (ED: 1 day); VI - control group (ED: 9 days). The animals were sacrificed and the livers were collected 48 h after the last drug administration. The activity of gelatinases was measured using gelatin zymography. No fluctuations in gelatinase activities were observed after the administration of a single dose of Gal in comparison to the control group. However, a significant increase in gelatinase activities was observed after treatment with three doses of Gal. Five doses of Epo administrated before Gal treatment prevented elevated gelatinase activities: MMP-9 activity was comparable to control, and MMP-2 activity was decreased (group II). The gelatinase activities was lower in group I and II in comparison to the control group. These results revealed that Epo decreases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity, suggesting that it is a hepatoprotective agent against hepatic damage induced by galactosamine injection.

  1. Prevention of DNA damage in human skin by topical sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Catherine M; Wilson, Louise F; Green, Adèle C; Biswas, Neela; Loyalka, Juhi; Whiteman, David C

    2017-05-01

    There is strong evidence that topical sunscreens, designed to protect against ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced erythema, decrease the amount of UVR to which the skin is exposed, but their effectiveness in reducing UVR-induced DNA damage in vivo has not been well quantified. We systematically reviewed the published literature (1990-2015) to determine whether sunscreens prevent DNA damage in human skin when applied prior to UVR exposure. We included experimental studies measuring UVR-induced DNA damage in human skin in vivo with and without sunscreens and excluded studies conducted in animal models and cell lines. Eligible studies were identified by computerized search of bibliographic databases, supplemented by hand-searching the reference lists of retrieved articles. We identified ten eligible studies. Despite heterogeneity in methodological approaches, including the sun protection factors of the sunscreens assessed, range of skin types examined, the UVR exposure time and dose, the timing of post-irradiation biopsies and in the markers of DNA damage examined, all studies reported markedly reduced (or nil) UVR-induced DNA damage on sunscreen-protected skin. Our review of the experimental evidence supports a protective effect of topical sunscreens in preventing UVR-induced DNA damage in human skin cells in vivo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. 49 CFR 195.442 - Damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section, a written program to prevent damage to that pipeline from excavation activities. For the purpose of this section, the term “excavation activities” includes excavation, blasting, boring, tunneling... there is a central telephone number for excavators to call for excavation activities, or if the...

  3. 49 CFR 195.442 - Damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section, a written program to prevent damage to that pipeline from excavation activities. For the purpose of this section, the term “excavation activities” includes excavation, blasting, boring, tunneling... there is a central telephone number for excavators to call for excavation activities, or if the...

  4. Can skin exposure to sunlight prevent liver inflammation?

    PubMed

    Gorman, Shelley; Black, Lucinda J; Feelisch, Martin; Hart, Prue H; Weller, Richard

    2015-05-05

    Liver inflammation contributes towards the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here we discuss how skin exposure to sunlight may suppress liver inflammation and the severity of NAFLD. Following exposure to sunlight-derived ultraviolet radiation (UVR), the skin releases anti-inflammatory mediators such as vitamin D and nitric oxide. Animal modeling studies suggest that exposure to UVR can prevent the development of NAFLD. Association studies also support a negative link between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and NAFLD incidence or severity. Clinical trials are in their infancy and are yet to demonstrate a clear beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation. There are a number of potentially interdependent mechanisms whereby vitamin D could dampen liver inflammation, by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and liver fibrosis, modulating the gut microbiome and through altered production and transport of bile acids. While there has been a focus on vitamin D, other mediators induced by sun exposure, such as nitric oxide may also play important roles in curtailing liver inflammation.

  5. Can Skin Exposure to Sunlight Prevent Liver Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Shelley; Black, Lucinda J.; Feelisch, Martin; Hart, Prue H.; Weller, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Liver inflammation contributes towards the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here we discuss how skin exposure to sunlight may suppress liver inflammation and the severity of NAFLD. Following exposure to sunlight-derived ultraviolet radiation (UVR), the skin releases anti-inflammatory mediators such as vitamin D and nitric oxide. Animal modeling studies suggest that exposure to UVR can prevent the development of NAFLD. Association studies also support a negative link between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and NAFLD incidence or severity. Clinical trials are in their infancy and are yet to demonstrate a clear beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation. There are a number of potentially interdependent mechanisms whereby vitamin D could dampen liver inflammation, by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and liver fibrosis, modulating the gut microbiome and through altered production and transport of bile acids. While there has been a focus on vitamin D, other mediators induced by sun exposure, such as nitric oxide may also play important roles in curtailing liver inflammation. PMID:25951129

  6. Effects of Fluoride on DNA Damage and Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis in the Liver of Rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Guo Hua; Huang, Fu Bing; Gao, Ji Ping; Liu, Mao Lin; Pang, Wen Biao; Li, Wei bin; Yan, Xiao Yan; Huo, Mei Jun; Yang, Xia

    2015-08-01

    Fluoride compounds are abundant and widely distributed in the environment at a variety of concentrations. Further, fluoride induces toxic effects in target organs such as the liver. In this study, we investigated liver histopathology, DNA damage, apoptosis, and the mRNA and protein expressions of caspase-3 and -9 in the rat livers by administering varying concentrations of fluoride (0, 50, 100, 200 mg/L ) for 120 days. The results showed fluoride-induced morphological changes and significantly increased apoptosis and DNA damage in rats exposed to fluoride, especially in response to higher doses. The immunohistochemical and qRT-PCR results indicated that caspase-3, caspase-9 protein positive expression and mRNA relative expression enhanced with increasing NaF concentration. In summary, our findings suggest that chronic exposure to fluoride causes damages to liver histopathology and leads to liver apoptosis through caspase-mediated pathways.

  7. Suppression of Chronic Damage in Renal Allografts by Liver X Receptor (LXR) Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Eva; Popovic, Zoran; Bedke, Jens; Wang, Shijun; Bonrouhi, Mahnaz; Gretz, Norbert; Stettner, Paula; Teupser, Daniel; Thiery, Joachim; Porubsky, Stefan; Adams, Judith; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2011-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXR)-α,β regulate intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and inhibit inflammatory gene expression. We studied the effects of the LXRα,β-agonist GW3965 on acute and chronic organ damage in the F344-LEW rat kidney transplantation model. In addition, to gain LXR isoform and cell-specific insights BALB/c kidneys were transplanted into mice with macrophage overexpression of LXRα (mLXRα-tg) and evaluated 7 and 42 days after transplantation. After 56 days GW3965 improved significantly function and morphology of rat kidney allografts by substantial reduction of mononuclear cell infiltrate and fibrosis; in vitro GW3965 reduced inflammatory activity of bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMDMs) and alloreactivity of T cells. Kidneys transplanted into mLXRα-tg mice were also protected from development of chronic allograft dysfunction. Similarly to GW3965-activated BMDMs, mLXRα-tg macrophages secreted significantly less monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β. Interestingly, 7 days after transplantation, when the total number of intragraft macrophages did not differ, evidently more arginase 1– and mannose receptor C type 1–positive cells were found in LXR rat and mice kidney allografts; in vitro both LXR activation by GW3965 and mLXRα overexpression accentuated the induction of alternative activation of BMDMs by IL-4/IL-13, suggesting an additional mechanism by LXRs to prevent graft damage. The results highlight the relevance of macrophage LXRα in allograft rejection and prevention of fibrosis. PMID:21703396

  8. Curcumin improves liver damage in male mice exposed to nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Salahshoor, Mohammadreza; Mohamadian, Sabah; Kakabaraei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Jalili, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    The color of turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng) is because of a substance called curcumin. It has different pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in the liver and causes devastating effects. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of curcumin against nicotine on the liver in mice. Forty-eight mice were equally divided into eight groups; control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), curcumin (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) and curcumin plus nicotine-treated groups. Curcumin, nicotine, and curcumin plus nicotine (once a day) were intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks. The liver weight and histology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum nitric oxide levels have been studied. The results indicated that nicotine administration significantly decreased liver weight and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes level, and blood serum nitric oxide level compared with the saline group (p < 0.05). However, curcumin and curcumin plus nicotine administration substantially increased liver weight and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes, and nitric oxide levels in all groups compared with the nicotine group (p < 0.05). Curcumin demonstrated its protective effect against nicotine-induced liver toxicity. PMID:27114942

  9. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Penthorum chinense Pursh extract against t-BHP-induced liver damage in L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yangyang; Wang, Shengpeng; Wang, Anqi; Lin, Ligen; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2015-04-10

    Penthorum chinense Pursh (P. chinense), a traditional Chinese medicine used by the Chinese Miao minority, has been used to treat liver diseases for a long time. However, the mechanism behind the liver protective effects of P. chinense remains unclear so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of P. chinense and its possible mechanism(s). Immortalized normal human normal liver L02 cells were used to evaluate the protective effect of P. chinense aqueous extract against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced liver cell damage. Treatment with P. chinense aqueous extract significantly protected L02 cells from t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity, prevented t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and decreased the percentage of apoptosis by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This study demonstrates that P. chinense is a potential hepatoprotective agent in t-BHP-induced liver cell damage, which may benefit the further application of P. chinense in the clinic.

  10. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Schisandra chinensis pollen extract on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ni; Ren, Naiyan; Gao, Hui; Lei, Xingsheng; Zheng, Jianbin; Cao, Wei

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatotective effects of Schisandra chinensis pollen extract (SCPE) on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, chelating activity, and reducing power assay) were determined. In vivo study, SCPE (10, 20 and 40g/kg) administered daily orally for 42days prior to CCl4-intoxicated. Our results showed that SCPE had high total phenolic content (53.74±1.21mg GAE/g), total flavonoid content (38.29±0.91mg Rutin/g), quercetin and hesperetin may be the major contributor to strong antioxidant activities. Moreover, SCPE significantly prevented the increase in serum ALT and AST level in acute liver damage induced by CCl4, decreased the extent of malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in liver and elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in liver. The results indicated that SCPE has strong antioxidant activities and significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4, and have been supported by the evaluation of liver histopathology in mice. The hepatoprotective effect may be related to its free radical scavenging effect, increasing antioxidant activity and inhibiting lipid peroxidation.

  11. PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasmid DNA damage caused by methylated arsenicals, ascorbic acid and human liver ferritin.

    Arsenic causes cancer in human skin, urinary bladder, lung, liver and kidney and is a significant world-wide public health problem. Although the metabolism of inorganic arsenic is ...

  12. PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasmid DNA damage caused by methylated arsenicals, ascorbic acid and human liver ferritin.

    Arsenic causes cancer in human skin, urinary bladder, lung, liver and kidney and is a significant world-wide public health problem. Although the metabolism of inorganic arsenic is ...

  13. PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAOUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    ABSTRACT

    Both dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) release iron from human liver ferritin (HLF) with or without the presence of ascorbic acid. ...

  14. PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAOUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    ABSTRACT

    Both dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) release iron from human liver ferritin (HLF) with or without the presence of ascorbic acid. ...

  15. Cannabinoid receptor type 2 functional variant influences liver damage in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Francesca; Bellini, Giulia; Alisi, Anna; Alterio, Arianna; Maione, Sabatino; Perrone, Laura; Locatelli, Franco; Miraglia del Giudice, Emanuele; Nobili, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a spectrum of disease ranging from simple steatosis to inflammatory steatohepatitis (NASH) with different degrees of fibrosis that can ultimately progress to cirrhosis. Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of the endocannabinoid-system in liver disease and related complications. In particular, hepatoprotective properties for Cannabinoid Receptor type 2 (CB2) have been shown both through experimental murine models of liver injury and association study between a CB2 functional variant, Q63R, and liver enzymes in Italian obese children with steatosis.Here, in order to clarify the role of CB2 in severity of childhood NAFLD, we have investigated the association of the CB2 Q63R variant, with histological parameters of liver disease severity in 118 Italian children with histologically-proven NAFLD.CB2 Q63R genotype was assigned performing a TaqMan assay and a general linear model analysis was used to evaluate the association between the polymorphism and the histological parameters of liver damage.We have found that whereas CB2 Q63R variant is not associated with steatosis or fibrosis, it is associated with the severity of the inflammation (p = 0.002) and the presence of NASH (p = 0.02).Our findings suggest a critical role for CB2 Q63R variant in modulating hepatic inflammation state in obese children and in the consequent increased predisposition of these patients to liver damage.

  16. Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 Functional Variant Influences Liver Damage in Children with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Francesca; Bellini, Giulia; Alisi, Anna; Alterio, Arianna; Maione, Sabatino; Perrone, Laura; Locatelli, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a spectrum of disease ranging from simple steatosis to inflammatory steatohepatitis (NASH) with different degrees of fibrosis that can ultimately progress to cirrhosis. Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of the endocannabinoid-system in liver disease and related complications. In particular, hepatoprotective properties for Cannabinoid Receptor type 2 (CB2) have been shown both through experimental murine models of liver injury and association study between a CB2 functional variant, Q63R, and liver enzymes in Italian obese children with steatosis. Here, in order to clarify the role of CB2 in severity of childhood NAFLD, we have investigated the association of the CB2 Q63R variant, with histological parameters of liver disease severity in 118 Italian children with histologically-proven NAFLD. CB2 Q63R genotype was assigned performing a TaqMan assay and a general linear model analysis was used to evaluate the association between the polymorphism and the histological parameters of liver damage. We have found that whereas CB2 Q63R variant is not associated with steatosis or fibrosis, it is associated with the severity of the inflammation (p = 0.002) and the presence of NASH (p = 0.02). Our findings suggest a critical role for CB2 Q63R variant in modulating hepatic inflammation state in obese children and in the consequent increased predisposition of these patients to liver damage. PMID:22927922

  17. Genoprotective and hepatoprotective effects of Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart. var. sorbilis) on CCl4-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kober, Helena; Tatsch, Etiane; Torbitz, Vanessa Dorneles; Cargnin, Lara Peruzzolo; Sangoi, Manuela Borges; Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; da Silva, Andreia Regina Haas; Barbisan, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica; Moresco, Rafael Noal

    2016-01-01

    Several biological effects of Paullinia cupana (guarana) have been demonstrated, but little information is available on its effects on the liver. The current study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective and genoprotective effects of powder seeds from guarana on CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with guarana powder (100, 300 and 600 mg/kg) or silymarin 100 mg/kg daily for 14 days before treatment with a single dose of CCl4 (50% CCl4, 1 mL/kg, intraperitoneally). The treatment with CCl4 significantly increased the serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In addition, CCl4 increased the DNA damage index in hepatocytes. Guarana in all concentrations was effective in decreasing the ALT and AST activities when compared with the CCl4-treated group. The treatment with guarana decreased DNA damage index when compared with the CCl4-treated group. In addition, the DNA damage index showed a significant positive correlation with AST and ALT. These results indicate that the guarana has hepatoprotective activity and prevents the DNA strand breakage in the CCl4-induced liver damage in rats.

  18. Hepatic stellate cell-expressed endosialin balances fibrogenesis and hepatocyte proliferation during liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Mogler, Carolin; Wieland, Matthias; König, Courtney; Hu, Junhao; Runge, Anja; Korn, Claudia; Besemfelder, Eva; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Komljenovic, Dorde; Dooley, Steven; Schirmacher, Peter; Longerich, Thomas; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to injury reflecting the critical balance between liver repair and scar formation. Chronic damage leads to progressive substitution of liver parenchyma by scar tissue and ultimately results in liver cirrhosis. Stromal cells (hepatic stellate cells [HSC] and endothelial cells) have been proposed to control the balance between liver fibrosis and regeneration. Here, we show that endosialin, a C-type lectin, expressed in the liver exclusively by HSC and portal fibroblasts, is upregulated in liver fibrosis in mouse and man. Chronic chemically induced liver damage resulted in reduced fibrosis and enhanced hepatocyte proliferation in endosialin-deficient (ENKO) mice. Correspondingly, acute-liver-damage-induced hepatocyte proliferation (partial hepatectomy) was increased in ENKO mice. A candidate-based screen of known regulators of hepatocyte proliferation identified insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) as selectively endosialin-dependent hepatocyte mitogen. Collectively, the study establishes a critical role of HSC in the reciprocal regulation of fibrogenesis vs. hepatocyte proliferation and identifies endosialin as a therapeutic target in non-neoplastic settings. PMID:25680861

  19. Exendin-4 attenuates brain death-induced liver damage in the rat.

    PubMed

    Carlessi, Rodrigo; Lemos, Natalia E; Dias, Ana L; Brondani, Leticia A; Oliveira, Jarbas R; Bauer, Andrea C; Leitão, Cristiane B; Crispim, Daisy

    2015-11-01

    The majority of liver grafts destined for transplantation originate from brain dead donors. However, significantly better posttransplantation outcomes are achieved when organs from living donors are used, suggesting that brain death (BD) causes irreversible damage to the liver tissue. Recently, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) analogues were shown to possess interesting hepatic protection effects in different liver disease models. We hypothesized that donor treatment with the GLP1 analogue exendin-4 (Ex-4) could alleviate BD-induced liver damage. A rat model of BD was employed in order to estimate BD-induced liver damage and Ex-4's potential protective effects. Liver damage was assessed by biochemical determination of circulating hepatic markers. Apoptosis in the hepatic tissue was assessed by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry using an antibody that only recognizes the active form of caspase-3. Gene expression changes in inflammation and stress response genes were monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Here, we show that Ex-4 administration to the brain dead liver donors significantly reduces levels of circulating aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. This was accompanied by a remarkable reduction in hepatocyte apoptosis. In this model, BD caused up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor and stress-related genes, confirming previous findings in clinical and animal studies. In conclusion, treatment of brain dead rats with Ex-4 reduced BD-induced liver damage. Further investigation is needed to determine the molecular basis of the observed liver protection. After testing in a randomized clinical trial, the inclusion of GLP1 analogues in organ donor management might help to improve organ quality, maximize organ donation, and possibly increase liver transplantation success rates.

  20. Aldosterone induces fibrosis, oxidative stress and DNA damage in livers of male rats independent of blood pressure changes

    SciTech Connect

    Queisser, Nina; Happ, Kathrin; Link, Samuel; Jahn, Daniel; Zimnol, Anna; Geier, Andreas; Schupp, Nicole

    2014-11-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor blockers show antifibrotic potential in hepatic fibrosis. The mechanism of this protective effect is not known yet, although reactive oxygen species seem to play an important role. Here, we investigated the effects of elevated levels of aldosterone (Ald), the primary ligand of the mineralocorticoid receptor, on livers of rats in a hyperaldosteronism model: aldosterone-induced hypertension. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated for 4 weeks with aldosterone. To distinguish if damage caused in the liver depended on increased blood pressure or on increased Ald levels, the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone was given in a subtherapeutic dose, not normalizing blood pressure. To investigate the impact of oxidative stress, the antioxidant tempol was administered. Aldosterone induced fibrosis, detected histopathologically, and by expression analysis of the fibrosis marker, α-smooth muscle actin. Further, the mRNA amount of the profibrotic cytokine TGF-β was increased significantly. Fibrosis could be reduced by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and also by blocking the mineralocorticoid receptor. Furthermore, aldosterone treatment caused oxidative stress and DNA double strand breaks in livers, as well as the elevation of DNA repair activity. An increase of the transcription factor Nrf2, the main regulator of the antioxidative response could be observed, and of its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. All these effects of aldosterone were prevented by spironolactone and tempol. Already after 4 weeks of treatment, aldosteroneinfusion induced fibrosis in the liver. This effect was independent of elevated blood pressure. DNA damage caused by aldosterone might contribute to fibrosis progression when aldosterone is chronically increased. - Highlights: • Aldosterone has direct profibrotic effects on the liver independent of blood pressure. • Fibrosis is mediated by the mineralocorticoid receptor and

  1. DNA damage signalling prevents deleterious telomere addition at DNA breaks

    PubMed Central

    Makovets, Svetlana; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2009-01-01

    The response to DNA damage involves regulation of multiple essential processes to maximize the accuracy of DNA damage repair and cell survival 1. Telomerase has the potential to interfere with repair by inappropriately adding telomeres to DNA breaks. It was unknown whether cells modulate telomerase in response to DNA damage, to increase the accuracy of repair. Here we report that telomerase action is regulated as a part of the cellular response to a DNA double-strand break (DSB). Using yeast, we show that the major ATR/Mec1 DNA damage signalling pathway regulates telomerase action at DSBs. Upon DNA damage, MEC1-RAD53-DUN1-dependent phosphorylation of the telomerase inhibitor Pif1 occurs. Utilizing a separation of function PIF1 mutation, we show that this phosphorylation is required for the Pif1-mediated telomerase inhibition that takes place specifically at DNA breaks, but not telomeres. Hence DNA damage signalling down-modulates telomerase action at a DNA break via Pif1 phosphorylation, thus preventing aberrant healing of broken DNA ends by telomerase. These findings uncover a novel regulatory mechanism that coordinates competing DNA end-processing activities and thereby promotes DNA repair accuracy and genome integrity. PMID:19838171

  2. Effects of Bauhinia forficata Tea on Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Salgueiro, Andréia Caroline Fernandes; da Silva, Marianne Pires; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro; Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Posser, Thaís; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Puntel, Gustavo Orione

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (BF) tea on oxidative stress and liver damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic male mice have remained 30 days without any treatment. BF treatment started on day 31 and continued for 21 days as a drinking-water substitute. We evaluated (1) BF chemical composition; (2) glucose levels; (3) liver/body weight ratio and liver transaminases; (4) reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation in liver; (5) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in liver; (6) δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) and nonprotein thiols (NPSH) in liver; (7) Nrf2, NQO-1, and HSP70 levels in liver and pancreas. Phytochemical analyses identified four phenols compounds. Diabetic mice present high levels of NQO-1 in pancreas, increased levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation in liver, and decrease in CAT activity. BF treatment normalized all these parameters. BF did not normalize hyperglycemia, liver/body weight ratio, aspartate aminotransferase, protein carbonyl, NPSH levels, and δ-ALA-D activity. The raised oxidative stress seems to be a potential mechanism involved in liver damage in hyperglycemic conditions. Our results indicated that BF protective effect could be attributed to its antioxidant capacity, more than a hypoglycemic potential. PMID:26839634

  3. Effects of Bauhinia forficata Tea on Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Salgueiro, Andréia Caroline Fernandes; Folmer, Vanderlei; da Silva, Marianne Pires; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro; Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Posser, Thaís; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Puntel, Gustavo Orione

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (BF) tea on oxidative stress and liver damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic male mice have remained 30 days without any treatment. BF treatment started on day 31 and continued for 21 days as a drinking-water substitute. We evaluated (1) BF chemical composition; (2) glucose levels; (3) liver/body weight ratio and liver transaminases; (4) reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation in liver; (5) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in liver; (6) δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) and nonprotein thiols (NPSH) in liver; (7) Nrf2, NQO-1, and HSP70 levels in liver and pancreas. Phytochemical analyses identified four phenols compounds. Diabetic mice present high levels of NQO-1 in pancreas, increased levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation in liver, and decrease in CAT activity. BF treatment normalized all these parameters. BF did not normalize hyperglycemia, liver/body weight ratio, aspartate aminotransferase, protein carbonyl, NPSH levels, and δ-ALA-D activity. The raised oxidative stress seems to be a potential mechanism involved in liver damage in hyperglycemic conditions. Our results indicated that BF protective effect could be attributed to its antioxidant capacity, more than a hypoglycemic potential.

  4. 49 CFR 198.37 - State one-call damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State one-call damage prevention program. 198.37... REGULATIONS FOR GRANTS TO AID STATE PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Adoption of One-Call Damage Prevention Program § 198.37 State one-call damage prevention program. A State must adopt a one-call damage...

  5. Determination of DNA damage in experimental liver intoxication and role of N-acetyl cysteine.

    PubMed

    Aksit, Hasan; Bildik, Aysegül

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed at detecting DNA damage and fragmentation as well as histone acetylation depending on oxidative stress caused by CCl4 intoxication. Also, the protective role of N-acetyl cysteine, a precursor for GSH, in DNA damage is investigated. Sixty rats were used in this study. In order to induce liver toxicity, CCl4 in was dissolved in olive oil (1/1) and injected intraperitoneally as a single dose (2 ml/kg). N-acetyl cysteine application (intraperitoneal, 50 mg/kg/day) was started 3 days prior to CCl4 injection and continued during the experimental period. Control groups were given olive oil and N-acetyl cysteine. After 6 and 72 h of CCl4 injection, blood and liver tissue were taken under ether anesthesia. Nuclear extracts were prepared from liver. Changes in serum AST and ALT activities as well as MDA, TAS, and TOS levels showed that CCl4 caused lipid peroxidation and liver damage. However, lipid peroxidation and liver damage were reduced in the N-acetyl cysteine group. Increased levels in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine and histone acetyltransferase activities, decreased histone deacetylase activities, and DNA breakage detected in nuclear extracts showed that CCl4 intoxication induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat liver. The results of the present study indicate that N-acetyl cysteine has a protective effect on CCl4-induced DNA damage.

  6. [Ambient temperature impact on hepatocellular liver damage in rats following intake of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Marinković, Nadica S; Malicević, Zivorad; Dimitrijević, Jovan

    2011-07-01

    3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is a psycho-stimulating agent. It is usually taken orally in the form of tablets. It is absorbed throught the gastrointestinal mucous membrane. Hyperthermia is the most prominent clinical sign of MDMA intake. The most prominent forensic finding of lethal MDMA poisoning is myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular bleeding. However, liver and kidney damage: have also been described. The aim of this research was to determine if ambient temperatures affect liver damage in the experimental rats. The experiment was conducted for 8 h and 24 h, at temperatures of 12 degrees C, 22 degrees C and 32 degrees C. Both biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, AP, gamma GT and LDH) and pathohistological changes of the liver were monitored. Our reserch demonstrated that the most serious lever damage occurred at 32 degrees C. Liver damage was manifested as portal inflammation, periportal necrosis, lobular necrosis, stasis, intralobular hemorrhage and incerease of liver enzymes serum activity. Liver damage after MDMA intake rises with the increase of ambient temperature, and it is most pronounced at the temperature of 32 degrees C.

  7. Pentoxifylline prevents nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related liver pre-neoplasms by inhibiting hepatic inflammation and lipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shirakami, Yohei; Shimizu, Masahito; Kubota, Masaya; Ohno, Tomohiko; Kochi, Takahiro; Nakamura, Nobuhiko; Sumi, Takafumi; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has gained attention as a hepatic manifestation associated with metabolic syndrome and one of the causes for chronic liver damage leading to hepatocellular carcinoma. Although no standard medicinal treatment for NASH has been established, pentoxifylline (PTX), a medicine used to improve circulation, has recently been reported to ameliorate the histopathological appearance of NASH. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PTX on the development of NASH and diethylnitrosamine-induced liver tumorigenesis in C57BLKS/J- +Lepr/+Lepr obese and diabetic mice, which are considered a rodent model for NASH-related hepatocarcinogenesis. Mice were administered diethylnitrosamine, and then they received water with or without PTX. At the time of sacrifice, the development of hepatic pre-neoplastic lesions was significantly suppressed in the PTX groups. Hepatic triglyceride contents were decreased by PTX administration. The serum levels of triglyceride, free fatty acid, and alanine aminotransferase were all decreased by PTX treatment, as was the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, macrophage-inducing chemokines, and several lipogenic genes in the liver. In-vitro studies also showed that PTX treatment decreased the expression of several lipogenic genes and chemokines in cell lines. These findings suggest that PTX prevents NASH-related liver tumorigenesis by attenuating chronic hepatic inflammation and decreasing lipogenic gene expression in the liver.

  8. Are all phytochemicals useful in the preventing of DNA damage?

    PubMed

    Bacanlı, Merve; Aydın, Sevtap; Başaran, A Ahmet; Başaran, Nurşen

    2017-09-06

    Phytochemicals derived from natural plants have been used commonly for the prevention and/or treatment of different diseases due to the belief of their safety. Many plant species synthesize toxic chemicals. New natural chemicals are being discovered but their toxic effects are unknown. Phytochemicals have been regarded as possible antioxidants. But on the other hand it is suggested that various phenolic antioxidants can display pro-oxidant properties at high doses. In this review, the role of some phytochemicals (epigallocathecin gallate, carvacrol, galangin, limonene, lycopene, naringin, puerarin, terpinene, thymol and ursolic acid) on the prevention of DNA damage will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevention of liver fibrosis by triple helix-forming oligodeoxyribonucleotides targeted to the promoter region of type I collagen gene.

    PubMed

    Koilan, Subramaniyan; Hamilton, David; Baburyan, Narina; Padala, Mythili K; Weber, Karl T; Guntaka, Ramareddy V

    2010-10-01

    Hepatic fibrosis leading to cirrhosis remains a global health problem. The most common etiologies are alcoholism and viral infections. Liver fibrosis is associated with major changes in both quantity and composition of extracellular matix and leads to disorganization of the liver architecture and irreversible damage to the liver function. As of now there is no effective therapy to control fibrosis. The end product of fibrosis is abnormal synthesis and accumulation of type I collagen in the extracellular matrix, which is produced by activated stellate or Ito cells in the damaged liver. Therefore, inhibition of transcription of type I collagen should in principle inhibit its production and accumulation in liver. Normally, DNA exists in a duplex form. However, under some circumstances, DNA can assume triple helical (triplex) structures. Intermolecular triplexes, formed by the addition of a sequence-specific third strand to the major groove of the duplex DNA, have the potential to serve as selective gene regulators. Earlier, we demonstrated efficient triplex formation between the exogenously added triplex-forming oligodeoxyribonucleotides (TFOs) and a specific sequence in the promoter region of the COL1A1 gene. In this study we used a rat model of liver fibrosis, induced by dimethylnitrosamine, to test whether these TFOs prevent liver fibrosis. Our results indicate that both the 25-mer and 18-mer TFOs, specific for the upstream nucleotide sequence from -141 to -165 (relative to the transcription start site) in the 5' end of collagen gene promoter, effectively prevented accumulation of liver collagen and fibrosis. We also observed improvement in liver function tests. However, mutations in the TFO that eliminated formation of triplexes are ineffective in preventing fibrosis. We believe that these TFOs can be used as potential antifibrotic therapeutic molecules.

  10. Ebselen prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kono, H; Arteel, G E; Rusyn, I; Sies, H; Thurman, R G

    2001-02-15

    Oxidants have been shown to be involved in alcohol-induced liver injury. Moreover, 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazole-3(2H)-one (ebselen), an organoselenium compound and glutathione peroxidase mimic, decreases oxidative stress and protects against stroke clinically. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ebselen protects against early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed high-fat liquid diets with or without ethanol (10-16 g/kg/d) continuously for up to 4 weeks using the intragastric enteral feeding protocol developed by Tsukamoto and French. Ebselen (50 mg/kg twice daily, intragastrically) or vehicle (1% tylose) was administered throughout the experiment. Mean urine ethanol concentrations were not significantly different between treatment groups, and ebselen did not affect body weight gains or cyclic patterns of ethanol concentrations in urine. After 4 weeks, serum ALT levels were increased significantly about 4-fold over control values (37 +/- 5 IU/l) by enteral ethanol (112 +/- 7 IU/l); ebselen blunted this increase significantly (61 +/- 8 IU/l). Enteral ethanol also caused severe fatty accumulation, mild inflammation, and necrosis in the liver (pathology score: 4.3 +/- 0.3). In contrast, these pathological changes were blunted significantly by ebselen (pathology score: 2.5 +/- 0.4). While there were no significant effects of either ethanol or ebselen on glutathione peroxidase activity in serum or liver tissue, ebselen blocked the increase in serum nitrate/nitrite caused by ethanol. Furthermore, ethanol increased the activity of NF-kappaB over 5-fold, the number of infiltrating neutrophils 4-fold, and the accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal over 5-fold. Ebselen blunted all of these effects significantly. These results indicate that ebselen prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury, most likely by preventing oxidative stress, which decreases inflammation.

  11. Biological effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone on liver damage in Bmi-1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, YUANQING; CHEN, NING; MIAO, DENGSHUN

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has been demonstrated to function as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and subsequently protecting the mitochondria from oxidative stress-induced damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PQQ is able to rescue premature senescence in the liver, induced by the deletion of B cell-specific Moloney MLV insertion site-1 (Bmi-1), by inhibiting oxidative stress. In vivo, the mice were allocated into three groups that underwent the following treatment protocols. WT mice received a normal diet, while BKO mice also received a normal diet. An additional group of BKO mice were fed a PQQ-supplemented diet (BKO + PQQ; 4 mg PQQ/kg in the normal diet). The results indicated that PQQ partially rescued the liver damage induced by the deletion of Bmi-1. PQQ was demonstrated to exhibit these therapeutic effects on liver damage through multiple aspects, including the promotion of proliferation, antiapoptotic effects, the inhibition of senescence, the upregulation of antioxidant ability, the downregulation of cell cycle protein expression, the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the reduction of DNA damage. The results of these experiments indicated that treatment of BKO mice with a moderate dose of PQQ significantly protected the liver from deleterious effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and participating in DNA damage repair. Therefore, PQQ has great potential as a therapeutic agent against oxidative stress during liver damage. PMID:26622336

  12. The increasing burden of potentially preventable liver disease among adult liver transplant recipients: A comparative analysis of liver transplant indication by era in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Howell, Jessica; Balderson, Glenda; Hellard, Margaret; Gow, Paul; Strasser, Simone; Stuart, Katherine; Wigg, Alan; Jeffrey, Gary; Gane, Ed; Angus, Peter W

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), and non-alcohol-related fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are leading indications for adult liver transplantation in Australia and New Zealand. However, these diseases are potentially preventable through effective primary and/or secondary prevention strategies. This study evaluates the relative contribution of potentially preventable liver diseases to liver transplant numbers in Australia and New Zealand over time. Prospectively recorded clinical, demographic, and outcome data were collected from the Australian and New Zealand Liver Transplant Registry for all primary adult liver transplants performed in Australia and New Zealand from 1 January 1985 until 31 December 2012. Potentially preventable liver disease was defined as HBV, HCV, NAFLD, ALD, and HCC. The etiology of liver disease leading to liver transplantation and the proportion of preventable liver disease-related liver transplantation was compared between Era 1 (1985-1993), Era 2 (1994-2003), and Era 3 (2004-2012). Overall, 1252 of 3266 adult primary liver transplants (38.3%) were performed for potentially preventable liver disease. There was a significant increase in the proportion of liver transplants because of preventable liver disease from 21.2% (93 of 439) in Era 1, to 49.8% (623 of 1252) in Era 2 and 63.5% (1000 of 1575) in Era 3 (P < 0.0001). Over time, there was a significant increase in HCV (P < 0.0001), ALD (P = 0.002), and NAFLD (P < 0.0001) as a primary indication for adult liver transplant, whereas HBV has significantly decreased from Era 1 to Era 3 as an indication for transplant (P < 0.0001). The number of transplants performed for HCC also increased across Eras (P < 0.0001), with 84% due to underlying potentially preventable liver disease. Since 2004, the majority of primary adult liver transplants within Australia and New Zealand have been because of potentially preventable liver diseases and the

  13. Resistance training prevents liver fat accumulation in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Patrick; Paquette, Amélie; Brochu, Martin; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc

    2008-03-20

    Menopause is associated with increased lipid deposition in the liver and fat accumulation in the abdomen. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of adding a resistance training program (RT) to a restrictive diet (RD) on liver lipid accumulation and abdominal fat depots in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. One group of sham-operated and three groups of Ovx rats were compared. Five weeks after surgery, Ovx rats were either submitted to an approximately 25% RD with or without RT for 3 or 8 weeks, while a third group of Ovx rats were fed ad libitum and remained sedentary. The RT program consisted of climbing a 6m vertical metal grill five times a week with an increasing load up to 75% of body weight attached to the tail. The number of repetitions increased from two to four sets of 10 repetitions. Ovariectomy resulted in significantly higher (P<0.01) body weight, energy intake, intra-abdominal fat depots, plasma leptin levels (P<0.05), and liver triacylglycerol concentrations. All of these responses were (P<0.01) reduced in Ovx rats following the RD with the exception of liver lipid infiltration. The addition of RT to the RD treatment synergistically reduced abdominal fat deposition and plasma-free fatty acid levels. Moreover, liver lipid infiltration was completely prevented by the addition of the RT program. Muscle mass relative to body weight was significantly increased in Ovx-RD-RT compared to all other groups. It is concluded that RT is an asset to minimize the deleterious effects of ovarian hormone withdrawal on liver lipid accumulation and abdominal fat accumulation in Ovx rats.

  14. Oats supplementation prevents alcohol-induced gut leakiness in rats by preventing alcohol-induced oxidative tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yueming; Forsyth, Christopher B; Banan, Ali; Fields, Jeremy Z; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2009-06-01

    We reported previously that oats supplementation prevents gut leakiness and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) in our rat model of alcoholic liver disease. Because oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of both alcohol-induced gut leakiness and ASH, and because oats have antioxidant properties, we tested the hypothesis that oats protect by preventing alcohol-induced oxidative damage to the intestine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged for 12 weeks with alcohol (starting dose of 1 g/kg increasing to 6 g/kg/day over the first 2 weeks) or dextrose, with or without oats supplementation (10 g/kg/day). Oxidative stress and injury were assessed by measuring colonic mucosal inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) (by immunohistochemistry), nitric oxide (colorimetric assay), and protein carbonylation and nitrotyrosination (immunoblotting). Colonic barrier integrity was determined by assessing the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton (immunohistochemistry) and the integrity of tight junctions (electron microscopy). Oats supplementation prevented alcohol-induced up-regulation of iNOS, nitric oxide overproduction in the colonic mucosa, and increases in protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine levels. This protection was associated with prevention of ethanol (EtOH)-induced disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and disruption of tight junctions. We conclude that oats supplementation attenuates EtOH-induced disruption of intestinal barrier integrity, at least in part, by inhibiting EtOH-induced increases in oxidative stress and oxidative tissue damage. This inhibition prevents alcohol-induced disruption of the cytoskeleton and tight junctions. This study suggests that oats may be a useful therapeutic agent--a nutraceutical--for the prevention of alcohol-induced oxidative stress and organ dysfunction.

  15. Ketogenesis prevents diet-induced fatty liver injury and hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, David G.; Ercal, Baris; Huang, Xiaojing; Leid, Jamison M.; d’Avignon, D. André; Graham, Mark J.; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Patti, Gary J.; Crawford, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum disorders affect approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. However, the drivers of progressive steatohepatitis remain incompletely defined. Ketogenesis can dispose of much of the fat that enters the liver, and dysfunction in this pathway could promote the development of NAFLD. Here, we evaluated mice lacking mitochondrial 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase (HMGCS2) to determine the role of ketogenesis in preventing diet-induced steatohepatitis. Antisense oligonucleotide–induced loss of HMGCS2 in chow-fed adult mice caused mild hyperglycemia, increased hepatic gluconeogenesis from pyruvate, and augmented production of hundreds of hepatic metabolites, a suite of which indicated activation of the de novo lipogenesis pathway. High-fat diet feeding of mice with insufficient ketogenesis resulted in extensive hepatocyte injury and inflammation, decreased glycemia, deranged hepatic TCA cycle intermediate concentrations, and impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis due to sequestration of free coenzyme A (CoASH). Supplementation of the CoASH precursors pantothenic acid and cysteine normalized TCA intermediates and gluconeogenesis in the livers of ketogenesis-insufficient animals. Together, these findings indicate that ketogenesis is a critical regulator of hepatic acyl-CoA metabolism, glucose metabolism, and TCA cycle function in the absorptive state and suggest that ketogenesis may modulate fatty liver disease. PMID:25347470

  16. NAD(+) administration decreases doxorubicin-induced liver damage of mice by enhancing antioxidation capacity and decreasing DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ban; Ma, Yingxin; Kong, Xiaoni; Ding, Xianting; Gu, Hongchen; Chu, Tianqing; Ying, Weihai

    2014-04-05

    One of the major obstacles for cancer treatment is the toxic side effects of anti-cancer drugs. Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most widely used anti-cancer drugs, which produces significant toxic side effects on the heart and such organs as the liver. Because NAD(+) can decrease cellular or tissue damage under multiple conditions, we hypothesized that NAD(+) administration may decrease DOX-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study we tested this hypothesis by using a mouse model, showing that NAD(+) administration can significantly attenuate DOX-induced increase in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase activity and decrease in liver weight. The NAD(+) administration also attenuated the DOX-induced increases in the levels of double-strand DNA (dsDNA) damage, TUNEL signals, and active caspase-3. Furthermore, our data has suggested that the NAD(+) administration could produce protective effects at least partially by restoring the antioxidation capacity of the liver, because NAD(+) administration can attenuate the decreases in both the GSH levels and the glutathione reductase activity of the DOX-treated liver, which could play a significant role in the DOX-induced hepatotoxicity. This finding has provided the first evidence indicating that NAD(+) is capable of increasing the antioxidation capacity of tissues. Collectively, our study has found that NAD(+) can significantly decrease DOX-induced liver damage at least partially by enhancing antioxidation capacity and decreasing dsDNA damage. Because it can also selectively decrease tumor cell survival, NAD(+) may have significant merits over antioxidants for applying jointly with DOX to decrease the toxic side effects of DOX.

  17. Studies on protective effect of DA-9601, Artemisia asiatica extract, on acetaminophen- and CCl4-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ryu, B K; Ahn, B O; Oh, T Y; Kim, S H; Kim, W B; Lee, E B

    1998-10-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of DA-9601, a quality-controlled extract of Artemisia asiatica, on liver damage induced by acetaminophen (APAP) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was investigated by means of serum-biochemical, hepatic-biochemical, and histopathological examinations. Doses of DA-9601 (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg) were administered intragastrically to each rat on three consecutive days i.e. 48 h, 24 h and 2 h before a single administration of APAP (640 mg/kg, i.p.) or CCl4 (2 ml/kg, p.o.). Four h and 24 h after hepatotoxin treatment, the animals were sacrificed for evaluation of liver damage. Pretreatment of DA-9601 reduced the elevation of serum ALT, AST, LDH and histopathological changes such as centrilobular necrosis, vacuolar degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration dose-dependently. DA-9601 also prevented APAP- and CCl4-induced hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion and CCl4-induced increase of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), a parameter of lipid peroxidation, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that pretreatment with DA-9601 may reduce chemically induced liver injury by complex mechanisms which involve prevention of lipid peroxidation and preservation of hepatic GSH.

  18. Adverse effects of the antimalaria drug, mefloquine: due to primary liver damage with secondary thyroid involvement?

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Ashley M; Herxheimer, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background Mefloquine is a clinically important antimalaria drug, which is often not well tolerated. We critically reviewed 516 published case reports of mefloquine adverse effects, to clarify the phenomenology of the harms associated with mefloquine, and to make recommendations for safer prescribing. Presentation We postulate that many of the adverse effects of mefloquine are a post-hepatic syndrome caused by primary liver damage. In some users we believe that symptomatic thyroid disturbance occurs, either independently or as a secondary consequence of the hepatocellular injury. The mefloquine syndrome presents in a variety of ways including headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, fatigue, disorders of sleep, mood, memory and concentration, and occasionally frank psychosis. Previous liver or thyroid disease, and concurrent insults to the liver (such as from alcohol, dehydration, an oral contraceptive pill, recreational drugs, and other liver-damaging drugs) may be related to the development of severe or prolonged adverse reactions to mefloquine. Implications We believe that people with active liver or thyroid disease should not take mefloquine, whereas those with fully resolved neuropsychiatric illness may do so safely. Mefloquine users should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, hormonal contraception and co-medications known to cause liver damage or thyroid damage. With these caveats, we believe that mefloquine may be safely prescribed in pregnancy, and also to occupational groups who carry out safety-critical tasks. Testing Mefloquine's adverse effects need to be investigated through a multicentre cohort study, with small controlled studies testing specific elements of the hypothesis. PMID:11914150

  19. The alterations in the extracellular matrix composition guide the repair of damaged liver tissue

    PubMed Central

    Klaas, Mariliis; Kangur, Triin; Viil, Janeli; Mäemets-Allas, Kristina; Minajeva, Ave; Vadi, Krista; Antsov, Mikk; Lapidus, Natalia; Järvekülg, Martin; Jaks, Viljar

    2016-01-01

    While the cellular mechanisms of liver regeneration have been thoroughly studied, the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in liver regeneration is still poorly understood. We utilized a proteomics-based approach to identify the shifts in ECM composition after CCl4 or DDC treatment and studied their effect on the proliferation of liver cells by combining biophysical and cell culture methods. We identified notable alterations in the ECM structural components (eg collagens I, IV, V, fibronectin, elastin) as well as in non-structural proteins (eg olfactomedin-4, thrombospondin-4, armadillo repeat-containing x-linked protein 2 (Armcx2)). Comparable alterations in ECM composition were seen in damaged human livers. The increase in collagen content and decrease in elastic fibers resulted in rearrangement and increased stiffness of damaged liver ECM. Interestingly, the alterations in ECM components were nonhomogenous and differed between periportal and pericentral areas and thus our experiments demonstrated the differential ability of selected ECM components to regulate the proliferation of hepatocytes and biliary cells. We define for the first time the alterations in the ECM composition of livers recovering from damage and present functional evidence for a coordinated ECM remodelling that ensures an efficient restoration of liver tissue. PMID:27264108

  20. Data on expression of lipoxygenases-5 and -12 in the normal and acetaminophen-damaged liver.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Maria; Gruia, Alexandra T; Nica, Dragos V; Azghadi, Seyed M R; Mic, Ani A; Mic, Felix A

    2016-06-01

    Here we present additional data on the expression of lipoxygenases -5 and -12 in the normal and acetaminophen-damaged liver, which are associated with our manuscript recently published in Chemico-Biological Interactions on lipid metabolism and eicosanoid signaling pathways involved in acetaminophen-induced liver damage in a mouse model (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2015.10.019 [1]). It has been demonstrated that the expression of lipoxygenase-5 and leukotriene formation are increased in the livers of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cirrhosis (http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/gast.2000.17831 [2]). In addition, the lipoxygenase-12 is known to be expressed in the resident macrophage population of the liver (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0014-5793(99)00396-8 [3]). Mice were injected with acetaminophen, and at 48 h their livers were processed for immunohistochemistry with anti-mouse lipoxygenase-5 and -12 antibodies. At the same time point, the RNA was also extracted from the liver to assess the expression of lipoxygenase-5 and -12 genes via qPCR analysis. Our results show that lipoxygenase-5 expression, but not that of lipoxygenase-12, changes significantly in the acetominophen-damaged liver.

  1. The alterations in the extracellular matrix composition guide the repair of damaged liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Klaas, Mariliis; Kangur, Triin; Viil, Janeli; Mäemets-Allas, Kristina; Minajeva, Ave; Vadi, Krista; Antsov, Mikk; Lapidus, Natalia; Järvekülg, Martin; Jaks, Viljar

    2016-06-06

    While the cellular mechanisms of liver regeneration have been thoroughly studied, the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in liver regeneration is still poorly understood. We utilized a proteomics-based approach to identify the shifts in ECM composition after CCl4 or DDC treatment and studied their effect on the proliferation of liver cells by combining biophysical and cell culture methods. We identified notable alterations in the ECM structural components (eg collagens I, IV, V, fibronectin, elastin) as well as in non-structural proteins (eg olfactomedin-4, thrombospondin-4, armadillo repeat-containing x-linked protein 2 (Armcx2)). Comparable alterations in ECM composition were seen in damaged human livers. The increase in collagen content and decrease in elastic fibers resulted in rearrangement and increased stiffness of damaged liver ECM. Interestingly, the alterations in ECM components were nonhomogenous and differed between periportal and pericentral areas and thus our experiments demonstrated the differential ability of selected ECM components to regulate the proliferation of hepatocytes and biliary cells. We define for the first time the alterations in the ECM composition of livers recovering from damage and present functional evidence for a coordinated ECM remodelling that ensures an efficient restoration of liver tissue.

  2. Markers of activated inflammatory cells correlate with severity of liver damage in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    De Vito, Rita; Alisi, Anna; Masotti, Andrea; Ceccarelli, Sara; Panera, Nadia; Citti, Arianna; Salata, Michele; Valenti, Luca; Feldstein, Ariel E; Nobili, Valerio

    2012-07-01

    Concomitantly to the obesity epidemic, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the leading cause of liver disease in children. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of histological damage ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with possible progression to cirrhosis. There is growing evidence that the immune system plays a pivotal role in the initiation and progression to NASH but the cellular nature of the hepatic inflammation is still unknown. The present study includes 34 children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Liver damage was evaluated by the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and the inflammatory infiltrate was characterized by immunohistochemistry for CD45, CD3 and CD163 which are markers of leukocytes, T cells and activated Kupffer cells/macrophages, respectively. Our results have shown that CD45+ (P<0.0001) and CD163+ (P<0.0001) cells were markedly increased in children with severe histological activity (NAS≥5) compared to children with lower activity (NAS<5), whereas CD3+ cells were significantly lower (P<0.01) in children with severe histological activity. There was a significant association between the numbers of CD45+, CD3+ and CD163+ cells, regarding both the portal tract and liver lobule, and the severity of steatosis, ballooning and fibrosis (P<0.01). These data suggest that the severity and composition of the inflammatory infiltrate correlate with steatosis and the severity of disease in children with NAFLD. Moreover, a decrease in CD3+ cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage. Future studies should evaluate whether it can predict the progression of liver disease independently of established histological scores.

  3. NBQX and TCP prevent soman-induced hippocampal damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lallement, G.; Carpentier, P.; Pernot-Marino, I.; Baubichon, D.; Blanchet, G.

    1993-05-13

    In a previous investigation we demonstrated that the measurement of w3 (peripheral-type benzodiazepine) binding site densities could be of widespread applicability in the localization and quantification of soman-induced damage in the central nervous system. We thus used this marker to assess, in mouse hippocampus, the neuroprotective activity against soman-induced brain damage of NBQX and TCP which are respective antagonists of non-NMDA and NMDA glutamatergic receptors. Injection of NBQX at 20 or 40 mg/kg 5 min prior to soman totally prevented the neuronal damage. Comparatively, TCP had neuroprotective efficacy when administered at l mg/kg 5 min prior to soman followed by a reinjection 1 hour after. These results demonstrate that both NBQX and TCP afford a satisfactory neuroprotection against soman-induced brain damage. Since it is known that the neuropathology due to soman is closely seizure-related, it is likely that the neuroprotective activities of NBQX and TCP are related to the respective roles of non-NMDA and NMDA receptors in the onset and maintenance of soman-induced seizures.

  4. Probiotic use in preventing postoperative infection in liver transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jim; Wu, Jinshan; Chalson, Helen; Merigan, Lynn; Mitchell, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background Although liver transplantation has been widely practised, post-operative bacterial infection is still a frequent complication which contributed to an increased risk of fatality. There were studies on preoperative use of probiotics for liver transplant patients and acquired reduction in postoperative sepsis and wound infection, but the relevant clinical experience with pre- and probiotics is still limited. Objectives This study is to assess fibre and probiotic use aimed at preventing bacterial sepsis and wound complications in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Study methods There were a total of sixty-seven adult patients scheduled for liver transplantation were included in a public teaching hospital. From January to December 2011, 34 continuous patients following liver transplantation were put on fibre + probiotics. In retrospectively, from January to December 2010, 33 continuous patients were collected as a control group and they were only received fibre post operation. The incidence of bacterial infections was compared in patients receiving either fibre and lactobacillus or fibre only. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 15. The t test, fisher’s and chi- square test was used to compare discrete variables. Results In summary, in the analysis of 67 liver transplant recipients, 8.8% group A patients developed infections compared to 30.3% group B patients. The difference between groups A and B was statistically significant in both cases. In addition, the duration of antibiotic therapy was significantly shorter in the lactobacillus-group. Wound infection was the most frequent infections and enterococci the most frequently isolated bacteria. Fibre and lactobacilli were well tolerated in most cases. The operating time, amount of intra- and post-operatively transfused units of blood, fresh frozen plasma and albumin did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions Combined fibre and probiotics could lower the incidence of

  5. Alternative Interventions to Prevent Oxidative Damage following Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lara, Simón Quetzalcoatl; Ramírez-Lizardo, Ernesto Javier; Totsuka-Sutto, Sylvia Elena; Castillo-Romero, Araceli; García-Cobián, Teresa Arcelia

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) lesions are a phenomenon that occurs in multiple pathological states and results in a series of events that end in irreparable damage that severely affects the recovery and health of patients. The principal therapeutic approaches include preconditioning, postconditioning, and remote ischemic preconditioning, which when used separately do not have a great impact on patient mortality or prognosis. Oxidative stress is known to contribute to the damage caused by I/R; however, there are no pharmacological approaches to limit or prevent this. Here, we explain the relationship between I/R and the oxidative stress process and describe some pharmacological options that may target oxidative stress-states. PMID:28116037

  6. Further studies on the late preventive effects of the anticalmodulin trifluoperazine on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.; Bernacchi, A.; Fernandez, G.; Villarruel, M.C.; Ferreyra, E.; Castro, C.; Fenos, O.

    1986-03-01

    The authors previously reported that trifluorperazine (TFP) administration 6 or 10 hr after CCl/sub 4/ is able to partially prevent liver necrosis by the hepatotoxin at 24 hr. Preventive effect is not due to interference by TFP on CCl/sub 4/ metabolic activation to CCl/sub 3/ or its covalent binding to cellular components or of lipid peroxidation. Now the authors report that TFP administration 10 hr after CCl/sub 4/ does not prevent calcium accumulation but increases glycogen content. Increases in glycogen are more marked in livers of animals receiving only TFP. Administration slightly stimulates /sup 14/C-leucine incorporation in liver proteins but it does not modify decay of radioactivity in (/sup 14/C-guanidino) arginine prelabelled liver protein. TFP does not modify decay of radioactivity in /sup 32/P prelabelled phospholipid. Electron microscopy studies of livers from CCl/sub 4/ poisoned rats receiving TFP 10 hr after the hepatoto toxin and sacrificed at 24 hr revealed the presence of glycogen granules in otherwise glycogen-depleted preparations. These preparations showed only slight dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum or the perinuclear membrane and intact mitochondria. Results might suggest that TFP interaction with calmodulin might interfere with a process of propagation of CCl/sub 4/-induced liver damage sparked by calcium accumulation and requiring the hormone for operation.

  7. Devices prevent ice damage to trusses of semi

    SciTech Connect

    Marthinsen, A.

    1985-04-01

    Much exploration drilling is done in subarctic waters around the world, and this will be important in the future. Special demands will be made on the drilling structures to enable them to withstand collisions with drifting ice. A Newfoundland Certificate of Fitness, for example, says a vessel must be able to tolerate collision with the largest iceberg that can be undetectable by radar, with out the danger of platform collapse. The iceberg in this case is defined as having a weight of 5000 tons and a drifting velocity of 2 meters/second. Devices to prevent ice damage to the trusses of semisubmersibles are discussed.

  8. [Prediction of histological liver damage in asymptomatic alcoholic patients by means of clinical and laboratory data].

    PubMed

    Iturriaga, H; Hirsch, S; Bunout, D; Díaz, M; Kelly, M; Silva, G; de la Maza, M P; Petermann, M; Ugarte, G

    1993-04-01

    Looking for a noninvasive method to predict liver histologic alterations in alcoholic patients without clinical signs of liver failure, we studied 187 chronic alcoholics recently abstinent, divided in 2 series. In the model series (n = 94) several clinical variables and results of common laboratory tests were confronted to the findings of liver biopsies. These were classified in 3 groups: 1. Normal liver; 2. Moderate alterations; 3. Marked alterations, including alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Multivariate methods used were logistic regression analysis and a classification and regression tree (CART). Both methods entered gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), weight and age as significant and independent variables. Univariate analysis with GGT and AST at different cutoffs were also performed. To predict the presence of any kind of damage (Groups 2 and 3), CART and AST > 30 IU showed the higher sensitivity, specificity and correct prediction, both in the model and validation series. For prediction of marked liver damage, a score based on logistic regression and GGT > 110 IU had the higher efficiencies. It is concluded that GGT and AST are good markers of alcoholic liver damage and that, using sample cutoffs, histologic diagnosis can be correctly predicted in 80% of recently abstinent asymptomatic alcoholics.

  9. Primer for Teachers: Quick and Easy Liver Wellness, Hepatitis B and Substance Abuse Prevention Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Thelma King

    This guide provides information for teachers to use in teaching about liver wellness, hepatitis B, and substance abuse. The guide includes effective motivational techniques to help students understand how valuable their liver is to their health and well being. It also provides basic information to help students avoid liver damaging behaviors, such…

  10. Primer for Teachers: Quick and Easy Liver Wellness, Hepatitis B and Substance Abuse Prevention Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Thelma King

    This guide provides information for teachers to use in teaching about liver wellness, hepatitis B, and substance abuse. The guide includes effective motivational techniques to help students understand how valuable their liver is to their health and well being. It also provides basic information to help students avoid liver damaging behaviors, such…

  11. Symbiotic formulation in experimentally induced liver fibrosis in rats: intestinal microbiota as a key point to treat liver damage?

    PubMed

    D'Argenio, Giuseppe; Cariello, Rita; Tuccillo, Concetta; Mazzone, Giovanna; Federico, Alessandro; Funaro, Annalisa; De Magistris, Laura; Grossi, Enzo; Callegari, Maria L; Chirico, Marilena; Caporaso, Nicola; Romano, Marco; Morelli, Lorenzo; Loguercio, Carmela

    2013-05-01

    Evidence indicates that intestinal microbiota may participate in both the induction and the progression of liver damage. The aim of our research was the detection and evaluation of the effects of chronic treatment with a symbiotic formulation on CCl4 -induced rat liver fibrosis. CCl4 significantly increased gastric permeability in respect to basal values, and the treatment with symbiotic significantly decreased it. CCl4 per se induced a decrease in intestinal permeability. This effect was also seen in fibrotic rats treated with symbiotic and was still evident when normal rats were treated with symbiotic alone (P < 0.001 in all cases). Circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α were significantly increased in rats with liver fibrosis as compared with normal rats, while symbiotic treatment normalized the plasma levels of TNF-α and significantly enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine IL 10. TNF-α, TGF-β, TLR4, TLR2, iNOS and α-SMA mRNA expression in the liver were up-regulated in rats with CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis and down-regulated by symbiotic treatment. Moreover, IL-10 and eNOS mRNA levels were increased in the CCL4 (+) symbiotic group. Symbiotic treatment of fibrotic rats normalized serum ALT, AST and improved histology and liver collagen deposition. DGGE analysis of faecal samples revealed that CCl4 administration and symbiotic treatment either alone or in combination produced modifications in faecal profiles vs controls. Our results provide evidence that in CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis, significant changes in gastro-intestinal permeability and in faecal flora occur. Treatment with a specific symbiotic formulation significantly affects these changes, leading to improvement in both liver inflammation and fibrosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Hepatocyte damage induced by lymphocytes from patients with chronic liver diseases, as detected by LDH release.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Cruz, E; Escartin, P; Bootello, A; Kreisler, M; Segovia de Arana, J M

    1978-01-01

    We have used a cytoplasmic enzyme system in the study of the in vitro cytotoxic activity of human peripheral blood leucocytes against isolated liver cells in patients with chronic liver diseases. Lymphocytes from primary biliary cirrhosis and chronic active liver disease patients were shown to have an in vitro capacity to induce a cytolitic effect on isolated hepatocytes, as demonstrated by the enhanced release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a cytoplasmic marker enzyme. No significant LDH release was seen with control lymphocytes of normal persons or with lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Our results corroborate, in a different assay system, by a simple, reproducible and different method, that lymphocyte-mediated liver cell damage "in vitro" occurs in both primary biliary cirrhosis and chronic active liver disease. PMID:657588

  13. Fatal Liver Damage After Barium Enemas Containing Tannic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lucke, Hans H.; Hodge, Kenneth E.; Patt, Norman L.

    1963-01-01

    Tannic acid contained in the barium enema was found to have been the sole known potential hepatotoxin in four of the five cases of fulminating fatal liver failure that occurred in a 213-bed hospital over a period of 27 months. In the other case halothane anesthesia had also been administered. Autopsies (performed on four of the cases) did not suggest viral hepatitis but showed substantially indentical hepatic changes, not unlike those reported in the past following tannic acid exposure. Proof is not claimed that tannic acid was the cause of these deaths, but further investigation regarding the safety of its administration in barium enemas is advocated. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:14079135

  14. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kai C.; Liu, Jie J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  15. Ginger-derived nanoparticles protect against alcohol-induced liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xiaoying; Deng, Zhong-Bin; Mu, Jingyao; Zhang, Lifeng; Yan, Jun; Miller, Donald; Feng, Wenke; McClain, Craig J.; Zhang, Huang-Ge

    2015-01-01

    Daily exposure of humans to nanoparticles from edible plants is inevitable, but significant advances are required to determine whether edible plant nanoparticles are beneficial to our health. Additionally, strategies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying any beneficial effects. Here, as a proof of concept, we used a mouse model to show that orally given nanoparticles isolated from ginger extracts using a sucrose gradient centrifugation procedure resulted in protecting mice against alcohol-induced liver damage. The ginger-derived nanoparticle (GDN)–mediated activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) led to the expression of a group of liver detoxifying/antioxidant genes and inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, which partially contributes to the liver protection. Using lipid knock-out and knock-in strategies, we further identified that shogaol in the GDN plays a role in the induction of Nrf2 in a TLR4/TRIF-dependent manner. Given the critical role of Nrf2 in modulating numerous cellular processes, including hepatocyte homeostasis, drug metabolism, antioxidant defenses, and cell-cycle progression of liver, this finding not only opens up a new avenue for investigating GDN as a means to protect against the development of liver-related diseases such as alcohol-induced liver damage but sheds light on studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying interspecies communication in the liver via edible plant–derived nanoparticles. PMID:26610593

  16. A case of acetaminophen (paracetamol) causing renal failure without liver damage in a child and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ozan; Genc, Gurkan; Bek, Kenan; Sullu, Yurdanur

    2010-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used drug and known as a safety antipyretic and analgesic drug in childhood. Acetaminophen-associated liver damage is more recognized than kidney damage. Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity can be seen together after acetaminophen overdose, but renal damage without liver damage is a rarely seen entity in all age groups being reported more rarely in childhood. We present here a 16-year-old girl with renal failure without liver damage because of acetaminophen toxicity and a review of literature for pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical course, treatment, and outcome.

  17. Hepatic stellate cells express thymosin Beta 4 in chronically damaged liver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jieun; Wang, Sihyung; Hyun, Jeongeun; Choi, Steve S; Cha, Heejae; Ock, Meesun; Jung, Youngmi

    2015-01-01

    Although the various biological roles of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) have been studied widely, the effect of Tβ4 and Tβ4-expressing cells in the liver remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the expression and function of Tβ4 in chronically damaged livers. CCl4 was injected into male mice to induce a model of chronic liver disease. Mice were sacrificed at 6 and 10 weeks after CCl4 treatment, and the livers were collected for biochemical analysis. The activated LX-2, human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line, were transfected with Tβ4-specific siRNA and activation markers of HSCs were examined. Compared to HepG2, higher expression of Tβ4 in RNA and protein levels was detected in the activated LX-2. In addition, Tβ4 was up-regulated in human liver with advanced liver fibrosis. The expression of Tβ4 increased during mouse HSC activation. Tβ4 was also up-regulated and Tβ4-positive cells were co-localized with α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the livers of CCl4-treated mice, whereas such cells were rarely detected in the livers of corn-oil treated mice. The suppression of Tβ4 in LX-2 cells by siRNA induced the down-regulation of HSC activation-related genes, tgf-β, α-sma, collagen, and vimentin, and up-regulation of HSC inactivation markers, ppar-γ and gfap. Immunofluorescent staining detected rare co-expressing cells with Tβ4 and α-SMA in Tβ4 siRNA-transfected cells. In addition, cytoplasmic lipid droplets were observed in Tβ4 siRNA-treated cells. These results demonstrate that activated HSCs expressed Tβ4 in chronically damaged livers, and this endogenous expression of Tβ4 influenced HSC activation, indicating that Tβ4 might contribute to liver fibrosis by regulating HSC activation.

  18. Prevention of murine erythropoietic protoporphyria-associated skin photosensitivity and liver disease by dermal and hepatic ferrochelatase.

    PubMed

    Pawliuk, Robert; Tighe, Robert; Wise, Robert J; Mathews-Roth, Micheline M; Leboulch, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is caused by a defect in ferrochelatase, leading to the accumulation of protoporphyrin predominantly in erythrocytes and hepatocytes, and resulting in skin photosensitivity upon leaching of blood protoporphyrin into the skin. Some patients also develop severe liver damage. Because the respective contributions of hepatic and erythrocytic protoporphyrin to the pathophysiology of EPP remain unclear, we investigated this question using the murine model of EPP. Transplantation of bone marrow from EPP mice to normal recipients resulted in elevated erythrocyte and plasma protoporphyrin levels. However, quantification of serum liver enzymes and bilirubin together with histopathologic examination of liver sections of mice up to 16 months post-transplantation showed no evidence of liver damage. Moreover, despite massive elevation of serum protoporphyrin, transplanted mice showed minimal evidence of skin photosensitivity. Photosensitivity could also be prevented locally by implanting skin grafts from normal mice onto the backs of EPP recipients. These data validate the hypothesis that the main source of toxic protoporphyrin originates from the erythrocytes. However, we unexpectedly observed that normal ferrochelatase activity in hepatic and dermal cells of wild-type mice is sufficient to prevent liver disease and significant skin photosensitivity. These findings may provide new strategies for the treatment of EPP.

  19. Bee Products Prevent Agrichemical-Induced Oxidative Damage in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Daiane; Rocha, Helio Carlos; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Loro, Vania Lucia; Marqueze, Alessandra; Koakoski, Gessi; Santos da Rosa, João Gabriel; Gusso, Darlan; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2013-01-01

    In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g) were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™) and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L−1 of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50). We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ), honey (H), bee pollen (BP) and propolis (P), reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are increased. PMID:24098336

  20. Hydrogen prevents corneal endothelial damage in phacoemulsification cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Tsutomu; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Kobayashi, Maika; Igarashi, Toru; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Iketani, Masumi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    In phacoemulsification, ultrasound induces hydroxyl radical (·OH) formation, damaging corneal endothelium. Whether H2 can prevent such oxidative damage in phacoemulsification was examined by in vitro and in vivo studies. H2 was dissolved in a commercial irrigating solution. The effects of H2 against ·OH generation were first confirmed in vitro by electron-spin resonance (ESR) and hydroxyphenyl fluorescein (HPF). ESR showed a significantly decreased signal magnitude, and fluorescence intensity by oxidized HPF was significantly less in the H2-dissolved solution. The effects of H2 in phacoemulsification were evaluated in rabbits, comparing H2-dissolved and control solutions. Five hours after the procedure, the whole cornea was excised and subjected to image analysis for corneal edema, real-time semiquantitative PCR (qPCR) for heme oxygenase (HO)-1, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), and SOD2 mRNA, and immunohistochemistry. Corneal edema was significantly less and the increases in anti-oxidative HO-1, CAT and SOD2 mRNA expressions were significantly suppressed in the H2 group. In addition, corneal endothelial cell expressions of two oxidative stress markers, 4-HNE and 8-OHdG, were significantly lower in the H2 group. In conclusion, H2 dissolved in the ocular irrigating solution protected corneal endothelial cells from phacoemulsification-induced oxidative stress and damage. PMID:27498755

  1. Bee products prevent agrichemical-induced oxidative damage in fish.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Daiane; Rocha, Helio Carlos; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Loro, Vania Lucia; Marqueze, Alessandra; Koakoski, Gessi; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Gusso, Darlan; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2013-01-01

    In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g) were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™) and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L(-1) of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50). We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ), honey (H), bee pollen (BP) and propolis (P), reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are increased.

  2. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates metabolic syndrome-induced liver damage in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Sil, Rajarshi; Ray, Doel; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2015-11-01

    Glycyrrhizin, a major constituent of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root, has been reported to ameliorate insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and obesity in rats with metabolic syndrome. Liver dysfunction is associated with this syndrome. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizin treatment on metabolic syndrome-induced liver damage. After induction of metabolic syndrome in rats by high fructose (60%) diet for 6 weeks, the rats were treated with glycyrrhizin (50 mg/kg body weight, single intra-peritoneal injection). After 2 weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed to collect blood samples and liver tissues. Compared to normal, elevated activities of serum alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase, increased levels of liver advanced glycation end products, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, protein kinase Cα, NADPH oxidase-2, and decreased glutathione cycle components established liver damage and oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats. Activation of nuclear factor κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as well as signals from mitochondria were found to be involved in liver cell apoptosis. Increased levels of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-12 proteins suggested hepatic inflammation. Metabolic syndrome caused hepatic DNA damage and poly-ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting using annexin V/propidium iodide staining confirmed the apoptotic hepatic cell death. Histology of liver tissue also supported the experimental findings. Treatment with glycyrrhizin reduced oxidative stress, hepatic inflammation, and apoptotic cell death in fructose-fed rats. The results suggest that glycyrrhizin possesses therapeutic potential against hepatocellular damage in metabolic syndrome.

  3. Targeted metabolomic study indicating glycyrrhizin’s protection against acetaminophen-induced liver damage through reversing fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian; Jiang, Yang-Shen; Jiang, Yuan; Peng, Yan-Fang; Sun, Zhuang; Dai, Xiao-Nan; Cao, Qiu-Ting; Sun, Ying-Ming; Han, Jing-Chun; Gao, Ya-Jie

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to give a short report on a possible mechanism of glycyrrhizin to acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Seven-day intraperitoneal administration of glycyrrhizin (400 mg/kg/day) to 2- to 3-month-old male C57BL/6N mice (mean weight 27 g) significantly prevents acetaminophen-induced liver damage, as indicated by the activity of alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase. Metabolomics analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to triple time-of-flight mass spectrometer were performed. PCA separated well the control, glycyrrhizin-treated, acetaminophen-treated, and glycyrrhizin+acetaminophen-treated groups. Long-chain acylcarnitines were listed as the top ions that contribute to this good separation, which include oleoylcarnitine, palmitoylcarnitine, palmitoleoylcarnitine, and myristoylcarnitine. The treatment of glycyrrhizin significantly reversed the increased levels of long-chain acylcarnitines induced by acetaminophen administration. In conclusion, this metabolomic study indicates a significant glycyrrhizin protection effect against acetaminophen-induced liver damage through reversing fatty acid metabolism. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effects of isoquinoline alkaloid berberine on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense system, and liver damage induced by lead acetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Hasanein, Parisa; Ghafari-Vahed, Masumeh; Khodadadi, Iraj

    2017-01-01

    Liver is considered a target organ affected by lead toxicity. Oxidative stress is among the mechanisms involved in liver damage. Here we investigated the effects of the natural alkaloid berberine on oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity induced by lead in rats. Animals received an aqueous solution of lead acetate (500 mg Pb/l in the drinking water) and/or daily oral gavage of berberine (50 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Rats were then weighed and used for the biochemical, molecular, and histological evaluations. Lead-induced oxidative stress, shown by increasing lipid peroxidation along with a concomitant decrease in hepatic levels of thiol groups, total antioxidant capacity, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase, and reduced versus oxidized glutathione ratio. Berberine corrected all the disturbances in oxidative stress markers induced by lead administration. Berberine also prevented the elevated levels of enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) and the decrease in body weight and albumin. The protective effects of berberine were comparable with silymarin. Furthermore, berberine attenuated liver damage, shown by decreased necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Berberine represents a potential therapeutic option against lead-induced hepatotoxicity through inhibiting lipid peroxidation and enhancing antioxidant defenses. Berberine exerted protective effects on lead-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats.

  5. High Parasite Burdens Cause Liver Damage in Mice following Plasmodium berghei ANKA Infection Independently of CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immune Pathology ▿

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Ashraful; Best, Shannon E.; Amante, Fiona H.; Ammerdorffer, Anne; de Labastida, Fabian; Pereira, Tamara; Ramm, Grant A.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2011-01-01

    Infection of C57BL/6 mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA induces a fatal neurological disease commonly referred to as experimental cerebral malaria. The onset of neurological symptoms and mortality depend on pathogenic CD8+ T cells and elevated parasite burdens in the brain. Here we provide clear evidence of liver damage in this model, which precedes and is independent of the onset of neurological symptoms. Large numbers of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells accumulated in the liver following P. berghei ANKA infection. However, systemic depletion of these cells at various times during infection, while preventing neurological symptoms, failed to protect against liver damage or ameliorate it once established. In contrast, rapid, drug-mediated removal of parasites prevented hepatic injury if administered early and quickly resolved liver damage if administered after the onset of clinical symptoms. These data indicate that CD8+ T cell-mediated immune pathology occurs in the brain but not the liver, while parasite-dependent pathology occurs in both organs during P. berghei ANKA infection. Therefore, we show that P. berghei ANKA infection of C57BL/6 mice is a multiorgan disease driven by the accumulation of parasites, which is also characterized by organ-specific CD8+ T cell-mediated pathology. PMID:21343349

  6. DNA damage during glycation of lysine by methylglyoxal: assessment of vitamins in preventing damage.

    PubMed

    Suji, G; Sivakami, S

    2007-11-01

    Amino acids react with methylglyoxal to form advanced glycation end products. This reaction is known to produce free radicals. In this study, cleavage to plasmid DNA was induced by the glycation of lysine with methylglyoxal in the presence of iron(III). This system was found to produce superoxide as well as hydroxyl radicals. The abilities of various vitamins to prevent damage to plasmid DNA were evaluated. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate showed maximum protection, while pyridoxamine showed no protection. The protective abilities could be directly correlated to inhibition of production of hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate exhibited low radical scavenging ability as evaluated by its TEAC, but showed maximum protection probably by interfering in free radical production. Pyridoxamine did not inhibit free radical production. Thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate, both showed protective effects albeit to different extents. Tetrahydrofolic acid showed better antioxidant activity than folic acid but was found to damage DNA by itself probably by superoxide generation.

  7. 49 CFR 198.35 - Grants conditioned on adoption of one-call damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prevention program. 198.35 Section 198.35 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Prevention Program § 198.35 Grants conditioned on adoption of one-call damage prevention program. In... considers whether a State has adopted or is seeking to adopt a one-call damage prevention program in...

  8. 49 CFR 198.35 - Grants conditioned on adoption of one-call damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prevention program. 198.35 Section 198.35 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Prevention Program § 198.35 Grants conditioned on adoption of one-call damage prevention program. In... considers whether a State has adopted or is seeking to adopt a one-call damage prevention program in...

  9. 49 CFR 198.35 - Grants conditioned on adoption of one-call damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... prevention program. 198.35 Section 198.35 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Prevention Program § 198.35 Grants conditioned on adoption of one-call damage prevention program. In... considers whether a State has adopted or is seeking to adopt a one-call damage prevention program...

  10. Albumin Binding Function: The Potential Earliest Indicator for Liver Function Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Penglei; Yang, Huayu; Lu, Jingfen; Liao, Wenjun; Du, Shunda; Xu, Yingli; Xu, Haifeng; Lu, Xin; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian; Huang, Jiefu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Currently there is no indicator that can evaluate actual liver lesion for early stages of viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cirrhosis. Aim of this study was to investigate if albumin binding function could better reflect liver function in these liver diseases. Methods. An observational study was performed on 193 patients with early NAFLD, viral hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis patients were separated according to Child-Pugh score into A, B, and C subgroup. Albumin metal ion binding capacity (Ischemia-modified albumin transformed, IMAT) and fatty acid binding capacity (total binding sites, TBS) were detected. Results. Both IMAT and TBS were significantly decreased in patients with NAFLD and early hepatitis. In hepatitis group, they declined prior to changes of liver enzymes. IMAT was significantly higher in cirrhosis Child-Pugh class A group than hepatitis patients and decreased in Child-Pugh class B and class C patients. Both IMAT/albumin and TBS/albumin decreased significantly in hepatitis and NAFLD group patients. Conclusions. This is the first study to discover changes of albumin metal ion and fatty acid binding capacities prior to conventional biomarkers for liver damage in early stage of liver diseases. They may become potential earliest sensitive indicators for liver function evaluation. PMID:28101103

  11. Epicardial Adipose Tissue (EAT) Thickness Is Associated with Cardiovascular and Liver Damage in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Giuseppina; Consonni, Dario; Tiraboschi, Silvia; Baragetti, Andrea; Bertelli, Cristina; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo; Dongiovanni, Paola; Valenti, Luca; Grigore, Liliana; Tonella, Tatiana; Catapano, Alberico; Fargion, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been proposed as a cardiometabolic and hepatic fibrosis risk factor in patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of EAT in NAFLD by analyzing 1) the association between EAT, the other metabolic parameters and the severity of steatosis 2) the relationship between cardiovascular (cIMT, cplaques, E/A), liver (presence of NASH and significant fibrosis) damage and metabolic risk factors including EAT 3) the relationship between EAT and genetic factors strongly influencing liver steatosis. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we considered 512 consecutive patients with NAFLD (confirmed by biopsy in 100). EAT, severity of steatosis, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaques were evaluated by ultrasonography and results analysed by multiple linear and logistic regression models. Variables independently associated with EAT (mm) were female gender (p = 0.003), age (p = 0.001), BMI (p = 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.009), steatosis grade 2 (p = 0.01) and 3 (p = 0.04), fatty liver index (p = 0.001) and statin use (p = 0.03). Variables independently associated with carotid IMT were age (p = 0.0001), hypertension (p = 0.009), diabetes (p = 0.04), smoking habits (p = 0.04) and fatty liver index (p = 0.02), with carotid plaques age (p = 0.0001), BMI (p = 0.03), EAT (p = 0.02),) and hypertension (p = 0.02), and with E/A age (p = 0.0001), diabetes (p = 0.005), hypertension (p = 0.04) and fatty liver index (p = 0.004). In the 100 patients with available liver histology non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was independently associated with EAT (p = 0.04) and diabetes (p = 0.054) while significant fibrosis with EAT (p = 0.02), diabetes (p = 0.01) and waist circumference (p = 0.05). No association between EAT and PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 polymorphisms was found. Conclusion In patients with NAFLD, EAT is associated with the severity of liver and vascular damage

  12. Epicardial Adipose Tissue (EAT) Thickness Is Associated with Cardiovascular and Liver Damage in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Pisano, Giuseppina; Consonni, Dario; Tiraboschi, Silvia; Baragetti, Andrea; Bertelli, Cristina; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo; Dongiovanni, Paola; Valenti, Luca; Grigore, Liliana; Tonella, Tatiana; Catapano, Alberico; Fargion, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been proposed as a cardiometabolic and hepatic fibrosis risk factor in patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of EAT in NAFLD by analyzing 1) the association between EAT, the other metabolic parameters and the severity of steatosis 2) the relationship between cardiovascular (cIMT, cplaques, E/A), liver (presence of NASH and significant fibrosis) damage and metabolic risk factors including EAT 3) the relationship between EAT and genetic factors strongly influencing liver steatosis. In a cross-sectional study, we considered 512 consecutive patients with NAFLD (confirmed by biopsy in 100). EAT, severity of steatosis, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaques were evaluated by ultrasonography and results analysed by multiple linear and logistic regression models. Variables independently associated with EAT (mm) were female gender (p = 0.003), age (p = 0.001), BMI (p = 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.009), steatosis grade 2 (p = 0.01) and 3 (p = 0.04), fatty liver index (p = 0.001) and statin use (p = 0.03). Variables independently associated with carotid IMT were age (p = 0.0001), hypertension (p = 0.009), diabetes (p = 0.04), smoking habits (p = 0.04) and fatty liver index (p = 0.02), with carotid plaques age (p = 0.0001), BMI (p = 0.03), EAT (p = 0.02),) and hypertension (p = 0.02), and with E/A age (p = 0.0001), diabetes (p = 0.005), hypertension (p = 0.04) and fatty liver index (p = 0.004). In the 100 patients with available liver histology non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was independently associated with EAT (p = 0.04) and diabetes (p = 0.054) while significant fibrosis with EAT (p = 0.02), diabetes (p = 0.01) and waist circumference (p = 0.05). No association between EAT and PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 polymorphisms was found. In patients with NAFLD, EAT is associated with the severity of liver and vascular damage besides with the known metabolic risk

  13. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection: Serum biomarkers in predicting liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Valva, Pamela; Ríos, Daniela A; De Matteo, Elena; Preciado, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Currently, a major clinical challenge in the management of the increasing number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients is determining the best means for evaluating liver impairment. Prognosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) are partly dependent on the assessment of histological activity, namely cell necrosis and inflammation, and the degree of liver fibrosis. These parameters can be provided by liver biopsy; however, in addition to the risks related to an invasive procedure, liver biopsy has been associated with sampling error mostly due to suboptimal biopsy size. To avoid these pitfalls, several markers have been proposed as non-invasive alternatives for the diagnosis of liver damage. Distinct approaches among the currently available non-invasive methods are (1) the physical ones based on imaging techniques; and (2) the biological ones based on serum biomarkers. In this review, we discuss these approaches with special focus on currently available non-invasive serum markers. We will discuss: (1) class I serum biomarkers individually and as combined panels, particularly those that mirror the metabolism of liver extracellular matrix turnover and/or fibrogenic cell changes; (2) class II biomarkers that are indirect serum markers and are based on the evaluation of common functional alterations in the liver; and (3) biomarkers of liver cell death, since hepatocyte apoptosis plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. We highlight in this review the evidence behind the use of these markers and assess the diagnostic accuracy as well as advantages, limitations, and application in clinical practice of each test for predicting liver damage in CHC. PMID:26819506

  14. Delta-Like Ligand 4 Modulates Liver Damage by Down-Regulating Chemokine Expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhe; Liu, Yan; Dewidar, Bedair; Hu, Junhao; Park, Ogyi; Feng, Teng; Xu, Chengfu; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Qi; Meyer, Christoph; Ilkavets, Iryna; Müller, Alexandra; Stump-Guthier, Carolin; Munker, Stefan; Liebe, Roman; Zimmer, Vincent; Lammert, Frank; Mertens, Peter R; Li, Hai; Ten Dijke, Peter; Augustin, Hellmut G; Li, Jun; Gao, Bin; Ebert, Matthias P; Dooley, Steven; Li, Youming; Weng, Hong-Lei

    2016-07-01

    Disrupting Notch signaling ameliorates experimental liver fibrosis. However, the role of individual Notch ligands in liver damage is unknown. We investigated the effects of Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) in liver disease. DLL4 expression was measured in 31 human liver tissues by immunohistochemistry. Dll4 function was examined in carbon tetrachloride- and bile duct ligation-challenged mouse models in vivo and evaluated in hepatic stellate cells, hepatocytes, and Kupffer cells in vitro. DLL4 was expressed in patients' Kupffer and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Recombinant Dll4 protein (rDll4) ameliorated hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in mice after carbon tetrachloride challenge. In vitro, rDll4 significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide-dependent chemokine expression in both Kupffer and hepatic stellate cells. In bile duct ligation mice, rDll4 induced massive hepatic necrosis, resulting in the death of all animals within 1 week. Inflammatory cell infiltration and chemokine ligand 2 (Ccl2) expression were significantly reduced in rDll4-receiving bile duct ligation mice. Recombinant Ccl2 rescued bile duct ligation mice from rDll4-mediated death. In patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure, DLL4 expression was inversely associated with CCL2 abundance. Mechanistically, Dll4 regulated Ccl2 expression via NF-κB. Taken together, Dll4 modulates liver inflammatory response by down-regulating chemokine expression. rDll4 application results in opposing outcomes in two models of liver damage. Loss of DLL4 may be associated with CCL2-mediated cytokine storm in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

  15. Impact of a Novel PI3-KINASE Inhibitor in Preventing Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Damage Associated Molecular Pattern Accumulation: Results from the Biochronicity Project.

    PubMed

    Black, George E; Sokol, Kyle K; Moe, Donald M; Simmons, Jon; Muscat, David; Pastukh, Victor; Capley, Gina; Gorodnya, Olena; Ruchko, Mykhalo; Roth, Mark B; Gillespie, Mark; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-05-22

    Despite improvements in the management of severely injured patients, development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains a morbid complication of traumatic shock. One of the key attributes of MODS is a profound bioenergetics crisis, for which the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that metabolic uncoupling using an experimental PI3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002 (LY), may prevent mitochondrial abnormalities that lead to the generation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the release of mtDNA damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) METHODS: 16 swine were studied using LY294002 (LY), a non-selective PI3-KI: Animals were assigned to Trauma only (TO, N=3); LY drug only (LYO, N=3); and Experimental (N=10), trauma + drug (LY+T) groups. Both trauma groups underwent laparotomy, 35% hemorrhage, severe ischemia/reperfusion injury, and protocolized resuscitation. A battery of hemodynamic, laboratory, histologic, and bioenergetic parameters were monitored. mtDNA damage was determined in lung, liver, and kidney using Southern blot analyses, while plasma mtDNA DAMP analysis employed PCR amplification of a 200 bp sequence of the mtDNA D-loop region. Relative to control animals, H+I/R produced severe, time dependent decrements in hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary function accompanied by severe acidosis and lactate accumulation indicative of bioenergetics insufficiency. The H-I/R-animals displayed prominent oxidative mtDNA damage in all organs studied, with the most prominent damage in the liver. mtDNA damage was accompanied by accumulation of mtDNA DAMPs in plasma. Pre-treatment of H+I/R animals with LY294002 resulted in profound metabolic suppression, with approximate 50% decreases in O2 consumption and CO2 production. In addition, it prevented organ and bioenergetics dysfunction and was associated with a significant decrease in plasma mtDNA DAMPs to the levels of control animals. These findings show that H+I/R injury in

  16. Impact of a novel phosphoinositol-3 kinase inhibitor in preventing mitochondrial DNA damage and damage-associated molecular pattern accumulation: Results from the Biochronicity Project.

    PubMed

    Black, George Edward; Sokol, Kyle K; Moe, Donald M; Simmons, Jon D; Muscat, David; Pastukh, Victor; Capley, Gina; Gorodnya, Olena; Ruchko, Mykhaylo; Roth, Mark B; Gillespie, Mark; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Despite improvements in the management of severely injured patients, development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains a morbid complication of traumatic shock. One of the key attributes of MODS is a profound bioenergetics crisis, for which the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that metabolic uncoupling using an experimental phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, LY294002 (LY), may prevent mitochondrial abnormalities that lead to the generation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the release of mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Sixteen swine were studied using LY, a nonselective PI3-K inhibitor. Animals were assigned to trauma only (TO, n = 3), LY drug only (LYO, n = 3), and experimental (n = 10), trauma + drug (LY + T) groups. Both trauma groups underwent laparotomy, 35% hemorrhage, severe ischemia-reperfusion injury, and protocolized resuscitation. A battery of hemodynamic, laboratory, histological, and bioenergetics parameters were monitored. Mitochondrial DNA damage was determined in lung, liver, and kidney using Southern blot analyses, whereas plasma mtDNA DAMP analysis used polymerase chain reaction amplification of a 200-bp sequence of the mtDNA D-loop region. Relative to control animals, H + I/R (hemorrhage and ischemia/reperfusion) produced severe, time-dependent decrements in hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary function accompanied by severe acidosis and lactate accumulation indicative of bioenergetics insufficiency. The H-I/R animals displayed prominent oxidative mtDNA damage in all organs studied, with the most prominent damage in the liver. Mitochondrial DNA damage was accompanied by accumulation of mtDNA DAMPs in plasma. Pretreatment of H + I/R animals with LY resulted in profound metabolic suppression, with approximately 50% decreases in O2 consumption and CO2 production. In addition, it prevented organ and bioenergetics dysfunction and was associated with a

  17. Liver asialoglycoprotein receptor levels correlate with severity of alcoholic liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Casey, Carol A; McVicker, Benita L; Donohue, Terrence M; McFarland, Melinda A; Wiegert, Robert L; Nanji, Amin A

    2004-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the oral administration of ethanol (Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet) to rats results in a decreased expression and content of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) in the resultant fatty liver. In the present study, we wanted to determine whether the extent of impaired receptor content was correlated with the severity of liver pathology by using the intragastric feeding model. When ASGP-R protein and mRNA levels were measured in animals infused with ethanol or dextrose in the presence of fish oil (FO) or medium-chain triglyceride as the source of fat, more significant impairments to the ASGP-R were observed in the FO-ethanol group compared with the medium-chain triglyceride-ethanol group. Furthermore, only the FO-ethanol group showed pathological liver changes. These results demonstrate that a correlation exists between the progression of alcohol-associated liver injury, as defined by the severity of liver pathology, and an ethanol-induced decline in ASGP-R content.

  18. Lycopene treatment prevents hematological, reproductive and histopathological damage induced by acute zearalenone administration in male Swiss mice.

    PubMed

    Boeira, Silvana Peterini; Filho, Carlos Borges; Del'Fabbro, Lucian; Roman, Silvane Souza; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Jessé, Cristiano Ricardo; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Furian, Ana Flávia

    2014-07-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin commonly found as a contaminant in cereals. ZEA toxicity targets mainly the reproductive system, and oxidative stress plays an etiological role in its toxic effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of lycopene, a potent carotenoid antioxidant, on markers of oxidative stress in liver, kidney and testes, and on reproductive, hematological and histopathological parameters after ZEA administration. Adult Swiss albino male mice received lycopene (20mg/kg, p.o.) for ten days before a single oral administration of ZEA (40mg/kg, p.o.), and 48h thereafter tissues (liver, kidney, testes and blood) were collected for biochemical, hematological and histological analyses. Lycopene prevented ZEA-induced changes in hematological parameters (increased number of leukocytes, segmented neutrophils, sticks, eosinophils and monocytes and decreased number of red blood cells (RBC), number of lymphocytes and platelets). Moreover, lycopene prevented the reduction in the number and motility of spermatozoa and the testicular tissue damage induced by ZEA. In addition, lycopene prevented the decrease in glutathione-S-transferase activity in kidney and testes and increased glutathione-S-transferase activity per se in the liver, kidneys and testes as well as superoxide dismutase activity in the liver. In summary, lycopene was able to prevent ZEA-induced acute toxic effects in male mice, suggesting that this antioxidant carotenoid may represent a promising prophylactic strategy against ZEA toxicity.

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera on antitubercular drug-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Pari, L; Kumar, N Ashok

    2002-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae), commonly known as "Drumstick," is used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of various illness. We have evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves on liver damage induced by antitubercular drugs such as isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), and pyrazinamide (PZA) in rats. Oral administration of the extract showed a significant protective action made evident by its effect on the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (aspartate aminotransferase), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (alanine aminotransferase), alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin in the serum; lipids, and lipid peroxidation levels in liver. This observation was supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The results of this study showed that treatment with M. oleifera extracts or silymarin (as a reference) appears to enhance the recovery from hepatic damage induced by antitubercular drugs.

  20. Gold nanoparticles induce DNA damage in the blood and liver of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Eria; Londero, Eduardo; Ferreira, Gabriela Kozuchovski; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Zanoni, Elton Torres; de Souza Notoya, Frederico; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Daumann, Francine; Rohr, Paula; da Silva, Luciano; Andrade, Vanessa M.; da Silva Paula, Marcos Marques

    2014-11-01

    The potential of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for use in different biological applications has led to a strong interest in the study of their possible deleterious effects in biological systems and how these effects may be mitigated. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the acute and chronic administration of GNPs with mean diameters of 10 and 30 nm on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage in the blood and liver of adult rats. For the acute administration, Wistar adult rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of either GNPs or a saline solution. For the chronic administration, Wistar adult rats received a daily single injection of the same GNPs or saline solution for 28 days. Twenty-four hours after either the single (acute) or final injection (chronic), the rats were euthanised by decapitation, and the blood and liver were isolated for the evaluation of DNA damage. In this study, we demonstrated that the acute and chronic administration of GNPs 10 and 30 nm in size increased the frequency of DNA damage and the damage index in the blood and liver of adult rats. These findings suggest that the DNA damage may be caused by oxidative stress, which occurred regardless of the type of administration and GNP size.

  1. Efficient liver repopulation of transplanted hepatocyte prevents cirrhosis in a rat model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ludi; Shao, Yanjiao; Li, Lu; Tian, Feng; Cen, Jin; Chen, Xiaotao; Hu, Dan; Zhou, Yan; Xie, Weifen; Zheng, Yunwen; Ji, Yuan; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Dali; Hui, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah). Fah-deficient mice and pigs are phenotypically analogous to human HT1, but do not recapitulate all the chronic features of the human disorder, especially liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Rats as an important model organism for biomedical research have many advantages over other animal models. Genome engineering in rats is limited till the availability of new gene editing technologies. Using the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 technique, we generated Fah−/− rats. The Fah−/− rats faithfully represented major phenotypic and biochemical manifestations of human HT1, including hypertyrosinemia, liver failure, and renal tubular damage. More importantly, the Fah−/− rats developed remarkable liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, which have not been observed in Fah mutant mice or pigs. Transplantation of wild-type hepatocytes rescued the Fah−/− rats from impending death. Moreover, the highly efficient repopulation of hepatocytes in Fah−/− livers prevented the progression of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis and in turn restored liver architecture. These results indicate that Fah−/− rats may be used as an animal model of HT1 with liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, Fah−/− rats may be used as a tool in studying hepatocyte transplantation and a bioreactor for the expansion of hepatocytes. PMID:27510266

  2. 49 CFR 198.35 - Grants conditioned on adoption of one-call damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grants conditioned on adoption of one-call damage...) PIPELINE SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR GRANTS TO AID STATE PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Adoption of One-Call Damage Prevention Program § 198.35 Grants conditioned on adoption of one-call damage prevention program. In...

  3. Effect of intestinal microbiota alteration on hepatic damage in rats with acute rejection after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yirui; Chen, Huazhong; Zhu, Biao; Qin, Nan; Chen, Yunbo; Li, Zhengfeng; Deng, Min; Jiang, Haiyin; Xu, Xiangfei; Yang, Jiezuan; Ruan, Bing; Li, Lanjuan

    2014-11-01

    The previous studies all focus on the effect of probiotics and antibiotics on infection after liver transplantation. Here, we focus on the effect of gut microbiota alteration caused by probiotics and antibiotics on hepatic damage after allograft liver transplantation. Brown-Norway rats received saline, probiotics, or antibiotics via daily gavage for 3 weeks. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) was carried out after 1 week of gavage. Alteration of the intestinal microbiota, liver function and histopathology, serum and liver cytokines, and T cells in peripheral blood and Peyer's patch were evaluated. Distinct segregation of fecal bacterial diversity was observed in the probiotic group and antibiotic group when compared with the allograft group. As for diversity of intestinal mucosal microbiota and pathology of intestine at 2 weeks after OLT, antibiotics and probiotics had a significant effect on ileum and colon. The population of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the probiotic group was significantly greater than the antibiotic group and the allograft group. The liver injury was significantly reduced in the antibiotic group and the probiotic group compared with the allograft group. The CD4/CD8 and Treg cells in Peyer's patch were decreased in the antibiotic group. The intestinal Treg cell and serum and liver TGF-β were increased markedly while CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly decreased in the probiotic group. It suggested that probiotics mediate their beneficial effects through increase of Treg cells and TGF-β and deduction of CD4/CD8 in rats with acute rejection (AR) after OLT.

  4. Aldosterone induces fibrosis, oxidative stress and DNA damage in livers of male rats independent of blood pressure changes.

    PubMed

    Queisser, Nina; Happ, Kathrin; Link, Samuel; Jahn, Daniel; Zimnol, Anna; Geier, Andreas; Schupp, Nicole

    2014-11-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor blockers show antifibrotic potential in hepatic fibrosis. The mechanism of this protective effect is not known yet, although reactive oxygen species seem to play an important role. Here, we investigated the effects of elevated levels of aldosterone (Ald), the primary ligand of the mineralocorticoid receptor, on livers of rats in a hyperaldosteronism model: aldosterone-induced hypertension. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 4 weeks with aldosterone. To distinguish if damage caused in the liver depended on increased blood pressure or on increased Ald levels, the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone was given in a subtherapeutic dose, not normalizing blood pressure. To investigate the impact of oxidative stress, the antioxidant tempol was administered. Aldosterone induced fibrosis, detected histopathologically, and by expression analysis of the fibrosis marker, α-smooth muscle actin. Further, the mRNA amount of the profibrotic cytokine TGF-β was increased significantly. Fibrosis could be reduced by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and also by blocking the mineralocorticoid receptor. Furthermore, aldosterone treatment caused oxidative stress and DNA double strand breaks in livers, as well as the elevation of DNA repair activity. An increase of the transcription factor Nrf2, the main regulator of the antioxidative response could be observed, and of its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. All these effects of aldosterone were prevented by spironolactone and tempol. Already after 4 weeks of treatment, aldosteroneinfusion induced fibrosis in the liver. This effect was independent of elevated blood pressure. DNA damage caused by aldosterone might contribute to fibrosis progression when aldosterone is chronically increased.

  5. Tubular kidney damage and centrilobular liver injury after intratracheal instillation of dimethyl selenide.

    PubMed

    Cherdwongcharoensuk, Duangrudee; Henrique, Rui; Upatham, Suchart; Pereira, António Sousa; Aguas, Artur P

    2005-01-01

    Accidental inhalation of selenium (Se) derivatives, such as dimethyl selenide (DMSe), has been associated with damage of respiratory tissues. However, systemic effects of inhaled Se have not been thoroughly established. We have investigated whether mouse kidney and liver show cellular pathology as a result of a single intratracheal instillation of two different doses of DMSe (0.05 and 0.1 mg Se/kg BW). The animals were sacrificed 1, 7, 14, and 28 days after either 1 of the 2 DMSe treatments; samples were studied by light microscopy. Instillation of the low DMSe dose resulted in acute and transient tubular disease of the kidney expressed by swelling and vacuolation of epithelial cells of proximal tubules; in some mice, tubular necrosis was observed. After 14 days of the DMSe treatment, these lesions were ameliorated and, by day 28, the kidney tubular epithelium depicted a normal morphology. The same low dose of DMSe caused sustained damage to centrilobular hepatocytes characterized by swollen and vacuolized liver cells. After the instillation of the high DMSe dose, the mice presented sustained liver and kidney focal necrosis. Our data suggest that inhalation of DMSe results in: (i) acute tubular injury of the kidney and damage to centrilobular liver cells and (ii) this systemic pathology induced by DMSe is a dose-dependent phenomenon.

  6. Benefits of invasion prevention: Effect of time lags, spread rates, and damage persistence

    Treesearch

    Rebecca S. Epanchin-Niell; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying economic damages caused by invasive species is crucial for cost-benefit analyses of biosecurity measures. Most studies focus on short-term damage estimates, but evaluating exclusion or prevention measures requires estimates of total anticipated damages from the time of establishment onward. The magnitude of such damages critically depends on the timing of...

  7. Aloe vera gel protects liver from oxidative stress-induced damage in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Taslima; Uddin, Borhan; Hossain, Shahdat; Sikder, Abdul Mannan; Ahmed, Sohel

    2013-05-07

    Aloe vera is a semi-tropical plant of Liliaceae family which has a wide range of applications in traditional medicine. In the present study, we sought to investigate the heptaoprotective potential of Aloe vera gel as a diet supplement. To achieve this goal, we have designed in vitro and in vivo experimental models of chemical-induced liver damage using male Sprague-Dawley rat. In the in vitro model, its effect was evaluated on Fenton's reaction-induced liver lipid peroxidation. Co-incubation with gel significantly reduced the generation of liver lipid peroxide (LPO). Next, to see the similar effect in vivo, gel was orally administered to rats once daily for 21 successive days. Following 1 hour of the last administration of gel, rats were treated with intra-peritoneal injection of CCl4. Dietary gel showed significant hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced damage as evident by restoration of liver LPO, serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin towards near normal. The beneficial effects were pronounced with the doses used (400 and 800 mg/kg body weight). Besides, we did not observe any significant drop in serum albumin, globulin as well as total protein levels of gel-administered rats. Histopathology of the liver tissue further supported the biochemical findings confirming the hepatoprotective potential of dietary gel.

  8. Arabinoxylan activates lipid catabolism and alleviates liver damage in rats induced by high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Fu, Yuanfang; Jiang, Xiujuan; Li, Dongmei; Qin, Wen; Zhang, Qing; Lin, Derong; Liu, Yaowen; Tan, Cui; Huang, Zhiqing; Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Daiwen

    2017-06-06

    Arabinoxylan was thought to have the potential to change lipid metabolism and redox homeostasis in human and animal. However, the effect of arabinoxylan on the liver damage induced by high-fat diet needs further exploiting. Six-weeks-old 30 male Sprague-Dawley Rats were assigned randomly to three groups (n = 10 per group), i.e. a control diet (CON) group, a high-fat diet (HF) group and a high-fat diet supplemented with arabinoxylan (6% AX, HF-AX) group. Results showed that final body weight and liver weight were similar in CON group and HF-AX group, but higher in the HF group. In serum, the HF-AX group showed lower triglyceride concentrations than did the HF group. In liver, higher lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, total lipase, and acyl-CoA oxidase activities and lower triglyceride and cholesterol level were observed in the HF-AX group than in the HF group. For the redox homeostasis, arabinoxylan supplemented in HF increased T-SOD activity and GSH-PX activity and reduced MDA + 4-HNE level in liver and/or compared with those in the HF group. Lipid droplets and liver cell damage were observed in the HF group compared with the CON and HF-AX groups. Arabinoxylan could improve lipid metabolic disorder and alleviate liver damage in rats induced by high-fat diet via activating lipid catabolism and suppressing lipid peroxidation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage Induced by Chromium in Liver and Kidney of Goldfish, Carassius auratus

    PubMed Central

    Velma, Venkatramreddy; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) is an abundant element in the Earth’s crust. It exhibits various oxidation states, from divalent to hexavalent forms. Cr has diverse applications in various industrial processes and inadequate treatment of the industrial effluents leads to the contamination of the surrounding water resources. Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is the most toxic form, and its toxicity has been associated with oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate the toxic potential of Cr (VI) in fish. In this research, we investigated the role of oxidative stress in chromium-induced genotoxicity in the liver and kidney cells of goldfish, Carassius auratus. Goldfish were acclimatized to the laboratory conditions and exposed them to 5% and 10% of 96 hr-LC50 (85.7 mg/L) of aqueous Cr (VI) in a continuous flow through system. Fish were sampled every 7 days for a period of 28 days to analyze the lipid hydroperoxides (LHP) levels and genotoxic potentials in the liver and kidney. LHP levels were analyzed by spectrophotometry while genotoxicity was assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. LHP levels in the liver increased significantly at week 1, followed by a decrease. LHP levels in the kidney increased significantly at weeks 1, 2, and 3, and decreased at week 4 compared to the control. The percentage of DNA damage increased in both liver and kidney at both test concentrations. The results clearly indicate that Cr (VI) induces significant levels of DNA damage in liver and kidney cells of goldfish. The induced LHP levels in both organs were concentration-dependent and were directly correlated with the levels of DNA damage. The two tested Cr (VI) concentrations induced significant levels of oxidative stress in both organs, however the kidney appears to be more vulnerable and sensitive to Cr-induced toxicity than the liver. PMID:23700361

  10. In vivo assessment of thermal damage in the liver using optical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Buttemere, Clay R; Chari, Ravi S; Anderson, Christopher D; Washington, M Kay; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Lin, Wei-Chiang

    2004-01-01

    Resection is not a viable treatment option for the majority of liver cancer patients. Alternatives to resection include thermotherapies such as radio-frequency ablation; however, these therapies lack adequate intraoperative feedback regarding the degree and margins of tissue thermal damage. In this proof of principle study, we test the ability of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to assess local thermal damage in vivo. Spectra were acquired in vivo from healthy canine liver tissue undergoing radio-frequency ablation using a portable fiber-optic-based spectroscopic system. The major observed spectral alterations on thermal coagulation were a red shift in the fluorescence emission peak at 480 nm, a decrease in the overall fluorescence intensity, and an increase in the diffuse reflectance from 450 to 750 nm. Spectral changes were quantified and correlated to tissue histology. We found a good correlation between the proposed spectral correlates of thermal damage and histology. The results of this study suggest that fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy show strong potential as tools to monitor liver tissue thermal damage intraoperatively.

  11. Investigation into the role of the cholinergic system in radiation-induced damage in the rat liver and ileum.

    PubMed

    Özyurt, Hazan; Özden, A Sevgi; Çevik, Özge; Özgen, Zerrin; Cadirci, Selin; Elmas, Merve Açıkel; Ercan, Feriha; Şener, Göksel; Gören, M Z

    2014-09-01

    It has been previously shown that acetylcholine (ACh) may affect pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The role of the cholinergic system in radiation-induced inflammatory responses and tissue damage remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the radio-protective properties of the cholinergic system in the ileum and the liver of rats. Rats were exposed to 8-Gy single-fraction whole-abdominal irradiation and were then decapitated at either 36 h or 10 d post-irradiation. The rats were treated either with intraperitoneal physiological saline (1 ml/kg), physostigmine (80 µg/kg) or atropine (50 μg/kg) twice daily for 36 h or 10 d. Cardiac blood samples and liver and ileal tissues were obtained in which TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 levels were assayed using ELISA. In the liver and ileal homogenates, caspase-3 immunoblots were performed and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was analyzed. Plasma levels of IL-1β and TNF-α increased significantly following radiation (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) as compared with non-irradiated controls, and physostigmine treatment prevented the increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Plasma IL-10 levels were not found to be significantly changed following radiation, whereas physostigmine augmented IL-10 levels during the late phase (P < 0.01). In the liver and ileum homogenates, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were also elevated following radiation, and this effect was inhibited by physostigmine treatment but not by atropine. Similarly, physostigmine also reversed the changes in MPO activity and in the caspase-3 levels in the liver and ileum. Histological examination revealed related changes. Physostigmine experiments suggested that ACh has a radio-protective effect not involving the muscarinic receptors.

  12. [Interferon-alpha and liver fibrosis in patients with chronic damage due to hepatitis C virus].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Huezo, María Sarai; Gallegos-Orozco, Juan Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The present review focuses on the published information published regarding the effects of interferon alpha therapy on liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver damage secondary to hepatitis C infection. Data reviewed included results of the in vitro effects of interferon on hepatic cell line cultures with regards to indirect markers of fibrosis, activation of hepatic stellate cells and oxidative stress response. In the clinical arena, there is current clear evidence of a favorable histological outcome in patients with sustained viral response to interferon therapy. For this reason, the current review focuses more on the histological outcomes regarding liver fibrosis in patients who have not attained viral response to therapy (non-responders) or who already have biopsy defined cirrhosis. Data in these patients were analyzed according to the results of objective testing of fibrosis through the assessment of liver biopsy and its change during time, specially because the morbidity and mortality of this disease is directly related to the complications of liver cirrhosis and not necessarily to the persistence of the hepatitis C virus. Lastly, it is concluded that the process of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis is a dynamic one and that there is some evidence to support the usefulness of interferon alpha therapy as a means to halt or retard the progression of hepatic fibrosis. The result of current clinical trials in which interferon therapy is being used to modify the progression of fibrosis in non-responders or cirrhotic patients is eagerly awaited.

  13. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Piper cubeba Extract in the Amelioration of CCl4-Induced Liver Injuries and Oxidative Damage in the Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    AlSaid, Mansour; Mothana, Ramzi; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; Ahmad, Ajaz; Al-Dosari, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Background. Liver diseases still represent a major health burden worldwide. Moreover, medicinal plants have gained popularity in the treatment of several diseases including liver. Thus, the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Piper cubeba fruits in the amelioration of CCl4-induced liver injuries and oxidative damage in the rodent model. Methods. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, γ-GGT, ALP, total bilirubin, LDH, and total protein. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as LPO, NP-SH, and CAT were measured in rat liver as well as mRNA expression of cytokines such as TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10 and stress related genes iNOS and HO-1 were determined by RT-PCR. The extent of liver damage was also analyzed through histopathological observations. Results. Treatment with PCEE significantly and dose dependently prevented drug induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, PCEE significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defense antioxidant enzymes NP-SH and CAT towards normal levels. The administration of PCEE significantly downregulated the CCl4-induced proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6 mRNA expression in dose dependent manner, while it upregulated the IL-10 and induced hepatoprotective effect by downregulating mRNA expression of iNOS and HO-1 gene. PMID:25654097

  14. Effectiveness of FDA's new over-the-counter acetaminophen warning label in improving consumer risk perception of liver damage.

    PubMed

    Goyal, R K; Rajan, S S; Essien, E J; Sansgiry, S S

    2012-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued new organ-specific warning label requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic products in order to make consumers aware of the risk of liver damage when using acetaminophen. However, awareness of a health risk alone cannot ensure consumers' engagement in safe and preventive behaviour. In this study, we attempted to: (i) measure consumer risk perception of liver damage due to the OTC acetaminophen products and (ii) analyse the effectiveness of the new organ-specific warning label in improving consumer risk perception of liver damage and intention to perform protective behaviours while using OTC acetaminophen products. This within-subject experimental study used a convenience sample of English-speaking adults visiting OTC segments of selected pharmacy stores in Houston. Participants were randomly exposed to the old and new warning labels and their respective risk perception (measured on a visual analogue scale, 0%, no risk, to 100%, extreme risk) and behavioural intention (measured on a 7-point Likert scale) were recorded using a validated, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed using sas statistical software (v 9.2) at a priori significance level of 0.05. Majority of participants (74.4%) were not aware of the new warnings; however, majority (67.8%) had prior knowledge of the risk. The mean risk perception score for the new warning label was found to be significantly higher (72.2% vs. 65.9%, P < 0.0001) than the old warning label. Similarly, the average intention score for the new warning label was significantly higher (5.06 vs. 4.86, P < 0.0001) than the old warning label. The new warning label mandated by FDA is effective in improving consumer risk perception of potential liver damage and may encourage protective behaviour. However, future studies are essential to assess the impact of the new label on actual changes in consumer behaviour

  15. Vascular Damage in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Possible Role of Iron and Ferritin.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Giuseppina; Lombardi, Rosa; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica

    2016-05-05

    Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. Recent data indicated that NAFLD is a risk factor by itself contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease independently of classical known risk factors. Hyperferritinemia and mild increased iron stores are frequently observed in patients with NAFLD and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the role of iron, through oxidative stress and interaction with insulin metabolism, in the development of vascular damage. Moreover, iron depletion has been shown to decrease atherogenesis in experimental models and in humans. This review presents the recent evidence on epidemiology, pathogenesis, and the possible explanation of the role of iron and ferritin in the development of cardiovascular damage in patients with NAFLD, and discusses the possible interplay between metabolic disorders associated with NAFLD and iron in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  16. [Damage control concept in liver trauma. Package strategies and secondary measures].

    PubMed

    Rauchfuss, F; Voigt, R; Götz, M; Heise, M; Uberrück, T; Settmacher, U

    2009-10-01

    Liver injuries may occur alone as well as within the broader context of polytrauma. Immediate surgical intervention is indicated in hemodynamically instable patients with detection of free intra-abdominal fluid as demonstrated by imaging studies. For these patients, a damage control concept has been devised in order to decrease early mortality after trauma. With this strategy complex reconstructive interventions are avoided during the initial phase. Stabilization of the patient by treatment of the lethal triad consisting of hypothermia, coagulopathy and metabolic acidosis is at the core of this therapeutic concept. Should there be a need for reconstructions or other major surgical interventions these will be performed with delay after stabilization of the patient. Packing for the temporary treatment of liver injuries is part of the damage control concept.

  17. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of punicalagin and punicalin on acetaminophen-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, C C; Hsu, Y F; Lin, T C; Hsu, H Y

    2001-05-01

    Punicalagin and punicalin were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia catappa L., a Combretaceous plant distributed throughout tropical and subtropical beaches, which is used for the treatment of dermatitis and hepatitis. Our previous studies showed that both of these compounds exert antioxidative activity. In this study, the antihepatotoxic activity of punicalagin and punicalin on acetaminophen-induced toxicity in the rat liver was evaluated. After evaluating the changes of several biochemical functions in serum, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were increased by acetaminophen administration and reduced by punicalagin and punicalin. Histological changes around the hepatic central vein and oxidative damage induced by acetaminophen were also recovered by both compounds. The data show that both punicalagin and punicalin exert antihepatotoxic activity, but treatment with larger doses enhanced liver damage. These results suggest that even if punicalagin and punicalin have antioxidant activity at small doses, treatment with larger doses will possibly induce some cell toxicities.

  18. Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis: Mechanisms and Approaches to Prevention of Neuronal Damage.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Diane E

    2016-07-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are important causes of death and long-term neurologic disability due to encephalomyelitis. Studies of mice infected with the alphavirus Sindbis virus have shown that outcome is dependent on the age and genetic background of the mouse and virulence of the infecting virus. Age-dependent susceptibility reflects the acquisition by neurons of resistance to virus replication and virus-induced cell death with maturation. In mature mice, the populations of neurons most susceptible to infection are in the hippocampus and anterior horn of the spinal cord. Hippocampal infection leads to long-term memory deficits in mice that survive, while motor neuron infection can lead to paralysis and death. Neuronal death is immune-mediated, rather than a direct consequence of virus infection, and associated with entry and differentiation of pathogenic T helper 17 cells in the nervous system. To modulate glutamate excitotoxicity, mice were treated with an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonists or a glutamine antagonist. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 protected hippocampal neurons but not motor neurons, and mice still became paralyzed and died. α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonists GYKI-52466 and talampanel protected both hippocampal and motor neurons and prevented paralysis and death. Glutamine antagonist 6-diazo-5-l-norleucine protected hippocampal neurons and improved memory generation in mice surviving infection with an avirulent virus. Surprisingly, in all cases protection was associated with inhibition of the antiviral immune response, reduced entry of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system, and delayed virus clearance, emphasizing the importance of treatment approaches that include prevention of immunopathologic damage.

  19. Enhanced protective activity of nano formulated andrographolide against arsenic induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujata; Pradhan, Goutam Kumar; Das, Subhadip; Nath, Debjani; Das Saha, Krishna

    2015-12-05

    Chronic exposure to arsenic over a period of time induces toxicity, primarily in liver but gradually in all systems of the body. Andrographolide (AG), a major diterpene lactone of Andrographis paniculata, shows a wide array of physiological functions including hepatoprotection. Therapeutic applications of AG are however seriously constrained because of its insolubility, poor bioavailability, and short plasma half-life. Nanoparticulation of AG is a possible solution to these problems. In the present study we investigated the effectiveness of polylactide co-glycolide (PLGA) nanocapsulated andrographolide (NA) against arsenic induced liver damage in mice. NA of average diameter 65.8 nm and encapsulation efficiency of 64% were prepared. Sodium arsenite at a dose of 40 mg/L supplied via drinking water in mice significantly raised the serum level of liver function markers such as AST, ALT, and ALP, and caused arsenic deposition in liver and ROS generation, though it did not show any lethality up to 30 days of exposure. However, even liver toxicity was not observed when mice were given AG and NA orally at doses up to 100 mg/kg bwt and 20 mg/kg bwt respectively on alternate days for one month. Treatment of non-toxic doses of AG or NA on alternate days along with arsenic significantly decreased the arsenic induced elevation of the serum level of ALT, AST and ALP, and arsenic deposition in liver. AG and NA increased the level of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Also, the ROS level was lowered in mice exposed to arsenic but treated with AG or NA. Protective efficiency of NA is about five times more than that of AG. Administration of NA to arsenic-treated mice caused signs of improvement in liver tissue architecture. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that NA could be beneficial against arsenic-induced liver toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  20. Antioxidant effects of pineapple vinegar in reversing of paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Yeap, Swee Keong; Lim, Kian Lam; Yusof, Hamidah Mohd; Beh, Boon Kee; Tan, Sheau Wei; Ho, Wan Yong; Sharifuddin, Shaiful Adzni; Jamaluddin, Anisah; Long, Kamariah; Nik Abd Rahman, Nik Mohd Afizan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus) was demonstrated to be hepatoprotective. This study aims to investigate the reversing effects of pineapple vinegar on paracetamol-induced liver damage in murine model. Pineapple juice was fermented via anaerobic and aerobic fermentation to produce pineapple vinegar. Male BALB/c mice (n = 70) were separated into 7 treatment groups (n = 10). Pineapple vinegar (0.08 and 2 mL/kg BW) and synthetic vinegar were used to treat paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice. The hepatoprotective effects were determined by serum biochemistry profiles (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and triglyceride (TG)), liver antioxidant levels (ferric-reducing ability plasma (FRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and reduced glutathione assays (GSH)) and histopathological examination with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The effects were further evaluated by the expression levels of iNOS, NF-κB, and cytochrome P450 2E1 by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Vinegar samples were also tested for in vitro antioxidant (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and total phenolic content (TPC)). Soluble phenolic acid contents in the samples were identified by HPLC. Pineapple vinegar contained 169.67 ± 0.05 μg GAE/mL of TPC, with 862.61 ± 4.38 μg/mL gallic acid as the main component. Oral administration of pineapple vinegar at 2 mL/kg BW reduced serum enzyme biomarker levels, including AST (P = 0.008), ALT (P = 0.006), ALP (P = 0.002), and TG (P = 0.006) after 7 days of paracetamol treatment. Liver antioxidant levels such as hepatic glutathione (P = 0.003), SOD (P < 0.001), lipid peroxidation (P = 0.002) and FRAP (P <0.001) were restored after the treatment. Pineapple vinegar reduced the expressions of iNOS (P = 0.003) and NF-kB (P = 0.003) and the level of NO (P = 0.003) significantly

  1. Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Improve the Mouse Liver after Acute Acetaminophen Intoxication by Preventing Progress of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Peggy; Brückner, Sandra; Winkler, Sandra; Dollinger, Matthias M.; Christ, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hMSC) have the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and continue to maintain important hepatocyte functions in vivo after transplantation into host mouse livers. Here, hMSC were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro (hMSC-HC) and transplanted into livers of immunodeficient Pfp/Rag2−/− mice treated with a sublethal dose of acetaminophen (APAP) to induce acute liver injury. APAP induced a time- and dose-dependent damage of perivenous areas of the liver lobule. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased to similar levels irrespective of hMSC-HC transplantation. Yet, hMSC-HC resided in the damaged perivenous areas of the liver lobules short-term preventing apoptosis and thus progress of organ destruction. Disturbance of metabolic protein expression was lower in the livers receiving hMSC-HC. Seven weeks after APAP treatment, hepatic injury had completely recovered in groups both with and without hMSC-HC. Clusters of transplanted cells appeared predominantly in the periportal portion of the liver lobule and secreted human albumin featuring a prominent quality of differentiated hepatocytes. Thus, hMSC-HC attenuated the inflammatory response and supported liver regeneration after acute injury induced by acetaminophen. They hence may serve as a novel source of hepatocyte-like cells suitable for cell therapy of acute liver diseases. PMID:24758938

  2. Mechanism investigation of dioscin against CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Binan; Xu, Yousong; Xu, Lina; Cong, Xiaonan; Yin, Lianhong; Li, Hua; Peng, Jinyong

    2012-09-01

    The mechanisms of the ameliorating effects of dioscin against CCl(4) induced acute liver damage are investigated in this study. Dioscin significantly inhibited (p<0.01) the increases of serum ALT and AST activities compared with the CCl(4)-treated animals. The hepatic lipid peroxidation formation and, concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were also decreased. Liver histopathologic studies and a DNA laddering assay indicated that dioscin protected hepatocytes against CCl(4)-induced apoptosis and necrosis. Furthermore, dioscin decreased the protein expressions of Fas/FasL, increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondrion to cytosol and attenuated CCl(4)-induced caspase-3 and -8 activities. The expressions of ICAM-1, vimentin, prohibitin, HGF, c-MET and GSTA1 were also regulated by dioscin and iNOS was also involved in the effects of this agent. These protective effects against CCl(4) induced acute liver damage might be through inhibiting lipid peroxidation, inflammatory cytokines, necrosis and apoptosis, and dioscin shows promise for development toward the treatment of acute chemically mediated liver injury.

  3. Hypoxia acclimation and subsequent reoxygenation partially prevent Mn-induced damage in silver catfish.

    PubMed

    Dolci, G S; Rosa, H Z; Barcelos, R C S; Vey, L T; Santos, A; DallaVechia, P; Bizzi, C; Cunha, M A; Baldisserotto, B; Burger, M E

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated if hypoxia acclimation modifies the hematological and oxidative profiles in tissues of Mn-exposed silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen), and if such modifications persist upon subsequent reoxygenation. Silver catfish acclimated to hypoxia (~3mgL(-1)) for 10days and subsequently exposed to Mn (~8.1mgL(-1)) for additional 10days exhibited lower Mn accumulation in plasma, liver and kidney, even after reoxygenation, as compared to normoxia-acclimated fish. Hypoxia acclimation increased per se red blood cells count and hematocrit, suggesting adaptations under hypoxia, while the reoxygenation process was also related to increased hematocrit and hemoglobin per se. Fish exposed to Mn under normoxia for 20days showed decreased red blood cells count and hematocrit, while reoxygenation subsequent to hypoxia increased red blood cells count. Hypoxia acclimation also prevented Mn-induced oxidative damage, observed by increased reactive species generation and higher protein carbonyl levels in both liver and kidney under normoxia. Mn-exposed fish under hypoxia and after reoxygenation showed decreased plasma transaminases in relation to the normoxia group. Moreover, acclimation to hypoxia increased reduced glutathione levels, catalase activity and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in liver and kidney during Mn exposure, remaining increased even after reoxygenation. These findings show that previous acclimation to hypoxia generates physiological adjustments, which drive coordinated responses that ameliorate the antioxidant status even after reoxygenation. Such responses represent a physiological regulation of this teleost fish against oxygen restriction and/or Mn toxicity in order to preserve the stability of a particular tissue or system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors for damaged liver function after chemotherapy in hepatitis B virus carriers with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Fan, X W; Liu, W; Guo, L; Li, Y; Hu, X; Liang, X; Ma, X P; Yang, S E

    2015-03-30

    The goal of this study was to investigate damaged liver function after chemotherapy in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and to evaluate risk factors associated with a high risk of damaged liver function. Clinical histories of 134 HBV carriers with NHL who were treated with chemotherapy were obtained and analyzed for the occurrence of damaged liver function and other related high-risk factors. Analysis showed that 76 patients (56.7%) had damaged liver function after chemotherapy: 6 patients (7.9%) had I degree, 17 patients (22.4%) had II degree, 20 patients (26.3%) had III degree, and 33 patients (43.4%) had IV degree damage. After treatment, 18 patients (23.7%) continued to receive chemotherapy according to their original schedule, 39 patients (51.3%) delayed chemotherapy, 16 patients (21.1%) stopped chemotherapy, and 3 patients (3.9%) died. Analysis of a binary multivariate logistic regression model showed that administration of steroids was a high-risk factor for damaged liver function after chemotherapy in NHL patients. The incidence of damaged liver function after chemotherapy is high among HBV carriers with NHL; therefore, administration of steroid chemotherapy is a high-risk factor.

  5. Therapeutic role of niacin in the prevention and regression of hepatic steatosis in rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Shobha H; Kukes, Gary D; Lambrecht, Nils; Kashyap, Moti L; Kamanna, Vaijinath S

    2014-02-15

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a leading cause of liver damage, comprises a spectrum of liver abnormalities including the early fat deposition in the liver (hepatic steatosis) and advanced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Niacin decreases plasma triglycerides, but its effect on hepatic steatosis is elusive. To examine the effect of niacin on steatosis, rats were fed either a rodent normal chow, chow containing high fat (HF), or HF containing 0.5% or 1.0% niacin in the diet for 4 wk. For regression studies, rats were first fed the HF diet for 6 wk to induce hepatic steatosis and were then treated with niacin (0.5% in the diet) while on the HF diet for 6 wk. The findings indicated that inclusion of niacin at 0.5% and 1.0% doses in the HF diet significantly decreased liver fat content, liver weight, hepatic oxidative products, and prevented hepatic steatosis. Niacin treatment to rats with preexisting hepatic steatosis induced by the HF diet significantly regressed steatosis. Niacin had no effect on the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthesis or oxidation genes (including sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) but significantly inhibited mRNA levels, protein expression, and activity of diacylglycerol acyltrasferase 2, a key enzyme in triglyceride synthesis. These novel findings suggest that niacin effectively prevents and causes the regression of experimental hepatic steatosis. Approved niacin formulation(s) for other indications or niacin analogs may offer a very cost-effective opportunity for the clinical development of niacin for treating NAFLD and fatty liver disease.

  6. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roversi, Katiane; Benvegnú, Dalila M.; Roversi, Karine; Trevizol, Fabíola; Vey, Luciana T.; Elias, Fabiana; Fracasso, Rafael; Motta, Mariana H.; Ribeiro, Roseane F.; dos S. Hausen, Bruna; Moresco, Rafael N.; Garcia, Solange C.; da Silva, Cristiane B.; Burger, Marilise E.

    2015-04-01

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups ( n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug.

  7. Agmatine protects rat liver from nicotine-induced hepatic damage via antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and antifibrotic pathways.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbeeny, Nagla A; Nader, Manar A; Attia, Ghalia M; Ateyya, Hayam

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco smoking with its various forms is a global problem with proved hazardous effects to human health. The present work was planned to study the defending role of agmatine (AGM) on hepatic oxidative stress and damage induced by nicotine in rats. Thirty-two rats divided into four groups were employed: control group, nicotine-only group, AGM group, and AGM-nicotine group. Measurements of serum hepatic biochemical markers, lipid profile, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were done. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activity, and nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels were estimated in the liver homogenates. Immunohistochemistry for Bax and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) and histopathology of the liver were also included. Data of the study demonstrated that nicotine administration exhibited marked liver deterioration, an increase in liver enzymes, changes in lipid profile, and an elevation in MDA with a decline in levels of SOD, GSH, and NOx (nitrate/nitrite). Also, levels of proapoptotic Bax and profibrotic TGF-β1 showed marked elevation in the liver. AGM treatment to rats in nicotine-only group ameliorated all the previous changes. These findings indicate that AGM could successfully overcome the nicotine-evoked hepatic oxidative stress and tissue injury, apoptosis, and fibrosis.

  8. Effects of soy protein isolate on LEC rats, a model of Wilson disease: mechanisms underlying enhancement of liver cell damage.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Kayo; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Tajima, Rie; Ushigome, Mitsunori; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T; Yoshikawa, Kunie; Nagao, Minako

    2003-03-07

    Soy-protein isolate (SPI) enhances liver cell damage in Long-Evans rats with a cinnamon-like coat color (LEC rats), which have a defect in Atp7b, the Wilson disease gene. Animals administered an SPI-diet from an age of six weeks died significantly earlier than those administered a control-diet, AIN-93G, from severe liver cell damage associated with jaundice. Since the liver copper level was higher with the SPI-diet than the control-diet, one of the reasons for SPI-toxicity to LEC rats might be due to the higher uptake of copper into liver cells. In the present study, liver levels of glutathione, and liver and intestinal mRNA and protein levels were determined for metallothionein, MT-1 and MT-2. Furthermore, liver and intestinal mRNA expression for the high affinity copper transporter, Ctr1, was determined. None of the parameters showed any significant differences between the SPI-diet and control-diet groups, except for Ctr1 mRNA levels in the liver. It is thus suggested that SPI enhances liver cell copper uptake through induction of Ctr1 expression and this might be the mechanism underlying increased liver damage in LEC rats.

  9. Pesticide exposure and genetic variation in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes interact to induce biochemical liver damage.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Antonio F; Gil, Fernando; Lacasaña, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Requena, Mar; Parrón, Tesifón; Alarcón, Raquel

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic activation of pesticides in the liver may result in highly reactive intermediates capable of impairing various cellular functions. Nevertheless, the knowledge about the effect of pesticide exposure on liver function is still limited. This study assessed whether exposure to pesticides elicits early biochemical changes in biomarkers of liver function and looked for potential gene-environmental interactions between pesticide exposure and polymorphisms of pesticide-metabolizing genes. A longitudinal study was conducted in farm-workers from Andalusia (South Spain), during two periods of the same crop season with different degree of pesticide exposure. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activities as well as for determining clinical chemistry parameters as biomarkers of liver function. Serum lipid levels were also measured as they may help to monitor the progress of toxic liver damage. A reduction in serum cholinesterase was associated with decreased levels of all clinical chemistry parameters studied except HDL-cholesterol. Conversely, a decreased erythrocyte cholinesterase (indicating long-term pesticide exposure) was associated with increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and increased levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, but reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol. Changes in liver biomarkers were particularly associated with the PON155M/192R haplotype. The obtained results therefore support the hypothesis that pesticide exposure results in subtle biochemical liver toxicity and highlight the role of genetic polymorphisms in pesticide-metabolizing enzymes as biomarkers of susceptibility for developing adverse health effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Liver cancer in Wisconsin: The potential for prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Mirkin, I.R.; Remington, P.L.; Moss, M.; Anderson, H. )

    1990-02-01

    In this study liver cancer deaths that could be attributed to certain risk factors were calculated. Applying population attributable risk methodology, the attributable risk of liver cancer was estimated for alcohol use, hepatitis B viral exposure, and occupational and industrial exposures. We found that these three risk factors accounted for 38% of liver cancer mortality in Wisconsin; 29% was attributable to alcohol consumption, 7% to occupational exposures, and 2% to hepatitis B viral infection. More than half of liver cancer mortality, however, was not accounted for by the three risk factors studied.

  11. Negative CD4+TIM-3 Signaling Confers Resistance Against Cold Preservation Damage in Mouse Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Shen, Xiu-da; Gao, Feng; Nguyen, Terry T.; Shang, Xuanming; Lee, Nayun; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), an innate immunity-driven local inflammation, remains the major problem in clinical organ transplantation. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM-3) – Galectin-9 (Gal-9) signaling regulates CD4+ Th1 immune responses. Here, we explored TIM-3 – Gal-9 function in a clinically relevant murine model of hepatic cold storage and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). C57BL/6 livers, preserved for 20h at 4°C in UW solution, were transplanted to syngeneic mouse recipients. Up-regulation of TIM-3 on OLT-infiltrating activated CD4+ T cells was observed in the early IRI phase (1h). By 6h of reperfusion, OLTs in recipients treated with a blocking anti-TIM-3 Ab were characterized by: 1/ enhanced hepatocellular damage (sALT levels, liver Suzuki's histological score); 2/ polarized cell infiltrate towards Th1/Th17-type phenotype; 3/ depressed T cell exhaustion markers (PD-1, LAG3); and 4/ elevated neutrophil and macrophage infiltration/activation. In parallel studies, adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells from naïve WT, but not from TIM-3 Tg donors, readily recreated OLT damage in otherwise IR-resistant RAG−/− test recipients. Furthermore, pre-treatment of mice with rGal-9 promoted hepatoprotection against preservation-association liver damage, accompanied by enhanced TIM-3 expression in OLTs. Thus, CD4+ T cell-dependent “negative” TIM-3 costimulation is essential for hepatic homeostasis and resistance against IR stress in OLTs. PMID:25676534

  12. Oval cells compensate for damage and replicative senescence of mature hepatocytes in mice with fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiqi; Koteish, Ayman; Lin, Huizhi; Huang, Jiawen; Roskams, Tania; Dawson, Valina; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2004-02-01

    Hepatic steatosis may have a generally benign prognosis, either because most hepatocytes are not significantly injured or mechanisms to replace damaged hepatocytes are induced. To determine the relative importance of these mechanisms, we compared hepatocyte damage and replication in ethanol-fed and ob/ob mice with very indolent fatty liver disease to that of healthy control mice and PARP-1(-/-) mice with targeted disruption of the DNA repair enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Compared to the healthy controls, both groups with fatty livers had significantly higher serum alanine aminotransferase values, hepatic mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production, and hepatocyte oxidative DNA damage. A significantly smaller proportion of the hepatocytes from fatty livers entered S phase when cultured with mitogens. Moreover, this replicative senescence was not reversed by treating cultured hepatocytes with agents (i.e., betaine or leptin) that improve liver disease in intact ethanol-fed or leptin-deficient mice. Hepatocytes from PARP1(-/-) mice also had more DNA damage and reduced DNA synthesis in response to mitogens. However, neither mice with fatty livers nor PARP-1-deficient mice had atrophic livers. All of the mice with senescent mature hepatocytes exhibited hepatic accumulation of liver progenitor (oval) cells and oval cell numbers increased with the demand for hepatocyte replacement. Therefore, although hepatic oxidant production and damage are generally increased in fatty livers, expansion of hepatic progenitor cell populations helps to compensate for the increased turnover of damaged mature hepatocytes. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that induction of mechanisms to replace damaged hepatocytes is important for limiting the progression of fatty liver disease.

  13. Cadmium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis of Human Liver Carcinoma Cells via Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Skipper, Anthony; Sims, Jennifer N; Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-02

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that has been shown to cause its toxicity in humans and animals. Many documented studies have shown that cadmium produces various genotoxic effects such as DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Ailments such as bone disease, renal damage, and several forms of cancer are attributed to overexposure to cadmium. Although there have been numerous studies examining the effects of cadmium in animal models and a few case studies involving communities where cadmium contamination has occurred, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a key role in cadmium chloride-induced toxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis of human liver carcinoma (HepG₂) cells. To test our hypothesis, cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Lipid hydroperoxide content stress was estimated by lipid peroxidation assay. Genotoxic damage was tested by the means of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry assessment (Annexin-V/PI assay). The result of MTT assay indicated that cadmium chloride induces toxicity to HepG₂ cells in a concentration-dependent manner, showing a 48 hr-LD50 of 3.6 µg/mL. Data generated from lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase of hydroperoxide production, specifically at the highest concentration tested. Data obtained from the Comet assay indicated that cadmium chloride causes DNA damage in HepG₂ cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A strong concentration-response relationship (p < 0.05) was recorded between annexin V positive cells and cadmium chloride exposure. In summary, these in vitro studies provide clear evidence that cadmium chloride induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and programmed cell death in human liver carcinoma (HepG₂) cells.

  14. Prevention of Trauma and Hemorrhagic Shock-Mediated Liver Apoptosis by Activation of Stat3α

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Ana; Akcan Arikan, Ayse; Mastrangelo, Mary-Ann A.; Wu, Yong; Yu, Bi; Poli, Valeria; Tweardy, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Trauma is a major cause of mortality in the United States. Death among those surviving the initial insult is caused by multiple organ failure (MOF) with the liver among the organs most frequently affected. We previously demonstrated in rodents that trauma complicated by hemorrhagic shock (trauma/HS) results in liver injury that can be prevented by IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation; however, the contribution of the severity of HS to the extent of liver injury, whether or not resuscitation is required and the mechanism for the IL-6 protective effect have not been reported. In the experiments reported here, we demonstrated that the extent of liver apoptosis induced by trauma/HS depends on the duration of hypotension and requires resuscitation. We established that IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation is capable of completely reversing liver apoptosis and is associated with increased Stat3 activation. Microarray analysis of the livers showed that the main effect of IL-6 was to normalize the trauma/HS-induced apoptosis transcriptome. Pharmacological inhibition of Stat3 activity within the liver blocked the ability of IL-6 to prevent liver apoptosis and to normalize the trauma/HS- induced liver apoptosis transcriptome. Genetic deletion of a Stat3β, a naturally occurring, dominant-negative isoform of the Stat3, attenuated trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis, confirming a role for Stat3, especially Stat3α, in preventing trauma/HS-mediated liver apoptosis. Thus, trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis depends on the duration of hypotension and requires resuscitation. IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation reverses HS-induced liver apoptosis, through activation of Stat3α, which normalizes the trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis transcriptome. PMID:18997875

  15. Nicotinic acid prevents experimental liver fibrosis by attenuating the prooxidant process.

    PubMed

    Arauz, Jonathan; Rivera-Espinoza, Yadira; Shibayama, Mineko; Favari, Liliana; Flores-Beltrán, Rosa Elena; Muriel, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins that occurs in most chronic liver diseases. Nicotinamide treatment has been shown to prevent collagen accumulation and fibrogenesis in a bleomycin model of lung fibrosis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of nicotinic acid (NA) on experimental liver fibrosis and investigated its underlying mechanism. Fibrosis was induced by chronic TAA administration and the effects of co-administration with NA for 8 weeks were evaluated, including control groups. TAA administration induced liver fibrosis, which was prevented by nicotinic acid. NA prevented the elevation of liver enzymes and prevented hepatic glycogen depletion. Liver histopathology and hydroxyproline levels were significantly lower in the rats treated with TAA plus NA compared with TAA only. NA demonstrated antioxidant properties by restoring the redox equilibrium (lipid peroxidation and GPx levels). Western blot assays showed decreased expression levels of TGF-β and its downstream inductor CTGF. Additionally, NA prevented hepatic stellate cell activation due by blocking the expression of α-SMA. Zymography assays showed that NA decreased the activity of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9. NA prevents experimental fibrosis; the mechanisms of action are associated with its antioxidant properties and the reduction in TGF-β expression. The decrease in TGF-β levels may be associated with the attenuation of the oxidative processes, thus resulting in a reduction in HSC activation and ECM deposition. The findings suggest a possible role for NA as an antifibrotic agent for liver injury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. SWI/SNF regulates a transcriptional program that induces senescence to prevent liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tordella, Luca; Khan, Sadaf; Hohmeyer, Anja; Banito, Ana; Klotz, Sabrina; Raguz, Selina; Martin, Nadine; Dhamarlingam, Gopuraja; Carroll, Thomas; González Meljem, José Mario; Deswal, Sumit; Martínez-Barbera, Juan Pedro; García-Escudero, Ramón; Zuber, Johannes; Zender, Lars; Gil, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is a potent tumor suppressor mechanism. To identify senescence regulators relevant to cancer, we screened an shRNA library targeting genes deleted in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we describe how knockdown of the SWI/SNF component ARID1B prevents OIS and cooperates with RAS to induce liver tumors. ARID1B controls p16INK4a and p21CIP1a transcription but also regulates DNA damage, oxidative stress, and p53 induction, suggesting that SWI/SNF uses additional mechanisms to regulate senescence. To systematically identify SWI/SNF targets regulating senescence, we carried out a focused shRNA screen. We discovered several new senescence regulators, including ENTPD7, an enzyme that hydrolyses nucleotides. ENTPD7 affects oxidative stress, DNA damage, and senescence. Importantly, expression of ENTPD7 or inhibition of nucleotide synthesis in ARID1B-depleted cells results in re-establishment of senescence. Our results identify novel mechanisms by which epigenetic regulators can affect tumor progression and suggest that prosenescence therapies could be employed against SWI/SNF-mutated cancers. PMID:27737960

  17. Mechanism of chronic dietary iron overload-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; He, Huan; Yin, Dong; Que, Ailing; Tang, Lei; Liao, Zhangping; Huang, Qiren; He, Ming

    2013-04-01

    Chronic iron overload may result in hepatic fibrosis and even neoplastic transformation due to a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria have been proposed to be important in the production of ROS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in the burst of ROS, and to clarify the mechanism whereby ROS induced by iron overload results in hepatic damage. It has been demonstrated that when ferrocene-induced iron-overloaded mice were fed the cyclosporin A (CsA), a specific inhibitor of the mPTP, diet (10 mg/kg/day) for 50 days, liver-to-body weight ratio, serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), ROS production, mitochondrial swelling, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) and hepatocyte apoptosis decreased. However, the total antioxidant status, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase activities, increased. The protective effect of CsA on the liver of iron-overloaded mice may be due to inhibition of the ROS burst and a successive antioxidant effect. To the best of our knowledge, these data provide the first support for the theory that ROS-induced ROS release (RIRR) may be involved in the burst of ROS in the liver and greatly contribute to the hepatic damage initiated by iron overload.

  18. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa on carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Lin, S C; Chung, T C; Lin, C C; Ueng, T H; Lin, Y H; Lin, S Y; Wang, L Y

    2000-01-01

    The root of Arctium lappa Linne (A. lappa) (Compositae), a perennial herb, has been cultivated for a long time as a popular vegetable. In order to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of A. lappa, male ICR mice were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 32 microl/kg, i.p.) or acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, i.p.). A. lappa suppressed the SGOT and SGPT elevations induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen in a dose-dependent manner and alleviated the severity of liver damage based on histopathological observations. In an attempt to elucidate the possible mechanism(s) of this hepatoprotective effect, glutathione (GSH), cytochrome P-450 (P-450) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were studied. A. lappa reversed the decrease in GSH and P-450 induced by CCl4 and acetaminophen. It was also found that A. lappa decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in CCl4 or acetaminophen-intoxicated mice. From these results, it was suggested that A. lappa could protect the liver cells from CCl4 or acetaminophen-induced liver damages, perhaps by its antioxidative effect on hepatocytes, hence eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from CCl4 or acetaminophen.

  19. The flavonoid quercetin inhibits dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Sil; Lee, Hye-Eun; Shin, Ji-Young; Yoon, Sik; Moon, Jeon-Ok

    2003-08-01

    Quercetin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in human diet has been reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of quercetin on hepatic injury induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in rats. Treatment with DMN caused a significant decrease in body and liver weight. Oral administration of quercetin (10 mg kg(-1) daily for 4 weeks) remarkably prevented this DMN-induced loss in body and liver weight and inhibited the elevation of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and bilirubin levels. Quercetin also increased serum albumin and hepatic glutathione levels and reduced the hepatic level of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, DMN-induced elevation of hydroxyproline content was reduced in the quercetin treated rats, the result of which was consistent with a reduction in type I collagen mRNA production and histological analysis of liver tissue stained with Sirius red. A reduction in hepatic stellate cell activation, as assessed by alpha-smooth muscle actin staining, was associated with quercetin treatment as well as a reduction in transforming growth factor-beta1 expression. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that quercetin exhibited in-vivo hepatoprotective and anti-fibrogenic effects against DMN-induced liver injury and suggest that quercetin may be useful in the preventing the development of hepatic fibrosis.

  20. The acute toxicity of iron and copper: biomolecule oxidation and oxidative damage in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Boveris, Alberto; Musacco-Sebio, Rosario; Ferrarotti, Nidia; Saporito-Magriñá, Christian; Torti, Horacio; Massot, Francisco; Repetto, Marisa G

    2012-11-01

    The transition metals iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are needed at low levels for normal health and at higher levels they become toxic for humans and animals. The acute liver toxicity of Fe and Cu was studied in Sprague Dawley male rats (200 g) that received ip 0-60 mg/kg FeCl(2) or 0-30 mg/kg CuSO(4). Dose and time-responses were determined for spontaneous in situ liver chemiluminescence, phospholipid lipoperoxidation, protein oxidation and lipid soluble antioxidants. The doses linearly defined the tissue content of both metals. Liver chemiluminescence increased 4 times and 2 times after Fe and Cu overloads, with half maximal responses at contents (C(50%)) of 110 μgFe/g and 42 μgCu/g liver, and with half maximal time responses (t(1/2)) of 4h for both metals. Phospholipid peroxidation increased 4 and 1.8 times with C(50%) of 118 μg Fe/g and 45 μg Cu/g and with t(1/2) of 7h and 8h. Protein oxidation increased 1.6 times for Fe with C(50%) at 113 μg Fe/g and 1.2 times for Cu with 50 μg Cu/g and t(1/2) of 4h and 5h respectively. The accumulation of Fe and Cu in liver enhanced the rate of free radical reactions and produced oxidative damage. A similar free radical-mediated process, through the formation HO(•) and RO(•) by a Fenton-like homolytic scission of H(2)O(2) and ROOH, seems to operate as the chemical mechanism for the liver toxicity of both metals.

  1. Murine liver damage caused by exposure to nano-titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jie; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2016-03-01

    Due to its unique physiochemical properties, nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) is widely used in all aspects of people’s daily lives, bringing it into increasing contact with humans. Thus, this material’s security issues for humans have become a heavily researched subject. Nano-TiO2 can enter the body through the mouth, skin, respiratory tract or in other ways, after which it enters the blood circulation and is deposited in the liver, changing biochemical indicators and causing liver inflammation. Meanwhile, the light sensitivity of these nanoparticles allows them to become media-generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing an imbalance between oxidation and anti-oxidation that leads to oxidative stress and liver damage. Nano-TiO2 can be transported into cells via phagocytosis, where the nanoparticles bind to the mitochondrial membrane, resulting in the disintegration of the membrane and the electron transport chain within the mitochondria. Thus, more ROS are produced. Nano-TiO2 can also enter the nucleus, where it can directly embed into or indirectly affect DNA, thereby causing DNA breakage or affecting gene expression. These effects include increased mRNA and protein expression levels of inflammation-related factors and decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of IκB and IL-2, resulting in inflammation. Long-term inflammation of the liver causes HSC cell activation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition is promoted by multiple signalling pathways, resulting in liver fibrosis. In this paper, the latest progress on murine liver injury induced by environmental TiO2 is systematically described. The toxicity of nano-TiO2 also depends on size, exposure time, surface properties, dosage, administration route, and its surface modification. Therefore, its toxic effects in humans should be studied in greater depth. This paper also provides useful reference information regarding the safe use of nano-TiO2 in the future.

  2. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: What is the actual risk of liver damage?

    PubMed Central

    Bessone, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) constitute a family of drugs, which taken as a group, represents one of the most frequently prescribed around the world. Thus, not surprisingly NSAIDs, along with anti-infectious agents, list on the top for causes of Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI). The incidence of liver disease induced by NSAIDs reported in clinical studies is fairly uniform ranging from 0.29/100 000 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17-051] to 9/100 000 (95% CI: 6-15). However, compared with these results, a higher risk of liver-related hospitalizations was reported (3-23 per 100 000 patients). NSAIDs exhibit a broad spectrum of liver damage ranging from asymptomatic, transient, hyper-transaminasemia to fulminant hepatic failure. However, under-reporting of asymptomatic, mild cases, as well as of those with transient liver-tests alteration, in conjunction with reports non-compliant with pharmacovigilance criteria to ascertain DILI and flawed epidemiological studies, jeopardize the chance to ascertain the actual risk of NSAIDs hepatotoxicity. Several NSAIDs, namely bromfenac, ibufenac and benoxaprofen, have been withdrawn from the market due to hepatotoxicity; others like nimesulide were never marketed in some countries and withdrawn in others. Indeed, the controversy concerning the actual risk of severe liver disease persists within NSAIDs research. The present work intends (1) to provide a critical analysis of the dissimilar results currently available in the literature concerning the epidemiology of NSAIDS hepatotoxicity; and (2) to review the risk of hepatotoxicity for each one of the most commonly employed compounds of the NSAIDs family, based on past and recently published data. PMID:21128314

  3. [Preventive measures against health damage due to chemicals in household products].

    PubMed

    Kaniwa, Masa-aki

    2010-01-01

    Chemicals in household products have been paid much attention as the main cause of health damage in consumers, such as allergic contact dermatitis. Preventive measures against health damage due to chemicals in fabrics, plastics and rubber products for household use, are reviewed, focusing on 1) the incidence of health damage due to household products, 2) causative product-chemical investigation, and 3) case studies on skin damage.

  4. Laparoscopic transhepatic manometry in portal hypertension in patients with alcoholic liver damage.

    PubMed

    Mörl, M; Schwalbach, G; Wannagat, L; Bavastro, P

    1981-08-01

    Liver damage influenced by alcohol is already associated with the development of a portal hypertension at an early stage. With the aid of laparoscopic transhepatic manometry we determined the pressure levels in the branches of the portal and hepatic veins in 15 patients (16 examinations) comprising 14 men and 1 women, with alcoholic toxic liver damage. It was shown that already with alcoholic parenchymal damage associated with portal and centrolobular fibrosis, a portal hypertension is initiated, the greatest manifestation of which is found in the group with histological changes taking the form of a remodelling (distorsion of architecture) or cirrhosis. The level of alcohol consumption has no direct influence on the level of pressure in the vascular systems investigated. Ther is, however, a correlation between the level of alcohol consumption, extent of fibrosis and portal hypertension. For the clinico-chemical parameters investigated (Gamma-glob., GOT, GPT, GLDH, gamma-GT, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin) no significant differences were found dependent on the level of alcohol consumption or the degree of fibrosis.

  5. Dietary Supplementation of Calendula officinalis Counteracts the Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage Resulted from Aflatoxin

    PubMed Central

    Hamzawy, Mohamed A.; El-Denshary, Ezzeldein S. M.; Hassan, Nabila S.; Mannaa, Fathia A.; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the total phenolic compounds, the antioxidant properties, and the hepatorenoprotective potential of Calendula officinalis extract against aflatoxins (AFs-) induced liver damage. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 6 weeks included the control; the group fed AFs-contaminated diet (2.5 mg/kg diet); the groups treated orally with Calendula extract at low (CA1) and high (CA2) doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w); the groups treated orally with CA1 and CA2 one week before and during AFs treatment for other five weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract contained higher phenolic compounds and posses higher 1,1-diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the aqueous extract. Animals fed AFs-contaminated diet showed significant disturbances in serum biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, and the histological and histochemical pictures of the liver accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver. Calendula extract succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, decreased the oxidative stress, and improved the histological pictures in the liver of rats fed AFs-contaminated diet in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Calendula extract has potential hepatoprotective effects against AFs due to its antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activity. PMID:24959547

  6. Enhancement of hypoxic liver damage by ethanol. Involvement of xanthine oxidase and the role of glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Younes, M; Strubelt, O

    1987-09-15

    Using isolated hemoglobin-free perfused rat livers we investigated the hepatotoxic effects of hypoxia, ethanol or the combination of both. Hypoxia only (90 min) led to a weak toxicity as evidenced by the efflux of the enzymes glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (GPT) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). This toxic effect was slightly higher in livers treated with ethanol (3 g/l) under normoxic conditions. Ethanol added under hypoxic conditions, however, showed a strong hepatotoxic effect. Under hypoxic conditions, lactate + pyruvate production was increased fivefold over control, indicating that glycolysis was more effectively undergone as main source of energy. Addition of ethanol suppressed this effect, indicating that ethanol inhibited glycolysis. These results indicate that ethanol potentiates hypoxic liver damage by inhibiting the main metabolic pathway yielding ATP under low oxygen tension resulting in a severe energy deficit. Allopurinol (100 mg/l) inhibited the toxic effects seen with ethanol + hypoxia. Also, the inhibitory action of ethanol on glycolysis was antagonized. Our results are consistent with the following model: hypoxia converts NAD-dependent xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) into the oxygen-dependent xanthine oxidase (XO). Due to hypoxia and ethanol, purine metabolites and acetaldehyde accumulate and are metabolized via XO. This process leads to the production of oxygen radicals which most probably mediate both the inhibition of glycolysis and the direct toxic effects towards liver cells.

  7. Protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on liver damage by a single dose of CCl(4) in male rats.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Morales, R M; Jaramillo-Juárez, F; Posadas del Río, F A; Reyes-Romero, M A; Rodríguez-Vázquez, M L; Martínez-Saldaña, M C

    2011-03-01

    Functional and morphological alterations were generated by p.o. (per os) administration of a single oral dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4); 0.125 mL/kg b.w., equivalent to 293 mg/kg) to adult male Wistar rats. CCl(4) significantly increased (p < 0.05) the serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT; 7478 ± 1044%) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 6964 ± 833%), compared to control rats; CCl(4) also significantly decreased serum concentration of albumin (23 ± 5.5%) and increased the concentration of malondialhdeyde (MDA) in liver (300 ± 33%). Furthermore, CCl(4) down-regulated the mRNA steady-state level of tumor necrosis factor a(TNF-a). CCl(4) produced necrosis in the central lobe area, extended to the periphery, nuclear alterations (pycnosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis), and cytoplasmic acidophilia. The pretreatment with 4 mg/kg (p.o.) of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE), for 5 days, prevented most of the damage caused by CCl(4): significantly decreased the serum activities of ALT and AST (54 and 65%, respectively), compared to CCl(4)-treated rats; GbE partially prevented the increase of liver MDA (55 ± 14%) and the decrease of albumin concentration to 12 ± 0.2%. This pretreatment prevented the down-regulation of TNF-a and up-regulated the interleukine 6 (IL-6) mRNA steady-state level. Moreover, the GbE reduced the amount of necrotic areas in the central lobe area, compared to CCl(4)-treated rats.

  8. Hepatocurative potential of Vitex doniana root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bolanle, James Dorcas; Adetoro, Kadejo Olubukola; Balarabe, Sallau Abdullahi; Adeyemi, Owolabi Olumuyiwa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hepatocurative effects of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves of Vitex doniana in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage and non induced liver damage albino rats. Methods A total of 60 albino rats (36 induced liver damage and 24 non induced liver damage) were assigned into liver damage and non liver damage groups of 6 rats in a group. The animals in the CCl4 induced liver damage groups, were induced by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of CCl4 (1 mL/kg body weight) as a 1:1(v/v) solution in olive oil and were fasted for 36 h before the subsequent treatment with aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of Vitex doniana and vitamin E as standard drug (100 mg/kg body weight per day) for 21 d, while the animals in the non induced groups were only treated with the daily oral administration of these extracts at the same dose. The administration of CCl4 was done once a week for a period of 3 weeks. Results There was significant (P<0.05) increase in concentration of all liver marker enzymes, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline aminotransferase (ALT, AST and ALP) and significant (P<0.05) decrease in albumin in the CCl4 induced liver damage control when compared to the normal control. The extracts caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the serum activities of liver marker enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) and a significant (P<0.05) increase in albumin of all the induced treated groups. Only stem bark extract and vitamin E significantly (P<0.05) increased total protein. All the extracts significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum creatinine whereas only root bark extract significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum level of urea in the rats with CCl4 induced liver damage. Conclusion Hepatocurative study shows that all the plant parts (root bark, stem bark and leaves) possess significant hepatocurative properties among other therapeutic values justifying their use in folklore medicine. PMID:25182950

  9. A model of interaction: aflatoxins and hepatitis viruses in liver cancer aetiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Wild, Christopher P; Montesano, Ruggero

    2009-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and has an extremely poor prognosis. The majority of cases occur in south-east Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where the major risk factors are chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) as well as dietary exposure to aflatoxins. Aflatoxin B1, the most commonly occurring and potent of the aflatoxins is associated with a specific AGG to AGT transversion mutation at codon 249 of the p53 gene in human HCC, providing mechanistic support to a causal link between exposure and disease. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown a more than multiplicative interaction between HBV and aflatoxins in terms of HCC risk. However, the biology underlying this statistical interaction is not fully understood. There are a number of potential mechanisms including, among others: the fixation of AFB1-induced mutations in the presence of liver regeneration and hyperplasia induced by chronic HBV infection; the predisposition of HBV-infected hepatocytes to aflatoxin-induced DNA damage; an increase in susceptibility to chronic HBV infection in aflatoxin-exposed individuals; and oxidative stress exacerbated by co-exposure to aflatoxins and chronic hepatitis infection. Priorities for prevention are global HBV vaccination, primary and secondary prevention strategies against aflatoxin and the avoidance of transmission of HCV through good hygiene practices.

  10. Modulatory role of Pterocarpus santalinus against alcohol-induced liver oxidative/nitrosative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Bulle, Saradamma; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Maturu, Paramahamsa; N Ch, Varadacharyulu

    2016-10-01

    Pterocarpus santalinus, a traditional medicinal plant has shown protective mechanisms against various complications. The aim of the present study is to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of P. santalinus heartwood methanolic extract (PSE) against alcohol-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress leading to hepatotoxicity. In-vitro studies revealed that PSE possess strong DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. For in vivo studies male albino Wistar rats were treated with 20% alcohol (5g/kg b.wt/day) and PSE (250mg/kg b.wt/day) for 60days. Results showed that alcohol administration significantly altered plasma lipid profile with marked increase in the levels of plasma transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT). Moreover, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide (NOx) levels in plasma and liver were increased with increased iNOS protein expression in liver was noticed in alcohol administered rats and these levels were significantly brought back close to normal level by PSE administration except iNOS protein expression. Alcohol administration also decreased the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver, which were significantly enhanced by administration of PSE. The active compounds pterostilbene, lignan and lupeols present in PSE might have shown protection against alcohol-induced hepatic damage by possibly reducing the rate of lipid peroxidation, NOx levels and increasing the antioxidant defence mechanism in alcohol administered rats. Both biochemical and histopathological results in the alcohol-induced liver damage model emphasize beneficial action of PSE as a hepatoprotective agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Montelukast on Liver Damage in an Experimental Obstructive Jaundice Model

    PubMed Central

    Kuru, Serdar; Kismet, Kemal; Barlas, Aziz M.; Tuncal, Salih; Celepli, Pinar; Surer, Hatice; Ogus, Elmas; Ertas, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    Background Montelukast is a cysteinyl-leukotriene type 1 (CysLT1) selective receptor antagonist. In recent years, investigations have shown that montelukast possesses secondary anti-inflammatory activities and also antioxidant effects. For this reason, we aimed to determine the possible effects of montelukast on liver damage in experimental obstructive jaundice. Methods 30 Wistar-Albino male rats were randomized and divided into three groups of 10 animals each: group I, sham-operated; group II, ligation and division of the common bile duct (BDL) followed by daily intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml of saline; group III, BDL followed by daily intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg montelukast dissolved in saline. The animals were killed on postoperative day 7 by high-dose diethyl ether inhalation. Blood and liver samples were taken for examination. Results In this study, liver malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.001), myeloperoxidase (p = 0.003), and total sulfhydryl (SH) (p = 0.009) were found to be significantly different between the BDL + montelukast and the BDL groups. Plasma total SH (p = 0.002) and MDA (p = 0.027) values were also statistically different between these groups. Statistical analyses of histological activity index scores showed that the histopathological damage in the BDL + montelukast group was significantly less than the damage in the control group (p < 0.05 for all pathological parameters). Conclusion According to the results of this study, montelukast showed a significant hepatoprotective effect in this experimental obstructive jaundice model, which might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26989383

  12. Liver Damage in Patients with HCV/HIV Coinfection Is Linked to HIV-Related Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiangbo; Liang, Hua; Fan, Xueying; Zhu, Liyan; Shen, Tao

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection aggravates the progression of liver damage in HCV-coinfected patients, with the underlying pathogenesis being multifactorial. Although high level of oxidative stress has been observed frequently in patients infected with HIV or HCV, the status of oxidative stress in HIV/HCV coinfection and its contribution to HCV liver damage have not been determined. This study involved 363 HBsAg-negative, anti-HCV-positive former blood donors recruited from a village in central China in July 2005; of these, 140 were positive for HIV. Of these 363 subjects, 282 were successfully followed up through July 2009. HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects had higher rates of end-stage liver disease-related death than those monoinfected with HCV. Liver ultrasound manifestations were poor in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative individuals, in both chronic HCV carriers and those with resolved HCV. Serum concentrations of total glutathione (tGSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), GSSG, and reduced GSH were higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative subjects. GSSG concentrations were higher in HIV-infected subjects with abnormal ALT/AST levels than in those with normal ALT/AST levels and were associated with poorer liver ultrasound manifestations. These finding indicated that HIV infection accelerated HCV-associated liver damage in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. Increased oxidative stress, induced primarily by HIV coinfection, may contribute to aggravated liver damage. PMID:26881041

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Lipoic Acid Protection against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Liver Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Responses in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiugang; Li, Yan; Fan, Yu; Zhao, Lihong; Wei, Hua; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Jianyun

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) was evaluated in this study for its molecular mechanisms against liver oxidative damage and inflammatory responses induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Birds were randomly allocated into four groups with different diets for three weeks: a basal diet, a 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in a basal diet, a diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in a diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1. In the AFB1 group, the expression of GSH-PX mRNA was down-regulated (p < 0.05), and the levels of lipid peroxide and nitric oxide were increased (p < 0.05) in the chicken livers compared to those of the control group. Additionally, the mRNA level of the pro-inflammatory factor interleukin-6 was up-regulated significantly (p < 0.05), the protein expressions of both the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and the inducible nitric oxide synthase were enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) in the AFB1 group. All of these negative effects were inhibited by α-LA. These results indicate that α-LA may be effective in preventing hepatic oxidative stress, down-regulating the expression of hepatic pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as inhibiting NF-κB expression. PMID:26694462

  14. Prevention of propeller foreign object damage - Theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, C.; Vitale, D. J.

    Foreign object damage hazards to which ACV propellers are exposed, and the phenomena causing the damage, are discussed. Comparison of the effects of energy absorption in systems of hard, soft, smooth and rough particles impacting upon soft and hard propeller materials is made. Molded urethane strips were found to increase the life of the blades from 20 minutes between maintenance actions to nine hours between maintenance actions. Molded urethanes and sprayed or brushed urethanes are compared.

  15. Iron-induced DNA damage and synthesis in isolated rat liver nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Shires, T K

    1982-01-01

    Incubation of iron with isolated rat liver nuclei stimulated fragmentation of single-stranded DNA, incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA and the binding of 59Fe to DNA. FeCl2 was about twice as active as FeCl3. Lipid peroxidation took place in nuclei incubated with FeCl2, but not with FeCl3. Generation of reactive forms of oxygen was required for iron-mediated DNA damage, but evidence for direct interaction of reactive oxygen with DNA was not found. Apparent adducts of iron bound to DNA seemed to be formed by an enzymic mechanism. PMID:7138506

  16. Protection by exogenous glutathione against hypoxic and cyanide-induced damage to isolated perfused rat livers.

    PubMed

    Younes, M; Strubelt, O

    1990-02-01

    In experiments with isolated perfused livers from fasted rats, addition of 2 mmol/l glutathione (GSH) to the perfusion medium protected against hepatic damage induced by cyanide or hypoxia and reoxygenation as evidenced by leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and hepatic calcium accumulation. In control experiments as well as in experiments with cyanide or hypoxia and reoxygenation, exogenous glutathione resulted in an augmentation of cellular glutathione content, indicating either direct uptake of GSH or stimulation of its intracellular synthesis. The protective effects of glutathione against hypoxic and cyanide-induced hepatotoxicity substantiate the role of oxidative stress in both types of injury.

  17. Curcumin protects against acute liver damage in the rat by inhibiting NF-kappaB, proinflammatory cytokines production and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gordillo, Karina; Segovia, José; Shibayama, Mineko; Vergara, Paula; Moreno, Mario G; Muriel, Pablo

    2007-06-01

    Curcumin, an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound, was evaluated for its ability to suppress acute carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. Acute hepatotoxicity was induced by oral administration of CCl4 (4 g/kg, p.o.). Curcumin treatment (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was given before and 2 h after CCl4 administration. Indicators of necrosis (alanine aminotransferase) and cholestasis (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and bilirubins) resulted in significant increases after CCl4 intoxication, but these effects were prevented by curcumin treatment. As an indicator of oxidative stress, GSH was oxidized and the GSH/GSSG ratio decreased significantly by CCl4, but was preserved within normal values by curcumin. In addition to its antioxidants properties, curcumin is capable of preventing NF-kappaB activation and therefore to prevent the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, in this study we determined the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA, and NF-kappaB activation. CCl4-administered rats depicted significant increases in TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 production, while curcumin remarkably suppressed these mediators of inflammation in liver damage. These results were confirmed by measuring TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta protein production using Western Blot analysis. Accordingly, these proteins were increased by CCl4 and this effect was abolished by curcumin. Administration of CCl4 induced the translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus; CCl4 induced NF-kappaB DNA binding activity was blocked by curcumin treatment. These findings suggest that curcumin prevents acute liver damage by at least two mechanisms: acting as an antioxidant and by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation and thus production of proinflammatory cytokines.

  18. Caspase-3/7-mediated Cleavage of β2-spectrin is Required for Acetaminophen-induced Liver Damage.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hye Jung; Lee, Yong Min; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Eun Jung; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi; Mishra, Lopa; Kim, Sang Soo

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed β2-spectrin (β2SP, SPTBN1) is the most common non-erythrocytic member of the β-spectrin gene family. Loss of β2-spectrin leads to defects in liver development, and its haploinsufficiency spontaneously leads to chronic liver disease and the eventual development of hepatocellular cancer. However, the specific role of β2-spectrin in liver homeostasis remains to be elucidated. Here, we reported that β2-spectrin was cleaved by caspase-3/7 upon treatment with acetaminophen which is the main cause of acute liver injury. Blockage of β2-spectrin cleavage robustly attenuated β2-spectrin-specific functions, including regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and transcription. Cleaved fragments of β2-spectrin were physiologically active, and the N- and C-terminal fragments retained discrete interaction partners and activity in transcriptional regulation and apoptosis, respectively. Cleavage of β2-spectrin facilitated the redistribution of the resulting fragments under conditions of liver damage induced by acetaminophen. In contrast, downregulation of β2-spectrin led to resistance to acetaminophen-induced cytotoxicity, and its insufficiency in the liver promoted suppression of acetaminophen-induced liver damage and enhancement of liver regeneration. β2-Spectrin, a TGF-β mediator and signaling molecule, is cleaved and activated by caspase-3/7, consequently enhancing apoptosis and transcriptional control to determine cell fate upon liver damage. These findings have extended our knowledge on the spectrum of β2-spectrin functions from a scaffolding protein to a target and transmitter of TGF-β in liver damage.

  19. Caspase-3/7-mediated Cleavage of β2-spectrin is Required for Acetaminophen-induced Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Hye Jung; Lee, Yong Min; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Eun Jung; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi; Mishra, Lopa; Kim, Sang Soo

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed β2-spectrin (β2SP, SPTBN1) is the most common non-erythrocytic member of the β-spectrin gene family. Loss of β2-spectrin leads to defects in liver development, and its haploinsufficiency spontaneously leads to chronic liver disease and the eventual development of hepatocellular cancer. However, the specific role of β2-spectrin in liver homeostasis remains to be elucidated. Here, we reported that β2-spectrin was cleaved by caspase-3/7 upon treatment with acetaminophen which is the main cause of acute liver injury. Blockage of β2-spectrin cleavage robustly attenuated β2-spectrin-specific functions, including regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and transcription. Cleaved fragments of β2-spectrin were physiologically active, and the N- and C-terminal fragments retained discrete interaction partners and activity in transcriptional regulation and apoptosis, respectively. Cleavage of β2-spectrin facilitated the redistribution of the resulting fragments under conditions of liver damage induced by acetaminophen. In contrast, downregulation of β2-spectrin led to resistance to acetaminophen-induced cytotoxicity, and its insufficiency in the liver promoted suppression of acetaminophen-induced liver damage and enhancement of liver regeneration. Conclusions: β2-Spectrin, a TGF-β mediator and signaling molecule, is cleaved and activated by caspase-3/7, consequently enhancing apoptosis and transcriptional control to determine cell fate upon liver damage. These findings have extended our knowledge on the spectrum of β2-spectrin functions from a scaffolding protein to a target and transmitter of TGF-β in liver damage. PMID:26884715

  20. Pediatric parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and cholestasis: Novel advances in pathomechanisms-based prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Orso, Giuseppe; Mandato, Claudia; Veropalumbo, Claudio; Cecchi, Nicola; Garzi, Alfredo; Vajro, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Parenteral nutrition constitutes a life-saving therapeutic tool in patients unable to ingest/absorb oral or enteral delivered nutrients. Liver function tests abnormalities are a common therapy-related complication, thus configuring the so-called Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease (PNALD) or cholestasis (PNAC). Although the damage is frequently mild, and resolves after discontinuation of parenteral nutrition, in some cases it progresses into cirrhotic changes, especially in neonates and infants. We present a literature review focusing on the pathogenetic mechanisms-driven prevention and therapies for the cases where parenteral nutrition cannot be discontinued. Ursodeoxycholic acid has been proposed in patients with cholestatic hepatopathy, but its efficacy needs to be better established. Little evidence is available on efficacy of anti-oxidants, antibiotics, probiotics and anti TNFα. Lipid emulsions based on fish oil with a high content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 appear effective both in decreasing intrahepatic inflammation and in improving biliary flow. Most recent promising variations such as soybean/MCT/olive/fish oil emulsion [third generation lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid)] are under investigation. In conclusion, we remark the emergence of a number of novel pathomechanisms underlying the severe liver impairment damage (PNALD and PNAC) in patients treated with parenteral nutrition. Only few traditional and innovative therapeutic strategies have hitherto been shown promising.

  1. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage.

    PubMed

    González-Ponce, Herson Antonio; Martínez-Saldaña, María Consolación; Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando

    2016-10-04

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800mg/kg/day, orally) were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20mmol/LAPAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF.

  2. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    González-Ponce, Herson Antonio; Martínez-Saldaña, María Consolación; Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800 mg/kg/day, orally) were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20 mmol/L APAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF. PMID:27782042

  3. Liver damage, inflammation, and enhanced tumorigenesis after persistent mTORC1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Atsushi; Park, Eek Joong; Taniguchi, Koji; Lee, Jun Hee; Shalapour, Shabnam; Valasek, Mark A; Aghajan, Mariam; Nakagawa, Hayato; Seki, Ekihiro; Hall, Michael N; Karin, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Obesity can result in insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and increases liver cancer risk. Obesity-induced insulin resistance depends, in part, on chronic activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which also occurs in human and mouse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a frequently fatal liver cancer. Correspondingly, mTORC1 inhibitors have been considered as potential NASH and HCC treatments. Using a mouse model in which high-fat diet enhances HCC induction by the hepatic carcinogen DEN, we examined whether mTORC1 inhibition attenuates liver inflammation and tumorigenesis. Notably, rapamycin treatment or hepatocyte-specific ablation of the specific mTORC1 subunit Raptor resulted in elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and enhanced HCC development, despite a transient reduction in hepatosteatosis. These results suggest that long-term rapamycin treatment, which also increases IL-6 production in humans, is unsuitable for prevention or treatment of obesity-promoted liver cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Liver Damage, Inflammation and Enhanced Tumorigenesis after Persistent mTORC1 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Umemura, Atsushi; Park, Eek Joong; Taniguchi, Koji; Lee, Jun Hee; Shalapour, Shabnam; Valasek, Mark A.; Aghajan, Mariam; Nakagawa, Hayato; Seki, Ekihiro; Hall, Michael N.; Karin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Summary Obesity can result in insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and increases liver cancer risk. Obesity-induced insulin resistance depends, in part, on chronic activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which also occurs in human and mouse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a frequently fatal liver cancer. Correspondingly, mTORC1 inhibitors have been considered as potential NASH and HCC treatments. Using a mouse model in which high fat diet enhances HCC induction by the hepatic carcinogen DEN we examined whether mTORC1 inhibition attenuates liver inflammation and tumorigenesis. Notably, rapamycin treatment or hepatocyte-specific ablation of the specific mTORC1 subunit Raptor resulted in elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) production, activation of STAT3 and enhanced HCC development, despite a transient reduction in hepatosteatosis. These results suggest that long term rapamycin treatment, which also increases IL-6 production in humans, is unsuitable for prevention or treatment of obesity-promoted liver cancer. PMID:24910242

  5. Vascular and nerval damage after intraoperative radiation therapy of the liver hilum in a large animal model.

    PubMed

    Juntermanns, Benjamin; Grabellus, Florian; Zhang, Hongwei; Radunz, Sonia; Bernheim, Johannes; Fingas, Christian Dominik; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Paul, Andreas; Kaiser, Gernot Maximilian

    2014-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that intraoperative radiotherapy is a therapeutic option for patients suffering from perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. Aim of our study was to investigate vascular and nerve damages after irradiation of the liver hilum in a pig model. Twenty-four pigs underwent central bile duct resection followed by biliodigestive anastomosis. Nine pigs underwent this surgical procedure alone (group 1). Ten pigs were treated with additional intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) of 20Gy to the liver hilum (group 2). And five pigs received operation and IORT with 40Gy to the area of anastomosis (group 3). Six weeks after operation and treatment the animals were sacrificed and histopathological examination was performed. Histology showed no vascular or nerve damage in non-irradiated perihilar tissue. Significant changes of nerve structures occurred, as well as vascular damage in large and even more in small hilar arteries in the irradiated neighboring liver tissue. In detail for small hilar arteries: intima proliferation (p ≤ .0001), endothelial swelling (p ≤ .0001), fibrinoid arterial wall necrosis (p ≤ .0001), and arterial thrombosis (p = .0079) were detected. Venous vessels did not show significant dose dependant cell damage. Overall, 20Gy as a single dose application during operation showed similar damage to vessels and nerves compared to 40Gy. A radiation dosage of 20Gy seems to be sufficient to induce necrosis due to vascular and nerve damage in potential malignant liver tissue with acceptable damage to surrounding tissue. Perineural invaded tumor cells might be diminished due to IORT.

  6. Effect of betaine on the hepatic damage from orotic acid-induced fatty liver development in rats.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Young; Kim, Hyeong-Soo; Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Young-Su

    2011-12-13

    Betaine prevents hepatic damage caused by ethanol and carbone tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Present study was to investigate the effect of betaine on the hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression in orotic acid (OA)-induced fatty liver in rats. OA feeding was attributed to the significant increase in the hepatic levels of triglyceride and the serum levels of ALT and AST and resulted in typical histology of fatty liver contained numerous largely fat droplets. While concomitant supplementation of betaine to OA diet was slightly reduced the hepatic triglyceride concentrations and was significantly decreased ALT activity. Hepatic MTP mRNA expression by OA treatment increased by 14% despite triglyceride accumulation in the liver in OA treatment rats relative to rats fed a normal diet without OA supplemented, but MTP expression by simultaneous supplementation of OA and betaine was slightly decreased by 7.9% as compared to the OA-feeding rats. A significant elevation of TBARS contents in the liver homogenate, microsome, and mitochondrial fractions of the OA-feeding rats compared with the normal rats, however, these increases were significantly or slightly decreased by simultaneous addition of OA and betaine. The increases of hepatic OA and betaine levels in OA feeding rats was also found when compared to the normal rats, but these increases were significantly lowered in the concomitant supplementation OA and betaine. The content of Fe was significantly increased in the OA feeding rats, but this elevation showed significantly recovered as low as the normal level by concomitant with OA and betaine. Zinc content was also significantly decreased in the OA feeding rats compared with the normal rats, but this reduction was more significantly elevated by concomitant with OA and betaine. Hepatic glutathione content in the OA feeding rats was similar to that of the normal rats, but this content was slightly reduced without statistically significant

  7. SIV-induced Translocation of Bacterial Products in the Liver Mobilizes Myeloid Dendritic and Natural Killer Cells Associated With Liver Damage.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tristan I; Li, Haiying; Schafer, Jamie L; Klatt, Nichole R; Hao, Xing-Pei; Traslavina, Ryan P; Estes, Jacob D; Brenchley, Jason M; Reeves, R Keith

    2016-02-01

    Disruption of the mucosal epithelium during lentivirus infections permits translocation of microbial products into circulation, causing immune activation and driving disease. Although the liver directly filters blood from the intestine and is the first line of defense against gut-derived antigens, the effects of microbial products on the liver are unclear. In livers of normal macaques, minute levels of bacterial products were detectable, but increased 20-fold in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected animals. Increased microbial products in the liver induced production of the chemoattractant CXCL16 by myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), causing subsequent recruitment of hypercytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells expressing the CXCL16 receptor, CXCR6. Microbial accumulation, mDC activation, and cytotoxic NK cell frequencies were significantly correlated with markers of liver damage, and SIV-infected animals consistently had evidence of hepatitis and fibrosis. Collectively, these data indicate that SIV-associated accumulation of microbial products in the liver initiates a cascade of innate immune activation, resulting in liver damage.

  8. The flavonoid naringenin inhibits dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hye; Yoon, Sik; Moon, Jeon-Ok

    2004-01-01

    Naringenin, a phytoalexin found in grapefruits and tomatoes, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of naringenin on hepatic injury induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in rats. Oral administration of naringenin (20 and 50 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks) remarkably prevented the DMN-induced loss in body and liver weights and inhibited the elevation of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin levels. Naringenin also restored serum albumin and total protein levels, and reduced the hepatic level of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, DMN-induced collagen accumulation, as estimated by histological analysis of liver tissue stained with Sirius red, was reduced in the naringenin-treated rats. A reduction in hepatic stellate cell activation, as assessed by alpha-smooth muscle actin staining, was associated with naringenin treatment. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that naringenin exhibited in vivo hepatoprotective and anti-fibrogenic effects against DMN-induced liver injury. It suggests that naringenin may be useful in preventing the development of hepatic fibrosis.

  9. Severe Vitamin D Deficiency Is Not Associated with Liver Damage in Morbidly Obese Patients.

    PubMed

    Anty, Rodolphe; Hastier, Audrey; Canivet, Clémence M; Patouraux, Stéphanie; Schneck, Anne-Sophie; Ferrari-Panaia, Patricia; Ben-Amor, Imed; Saint-Paul, Marie Christine; Gugenheim, Jean; Gual, Philippe; Iannelli, Antonio; Tran, Albert

    2016-09-01

    A deficiency in vitamin D could be deleterious during chronic liver diseases. However, contradictory data have been published in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of the study was to compare the blood level of 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) with the severity of liver lesions, in a large cohort of morbidly obese patients. Three hundred ninety-eight morbidly obese patients had a liver biopsy. The non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) Clinical Research Network Scoring System Definition and Scores were used. 25-OH vitamin D was evaluated with a Diasorin®Elisa Kit. Logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain predictive factors of the severity of liver histology. 20.6 % of patients had NASH. The stage of fibrosis was F0 12.9 %, F1 57.36 %, F2 25.32 %, F3 (bridging fibrosis) 3.88 %, and F4 (cirrhosis) 0.52 %. The 25-OH vitamin D level inversely correlated to the NAS (r = 0.12 and p = 0.01) and to steatosis (r = 0.14 and p = 0.007); however, it was not associated with the presence of NASH. The level of vitamin D was significantly lower in patients with significant fibrosis compared to those without (15.9 (11.1-23.5) vs 19.6 (13.7-24.7) ng/ml, p = 0.02). There was an inverse correlation between the severity of fibrosis and the values of 25-OH vitamin D (r = 0.12 and p = 0.01). In a logistic regression analysis, no parameters were independently associated with the severity of fibrosis except the presence of steatohepatitis (1.94 (1.13-3.35) p = 0.017). Low levels of 25-OH vitamin D were not independently associated with liver damage in morbidly obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD).

  10. Nrf2 protects against As(III)-induced damage in mouse liver and bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Tao; Huang Zheping; Chan, Jefferson Y.; Zhang, Donna D.

    2009-10-01

    Arsenic compounds are classified as toxicants and human carcinogens. Environmental exposure to arsenic imposes a big health issue worldwide. Arsenic elicits its toxic efforts through many mechanisms, including generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nrf2 is the primary transcription factor that controls expression of a main cellular antioxidant response, which is required for neutralizing ROS and thus defending cells from exogenous insults. Previously, we demonstrated a protective role of Nrf2 against arsenic-induced toxicity using a cell culture model. In this report, we present evidence that Nrf2 protects against liver and bladder injury in response to six weeks of arsenic exposure in a mouse model. Nrf2{sup -/-} mice displayed more severe pathological changes in the liver and bladder, compared to Nrf2{sup +/+} mice. Furthermore, Nrf2{sup -/-} mice were more sensitive to arsenic-induced DNA hypomethylation, oxidative DNA damage, and apoptotic cell death. These results indicate a protective role of Nrf2 against arsenic toxicity in vivo. Hence, this work demonstrates the feasibility of using dietary compounds that target activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway to alleviate arsenic-induced damage.

  11. Monosodium glutamate-induced damage in liver and kidney: a morphological and biochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, G G; Bitzer-Quintero, O K; Zárate, C Beas; Rodríguez-Reynoso, S; Larios-Arceo, F; Velázquez-Brizuela, I E; Pacheco-Moisés, F; Rosales-Corral, S A

    2006-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that high concentrations of monosodium glutamate in the central nervous system induce neuronal necrosis and damage in retina and circumventricular organs. In this model, the monosodium glutamate is used to induce an epileptic state; one that requires highly concentrated doses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of the monosodium glutamate in liver and kidney after an intra-peritoneal injection. For the experiment, we used 192 Wistar rats to carry out the following assessments: a) the quantification of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, b) the quantification of the lipid peroxidation products and c) the morphological evaluation of the liver and kidney. During the experiment, all of these assessments were carried out at 0, 15, 30 and 45 min after the intra-peritoneal injection. In the rats that received monosodium glutamate, we observed increments in the concentration of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase at 30 and 45 min. Also, an increment of the lipid peroxidation products, in kidney, was exhibited at 15, 30 and 45 min while in liver it was observed at 30 and 45 min. Degenerative changes were observed (edema-degeneration-necrosis) at 15, 30 and 45 min.

  12. Protein deficiency and muscle damage in carbon tetrachloride induced liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    López-Lirola, A; González-Reimers, E; Martín Olivera, R; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Galindo-Martín, L; Abreu-González, P; González-Hernández, T; Valladares-Parrilla, F

    2003-12-01

    Protein undernutrition, alterations of hormones such as IGF-1, testosterone and cortisol, and increased lipid peroxidation-which may be related with deranged metabolism of some elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se) or copper (Cu)-may contribute to muscle damage in non alcoholic cirrhosis. Here, we analyse the effect of protein deficiency on muscle Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn and Se in carbon-tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver cirrhosis. We also study the association between protein undernutrition and these trace elements with the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation products, and how all these are related with muscle morphological changes in 40 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Liver cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl(4) to 10 rats fed a 2% protein diet, and to another 10 fed a 18% protein control diet. Two further groups included rats without cirrhosis fed the 2% protein and the 18% protein diets. After sacrifice (6 weeks later), we found type IIa fibre atrophy in the cirrhotic animals, especially in the low-protein fed ones and this was due to protein deficiency. Muscle Fe increased in low protein fed cirrhotic rats. No relationship was found between muscle changes and any of the hormones, enzymes and trace elements analysed, or with liver fibrosis. These results suggest that muscle atrophy observed in CCl(4)-induced cirrhosis is related with protein deficiency, but not with cirrhosis itself.

  13. Protective effect of Urtica dioica on liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in rats.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Ibis, Cem

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Urtica dioica (UD) against liver damage in the common bile duct-ligated rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, bile duct ligation (BDL) and BDL + received UD groups, containing eight animals in each group. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg) once a day intraperitoneally for 2 weeks starting 3 days prior to BDL operation. The change demonstrating the bile duct proliferation and fibrosis in expanded portal tracts includes the extension of proliferated bile ducts into the lobules; inflammatory cell infiltration into the widened portal areas were observed in BDL group. Treatment of BDL with UD attenuated alterations in liver histology. The α-smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin-positive ductular proliferation and the activity of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling in the BDL were observed to be reduced with the UD treatment. The data indicate that UD attenuates BDL-induced cholestatic liver injury, bile duct proliferation and fibrosis.

  14. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    fruits and vegetables per day for a total of 8 weeks on measures of oxidative damage to DNA and lipids is being determined. Urine and blood ... components are being assessed for oxidative endpoints and plasma is being evaluated for biochemical markers of edible plant consumption. Body Approved

  15. Vicair Academy Mattress in the prevention of pressure damage.

    PubMed

    Collins, Fiona

    There are many costs associated with the development of pressure ulcers, both in terms of the patient experience and those associated with healing. If patients who are deemed to be at risk are identified and suitable preventive equipment is provided, incidence of pressure ulcer development can be reduced significantly. Pressure-reducing mattresses are primarily used to prevent pressure ulcers from occurring, in conjunction with other preventive measures, such as repositioning. The Vicair Academy Mattress, manufactured by Vicair BV and distributed by Gerald Simonds, uses Vicair's 'dry air' flotation system to offer maximum pressure and shear protection to patients who are at high risk of developing pressure ulcers.

  16. Crepidiastrum denticulatum Extract Protects the Liver Against Chronic Alcohol-Induced Damage and Fat Accumulation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji-Hye; Kang, Kyungsu; Yun, Ji Ho; Kim, Mi Ae

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol is a severe hepatotoxicant that causes liver abnormalities such as steatosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocarcinoma. Crepidiastrum denticulatum (CD) is a well-known, traditionally consumed vegetable in Korea, which was recently reported to have bioactive compounds with detoxification and antioxidant properties. In this study, we report the hepatoprotective effect of CD extract against chronic alcohol-induced liver damage in vivo. The rats that were given CD extract exhibited decreased alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities, which are liver damage markers that are typically elevated by alcohol consumption. The results were confirmed by histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Chronic alcohol consumption induced the formation of alcoholic fatty liver. However, treatment with CD extract dramatically decreased the hepatic lipid droplets. Treatment with CD extract also restored the antioxidative capacity and lipid peroxidation of the liver that had been changed by alcohol consumption. Furthermore, treatment with CD extract normalized the activities of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase, which had been decreased by alcohol consumption. The results indicate that CD extract has protective effects against chronic alcohol hepatotoxicity in rats by increasing the liver's antioxidant capacity, and has potential as a dietary supplement intervention for patients with alcohol-induced liver damage. PMID:24650230

  17. Bumetanide increases manganese accumulation in the brain of rats with liver damage.

    PubMed

    Montes, Sergio; Castro-Chávez, Armando; Florian-Soto, Circe; Heras-Romero, Yessica; Ríos, Camilo; Rivera-Mancía, Susana

    2016-03-05

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication in cases of liver damage; it results from several factors, including the accumulation of toxic substances in the brain, e.g. manganese, ammonia and glutamine. We have previously reported that manganese favors ammonia and glutamine accumulation in the brain of cirrhotic rats, and we suggested that such effect could be mediated by manganese-elicited activation of the NKCC1 (Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1). To test this hypothesis, we used bumetanide, an NKCC1 blocker prescribed to treat ascites in cirrhotic patients; we expected that if NKCC1 was responsible for manganese-mediated ammonia buildup and the subsequent glutamine accumulation, bumetanide could counteract such effect and improve motor coordination. In addition, we considered essential to test the effect of bumetanide on manganese brain levels. We used a model of liver damage in rats, consisting in bile-duct ligation. Animals were exposed to manganese in the drinking water (1 mg/ml) for two weeks and ammonia in the food (20% w/w of ammonia acetate) during the second week after surgery. Bumetanide was administered intraperitoneally in the course of the ammonia treatment. We measured glutamine and manganese in three brain regions: frontal cortex, striatum and cerebellum. Bumetanide produced no effect on glutamine accumulation; however, because of bumetanide treatment, manganese was increased in the brain, and also the activity of gamma-glutamyl transferase in plasma; thus, we consider that the influence of bumetanide and similar diuretics on liver function and manganese homeostasis should be further studied.

  18. Resveratrol Protects Sepsis-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in Liver and Kidney of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Sevtap; Şahin, Tevfik Tolga; Bacanlı, Merve; Taner, Gökçe; Başaran, Arif Ahmet; Aydın, Mehtap; Başaran, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Background The increases of free radicals have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis, which leads to multiple-organ dysfunction syndromes. The uses of antioxidants as a complementary tool in the medical care of oxidative stress-related diseases have attracted attention of researchers. Resveratrol (RV) has suggested being antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects in various experimental models and clinical settings. Aims This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of RV on oxidative DNA damage induced by sepsis in the liver and kidney tissues of Wistar albino rats. Study Design Animal experimentation. Methods Four experimental groups consisting of eight animals for each was created using a total of thirty-two male Wistar albino rats. Sham group was given 0.5 mL of saline intra-peritoneal (ip) only following laparatomy. Sepsis group was given 0.5 mL saline ip only following the induction of sepsis. RV-treated group was given a dose of 100 mg/kg ip RV in 0.5 mL saline following laparatomy. RV-treated sepsis group was given 100 mg/kg ip RV in 0.5 mL saline following the induction of sepsis. A model of sepsis was created by cecal ligation and puncture technique. In the liver and kidney tissues, oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX)) and a proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)), were evaluated spectrophotometrically and DNA damage was determined by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) technique using formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase protein. Results In the RV-treated sepsis group, the levels of MDA and TNF-alpha were lower and GSH levels, SOD and GPX activities were higher than in the septic rats (p<0.05). RV treatment significantly reduced the sepsis-induced oxidative DNA damage in the liver and kidney cells (p<0.05). Conclusion It is suggested that RV treatment

  19. Incidence of liver damage of uncertain origin in HIV patients not co-infected with HCV/HBV.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Camacho, Angela; Merchante, Nicolás; Pérez-Camacho, Inés; Macias, Juan; Ortiz-Garcia, Carmen; Cifuentes, Celia; Torre-Cisneros, Julián; Peña, José; Pineda, Juan A; Rivero, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have reported that a significant number of HIV patients not co-infected with HCV/HBV develop liver damage of uncertain origin (LDUO). The objective of our study was to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for the development of LDUO in HIV infected patients not co-infected with HCV/HBV. Prospective longitudinal study that included HIV-infected patients free of previous liver damage and viral hepatitis B or C co-infections. Patients were followed up at 6-monthly intervals. Liver stiffness was measured at each visit. Abnormal liver stiffness (ALS) was defined as a liver stiffness value greater than 7.2 kPa at two consecutive measurements. For patients who developed ALS, a protocol was followed to diagnose the cause of liver damage. Those patients who could not be diagnosed with any specific cause of liver disease were diagnosed as LDUO and liver biopsy was proposed. 210 patients matched the inclusion criteria and were included. 198 patients completed the study. After a median (Q1-Q3) follow-up of 18 (IQR 12-26) months, 21 patients (10.6%) developed ALS. Of these, fifteen patients were diagnosed as LDUO. The incidence of LDUO was 7.64 cases/100 patient-years. Histological studies were performed on ten (66.6%) patients and all showed liver steatosis. A higher HOMA-IR value and body mass index were independently associated with the development of LDUO. We found a high incidence of LDUO in HIV-infected patients associated with metabolic risk factors. The leading cause of LDUO in our study was non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  20. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and... Administration § 223.113 Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. Timber sale contract, permits, and other such instruments may be modified to prevent environmental damage...

  1. Catalase, a target of glycation damage in rat liver mitochondria with aging.

    PubMed

    Bakala, Hilaire; Hamelin, Maud; Mary, Jean; Borot-Laloi, Caroline; Friguet, Bertrand

    2012-10-01

    Aging is characterized by progressive decline of major cell functions, associated with accumulation of altered macromolecules, particularly proteins. This deterioration parallels age-related dysfunction of mitochondria, thought to be a major determinant of this decline in cell function, since these organelles are both the main sources of reactive oxygen species and targets for their damaging effects. To investigate the link between glycation damages that accumulate with aging and the status of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, we identified, by mass spectrometry after two dimensional-gel electrophoresis and western blotting, advanced glycation end product-modified matrix proteins in rat liver mitochondria. Catalase appeared to be the only antioxidant enzyme markedly glycated in old rats. Immunogold labeling performed on isolated mitochondria confirmed the mitochondrial matrix location of this enzyme. The content of catalase protein in mitochondrial extract increased with aging whereas the catalase activity was not significantly modified, in spite of a significant increase rate of glycation. Treatment of catalase with the glycating agent fructose led to significant time-dependent inactivation of the enzyme, while methylglyoxal had no noticeable effect. Catalase was co-identified with unglycated glutathione peroxidase-1 in the mitochondrial extracts. Taken together, these results indicate that both anti-oxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase-1 housed in liver mitochondria, exhibited a differential sensitivity to glycation; moreover, they lend support to the hypothesis that glycation damages targeting catalase with aging may severely affect its activity, suggesting a link between glycation stress and the age-related decline in antioxidant defense in the mitochondria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mitigation of autophagy ameliorates hepatocellular damage following ischemia-reperfusion injury in murine steatotic liver

    PubMed Central

    Kolachala, Vasantha L.; Jiang, Rong; Abramowsky, Carlos; Shenoi, Asha; Kosters, Astrid; Pavuluri, Haritha; Anania, Frank; Kirk, Allan D.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common clinical consequence of hepatic surgery, cardiogenic shock, and liver transplantation. A steatotic liver is particularly vulnerable to IRI, responding with extensive hepatocellular injury. Autophagy, a lysosomal pathway balancing cell survival and cell death, is engaged in IRI, although its role in IRI of a steatotic liver is unclear. The role of autophagy was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice exposed to IRI in vivo and in steatotic hepatocytes exposed to hypoxic IRI (HIRI) in vitro. Two inhibitors of autophagy, 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1, protected the steatotic hepatocytes from HIRI. Exendin 4 (Ex4), a glucagon-like peptide 1 analog, also led to suppression of autophagy, as evidenced by decreased autophagy-associated proteins [microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) II, p62, high-mobility group protein B1, beclin-1, and autophagy-related protein 7], reduced hepatocellular damage, and improved mitochondrial structure and function in HFD-fed mice exposed to IRI. Decreased autophagy was further demonstrated by reversal of a punctate pattern of LC3 and decreased autophagic flux after IRI in HFD-fed mice. Under the same conditions, the effects of Ex4 were reversed by the competitive antagonist exendin 9-39. The present study suggests that, in IRI of hepatic steatosis, treatment of hepatocytes with Ex4 mitigates autophagy, ameliorates hepatocellular injury, and preserves mitochondrial integrity. These data suggest that therapies targeting autophagy, by Ex4 treatment in particular, may ameliorate the effects of IRI in highly prevalent steatotic liver. PMID:25258410

  3. Protective effect of Xingnaojia formulation on rats with brain and liver damage caused by chronic alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    LI, SHUANG; WANG, SU; GUO, ZHI-GANG; HUANG, NING; ZHAO, FAN-RONG; ZHU, MO-LI; MA, LI-JUAN; LIANG, JIN-YING; ZHANG, YU-LIN; HUANG, ZHONG-LIN; WAN, GUANG-RUI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effect of a formulation of traditional Chinese medicine extracts known as Xingnaojia (XNJ) on the liver function, learning ability and memory of rats with chronic alcoholism and to verify the mechanism by which it protects the brain and liver. A rat model of chronic alcoholism was used in the study. The spatial learning ability and memory of the rats were tested. The rats were then sacrificed and their brains and hepatic tissues were isolated. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and levels of glutamate (Glu), N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B), cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in the hippocampus were analyzed. The ultrastructure of the hepatic tissue was observed by electron microscopy. In addition, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in serum were tested and the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TCHOL) were analyzed. XNJ enhanced the learning and memory of rats with chronic alcoholism. Treatment with XNJ increased the activity of SOD, and decreased the expression levels of NR2B mRNA and NR2B, CB1 and CDK5 proteins in the brain tissues compared with those in the model rats. It also increased the activity of ALDH in the serum and liver, decreased the serum levels of LDL, TG and TCHOL and increased the serum level of HDL. These results indicate that XNJ exhibited a protective effect against brain and liver damage in rats with chronic alcoholism. PMID:26640531

  4. Selective vascular isolation of the liver as part of initial damage control for grade 5 liver injuries: Shouldn’t we use it more frequently?☆

    PubMed Central

    Latifi, Rifat; Khalaf, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe liver trauma (grade 4 and 5) carries mortality greater than 40%. It represents a major surgical challenge in patients with hemodynamic instability who require an immediate exploratory laparotomy. Perihepatic packing and damage control can sometimes work, but for severe liver injuries, adjunct maneuvers might be needed (such as early embolization or hepatic artery ligation). During a patient’s first operation for severe liver trauma, anatomic resection is rarely tolerated. Materials and methods We managed a 31 year-old male with a blunt grade 5 right-lobe liver injury in severe hypovolemic shock. Results As part of the initial damage control operation, concurrently with intermittent Pringle maneuver, he underwent intra- and perihepatic packing; selective isolation and ligation of the right portal vein, right hepatic artery, and right hepatic vein; and repair of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava. Then, 36 h later, the patient underwent a right hepatectomy. Conclusion For patients with severe liver injuries, selective vascular isolation and ligation may be considered as part of damage control (in addition to intermittent Pringle maneuver) and might enable anatomic resection at a later stage. PMID:25569195

  5. Cyclophilin A is a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule that mediates acetaminophen-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Dear, James W; Simpson, Kenneth J; Nicolai, Melianthe P J; Catterson, James H; Street, Jonathan; Huizinga, Tineke; Craig, Darren G; Dhaliwal, Kevin; Webb, Sheila; Bateman, D Nicholas; Webb, David J

    2011-09-15

    The immune system is alerted to cell death by molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These molecules partly mediate acetaminophen-induced liver injury, an archetypal experimental model of sterile cell death and the commonest cause of acute liver failure in the western world. Cyclophilin A (CypA) is an intracellular protein that is proinflammatory when released by cells. We hypothesized that CypA is released from necrotic liver cells and acts as a DAMP to mediate acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Our data demonstrated that mice lacking CypA (Ppia(-/-)) were resistant to acetaminophen toxicity. Antagonism of the extracellular receptor for CypA (CD147) also reduced acetaminophen-induced liver injury. When injected into a wild-type mouse, necrotic liver from Ppia(-/-) mice induced less of an inflammatory response than did wild-type liver. Conversely, the host inflammatory response was increased when CypA was injected with necrotic liver. Antagonism of CD147 also reduced the inflammatory response to necrotic liver. In humans, urinary CypA concentration was significantly increased in patients with acetaminophen-induced liver injury. In summary, CypA is a DAMP that mediates acetaminophen poisoning. This mechanistic insight presents an opportunity for a new therapeutic approach to a disease that currently has inadequate treatment options.

  6. Preventive effects of metallothionein against DNA and lipid metabolic damages in dyslipidemic mice under repeated mild stress.

    PubMed

    Higashimoto, Minoru; Isoyama, Naohiro; Ishibashi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Naoko; Takiguchi, Masufumi; Suzuki, Shinya; Ohnishi, Yoshinari; Sato, Masao

    2013-01-01

    The effects of repeated mild stress on DNA and lipid metabolic damages in multiple organs of dyslipidemic mice, and the preventive role of metallothionein (MT) were investigated. Female adult wild-type and MT-null mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) or standard diet (STD) were repeatedly subjected to fasting or restraint for three weeks. The liver, pancreas, spleen, bone marrow and serum samples were taken for evaluating DNA damage, MT, glutathione (GSH), corticosterone, carnitine and adiponectin. Body weights of restraint groups were reduced with the intensity of stress increased, even if the energy intakes were higher than those of STD group. Hepatic GSH levels were reduced in HFD control group and were further reduced in stress groups, especially in restraint groups, while the hepatic MT and serum corticosterone levels were increased in concert with the intensity of stress. Cellular DNA damages were generally increased by the restraint stress, especially in MT-null mice. Hepatic carnitine levels of MT-null mice were markedly lower than those of wild-type mice. The data suggest that MT plays a preventive role by acting as an antioxidant in corporation with GSH decreased by repeated stress and that MT may be an essential factor for inducing carnitine under the stress.

  7. AAV8-mediated Sirt1 gene transfer to the liver prevents high carbohydrate diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Vilà, Laia; Elias, Ivet; Roca, Carles; Ribera, Albert; Ferré, Tura; Casellas, Alba; Lage, Ricardo; Franckhauser, Sylvie; Bosch, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common hepatic disease worldwide, and evidence suggests that it promotes insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Caloric restriction (CR) is the only available strategy for NAFLD treatment. The protein deacetylase Sirtuin1 (SIRT1), which is activated by CR, increases catabolic metabolism and decreases lipogenesis and inflammation, both involved in the development of NAFLD. Here we show that adeno-associated viral vectors of serotype 8 (AAV8)-mediated liver-specific Sirt1 gene transfer prevents the development of NAFLD induced by a high carbohydrate (HC) diet. Long-term hepatic SIRT1 overexpression led to upregulation of key hepatic genes involved in β-oxidation, prevented HC diet-induced lipid accumulation and reduced liver inflammation. AAV8-Sirt1–treated mice showed improved insulin sensitivity, increased oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle and reduced white adipose tissue inflammation. Moreover, HC feeding induced leptin resistance, which was also attenuated in AAV8-Sirt1–treated mice. Therefore, AAV-mediated gene transfer to overexpress SIRT1 specifically in the liver may represent a new gene therapy strategy to counteract NAFLD and related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:26015978

  8. Suppression of chronic damage in renal allografts by Liver X receptor (LXR) activation relevant contribution of macrophage LXRα.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Eva; Popovic, Zoran; Bedke, Jens; Wang, Shijun; Bonrouhi, Mahnaz; Gretz, Norbert; Stettner, Paula; Teupser, Daniel; Thiery, Joachim; Porubsky, Stefan; Adams, Judith; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2011-07-01

    Liver X receptors (LXR)-α,β regulate intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and inhibit inflammatory gene expression. We studied the effects of the LXRα,β-agonist GW3965 on acute and chronic organ damage in the F344-LEW rat kidney transplantation model. In addition, to gain LXR isoform and cell-specific insights BALB/c kidneys were transplanted into mice with macrophage overexpression of LXRα (mLXRα-tg) and evaluated 7 and 42 days after transplantation. After 56 days GW3965 improved significantly function and morphology of rat kidney allografts by substantial reduction of mononuclear cell infiltrate and fibrosis; in vitro GW3965 reduced inflammatory activity of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and alloreactivity of T cells. Kidneys transplanted into mLXRα-tg mice were also protected from development of chronic allograft dysfunction. Similarly to GW3965-activated BMDMs, mLXRα-tg macrophages secreted significantly less monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β. Interestingly, 7 days after transplantation, when the total number of intragraft macrophages did not differ, evidently more arginase 1- and mannose receptor C type 1-positive cells were found in LXR rat and mice kidney allografts; in vitro both LXR activation by GW3965 and mLXRα overexpression accentuated the induction of alternative activation of BMDMs by IL-4/IL-13, suggesting an additional mechanism by LXRs to prevent graft damage. The results highlight the relevance of macrophage LXRα in allograft rejection and prevention of fibrosis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ni; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Jianbin; Cao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antioxidant power. Administration of buckwheat honey for 10 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Moreover, buckwheat honey significantly inhibited aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, which are enhanced by carbon tetrachloride. Hepatic malondialdehyde decreased and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) increased in the presence of buckwheat honey. In a comet assay, lymphocyte DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride was significantly inhibited by buckwheat honey. Therefore, buckwheat honey has a hepatoprotective effect and inhibits DNA damage, activities that are primarily attributable to its high antioxidant capacity. PMID:26508989

  10. Oxidative damage in gills and liver in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to diazinon.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Díaz Resendiz, K J G; Ventura-Ramón, G H; González-Jaime, F; Vega-López, A; Becerril-Villanueva, E; Pavón, L; Girón-Pérez, M I

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural activity demands the use of pesticides for plague control and extermination. In that matter, diazinon is one of the most widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Despite its benefits, the use of OPs in agricultural activities can also have negative effects since the excessive use of these substances can represent a major contamination problem for water bodies and organisms that inhabit them. The aim of this paper was to evaluate oxidative damage in lipids and proteins of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed acutely to diazinon (0.97, 1.95 and 3.95ppm) for 12 or 24h. The evaluation of oxidative damage was determined by quantifying lipid hydroperoxides (Fox method) and oxidized proteins (DNPH method). The data from this study suggest that diazinon induces a concentration-dependent oxidative damage in proteins, but not lipids, of the liver and gills of Nile tilapia. Furthermore, the treatment leads to a decrease in the concentration of total proteins, which can have serious consequences in cell physiology and fish development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel Approach for Evaluation of Bacteroides fragilis Protective Role against Bartonella henselae Liver Damage in Immunocompromised Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Pagliuca, Chiara; Cicatiello, Annunziata G.; Colicchio, Roberta; Greco, Adelaide; Cerciello, Raimondo; Auletta, Luigi; Albanese, Sandra; Scaglione, Elena; Pagliarulo, Caterina; Pastore, Gabiria; Mansueto, Gelsomina; Brunetti, Arturo; Avallone, Bice; Salvatore, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium and is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease. Our previous data have established that Bacteroides fragilis colonization is able to prevent B. henselae damages through the polysaccharide A (PSA) in an experimental murine model. In order to determine whether the PSA is essential for the protection against pathogenic effects of B. henselae in immunocompromised hosts, SCID mice were co-infected with B. fragilis wild type or its mutant B. fragilis ΔPSA and the effects of infection on murine tissues have been observed by High-Frequency Ultrasound (HFUS), histopathological examination, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). For the first time, echostructure, hepatic lobes length, vascular alterations, and indirect signs of hepatic dysfunctions, routinely used as signs of disease in humans, have been analyzed in an immunocompromised murine model. Our findings showed echostructural alterations in all infected mice compared with the Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS) control group; further, those infected with B. henselae and co-infected with B. henselae/B. fragilis ΔPSA presented the major echostructural alterations. Half of the mice infected with B. henselae and all those co-infected with B. henselae/B. fragilis ΔPSA have showed an altered hepatic echogenicity compared with the renal cortex. The echogenicity score of co-infected mice with B. henselae/B. fragilis ΔPSA differed significantly compared with the PBS control group (p < 0.05). Moreover the inflammation score of the histopathological evaluation was fairly concordant with ultrasound findings. Ultrastructural analysis performed by TEM revealed no significant alterations in liver samples of SCID mice infected with B. fragilis wild type while those infected with B. fragilis ΔPSA showed the presence of collagen around the main vessels compared with the PBS control group. The liver samples of mice infected with B. henselae showed

  12. Novel Approach for Evaluation of Bacteroides fragilis Protective Role against Bartonella henselae Liver Damage in Immunocompromised Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Pagliuca, Chiara; Cicatiello, Annunziata G; Colicchio, Roberta; Greco, Adelaide; Cerciello, Raimondo; Auletta, Luigi; Albanese, Sandra; Scaglione, Elena; Pagliarulo, Caterina; Pastore, Gabiria; Mansueto, Gelsomina; Brunetti, Arturo; Avallone, Bice; Salvatore, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium and is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease. Our previous data have established that Bacteroides fragilis colonization is able to prevent B. henselae damages through the polysaccharide A (PSA) in an experimental murine model. In order to determine whether the PSA is essential for the protection against pathogenic effects of B. henselae in immunocompromised hosts, SCID mice were co-infected with B. fragilis wild type or its mutant B. fragilis ΔPSA and the effects of infection on murine tissues have been observed by High-Frequency Ultrasound (HFUS), histopathological examination, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). For the first time, echostructure, hepatic lobes length, vascular alterations, and indirect signs of hepatic dysfunctions, routinely used as signs of disease in humans, have been analyzed in an immunocompromised murine model. Our findings showed echostructural alterations in all infected mice compared with the Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS) control group; further, those infected with B. henselae and co-infected with B. henselae/B. fragilis ΔPSA presented the major echostructural alterations. Half of the mice infected with B. henselae and all those co-infected with B. henselae/B. fragilis ΔPSA have showed an altered hepatic echogenicity compared with the renal cortex. The echogenicity score of co-infected mice with B. henselae/B. fragilis ΔPSA differed significantly compared with the PBS control group (p < 0.05). Moreover the inflammation score of the histopathological evaluation was fairly concordant with ultrasound findings. Ultrastructural analysis performed by TEM revealed no significant alterations in liver samples of SCID mice infected with B. fragilis wild type while those infected with B. fragilis ΔPSA showed the presence of collagen around the main vessels compared with the PBS control group. The liver samples of mice infected with B. henselae showed

  13. Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract prevents early liver injury and restores antioxidant status in mice fed with high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjan; Sikder, Kunal; Ghosh, Santinath; Fromenty, Bernard; Dey, Sanjit

    2012-06-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may lead to multiple complications affecting human health. In the present study, effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) in alleviating HFD induced liver injury in mice has been reported. Liver histology and serum activity of hepatic marker enzymes i.e. aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been studied. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated using liver homogenate. Results of the study suggested that MoLE treatment protected HFD-induced liver damage as indicated by histopathology and liver enzyme activity compared to only-HFD fed group (P < 0.05). Interestingly, early signs of HFD-induced fatty liver were also alleviated by MoLE. Moreover, significant increase in endogenous antioxidant parameters and lower lipid peroxidation were found in liver of all MoLE treated groups. Results of the study indicated that MoLE has both preventive as also curative hepatoprotective activity.

  14. Parenteral Nutrition–Associated Liver Injury and Increased GRP94 Expression Prevented by ω-3 Fish Oil–Based Lipid Emulsion Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xueping; Xiao, Zhihui; Chen, Xiaoqian; Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Xu, Yumin; Feng, Xing; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Parenteral nutrition in infants with gastrointestinal disorders can be lifesaving, but it is also associated with parenteral nutrition–associated liver disease. We investigated the effects of incorporating ω-3 fish oil in a parenteral nutrition mixture on signs of parenteral nutrition–associated liver disease and explored the mechanism involved in this process. Methods: Seven-day-old New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups of 8, and for 1 week they were infused via the right jugular vein with standard total parenteral nutrition with soybean oil (TPN-soy) or TPN with ω-3 fish oil–based lipid emulsion (TPN-FO), or naturally nursed with rabbit milk (control). Serum and liver tissues were analyzed for serological indicators and pathology, respectively. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the messenger RNA levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) in liver tissues and GRP94 protein levels were compared through immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays. Results: TPN-soy animals had significantly higher serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and lower serum albumin than the controls (P < 0.01, each) or the TPN-FO group, which were similar to the controls (P < 0.01 cf. TPN). Damage to liver tissues of the TPN-FO group was much less than that of the TPN-soy group. GRP94 messenger RNA and protein levels in liver tissues of TPN-soy animals were significantly higher than that of the controls or TPN-FO rabbits, which were similar to the controls. Conclusions: Incorporating ω-3 fish oil in parenteral nutrition emulsion greatly prevented liver dysfunction and liver tissue damage in week-old rabbit kits, possibly by preventing endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:25199039

  15. Liver fluke-induced hepatic oxysterols stimulate DNA damage and apoptosis in cultured human cholangiocytes.

    PubMed

    Jusakul, Apinya; Loilome, Watcharin; Namwat, Nisana; Haigh, W Geoffrey; Kuver, Rahul; Dechakhamphu, Somkid; Sukontawarin, Pradit; Pinlaor, Somchai; Lee, Sum P; Yongvanit, Puangrat

    2012-03-01

    Oxysterols are cholesterol oxidation products that are generated by enzymatic reactions through cytochrome P450 family enzymes or by non-enzymatic reactions involving reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Oxysterols have been identified in bile in the setting of chronic inflammation, suggesting that biliary epithelial cells are chronically exposed to these compounds in certain clinical settings. We hypothesized that biliary oxysterols resulting from liver fluke infection participate in cholangiocarcinogenesis. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified oxysterols in livers from hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini that develop cholangiocarcinoma. Five oxysterols were found: 7-keto-cholesta-3,5-diene (7KD), 3-keto-cholest-4-ene (3K4), 3-keto-cholest-7-ene (3K7), 3-keto-cholesta-4,6-diene (3KD), and cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol (Triol). Triol and 3K4 were found at significantly higher levels in the livers of hamsters with O. viverrini-induced cholangiocarcinoma. We therefore investigated the effects of Triol and 3K4 on induction of cholangiocarcinogenesis using an in vitro human cholangiocyte culture model. Triol- and 3K4-treated cells underwent apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed significantly increased levels of Bax and decreased levels of Bcl-2 in these cells. Increased cytochrome c release from mitochondria was found following treatment with Triol and 3K4. Triol and 3K4 also induced formation of the DNA adducts 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine, 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in cholangiocytes. The data suggest that Triol and 3K4 cause DNA damage via oxidative stress. Chronic liver fluke infection increases production of the oxysterols Triol and 3K4 in the setting of chronic inflammation in the biliary system. These oxysterols induce apoptosis and DNA damage in cholangiocytes. Insufficient and impaired DNA repair of such mutated cells may enhance clonal expansion and further drive the change in

  16. Dietary β-conglycinin prevents acute ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice.

    PubMed

    Ikaga, Reina; Li, Dongyang; Yamazaki, Tomomi

    2017-09-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is the earliest stage of alcohol-induced liver disease leading to liver cirrhosis. β-Conglycinin, one of the soy proteins, is known to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Therefore, we examined whether β-conglycinin feeding has an effect on the prevention of acute ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with 20 energy% β-conglycinin or casein for 4 weeks prior to ethanol administration and were then given ethanol or glucose, as a control, by gavage. Ethanol significantly increased liver triglyceride (TG) in mice fed casein due to the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ2, a nuclear transcription factor known for regulating lipid metabolism and de novo lipogenesis. The liver TG of ethanol-administered β-conglycinin-fed mice was significantly lower than that in those fed casein, although ethanol increased the amount of liver TG in mice fed β-conglycinin. The increased levels of PPARγ2 protein and its target gene CD36 in response to an ethanol were not observed in mice fed β-conglycinin. Moreover, β-conglycinin decreased the basal expression of de novo lipogenesis-related genes such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and therefore, the expressions of these genes were lower in the ethanol-administered β-conglycinin-fed mice than in the casein-fed mice. In conclusion, β-conglycinin supplementation appears to prevent the development of fatty liver in mice caused by ethanol consumption via the suppression of alcohol-induced activation of PPARγ2 and the downregulation of the basal expression of de novo lipogenesis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. ROS scavenging activity and muscle damage prevention in eccentric exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Maruhashi, Yoshinobu; Kitaoka, Katsuhiko; Yoshiki, Yumiko; Nakamura, Ryuichi; Okano, Akira; Nakamura, Kenichi; Tsuyama, Takeshi; Shima, Yohsuke; Tomita, Katsuro

    2007-08-01

    Depending on intensity, eccentric exercise is experimentally and clinically documented to have opposing dual effects on skeletal muscle; intense eccentric exercise damages muscle, but daily low-load eccentric exercise prevents damage. To clarify the mechanisms of this dual effect, microscopic damage and oxidative stress were studied in rat quadriceps muscle. Oxidative stress was estimated from an immunostaining of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and a measurement of muscle tissue preparations, the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intense eccentric downhill running (IEE) induced muscle damage that was, microscopically apparent 3 days later. Since AGE-positive cells and decreased ROS scavenging activity were observed earlier (on the day after IEE), cellular damage may be related to ROS production. Intense concentric uphill running (ICE) induced an immediate but transient decrease in ROS scavenging activity, which recovered within a day. Neither AGE-positive cells nor microscopic damage was observed after ICE. Since each contracting muscle fiber develops greater tension during eccentric rather than concentric exercise, the initial trigger of IEE-induced muscle damage may be damage to muscle fibers and connective tissues at the subcellular level. Daily low-load training of eccentric downhill running (LET), but not concentric uphill running, efficiently prevented muscle damage after subsequent IEE. No evident elevation of ROS scavenging activity was evident after LET. We concluded that LET prevents IEE-induced muscle damage not through elevated ROS scavenging activity, but through a suppression of initial subcellular damage that triggers subsequent ROS-producing processes, resulting in cellular delayed damage.

  18. Prevention of chloride-induced corrosion damage to bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Virmani, Y.P. | Butler, J.T.; Nelson, F.J. | Thompson, N.G.

    2002-01-01

    The annual direct cost of bridge infrastructure corrosion to the U.S. economy is estimated at $8.3 billion, with indirect costs approximately 10 times higher. Of the approximately 600000 bridges in the U.S., between 15% and 20% are listed as ?structurally deficient,? frequently due to corrosion damage. Five technologies are presented for reducing the cost of chloride-induced corrosion damage: (1) conductive coating anodes for cathodic protection of existing reinforce concrete bridges, (2) epoxy-coated rebar (ECR), (3) stainless steel rebar, and (4) high-performance concrete for extending the service life of new structures, and (5) metalizing to provide economical, long-term corrosion protection of steel bridges. Conductive coating anodes and stainless steel rebar represent ongoing work by the Oregon Department of Transportation with final verdicts not expected for years. The ECR and metalizing technology have longer track records and are better established in the bridge construction and protection industry. Application of these technologies is guided by a thorough understanding of their performance, of characteristics of the bridge and its environment, and of the results that are sought.

  19. Urinary Excretion of Liver Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein Accurately Reflects the Degree of Tubulointerstitial Damage

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Takeshi; Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Hoshino, Seiko; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a biomarker of chronic kidney disease, in the kidney and the degree of tubulointerstitial damage, folic acid (FA)-induced nephropathy was studied in a mouse model system. As renal L-FABP is not expressed in wild-type mice, human L-FABP (hL-FABP) transgenic mice were used in this study. hL-FABP is expressed in the renal proximal tubules of the transgenic mice that were injected intraperitoneally with FA in NaHCO3 (the FA group) or only NaHCO3 (the control group) and oral saline solution daily during the experimental period. The FA group developed severe tubulointerstitial damage with the infiltration of macrophages and the deposition of type I collagen on days 3 and 7 and recovered to the control level on day 14. The gene and protein expression levels of hL-FABP in the kidney were significantly enhanced on days 3 and 7. Urinary hL-FABP in the FA group was elevated on days 3 and 7 and decreased to the control level on day 14. The protein expression levels of hL-FABP in both the kidney and urine significantly correlated with the degree of tubulointerstitial damage, the infiltration of macrophages, and the deposition of type I collagen. In conclusion, renal expression and urinary excretion of hL-FABP significantly reflected the severity of tubulointerstitial damage in FA-induced nephropathy. PMID:19435794

  20. Effect of dieldrin in the glue line of oak plywood panels in preventing Lyctus beetle damage

    Treesearch

    Thomas McIntyre

    1961-01-01

    For many years the lumber industry has been seeking improved methods of preventing decay and insect damage to lumber and other wood products. One relatively new approach to this problem is the addition of toxic chemicals in plywood glues to prevent infestations or restrict feeding injury by wood-boring insects. Wood products treated in this manner have been marketed in...

  1. Sesamin protects mouse liver against nickel-induced oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis by the PI3K-Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chan-Min; Zheng, Gui-Hong; Ming, Qing-Lei; Chao, Cheng; Sun, Jian-Mei

    2013-02-06

    Sesamin (Ses), one of the major lignans in sesame seeds and oil, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against nickel (Ni)-induced injury in liver have not been clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of sesamin on hepatic oxidative DNA injury and apoptosis in mice exposed to nickel. Kunming mice were exposed to nickel sulfate with or without sesamin coadministration for 20 days. The data showed that sesamin significantly prevented nickel-induced hepatotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, indicated by both diagnostic indicators of liver damage (serum aminotransferase activities) and histopathological analysis. Moreover, nickel-induced profound elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress, as evidenced by an increase of the lipid peroxidation level and depletion of the intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level in liver, were suppressed by treatment with sesamin. Sesamin also restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes (T-SOD, CAT, and GPx) and decreased 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in nickel-treated mice. Furthermore, a TUNEL assay showed that nickel-induced apoptosis in mouse liver was significantly inhibited by sesamin. Exploration of the underlying mechanisms of sesamin action revealed that activities of caspase-3 were markedly inhibited by the treatment of sesamin in the liver of nickel-treated mice. Sesamin increased expression levels of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (PBK/Akt) in liver, which in turn inactivated pro-apoptotic signaling events, restoring the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in the liver of nickel-treated mice. In conclusion, these results suggested that the inhibition of nickel-induced apoptosis by sesamin is due at least in part to its antioxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.

  2. Suppression of intralysosomal proteolysis aggravates structural damage and functional impairment of liver lysosomes in rats with toxic hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Korolenko, T.A.; Gavrilova, N.I.; Kurysheva, N.G.; Malygin, A.E.; Pupyshev, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of lowering protein catabolism in the lysosomes on structural and functional properties of the latter during liver damage. For comparison, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which is inert relative to intralysosomal proteolysis, and which also accumulates largely in lysosomes of the kupffer cells of the liver, was used. The uptake of labeled bovine serum albuman (C 14-BSA) by the liver is shown and the rate of intralysosomal proteolysis is given 24 hours after administration of suramin an CCl/sub 4/ to rats. It is suggested that it is risky to use drugs which inhibit intralysosomal proteolysis in the treatment of patients with acute hepatitis.

  3. Protective role of thymoquinone against liver damage induced by tamoxifen in female rats.

    PubMed

    Suddek, Ghada M

    2014-08-01

    One of the major reasons for terminating a clinical trial is the liver toxicity induced by chemotherapy. Tamoxifen (TAM) is an anti-estrogen used in the treatment and prevention of hormone-dependent breast cancer. Tamoxifen therapy may cause hepatic injury. The seeds of Nigella sativa, which contain the active ingredient thymoquinone (TQ), have been used in folk medicine for diverse ailments. TQ is reported to possess anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, the protective effects of TQ against TAM-induced hepatotoxicity in female rats were evaluated. Four groups of rats were used: control; TAM; TQ; TAM+TQ. TAM (45 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.), for 10 consecutive days) resulted in elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, and gamma glutamyl transferase, as well as depletion of reduced glutathione in the liver and accumulation of lipid peroxides. Also, TAM treatment inhibited the hepatic activity of superoxide dismutase. Further, it raised the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in the liver and induced histopathological changes. Pretreatment with TQ (50 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1); orally, for 20 consecutive days, starting 10 days before TAM injection) significantly prevented the elevation in serum activity of the assessed enzymes. TQ significantly inhibited TAM-induced hepatic GSH depletion and LPO accumulation. Consistently, TQ normalized the activity of SOD, inhibited the rise in TNF-α and ameliorated the histopathological changes. In conclusion, TQ protects against TAM-induced hepatotoxicity.

  4. Influence of glycine on the damage induced in isolated perfused rat liver by five hepatotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Deters, M; Siegers, C P; Strubelt, O

    1998-06-26

    Livers of fasted rats were perfused over 120 min in a recirculating hemoglobin-free system. Hepatotoxic injury induced by the addition of 1-butanol (130.2 mmol/l), CdCl2 (0.1 mmol/l), CuCl2 (0.03 mmol/l), Na3VO4 (2 mmol/l) or t-butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH, 0.5 mmol/l) to the perfusate was shown by strong increases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) release, decreased oxygen consumption between 50 and 60%, and a nearly complete suppression of bile flow. Hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations were reduced by between 30 and 80%, and 20 and 80% respectively. Only Na3VO4 and t-BuOOH evoked increased releases of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) in the perfusate. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were enhanced by all toxicants in the perfusate and by all except 1-butanol in the liver. The MDA increase, however, was much higher after Na3VO4 and t-BuOOH than after the other toxicants. When glycine (12 mmol/l) was added 30 min before the toxicants to the perfusate it prevented the enzyme releases induced by all hepatotoxic agents by about 80%. Furthermore, glycine prevented the Na3VO4 induced increase of MDA in liver and perfusate, the hepatic ATP and GSH level reductions induced by 1-butanol and attenuated the reduction of oxygen consumption induced by CuCl2 and t-BuOOH. Glycine, however, did not reverse the reductions of oxygen consumption induced by CdCl2 and Na3VO4, the suppressions of bile flow and, with the exception of 1-butanol, the decreases of hepatic ATP levels induced by all agents.

  5. Rat Liver Enzyme Release Depends on Blood Flow-Bearing Physical Forces Acting in Endothelium Glycocalyx rather than on Liver Damage.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Juárez, Julieta A; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2017-01-01

    We have found selective elevation of serum enzyme activities in rats subjected to partial hepatectomy (PH), apparently controlled by hemodynamic flow-bearing physical forces. Here, we assess the involvement of stretch-sensitive calcium channels and calcium mobilization in isolated livers, after chemical modifications of the endothelial glycocalyx and changing perfusion directionality. Inhibiting in vivo protein synthesis, we found that liver enzyme release is influenced by de novo synthesis of endothelial glycocalyx components, and released enzymes are confined into a liver "pool." Moreover, liver enzyme release depended on extracellular calcium entry possibly mediated by stretch-sensitive calcium channels, and this endothelial-mediated mechanotransduction in liver enzyme release was also evidenced by modifying the glycocalyx carbohydrate components, directionality of perfusing flow rate, and the participation of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), leading to modifications in the intracellular distribution of these enzymes mainly as nuclear enrichment of "mitochondrial" enzymes. In conclusion, the flow-induced shear stress may provide fine-tuned control of released hepatic enzymes through mediation by the endothelium glycocalyx, which provides evidence of a biological role of the enzyme release rather to be merely a biomarker for evaluating hepatotoxicity and liver damage, actually positively influencing progression of liver regeneration in mammals.

  6. Rat Liver Enzyme Release Depends on Blood Flow-Bearing Physical Forces Acting in Endothelium Glycocalyx rather than on Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Juárez, Julieta A.

    2017-01-01

    We have found selective elevation of serum enzyme activities in rats subjected to partial hepatectomy (PH), apparently controlled by hemodynamic flow-bearing physical forces. Here, we assess the involvement of stretch-sensitive calcium channels and calcium mobilization in isolated livers, after chemical modifications of the endothelial glycocalyx and changing perfusion directionality. Inhibiting in vivo protein synthesis, we found that liver enzyme release is influenced by de novo synthesis of endothelial glycocalyx components, and released enzymes are confined into a liver “pool.” Moreover, liver enzyme release depended on extracellular calcium entry possibly mediated by stretch-sensitive calcium channels, and this endothelial-mediated mechanotransduction in liver enzyme release was also evidenced by modifying the glycocalyx carbohydrate components, directionality of perfusing flow rate, and the participation of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), leading to modifications in the intracellular distribution of these enzymes mainly as nuclear enrichment of “mitochondrial” enzymes. In conclusion, the flow-induced shear stress may provide fine-tuned control of released hepatic enzymes through mediation by the endothelium glycocalyx, which provides evidence of a biological role of the enzyme release rather to be merely a biomarker for evaluating hepatotoxicity and liver damage, actually positively influencing progression of liver regeneration in mammals. PMID:28337244

  7. Dissociation of liver inflammation and hepatocellular damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in myeloid cell-specific STAT3 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Norio; Fouad, Lafdil; Miller, Andrew M.; Park, Ogyi; Wang, Hua; Mohanraj, Rajesh; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Fu, Xin Yuan; Pacher, Pal; Gao, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Liver injury is associated with inflammation, which is generally believed to accelerate the progression of liver diseases; however, clinical data show that inflammation does not always correlate with hepatocelluar damage in some patients. Investigating the cellular mechanisms underlying these events using an experimental animal model, we show that inflammation may attenuate liver necrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in myeloid-specific signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) knockout mice. As an important anti-inflammatory signal, conditional deletion of STAT3 in myeloid cells results in markedly enhanced liver inflammation after CCl4 injection. However, these effects are also accompanied by reduced liver necrosis, correlating with elevated serum IL-6 and hepatic STAT3 activation. An additional deletion of STAT3 in hepatocytes in myeloid-specific STAT3 knockout mice restored hepatic necrosis, but decreased liver inflammation. Conclusions: Inflammation-mediated STAT3 activation attenuates hepatocellular injury induced by CCl4 in myeloid-specific STAT3 knockout mice, suggesting that inflammation associated with a predominance of hepatoprotective cytokines that activate hepatic STAT3 may reduce rather than accelerate hepatocellular damage in patients with chronic liver diseases. PMID:20196117

  8. Acrolein, a highly toxic aldehyde generated under oxidative stress in vivo, aggravates the mouse liver damage after acetaminophen overdose.

    PubMed

    Arai, Tomoya; Koyama, Ryo; Yuasa, Makoto; Kitamura, Daisuke; Mizuta, Ryushin

    2014-01-01

    Although acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice has been extensively studied as a model of human acute drug-induced hepatitis, the mechanism of liver injury remains unclear. Liver injury is believed to be initiated by metabolic conversion of acetaminophen to the highly reactive intermediate N-acetyl p-benzoquinoneimine, and is aggravated by subsequent oxidative stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the hydroxyl radical (•OH). In this study, we found that a highly toxic unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, a byproduct of oxidative stress, has a major role in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Acetaminophen administration in mice resulted in liver damage and increased acrolein-protein adduct formation. However, both of them were decreased by treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MESNA), two known acrolein scavengers. The specificity of NAC and MESNA was confirmed in cell culture, because acrolein toxicity, but not H2O2 or •OH toxicity, was inhibited by NAC and MESNA. These results suggest that acrolein may be more strongly correlated with acetaminophen-induced liver injury than ROS, and that acrolein produced by acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress can spread from dying cells at the primary injury site, causing damage to the adjacent cells and aggravating liver injury.

  9. Clean Assembly Practices to Prevent Contamination and Damage to Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Pryatel, J; Gourdin, W H

    2005-12-19

    A key lesson learned from the earliest optics installed in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was that the traditional approach for maintaining cleanliness, such as the use of cleanrooms and associated garments and protocols, is inadequate. Assembly activities often negate the benefits provided by cleanrooms, and in fact generate contamination with high damage potential. As a result, NIF introduced ''clean assembly protocols'' and related practices to supplement the traditional clean room protocols. These new protocols included ''clean-as-you-go'' activities and regular bright light inspections. Introduction of these new protocols has greatly reduced the particle contamination found on more recently installed optics. In this paper we will describe the contamination mechanisms we have observed and the details of the clean assembly protocols we have successfully introduced to mitigate them.

  10. Sulodexide prevents peripheral nerve damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Heung Yong; Lee, Kyung Ae; Song, Sun Kyung; Liu, Wei Jing; Choi, Ji Hae; Song, Chang Ho; Baek, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Sun

    2012-01-15

    We investigated whether sulodexide has additional protective effects against peripheral nerve damage caused by microvascular dysfunction in a rat model of diabetes. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into the following 4 groups (n=7-9/group): Normal, Normal+Sulodexide (sulodexide 10mg/kg), diabetic group, and diabetic+Sulodexide (sulodexide 10mg/kg). We assessed current perception threshold, skin blood flow, superoxide dismutase, and proteinuria in experimental rats after oral administration of sulodexide for 20 weeks. We also performed morphometric analysis of sciatic nerves and intraepidermal nerve fibers of the foot. Superoxide dismutase activity in the blood and sciatic nerve were increased significantly after sulodexide treatment in the diabetic group. Current perception threshold was reduced at 2000 Hz (633.3 ± 24.15 vs 741.2 ± 23.5 μA, P<0.05) and skin blood flow was improved (10.90 ± 0.67 vs 8.85 ± 0.49 TPU, P<0.05) in the diabetic+Sulodexide group compared with the diabetic group. The mean myelinated axon area was significantly larger (56.6 ± 2.2 vs 49.8 ± 2.7 μm(2), P<0.05) and the intraepidermal nerve fiber density was significantly less reduced (6.27 ± 0.24 vs 5.40 ± 0.25/mm, P<0.05) in the diabetic+Sulodexide group compared to the diabetic group. Our results demonstrate that sulodexide exhibits protective effects against peripheral nerve damage in a rat experimental model of diabetes. Therefore, these findings suggest that sulodexide is a potential new therapeutic agent for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  11. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Sambo, N; Garba, S H; Timothy, H

    2009-12-01

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six. Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100 mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days respectively. Rats in group III were administered 450 mg/kg body weight of Psidium guajava only for 7 days while rats in groups IV, V and VI were administered Psidium guajava extract for 7 days and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin for 14 days. Histopathological investigation of the liver tissues revealed striking oedema and mild periportal mononuclear cell infiltration of hepatic cords in the liver of rats administered 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. Pretreatment with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract showed a slight degree of protection against the induced hepatic injury caused by 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate. Biochemical analysis of the serum obtained revealed a significant increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes measured in the groups administered with 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract compared to the control groups and those pretreated with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. This study has shown that the aqueous extract of psidium guajava leaf possesses hepatoprotective property at lower dose and a hepatotoxic property at higher dose but further studies with prolonged duration is recommended.

  12. [Functional activity of peritonal macrophages in liver immune damage of cellular and antibody genesis in mice].

    PubMed

    Martynova, T V; Aleksieieva, I M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present work was to compare the functional activity of peritoneal macrophages (Mf) at T-cellular and antibody induced hepatitis in mice of CBA line. T-cellular hepatitis was caused by concanavalin A (ConA), antibody-induced hepatitis was caused by administration of xenogenic anti-liver antibodies: gamma-globulin fractions of antihepatocytotoxic serum (gamma-AHCS). It was found that single injection of ConA or gamma-AHCS caused damage of liver with cytolytic syndrome through 20 hours. Functional activity of Mf in these conditions was significantly different. Application of ConA resulted in the decrease in phagocytosis of latex particles and oxygen-dependent metabolism; application of gamma-AHCS--to increase of these processes. Weakening of Mf activity may be one of the reasons for the decrease of dead cell eliminations that results in the maintenance of inflammatory reaction. At the same time significant amplification of phagocytic Mf activity may be one of the pathways of free radical endogenic sources increase that causes cell alteration and plays its role as mediators at inflammation.

  13. Persistent and heritable structural damage induced in heterochromatic DNA from rat liver by N-nitrosodimethylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, E.J.; Stewart, B.W.

    1987-03-24

    Analysis, by benzoylated DEAE-cellulose chromatography, has been made of structural change in eu- and heterochromatic DNA from rat liver following administration of the carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine. Either hepatic DNA was prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine administered 2-3 weeks before injection of the carcinogen or the labeled precursor was given during regenerative hyperplasia in rats treated earlier with N-nitrosodimethylamine. Following phenol extraction of either whole liver homogenate or nuclease-fractionated eu- and heterochromatin, carcinogen-modified DNA was examined by stepwise or caffeine gradient elution from benzoylated DEAE-cellulose. In whole DNA, nitrosamine-induced single-stranded character was maximal 4-24 h after treatment, declining rapidly thereafter; gradient elution of these DNA preparations also provided short-term evidence of structural change. Caffeine gradient chromatography suggested short-term nitrosamine-induced structural change in euchromatic DNA, while increased binding of heterochromatic DNA was evident for up to 3 months after carcinogen treatment. Preparations of newly synthesized heterochromatic DNA from animals subjected to hepatectomy up to 2 months after carcinogen treatment provided evidence of heritable structural damage. Carcinogen-induced binding of heterochromatic DNA to benzoylated DEAE-cellulose was indicative of specific structural lesions whose affinity equalled that of single-stranded DNA up to 1.0 kilobase in length. The data suggest that structural lesions in heterochromatin, which may be a consequence of incomplete repair, are preferentially degraded by endogenous nuclease(s).

  14. Prevention of carcinogen and inflammation-induced dermal cancer by oral rapamycin includes reducing genetic damage.

    PubMed

    Dao, Vinh; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Liu, Yang; Hurez, Vincent; Dodds, Sherry; Callaway, Danielle; Liu, Aijie; Hasty, Paul; Sharp, Zelton D; Curiel, Tyler J

    2015-05-01

    Cancer prevention is a cost-effective alternative to treatment. In mice, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin prevents distinct spontaneous, noninflammatory cancers, making it a candidate broad-spectrum cancer prevention agent. We now show that oral microencapsulated rapamycin (eRapa) prevents skin cancer in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) carcinogen-induced, inflammation-driven carcinogenesis. eRapa given before DMBA/TPA exposure significantly increased tumor latency, reduced papilloma prevalence and numbers, and completely inhibited malignant degeneration into squamous cell carcinoma. Rapamycin is primarily an mTORC1-specific inhibitor, but eRapa did not reduce mTORC1 signaling in skin or papillomas, and did not reduce important proinflammatory factors in this model, including p-Stat3, IL17A, IL23, IL12, IL1β, IL6, or TNFα. In support of lack of mTORC1 inhibition, eRapa did not reduce numbers or proliferation of CD45(-)CD34(+)CD49f(mid) skin cancer initiating stem cells in vivo and marginally reduced epidermal hyperplasia. Interestingly, eRapa reduced DMBA/TPA-induced skin DNA damage and the hras codon 61 mutation that specifically drives carcinogenesis in this model, suggesting reduction of DNA damage as a cancer prevention mechanism. In support, cancer prevention and DNA damage reduction effects were lost when eRapa was given after DMBA-induced DNA damage in vivo. eRapa afforded picomolar concentrations of rapamycin in skin of DMBA/TPA-exposed mice, concentrations that also reduced DMBA-induced DNA damage in mouse and human fibroblasts in vitro. Thus, we have identified DNA damage reduction as a novel mechanism by which rapamycin can prevent cancer, which could lay the foundation for its use as a cancer prevention agent in selected human populations.

  15. Prevention of downhill walking-induced muscle damage by non-damaging downhill walking

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Mountain trekking involves level, uphill, and downhill walking (DW). Prolonged DW induces damage to leg muscles, reducing force generating ability and muscle coordination. These increase risks for more serious injuries and accidents in mountain trekking, thus a strategy to minimize muscle damage is warranted. It has been shown that low-intensity eccentric contractions confer protective effect on muscle damage induced by high-intensity eccentric contractions. This study tested the hypothesis that 5-min non-damaging DW would attenuate muscle damage induced by 40-min DW, but 5-min level walking (LW) would not. Methods Untrained young men were allocated (n = 12/group) to either a control or one of the two preconditioning groups (PRE-DW or PRE-LW). The PRE-DW and PRE-LW groups performed 5-min DW (-28%) and 5-min LW, respectively, at 5 km/h with a load of 10% body mass, 1 week before 40-min DW (-28%, 5 km/h, 10% load). The control group performed 40-min DW only. Maximal knee extension strength, plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, and muscle soreness (0–100 mm visual analogue scale) were measured before and 24 h after 5-min DW and 5-min LW, and before and 24, 48, and 72 h after 40-min DW. Results No significant changes in any variables were evident after 5-min DW and 5-min LW. After 40-min DW, the control and PRE-LW groups showed significant (P<0.05) changes in the variables without significant differences between groups (control vs. PRE-LW; peak strength reduction: -19.2 ± 6.9% vs. -18.7 ± 11.0%, peak CK: 635.5 ± 306.0 vs. 639.6 ± 405.4 U/L, peak soreness: 81.4 ± 14.8 vs. 72.0 ± 29.2 mm). These changes were significantly (P<0.05) attenuated (47–64%) for the PRE-DW group (-9.9 ± 9.6%, 339.3 ± 148.4 U/L, 27.8 ± 16.8 mm). Conclusions The results supported the hypothesis and suggest that performing small volume of downhill walking is crucial in preparation for trekking. PMID:28288187

  16. Smart building materials which prevent damage or repair themselves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dry, Carolyn

    We developed designs in which hollow porous fibers filled with chemicals release them into a matrix over time. A coating covering the fibers is degraded by chemicals, pH change, or broken by structural loading, thus, releasing the chemicals. These stimuli for release are the very agents of environmental attack. The design to alleviate cracking consists of hollow porous fiberglass fibers containing crack-closing chemicals. The chemicals are released from the fibers when the outer sheath cracks or the fibers flex due to loading. This is the ideal situation in which the agent of environmental degradation, namely loading, is the stimulus to release the repair chemical. The design to prevent corrosion consists of an anticorrosion chemical in hollow porous polypropylene fibers. Change in chloride ion concentration dissolves the polyol coating and allows the chemical to be released from the fiber wall. The cause of deterioration, change in chloride level which causes corrosion, is the sensor (coating deterioration) and also the activator for the remedial or preventive action (release of anticorrosion chemical). These are distributed systems responding to environmental stimuli for sensing and repairing when and where they are needed. The control of the amount of chemical released is being researched mainly as a function of coating design and also fiber type. type.

  17. Naloxone pretreatment prevents kidney injury after liver ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Shahzamani, Mehran; Asghari, Ahmad; Fakouri, Aris

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, on the renal injury as a remote organ after hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR) in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups as follows: sham, sham + naloxone, IR and IR + naloxone. In anesthetized rats, hepatic ischemia was applied for 30 min in IR and IR + naloxone groups. Sham + naloxone and IR + naloxone groups were given naloxone (3.0 mg/kg, iv) 30 min before ischemia. After 24 h, blood and tissue samples were obtained for histopathological, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and biochemical analyses. Histopathological study of liver in IR group showed enlarged sinusoids, sinusoidal congestion, cellular degenerative changes and necrosis. The kidney of the rats with hepatic IR showed pathological changes in tubular cell swelling, tubular dilatation, moderate to severe necrosis, glomerular fibrosis and hemorrhage. Histological examination confirmed the extent of hepatic and renal changes in IR group was higher (P < 0.05) than in other groups. Rats that underwent hepatic IR exhibited significant increase in serum concentrations of urea and creatinine levels (P < 0.05). The serum alanine aminotransferase and aminotransferase values were significantly higher in IR group compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Liver IR produced a significant increase in hepatic and renal tissue MDA levels, while pretreatment with naloxone was associated with a significantly lower MDA levels (P < 0.05). The results of this study showed that naloxone pretreatment protected the renal injury from hepatic IR.

  18. Lack of protective effect of D-003, a mixture of high-molecular-weight primary acids from sugar cane wax, on liver damage induced by galactosamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Noa, Miriam; Mendoza, Sarahí; Mas, Rosa; Mendoza, Nilda

    2005-01-01

    D-003 is a mixture of very-high-molecular-weight aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax, wherein octacosanoic acid is the most abundant. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that D-003 lowers cholesterol and prevents plasma lipoprotein peroxidation (LP). D-003 has protected against the histological changes characteristic of CCl4- and paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in rats, in which LP plays a pivotal role for explaining the resulting hepatotoxicity. Galactosamine induces hepatotoxicity associated with depressed RNA and protein synthesis, not with LP. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether D-003 could prevent hepatoxicity induced by mechanisms others than increased LP. We investigated the effects on galactosamine hepatotoxicity in rats distributed into five groups: a negative control group, a positive control group, and three groups treated with galactosamine and D-003 (5, 25, and 100 mg/kg). To induce liver damage, galactosamine (800 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30 minutes after dosing with vehicle or D-003. Twenty-four hours later, rats were sacrificed, and livers were immediately removed for histopathological studies. Livers from positive controls showed the characteristic pattern of galactosamine-induced damage. Galactosamine significantly reduced the percentage of normal hepatocytes, increasing both necrotic or lipid-rich hepatocytes compared with negative controls. D-003, however, did not increase the percentage of normal hepatocytes compared with positive controls, indicating that treatment was not effective for preventing the hepatic injury induced with galactosamine. Likewise, D-003 failed to change the content of necrotic and lipid-rich hepatocytes relative to positive controls. It is concluded that D-003 did not protect against the histological changes of galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity.

  19. A high-fat and cholesterol diet causes fatty liver in guinea pigs. The role of iron and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ye, P; Cheah, I K; Halliwell, B

    2013-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease. Iron, cholesterol, and oxidative damage are frequently suggested to be related to the progression of NAFLD, but the precise relationship between them remains unclear. Guinea pigs fed on a high cholesterol and fat diet (without oxidized lipids) generated a disease model of NAFLD with hallmark observations in liver histology and increased liver damage markers. Hepatic cholesterol and iron levels were found to be significantly elevated and directly correlated. Plasma hepcidin and transferrin levels were decreased. Plasma iron concentrations were found to be elevated, likely due to an increased intestinal iron absorption caused by the decrease in plasma hepcidin. However, hepatic transferrin receptor-2 levels were unchanged. No significant increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was detected using F2-isoprostanes as a reliable biomarker, nor was there a rise in protein carbonyls, a general index of oxidative protein damage. Some increases in cholesterol oxidation products were observed, but largely negated after normalizing for the elevated hepatic cholesterol content. Indeed, increased hemosiderin deposition and unchanged ferritin levels in liver suggested that the excess iron mainly existed as hemosiderin, which is redox-inactive.

  20. Protective effects of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract on restraint stress-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Bao, Li; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Yau, Chin-Chin; Tsi, Daniel; Chia, Chew-Sern; Nagai, Hajime; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2008-09-10

    Our experiments showed that 18 h restraint stress could induce serious liver damage, with an increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (107.68 +/- 3.19 U/L vs 18.08 +/- 1.46 U/L). Meanwhile, we observed increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and lowered oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values in plasma and liver of restraint mice compared with starved mice. Bilberry extract (containing 42.04% anthocyanins) was oral administrated to mice at 50, 100, and 200 mg/(kg x day) for five days, which remarkably decreased plasma ALT level to 17.23 +/- 2.49 U/L at the dose of 200 mg/(kg x day) and thus alleviated stress-induced liver damage. In addition, bilberry extracts increased glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C levels and significantly decreased MDA and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the liver tissues. These results suggest that bilberry extract plays an important role in protecting against restraint stress-induced liver damage by both scavenging free radicals activity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect. This study showed the beneficial health effects of bilberry extract through its antioxidative action.

  1. Mean platelet volume is an important predictor of hepatitis C but not hepatitis B liver damage.

    PubMed

    Eminler, Ahmet Tarik; Uslan, Mustafa Ihsan; Ayyildiz, Talat; Irak, Kader; Kiyici, Murat; Gurel, Selim; Dolar, Enver; Gulten, Macit; Nak, Selim Giray

    2015-09-01

    made according to fibrosis score, 101 patients were found to have early fibrosis (75.9%) and 32 have advanced fibrosis (24.1%). There was a statistically significant difference between the activity and fibrosis groups of the hepatitis C patients (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). MPV values are more reliable in hepatitis C patients than hepatitis B for predicting the advanced damage in liver histology. This finding might be useful for the detection of early fibrosis and also starting early treatment, which is important in hepatitis C.

  2. Mean platelet volume is an important predictor of hepatitis C but not hepatitis B liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Eminler, Ahmet Tarik; Uslan, Mustafa Ihsan; Ayyildiz, Talat; Irak, Kader; Kiyici, Murat; Gurel, Selim; Dolar, Enver; Gulten, Macit; Nak, Selim Giray

    2015-01-01

    activity group (18.1%). In the evaluation made according to fibrosis score, 101 patients were found to have early fibrosis (75.9%) and 32 have advanced fibrosis (24.1%). There was a statistically significant difference between the activity and fibrosis groups of the hepatitis C patients (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: MPV values are more reliable in hepatitis C patients than hepatitis B for predicting the advanced damage in liver histology. This finding might be useful for the detection of early fibrosis and also starting early treatment, which is important in hepatitis C. PMID:26759574

  3. Protective effect of hesperidin on oxidative and histological liver damage following carbon tetrachloride administration in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Çiftçi, Osman; Otlu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the current study, the protective effect of hesperidin (HP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats was investigated. Material and methods Twenty-eight rats were divided equally into four groups. The first group was kept as a control and given only vehicle. In the second, rats were orally administered 50 mg/kg/day HP for 10 days. Carbon tetrachloride was given in a single intraperitoneal injection at the dose of 2 ml/kg in the third group. In the fourth group, the rats were treated with equal doses of CCl4 and HP. Results It was found that CCl4 induced oxidative stress via a significant increase in the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and caused a significant decline in the levels of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rats. In contrast, HP blocked these toxic effects induced by CCl4, causing an increase in GSH, CAT and SOD levels and decreased formation of TBARS (p < 0.01). In addition, histopathological damage increased with CCl4 treatment. In contrast, HP treatment eliminated the effects of CCl4 and stimulated anti-apoptotic events, as characterized by reduced caspase-3 activation. Conclusions The current study demonstrated that CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity can be prevented with HP treatment. Thus, co-administration of HP with CCl4 may be useful for attenuating the negative effects of CCl4 on the liver. PMID:27279838

  4. Effectiveness of Disaster-prevention Technologies against Quake-induced Damage of MR Scanners during the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Machida, Yoshio; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Isoda, Haruo; Noguchi, Takashi; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have performed a statistical analysis to investigate damages in magnetic resonance (MR) scanners caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE, magnitude 9.0) and evaluated whether these disaster-prevention technologies contributed to the reduction of damages in the GEJE or not. It was confirmed that the extent of damage was significantly different between seismic scale (SS) 5 and SS over 6. Our survey study demonstrated that anchoring of MR facilities reduced damages due to quakes and demonstrated that anchoring is an efficient method for quake-induced damage prevention. The odds ratio revealed that base isolation was very useful to prevent damages in MR scanners.

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of coumestans isolated from the leaves of Wedelia calendulacea Less. in paracetamol induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, S; Amalraj, T; Ignacimuthu, S

    2001-12-01

    Effect of coumestans isolated form the leaves of W. calendulacea was evaluated in paracetamol induced liver damage. The increased serum enzyme levels (lactate dehydrogenase, alanine and aspartate transaminase and alkaline phophatase) by paracetamol induction were significantly lowered due to coumestans treatment. Results of this study revealed that coumestans of W. calendulacea afforded a significant protective action in the alleviation of paracetamol induced hepatocellular injury.

  6. Preventing Collateral Damage in Crohn’s Disease: The Lémann Index

    PubMed Central

    Fiorino, Gionata; Bonifacio, Cristiana; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Crohn’s disease [CD] is a chronic progressive and destructive condition. Half of all CD patients will develop bowel damage at 10 years. As in rheumatic diseases, preventing the organ damage consequent to CD complications [fistula, abscess, and/or stricture] is emerging as a new therapeutic goal for these patients in clinical practice. This might be the only way to alter disease course, as surgery is often required for disease complications. Similar to the joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis, bowel damage has also emerged as a new endpoint in disease-modification trials such as the REACT trial. Recently, the Lemann Index [LI] has been developed to measure CD-related bowel damage, and to assess damage progression over time, in order to evaluate the impact of therapeutic strategies in terms of preventing bowel damage. While validation is pending, recent reports suggested that bowel damage is reversible by anti-tumour necrosis factor [TNF] therapy. The Lémann index may play a key role in CD management, and should be implemented in all upcoming disease-modification trials in CD. PMID:26744441

  7. Prevention of hepatic fibrosis with liver microsomal triglyceride transfer protein deletion in liver fatty acid binding protein null mice.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Elizabeth P; Xie, Yan; Kennedy, Susan M; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Jiang, Hui; Chen, Anping; Ory, Daniel S; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2017-03-01

    Blocking hepatic very low-density lipoprotein secretion through genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp) causes hepatic steatosis, yet the risks for developing hepatic fibrosis are poorly understood. We report that liver-specific Mttp knockout mice (Mttp-LKO) exhibit both steatosis and fibrosis, which is exacerbated by a high-transfat/fructose diet. When crossed into germline liver fatty acid (FA) binding protein null mice (Mttp-LKO, i.e., double knockout mice) hepatic steatosis was greatly diminished and fibrosis prevented, on both low-fat and high-fat diets. The mechanisms underlying protection include reduced long chain FA uptake, shifts in FA distribution (lipidomic profiling), and metabolic turnover, specifically decreased hepatic 18:2 FA and triglyceride species and a shift in 18:2 FA use for oxidation versus incorporation into newly synthesized triglyceride. Double knockout mice were protected against fasting-induced hepatic steatosis (a model of enhanced exogenous FA delivery) yet developed steatosis upon induction of hepatic de novo lipogenesis with fructose feeding. Mttp-LKO mice, on either the liver FA binding protein null or Apobec-1 null background (i.e., apolipoprotein B100 only) exhibited only subtle increases in endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting that an altered unfolded protein response is unlikely to account for the attenuated phenotype in double knockout mice. Acute, antisense-mediated liver FA binding protein knockdown in Mttp-LKO mice also reduced FA uptake, increased oxidation versus incorporation of 18:2 species with complete reversal of hepatic steatosis, increased hepatic injury, and worsened fibrosis. Perturbing exogenous hepatic FA use modulates both hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in the setting of hepatic Mttp deletion, adding new insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms and consequences of defective very low-density lipoprotein secretion. (Hepatology 2017;65:836-852). © 2016 by

  8. An economic evaluation of four skin damage prevention regimens in nursing home residents with incontinence: economics of skin damage prevention.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z; Zehrer, Cindy; Savik, Kay; Smith, Graham; Hedblom, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    To determine the cost and efficacy of 4 different regimens of incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) prevention in nursing home residents. A multi-site open-label quasi-experimental study was conducted in 16 nursing homes stratified by location in 1 of 4 regions of the United States and randomly selected. In 3 of the 4 regimens, a moisture barrier ointment or cream of different compositions was applied after each episode of incontinence, and in 1 regimen, a polymer-based barrier film was applied 3 times per week. All regimens used a pH-balanced moisturizing cleanser. Time and motion measures were documented for the amount of skin care products used; the number, type, and time of caregivers performing IAD prevention care; and the number and type of supplies used. Rates of incontinence in each nursing home were determined during a 3-day surveillance period. A total of 1,918 nursing home residents were screened, and 51% (n = 981) qualified for prospective surveillance of incontinence dermatitis; the majority were female (80.1%) and elderly (96% > or = 65 years old). A total of 78.6% (771/981) of the participants were incontinent of both urine and feces. Compared to the 3 regimens in which a barrier was applied after each episode of incontinence, the use of a regimen in which a barrier film was applied 3 times weekly had significantly lower costs for the barrier product, labor associated with barrier application, and total cost, which included products, labor, and supplies. There were also savings in total product (cleanser and barrier) and total labor costs. The use of a defined skin care regimen that includes a cleanser and a moisture barrier is associated with a low rate of IAD in nursing home residents who are incontinent. Use of a polymer skin barrier film 3 times weekly is effective for preventing incontinence-associated skin breakdown and can provide significant cost savings.

  9. Choline supplementation protects against liver damage by normalizing cholesterol metabolism in Pemt/Ldlr knockout mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Al Rajabi, Ala; Castro, Gabriela S F; da Silva, Robin P; Nelson, Randy C; Thiesen, Aducio; Vannucchi, Helio; Vine, Donna F; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J; Curtis, Jonathan M; Jacobs, René L

    2014-03-01

    Dietary choline is required for proper structure and dynamics of cell membranes, lipoprotein synthesis, and methyl-group metabolism. In mammals, choline is synthesized via phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt), which converts phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine. Pemt(-/-) mice have impaired VLDL secretion and developed fatty liver when fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Because of the reduction in plasma lipids, Pemt(-/-)/low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr(-/-)) mice are protected from atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of dietary choline in the metabolic phenotype of Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) male mice. At 10-12 wk of age, Pemt(+/+)/Ldlr(-/-) (HF(+/+)) and half of the Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) (HF(-/-)) mice were fed an HF diet with normal (1.3 g/kg) choline. The remaining Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) mice were fed an HF diet supplemented (5 g/kg) with choline (HFCS(-/-) mice). The HF diet contained 60% of calories from fat and 1% cholesterol, and the mice were fed for 16 d. HF(-/-) mice lost weight and developed hepatomegaly, steatohepatitis, and liver damage. Hepatic concentrations of free cholesterol, cholesterol-esters, and triglyceride (TG) were elevated by 30%, 1.1-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively, in HF(-/-) compared with HF(+/+) mice. Choline supplementation normalized hepatic cholesterol, but not TG, and dramatically improved liver function. The expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport and esterification increased by 50% to 5.6-fold in HF(-/-) mice when compared with HF(+/+) mice. Markers of macrophages, oxidative stress, and fibrosis were elevated in the HF(-/-) mice. Choline supplementation normalized the expression of these genes. In conclusion, HF(-/-) mice develop liver failure associated with altered cholesterol metabolism when fed an HF/normal choline diet. Choline supplementation normalized cholesterol metabolism, which was sufficient to prevent nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development

  10. Hepatitis A and B Superimposed on Chronic Liver Disease: Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, Emmet B

    2006-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the acquisition of hepatitis A or hepatitis B in patients with chronic liver disease is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Superimposition of acute hepatitis A in patients with chronic hepatitis C has been associated with a particularly high mortality rate, and chronic hepatitis B virus coinfection with hepatitis C virus is associated with an accelerated progression of chronic liver disease to cirrhosis, decompensated liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. With the availability of vaccines against hepatitis B and hepatitis A since 1981 and 1995, respectively, these are vaccine-preventable diseases. Studies have confirmed that hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines are safe and immunogenic in patients with mild to moderate chronic liver disease. However, hepatitis A and B vaccination is less effective in patients with advanced liver disease and after liver transplantation. These observations have led to the recommendation that patients undergo hepatitis A and B vaccination early in the natural history of their chronic liver disease. Vaccination rates are low in clinical practice, and public health and educational programs are needed to overcome barriers to facilitate timely implementation of these recommendations. PMID:18528476

  11. Quercetin Prevents Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Clivorine-Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Elevating Body Defense Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Lili; Ma, Yibo; Wang, Zaiyong; Cai, Zhunxiu; Pang, Chun; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid that is widely distributed in nature. The present study is designed to analyze the underlying mechanism in the protection of quercetin against pyrrolizidine alkaloid clivorine-induced acute liver injury in vivo. Serum transaminases, total bilirubin analysis, and liver histological evaluation demonstrated the protection of quercetin against clivorine-induced liver injury. Terminal dUTP nick end-labeling assay demonstrated that quercetin reduced the increased amount of liver apoptotic cells induced by clivorine. Western-blot analysis of caspase-3 showed that quercetin inhibited the cleaved activation of caspase-3 induced by clivorine. Results also showed that quercetin reduced the increase in liver glutathione and lipid peroxidative product malondialdehyde induced by clivorine. Quercetin reduced the enhanced liver immunohistochemical staining for 4-hydroxynonenal induced by clivorine. Results of the Mouse Stress and Toxicity PathwayFinder RT2 Profiler PCR Array demonstrated that the expression of genes related with oxidative or metabolic stress and heat shock was obviously altered after quercetin treatment. Some of the alterations were confirmed by real-time PCR. Our results demonstrated that quercetin prevents clivorine-induced acute liver injury in vivo by inhibiting apoptotic cell death and ameliorating oxidative stress injury. This protection may be caused by the elevation of the body defense capacity induced by quercetin. PMID:24905073

  12. [Liver damage caused by atorvastatin and cyclosporine in patients with renal transplant].

    PubMed

    Ivandić, Ema; Bašić-Jukić, Nikolina

    2014-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is the preferred method of treatment of end-stage renal disease, which significantly improves the quality of life, but also increases survival when compared to dialysis. Prevention of acute or chronic rejection demands the use of immunosuppression. However, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, cardiovascular disease, post-transplantation diabetes mellitus, chronic graft dysfunction and dyslipidemia may all occur as complications of immunosuppressive therapy. Dyslipidemia is a significant problem in renal transplant recipients due to the fact that it increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients in whom the risk is already higher than in the general population. Very often, there is an interaction between immunosuppressive drugs, especially cyclosporine, and drugs that are used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. We present a case of a patient who developed severe hepatotoxicity after the introduction of atorvastatin in a cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive regimen. After discontinuation of atorvastatin and replacement of cyclosporine with everolimus, liver chemistries returned to normal values.

  13. Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity and Prevention by Herbal Antioxidants: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Divya; Cho, William C.; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam

    2016-01-01

    The liver is the center for drug and xenobiotic metabolism, which is influenced most with medication/xenobiotic-mediated toxic activity. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is common and its actual frequency is hard to determine due to underreporting, difficulties in detection or diagnosis, and incomplete observation of exposure. The death rate is high, up to about 10% for drug-induced liver damage. Endorsed medications represented >50% of instances of intense liver failure in a study from the Acute Liver Failure Study Group of the patients admitted in 17 US healing facilities. Albeit different studies are accessible uncovering the mechanistic aspects of medication prompted hepatotoxicity, we are in the dilemma about the virtual story. The expanding prevalence and effectiveness of Ayurveda and natural products in the treatment of various disorders led the investigators to look into their potential in countering drug-induced liver toxicity. Several natural products have been reported to date to mitigate the drug-induced toxicity. The dietary nature and less adverse reactions of the natural products provide them an extra edge over other candidates of supplementary medication. In this paper, we have discussed the mechanism involved in drug-induced liver toxicity and the potential of herbal antioxidants as supplementary medication. PMID:26858648

  14. Time course and mechanism of oxidative stress and tissue damage in rat liver subjected to in vivo ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed Central

    González-Flecha, B; Cutrin, J C; Boveris, A

    1993-01-01

    The time course of oxidative stress and tissue damage in zonal liver ischemia-reperfusion in rat liver in vivo was evaluated. After 180 min of ischemia, surface chemiluminescence decreased to zero, state 3 mitochondrial respiration decreased by 70-80%, and xanthine oxidase activity increased by 26% without change in the water content and in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. After reperfusion, marked increases in oxyradical production and tissue damage were detected. Mitochondrial oxygen uptake in state 3 and respiratory control as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and the level of nonenzymatic antioxidants (evaluated by the hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence) were decreased. The severity of the post-reperfusion changes correlated with the time of ischemia. Morphologically, hepatocytes appeared swollen with zonal cord disarrangement which ranged from mild to severe for the tissue reperfused after 60-180 min of ischemia. Neutrophil infiltration was observed after 180 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion. Mitochondria appear as the major source of hydrogen peroxide in control and in reperfused liver, as indicated by the almost complete inhibition of hydrogen peroxide production exerted by the uncoupler carbonylcyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone. Additionally, inhibition of mitochondrial electron transfer by antimycin in liver slices reproduced the inhibition of state 3 mitochondrial respiration and the increase in hydrogen peroxide steady-state concentration found in reperfused liver. Increased rates of oxyradical production by inhibited mitochondria appear as the initial cause of oxidative stress and liver damage during early reperfusion in rat liver. Images PMID:8432855

  15. Analysis of liver damage from radon, X-ray, or alcohol treatments in mice using a self-organizing map.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Norie; Kataoka, Takahiro; Etani, Reo; Sasaoka, Kaori; Kanagawa, Akihiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2017-01-01

    In our previous studies, we found that low-dose radiation inhibits oxidative stress-induced diseases due to increased antioxidants. Although these effects of low-dose radiation were demonstrated, further research was needed to clarify the effects. However, the analysis of oxidative stress is challenging, especially that of low levels of oxidative stress, because antioxidative substances are intricately involved. Thus, we proposed an approach for analysing oxidative liver damage via use of a self-organizing map (SOM)-a novel and comprehensive technique for evaluating hepatic and antioxidative function. Mice were treated with radon inhalation, irradiated with X-rays, or subjected to intraperitoneal injection of alcohol. We evaluated the oxidative damage levels in the liver from the SOM results for hepatic function and antioxidative substances. The results showed that the effects of low-dose irradiation (radon inhalation at a concentration of up to 2000 Bq/m(3), or X-irradiation at a dose of up to 2.0 Gy) were comparable with the effect of alcohol administration at 0.5 g/kg bodyweight. Analysis using the SOM to discriminate small changes was made possible by its ability to 'learn' to adapt to unexpected changes. Moreover, when using a spherical SOM, the method comprehensively examined liver damage by radon, X-ray, and alcohol. We found that the types of liver damage caused by radon, X-rays, and alcohol have different characteristics. Therefore, our approaches would be useful as a method for evaluating oxidative liver damage caused by radon, X-rays and alcohol. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  16. Analysis of liver damage from radon, X-ray, or alcohol treatments in mice using a self-organizing map

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Norie; Kataoka, Takahiro; Etani, Reo; Sasaoka, Kaori; Kanagawa, Akihiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2017-01-01

    In our previous studies, we found that low-dose radiation inhibits oxidative stress–induced diseases due to increased antioxidants. Although these effects of low-dose radiation were demonstrated, further research was needed to clarify the effects. However, the analysis of oxidative stress is challenging, especially that of low levels of oxidative stress, because antioxidative substances are intricately involved. Thus, we proposed an approach for analysing oxidative liver damage via use of a self-organizing map (SOM)—a novel and comprehensive technique for evaluating hepatic and antioxidative function. Mice were treated with radon inhalation, irradiated with X-rays, or subjected to intraperitoneal injection of alcohol. We evaluated the oxidative damage levels in the liver from the SOM results for hepatic function and antioxidative substances. The results showed that the effects of low-dose irradiation (radon inhalation at a concentration of up to 2000 Bq/m3, or X-irradiation at a dose of up to 2.0 Gy) were comparable with the effect of alcohol administration at 0.5 g/kg bodyweight. Analysis using the SOM to discriminate small changes was made possible by its ability to ‘learn’ to adapt to unexpected changes. Moreover, when using a spherical SOM, the method comprehensively examined liver damage by radon, X-ray, and alcohol. We found that the types of liver damage caused by radon, X-rays, and alcohol have different characteristics. Therefore, our approaches would be useful as a method for evaluating oxidative liver damage caused by radon, X-rays and alcohol. PMID:27614200

  17. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M; Arruda, Sandra F; Dourado, Lívia P S; da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A

    2016-02-17

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression.

  18. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M.; Arruda, Sandra F.; Dourado, Lívia P. S.; da Cunha, Marcela S. B.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. PMID:26901220

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of Vitis vinifera L. leaves on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Orhan, Nilüfer; Ergun, Ender; Ergun, Fatma

    2007-05-30

    The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract and its four different fractions (CHCl(3), EtOAc, n-BuOH, and remaining water fraction) of Vitis vinifera L. leaves was investigated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. The ethanolic extract was found active at 125mg/kg dose (per os). The ethanolic extract was fractionated through successive solvent-solvent extractions and the n-BuOH fraction in 83mg/kg dose possessed remarkable antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Liver damage was assessed by using biochemical parameters (plasma and liver tissue MDA [malondialdehyde], transaminase enzyme levels in plasma [AST-aspartate transaminase, ALT-alanine transferase] and liver GSH [glutathione] levels). Additionally, the pathological changes in liver were evaluated by histopathological studies. Legalon 70 Protect was used as standard natural originated drug.

  20. [Recombinant Trichinella spiralis-53000 protein alleviates liver damage due to lipopolysaccharides via M2 macrophage activation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhibin; Tang, Hao; Li, Zhenyu; Liang, Yanbing; Wu, Jingguo; Zeng, Lijin; Yang, Qing; Liang, Huaping; Ma, Zhongfu

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate if recombinant Trichinella spiralis-53 000 protein (rTsP53) could alleviate liver damage caused by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) via M2 macrophage activation. Sixty male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into LPS group, LPS + phosphate buffer saline (PBS) group and rTsP53 intervention group by random number table, with 20 mice in each group. Intraperitoneal injection of 15 μg/kg LPS was performed for all the mice in the three groups after 8 hours of fasting. The mice in LPS + PBS group were injected with PBS after 1 hour of LPS injection. The mice in the rTsP53 intervention group were injected with rTsP53 (5 mg/kg) after 1 hour of LPS injection. After 48 hours all the mice were sacrificed. Peritoneal macrophages were harvested and flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect markers CCR7 (M1) and CD206 (M2) of macrophages. Hepatic tissue was harvested for pathological study after hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and double staining immunofluorescence was used to detect F4/80⁺ HLA-DR⁺ and F4/80⁺ CD163⁺. Peripheral blood serum was harvested to detect the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Compared with LPS and LPS + PBS groups, survival rate of mice of rTsP53 intervention group was significantly elevated (90% vs. 25%, 30%, both P<0.01), and the pathological injury of the liver was significantly ameliorated, and the hepatic structure was better preserved. The transaminase in rTsP53 intervention group was significantly lower than that of LPS and LPS + PBS groups (ALT: 97.7 ± 8.5 U/L vs. 181.7 ± 19.5 U/L, 173.7 ± 17.2 U/L; AST: 142.7 ± 12.1 U/L vs. 235.7 ± 9.9 U/L, 213.7 ± 6.7 U/L, all P<0.05), FITC-CD206⁺ proportion of peritoneal macrophage was significantly higher [(17.75 ± 0.30)% vs. (1.38 ± 0.13)%, (1.36 ± 0.05)%, both P<0.05] while PE-CCR7(+) proportion [(6.89 ± 0.11)% vs. (15.30 ± 0.64)%, (14.96 ± 0.93)%, both P<0.05] was significantly lower. Fluorescence intensity of macrophages with F4/80⁺ CD163

  1. Melatonin Has An Ergogenic Effect But Does Not Prevent Inflammation and Damage In Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Wladimir Rafael; Botezelli, José Diego; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that exhaustive physical exercise leads to inflammation and skeletal muscle tissue damage. With this in mind, melatonin has been acutely administered before physical exercise; nevertheless, the use of melatonin as an ergogenic agent to prevent tissue inflammation and damage remains uncertain. We evaluated the effects of melatonin on swimming performance, muscle inflammation and damage and several physiological parameters after exhaustive exercise at anaerobic threshold intensity (iLAn) performed during light or dark circadian periods. The iLAn was individually determined and two days later, the animals performed an exhaustive exercise bout at iLAn 30 minutes after melatonin administration. The exercise promoted muscle inflammation and damage, mainly during the dark period, and the exogenous melatonin promoted a high ergogenic effect. The expressive ergogenic effect of melatonin leads to longer periods of muscle contraction, which superimposes a possible melatonin protective effect on the tissue damage and inflammation. PMID:26669455

  2. Role of PTEN in Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in the Liver of Whole-Body Pten Haplodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bankoglu, Ezgi Eyluel; Tschopp, Oliver; Schmitt, Johannes; Burkard, Philipp; Jahn, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity are frequently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and with an elevated cancer incidence. The molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in this context are only partially understood. High blood insulin levels are typical in early T2DM and excessive insulin can cause elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and genomic instability. ROS are important for various cellular functions in signaling and host defense. However, elevated ROS formation is thought to be involved in cancer induction. In the molecular events from insulin receptor binding to genomic damage, some signaling steps have been identified, pointing at the PI3K/AKT pathway. For further elucidation Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (Pten), a tumour suppressor phosphatase that plays a role in insulin signaling by negative regulation of PI3K/AKT and its downstream targets, was investigated here. Dihydroethidium (DHE) staining was used to detect ROS formation in immortalized human hepatocytes. Comet assay and micronucleus test were performed to investigate genomic damage in vitro. In liver samples, DHE staining and western blot detection of HSP70 and HO-1 were performed to evaluate oxidative stress response. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were detected by immunohistostaining. Inhibition of PTEN with the pharmacologic inhibitor VO-OHpic resulted in increased ROS production and genomic damage in a liver cell line. Knockdown of Pten in a mouse model yielded increased oxidative stress levels, detected by ROS levels and expression of the two stress-proteins HSP70 and HO-1 and elevated genomic damage in the liver, which was significant in mice fed with a high fat diet. We conclude that PTEN is involved in oxidative stress and genomic damage induction in vitro and that this may also explain the in vivo observations. This further supports the hypothesis that the PI3K/AKT pathway is responsible for damaging effects of high levels of insulin. PMID:27893783

  3. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and... TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Administration § 223.113 Modification of contracts to prevent... may be modified to prevent environmental damage or to make them consistent with amendments or...

  4. Effect of fruit vinegars on liver damage and oxidative stress in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Bouazza, Asma; Bitam, Arezki; Amiali, Malek; Bounihi, Abdenour; Yargui, Lyece; Koceir, Elhadj Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Vinegar has long been used as a condiment and a traditional medicine worldwide. The current study investigates the antioxidant effect of three types of fruit vinegars (FV) namely pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)], prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae)], and apple [Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)] vinegars in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic Wistar rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups; HFD (80 cal/d) fed rats were orally dosed with fruit vinegars (7 ml/kg) once daily for 28 weeks. At the end of the experiment, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation products, antioxidant enzymes, and trace elements were assessed in serum. In addition, a liver histopathological study was performed. HFD showed a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in lipid profile and TBARS levels when compared with normal control. Daily oral administration of FV normalized various biochemical, metabolic, and histopathological changes. However, pomegranate vinegar exhibited a very significant (p ≤ 0.001) reduction in lipid profile levels (total cholesterol: 165%, triglycerides: 68%, LDL-c: 76%, and atherogenic index: 80%), whereas an increase in antioxidant status (SOD: 7-fold, GPx: 4.81-fold, GRx: 1.66-fold, and TAS: 3.45-fold) when compared with hyperlipidemic control. Histopathological examinations also confirmed the protective effects of pomegranate vinegar against lipid accumulation and the improvement of hepatic lesions. The fruit vinegars regulate lipid metabolism and decrease liver damage in high-fat fed rats as shown in this study.

  5. A Novel Murine Model to Deplete Hepatic Stellate Cells Uncovers Their Role In Amplifying Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Puche, Juan E.; Lee, Youngmin A.; Jiao, Jingjing; Aloman, Costica; Fiel, Maria I.; Muñoz, Ursula; Kraus, Thomas; Lee, Tingfang; Yee, Hal F.; Friedman, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel model for depleting mouse HSCs that has allowed us to clarify their contributions to hepatic injury and fibrosis. Transgenic mice (TG) expressing the herpes simplex virus-Thymidine kinase gene (HSV-Tk) driven by the mouse GFAP promoter were used to render proliferating HSCs susceptible to killing in response to ganciclovir (GCV). Effects of GCV were explored in primary HSCs and in vivo. Panlobular damage was provoked to maximize HSC depletion by combining carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (centrilobular injury) with allyl alcohol (AA) (periportal injury), as well as in a bile duct ligation (BDL) model. Cell depletion in situ was quantified using dual-immunofluorescence (IF) for desmin and GFAP. In primary HSCs isolated from both untreated wild type (WT) and TG mice, GCV induced cell death in ~50% of HSCs from TG but not WT mice. In TG mice treated with CCl4+AA+GCV, there was a significant decrease in GFAP & desmin positive cells compared to WT mice (~65% reduction, p<0.01), which was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of HSC activation markers (α-SMA, β-PDGFR and collagen I). Similar results were seen following BDL. Associated with HSC depletion in both fibrosis models, there was marked attenuation of fibrosis and liver injury, as indicated by Sirius Red/Fast Green, H&E quantification and serum ALT/AST. Hepatic expression of IL-10 and IFN-γ was increased following HSC depletion. No toxicity of GCV in either WT or TG mice accounted for the differences in injury. Conclusion Activated HSCs significantly amplify the hepatic response to liver injury, further expanding this cell type's repertoire in orchestrating hepatic injury and repair. PMID:22961591

  6. Two familial ALS proteins function in prevention/repair of transcription-associated DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sarah J; Mordes, Daniel A; Cameron, Lisa A; Neuberg, Donna S; Landini, Serena; Eggan, Kevin; Livingston, David M

    2016-11-29

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron dysfunction disease that leads to paralysis and death. There is currently no established molecular pathogenesis pathway. Multiple proteins involved in RNA processing are linked to ALS, including FUS and TDP43, and we propose a disease mechanism in which loss of function of at least one of these proteins leads to an accumulation of transcription-associated DNA damage contributing to motor neuron cell death and progressive neurological symptoms. In support of this hypothesis, we find that FUS or TDP43 depletion leads to increased sensitivity to a transcription-arresting agent due to increased DNA damage. Thus, these proteins normally contribute to the prevention or repair of transcription-associated DNA damage. In addition, both FUS and TDP43 colocalize with active RNA polymerase II at sites of DNA damage along with the DNA damage repair protein, BRCA1, and FUS and TDP43 participate in the prevention or repair of R loop-associated DNA damage, a manifestation of aberrant transcription and/or RNA processing. Gaining a better understanding of the role(s) that FUS and TDP43 play in transcription-associated DNA damage could shed light on the mechanisms underlying ALS pathogenesis.

  7. Hepatic protection by noni fruit juice against CCl(4)-induced chronic liver damage in female SD rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Anderson, Gary; Nowicki, Diane; Jensen, Jarakae

    2008-09-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) has been used throughout the Pacific, Southeast Asia, Central America, and the Caribbean for a variety of health conditions, including heart and liver ailments. In this study, we examined the hepatoprotective effects of TAHITIAN NONI Juice (TNJ) against CCl(4)-induced chronic liver damage in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Twelve female SD rats were divided into control, placebo and TNJ (6 mL/rat/day) groups. On day 15, animals in the placebo and TNJ groups received 0.25 mL/kg CCl(4) in corn oil once a week for 12 successive weeks. All animals were sacrificed at week 16. Blood and liver were collected for liver function, lipid panel tests, and histological observation. Histopathological examination revealed that liver sections from the TNJ + CCl(4) appeared similar to controls, whereas typical hepatic steatosis was observed in the placebo + CCl(4) group. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels were increased in the placebo group compared with the TNJ group. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was increased in the TNJ group and decreased in the placebo group. Thus, TNJ juice appears to protect the liver from chronic exogenous CCl(4) exposures. Such protective mechanisms are supportive evidence for the utility of noni in traditional medicine for liver ailments.

  8. Aqueous extract of Bai-Hu-Tang, a classical Chinese herb formula, prevents excessive immune response and liver injury induced by LPS in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shidong; Wang, Dongsheng; Wang, Xurong; Li, Shihong; Li, Jingyu; Li, Hongsheng; Yan, Zuoting

    2013-08-26

    Bai-Hu-Tang (BHT) was traditionally used to reduce fever heat and promote generation of body fluids. To investigate the effect and mechanism of BHT in the prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fever in manners of immune modulation. The model of fever syndrome of Chinese medicine pattern was imitated by LPS injection i.v. in rabbits, and BHT was gavaged. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-6, 10) and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, and IgM) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were tested by biochemical methods. Liver tissue damage was detected by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) stain. Subpopulation of T cells was detected by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). Genes expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) in liver tissue were assayed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results demonstrated that BHT prevented sudden increase of IL-10, TNF-α, ALT and AST, and liver damage induced by LPS. BHT also prevented significant decrease of the percentage of CD(8+) T cells since LPS injection. At the same time, BHT did not affect the gene expression of TLR4 and serum concentration of three immunoglobulins, which were increased by LPS, but made gene expression of LBP higher. The results of this study indicated that BHT played an important role in immunity protection and anti-injury through preventing immunoinflammatory damage by LPS. The achievement thereby scientifically provided mechanism of BHT in the prevention of febrile disease, and supported its traditional use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Euphorbia dracunculoides L. abrogates carbon tetrachloride induced liver and DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Batool, Riffat; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Majid, Muhammad

    2017-04-20

    Evaluation of Euphorbia dracunculoides of family Euphorbiaceae during previous studies had established the in vitro antioxidant and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. The plant is used by the local communities of Pakistan for various disorders including rheumatism and edema. In this investigation we have evaluated the hepatoprotective effects against CCl4 induced toxicity in rat. Dry powder of the aerial parts of E. dracunculoides was extracted with 95% methanol to get the extract (EDME). To investigate the hepatoprotective effects of EDME the Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided in to 8 groups with 6 rats in each. Group I and II were the normal and vehicle treated while the Groups III-VI were injected intraperitoneally with 1 ml of CCl4 (30% in olive oil). Rats of Group IV were orally administered with silymarin (50 mg/kg) while the Group V and VI with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of EDME, respectively. Animals of Group VII (200 mg/kg) and VIII (400 mg/kg) were treated with EDME alone. The treatments were given thrice a week for 4 weeks. Effects of EDME were evaluated for the protective effects against oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced with CCl4 in liver of rat. Analysis of serum indicated significant (p < 0.05) rise in the level of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and globulin whereas decrease was recorded for the total protein and albumin in CCl4 treated rats. In liver tissues the activity level of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH) was decreased while the level of lipid peroxides; thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS), nitrite and hydrogen peroxide increased in CCl4 treated rats as compared to the control group. Histopathological injuries and DNA damages were recorded in liver of rat with CCl4 treatment. However, co-administration of EDME, dose dependently, ameliorated the CCl4-induced hepatic toxicity in

  10. Energy Drink Induced Lipid Peroxidation and Oxidative Damage in Rat Liver and Brain When Used Alone or Combined with Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rengin; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Sipahi, Hande; Ekici, Asiye Işın Doğan; Macit, Çağlar; Akkaya, Hatice; Aydın, Ahmet

    2017-04-01

    Energy drinks (ED) are containing large doses of metabolic stimulants and its use with ethanol has increased dramatically among young adults. In this study, we examined the effects of ED exposure either alone or in combination with ethanol on oxidative stress parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and lipid peroxidation parameter malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat. Some histopathological findings were also evaluated. ED exposure led to a dose-dependent increase in liver MDA compared to the control indicating oxidative damage. Histopathological findings also revealed that ED alone may generate liver damage. Ethanol exposure increased MDA level and SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activity in both the brain and the liver. The combination of ethanol and ED produced greater damage which is considered by further increases in SOD and GSH-Px activity in the brain. Similar results for MDA were observed in both the liver and brain as well. Our findings suggest that ED consumption alone or combination with ethanol may represent a significant public health concern. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Sorafenib prevents liver fibrosis in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rodent model

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, J.T.; Pereira, I.V.A.; Torres, M.M.; Bida, P.M.; Coelho, A.M.M.; Xerfan, M.P.; Cogliati, B.; Barbeiro, D.F.; Mazo, D.F.C.; Kubrusly, M.S.; D'Albuquerque, L.A.C.; Souza, H.P.; Carrilho, F.J.; Oliveira, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis occurring as an outcome of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can precede the development of cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of sorafenib in preventing liver fibrosis in a rodent model of NASH. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet and exposed to diethylnitrosamine for 6 weeks. The NASH group (n=10) received vehicle and the sorafenib group (n=10) received 2.5 mg·kg-1·day-1 by gavage. A control group (n=4) received only standard diet and vehicle. Following treatment, animals were sacrificed and liver tissue was collected for histologic examination, mRNA isolation, and analysis of mitochondrial function. Genes related to fibrosis (MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2), oxidative stress (HSP60, HSP90, GST), and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α) were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Liver mitochondrial oxidation activity was measured by a polarographic method, and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sorafenib treatment restored mitochondrial function and reduced collagen deposition by nearly 63% compared to the NASH group. Sorafenib upregulated PGC1α and MMP9 and reduced TIMP1 and TIMP2 mRNA and IL-6 and IL-10 protein expression. There were no differences in HSP60, HSP90 and GST expression. Sorafenib modulated PGC1α expression, improved mitochondrial respiration and prevented collagen deposition. It may, therefore, be useful in the treatment of liver fibrosis in NASH. PMID:25714891

  12. Physical exercise prevents and mitigates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-induced liver mitochondrial structural and bioenergetics impairments.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Inês O; Passos, Emanuel; Rocha-Rodrigues, Silvia; Diogo, Cátia V; Torrella, Joan R; Rizo, David; Viscor, Ginés; Santos-Alves, Estela; Marques-Aleixo, Inês; Oliveira, Paulo J; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2014-03-01

    Exercise is considered a non-pharmacological tool against several lifestyle disorders in which mitochondrial dysfunction is involved. The present study aimed to analyze the preventive (voluntary physical activity-VPA) and therapeutic (endurance training-ET) role of exercise against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into standard-diet sedentary (SS, n=20), standard-diet VPA (SVPA, n=10), high-fat diet sedentary (HS, n=20) and high-fat diet VPA (HVPA, n=10). After 9weeks of diet-treatment, half of SS and HS animals were engaged in an ET program (SET and HET) for 8weeks, 5days/week and 60min/day. Liver mitochondrial oxygen consumption and transmembrane-electric potential (ΔΨ) were evaluated in the presence of glutamate-malate (G/M), palmitoyl-malate (P/M) and succinate (S/R). Mitochondrial enzymes activity, lipid and protein oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits, cytochrome c, adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) content were assessed. HS groups show the histological features of NASH in parallel with decreased ΔΨ and respiratory control (RCR) and ADP/O ratios (G/M and P/M). A state 3 decrease (G/M and S/R), FCCP-induced uncoupling respiration (S/R) and ANT content were also observed. Both exercise types counteracted oxygen consumption (RCR, ADP/O and FCCP-uncoupling state) impairments and improved ΔΨ (lag-phase). In conclusion, exercise prevented or reverted (VPA and ET, respectively) the bioenergetic impairment induced by NASH, but only ET positively remodeled NASH-induced liver structural damage and abnormal mitochondria. It is possible that alterations in inner membrane integrity and fatty acid oxidation may be related to the observed phenotypes induced by exercise.

  13. Effects of seaweed-restructured pork diets enriched or not with cholesterol on rat cholesterolaemia and liver damage.

    PubMed

    Schultz Moreira, Adriana R; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Bocanegra, Aranzazu; Méndez, M Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Reus, M Isabel; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-06-01

    Seaweed enriched-restructured pork (RP) is a potential functional food. However, indications of adverse effects associated with herbal medications, which include among others liver failure, toxic hepatitis, and death have been reported. Cholesterol feeding produces hepatomegalia and fat liver infiltration. The effect of seaweed-RP diet, cholesterol-enriched or not, on plasma cholesterol, liver damage markers, structure, and cytochrome CYP4A-1 were evaluated after 5 wk. Eight rat groups were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93M rodent-diet plus 15% RP. The Cholesterol-control (CC), Cholesterol-Wakame (CW), Cholesterol-Nori (CN) and Cholesterol-Sea Spaghetti (CS) groups respectively consumed similar diets to control (C), Wakame (W), Nori (N), and Sea Spaghetti (S) but as part of hypercholesterolaemic diets. CN and CS significantly blocked the hypercholesterolaemic effect observed in CC group. After 5-wk, N and S diets increased the CYP4A-1 expression. However, seaweed-RPs were unable to reduce the histological liver alterations observed in CC group. Larger and more abundant hepatocellular alterations were found in CS and CN rats suggesting that the hypocholesterolaemic effects of these seaweed-RPs seem to be a two-edged sword as they increased liver damage. Future studies are needed to understand the involved mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alleviation of high-fat diet-induced fatty liver damage in group IVA phospholipase A2-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ii, Hiromi; Yokoyama, Naoki; Yoshida, Shintaro; Tsutsumi, Kae; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Sato, Takashi; Ishihara, Keiichi; Akiba, Satoshi

    2009-12-01

    Hepatic fat deposition with hepatocellular damage, a feature of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is mediated by several putative factors including prostaglandins. In the present study, we examined whether group IVA phospholipase A(2) (IVA-PLA(2)), which catalyzes the first step in prostanoid biosynthesis, is involved in the development of fatty liver, using IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice. Male wild-type mice on high-fat diets (20% fat and 1.25% cholesterol) developed hepatocellular vacuolation and liver hypertrophy with an increase in the serum levels of liver damage marker aminotransferases when compared with wild-type mice fed normal diets. These high-fat diet-induced alterations were markedly decreased in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice. Hepatic triacylglycerol content was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice under normal dietary conditions. Although high-fat diets increased hepatic triacylglycerol content in both genotypes, the degree was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice. Under the high-fat dietary conditions, IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice had lower epididymal fat pad weight and smaller adipocytes than wild-type mice. The serum level of prostaglandin E(2), which has a fat storage effect, was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice, irrespective of the kind of diet. In both genotypes, high-fat diets increased serum leptin levels equally between the two groups, but did not affect the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, glucose, or insulin. Our findings suggest that a deficiency of IVA-PLA(2) alleviates fatty liver damage caused by high-fat diets, probably because of the lower generation of IVA-PLA(2) metabolites, such as prostaglandin E(2). IVA-PLA(2) could be a promising therapeutic target for obesity-related diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  15. Protective Efficacy of Alpha-lipoic Acid against AflatoxinB1-induced Oxidative Damage in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y.; Ma, Q. G.; Zhao, L. H.; Guo, Y. Q.; Duan, G. X.; Zhang, J. Y.; Ji, C.

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) is not only involved in energy metabolism, but is also a powerful antioxidant that can protect against hepatic oxidative stress induced by some drugs, toxins, or under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of α-LA against liver oxidative damage in broilers exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Birds were randomly divided into four groups and assigned different diets: basal diet, 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, for 3 weeks. The results revealed that the addition of 300 mg/kg α-LA protected against the liver function damage of broilers induced by chronic low dose of AFB1 as estimated by a significant (p<0.05) change in levels of plasma total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and the activities of liver glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The histopathological analysis also showed that liver tissues were injured in the AFB1 diet, but this effect was alleviated by the addition of 300 mg/kg α-LA. Additionally, AFB1 induced a profound elevation of oxidative stress in birds, as indicated by an increase in malondialdehyde level, a decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity and a depletion of the glutathione content in the liver. All of these negative effects were inhibited by treatment with α-LA. Our results suggest that the inhibition of AFB1-induced excess production of lipid peroxides and the maintenance of intracellular antioxidant status may play important roles in the protective effects of α-LA against AFB1-induced oxidative damage in the liver. PMID:25050030

  16. Interventions for preventing and managing advanced liver disease in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, Senthil K; Than, Nan Nitra; Thein, Aung Win; Moe, Soe; van Mourik, Indra

    2017-08-29

    Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive inherited defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene resulting in abnormal regulation of salt and water movement across the membranes. In the liver this leads to focal biliary fibrosis resulting in progressive portal hypertension and end-stage liver disease in some individuals. This can be asymptomatic, but may lead to splenomegaly and hypersplenism, development of varices and variceal bleeding, and ascites; it has negative impact on overall nutritional status and respiratory function in this population. Prognosis is poor once significant portal hypertension is established. The role and outcome of various interventions for managing advanced liver disease (non-malignant end stage disease) in people with cystic fibrosis is currently unidentified. To review and assess the efficacy of currently available treatment options for preventing and managing advanced liver disease in children and adults with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books.Date of last search: 06 April 2017.We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews and online trials registries. Date of last search: 04 January 2017. Any published and unpublished randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials of advanced liver disease in cystic fibrosis with cirrhosis or liver failure, portal hypertension or variceal bleeding (or both). Authors independently examined titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant trials, but none were eligible for inclusion in this review. A comprehensive search of the literature did not identify any published eligible randomised controlled trials. In order to develop the best source of evidence, there is a need to undertake randomised controlled trials of interventions for preventing and managing advanced liver disease in

  17. Fenofibrate, but not ezetimibe, prevents fatty liver disease in mice lacking phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase[S

    PubMed Central

    van der Veen, Jelske N.; Lingrell, Susanne; Gao, Xia; Takawale, Abhijit; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Vance, Dennis E.; Jacobs, René L.

    2017-01-01

    Mice lacking phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) are protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance. However, these mice develop severe nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) when fed the HFD, which is mainly due to inadequate secretion of VLDL particles. Our aim was to prevent NAFLD development in mice lacking PEMT. We treated Pemt−/− mice with either ezetimibe or fenofibrate to see if either could ameliorate liver disease in these mice. Ezetimibe treatment did not reduce fat accumulation in Pemt−/− livers, nor did it reduce markers for hepatic inflammation or fibrosis. Fenofibrate, conversely, completely prevented the development of NAFLD in Pemt−/− mice: hepatic lipid levels, as well as markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and fibrosis, in fenofibrate-treated Pemt−/− mice were similar to those in Pemt+/+ mice. Importantly, Pemt−/− mice were still protected against HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Moreover, fenofibrate partially reversed hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in Pemt−/− mice when treatment was initiated after NAFLD had already been established. Increasing hepatic fatty acid oxidation can compensate for the lower VLDL-triacylglycerol secretion rate and prevent/reverse fatty liver disease in mice lacking PEMT. PMID:28159867

  18. Protective effect of Cichorium glandulosum seeds from ultraviolet B-induced damage in rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Chen, Yuxin; Ma, Bingxin; Zhou, Gao; Tong, Jing; He, Jingsheng; Wang, Youwei

    2014-05-01

    Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet, a common herb for treating hepatitis, is indigenous to Europe, Western Asia, and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. This study aims at evaluating the protective activity of different extracts from C. glandulosum seeds against experimental oxidation- and ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced damage in rat liver mitochondria. The antioxidant property of different extracts from C. glandulosum seeds was investigated by employing various established in vitro systems, such as α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), and reducing power assay. The protective effects of different C. glandulosum seed extracts against UVB-induced phototoxicity in a mitochondria model were also evaluated by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, glutathione, lipid hydroperoxide, conjugated diene, and 4-hydroxynonenal. The main compounds in C. glandulosum seeds were identified by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS. The results showed that C. glandulosum seed extracts have strong antioxidant activity, in which the ethyl acetate extract (EE) and n-butanol extract (BE) showed better activity than other extracts. In a UVB-induced mitochondria model, both EE and BE have better antioxidant activity and protective effects against phototoxicity than the petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract, and water extract. The differences in antioxidant activity and photoprotective capacity among these five extracts are associated with their phenolic compound content. Therefore, research on this function of C. glandulosum seeds may broaden their applications in the food and medical industry.

  19. Fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates high-safflower oil-induced fatty liver in ddy mice.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Nakamori, Akiko; Sasaki, Eriko; Wada, Satoshi; Ezaki, Osamu

    2007-12-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). We analyzed the effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver induced by sucrose, safflower oil, and butter in ddY mice. In experiment I, mice were fed a high-starch diet [70 energy% (en%) starch] plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in the drinking water or fed a high-safflower oil diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Fish oil (10 en%) was either supplemented or not. Mice supplemented with sucrose or fed safflower oil showed a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold increased liver triglyceride content, respectively, compared with that of control mice. Fish oil completely prevented sucrose-induced fatty liver, whereas it exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver. Sucrose increased SREBP-1c and target gene messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and fish oil completely inhibited these increases. In experiment II, mice were fed a high-safflower oil or a high-butter diet, with or without fish oil supplementation. Fish oil exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver but did not affect butter-induced fatty liver. Fish oil increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and target CD36 mRNA in safflower oil-fed mice. These increases were not observed in sucrose-supplemented or butter-fed mice. The effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver differ according to the cause of fatty liver; fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates safflower oil-induced fatty liver. The exacerbation of fatty liver may be due, at least in part, to increased expression of liver PPARgamma.

  20. Risk of obstructive sleep apnea with daytime sleepiness is associated with liver damage in non-morbidly obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Pulixi, Edoardo Alessandro; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Battezzati, Pier Maria; D'Ingianna, Paola; Borroni, Vittorio; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Maggioni, Marco; Pelusi, Serena; Bulgheroni, Mara; Zuin, Massimo; Fargion, Silvia; Montano, Nicola; Valenti, Luca

    2014-01-01

    A high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been reported in severely obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but few studies have evaluated OSAS in non-morbidly obese NAFLD patients. To determine the prevalence of risk for OSAS with or without daytime sleepiness in non-morbidly obese patients with NAFLD and evaluate the association with the severity of liver damage. We considered 159 consecutive patients with histological NAFLD and body mass index (BMI) <35 Kg/m2, and 80 controls without ultrasonographic steatosis matched for age, sex, and BMI. OSAS risk was determined by positivity for Berlin questionnaire (BQ), and daytime sleepiness by the Sleepness Epworth Scale (ESS). Liver damage was evaluated according to the NAFLD activity score. In NAFLD patients, BQ alone was positive in 39 (25%), ESS in 8 (5%), and both in 13 (8%, OSAS with sleepines); p = ns vs. controls without steatosis. In NAFLD patients at risk for OSAS with (but not in those without) sleepiness, we observed a higher prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH; 11/13, 85% vs. 72/146, 49%; p = 0.018), and of clinically significant fibrosis (stage>1; 9/13, 69% vs. 39/146, 27%; p = 0.003). At multivariate logistic regression analysis, OSAS with sleepiness was strongly associated with NASH and fibrosis>1 independently of known clinical risk factors such as age, gender, BMI, diabetes, and ALT levels (OR 7.1, 95% c.i. 1.7-51, p = 0.005 and OR 14.0, 95% c.i. 3.5-70, p = 0.0002, respectively). A proportion of NAFLD patients without severe obesity is at risk for OSAS with daytime sleepiness, which is associated with the severity of liver damage independently of body mass and other cofactors.

  1. Damage to the protein synthesizing apparatus in mouse liver in vivo by magnetocytolysis in the presence of hepatospecific magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbreich, Avraham; Groman, Ernest V.; Raison, Danielle; Bouchaud, Claude; Paturance, Sébastien

    2002-07-01

    In the previous work, we incubated THP1 cells and macrophages in vitro with unsubstituted ferrofluid (FF) and placed them in an alternating magnetic field. This resulted in the destruction of the cells (magnetocytolysis). Cell-specific magnetocytolysis in vitro was achieved in MCF7 human breast cancer cells incubated with tamoxifen-bound FF and treated in an alternating magnetic field. In this work, in a search of a model for magnetocytolysis in vivo, we injected mice intravenously with hepatospecific magnetic nanoparticles (HS-USPIO) and subjected the mice to magnetocytolysis in an alternating magnetic field (1 h at 200 A/m). This treatment resulted in a prolongation of blood coagulation time due to depletion of protein coagulation factors that are synthesized exclusively in the liver. The attendant derangement of liver protein synthesis was characterized in cell-free preparations by an inhibition of the endogenously coded protein synthesis coupled with an enhancement of phenylalanine polymerization directed by polyuridylic acid (Poly U). This indication of polyribosome dispersion was confirmed by electron microscopy. Magnetocytolysis did not cause liver necrosis and was neither accompanied by any increase in body or liver temperature, nor damage to any other tissue. The effects of magnetocytolysis were proportional to the amount of injected HS-USPIO, field strength and its application time. Magnetocytolysis did not occur when non-magnetic PolyGalactoseGold particles were substituted for HS-USPIO. PolyGalactoseGold particles were employed to measure asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) activity in liver using neutron activation analysis. Injection of PolyGalactoseGold particles to mice, pre-treated by HS-USPIO driven magnetocytolysis, revealed a transient diminution of hepatic ASGP-R. Liver damage from magnetocytolysis was followed by liver regeneration, manifested by the appearance of thymidylate kinase activity, diminution of ASGP-R and return to normal blood

  2. Role of chemokines and their receptors in viral persistence and liver damage during chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Larrubia, Juan R; Benito-Martínez, Selma; Calvino, Miryam; Sanz-de-Villalobos, Eduardo; Parra-Cid, Trinidad

    2008-01-01

    Chemokines produced in the liver during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induce migration of activated T cells from the periphery to infected parenchyma. The milieu of chemokines secreted by infected hepatocytes is predominantly associated with the T-helper/T-cytotoxic type-1 cell (Th1/Tc1) response. These chemokines consist of CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α; MIP-1α), CCL4 (MIP-1β), CCL5 (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted; RANTES), CXCL10 (interferon-γ−inducible protein-10; IP-10), CXCL11 (interferon-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant; I-TAC), and CXCL9 (monokine induced by interferon γ; Mig) and they recruit T cells expressing either CCR5 or CXCR3 chemokine receptors. Intrahepatic and peripheral blood levels of these chemokines are increased during chronic hepatitis C. The interaction between chemokines and their receptors is essential in recruiting HCV-specific T cells to control the infection. When the adaptive immune response fails in this task, non-specific T cells without the capacity to control the infection are also recruited to the liver, and these are ultimately responsible for the persistent hepatic damage. The modulation of chemokine receptor expression and chemokine secretion could be a viral escape mechanism to avoid specific T cell migration to the liver during the early phase of infection, and to maintain liver viability during the chronic phase, by impairing non-specific T cell migration. Some chemokines and their receptors correlate with liver damage, and CXCL10 (IP-10) and CXCR3 levels have shown a clinical utility as predictors of treatment response outcome. The regulation of chemokines and their receptors could be a future potential therapeutic target to decrease liver inflammation and to increase specific T cell migration to the infected liver. PMID:19084927

  3. Permethrin-induced oxidative damage in liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and its attenuation by vitamin C

    PubMed Central

    Mozhdeganloo, Z.; Moghadam Jafari, A.; Koohi, M. K.; Heidarpour, M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the propensity of permethrin (PTN) to induce oxidative stress and changes in enzyme activities in liver of rainbow trout and its possible attenuation by vitamin C. Forty-eight fish were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups and their livers were used for liver perfusion method: control (0 µgL-1 permethrin and 0 mgL-1 vitamin C), PTN-0.16 (0.16 µgL-1 permethrin), PTN-0.32 (0.32 µgL-1 permethrin), PTN-0.64 (0.64 µgL-1 permethrin), Vit. C (17.2 mgL-1 vitamin C), and PTN-0.64 + Vit. C (0.64 µgL-1 permethrin and 17.2 mgL-1 vitamin C). Results obtained showed that permethrin significantly (P<0.05) increased ALT, AST and LDH activities in the liver perfusion medium and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in liver tissue. The values of reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (FRAP) in the liver tissue were significantly decreased due to permethrin administration. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between MDA concentration and ALT, AST and LDH activities in the permethrin groups, suggesting that the enhanced lipid peroxidation may be linked to hepatic damage caused by permethrin. On the other hand, treatment with vitamin C in the PTN-0.64 + Vit. C group increased the values of GSH and FRAP, and decreased the level of MDA and the activities of hepatic enzymes, when compared to the PTN-0.64 group. The present study revealed that vitamin C could ameliorate permethrin-induced oxidative damage by decreasing lipid peroxidation and altering antioxidant defense system in liver of rainbow trout. PMID:27656226

  4. Schisandra chinensis Prevents Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyoung Joon; Lee, Soo-Jung; Song, Yuno; Jang, Sun-Hee; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kang, Suk Nam; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Hong-Duck; Kim, Gon-Sup

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Schisandra chinensis (SC), a traditional herbal medicine, has been prescribed for patients suffering from various liver diseases, including hepatic cancer, hypercholesterolemia, and CCl4-induced liver injury. We investigated whether SC extract has a protective effect on alcohol-induced fatty liver and studied its underlying mechanisms. Rats were fed with ethanol by intragastric administration every day for 5 weeks to induce alcoholic fatty liver. Ethanol treatment resulted in a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels and caused fatty degeneration of liver. Ethanol administration also elevated serum TG and total cholesterol (TC) and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. However, after administration of ethanol plus SC extracts, the ethanol-induced elevation in liver TC and TG levels was reversed. Elevation in serum TG was not observed after treatment with SC. Moreover, compared with the ethanol-fed group, the rats administered ethanol along with SC extracts for 5 weeks showed attenuated fatty degeneration and an altered lipid profile with decreased serum TC and TG, and increased HDL cholesterol levels. Chronic ethanol consumption did not affect peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) levels, but it decreased PPARα and phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels in the liver. However, SC prevented the ethanol-induced decrease in PPARα expression and induced a significant decrease in sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 expression and increase in phospho-AMPK expression in rats with alcoholic fatty liver. SC administration resulted in a significant decrease in intracellular lipid accumulation in hepatocytes along with a decrease in serum TG levels, and it reversed fatty liver to normal conditions, as measured by biochemical and histological analyses. Our results indicate that the protective effect of SC is accompanied by a

  5. Preventing Eye Damage from the Sun's Ultraviolet Light: What Health Educators Should Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memmer, Mary Kelly

    1989-01-01

    Health educators are in an ideal position to teach individuals about dangers from the sun's ultraviolet light and how to prevent damage to eyes. Ultraviolet light is described, eye pathology which can be caused by it is outlined, and protective eyewear is discussed. (IAH)

  6. Hyaluronic acid prevents immunosuppressive drug-induced ovarian damage via up-regulating PGRMC1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guangfeng; Yan, Guijun; Cheng, Jie; Zhou, Xue; Fang, Ting; Sun, Haixiang; Hou, Yayi; Hu, Yali

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy treatment in women can frequently cause damage to the ovaries, which may lead to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). In this study, we assessed the preventative effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) in immunosuppressive drug-induced POI-like rat models and investigated the possible mechanisms. We found that HA, which was reduced in primary and immunosuppressant-induced POI patients, could protect the immunosuppressant-induced damage to granulosa cells (GCs) in vitro. Then we found that HA blocked the tripterygium glycosides (TG) induced POI-like presentations in rats, including delayed or irregular estrous cycles, reduced 17 beta-estradiol(E2) concentration, decreased number of follicles, destruction of follicle structure, and damage of reproductive ability. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanisms of HA prevention effects on POI, which was associated with promotion of GC proliferation and PGRMC1 expression. In conclusion, HA prevents chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage by promoting PGRMC1 in GCs. This study may provide a new strategy for prevention and treatment of POI. PMID:25558795

  7. Prevention of damage to delicate connectors during mounting of heavy engines for testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrickson, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Air-bearing-pad principle, combined with monitoring system of the air-bearing force, prevents damage between electrical and mechanical connectors joining a large engine system to the test stand during remote mating. Pad provides a cushion between engine and test stand.

  8. IFNL4 rs368234815 TT>δG Variant is Associated with Liver Damage in Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Petta, Salvatore; Valenti, Luca; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Dongiovanni, Paola; Maria Pipitone, Rosaria; Cammà, Calogero; Cabibi, Daniela; Di Marco, Vito; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Badiali, Sara; Nobili, Valerio; Fargion, Silvia; Grimaudo, Stefania; Craxì, Antonio

    2017-07-24

    The IFNL3/4 locus influencing innate immunity regulation has been associated with the severity of hepatitis and fibrosis progression during chronic hepatitis C infection, while contrasting results were reported in NAFLD. In this study, we examined whether rs12979860 and the linked causal rs368234815 variant encoding for the alternative IFNL4 protein variant are associated with liver fibrosis and damage in a large multicenter cohort of patients at risk of NASH. To clarify the mechanism, we also evaluated the impact on interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) hepatic expression in a subset of patients. We considered 946 consecutive Italian individuals at risk of NASH with liver histology evaluated according to Kleiner. The rs368234815 TT>δG, rs12979860 C>T, and PNPLA3 rs738409 C>G polymorphisms were genotyped and ISG hepatic expression (n=16) tested by TaqMan assays. We found that the rs368234815 TT allele was independently associated with severe F3-F4 fibrosis (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.15-2.31; P=0.005), as well as with severe (grade 2-3) lobular necroinflammation (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.14-1.88; P=0.002). The impact of rs368234815 on liver damage was generally more marked in non-obese individuals, where association with severe fibrosis, necroinflammation and also NASH was observed (p<0.05). ISG were hypo-expressed in the liver of patients carrying the IFNL4 rs368234815 TT/TT genotype (p<0.05). Similar results were observed when considering rs12979860 polymorphism, which was in high linkage disequilibrium with rs368234815 (R(2) =0.87). The IFNL4 genotype is associated with severity of fibrosis in NAFLD patients of European ancestry, likely by modulating the activation of innate immunity and necroinflammation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. [Light- and electron-microscopic changes in liver cells of a patient with acute liver damage caused by Lindane].

    PubMed

    Gábor, K; Barnabás, L; Dezsö, H

    1975-07-01

    Acute liver-lesion was observed in a 77 years old women, using a preparate "Hungaria L. 7" consisting 7,8 percent of Lindan, without keeping directions for use. In 24 hours onset of toxic exanthema, lack of appetite, and abdominal pains were seen. After a longlasting discomfort and loss of weight on the 4th week jaundice have occurred. In the liver biopsy specimen microscopically centrolobular necrosis of lytic type, steatosis and a moderate periportal inflammatory reaction was revealed. On the electron micrographs steatosis and paralelly arranged osmiophilic inclusions in the mitochondria seemed to the most characteristic feature. Authors stress that in cases of acute liver lesions careful analysis of the history may evidence a toxic origin of the lesion, and the latter morfologically--as it is demonstrated in the presented case--can be distinguished from the acute virus-hepatitis.

  10. Severe respiratory complex III defect prevents liver adaptation to prolonged fasting.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Laura S; L'hermitte-Stead, Caroline; Lesimple, Pierre; Gilleron, Mylène; Filaut, Sandrine; Jardel, Claude; Haack, Tobias B; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Azzouz, Hatem; Tebib, Neji; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; Touati, Guy; Prokisch, Holger; Lombès, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Next generation sequencing approaches have tremendously improved the diagnosis of rare genetic diseases. It may however be faced with difficult clinical interpretation of variants. Inherited enzymatic diseases provide an invaluable possibility to evaluate the function of the defective enzyme in human cell biology. This is the case for respiratory complex III, which has 11 structural subunits and requires several assembly factors. An important role of complex III in liver function is suggested by its frequent impairment in human cases of genetic complex III defects. We report the case of a child with complex III defect and acute liver dysfunction with lactic acidosis, hypoglycemia, and hyperammonemia. Mitochondrial activities were assessed in liver and fibroblasts using spectrophotometric assays. Genetic analysis was done by exome followed by Sanger sequencing. Functional complementation of defective fibroblasts was performed using lentiviral transduction followed by enzymatic analyses and expression assays. Homozygous, truncating, mutations in LYRM7 and MTO1, two genes encoding essential mitochondrial proteins were found. Functional complementation of the complex III defect in fibroblasts demonstrated the causal role of LYRM7 mutations. Comparison of the patient's clinical history to previously reported patients with complex III defect due to nuclear DNA mutations, some actually followed by us, showed striking similarities allowing us to propose common pathophysiology. Profound complex III defect in liver does not induce actual liver failure but impedes liver adaptation to prolonged fasting leading to severe lactic acidosis, hypoglycemia, and hyperammonemia, potentially leading to irreversible brain damage. The diagnosis of rare genetic disease has been tremendously accelerated by the development of high throughput sequencing technology. In this paper we report the investigations that have led to identify LYRM7 mutations causing severe hepatic defect of respiratory

  11. Turmeric extract and its active compound, curcumin, protect against chronic CCl4-induced liver damage by enhancing antioxidation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Kim, Seung-Wook; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Choi, Min-Kyung; Jung, Han-Wool; Kim, Young-Jun; Kwon, Ho-Jeong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2016-08-26

    Curcumin, a major active component of turmeric, has previously been reported to alleviate liver damage. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which turmeric and curcumin protect the liver against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced injury in rats. We hypothesized that turmeric extract and curcumin protect the liver from CCl4-induced liver injury by reducing oxidative stress, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and increasing glutathione peroxidase activation. Chronic hepatic stress was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (0.1 ml/kg body weight) into rats. Turmeric extracts and curcumin were administered once a day for 4 weeks at three dose levels (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day). We performed ALT and AST also measured of total lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol levels, and lipid peroxidation. We found that turmeric extract and curcumin significantly protect against liver injury by decreasing the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and by improving the hepatic glutathione content, leading to a reduced level of lipid peroxidase. Our data suggest that turmeric extract and curcumin protect the liver from chronic CCl4-induced injury in rats by suppressing hepatic oxidative stress. Therefore, turmeric extract and curcumin are potential therapeutic antioxidant agents for the treatment of hepatic disease.

  12. Circulating Levels of FGF-21 in Obese Youth: Associations With Liver Fat Content and Markers of Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, Cosimo; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Santoro, Nicola; Kim, Grace; Kursawe, Romy; Pierpont, Bridget

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is highly expressed in the liver and regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in rodents. The effects of obesity and fatty liver on circulating FGF-21 levels have been described mainly in adults. Herein, we measured plasma FGF-21 levels in lean and obese adolescents with low and high hepatic fat content (HFF% <5.5% and HFF% ≥5.5%, respectively) and explored their relationship with hepatic fat content, measures of hepatic apoptosis, and insulin sensitivity. Methods: A total of 217 lean and obese adolescents with both low and high HFF% (lean = 31; obese low HFF% = 107; and obese high HFF% = 79) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, a fast gradient magnetic resonance imaging to measure the %HFF and abdominal fat distribution. Cytokeratin 18 levels were measured as a biomarker of liver apoptosis. A subset of adolescents underwent a 2-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and a liver biopsy (N = 14), to assess insulin sensitivity and steatohepatitis, respectively. Results: Compared to controls, FGF-21 levels were higher in obese youth, especially in those with high HFF (P < .001). FGF-21 significantly correlated with adiposity indexes (P < .001), visceral fat (r2 = 0.240, P < .001), hepatic fat content (r2 = 0.278, P < .001), cytokeratin 18 (r2 = 0.217, P < .001), and alanine aminotransferase (r2 = .164, P < .001). In subjects with steatoheaptitis, FGF-21 levels significantly correlated with the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (r2 = 0.27, P = .04). Stepwise regression analysis indicated that these relationships are independent of body mass index, visceral fat, and insulin sensitivity. An inverse correlation was documented with insulin, hepatic resistance indexes, and adipose resistance indexes, which disappeared after adjusting for hepatic fat content. Conclusions: Plasma FGF-21 levels are increased in obese adolescents, particularly in those with fatty liver. FGF-21 concentrations significantly and

  13. [Preventive effects of lutein on liver toxicity in mice induced by arsenic].

    PubMed

    Niu, Mingke; Li, Shugang; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Shangzhi; Xiao, Jiaonan; Ding, Li; Liu, Jiaqing; Wen, Hui; Feng, Gangling

    2015-07-01

    To explore the intervention effects of lutein on liver toxicity in mice induced by arsenic trioxide (As2O3) and to evaluate the preventive effect and the antioxidant mechanism of lutein. A total of 84 healthy KM mice were randomly divided into eight groups. There were 35 d control group, 70 d control group, 35 d lutein group, 70 d lutein group, arsenic exposure group, lutein treatment group and lutein prevention group. The activity and level of AST, ALT, T-AOC, MDA, GSH, SOD, NO in liver tissue were measured by kits. Compares the difference between each group of the single factor analysis of variance. The activity of ALT, AST and the contents of MDA of 70 d control group were significantly lower than that arsenic exposure group. The contents of GSH, T-AOC, NO and the activity of SOD of 70 d control group were increased significantly than arsenic exposure group. The activity of ALT, AST and the contents of MDA of lutein prevention group were significantly lower than that lutein treatment group. The contents of GSH, T-AOC, NO and the activity of SOD of lutein prevention group were increased significantly than lutein treatment group. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Lutein can improve antioxidation function and has protective effect on liver injury of mice induced by arsenic.

  14. Nutraceutical approach for preventing obesity-related colorectal and liver carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masahito; Kubota, Masaya; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) axis, and the state of chronic inflammation, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, these findings also indicate that the metabolic disorders caused by obesity might be effective targets to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. Green tea catechins (GTCs) possess anticancer and chemopreventive properties against cancer in various organs, including the colorectum and liver. GTCs have also been known to exert anti-obesity, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects, indicating that GTCs might be useful for the prevention of obesity-associated colorectal and liver carcinogenesis. Further, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), which improve protein malnutrition and prevent progressive hepatic failure in patients with chronic liver diseases, might be also effective for the suppression of obesity-related carcinogenesis because oral supplementation with BCAA reduces the risk of HCC in obese cirrhotic patients. BCAA shows these beneficial effects because they can improve insulin resistance. Here, we review the detailed relationship between metabolic abnormalities and the development of CRC and HCC. We also review evidence, especially that based on our basic and clinical research using GTCs and BCAA, which indicates that targeting metabolic abnormalities by either pharmaceutical or nutritional intervention may be an effective strategy to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals.

  15. Nutraceutical Approach for Preventing Obesity-Related Colorectal and Liver Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Masahito; Kubota, Masaya; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) axis, and the state of chronic inflammation, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, these findings also indicate that the metabolic disorders caused by obesity might be effective targets to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. Green tea catechins (GTCs) possess anticancer and chemopreventive properties against cancer in various organs, including the colorectum and liver. GTCs have also been known to exert anti-obesity, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects, indicating that GTCs might be useful for the prevention of obesity-associated colorectal and liver carcinogenesis. Further, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), which improve protein malnutrition and prevent progressive hepatic failure in patients with chronic liver diseases, might be also effective for the suppression of obesity-related carcinogenesis because oral supplementation with BCAA reduces the risk of HCC in obese cirrhotic patients. BCAA shows these beneficial effects because they can improve insulin resistance. Here, we review the detailed relationship between metabolic abnormalities and the development of CRC and HCC. We also review evidence, especially that based on our basic and clinical research using GTCs and BCAA, which indicates that targeting metabolic abnormalities by either pharmaceutical or nutritional intervention may be an effective strategy to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. PMID:22312273

  16. Pyrazole prevention of CC14-induced ultrastructural changes in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Bernacchi, A. S.; de Castro, C. R.; de Toranzo, E. G.; Marzi, A.; de Ferreyra, E. C.; de Fenos, O. M.; Castro, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CC14) administration to rats leads to an early dilatation, vesiculation and disorganization of the liver endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This hepatotoxin also causes detachment of ribosomes from ER membranes, dilatation of the Golgi cisternae and occasionally dilatation of the perinuclear membrane. Prior treatment of the rats with pyrazole completely prevents CC14- induced ultrastructural alterations observed in liver at 3 h. This drug is known to decrease the intensity of the irreversible binding of CC14 reactive metabolites to cellular constituents without modifying the intensity of the CC14- induced lipid peroxidation, either in vitro or in vivo, as measured by the diene conjugation procedure or by decreases inthe arachidonic acid content of microsomal phospholipids. Results suggest that interaction of reactive metabolites rather than lipid peroxidation mediates deleterious effects of CCl4 on the liver ER. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7448119

  17. A Nonhematopoietic Erythropoietin Analogue, ARA 290, Inhibits Macrophage Activation and Prevents Damage to Transplanted Islets.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masaaki; Lundgren, Torbjörn; Saito, Yu; Cerami, Anthony; Brines, Michael; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Kumagai-Braesch, Makiko

    2016-03-01

    Erythropoietin exerts anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and cytoprotective effects in addition to its hematopoietic action. A nonhematopoietic erythropoietin analogue, ARA 290, has similar properties. The efficacy of pancreatic islet transplantation (PITx) is reduced due to islet damage that occurs during isolation and from the severe inflammatory reactions caused by the transplantation procedure. We investigated whether ARA 290 protects islets and ameliorates inflammatory responses following PITx thus improving engraftment. The effects of ARA 290 on pancreatic islets of C57BL/6J (H-2) mice and on murine macrophages were investigated using an in vitro culture model. As a marginal PITx, 185 islets were transplanted into the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice (H-2) via the portal vein. Recipients were given ARA 290 (120 μg/kg) intraperitoneally just before and at 0, 6, and 24 hours after PITx. Liver samples were obtained at 12 hours after PITx, and expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines were assessed. ARA 290 protected islets from cytokine-induced damage and apoptosis. Secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α) from macrophages was significantly inhibited by ARA 290. After the marginal PITx, ARA 290 treatment significantly improved the blood glucose levels when compared to those of control animals (P < 0.001). Upregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, IL-1β, and IL-6 messenger RNA expression within the liver was suppressed by ARA 290 treatment. ARA 290 protected pancreatic islets from cytokine-induced damage and apoptosis and ameliorated the inflammatory response after PITx. ARA 290 appears to be a promising candidate for improvement of PITx.

  18. The contribution of alcohol, thiamine deficiency and cirrhosis of the liver to cerebral cortical damage in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kril, J J

    1995-03-01

    The relative roles of alcohol toxicity, thiamine deficiency and cirrhosis of the liver in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage are unclear. Brain shrinkage and neuronal loss from four regions of the cortex was determined in 22 alcoholics with the Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS), cirrhosis of the liver or neither of these complications and compared to 22 age-matched non-alcoholic controls. Brain shrinkage was most marked in those alcoholics with WKS. Neuronal loss occurred only from the superior cortex and was of equal magnitude in all alcoholic subgroups. In an animal model of alcohol abuse and thiamine deficiency, neuronal loss from the cerebral cortex occurred in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, those cells which contained the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin appeared to be preferentially damaged in this model.

  19. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  20. Coffee reduces liver damage in a rat model of steatohepatitis: the underlying mechanisms and the role of polyphenols and melanoidins.

    PubMed

    Vitaglione, Paola; Morisco, Filomena; Mazzone, Giovanna; Amoruso, Daniela Caterina; Ribecco, Maria Teresa; Romano, Antonietta; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Caporaso, Nicola; D'Argenio, Giuseppe

    2010-11-01

    Epidemiological data associate coffee consumption with a lower prevalence of chronic liver disease and a reduced risk of elevated liver enzyme levels (γ glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminotransferase), advanced liver disease and its complications, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these effects and the coffee components responsible for these properties is still lacking. In this study, 1.5 mL/day of decaffeinated coffee or its polyphenols or melanoidins (corresponding to approximately 2 cups of filtered coffee or 6 cups of espresso coffee for a 70-kg person) were added for 8 weeks to the drinking water of rats who were being fed a high-fat, high-calorie solid diet (HFD) for the previous 4 weeks. At week 12, HFD + water rats showed a clinical picture typical of advanced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis compared with control rats (normal diet + water). In comparison, HFD + coffee rats showed: (1) reduced hepatic fat and collagen, as well as reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and triglycerides; (2) a two-fold reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio in both serum and liver; (3) reduced serum malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) and increased ferric reducing antioxidant power (reducing activity); (4) reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), tissue transglutaminase, and transforming growth factor β and increased expression of adiponectin receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in liver tissue; and (5) reduced hepatic concentrations of proinflammatory TNF-α and interferon-γ and increased anti-inflammatory interleukin-4 and interleukin-10. Our data demonstrate that coffee consumption protects the liver from damage caused by a high-fat diet. This effect was mediated by a reduction in hepatic fat accumulation (through increased fatty acid β-oxidation); systemic and liver oxidative stress (through the glutathione system); liver inflammation (through modulation of genes); and expression and

  1. Hyaluronic acid uptake in the assessment of sinusoidal endothelial cell damage after cold storage and normothermic reperfusion of rat livers.

    PubMed

    Reinders, M E; van Wagensveld, B A; van Gulik, T M; Frederiks, W M; Chamuleau, R A; Endert, E; Klopper, P J

    1996-01-01

    The uptake of hyaluronic acid (HA) was used to assess preservation damage to sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC) during cold storage and subsequent normothermic reperfusion of rat livers. After 8, 16, 24, and 48 h storage in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, livers were gravity-flushed via the portal vein with a standard volume of cold UW solution containing 50 micrograms/l HA. The effluent was collected for analysis of HA, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The mean uptake of HA at 0 h was 59.1% +/- 4.6% (mean +/- SEM). After 8 h of storage, HA uptake was similar (55.5% +/- 7.3%), whereas after 16 h of storage it was reduced to 34.7% +/- 5.8%. At 24 and 48 h of storage, no uptake of HA was found. In a second series of experiments, livers were stored in UW solution and subsequently reperfused for 90 min with a Krebs-Henseleit solution (37 degrees C) in a recirculating system containing 150 micrograms/l HA. Following 8 h of storage, 34.6% +/- 8.0% of the initial HA concentration was taken up from the perfusate. After 16 and 24 h of storage, no uptake of HA was found. The results of this study indicate that damage to SEC occurs progressively during storage, leading to zero uptake of HA by the rat livers at 24 h of cold ischemia time. Additional reperfusion injury to the SEC was demonstrated by the reduced ability of the SEC to take up HA following normothermic reperfusion. The uptake of exogenous HA in preserved livers, used as a tool to assess SEC injury, enables the detection of early preservation damage.

  2. Evaluation of the Protective Effect of Silibinin Against Diazinon Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free-Radical Damage in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Beydilli, Halil; Yilmaz, Nigar; Cetin, Esin Sakalli; Topal, Yasar; Celik, Ozgur Ilhan; Sahin, Cem; Topal, Hatice; Cigerci, Ibrahim Hakki; Sozen, Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diazinon (0,0-Diethyl 0-(1-6-methyl-2-isoprophyl 4 pyrimidinyl) phosphorothioate) (DI) is a very effective organophosphate pesticide, used widely in agriculture. Consequently, data on poisoning cases secondary to DI exposure are important. The DI may affect a variety of tissues, including liver. Silibinin is a pharmacologically active constitute of Silybum marianum, with documented antioxidant activity. Objectives: The aim of our study was to evaluate both histopathologically and biochemically whether silibinin is protective in DI induced liver damage. Materials and Methods: Thirty two Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups, as follows: 1) control group - oral corn oil was given; 2) DI group - rats were administered orally 335 mg/kg in the corn oil solution; 3) Silibinin group - 100 mg/kg/day silibinin was given alone orally, every 24 hours for 7 days; 4) Silibinin + DI group - DI plus silibinin was given. All rats were sacrificed at the end of experiment. Superoxide dismutases (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), nitric oxide (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were investigated in serum and liver tissue. In addition, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme activities were evaluated. The liver tissue was evaluated histopathologically with Hematoxilin & Eosin dye. Results: Biochemically, ALT, AST, NO, MPO in serum and NO, MPO in liver tissue were found to be significantly higher in DI group, compared to control group (P < 0.001). In Group Silibinin + DI, serum AST, ALT, NO, MPO levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01), and both serum and tissue SOD activities were significantly higher, compared to DI group (P < 0.001). Diazinon induced histopathological changes in liver tissue were: severe sinusoidal dilatation, moderate disruption of the radial alignment of hepatocytes around the central vein, severe vacuolization in the hepatocyte cytoplasm, inflammation around central vein and portal region. In rats

  3. Caffeine prevents experimental liver fibrosis by blocking the expression of TGF-β.

    PubMed

    Arauz, Jonathan; Zarco, Natanael; Segovia, José; Shibayama, Mineko; Tsutsumi, Victor; Muriel, Pablo

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that caffeine exerts beneficial effects on the liver; however, the molecular mechanisms by which caffeine exerts beneficial effects on the liver are poorly defined. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of caffeine in preventing thioacetamide (TAA)-induced cirrhosis in rats. Cirrhosis was induced by chronic TAA administration and the effects of coadministration of caffeine for 8 weeks were evaluated, including control groups. The administration of TAA induced liver cirrhosis, which was inhibited by caffeine. Caffeine prevents elevation of liver enzymes. Liver histopathology and hydroxyproline levels were significantly lower in the rats treated with TAA plus caffeine compared with TAA only. Caffeine shows antioxidant properties by restoring the redox equilibrium [lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels]. Western blot assays showed blockade of the expression of transforming growth factor-β and its downstream inductor connective tissue growth factor. Similarly, caffeine decreases messenger RNA levels of these profibrogenic proteins. In addition, caffeine inhibits hepatic stellate cells because of blockade of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin; in the western blot assay, we also found low levels of mRNA of collagen α1. Zymography assays showed that caffeine had an effect on the activity of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, but no effect on the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, using RT-PCR. Our results show that caffeine prevents experimental cirrhosis; the mechanisms of action are associated with its antioxidant properties and mainly by its ability to block the elevation of the profibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor-β, which may be associated with attenuation of the inflammatory and fibrotic processes.

  4. Theacrine, a purine alkaloid obtained from Camellia assamica var. kucha, attenuates restraint stress-provoked liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Xi; Li, Yi-Fang; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Chen, Wei-Min; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2013-07-03

    Theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid), a purine alkaloid, has proven to be beneficial in maintaining several brain functions and is being studied for potential medicinal uses in recent years. In this study, we isolated theacrine from Camellia assamica var. kucha and investigated its protective effects on liver damage induced by restraint stress in mice. Results showed that 18 h of restraint stress could induce liver damage, with an obvious increase in levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). This finding was further confirmed by hepatic pathological examination, which showed inflammatory cell infiltration and focal necrosis of hepatocytes. However, oral administration of theacrine (10, 20, 30 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days) was found to decrease plasma ALT and AST levels, reduce hepatic mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ), and reverse the histologic damages in stressed mice. Simultaneously, theacrine also significantly decreased the content of malondialdehyde and increased oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) level in the plasma and liver of stressed mice. These results suggested that the protective effects of theacrine on stress-induced liver damage might be correlated with its antioxidative activity. The antioxidative capacity of theacrine was further evaluated by in vitro ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity assay. The results suggested that the antioxidative capacity of theacrine was not due to the direct action on free radical clearance. Moreover, the elevated activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as the reduced activity of xanthine oxidase by theacrine treatment in stressed mice suggested that the antioxidative activity might be due to the strengthening of the antioxidant system in vivo. On the basis of the above results, theacrine is possibly a good candidate for protecting against or treating lifestyle

  5. How Does Interleukin-22 Mediate Liver Regeneration and Prevent Injury and Fibrosis?

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Fareeha; Abdul Mujeeb, Khawaja

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a pluripotent T cell-derived cytokine which is a member of IL-10 cytokine family. It is the only interleukin produced by immune cells but does not target immune system components. IL-22 is mainly produced by dendritic cells (DCs) and TH17, TH22, NK, and NKT cells and targets a number of body tissues including liver, pancreas, and other epithelial tissues. It provokes a series of downstream signaling pathways upon binding with IL-22R complex which protects liver damage through STAT3 activation. IL-22BP is an inhibitor of IL-22 which has 20–1000x more affinity to bind with IL-22 compared to IL-22R1 that inhibits IL-22 activity. Its level was found to be positively correlated with the severity of liver damage and fibrosis. So, the present review is an effort to reveal the exact mechanism lying in the hepatoprotective activity of IL-22 and some of its future therapeutic implications. PMID:28050571

  6. Preventive effect of methanolic extract of Zataria Multiflora Boiss on liver toxicity of paracetamol in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadipour, A; Sharififar, F; Najafi, A; Atashbar, J; Karami-Mohajeri, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The analgesic paracetamol causes a potentially fatal, centrilobular hepatic necrosis when taken in misuse and overdose. This research aimed to evaluate the protective effects of methanolic extract of Zataria Multiflora Boiss (Z. Multiflora) against hepatic damage induced by paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Methods: for this purpose, paracetamol was administrated orally at a dose of 2 g/ kg body weight (b.w.)/ day on the seventh day after the oral administration of a methanolic extract of Z. Multiflora at doses of 100 mg/ kg, 200 mg/ kg and 400 mg/ kg b.w. The lipid peroxidation level and activities of liver aminotransferases and enzymes contributing to the oxidative damage were measured in serum, and a histopathological examination of liver sections was also performed. Results and Discussion: The results showed that Z. Multiflora reduced the activity of aminotransferases in rats treated with paracetamol. This extract also inhibited lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation by an increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme and the elevation of glutathione content of the liver. Conclusion: These effects are related to the antioxidant compounds of Z. Multiflora. The methanolic extract of this herb exhibits protective effects against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:28316743

  7. How Does Interleukin-22 Mediate Liver Regeneration and Prevent Injury and Fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Khawar, Muhammad Babar; Azam, Fareeha; Sheikh, Nadeem; Abdul Mujeeb, Khawaja

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a pluripotent T cell-derived cytokine which is a member of IL-10 cytokine family. It is the only interleukin produced by immune cells but does not target immune system components. IL-22 is mainly produced by dendritic cells (DCs) and TH17, TH22, NK, and NKT cells and targets a number of body tissues including liver, pancreas, and other epithelial tissues. It provokes a series of downstream signaling pathways upon binding with IL-22R complex which protects liver damage through STAT3 activation. IL-22BP is an inhibitor of IL-22 which has 20-1000x more affinity to bind with IL-22 compared to IL-22R1 that inhibits IL-22 activity. Its level was found to be positively correlated with the severity of liver damage and fibrosis. So, the present review is an effort to reveal the exact mechanism lying in the hepatoprotective activity of IL-22 and some of its future therapeutic implications.

  8. Puerarin protects the rat liver against oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis induced by lead.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chan-Min; Ma, Jie-Qiong; Sun, Yun-Zhi

    2012-09-01

    Puerarin (PU), a natural flavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. In this study, we valuated the protective effect of puerarin against lead-induced oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in rat liver. A total of forty male Wistar rats (8-week-old) was divided into 4 groups: control group; lead-treated group (500 mg Pb/l as the only drinking fluid); lead+puerarin treated group (500 mg Pb/l as the only drinking fluid plus 400 mg PU/kg bwt intra-gastrically once daily); and puerarin-treated group (400 mg PU/kg bwt intra-gastrically once daily). The experimental period was lasted for 75 successive days. Our data showed that puerarin significantly effectively improved the lead-induced histology changes in rat liver and decreased the serum ALT and AST activities in lead-treated rats. Puerarin markedly restored Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT and GPx activities and the GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver of lead-treated rat. Furthermore, the increase of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine induced by lead was effectively suppressed by puerarin. The enhanced caspase-3 activity in the rat liver induced by lead was also inhibited by puerarin. TUNEL assay showed that lead-induced apoptosis in rat liver was significantly inhibited by puerarin, which might be attributed to its antioxidant property. In conclusion, these results suggested that puerarin could protect the rat liver against lead-induced injury by reducing ROS production, renewing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing DNA oxidative damage.

  9. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on high fat diet–induced obesity and liver damage in hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Huang, To-Wei; Chang, Chia-Ling; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Lin, Jenq-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with an increase in adipogenesis and often accompanied with fatty liver disease. Objective In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract (HSE) in vivo. Method Eight-weeks-old male mice were divided into six groups (n=8 per group) and were fed either normal feed, a high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with different concentrations of HSE, or HFD supplemented with anthocyanin. After 10 weeks of feeding, all the blood and livers were collected for further analysis. Results Mesocricetus auratus hamster fed with a high-fat diet developed symptoms of obesity, as determined from their body weight change and from their plasma lipid levels. Meanwhile, HSE treatment reduced fat accumulation in the livers of hamsters fed with HFD in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of HSE reduced the levels of liver cholesterol and triglycerides, which were elevated by HFD. Analysis of the effect of HSE on paraoxonase 1, an antioxidant liver enzyme, revealed that HSE potentially regulates lipid peroxides and protects organs from oxidation-associated damage. The markers of liver damage such as serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels that were elevated by HFD were also reduced on HSE treatment. The effects of HSE were as effective as treatment with anthocyanin; therefore the anthocyanins present in the HSE may play a crucial role in the protection established against HFD-induced obesity. Conclusions In conclusion HSE administration constitutes an effective and viable treatment strategy against the development and consequences of obesity. PMID:26475512

  10. Study of the protective effects of Katha (Heartwood Extract of Acacia catechu) in liver damage induced by iron overload.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Bibhabasu; Sarkar, Rhitajit; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the ameliorating effect of 70% methanol extract of Acacia catechu heartwood, or Katha (ACME) on liver injury induced by iron overload. Iron overload in mice was caused by intraperitoneal administration of 100 mg/kg iron-dextran. ACME was administered orally for 21 days, starting from the day after the first iron-dextran injection. The biochemical markers of hepatic damage and liver iron, protein carbonyl, and hydroxyproline contents were measured in response to the oral administration of ACME. Apart from those, the release of iron from ferritin by ACME was further assessed to determine the efficiency of ACME as an iron-chelating drug. Treatment with different doses of ACME (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) showed dose-dependent reductions in liver iron, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, liver fibrosis, serum enzymes, and ferritin. The antioxidant enzymes levels were enhanced and the reductive release of ferritin iron increased significantly with gradually increasing concentrations of ACME. These results indicate that ACME has a potent hepatoprotective action against hepatic damage induced by iron overload in mice, probably by ameliorating the antioxidant defense activities and reductively releasing ferritin iron.

  11. Micronutrient special issue: coenzyme Q(10) requirements for DNA damage prevention.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Constance; Döring, Frank

    2012-05-01

    Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) is an essential component for electron transport in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and serves as cofactor in several biological processes. The reduced form of CoQ(10) (ubiquinol, Q(10)H(2)) is an effective antioxidant in biological membranes. During the last years, particular interest has been grown on molecular effects of CoQ(10) supplementation on mechanisms related to DNA damage prevention. This review describes recent advances in our understanding about the impact of CoQ(10) on genomic stability in cells, animals and humans. With regard to several in vitro and in vivo studies, CoQ(10) provides protective effects on several markers of oxidative DNA damage and genomic stability. In comparison to the number of studies reporting preventive effects of CoQ(10) on oxidative stress biomarkers, CoQ(10) intervention studies in humans with a direct focus on markers of DNA damage are limited. Thus, more well-designed studies in healthy and disease populations with long-term follow up results are needed to substantiate the reported beneficial effects of CoQ(10) on prevention of DNA damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin for prevention of hepatitis B virus infection and recurrence after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Congly, Stephen E; Burak, Kelly W; Coffin, Carla S

    2011-07-01

    Intravenous hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is a human plasma-derived purified gammaglobulin (IgG) that has proven efficacy and dose-dependent response in the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after liver transplantation. It is also indicated for postexposure prophylaxis after contact with blood or body fluids of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive carriers and in prevention of mother-to-child (vertical) transmission. The exact mechanism of passive immunization is unknown; HBIG may block HBV entry and binding to hepatocytes, neutralize circulating HBV and target HBV-infected cells through an antibody-mediated immune response. The drug is well tolerated and common side effects include fever, chills and arthralgias that are usually mild and transient. This article summarizes the main indications and the recommendations for use of intravenous HBIG, as well as the usage of intramuscular HBIG in the liver transplant setting.

  13. Prevention of biliary leakage after partial liver resection using topical hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Deha; Busch, Olivier R C; Gouma, Dirk J; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    Liver resection is widely accepted as the only potentially curative treatment in malignant or benign hepatobiliary lesions. Although not frequent, biliary leakage is a postoperative complication which may have considerable consequences. The field of topical hemostatic agents is rapidly developing, with various products currently available. This article reviews the risk factors associated with biliary leakage and the methods used for testing or prevention of biliary leakage. A literature search was performed using key words related to experimental and clinical studies dealing with biliary leakage. Experimental studies assessed the potential bilio-static effect of different topical hemostatic agents after bile duct reconstruction. Clinical series show biliary leakage rates up to 12%. There is no evidence that flushing of the bile duct system after resection reduces the incidence of biliary leakage. Further controlled studies are needed to clarify the preventive effect of topical hemostatic agents on biliary leakage after liver resection.

  14. Nutriomes and personalised nutrition for DNA damage prevention, telomere integrity maintenance and cancer growth control.

    PubMed

    Fenech, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage at the base sequence and chromosome level is a fundamental cause of developmental and degenerative diseases. Multiple micronutrients and their interactions with the inherited and/or acquired genome determine DNA damage and genomic instability rates. The challenge is to identify for each individual the combination of micronutrients and their doses (i.e. the nutriome) that optimises genome stability, including telomere integrity and functionality and DNA repair. Using nutrient array systems with high-content analysis diagnostics of DNA damage, cell death and cell growth, it is possible to define, on an individual basis, the optimal nutriome for DNA damage prevention and cancer growth control. This knowledge can also be used to improve culture systems for cells used in therapeutics such as stem cells to ensure that they are not genetically aberrant when returned to the body. Furthermore, this information could be used to design dietary patterns that deliver the micronutrient combinations and concentrations required for preventing DNA damage by micronutrient deficiency or excess. Using this approach, new knowledge could be obtained to identify the dietary restrictions and/or supplementations required to control specific cancers, which is particularly important given that reliable validated advice is not yet available for those diagnosed with cancer.

  15. Preventive effect of rosiglitazone on liver injury in a mouse model of decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bin; Chen, Miao-Miao; Jiang, Zheng-Lin; Li, Xia; Wang, Guo-Hua; Xu, Li-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Severe decompression sickness (DCS) is a multi-organ injury. This study investigated the preventive effects of rosiglitazone on liver injury following rapid decompression in mice and examined the underlying mechanisms. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, vehicle group, and rosiglitazone (5 and 10 mg·kg⁻¹) groups, the latter three being exposed to a pressure of 911 kPa. Haematoxylin and eosin staining, plasma levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase and blood cell counts were used to evaluate liver injury at 30 min after rapid decompression. The expression of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its phosphorylation were measured to uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms. A significant increase in plasma ALT, red blood cells and platelets, and a decrease in neutrophils were observed in the vehicle group. Furthermore, the expression of iNOS, E-selectin and the total level of NO in hepatic tissue, and soluble E-selectin in the plasma were significantly elevated in the vehicle group. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment prevented the increases in ALT (and AST), soluble E-selectin concentration, red blood cells and platelet counts. Moreover, rosiglitazone reduced over-expression of iNOS and the NO level, prevented the fall in neutrophil count and promoted the phosphorylation of iNOS in the liver. Pre-treatment with rosiglitazone ameliorated liver injury from severe DCS. This preventive effect may be partly mediated by stimulating endothelial NO production, improving endothelial function and limiting inflammatory processes.

  16. Kava, the anxiolytic herb: back to basics to prevent liver injury?

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Sarris, Jerome; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    The use of the anxiolytic herb kava has caused toxic liver injury in Western countries and economic problems in South Pacific Islands due to tthe regulatory ban on kava. This analysis shows poor quality of kava raw material as a cause for its toxicity and suggests preventative measures by going back to the traditional use of kava for the sake of the patients and the South Pacific economy.

  17. Comparative Effects of Phosphoenolpyruvate, a Glycolytic Intermediate, as an Organ Preservation Agent with Glucose and N-Acetylcysteine against Organ Damage during Cold Storage of Mouse Liver and Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Fukumoto, Yusuke; Kondo, Yuki; Irikura, Mitsuru; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Narita, Yuki; Hirata, Sumio; Moriuchi, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Toru; Hamasaki, Naotaka; Irie, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), a glycolytic intermediate with antioxidative and energy supplementation potentials, as an organ preservation agent. Using ex vivo mouse liver and kidney of a static cold storage model, we compared the effects of PEP against organ damage and oxidative stress during cold preservation with those of glucose or N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, histological changes, and oxidative stress parameters (measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and glutathione content) were determined. PEP (100 mM) significantly prevented an increase in LDH leakage, histological changes, such as tubulonecrosis and vacuolization, and changes in oxidative stress parameters during 72 h of cold preservation in mouse liver. Although glucose (100 mM) partly prevented LDH leakage and histological changes, no effects against oxidative stress were observed. By contrast, NAC inhibited oxidative stress in the liver and did not prevent LDH leakage or histological changes. PEP also significantly prevented kidney damage during cold preservation in a dose-dependent manner, and the protective effects were superior to those of glucose and NAC. We suggest that PEP, a functional carbohydrate with organ protective and antioxidative activities, may be useful as an organ preservation agent in clinical transplantation. PMID:24490082

  18. The p66Shc protein controls redox signaling and oxidation-dependent DNA damage in human liver cells.

    PubMed

    Perrini, Sebastio; Tortosa, Federica; Natalicchio, Annalisa; Pacelli, Consiglia; Cignarelli, Angelo; Palmieri, Vincenzo O; Caccioppoli, Cristina; De Stefano, Francesca; Porro, Stefania; Leonardini, Anna; Ficarella, Romina; De Fazio, Michele; Cocco, Tiziana; Puglisi, Francesco; Laviola, Luigi; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Giorgino, Francesco

    2015-11-15

    The p66Shc protein mediates oxidative stress-related injury in multiple tissues. Steatohepatitis is characterized by enhanced oxidative stress-mediated cell damage. The role of p66Shc in redox signaling was investigated in human liver cells and alcoholic steatohepatitis. HepG2 cells with overexpression of wild-type or mutant p66Shc, with Ser36 replacement by Ala, were obtained through infection with recombinant adenoviruses. Reactive oxygen species and oxidation-dependent DNA damage were assessed by measuring dihydroethidium oxidation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine accumulation into DNA, respectively. mRNA and protein levels of signaling intermediates were evaluated in HepG2 cells and liver biopsies from control and alcoholic steatohepatitis subjects. Exposure to H2O2 increased reactive oxygen species and phosphorylation of p66Shc on Ser36 in HepG2 cells. Overexpression of p66Shc promoted reactive oxygen species synthesis and oxidation-dependent DNA damage, which were further enhanced by H2O2. p66Shc activation also resulted in increased Erk-1/2, Akt, and FoxO3a phosphorylation. Blocking of Erk-1/2 activation inhibited p66Shc phosphorylation on Ser36. Increased p66Shc expression was associated with reduced mRNA levels of antioxidant molecules, such as NF-E2-related factor 2 and its target genes. In contrast, overexpression of the phosphorylation defective p66Shc Ala36 mutant inhibited p66Shc signaling, enhanced antioxidant genes, and suppressed reactive oxygen species and oxidation-dependent DNA damage. Increased p66Shc protein levels and Akt phosphorylation were observed in liver biopsies from alcoholic steatohepatitis compared with control subjects. In human alcoholic steatohepatitis, increased hepatocyte p66Shc protein levels may enhance susceptibility to DNA damage by oxidative stress by promoting reactive oxygen species synthesis and repressing antioxidant pathways. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract treatment improves triglyceridemia, liver cholesterol, liver steatosis, oxidative damage and corticosteronemia in rats rendered obese by high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Thamara C; Moura, Egberto G; de Oliveira, Elaine; Soares, Patrícia N; Guarda, Deysla S; Bernardino, Dayse N; Ai, Xu Xue; Rodrigues, Vanessa da S T; de Souza, Gabriela Rodrigues; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Figueiredo, Mariana S; Manhães, Alex C; Lisboa, Patrícia C

    2017-05-13

    Obese individuals have higher production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative damage. We hypothesize that cranberry extract (CE) can improve this dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity in rats since it has an important antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the effects of CE in food intake, adiposity, biochemical and hormonal parameters, lipogenic and adipogenic factors, hepatic morphology and oxidative balance in a HFD model. At postnatal day 120 (PN120), male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups: (1) SD (n = 36) fed with a standard diet and (2) HFD (n = 36), fed with a diet containing 44.5% (35.2% from lard) energy from fat. At PN150, 12 animals from SD and HFD groups were killed while the others were subdivided into four groups (n = 12/group): animals that received 200 mg/kg cranberry extract (SD CE, HFD CE) gavage/daily/30 days or water (SD, HFD). At PN180, animals were killed. HFD group showed higher body mass and visceral fat, hypercorticosteronemia, higher liver glucocorticoid sensitivity, cholesterol and triglyceride contents and microsteatosis. Also, HFD group had higher lipid peroxidation (plasma and tissues) and higher protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) compared to SD group. HFD CE group showed lower body mass gain, hypotrygliceridemia, hypocorticosteronemia, and lower hepatic cholesterol and fatty acid synthase contents. HFD CE group displayed lower lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) and accumulation of liver fat compared to HFD group. Although adiposity was not completely reversed, cranberry extract improved the metabolic profile and reduced oxidative damage and steatosis in HFD-fed rats, which suggests that it can help manage obesity-related disorders.

  20. SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) knockdown protects mice from acute liver injury by reducing vascular endothelial cell damage

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, E; Atorrasagasti, C; Aquino, JB; Militello, R; Bayo, J; Fiore, E; Piccioni, F; Salvatierra, E; Alaniz, L; García, MG; Bataller, R; Corrales, F; Gidekel, M; Podhajcer, O; Colombo, MI; Mazzolini, G

    2015-01-01

    Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is involved in many biological process including liver fibrogenesis, but its role in acute liver damage is unknown. To examine the role of SPARC in acute liver injury, we used SPARC knock-out (SPARC−/−) mice. Two models of acute liver damage were used: concanavalin A (Con A) and the agonistic anti-CD95 antibody Jo2. SPARC expression levels were analyzed in liver samples from patients with acute-on-chronic alcoholic hepatitis (AH). SPARC expression is increased on acute-on-chronic AH patients. Knockdown of SPARC decreased hepatic damage in the two models of liver injury. SPARC−/− mice showed a marked reduction in Con A-induced necroinflammation. Infiltration by CD4+ T cells, expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 and apoptosis were attenuated in SPARC−/− mice. Sinusoidal endothelial cell monolayer was preserved and was less activated in Con A-treated SPARC−/− mice. SPARC knockdown reduced Con A-induced autophagy of cultured human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). Hepatic transcriptome analysis revealed several gene networks that may have a role in the attenuated liver damaged found in Con A-treated SPARC−/− mice. SPARC has a significant role in the development of Con A-induced severe liver injury. These results suggest that SPARC could represent a therapeutic target in acute liver injury. PMID:25410742

  1. Zinc treatment prevents type 1 diabetes-induced hepatic oxidative damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and cell death, and even prevents possible steatohepatitis in the OVE26 mouse model: Important role of metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tingting; Zhang, Quan; Sun, Weixia; Xin, Ying; Zhang, Zhiguo; Tan, Yi; Zhou, Shanshan; Zhang, Chi; Cai, Lu; Lu, Xuemian; Cheng, Mingliang

    2015-03-04

    Whether zinc is able to improve diabetes-induced liver injury remains unknown. Transgenic type 1 diabetic (OVE26) mice develop hyperglycemia at 3 weeks old; therefore therapeutic effect of zinc on diabetes-induced liver injury was investigated in OVE26 mice. Three-month old OVE26 and age-matched wild-type mice were treated by gavage with saline or zinc at 5mg/kg body-weight every other day for 3 months. Hepatic injury was examined by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level with liver histopathological and biochemical changes. OVE26 mice at 6 months old showed significant increases in serum ALT level and hepatic oxidative damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress and associated cell death, mild inflammation, and fibrosis. However, all these hepatic morphological and functional changes were significantly prevented in 3-month zinc-treated OVE26 mice. Mechanistically, zinc treatment significantly increased hepatic metallothionein, a protein with known antioxidant activity, in both wild-type and OVE26 mice. These results suggest that there were significantly functional, structural and biochemical abnormalities in the liver of OVE26 diabetic mice at 6 months old; however, all these changes could be prevented with zinc treatment, which was associated with the upregulation of hepatic metallothionein expression.

  2. Prevention and treatment of rethrombosis after liver transplantation with an implantable pump of the portal vein.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhengrong; Yan, Lunan; Zhao, Jichun; Li, Bo; Wen, Tianfu; Xu, Mingqing; Wang, Wentao; Chen, Zheyu; Yang, Jiaying

    2010-03-01

    Implantable pumps have been used to prevent deep vein thrombosis and other diseases. In this article, we report for the first time the prevention and treatment of rethrombosis of the portal vein in liver transplantation with an implantable pump of the portal vein. Four hundred four orthotopic liver transplantation cases were retrospectively reviewed and divided into 3 groups: portal vein thrombosis (PVT) patients with an implantable pump (n = 28), PVT patients without an implantable pump (n = 20), and patients without preexisting PVT (n = 356). The following parameters for the 3 groups of patients were calculated and compared: (1) preoperative parameters, including baseline data of the donors and recipients and times of graft ischemia; (2) intraoperative and postoperative parameters, including surgery time, red blood cell and plasma transfusion, platelet concentrate transfusion, bleeding and primary graft malfunction, and duration of the hospital and intensive care unit stays; and (3) follow-up information for the patency of the portal vein, rethrombosis rate, stenosis and reoperation (relaparotomy or retransplantation), in-hospital mortality, and actuarial 1-year survival rate. Among the 3 groups of recipients, no significant differences were detected in preoperative and intraoperative parameters. However, compared to PVT patients without an implantable pump, PVT patients with an implantable pump showed remarkable reductions in their postoperative hospital stay, rethrombosis, reoperation rate, and in-hospital mortality. An implantable pump of the portal vein in liver transplantation patients can prevent and facilitate the treatment of portal vein rethrombosis and is associated with a reduction of in-hospital mortality.

  3. Kupffer Cells Undergo Fundamental Changes during the Development of Experimental NASH and Are Critical in Initiating Liver Damage and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Reid, D. T.; Reyes, J. L.; McDonald, B. A.; Vo, T.; Reimer, R. A.; Eksteen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become the leading liver disease in North America and is associated with the progressive inflammatory liver disease non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Considerable effort has been made to understand the role of resident and recruited macrophage populations in NASH however numerous questions remain. Our goal was to characterize the dynamic changes in liver macrophages during the initiation of NASH in a murine model. Using the methionine-choline deficient diet we found that liver-resident macrophages, Kupffer cells were lost early in disease onset followed by a robust infiltration of Ly-6C+ monocyte-derived macrophages that retained a dynamic phenotype. Genetic profiling revealed distinct patterns of inflammatory gene expression between macrophage subsets. Only early depletion of liver macrophages using liposomal clodronate prevented the development of NASH in mice suggesting that Kupffer cells are critical for the orchestration of inflammation during experimental NASH. Increased understanding of these dynamics may allow us to target potentially harmful populations whilst promoting anti-inflammatory or restorative populations to ultimately guide the development of effective treatment strategies. PMID:27454866

  4. Kupffer Cells Undergo Fundamental Changes during the Development of Experimental NASH and Are Critical in Initiating Liver Damage and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Reid, D T; Reyes, J L; McDonald, B A; Vo, T; Reimer, R A; Eksteen, B

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become the leading liver disease in North America and is associated with the progressive inflammatory liver disease non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Considerable effort has been made to understand the role of resident and recruited macrophage populations in NASH however numerous questions remain. Our goal was to characterize the dynamic changes in liver macrophages during the initiation of NASH in a murine model. Using the methionine-choline deficient diet we found that liver-resident macrophages, Kupffer cells were lost early in disease onset followed by a robust infiltration of Ly-6C+ monocyte-derived macrophages that retained a dynamic phenotype. Genetic profiling revealed distinct patterns of inflammatory gene expression between macrophage subsets. Only early depletion of liver macrophages using liposomal clodronate prevented the development of NASH in mice suggesting that Kupffer cells are critical for the orchestration of inflammation during experimental NASH. Increased understanding of these dynamics may allow us to target potentially harmful populations whilst promoting anti-inflammatory or restorative populations to ultimately guide the development of effective treatment strategies.

  5. Metformin prevents ischemia reperfusion-induced oxidative stress in the fatty liver by attenuation of reactive oxygen species formation.

    PubMed

    Cahova, Monika; Palenickova, Eliska; Dankova, Helena; Sticova, Eva; Burian, Martin; Drahota, Zdenek; Cervinkova, Zuzana; Kucera, Otto; Gladkova, Christina; Stopka, Pavel; Krizova, Jana; Papackova, Zuzana; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Kazdova, Ludmila

    2015-07-15

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with chronic oxidative stress. In our study, we explored the antioxidant effect of antidiabetic metformin on chronic [high-fat diet (HFD)-induced] and acute oxidative stress induced by short-term warm partial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) or on a combination of both in the liver. Wistar rats were fed a standard diet (SD) or HFD for 10 wk, half of them being administered metformin (150 mg·kg body wt(-1)·day(-1)). Metformin treatment prevented acute stress-induced necroinflammatory reaction, reduced alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum activity, and diminished lipoperoxidation. The effect was more pronounced in the HFD than in the SD group. The metformin-treated groups exhibited less severe mitochondrial damage (markers: cytochrome c release, citrate synthase activity, mtDNA copy number, mitochondrial respiration) and apoptosis (caspase 9 and caspase 3 activation). Metformin-treated HFD-fed rats subjected to I/R exhibited increased antioxidant enzyme activity as well as attenuated mitochondrial respiratory capacity and ATP resynthesis. The exposure to I/R significantly increased NADH- and succinate-related reactive oxygen species (ROS) mitochondrial production in vitro. The effect of I/R was significantly alleviated by previous metformin treatment. Metformin downregulated the I/R-induced expression of proinflammatory (TNF-α, TLR4, IL-1β, Ccr2) and infiltrating monocyte (Ly6c) and macrophage (CD11b) markers. Our data indicate that metformin reduces mitochondrial performance but concomitantly protects the liver from I/R-induced injury. We propose that the beneficial effect of metformin action is based on a combination of three contributory mechanisms: increased antioxidant enzyme activity, lower mitochondrial ROS production, and reduction of postischemic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. The combined treatment of praziquantel with osteopontin immunoneutralization reduces liver damage in Schistosoma japonicum-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Lin; Zhang, Gui-Ying; Wang, Shi-Ping; Li, Qian; Xu, Mei-Hua; Shen, Yue-Ming; Yan, Lu; Gu, Huan; Li, Jia; Huang, Y L; Mu, Yi-Bing

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of osteopontin neutralization treatment on schistosome-induced liver injury in BALB/C mice. We randomly divided 100 BALB/C mice into groups A, B, C, D and group E. Mice in all groups except group A were abdominally infected with schistosomal cercariae to induce a schistosomal hepatopathological model. Mice in group C, D and group E were respectively administered with praziquantel, praziquantel plus colchicine and praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody. We extracted mouse liver tissues at 3 and 9 weeks after the 'stool-eggs-positive' day, observed liver histopathological changes by haematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome staining and detected the expression of osteopontin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot. We found that praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody treatment significantly decreased the granuloma dimension, the percentage of collagen and the expression of osteopontin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 compared to praziquantel plus colchicine treatment in both the acute and chronic stage of schistosomal liver damage (P<0·05). So we believe that the combined regimen of osteopontin immunoneutralization and anti-helminthic treatment can reduce the granulomatous response and liver fibrosis during the schistosomal hepatopathologic course.

  7. Histological Damage in Chronic Hepatitis C Is Not Related to the Extent of Infection in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; Bartolomé, Javier; de Lucas, Susana; Manzarbeitia, Felix; Pardo, Margarita; Arocena, Carlos; Gosálvez, Jaime; Oliva, Horacio; Carreño, Vicente

    1999-01-01

    It has not been completely elucidated whether the liver injury induced by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is due to direct cytopathic damage or to an immune-mediated response against HCV-infected hepatocytes. In this work, we have determined the percentage of HCV-infected hepatocytes, the histological activity index, and the viremia levels in chronically HCV-infected patients with different grades of liver injury to investigate any possible correlation between them. For that purpose, liver biopsies from 27 patients with HCV chronic hepatitis were analyzed by in situ hybridization. This technique revealed that the percentage of infected hepatocytes ranged from 0.04% to 83.6%. Regarding the viremia levels, HCV RNA concentration ranged from 1.8 × 103 to 1.4 × 106 genome copies/ml. A significant correlation (r = 0.54; P = 0.003) between the percentage of infected hepatocytes and the viremia levels was found. In contrast, no correlation was observed between the percentage of HCV-infected hepatocytes or the viremia levels and the histological activity index. In conclusion, we have shown that the HCV viremia reflects the extent of the infection in the liver and that the liver injury in chronic HCV infection is not directly related to either the number of infected hepatocytes or the serum HCV RNA concentration. PMID:10362814

  8. Genetic parameters for both a liver damage phenotype caused by and antibody response to phenotype in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Twomey, A J; Sayers, R G; Carroll, R I; Byrne, N; Brien, E O'; Doherty, M L; McClure, J C; Graham, D A; Berry, D P

    2016-10-01

    is a helminth parasite of economic importance to the global cattle industry, with documented high international herd prevalence. The objective of the present study was to generate the first published genetic parameter estimates for liver damage caused by as well as antibody response to in cattle. Abattoir data on the presence of live , or -damaged livers, were available between the years 2012 and 2015, inclusive. A second data set was available on cows from 68 selected dairy herds with a blood ELISA test for antibody response to in autumn 2015. Animals were identified as exposed by using herd mate phenotype, and only exposed animals were retained for analysis. The abattoir data set consisted of 20,481 dairy cows and 75,041 young dairy and beef animals, whereas the study herd data set consisted of 6,912 dairy cows. (Co)variance components for phenotypes in both data sets were estimated using animal linear mixed models. Fixed effects included in the model for both data sets were contemporary group, heterosis coefficient, recombination loss coefficient, parity, age relative to parity/age group, and stage of lactation. An additional fixed effect of abattoir by date of slaughter was included in the model for the analysis of the abattoir data. Direct additive genetic effects and a residual effect were included as random effects for all analyses. After data edits, the prevalence of liver damage caused by in cows and young cattle was 47% and 20%, respectively. The prevalence of a positive antibody response to in cows from the study herd data was 36% after data edits. The heritability of as a binary trait for dairy cows in abattoir data and study herd data was 0.03 ± 0.01 and 0.09 ± 0.02, respectively; heritability in young cattle was 0.01 ± 0.005. The additive genetic SD of as a binary trait was 0.069 and 0.050 for cows and young cattle from the abattoir data, respectively, and 0.112 from the study herd cows. The genetic correlation between liver damage caused by in

  9. Effect of Liver Damage and Hyperbaric Oxygenation on Glutamine Synthetase of Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Savilov, P N; Yakovlev, V N

    2016-01-01

    Activity of glutamine synthetase in the hepatocytes of healthy animals and animals with chronic CCl4-induced hepatitis was studied on white mature female rats after liver resection (15-20% of organ weight) and hyperbaric oxygenation (3 atm, 50 min, 3 times). Surgically operated left and non-operated middle lobes of the liver were analyzed on day 3 after liver resection and exposure to hyperbaric oxygenation. On day 65 of CCl4 poisoning, activity of glutamine synthetase decreased in both lobes and did not recover on day 3 after toxin cessation. Liver resection under conditions of CCl4-induced hepatitis restored reduced activity of glutamine synthetase in both liver lobes to the normal level. In healthy rats, the increase in glutamine synthetase activity after liver resection was found only in the middle lobe of the liver. Hyperbaric oxygenation enhanced the stimulatory effect of liver resection on glutamine synthetase activity in hepatocytes during chronic CCl4-induced hepatitis. In healthy animals with liver resection, activity of glutamine synthetase did not change after hyperbaric oxygenation, while normally oxygenation inhibited glutamine synthetase activity.

  10. Loss of vascular fibrinolytic activity following irradiation of the liver - an aspect of late radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, B.W.; Bicher, H.I.; Johnson, R.J.

    1983-09-01

    The vascular fibrinolytic activity, known to originate from the endothelium, was studied histochemically by fibrinolysis autography in liver samples from beagles exposed to radiation treatment. Eighteen to thirty months prior to sacrifice, six dogs received x irradiation (4600 rad in 5 weeks) and three dogs received x irradiation plus aspirin (1 g/kg). Two dogs served as untreated controls. Control livers showed extensive fibrinolytic activity related to large and small vascular structures. The vascular fibrinolytic activity had been lost from all vessels except the major portal branches in five irradiated livers and was severaly diminished in three. One irradiated liver appeared to possess normal fibrinolytic activity.

  11. Antioxidant properties of xanthones from Calophyllum brasiliense: prevention of oxidative damage induced by FeSO4

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators in a number of degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress refers to the imbalance between the production of ROS and the ability to scavenge these species through endogenous antioxidant systems. Since antioxidants can inhibit oxidative processes, it becomes relevant to describe natural compounds with antioxidant properties which may be designed as therapies to decrease oxidative damage and stimulate endogenous cytoprotective systems. The present study tested the protective effect of two xanthones isolated from the heartwood of Calophyllum brasilienses against FeSO4-induced toxicity. Methods Through combinatory chemistry assays, we evaluated the superoxide (O2●—), hydroxyl radical (OH●), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxynitrite (ONOO—) scavenging capacity of jacareubin (xanthone III) and 2-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone (xanthone V). The effect of these xanthones on murine DNA and bovine serum albumin degradation induced by an OH• generator system was also evaluated. Additionally, we investigated the effect of these xanthones on ROS production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione reductase (GR) activity in FeSO4-exposed brain, liver and lung rat homogenates. Results Xanthone V exhibited a better scavenging capacity for O2●—, ONOO- and OH● than xanthone III, although both xanthones were unable to trap H2O2. Additionally, xanthones III and V prevented the albumin and DNA degradation induced by the OH● generator system. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production evoked by FeSO4 were decreased by both xanthones in all tissues tested. Xanthones III and V also prevented the GR activity depletion induced by pro-oxidant activity only in the brain. Conclusions Altogether, the collected evidence suggests that xanthones can play a role as potential agents to attenuate the oxidative damage produced by different pro-oxidants. PMID:24119308

  12. 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) prevents lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lu; Chen, Weina; Song, Kyoungsub; Han, Chang; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R.; Lim, Kyu; Wu, Tong

    2017-01-01

    The NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) catalyzes the oxidation of the 15(S)-hydroxyl group of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), converting the pro-inflammatory PGE2 to the anti-inflammatory 15-keto-PGE2 (an endogenous ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma [PPAR-γ]). To evaluate the significance of 15-PGDH/15-keto-PGE2 cascade in liver inflammation and tissue injury, we generated transgenic mice with targeted expression of 15-PGDH in the liver (15-PGDH Tg) and the animals were subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Galactosamine (GalN)-induced acute liver inflammation and injury. Compared to the wild type mice, the 15-PGDH Tg mice showed lower levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), less liver tissue damage, less hepatic apoptosis/necrosis, less macrophage activation, and lower inflammatory cytokine production. In cultured Kupffer cells, treatment with 15-keto-PGE2 or the conditioned medium (CM) from 15-PGDH Tg hepatocyes inhibited LPS-induced cytokine production, in vitro. Both 15-keto-PGE2 and the CM from15-PGDH Tg hepatocyes also up-regulated the expression of PPAR-γ downstream genes in Kupffer cells. In cultured hepatocytes, 15-keto-PGE2 treatment or 15-PGDH overexpression did not influence TNF-α-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. These findings suggest that 15-PGDH protects against LPS/GalN-induced liver injury and the effect is mediated via 15-keto-PGE2, which activates PPAR-γ in Kupffer cells and thus inhibits their ability to produce inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, we observed that the PPAR-γ antagonist, GW9662, reversed the effect of 15-keto-PGE2 in Kupffer cell in vitro and restored the susceptibility of 15-PGDH Tg mice to LPS/GalN-induced acute liver injury in vivo. Collectively, our findings suggest that 15-PGDH-derived 15-keto-PGE2 from hepatocytes is able to activate PPAR-γ and inhibit inflammatory cytokine production in Kupffer cells and that this paracrine mechanism

  13. Liver fluke prevention and control in the northeast of Thailand through action research.

    PubMed

    Wongba, N; Thaewnongiew, K; Phathee, K; Laithavewat, L; Duangsong, R; Promthet, S; Tangsawad, S

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this action research was to enhance people's potential to prevent and control liver fluke infestation. The subjects were a total of 96 participants comprising 20 community leaders, 74 individuals handling and preparing food, and 2 officials from the Local Administration. Quantitative data were collected through questionnaire and the results of stool examination of the participants were recorded. The main methods used to collect qualitative data were focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. For qualitative data analysis, the researchers undertook a qualitative content analysis. For quantitative data, conventional descriptive statistics were used and the mean differences with the 95% CI before and after the study were compared. The results in the early stage found that the participants were not aware of the fact that eating raw fish might be the cause of developing cholangiocarcinoma. 94.8% of participants however knew that eating raw fish might be cause having liver fluke infection which can be treated be taking an antihelminthic drug. They perceived that it is way of life since their ancestors already consumed raw fish because they found it to be delicious. However, through participating in this study, it was realized how dangerous it is to get infected with the liver fluke. Participants also learned the life cycle of liver fluke. They talked about this within their families, and communicated as well as cooperated with others to strengthen a network of a club concentrating on not eating raw fish. The communities and the Sub-district Administrative Organization supported the project. In conclusion, it is advisable to improve the behavior of participants in villages so that they became aware how to prevent and control liver fluke infection and therefore the development of cholangiocarcinoma.

  14. Huang Qi Decoction Prevents BDL-Induced Liver Fibrosis Through Inhibition of Notch Signaling Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Ying; Chen, Jia-Mei; Liu, Cheng; Du, Guang-Li; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Shi-Li; Liu, Cheng-Hai; Mu, Yong-Ping; Liu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Notch signaling has been demonstrated to be involved in ductular reactions and fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that Huang Qi Decoction (HQD) can prevent the progression of cholestatic liver fibrosis (CLF). However, whether HQD affects the Notch signaling pathway is unclear. In this study, CLF was established by common bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats. At the end of the first week, the rats were randomly divided into a model group (i.e., BDL), an HQD group, and a sorafenib positive control group (SORA) and were treated for 3 weeks. Bile duct proliferation and liver fibrosis were determined by tissue staining. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway was evaluated by analyzing expressions of Notch-1, -2, -3, and -4, Jagged (JAG) 1, and Delta like (DLL)-1, -3, and -4. The results showed that HQD significantly reduced the deposition of collagen and the Hyp content of liver tissue and inhibited the activation of HSCs compared with the BDL group. In addition, HQD significantly decreased the protein and mRNA expressions of TGF-[Formula: see text]1 and [Formula: see text]-SMA. In contrast, HQD significantly enhanced expression of the Smad 7 protein. HQD also reduced biliary epithelial cell proliferation, and reduced the mRNA levels of CK7, CK8, CK18, SRY-related high mobility group-box gene (SOX) 9, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and the positive areas of CK19 and OV6. In addition, the mRNA and protein expressions of Notch-3, -4, JAG1, and DLL-1, -3 were significantly reduced in the HQD compared to the BDL group. These results demonstrated that HQD may prevent biliary liver fibrosis through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway, and it may be a potential treatment for cholestatic liver disease.

  15. Sulforaphane prevents microcystin-LR-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Xiaoyun; Mi Lixin; Liu Jin; Song Lirong; Chung Funglung; Gan Nanqin

    2011-08-15

    Microcystins (MCs), the products of blooming algae Microcystis, are waterborne environmental toxins that have been implicated in the development of liver cancer, necrosis, and even fatal intrahepatic bleeding. Alternative protective approaches in addition to complete removal of MCs in drinking water are urgently needed. In our previous work, we found that sulforaphane (SFN) protects against microcystin-LR (MC-LR)-induced cytotoxicity by activating the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated defensive response in human hepatoma (HepG2) and NIH 3T3 cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate and confirm efficacy the SFN-induced multi-mechanistic defense system against MC-induced hepatotoxicity in an animal model. We report that SFN protected against MC-LR-induced liver damage and animal death at a nontoxic and physiologically relevant dose in BALB/c mice. The protection by SFN included activities of anti-cytochrome P450 induction, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. Our results suggest that SFN may protect mice against MC-induced hepatotoxicity. This raises the possibility of a similar protective effect in human populations, particularly in developing countries where freshwaters are polluted by blooming algae. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: > SFN protected against MC-LR-induced liver damage and animal death in BALB/c mice. > The dose of SFN is at a nontoxic and physiologically relevant dose. > The protection included activities of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. > SFN may protect mice against MC-induced hepatotoxicity.

  16. Microcapsule-Type Organogel-Based Self-Healing System Having Secondary Damage Preventing Capability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye-In; Kim, Dong-Min; Yu, Hwan-Chul; Chung, Chan-Moon

    2016-05-04

    We have developed a novel microcapsule-type organogel-based self-healing system in which secondary damage does not occur in the healed region. A mixture of an organogelator, poor and good solvents for the gelator is used as the healing agent; when the good solvent evaporates from this agent, a viscoelastic organogel forms. The healing agent is microencapsulated with urea-formaldehyde polymer, and the resultant microcapsules are integrated into a polymer coating to prepare self-healing coatings. When the coatings are scratched, they self-heal, as demonstrated by means of corrosion testing, electrochemical testing, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After the healed coatings are subjected to vigorous vibration, it is demonstrated that no secondary damage occurs in the healed region. The secondary damage preventing capability of the self-healing coating is attributable to the viscoelasticity of the organogel. The result can give insight into the development of a "permanent" self-healing system.

  17. Polyphenols in exercise performance and prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Marco; Angeloni, Cristina; Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Although moderate physical exercise is considered an essential component of a healthy lifestyle that leads the organism to adapt itself to different stresses, exercise, especially when exhaustive, is also known to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle damage. Many efforts have been carried out to identify dietary strategies or micronutrients able to prevent or at least attenuate the exercise-induced muscle damage and stress. Unfortunately most studies have failed to show protection, and at the present time data supporting the protective effect of micronutrients, as antioxidant vitamins, are weak and trivial. This review focuses on those polyphenols, present in the plant kingdom, that have been recently suggested to exert some positive effects on exercise-induced muscle damage and oxidative stress. In the last decade flavonoids as quercetin, catechins, and other polyphenols as resveratrol have caught the scientists attention. However, at the present time drawing a clear and definitive conclusion seems to be untimely.

  18. Polyphenols in Exercise Performance and Prevention of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    PubMed Central

    Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Although moderate physical exercise is considered an essential component of a healthy lifestyle that leads the organism to adapt itself to different stresses, exercise, especially when exhaustive, is also known to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle damage. Many efforts have been carried out to identify dietary strategies or micronutrients able to prevent or at least attenuate the exercise-induced muscle damage and stress. Unfortunately most studies have failed to show protection, and at the present time data supporting the protective effect of micronutrients, as antioxidant vitamins, are weak and trivial. This review focuses on those polyphenols, present in the plant kingdom, that have been recently suggested to exert some positive effects on exercise-induced muscle damage and oxidative stress. In the last decade flavonoids as quercetin, catechins, and other polyphenols as resveratrol have caught the scientists attention. However, at the present time drawing a clear and definitive conclusion seems to be untimely. PMID:23983900

  19. Oxidatively damaged DNA and inflammation in the liver of dyslipidemic ApoE-/- mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles.

    PubMed

    Folkmann, Janne Kjaersgaard; Risom, Lotte; Hansen, Christian Stevns; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2007-07-31

    Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to air pollution particles is associated with cardiovascular diseases, whereas the role in the initiation of atherosclerosis is unresolved. Atherosclerosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease that also involves oxidative stress. Here we investigated effects of oxidative stress elicited by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in the aorta, liver, and lung of dyslipidemic ApoE(-/-) mice at the age when visual plaques appear in the aorta (11-13 weeks). DEP was administrated by intraperitoneal injection (0, 50, 500 and 5,000 microg DEP/kg bodyweight) in order to omit vascular effects secondary to pulmonary inflammation. The mice were killed either 6 or 24h after the administration. Inflammation was measured as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and serum nitric oxide and DNA damage was measured by the comet assay. The expression of iNOS mRNA was increased in the liver 6h after the administration. The level of oxidized purine bases, determined as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sites was increased by 67% (95% CI: 11-124%) in the liver after 24h in the mice administrated with only 50 microg/kg bodyweight. However, there was no indication of systemic inflammation determined as the serum concentration of nitric oxide and iNOS expression, and DNA damage was not increased in the aorta. These observations indicate that intraperitoneal DEP injection does not induce inflammation or oxidatively damaged DNA in the lung and aorta, whereas a direct effect in terms of inflammation and oxidized DNA was observed in the liver of dyslipidemic ApoE(-/-) mice.

  20. Ameliorative effect of methanol extract of Rumex vesicarius on CCl4-induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ganaie, Majid Ahmad; Khan, Tajdar Husain; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali; Ansari, Mohd Nazam

    2015-08-01

    Rumex vesicarius L. (Polygonaceae), an edible plant, is reported to have many bioactive phytochemicals, especially flavonoids and anthraquinones with antioxidant and detoxifying properties. This study evaluated the methanolic extract of R. vasicarius (MERV) for hepatoprotective activity in rats against CCl4-induced liver damage. The whole plant extract was prepared and investigated for its hepatoprotective activity. Rats were pretreated with MERV (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 d prior to the induction of liver damage by CCl4. Animals were then sacrificed 24 h after CCl4 administration for the biochemical (AST, ALT, and ALP activity in serum; lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels in liver tissue) and histological analyses. CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was confirmed by an increase (p < 0.05) in serum AST (4.55-fold), ALT (3.51-fold), and ALP (1.82-fold) activities. CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was also manifested by an increase (p < 0.05) in LPO (3.88-fold) and depletion of reduced glutathione (3.14-fold) activity in liver tissue. The multiple dose MERV administration at 200 mg/kg showed promising hepatoprotective activity as evident from significant decrease levels of serum AST (230.01 ± 13.21), serum ALT (82.15 ± 5.01), serum ALP (504.75 ± 19.72), hepatic LPO (3.38 ± 0.33), and increased levels of hepatic glutathione (0.34 ± 0.04) towards near normal. Further, biochemical results were confirmed by histopathological changes as compared with CCl4-intoxicated rats. The results obtained from this study indicate hepatoprotective activity of Rumex plant against CCl4-induced liver toxicity; hence, it can be used as a hepatoprotective agent.

  1. Effects of Obesity on Pro-Oxidative Conditions and DNA Damage in Liver of DMBA-Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis Models.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Stepan; Korourian, Soheila; Levy, Joseph W; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Evans, Teresa; Hakkak, Reza

    2017-06-08

    The prevalence of the overweight and obesity is on the rise worldwide. Obesity can increase the risk of certain cancers and liver steatosis development. Previously, we reported that obesity increased liver steatosis in a mammary tumor model, but little is known about the effects of obesity in the liver in regard to global DNA methylation, DNA damage, and oxidative/nitrosative stress. Using a mammary tumor model, we investigated the effects of obesity on oxidative stress and DNA reaction. Five-week-old lean and obese female rats were used. At 50 days of age, all rats received 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) and were sacrificed 155 days later. HPLC with electrochemical and ultraviolet detection and LC-MS were used. Obesity caused higher (p < 0.0004) methionine levels, had no effect (p < 0.055) on SAM levels, caused lower (p < 0.0005) SAH levels, caused higher (p < 0.0005) SAM/SAH ratios, and increased (p < 0.02) global DNA methylation. Levels of free reduced GSH were not significantly lower (p < 0.08), but free oxidized GSSG was higher (p < 0.002) in obese rats. The GSH/GSSG ratio was lower (p < 0.0001), and oxidized guanosine was higher (p < 0.002) in DNA of obese rats compared to lean rats. Obesity caused significant oxidative/nitrosative stress, oxidative DNA damage, and change of DNA methylation pattern in the liver, and these changes may contribute to the development of liver steatosis in breast cancer models.

  2. Hesperidin attenuates inflammation and oxidative damage in pleural exudates and liver of rat model of pleurisy.

    PubMed

    Adefegha, Stephen Adeniyi; Rosa Leal, Daniela Bitencourt; Olabiyi, Ayodeji Augustine; Oboh, Ganiyu; Castilhos, Livia Gelain

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the potential anti-inflammatory effect of hesperidin against carrageenan induced pleurisy in rat model. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (350 - 450g) were grouped as follows: Group I: rats were administered saline solution only (Normal control group); Group II: rats were administered saline solution (NaCl 0.9%) orally and injected with carrageenan (Inflammation control group); Group III: rats were administered hesperidin only (Hesperidin group); Group IV: rats were administered hesperidin orally and intrapleurally injected with 2% carrageenan (Inflammation treated with hesperidin group). The exudate volume, total leukocyte count, reactive oxygen species (ROS), myeloperoxidase (MPO),δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), activities as well as non-protein thiol group (NPSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were determined. Pretreatment with hesperidin at a dose of 80 mg/kg orally per day for 21 days, minimized the increase in pleural exudate volume and leucocyte count and modulated the activities of MPO, SOD and CAT, as well as the levels of ROS, NPSH and TBARS in carrageenan-induced rats. Our results suggest that hesperidin can elicit its anti-inflammatory action by blocking exudate and leukocyte influx into pleural cavity, inhibiting MPO activity and preventing oxidative damage.

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha protects against alcohol-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijo, Yuji; Tanaka, Naoki; Sugiyama, Eiko; Tanaka, Eiji; Kiyosawa, Kendo; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Peters, Jeffrey M; Gonzalez, Frank J; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2004-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying alcoholic liver disease are not completely understood, but lipid accumulation seems to be central to the cause of this disease. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) plays an important role in the control of lipid homeostasis, metabolism of bioactive molecules, and modulation of inflammatory responses. To investigate the roles of PPARalpha in alcoholic liver injury, wild-type and PPARalpha-null mice were continuously fed a diet containing 4% ethanol, and liver injury was analyzed. PPARalpha-null mice fed ethanol exhibited marked hepatomegaly, hepatic inflammation, cell toxicity, fibrosis, apoptosis, and mitochondrial swelling. Some of these hepatic abnormalities were consistent with those of patients with alcoholic liver injury and were not found in wild-type mice. Next, the molecular mechanisms of ethanol-induced liver injury in PPARalpha-null mice were investigated, and changes related to ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, hepatocyte proliferation, fibrosis, and mitochondrial permeability transition activation occurred specifically in PPARalpha-null mice as compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, these studies suggest a protective role for PPARalpha in alcoholic liver disease. Humans may be more susceptible to liver toxicity induced by ethanol as PPARalpha expression in human liver is considerably lower compared to that of rodents.

  4. Mechanisms of hepatoprotection of Terminalia catappa L. extract on D-Galactosamine-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin-Hui; Gao, Ling; Gao, Jing; Fan, Yi-Mei; Xu, Li-Zhi; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Xu, Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effects of the extract of Terminalia catappa L. leaves (TCE) against D-Galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced liver injury and the mechanisms underlying its protection were studied. In acute hepatic injury test, it was found that serum ALT activity was remarkably increased (3.35-fold) after injection of D-GalN in mice. But with oral pretreatment of TCE (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg/d) for 7days, change in serum ALT was notably reversed. In primary cultured hepatocytes from fetal mice, it was found that cell viability was decreased by 45.0% after addition of D-GalN, while incubation with TCE (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml) for 36 hours could prevent the decrease in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, D-GalN-induced both the increase of AST level (1.9-fold) and the decrease of SOD activity (48.0%) in supernatant of primary cultured hepatocytes could also be inhibited by pretreatment with TCE. In order to study the possible mechanisms underlying its hepatoprotective effects, one effective component separated from TCE, 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyursane-12-en-28-oic acid (DHUA), was used to determine anti-mitochondrial swelling activity and superoxide radicals scavenging activity in vitro. It was found that at the concentration range of 50-500 micromol/L DHUA, Ca2+ -induced mitochondrial swelling was dose-dependently inhibited, and superoxide radicals scavenging activity was also shown in a dose-dependent manner. It was concluded that TCE has hepatoprotective activity and the mechanisms underlying its protective effects may be related to the direct mitochondrion protection and strong scavenging activity on reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Liver Damage and Atherosclerosis in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petta, Salvatore; Marrone, Oreste; Torres, Daniele; Buttacavoli, Maria; Cammà, Calogero; Di Marco, Vito; Licata, Anna; Lo Bue, Anna; Parrinello, Gaspare; Pinto, Antonio; Salvaggio, Adriana; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Craxì, Antonio; Bonsignore, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims We assessed whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and nocturnal hypoxemia are associated with severity of liver fibrosis and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and low prevalence of morbid obesity. Secondary aim was to explore the association of OSA and hypoxemia with NASH and severity of liver pathological changes. Methods Consecutive patients (n = 126) with chronically elevated ALT and NAFLD underwent STOP-BANG questionnaire to estimate OSA risk and ultrasonographic carotid assessment. In patients accepting to perform cardiorespiratory polygraphy (PG, n = 50), OSA was defined as an apnea/hypopnea index ≥5. A carotid atherosclerotic plaque was defined as a focal thickening >1.3 mm. Results Prevalence of high OSA risk was similar in patients refusing or accepting PG (76% vs 68%, p = 0.17). Among those accepting PG, overall OSA prevalence was significantly higher in patients with F2-F4 fibrosis compared to those without (72% vs 44%; p = 0.04). Significant fibrosis was independently associated with mean nocturnal oxygen saturation (SaO2)<95% (OR 3.21, 95%C.I. 1.02–7.34; p = 0.04). Prevalence of OSA tended to be higher in patients with, than in those without, carotid plaques (64% vs 40%; p = 0.08). Carotid plaques were independently associated with %time at SaO2<90% >1 (OR 6.30, 95%C.I. 1.02–12.3; p = 0.01). Conclusions In NAFLD patients with chronically elevated ALT at low prevalence of morbid obesity, OSA was highly prevalent and indexes of SaO2 resulted independently associated with severity of liver fibrosis and carotid atherosclerosis. These data suggest to consider sleep disordered breathing as a potential additional therapeutic target in severe NAFLD patients. PMID:26672595

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Liver Damage and Atherosclerosis in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Petta, Salvatore; Marrone, Oreste; Torres, Daniele; Buttacavoli, Maria; Cammà, Calogero; Di Marco, Vito; Licata, Anna; Lo Bue, Anna; Parrinello, Gaspare; Pinto, Antonio; Salvaggio, Adriana; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Craxì, Antonio; Bonsignore, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and nocturnal hypoxemia are associated with severity of liver fibrosis and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and low prevalence of morbid obesity. Secondary aim was to explore the association of OSA and hypoxemia with NASH and severity of liver pathological changes. Consecutive patients (n = 126) with chronically elevated ALT and NAFLD underwent STOP-BANG questionnaire to estimate OSA risk and ultrasonographic carotid assessment. In patients accepting to perform cardiorespiratory polygraphy (PG, n = 50), OSA was defined as an apnea/hypopnea index ≥5. A carotid atherosclerotic plaque was defined as a focal thickening >1.3 mm. Prevalence of high OSA risk was similar in patients refusing or accepting PG (76% vs 68%, p = 0.17). Among those accepting PG, overall OSA prevalence was significantly higher in patients with F2-F4 fibrosis compared to those without (72% vs 44%; p = 0.04). Significant fibrosis was independently associated with mean nocturnal oxygen saturation (SaO2)<95% (OR 3.21, 95%C.I. 1.02-7.34; p = 0.04). Prevalence of OSA tended to be higher in patients with, than in those without, carotid plaques (64% vs 40%; p = 0.08). Carotid plaques were independently associated with %time at SaO2<90% >1 (OR 6.30, 95%C.I. 1.02-12.3; p = 0.01). In NAFLD patients with chronically elevated ALT at low prevalence of morbid obesity, OSA was highly prevalent and indexes of SaO2 resulted independently associated with severity of liver fibrosis and carotid atherosclerosis. These data suggest to consider sleep disordered breathing as a potential additional therapeutic target in severe NAFLD patients.

  7. A systematic approach for the prevention and treatment of formation damage caused by asphaltene deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Leontaritis, K.J.; Amaefule, J.O.; Charles, R.E. )

    1994-08-01

    Asphaltene plugging is a known cause of near-wellbore formation damage. Deposited asphaltenes can reduce effective hydrocarbon mobility by (1) blocking the pore throats; (2) adsorbing onto the rock, thereby altering the formation wettability from water-wet to oil-wet; and (3) increasing hydrocarbon viscosity by nucleating water-in-oil emulsions. Asphaltene flocculation and deposition can be avoided in some, but not all, cases. Some formation damage resulting from asphaltene plugging is permanent and hence must be prevented rather than treated. Prevention of asphaltene-induced formation damage should be started in the early stages of drilling and well completion, once the oil is known to be asphaltenic. This paper presents a systematic approach to successful diagnosis, prevention, and mitigation of asphaltene problems during recovery of asphaltenic oils. A mechanism of asphaltene flocculation and deposition is proposed and analyzed, and the previously defined concept of asphaltene deposition envelope is further refined. Diagnostic technology is presented that can test the compatibility of drilling and completion fluids with any asphaltenic oil. Important issues that need to be considered in the design of treatments for asphaltene removal are discussed. Finally, the paper presents a methodology for restoring unfavorable wettability changes caused by asphaltene deposition.

  8. Selective intestinal decontamination for the prevention of early bacterial infections after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Resino, Elena; San-Juan, Rafael; Aguado, Jose Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection in the first month after liver transplantation is a frequent complication that poses a serious risk for liver transplant recipients as contributes substantially to increased length of hospitalization and hospital costs being a leading cause of death in this period. Most of these infections are caused by gram-negative bacilli, although gram-positive infections, especially Enterococcus sp. constitute an emerging infectious problem. This high rate of early postoperative infections after liver transplant has generated interest in exploring various prophylactic approaches to surmount this problem. One of these approaches is selective intestinal decontamination (SID). SID is a prophylactic strategy that consists of the administration of antimicrobials with limited anaerobicidal activity in order to reduce the burden of aerobic gram-negative bacteria and/or yeast in the intestinal tract and so prevent infections caused by these organisms. The majority of studies carried out to date have found SID to be effective in the reduction of gram-negative infection, but the effect on overall infection is limited due to a higher number of infection episodes by pathogenic enterococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci. However, difficulties in general extrapolation of the favorable results obtained in specific studies together with the potential risk of selection of multirresistant microorganisms has conditioned controversy about the routinely application of these strategies in liver transplant recipients. PMID:27468189

  9. Selective intestinal decontamination for the prevention of early bacterial infections after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Resino, Elena; San-Juan, Rafael; Aguado, Jose Maria

    2016-07-14

    Bacterial infection in the first month after liver transplantation is a frequent complication that poses a serious risk for liver transplant recipients as contributes substantially to increased length of hospitalization and hospital costs being a leading cause of death in this period. Most of these infections are caused by gram-negative bacilli, although gram-positive infections, especially Enterococcus sp. constitute an emerging infectious problem. This high rate of early postoperative infections after liver transplant has generated interest in exploring various prophylactic approaches to surmount this problem. One of these approaches is selective intestinal decontamination (SID). SID is a prophylactic strategy that consists of the administration of antimicrobials with limited anaerobicidal activity in order to reduce the burden of aerobic gram-negative bacteria and/or yeast in the intestinal tract and so prevent infections caused by these organisms. The majority of studies carried out to date have found SID to be effective in the reduction of gram-negative infection, but the effect on overall infection is limited due to a higher number of infection episodes by pathogenic enterococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci. However, difficulties in general extrapolation of the favorable results obtained in specific studies together with the potential risk of selection of multirresistant microorganisms has conditioned controversy about the routinely application of these strategies in liver transplant recipients.

  10. Spirulina maxima prevents fatty liver formation in CD-1 male and female mice with experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, A; Blé-Castillo, J L; Juárez-Oropeza, M A; Díaz-Zagoya, J C

    2001-07-20

    The dietary administration of 5% Spirulina maxima (SM) during four weeks to diabetic mice, starting one week after a single dose of alloxan, 250 mg/Kg body weight, prevented fatty liver production in male and female animals. The main action of SM was on triacylglycerol levels in serum and liver. There was also a moderate hypoglycemia in male mice. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances also decreased in serum and liver after SM administration. There was also a decrease in the percentage of HDL in diabetic mice that was reverted by the SM administration. The sum of LDL + VLDL percentages was also partially normalized in diabetic animals by the SM administration. An additional observation was the lower incidence of adherences between the liver and the intestine loops in the diabetic mice treated with SM compared with diabetic mice without SM. Male and female mice showed differences to diabetes susceptibility and response to SM, the female being more resistant to diabetes induction by alloxan and more responsive to the beneficial effects of SM. It is worth future work of SM on humans looking for better quality of life and longer survival of diabetic patients.

  11. Dose-effect relationship between drinking water fluoride levels and damage to liver and kidney functions in children.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xianzhi; Liu, Junling; He, Weihong; Xia, Tao; He, Ping; Chen, Xuemin; Yang, Kedi; Wang, Aiguo

    2007-01-01

    Although a dose-effect relationship between water fluoride levels and damage to liver and kidney functions in animals has been reported, it was not demonstrated in humans. To evaluate the effects of drinking water fluoride levels on the liver and kidney functions in children with and without dental fluorosis, we identified 210 children who were divided into seven groups with 30 each based on different drinking water fluoride levels in the same residential area. We found that the fluoride levels in serum and urine of these children increased as the levels of drinking water fluoride increased. There were no significant differences in the levels of total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), aspartate transamine (AST), and alanine transamine (ALT) in serum among these groups. However, the activities of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), urine N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG), and urine gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) in children with dental fluorosis and having water fluoride of 2.15-2.96 mg/L and in children having water fluoride of 3.15-5.69 mg/L regardless of dental fluorosis were significantly higher than children exposed to water fluoride of 0.61-0.87 mg/L in a dose-response manner. In contrast to children with dental fluorosis and having water fluoride of 2.15-2.96 and 3.10-5.69 mg/L, serum LDH activity of children without dental fluorosis but exposed to the same levels of water fluoride as those with dental fluorosis were also markedly lower, but the activities of NAG and gamma-GT in their urine were not. Therefore, our results suggest that drinking water fluoride levels over 2.0mg/L can cause damage to liver and kidney functions in children and that the dental fluorosis was independent of damage to the liver but not the kidney. Further studies on the mechanisms and significance underlying damage to the liver without dental fluorosis in the exposed children are warranted.

  12. Strategies for the Prevention of Recurrent Hepatitis B Virus Infection After Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Vignan; Allen, Ruby M.; Saab, Sammy

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an international public health concern, and chronic infection can lead to the development of cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma as well as the need for liver transplantation. The recurrence of HBV infection following liver transplantation was disproportionately high prior to the introduction of proper prophylactic treatment. Risk factors associated with the recurrence of HBV infection post-transplant include hepatitis B e antigen positivity, high levels of serum HBV DNA, and the presence of an antiviral drug-resistant strain prior to transplantation. The prevention of HBV recurrence began with the introduction of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) in the early 1 990s. Nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) antiviral drugs were next to be introduced and, in combination with HBIG, are considered to be extremely effective for the prevention of recurrence. Because of concerns with HBIG, whether HBIG can be used for a short time or discontinued altogether is under debate. All of the NA antiviral drugs have been proven to be effective against HBV, at least in the pretransplant setting, and can be used safely posttransplant. Further investigation is still needed to standardize treatment in the posttransplant setting. PMID:24829544

  13. Preventing cerebral oedema in acute liver failure: the case for quadruple-H therapy.

    PubMed

    Warrillow, S J; Bellomo, R

    2014-01-01

    Severe cerebral oedema is a life-threatening complication of acute liver failure. Hyperammonaemia and cerebral hyperaemia are major contributing factors. A multimodal approach, which incorporates hyperventilation, haemodiafiltration, hypernatraemia and hypothermia (quadruple-H therapy), may prevent or attenuate severe cerebral oedema. This approach is readily administered by critical care clinicians and is likely to be more effective than the use of single therapies. Targeting of PaCO2 in the mild hyperventilation range, as seen in acute liver failure patients before intubation, aims to minimise hyperaemic cerebral oedema. Haemodiafiltration aims to achieve the rapid control of elevated blood ammonia concentrations by its removal and to reduce production via the lowering of core temperature. The administration of concentrated saline increases serum tonicity and further reduces cerebral swelling. In addition, the pathologically increased cerebral blood-flow is further attenuated by therapeutic hypothermia. The combination of all four treatments in a multimodal approach may be a safe and effective means of attenuating or treating the cerebral oedema of acute liver failure and preventing death from neurological complications.

  14. Protective efficacy of probiotic alone or in conjunction with a prebiotic in Salmonella-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Praveen; Mavi, Swapandeep Kaur; Bharrhan, Sushma; Shukla, Geeta; Tewari, Rupinder

    2009-08-01

    In view of the increasing interest in the bioecological and nutritional control of diseases, use of probiotics alone or in combination with prebiotics (synbiotics) appears as a therapeutic option for various diseases. In this study, an attempt was made to explore the protective potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a probiotic, inulin as a prebiotic and both L. acidophilus and inulin as synbiotic against Salmonella-induced liver damage in a murine model. The probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic supplementation resulted in decreased bacterial translocation in the liver of mice challenged with Salmonella typhimurium and decreased levels of serum aminotransferases, suggesting their protective role against Salmonella infection. Mice supplemented with these preparations before Salmonella challenge also revealed decreased levels of lipid peroxidation, increased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, along with reduced levels of nitric oxide. Thus, bacteriological and biochemical alterations correlated well with the histological evidence. Protection afforded by supplementation with the probiotic alone was found to be more effective. None of the observations was suggestive of the synergistic effect in the synbiotic-supplemented animals. Thus, it is indicated that the probiotic and the prebiotic used in the present study may act by different mechanisms involved in affording protection against Salmonella-induced liver damage.

  15. Activation of liver X receptor increases acetaminophen clearance and prevents its toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Saini, Simrat P S; Zhang, Bin; Niu, Yongdong; Jiang, Mengxi; Gao, Jie; Zhai, Yonggong; Hoon Lee, Jung; Uppal, Hirdesh; Tian, Hui; Tortorici, Michael A; Poloyac, Samuel M; Qin, Wenxin; Venkataramanan, Raman; Xie, Wen

    2011-12-01

    Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP), the active ingredient of Tylenol, is the leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in the United States. As such, it is necessary to develop novel strategies to prevent or manage APAP toxicity. In this report, we reveal a novel function of the liver X receptor (LXR) in preventing APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Activation of LXR in transgenic (Tg) mice or by an LXR agonist conferred resistance to the hepatotoxicity of APAP, whereas the effect of LXR agonist on APAP toxicity was abolished in LXR-deficient mice. The increased APAP resistance in LXR Tg mice was associated with increased APAP clearance, increased APAP sulfation, and decreased formation of toxic APAP metabolites. The hepatoprotective effect of LXR may have resulted from the induction of antitoxic phase II conjugating enzymes, such as Gst and Sult2a1, as well as the suppression of protoxic phase I P450 enzymes, such as Cyp3a11 and Cyp2e1. Promoter analysis suggested the mouse Gst isoforms as novel transcriptional targets of LXR. The suppression of Cyp3a11 may be accounted for by the inhibitory effect of LXR on the PXR-responsive transactivation of Cyp3a11. The protective effect of LXR in preventing APAP toxicity is opposite to the sensitizing effect of pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and retinoid X receptor alpha. We conclude that LXR represents a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of Tylenol toxicity. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. [Early detection, prevention and management of renal failure in liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Castells, Lluís; Baliellas, Carme; Bilbao, Itxarone; Cantarell, Carme; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Esforzado, Núria; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Lladó, Laura; Rimola, Antoni; Serón, Daniel; Oppenheimer, Federico

    2014-10-01

    Renal failure is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A variety of risk factors for the development of renal failure in the pre- and post-transplantation periods have been described, as well as at the time of surgery. To reduce the negative impact of renal failure in this population, an active approach is required for the identification of those patients with risk factors, the implementation of preventive strategies, and the early detection of progressive deterioration of renal function. Based on published evidence and on clinical experience, this document presents a series of recommendations on monitoring RF in LT recipients, as well as on the prevention and management of acute and chronic renal failure after LT and referral of these patients to the nephrologist. In addition, this document also provides an update of the various immunosuppressive regimens tested in this population for the prevention and control of post-transplantation deterioration of renal function.

  17. AAV-mediated liver-specific MPV17 expression restores mtDNA levels and prevents diet-induced liver failure.

    PubMed

    Bottani, Emanuela; Giordano, Carla; Civiletto, Gabriele; Di Meo, Ivano; Auricchio, Alberto; Ciusani, Emilio; Marchet, Silvia; Lamperti, Costanza; d'Amati, Giulia; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in human MPV17 cause a hepatocerebral form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS) hallmarked by early-onset liver failure, leading to premature death. Liver transplantation and frequent feeding using slow-release carbohydrates are the only available therapies, although surviving patients eventually develop slowly progressive peripheral and central neuropathy. The physiological role of Mpv17, including its functional link to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance, is still unclear. We show here that Mpv17 is part of a high molecular weight complex of unknown composition, which is essential for mtDNA maintenance in critical tissues, i.e. liver, of a Mpv17 knockout mouse model. On a standard diet, Mpv17-/- mouse shows hardly any symptom of liver dysfunction, but a ketogenic diet (KD) leads these animals to liver cirrhosis and failure. However, when expression of human MPV17 is carried out by adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene replacement, the Mpv17 knockout mice are able to reconstitute the Mpv17-containing supramolecular complex, restore liver mtDNA copy number and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proficiency, and prevent liver failure induced by the KD. These results open new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of MPV17-related liver-specific MDS.

  18. Cyproterone acetate induces a wide spectrum of acute liver damage including corticosteroid-responsive hepatitis: report of 22 cases.

    PubMed

    Bessone, Fernando; Lucena, M I; Roma, Marcelo G; Stephens, Camilla; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada; Frider, Bernardo; Tsariktsian, Guillermo; Hernández, Nelia; Bruguera, Miquel; Gualano, Gisela; Fassio, Eduardo; Montero, Joaquín; Reggiardo, María V; Ferretti, Sebastián; Colombato, Luis; Tanno, Federico; Ferrer, Jaime; Zeno, Lelio; Tanno, Hugo; Andrade, Raúl J

    2016-02-01

    Cyproterone acetate (CPA), an anti-androgenic drug for prostate cancer, has been associated with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We aim to expand the knowledge on the spectrum of phenotypes and outcomes of CPA-induced DILI. Twenty-two males (70 ± 8 years; range 54-83) developing liver damage as a result of CPA therapy (dose: 150 ± 50 mg/day; range 50-200) were included. Severity index and causality by RUCAM were assessed. From 1993 to 2013, 22 patients were retrieved. Latency was 163 ± 97 days. Most patients were symptomatic, showing hepatocellular injury (91%) and jaundice. Liver tests at onset were: ALT 18 ± 13 × ULN, ALP 0.7 ± 0.7 × ULN and total serum bilirubin 14 ± 10 mg/dl. International normalized ratio values higher than 1.5 were observed in 14 (66%) patients. Severity was mild in 1 case (4%), moderate in 7 (32%), severe in 11 (50%) and fatal in 3 (14%). Five patients developed ascitis, and four encephalopathy. One patient had a liver injury that resembled autoimmune hepatitis. Eleven (50%) were hospitalized. Nineteen patients recovered after CPA withdrawal, although three required steroid therapy (two of them had high ANA titres). Liver biopsy was performed in seven patients (two hepatocellular collapse, one submassive necrosis, two cholestatic hepatitis, one cirrhosis with iron overload and one autoimmune hepatitis). RUCAM category was 'highly probable' in 19 (86%), 'probable' in 1 (4%), and 'possible' in 2 (9%). CPA-induced liver injury is severe and can be fatal, and may occasionally resemble autoimmune DILI. The benefit/risk ratio of this drug should be thoroughly assessed in each patient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Protective effects of hepatocyte-specific glycyrrhetic derivatives against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yifei; Yang, Lingyun; Han, Yaodan; Wu, Zhenwei; Chen, Pan; Zhang, Huibin; Zhou, Jinpei

    2017-03-20

    Glycyrrhetic acid (GA), the main hydrolysate of glycyrrhizic acid extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Glycyrrhiza glabra, was reported to be accumulated in hepatocytes due to the extensive distribution of GA receptors in liver. A series of hepatocyte-specific derivatives on the basis of anetholtrithione and glycyrrhizic were designed and synthesized. The potential beneficial effect was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)