Montesi, Germana; Lechi, Alessandro
1. Medication errors have important implications for patient safety, and their identification is a main target in improving clinical practice errors, in order to prevent adverse events. 2. Error detection is the first crucial step. Approaches to this are likely to be different in research and routine care, and the most suitable must be chosen according to the setting. 3. The major methods for detecting medication errors and associated adverse drug-related events are chart review, computerized monitoring, administrative databases, and claims data, using direct observation, incident reporting, and patient monitoring. All of these methods have both advantages and limitations. 4. Reporting discloses medication errors, can trigger warnings, and encourages the diffusion of a culture of safe practice. Combining and comparing data from various and encourages the diffusion of a culture of safe practice sources increases the reliability of the system. 5. Error prevention can be planned by means of retroactive and proactive tools, such as audit and Failure Mode, Effect, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA). Audit is also an educational activity, which promotes high-quality care; it should be carried out regularly. In an audit cycle we can compare what is actually done against reference standards and put in place corrective actions to improve the performances of individuals and systems. 6. Patient safety must be the first aim in every setting, in order to build safer systems, learning from errors and reducing the human and fiscal costs.
Latimer, Sharon; Hewitt, Jayne; Stanbrough, Rebecca; McAndrew, Ron
Medication errors are a patient safety and quality of care issue. There is evidence to suggest many undergraduate nursing curricula do not adequately educate students about the factors that contribute to medication errors and possible strategies to prevent them. We designed and developed a suite of teaching strategies that raise students' awareness of medication error producing situations and their prevention.
Richmond, Sandra L
Empirical evidence has identified that medication errors occur in the school setting; however, there is little research that identifies medication error prevention strategies specific to the school environment. This article reviews common medication errors that occur in the school setting and presents potential medication prevention strategies, such as developing medication error reporting systems, using technology, reviewing systems and processes that support current medication administration practices, and limiting distractions. The Standards of Professional Performance developed by the National Association of School Nurses identifies the need for school nurses to enhance the quality and effectiveness of their practice. Improving the safety of medication administration and preventing medication errors are examples of how nurses can demonstrate meeting this standard.
An estimated 108,000 people die each year from potentially preventable iatrogenic injury. One in 50 hospitalized patients experiences a preventable adverse event. Up to 3% of these injuries and events take place in emergency departments. With long and detailed training, morbidity and mortality conferences, and an emphasis on practitioner responsibility, medicine has traditionally faced the challenges of medical error and patient safety through an approach focused almost exclusively on individual practitioners. Yet no matter how well trained and how careful health care providers are, individuals will make mistakes because they are human. In general medicine, the study of adverse drug events has led the way to new methods of error detection and error prevention. A combination of chart reviews, incident logs, observation, and peer solicitation has provided a quantitative tool to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions such as computer order entry and pharmacist order review. In emergency medicine (EM), error detection has focused on subjects of high liability: missed myocardial infarctions, missed appendicitis, and misreading of radiographs. Some system-level efforts in error prevention have focused on teamwork, on strengthening communication between pharmacists and emergency physicians, on automating drug dosing and distribution, and on rationalizing shifts. This article reviews the definitions, detection, and presentation of error in medicine and EM. Based on review of the current literature, recommendations are offered to enhance the likelihood of reduction of error in EM practice.
... common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow ... Practices National Patient Safety Foundation To Err is Human: ... Errors: Quality Chasm Series National Coordinating Council for Medication Error ...
Payne, T. H.; Savarino, J.; Marshall, R.; Hoey, C. T.
Errors in health care facilities are common and often unrecognized. We have used our clinical event monitor to prevent and detect medication errors by scrutinizing electronic messages sent to it when any medication order is written in our facility. A growing collection of medication safety rules covering dose limit errors, laboratory monitoring, and other topics may be applied to each medication order message to provide an additional layer of protection beyond existing order checks, reminders, and alerts available within our computer-based record system. During a typical day the event monitor receives 4802 messages, of which 4719 pertain to medication orders. We have found the clinical event monitor to be a valuable tool for clinicians and quality management groups charged with improving medication safety. PMID:11079962
Ucha Sanmartin, M; Martín Vila, A; López Vidal, C; Caaamaño Barreiro, M; Piñeiro Corrales, G
The transition of patients between different levels of care process is a particular risk in the production of medication errors. The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of the pharmacist in preventing errors transition care to ensure a safe and cross pharmacotherapy of patients.Transversal, observational and descriptive study in a University Hospital that has a pharmacy service that integrates specialized inpatient care and health centers. Transition of care a patient treated with Apormorfina was analyzed to determine the keypoints of action of the pharmacist. Demographics, disease and medication history, and care transition episodes were collected through the pharmacy program and electronics history.The pharmacist did tasks adapting, reconciliation, management and reporting of medication to the health care team to prevent medication errors in care transition of patients treated with drugs requiring special handling .In conclusion, this work represents perfectly the key role of the pharmacist as coordinator of safe and transverse pharmacotherapy of patients.
Ou, Andrew Y-Z; Jiang, Yu; Wu, Po-Liang; Sha, Lui; Berlin, Richard B
In a medical environment such as Intensive Care Unit, there are many possible reasons to cause errors, and one important reason is the effect of human intellectual tasks. When designing an interactive healthcare system such as medical Cyber-Physical-Human Systems (CPHSystems), it is important to consider whether the system design can mitigate the errors caused by these tasks or not. In this paper, we first introduce five categories of generic intellectual tasks of humans, where tasks among each category may lead to potential medical errors. Then, we present an integrated modeling framework to model a medical CPHSystem and use UPPAAL as the foundation to integrate and verify the whole medical CPHSystem design models. With a verified and comprehensive model capturing the human intellectual tasks effects, we can design a more accurate and acceptable system. We use a cardiac arrest resuscitation guidance and navigation system (CAR-GNSystem) for such medical CPHSystem modeling. Experimental results show that the CPHSystem models help determine system design flaws and can mitigate the potential medical errors caused by the human intellectual tasks.
Huynh, Chi; Wong, Ian C K; Correa-West, Jo; Terry, David; McCarthy, Suzanne
Since the publication of To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System in 1999, there has been much research conducted into the epidemiology, nature and causes of medication errors in children, from prescribing and supply to administration. It is reassuring to see growing evidence of improving medication safety in children; however, based on media reports, it can be seen that serious and fatal medication errors still occur. This critical opinion article examines the problem of medication errors in children and provides recommendations for research, training of healthcare professionals and a culture shift towards dealing with medication errors. There are three factors that we need to consider to unravel what is missing and why fatal medication errors still occur. (1) Who is involved and affected by the medication error? (2) What factors hinder staff and organisations from learning from mistakes? Does the fear of litigation and criminal charges deter healthcare professionals from voluntarily reporting medication errors? (3) What are the educational needs required to prevent medication errors? It is important to educate future healthcare professionals about medication errors and human factors to prevent these from happening. Further research is required to apply aviation's 'black box' principles in healthcare to record and learn from near misses and errors to prevent future events. There is an urgent need for the black box investigations to be published and made public for the benefit of other organisations that may have similar potential risks for adverse events. International sharing of investigations and learning is also needed.
Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Monge-Lozano, Pedro; Romero-Alonso, Ma Mercedes; Bolívar-Raya, Ma Antonia
The serious repercussions of healthcare errors on patient safety have led hospitals to deploy information technology and continuous control monitoring systems to prevent them. Hospitals are moving away from traditional paper-based systems and focusing on designing new systems that prevent errors, using information technologies to catalyse the process re-engineering. This paper presents a case study that analyses the effect of computerised physician order entry and automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems on the drug ordering and delivery process. It is concluded that information technology and continuous control monitoring systems have led to significant process re-engineering in the sequential stages of the drug ordering and delivery system. The new systems have also provided the opportunity to improve information available. This is an exploratory case study and the conclusions drawn from it offer possible routes for future research in this field.
Studdert, D M; Brennan, T A
Leading patient safety proposals promote the design and implementation of error prevention strategies that target systems used to deliver care and eschew individual blame. They also call for candor among practitioners about the causes and consequences of medical injury. Both goals collide with fundamental tenets of the medical malpractice system. Thus, the challenge of addressing error in medicine demands a thorough reconsideration of the legal mechanisms currently used to deal with harms in health care. In this article, we describe an alternative to litigation that does not predicate compensation on proof of practitioner fault, suggest how it might be operationalized, and argue that there is a pressing need to test its promise. We tackle traditional criticisms of "no-fault" compensation systems for medical injury-specifically, concerns about their cost and the presumption that eliminating liability will dilute incentives to deliver high-quality care. Our recent empirical work suggests that a model designed around avoidable or preventable injuries, as opposed to negligent ones, would not exceed the costs of current malpractice systems in the United States. Implementation of such a model promises to promote quality by harmonizing injury compensation with patient safety objectives, especially if it is linked to reforms that make institutions, rather than individuals, primarily answerable for injuries.
Gorgich, Enam Alhagh Charkhat; Barfroshan, Sanam; Ghoreishi, Gholamreza; Yaghoobi, Maryam
Introduction and Aim: Medication errors as a serious problem in world and one of the most common medical errors that threaten patient safety and may lead to even death of them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes of medication errors and strategies to prevention of them from nurses and nursing student viewpoint. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 327 nursing staff of khatam-al-anbia hospital and 62 intern nursing students in nursing and midwifery school of Zahedan, Iran, enrolled through the availability sampling in 2015. The data were collected by the valid and reliable questionnaire. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, T-test and ANOVA were applied by use of SPSS16 software. Findings: The results showed that the most common causes of medications errors in nursing were tiredness due increased workload (97.8%), and in nursing students were drug calculation, (77.4%). The most important way for prevention in nurses and nursing student opinion, was reducing the work pressure by increasing the personnel, proportional to the number and condition of patients and also creating a unit as medication calculation. Also there was a significant relationship between the type of ward and the mean of medication errors in two groups. Conclusion: Based on the results it is recommended that nurse-managers resolve the human resources problem, provide workshops and in-service education about preparing medications, side-effects of drugs and pharmacological knowledge. Using electronic medications cards is a measure which reduces medications errors. PMID:27045413
Khammarnia, M.; Kassani, A.
Summary Background Patient misidentification, as a major patient safety issue, occurs in any healthcare setting and leads to inappropriate medical procedures, diagnosis or treatment, with serious outcomes. Objectives The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of wristband bar-code medication scanning to reduce medical errors (ME). Methods A meta-analysis study was conducted. The relevant studies were searched in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Scopus from 1990 to March 2015. Thereafter, the studies retrieved were screened based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted, and the quality of the included studies was evaluated using the STROBE checklist. Results In total, 14 articles involving 483 cases were included. The meta-analysis indicated that the use of wristband bar-code medication scanning can reduce the ME around 57.5% (OR=0.425, 95% CI: 0.28-0.65, P<0.001). The study results showed a marked heterogeneity in the subgroup analysis (I-squared=98%). This was I2=70.35, P-value=0.018 for the type of samples and I2=99%, P-value<0.001 for years and countries. Conclusion Wristband bar-code medication scanning can decrease the ME in hospital setting. Since the patient’s safety is the main goal of the World Health Organization, it is recommended that a unique patient identification barcode should be used with name, medical record number, and bar-coded financial number. PMID:26767066
Aronson, Jeffrey K
1. To understand medication errors and to identify preventive strategies, we need to classify them and define the terms that describe them. 2. The four main approaches to defining technical terms consider etymology, usage, previous definitions, and the Ramsey-Lewis method (based on an understanding of theory and practice). 3. A medication error is 'a failure in the treatment process that leads to, or has the potential to lead to, harm to the patient'. 4. Prescribing faults, a subset of medication errors, should be distinguished from prescription errors. A prescribing fault is 'a failure in the prescribing [decision-making] process that leads to, or has the potential to lead to, harm to the patient'. The converse of this, 'balanced prescribing' is 'the use of a medicine that is appropriate to the patient's condition and, within the limits created by the uncertainty that attends therapeutic decisions, in a dosage regimen that optimizes the balance of benefit to harm'. This excludes all forms of prescribing faults, such as irrational, inappropriate, and ineffective prescribing, underprescribing and overprescribing. 5. A prescription error is 'a failure in the prescription writing process that results in a wrong instruction about one or more of the normal features of a prescription'. The 'normal features' include the identity of the recipient, the identity of the drug, the formulation, dose, route, timing, frequency, and duration of administration. 6. Medication errors can be classified, invoking psychological theory, as knowledge-based mistakes, rule-based mistakes, action-based slips, and memory-based lapses. This classification informs preventive strategies.
Niedrig, David Franklin; Hoppe, Liesa; Mächler, Sarah; Russmann, Heike; Russmann, Stefan
Objective Benzodiazepines and “Z-drug” GABA-receptor modulators (BDZ) are among the most frequently used drugs in hospitals. Adverse drug events (ADE) associated with BDZ can be the result of preventable medication errors (ME) related to dosing, drug interactions and comorbidities. The present study evaluated inpatient use of BDZ and related ME and ADE. Methods We conducted an observational study within a pharmacoepidemiological database derived from the clinical information system of a tertiary care hospital. We developed algorithms that identified dosing errors and interacting comedication for all administered BDZ. Associated ADE and risk factors were validated in medical records. Results Among 53,081 patients contributing 495,813 patient-days BDZ were administered to 25,626 patients (48.3%) on 115,150 patient-days (23.2%). We identified 3,372 patient-days (2.9%) with comedication that inhibits BDZ metabolism, and 1,197 (1.0%) with lorazepam administration in severe renal impairment. After validation we classified 134, 56, 12, and 3 cases involving lorazepam, zolpidem, midazolam and triazolam, respectively, as clinically relevant ME. Among those there were 23 cases with associated adverse drug events, including severe CNS-depression, falls with subsequent injuries and severe dyspnea. Causality for BDZ was formally assessed as ‘possible’ or ‘probable’ in 20 of those cases. Four cases with ME and associated severe ADE required administration of the BDZ antagonist flumazenil. Conclusions BDZ use was remarkably high in the studied setting, frequently involved potential ME related to dosing, co-medication and comorbidities, and rarely cases with associated ADE. We propose the implementation of automated ME screening and validation for the prevention of BDZ-related ADE. PMID:27711224
Charpiat, B; Magdinier, C; Leboucher, G; Aubrun, F
Accidental direct intravenous injection of a concentrated solution of potassium often leads to patient death. In France, recommendations of healthcare agencies to prevent such accidents cover only preparation and intravenous infusion conditions. Accidents continue to occur in French hospitals. These facts demonstrate that these recommendations are insufficient and ineffective to prevent such deaths, especially those occurring during a catheter flushing. This article reviews the measures able to reduce the number of accidents. Countries which removed concentrated ampoules from ward stocks observed a decrease of the number of accidental deaths. This withdrawal, recommended by the World Health Organization, is now part of standards in studies aimed at determining the safety of care in hospitals. However, removal alone is insufficient to eliminate the risk. The combination with other measures should be considered. These measures are the provision of a combination of diluted intravenous ready to use solutions, the promotion of the oral route with tablets and oral solutions for potassium replenishment and to make available products with safeguards to prevent single shot intravenous injection. Studies aimed at determining the consequences on preventing concentrated potassium accidents of a widespread distribution of isotonic sodium chloride pre-filled ready-to-use syringes for catheter flushing should be performed.
Charles, Krista; Cannon, Margaret; Hall, Robert; Coustasse, Alberto
Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems allow physicians to prescribe patient services electronically. In hospitals, CPOE essentially eliminates the need for handwritten paper orders and achieves cost savings through increased efficiency. The purpose of this research study was to examine the benefits of and barriers to CPOE adoption in hospitals to determine the effects on medical errors and adverse drug events (ADEs) and examine cost and savings associated with the implementation of this newly mandated technology. This study followed a methodology using the basic principles of a systematic review and referenced 50 sources. CPOE systems in hospitals were found to be capable of reducing medical errors and ADEs, especially when CPOE systems are bundled with clinical decision support systems designed to alert physicians and other healthcare providers of pending lab or medical errors. However, CPOE systems face major barriers associated with adoption in a hospital system, mainly high implementation costs and physicians’ resistance to change. PMID:25593568
In a complex computer environment there is ample opportunity for error, a mistake by a programmer, or a software-induced undesirable side effect. In insurance, errors can cost a company heavily, so protection against inadvertent change is a must for the efficient firm. The data processing center at Transport Life Insurance Company has taken a step to guard against accidental changes by adopting a software package called EQNINT (Equations Interpreter Program). EQNINT cross checks the basic formulas in a program against the formulas that make up the major production system. EQNINT assures that formulas are coded correctly and helps catch errors before they affect the customer service or its profitability.
Lesar, Timothy S
CONTEXT Prescribing errors involving medication dose formulations have been reported to occur frequently in hospitals. No systematic evaluations of the characteristics of errors related to medication dosage formulation have been performed. OBJECTIVE To quantify the characteristics, frequency, and potential adverse patient effects of prescribing errors involving medication dosage forms . DESIGN Evaluation of all detected medication prescribing errors involving or related to medication dosage forms in a 631-bed tertiary care teaching hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Type, frequency, and potential for adverse effects of prescribing errors involving or related to medication dosage forms. RESULTS A total of 1,115 clinically significant prescribing errors involving medication dosage forms were detected during the 60-month study period. The annual number of detected errors increased throughout the study period. Detailed analysis of the 402 errors detected during the last 16 months of the study demonstrated the most common errors to be: failure to specify controlled release formulation (total of 280 cases; 69.7%) both when prescribing using the brand name (148 cases; 36.8%) and when prescribing using the generic name (132 cases; 32.8%); and prescribing controlled delivery formulations to be administered per tube (48 cases; 11.9%). The potential for adverse patient outcome was rated as potentially “fatal or severe” in 3 cases (0.7%), and “serious” in 49 cases (12.2%). Errors most commonly involved cardiovascular agents (208 cases; 51.7%). CONCLUSIONS Hospitalized patients are at risk for adverse outcomes due to prescribing errors related to inappropriate use of medication dosage forms. This information should be considered in the development of strategies to prevent adverse patient outcomes resulting from such errors. PMID:12213138
Background The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act subsidizes implementation by hospitals of electronic health records with computerized provider order entry (CPOE), which may reduce patient injuries caused by medication errors (preventable adverse drug events, pADEs). Effects on pADEs have not been rigorously quantified, and effects on medication errors have been variable. The objectives of this analysis were to assess the effectiveness of CPOE at reducing pADEs in hospital-related settings, and examine reasons for heterogeneous effects on medication errors. Methods Articles were identified using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Econlit, web-based databases, and bibliographies of previous systematic reviews (September 2013). Eligible studies compared CPOE with paper-order entry in acute care hospitals, and examined diverse pADEs or medication errors. Studies on children or with limited event-detection methods were excluded. Two investigators extracted data on events and factors potentially associated with effectiveness. We used random effects models to pool data. Results Sixteen studies addressing medication errors met pooling criteria; six also addressed pADEs. Thirteen studies used pre-post designs. Compared with paper-order entry, CPOE was associated with half as many pADEs (pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.47, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.71) and medication errors (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.60). Regarding reasons for heterogeneous effects on medication errors, five intervention factors and two contextual factors were sufficiently reported to support subgroup analyses or meta-regression. Differences between commercial versus homegrown systems, presence and sophistication of clinical decision support, hospital-wide versus limited implementation, and US versus non-US studies were not significant, nor was timing of publication. Higher baseline rates of medication errors predicted greater reductions (P < 0.001). Other context and
Nguyen, Phung Anh; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Iqbal, Usman; Hsu, Min-Huei; Huang, Chen-Ling; Li, Hsien-Chang; Clinciu, Daniel Livius; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack
Background Medication errors are common, life threatening, costly but preventable. Information technology and automated systems are highly efficient for preventing medication errors and therefore widely employed in hospital settings. The aim of this study was to construct a probabilistic model that can reduce medication errors by identifying uncommon or rare associations between medications and diseases. Methods and Finding(s) Association rules of mining techniques are utilized for 103.5 million prescriptions from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance database. The dataset included 204.5 million diagnoses with ICD9-CM codes and 347.7 million medications by using ATC codes. Disease-Medication (DM) and Medication-Medication (MM) associations were computed by their co-occurrence and associations’ strength were measured by the interestingness or lift values which were being referred as Q values. The DMQs and MMQs were used to develop the AOP model to predict the appropriateness of a given prescription. Validation of this model was done by comparing the results of evaluation performed by the AOP model and verified by human experts. The results showed 96% accuracy for appropriate and 45% accuracy for inappropriate prescriptions, with a sensitivity and specificity of 75.9% and 89.5%, respectively. Conclusions We successfully developed the AOP model as an efficient tool for automatic identification of uncommon or rare associations between disease-medication and medication-medication in prescriptions. The AOP model helps to reduce medication errors by alerting physicians, improving the patients’ safety and the overall quality of care. PMID:24312659
A policy document providing instructions on the decision to prosecute in medical errors came into effect on November 1st 2010. In this document the Dutch Public Prosecution Service has attempted to make clear which criteria should be adopted when deciding to prosecute in the case of a medical error. There have also been other recent developments in this context: the public prosecutor can now demand access to medical files in certain, highly exceptional circumstances, such as when patients are themselves suspected of committing a criminal offence; and the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate may only pass on a patient's medical file to the public prosecutor if the prosecutor is already in possession of a copy of it. The new policy document leaves several questions unanswered. It does not consider the criminal liability of health care institutions, for example, and there is too much focus on the responsibilities of individual health care workers.
These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again-perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were received through the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program. Any reports published by ISMP will be anonymous. Comments are also invited; the writers' names will be published if desired. ISMP may be contacted at the address shown below. Errors, close calls, or hazardous conditions may be reported directly to ISMP through the ISMP Web site (www.ismp.org), by calling 800-FAIL-SAFE, or via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. ISMP guarantees the confidentiality and security of the information received and respects reporters' wishes as to the level of detail included in publications.
These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again-perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were received through the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program. Any reports published by ISMP will be anonymous. Comments are also invited; the writers' names will be published if desired. ISMP may be contacted at the address shown below. Errors, close calls, or hazardous conditions may be reported directly to ISMP through the ISMP Web site (www.ismp.org), by calling 800-FAIL-SAFE, or via e-mail at email@example.com. ISMP guarantees the confidentiality and security of the information received and respects reporters' wishes as to the level of detail included in publications.
These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again-perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were received through the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program. Any reports published by ISMP will be anonymous. Comments are also invited; the writers' names will be published if desired. ISMP may be contacted at the address shown below. Errors, close calls, or hazardous conditions may be reported directly to ISMP through the ISMP Web site (www.ismp.org), by calling 800-FAIL-SAFE, or via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. ISMP guarantees the confidentiality and security of the information received and respects reporters' wishes as to the level of detail included in publications.
Johnson, Shepard P.; Adkinson, Joshua M.; Chung, Kevin C.
Influential think-tank such as the Institute of Medicine has raised awareness about the implications of medical errors. In response, organizations, medical societies, and institutions have initiated programs to decrease the incidence and effects of these errors. Surgeons deal with the direct implications of adverse events involving patients. In addition to managing the physical consequences, they are confronted with ethical and social issues when caring for a harmed patient. Although there is considerable effort to implement system-wide changes, there is little guidance for hand surgeons on how to address medical errors. Admitting an error is difficult, but a transparent environment where patients are notified of errors and offered consolation and compensation is essential to maintain trust. Further, equipping hand surgeons with a guide for addressing medical errors will promote compassionate patient interaction, help identify system failures, provide learning points for safety improvement, and demonstrate a commitment to ethically responsible medical care. PMID:25154576
Ahmadipour, Habibeh; Nahid, Mortazavi
It is difficult to determine the real incidence of medical errors due to the lack of a precise definition of errors, as well as the failure to report them under certain circumstances. We carried out a cross- sectional study in Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2013. The participants were selected through the census method. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of questions on the participants' demographic data and questions on the medical errors committed. The data were analysed by SPSS 19. It was found that 270 participants had committed medical errors. There was no significant difference in the frequency of errors committed by interns and residents. In the case of residents, the most common error was misdiagnosis and in that of interns, errors related to history-taking and physical examination. Considering that medical errors are common in the clinical setting, the education system should train interns and residents to prevent the occurrence of errors. In addition, the system should develop a positive attitude among them so that they can deal better with medical errors.
Zhang, Jiajie; Patel, Vimla L; Johnson, Todd R; Shortliffe, Edward H
One critical step in addressing and resolving the problems associated with human errors is the development of a cognitive taxonomy of such errors. In the case of errors, such a taxonomy may be developed (1) to categorize all types of errors along cognitive dimensions, (2) to associate each type of error with a specific underlying cognitive mechanism, (3) to explain why, and even predict when and where, a specific error will occur, and (4) to generate intervention strategies for each type of error. Based on Reason's (1992) definition of human errors and Norman's (1986) cognitive theory of human action, we have developed a preliminary action-based cognitive taxonomy of errors that largely satisfies these four criteria in the domain of medicine. We discuss initial steps for applying this taxonomy to develop an online medical error reporting system that not only categorizes errors but also identifies problems and generates solutions.
Chiozza, Maria Laura; Ponzetti, Clemente
Patient safety is a management issue, in view of the fact that clinical risk management has become an important part of hospital management. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a proactive technique for error detection and reduction, firstly introduced within the aerospace industry in the 1960s. Early applications in the health care industry dating back to the 1990s included critical systems in the development and manufacture of drugs and in the prevention of medication errors in hospitals. In 2008, the Technical Committee of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), licensed a technical specification for medical laboratories suggesting FMEA as a method for prospective risk analysis of high-risk processes. Here we describe the main steps of the FMEA process and review data available on the application of this technique to laboratory medicine. A significant reduction of the risk priority number (RPN) was obtained when applying FMEA to blood cross-matching, to clinical chemistry analytes, as well as to point-of-care testing (POCT).
Medical identity theft is a crime with two victims: patients and providers. It is easy to commit and lucrative because healthcare record keeping and business interactions are complex and mainly electronic. Patients whose identity has been stolen are vulnerable to both medical error and financial loss. Providers may suffer both reputation loss and financial loss. There are steps to help prevent and to respond appropriately to medical identity theft.
Morimoto, T; Gandhi, T K; Seger, A C; Hsieh, T C; Bates, D W
Investigating the incidence, type, and preventability of adverse drug events (ADEs) and medication errors is crucial to improving the quality of health care delivery. ADEs, potential ADEs, and medication errors can be collected by extraction from practice data, solicitation of incidents from health professionals, and patient surveys. Practice data include charts, laboratory, prescription data, and administrative databases, and can be reviewed manually or screened by computer systems to identify signals. Research nurses, pharmacists, or research assistants review these signals, and those that are likely to represent an ADE or medication error are presented to reviewers who independently categorize them into ADEs, potential ADEs, medication errors, or exclusions. These incidents are also classified according to preventability, ameliorability, disability, severity, stage, and responsible person. These classifications, as well as the initial selection of incidents, have been evaluated for agreement between reviewers and the level of agreement found ranged from satisfactory to excellent (kappa = 0.32-0.98). The method of ADE and medication error detection and classification described is feasible and has good reliability. It can be used in various clinical settings to measure and improve medication safety.
Patient-Controlled Analgesia Basal Infusion Overdose; Life-threatening Errors with Flecainide Suspension in Children; Medical Product Error-Prevention Efforts Need to Be Shared and Harmonized Internationally
Cohen, Michael R.; Smetzer, Judy L.
These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again—perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were received through the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program. Any reports published by ISMP will be anonymous. Comments are also invited; the writers’ names will be published if desired. ISMP may be contacted at the address shown below. Errors, close calls, or hazardous conditions may be reported directly to ISMP through the ISMP Web site (www.ismp.org), by calling 800-FAIL-SAFE, or via e-mail at email@example.com. ISMP guarantees the confidentiality and security of the information received and respects reporters’ wishes as to the level of detail included in publications. PMID:26715797
Horsky, Jan; Ramelson, Harley Z.
Discrepancies between multiple electronic versions of patient medication records contribute to adverse drug events. Regular reconciliation increases their accuracy but is often inadequately supported by EHRs. We evaluated two systems with conceptually different interface designs for their effectiveness in resolving discrepancies. Eleven clinicians reconciled a complex list of 16 medications using both EHRs in the same standardized scenario. Errors such as omissions to add or discontinue a drug or to update a dose were analyzed. Clinicians made three times as many errors working with an EHR with lists arranged in a single column than when using a system with side-by-side lists. Excessive cognitive effort and reliance on memory was likely a strong contributing factor for lower accuracy of reconciliation. As errors increase with task difficulty, evaluations of reconciliation tools need to focus on complex prescribing scenarios to accurately assess effectiveness, error rate and whether they reduce risk to patient safety. PMID:28269860
Prescrire's analyses showed that the quality of drug packaging in 2010 still left much to be desired. Potentially dangerous packaging remains a significant problem: unclear labelling is source of medication errors; dosing devices for some psychotropic drugs create a risk of overdose; child-proof caps are often lacking; and too many patient information leaflets are misleading or difficult to understand. Everything that is needed for safe drug packaging is available; it is now up to regulatory agencies and drug companies to act responsibly. In the meantime, health professionals can help their patients by learning to identify the pitfalls of drug packaging and providing safe information to help prevent medication errors.
Bascuñán, María Luz; Arriagada, Ana María
For several years and in many different ways, medical errors have been studied. As expected, the majority of efforts have been directed to prevent clinical errors during the different phases of health care. Nevertheless, less attention has been given to what happens when a negative effect has already occurred. The present work describes the doubts and difficulties that doctors deal with when facing an error and to describe the communicational tools that the literature offers to cope with them. The definition of medical error was the starting point that was used to later analyze the evidence about what, why and how to inform medical errors from an ethical and technical point of view. In the light of new legal exigencies, communicational and health protocols are revised, distinguishing those that are used for conveying bad news and medical errors. The importance of the ethical and communicational formation of the professionals is emphasized, identifying certain hindering aspects of the medical culture. This culture promotes an idea of the doctor as a professional who knows everything, does not make mistakes and acts in isolation. These do not reflect personal attributes in the professional and in the health team, required for a good professional practice.
Harding, Lorill; Petrick, Teresa
This article presents the findings of a retrospective review of medication errors made and reported by nursing students in a 4-year baccalaureate program. Data were examined in relation to the semester of the program, kind of error according to the rights of medication administration, and contributing factors. Three categories of contributing factors were identified: rights violations, system factors, and knowledge and understanding. It became apparent that system factors, or the context in which medication administration takes place, are not fully considered when students are taught about medication administration. Teaching strategies need to account for the dynamic complexity of this process and incorporate experiential knowledge. This review raised several important questions about how this information guides our practice as educators in the clinical and classroom settings and how we can work collaboratively with practice partners to influence change and increase patient safety.
Sawarkar, Abhivyakti; Keohane, Carol A.; Maviglia, Saverio; Gandhi, Tejal K; Poon, Eric G
medication doses administered, in a hospital where 6 million doses are administered per year, about 4000 preventable ADEs would be attributable to medication administration errors annually. PMID:22791691
Love, Peter E D; Lopez, Robert; Edwards, David J; Goh, Yang M
Design errors contribute significantly to cost and schedule growth in social infrastructure projects and to engineering failures, which can result in accidents and loss of life. Despite considerable research that has addressed their error causation in construction projects they still remain prevalent. This paper identifies the underlying conditions that contribute to design errors in social infrastructure projects (e.g. hospitals, education, law and order type buildings). A systemic model of error causation is propagated and subsequently used to develop a learning framework for design error prevention. The research suggests that a multitude of strategies should be adopted in congruence to prevent design errors from occurring and so ensure that safety and project performance are ameliorated.
Gharekhani, Afshin; Kanani, Negin; Khalili, Hossein; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin
Medication errors are ongoing problems among hospitalized patients especially those with multiple co-morbidities and polypharmacy such as patients with renal diseases. This study evaluated the frequency, types and direct related cost of medication errors in nephrology ward and the role played by clinical pharmacists. During this study, clinical pharmacists detected, managed, and recorded the medication errors. Prescribing errors including inappropriate drug, dose, or treatment durations were gathered. To assess transcription errors, the equivalence of nursery charts and physician's orders were evaluated. Administration errors were assessed by observing drugs' preparation, storage, and administration by nurses. The changes in medications costs after implementing clinical pharmacists' interventions were compared with the calculated medications costs if the medication errors were continued up to patients' discharge time. More than 85% of patients experienced medication error. The rate of medication errors was 3.5 errors per patient and 0.18 errors per ordered medication. More than 95% of medication errors occurred at prescription nodes. Most common prescribing errors were omission (26.9%) or unauthorized drugs (18.3%) and low drug dosage or frequency (17.3%). Most of the medication errors happened on cardiovascular drugs (24%) followed by vitamins and electrolytes (22.1%) and antimicrobials (18.5%). The number of medication errors was correlated with the number of ordered medications and length of hospital stay. Clinical pharmacists' interventions decreased patients' direct medication costs by 4.3%. About 22% of medication errors led to patients' harm. In conclusion, clinical pharmacists' contributions in nephrology wards were of value to prevent medication errors and to reduce medications cost.
Hélène', Ginestet; David, Breton; Sophie, Spadoni; Vincent, Jandard; Michel, Paillet; Xavier, Bohand
Nowadays, occurrence of medication errors is a public health concern at hospital. Drug packaging represent one of the important causes of medication errors. The authors report a medication error associated with an erroneous interpretation of drug packaging information. This error was detected during the pharmaceutical review of the medical prescription. The nursing staff in charge of drug administering must thus be particularly aware of this risk. The potential clinical significance of this type of medication error may be important.
Adubofour, Kwabena O. M.; Keenan, Craig R.; Daftary, Ashok; Mensah-Adubofour, Josepha; Dachman, William D.
Medication errors generally refer to mistakes made in the processes of ordering, transcribing, dispensing, administering or monitoring of pharmaceutical agents used in clinical practice. The Institute of Medicine report, To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, has helped raise public awareness surrounding the issue of patient safety within our hospitals. A number of legislative and regulatory steps have resulted in hospital authorities putting in place various systems to allow for error reporting and prevention. Medication errors are being closely scrutinized as part of these hospital-based efforts. Most Americans, however, receive their healthcare in the ambulatory primary care setting. Primary care physicians are involved in the writing of several million prescriptions annually. The steps underway in our hospitals to reduce medication errors should occur concurrently with steps to increase awareness of this problem in the out-patient setting. This article provides an overview of strategies that can be adopted by primary care physicians to decrease medication errors in ambulatory practice. PMID:15622685
Amann, Steffen; Kantelhardt, Pamela
To reduce medication errors and other drug-related problems, their systematic discovery, documentation and evaluation is essential. The web-based documentation database ADKA-DokuPIK enables both the documentation and the publication of annotated individual cases and, moreover, systematic errors or accumulations of risk drugs may be determined. Medication reconciliation is another important component to increase safety in drug therapy. Hospital pharmacists may support and significantly improve this process. In Germany some initial information from various projects is available. Medication reconciliation performed by hospital pharmacists may significantly increase the completeness and accuracy of medication regimens. Patient counselling together with the necessary drug supply at discharge improves patients' knowledge, closes supply gaps and improves the satisfaction of all parties.
Valdez, Les Paul; de Guzman, Allan; Escolar-Chua, Rowena
Across medication error literature, much attention has been given to incidence, types, causes and prevention of medication errors. Despite these efforts, medication errors continue to occur among registered and student nurses. Considering the numerous studies on medication errors committed by registered nurses, little is known on the nature of student nurses' medication error. This study employed factor analysis and structural equation modeling to explore the factors affecting medication errors by student nurses. With the participation of 329 junior and senior student nurses recruited from a comprehensive university in the Philippines, five factor dimensions of the causes of student nurses' medication error were identified, namely: In-violation, In-writing, In-excess, In-experience and In-tension. Results of path analysis showed an interaction among these variables. Additionally, poor adherence to the "five rights" was identified as an important mediator between In-violation, In-writing, In-excess, In-experience and In-tension and student nurses' medication error. By developing a model to explain how student nurses' medication errors occur, this study sheds light on the nature of student nurses' medication error and provides a basis for error prevention strategies.
Nanji, Karen C.; Patel, Amit; Shaikh, Sofia; Seger, Diane L.; Bates, David W.
Background The purpose of this study is to assess the rates of perioperative medication errors (MEs) and adverse drug events (ADEs) as percentages of medication administrations, evaluate their root causes, and formulate targeted solutions to prevent them. Methods In this prospective observational study, anesthesia-trained study staff (anesthesiologists/nurse anesthetists) observed randomly selected operations at a 1,046 bed tertiary care academic medical center to identify MEs and ADEs over eight months. Retrospective chart abstraction was performed to flag events that were missed by observation. All events subsequently underwent review by two independent reviewers. Primary outcomes were the incidence of MEs and ADEs. Results A total of 277 operations were observed with 3,671 medication administrations of which 193 (5.3%, 95% CI 4.5 to 6.0) involved a ME and/or ADE. Of these, 153 (79.3%) were preventable and 40 (20.7%) were non-preventable. The events included 153 (79.3%) errors and 91 (47.2%) ADEs. While 32 (20.9%) of the errors had little potential for harm, 51 (33.3%) led to an observed ADE and an additional 70 (45.8%) had the potential for patient harm. Of the 153 errors, 99 (64.7%) were serious, 51 (33.3%) were significant and 3 (2.0%) were life-threatening. Conclusions One in twenty perioperative medication administrations included an ME and/or ADE. More than one third of the MEs led to observed ADEs, and the remaining two thirds had the potential for harm. These rates are markedly higher than those reported by retrospective surveys. Specific solutions exist which have the potential to decrease the incidence of perioperative MEs. PMID:26501385
hygienist b. DENTAC— dental activity c. DFO— dental fitness officer d. DODDS—Department of Defense Dependent Schools e. HSC—U.S. Army Health Services Command f...community health dental hygienist (CHDH) in implementing these programs. (3) Coordinate with the preventive medicine activity and post or installation...aspects of preven- tive dentistry and dental public health programs. j. The community health dental hygienist , where assigned, will assist the DFO as
Schiff, G D; Amato, M G; Eguale, T; Boehne, J J; Wright, A; Koppel, R; Rashidee, A H; Elson, R B; Whitney, D L; Thach, T-T; Bates, D W; Seger, A C
Importance Medication computerised provider order entry (CPOE) has been shown to decrease errors and is being widely adopted. However, CPOE also has potential for introducing or contributing to errors. Objectives The objectives of this study are to (a) analyse medication error reports where CPOE was reported as a ‘contributing cause’ and (b) develop ‘use cases’ based on these reports to test vulnerability of current CPOE systems to these errors. Methods A review of medication errors reported to United States Pharmacopeia MEDMARX reporting system was made, and a taxonomy was developed for CPOE-related errors. For each error we evaluated what went wrong and why and identified potential prevention strategies and recurring error scenarios. These scenarios were then used to test vulnerability of leading CPOE systems, asking typical users to enter these erroneous orders to assess the degree to which these problematic orders could be entered. Results Between 2003 and 2010, 1.04 million medication errors were reported to MEDMARX, of which 63 040 were reported as CPOE related. A review of 10 060 CPOE-related cases was used to derive 101 codes describing what went wrong, 67 codes describing reasons why errors occurred, 73 codes describing potential prevention strategies and 21 codes describing recurring error scenarios. Ability to enter these erroneous order scenarios was tested on 13 CPOE systems at 16 sites. Overall, 298 (79.5%) of the erroneous orders were able to be entered including 100 (28.0%) being ‘easily’ placed, another 101 (28.3%) with only minor workarounds and no warnings. Conclusions and relevance Medication error reports provide valuable information for understanding CPOE-related errors. Reports were useful for developing taxonomy and identifying recurring errors to which current CPOE systems are vulnerable. Enhanced monitoring, reporting and testing of CPOE systems are important to improve CPOE safety. PMID:25595599
Chamoun, Nibal R; Zeenny, Rony; Mansour, Hanine
Background Pharmacists' involvement in patient care has improved the quality of care and reduced medication errors. However, this has required a lot of work that could not have been accomplished without documentation of interventions. Several means of documenting errors have been proposed in the literature but without a consistent comprehensive process. Recently, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) recognized that pharmacy practice lacks a consistent process for direct patient care and discussed several options for a pharmaceutical care plan, essentially encompassing medication therapy assessment, development and implementation of a pharmaceutical care plan and finally evaluation of the outcome. Therefore, as per the recommendations of ACCP, we sought to retrospectively analyze interventions by grouping them according to medication related problems (MRP) and their nodes such as prescribing; administering; monitoring; documenting and dispensing. Objective The aim of this study is to report interventions according to medication error (ME) nodes and show the impact of pharmacy interventions in reducing MRPs. Setting The study was conducted at the cardiology and infectious diseases services at a teaching hospital located in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods Intervention documentation was completed by pharmacy students on infectious diseases and cardiology rotations then reviewed by clinical pharmacists with respective specialties. Before data analysis, a new pharmacy reporting sheet was developed in order to link interventions according to MRP. Then, MRPs were grouped in the five ME nodes. During the documentation process, whether MRP had reached the patient or not may have not been reported which prevented the classification to the corresponding medication error nodes as ME. Main outcome Reduction in medication related problems across all ME nodes. Results A total of n = 1174 interventions were documented. N = 1091 interventions were classified as MRPs
Martin, Lizabeth D; Grigg, Eliot B; Verma, Shilpa; Latham, Gregory J; Rampersad, Sally E; Martin, Lynn D
The Institute of Medicine has called for development of strategies to prevent medication errors, which are one important cause of preventable harm. Although the field of anesthesiology is considered a leader in patient safety, recent data suggest high medication error rates in anesthesia practice. Unfortunately, few error prevention strategies for anesthesia providers have been implemented. Using Toyota Production System quality improvement methodology, a multidisciplinary team observed 133 h of medication practice in the operating room at a tertiary care freestanding children's hospital. A failure mode and effects analysis was conducted to systematically deconstruct and evaluate each medication handling process step and score possible failure modes to quantify areas of risk. A bundle of five targeted countermeasures were identified and implemented over 12 months. Improvements in syringe labeling (73 to 96%), standardization of medication organization in the anesthesia workspace (0 to 100%), and two-provider infusion checks (23 to 59%) were observed. Medication error reporting improved during the project and was subsequently maintained. After intervention, the median medication error rate decreased from 1.56 to 0.95 per 1000 anesthetics. The frequency of medication error harm events reaching the patient also decreased. Systematic evaluation and standardization of medication handling processes by anesthesia providers in the operating room can decrease medication errors and improve patient safety.
Elden, Nesreen Mohamed Kamal; Ismail, Amira
Introduction: Medication errors have significant implications on patient safety. Error detection through an active management and effective reporting system discloses medication errors and encourages safe practices. Objectives: To improve patient safety through determining and reducing the major causes of medication errors (MEs), after applying tailored preventive strategies. Methodology: A pre-test, post-test study was conducted on all inpatients at a 177 bed hospital where all medication procedures in each ward were monitored by a clinical pharmacist. The patient files were reviewed, as well. Error reports were submitted to a hospital multidisciplinary committee to identify major causes of errors. Accordingly, corrective interventions that consisted of targeted training programs for nurses and physicians were conducted. Results: Medication errors were higher during ordering/prescription stage (38.1%), followed by administration phase (20.9%). About 45% of errors reached the patients: 43.5% were harmless and 1.4% harmful. 7.7% were potential errors and more than 47% could be prevented. After the intervention, error rates decreased from (6.7%) to (3.6%) (P≤0.001). Conclusion: The role of a ward based clinical pharmacist with a hospital multidisciplinary committee was effective in recognizing, designing and implementing tailored interventions for reduction of medication errors. A systematic approach is urgently needed to decrease organizational susceptibility to errors, through providing required resources to monitor, analyze and implement effective interventions. PMID:27045415
Andel, Charles; Davidow, Stephen L; Hollander, Mark; Moreno, David A
Hospitals have been looking for ways to improve quality and operational efficiency and cut costs for nearly three decades, using a variety of quality improvement strategies. However, based on recent reports, approximately 200,000 Americans die from preventable medical errors including facility-acquired conditions and millions may experience errors. In 2008, medical errors cost the United States $19.5 billion. About 87 percent or $17 billion were directly associated with additional medical cost, including: ancillary services, prescription drug services, and inpatient and outpatient care, according to a study sponsored by the Society for Actuaries and conducted by Milliman in 2010. Additional costs of $1.4 billion were attributed to increased mortality rates with $1.1 billion or 10 million days of lost productivity from missed work based on short-term disability claims. The authors estimate that the economic impact is much higher, perhaps nearly $1 trillion annually when quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) are applied to those that die. Using the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) estimate of 98,000 deaths due to preventable medical errors annually in its 1998 report, To Err Is Human, and an average of ten lost years of life at $75,000 to $100,000 per year, there is a loss of $73.5 billion to $98 billion in QALYs for those deaths--conservatively. These numbers are much greater than those we cite from studies that explore the direct costs of medical errors. And if the estimate of a recent Health Affairs article is correct-preventable death being ten times the IOM estimate-the cost is $735 billion to $980 billion. Quality care is less expensive care. It is better, more efficient, and by definition, less wasteful. It is the right care, at the right time, every time. It should mean that far fewer patients are harmed or injured. Obviously, quality care is not being delivered consistently throughout U.S. hospitals. Whatever the measure, poor quality is costing payers and
Ison, Michael G.; Holl, Jane L.; Ladner, Daniela
Several widely publicized errors in transplantation including a death due ABO incompatibility, two HIV transmissions and two HCV transmissions have raised concerns about medical errors in organ transplantation. The root cause analysis of each of these events revealed preventable failures in the systems and processes of care as the underlying causes. In each event, no standardized system or redundant process was in place to mitigate the failures that led to the error. Additional system and process vulnerabilities such as poor clinician communication, erroneous data transcription and transmission were also identified. Organ transplantation, because it is highly complex, often stresses the systems and processes of care and, therefore, offers a unique opportunity to proactively identify vulnerabilities and potential failures. Initial steps have been taken to understand such issues through the OPTN/UNOS Operations and Safety Committee, the Disease Transmission Advisory Committee (DTAC), and the current A2ALL ancillary Safety Study. However, to effectively improve patient safety in organ transplantation, the development of a process for reporting of preventable errors that affords protection and the support of empiric research are critical. Further, the transplant community needs to embrace the implementation of evidence-based system and process improvements that will mitigate existing safety vulnerabilities. PMID:22703471
Ross, L; Wallace, J; Paton, J; STEPHENSON, T.
BACKGROUND—In the past 10 years, medication errors have come to be recognised as an important cause of iatrogenic disease in hospital patients. AIMS—To determine the incidence and type of medication errors in a large UK paediatric hospital over a five year period, and to ascertain whether any error prevention programmes had influenced error occurrence. METHODS—Retrospective review of medication errors documented in standard reporting forms completed prospectively from April 1994 to August 1999. Main outcome measure was incidence of error reporting, including pre- and post-interventions. RESULTS—Medication errors occurred in 0.15% of admissions (195 errors; one per 662 admissions). While the highest rate occurred in neonatal intensive care (0.98%), most errors occurred in medical wards. Nurses were responsible for most reported errors (59%). Errors involving the intravenous route were commonest (56%), with antibiotics being the most frequent drug involved (44%). Fifteen (8%) involved a tenfold medication error. Although 18 (9.2%) required active patient intervention, 96% of errors were classified as minor at the time of reporting. Forty eight per cent of parents were not told an error had occurred. The introduction of a policy of double checking all drugs dispensed by pharmacy staff led to a reduction in errors from 9.8 to 6 per year. Changing the error reporting form to make it less punitive increased the error reporting rate from 32.7 to 38 per year. CONCLUSION—The overall medication error rate was low. Despite this there are clear opportunities to make system changes to reduce error rates further. PMID:11087283
Kels, Barry D; Grant-Kels, Jane M
Inarguably medical errors constitute a serious, dangerous, and expensive problem for the twenty-first-century US health care system. This review examines the incidence, nature, and complexity of alleged medical negligence and medical malpractice. The authors hope this will constitute a road map to medical providers so that they can better understand the present climate and hopefully avoid the “Scylla and Charybdis” of medical errors and medical malpractice. Despite some documented success in reducing medical errors, adverse events and medical errors continue to represent an indelible stain upon the practice, reputation, and success of the US health care industry. In that regard, what may be required to successfully attack the unacceptably high severity and volume of medical errors is a locally directed and organized initiative sponsored by individual health care organizations that is coordinated, supported, and guided by state and federal governmental and nongovernmental agencies. PMID:22924008
Singh, Hardeep; Weingart, Saul N.
Despite an increasing focus on patient safety in ambulatory care, progress in understanding and reducing diagnostic errors in this setting lag behind many other safety concerns such as medication errors. To explore the extent and nature of diagnostic errors in ambulatory care, we identified five dimensions of ambulatory care from which errors may…
Kruer, Rachel M; Jarrell, Andrew S; Latif, Asad
The Institute of Medicine has reported that medication errors are the single most common type of error in health care, representing 19% of all adverse events, while accounting for over 7,000 deaths annually. The frequency of medication errors in adult intensive care units can be as high as 947 per 1,000 patient-days, with a median of 105.9 per 1,000 patient-days. The formulation of drugs is a potential contributor to medication errors. Challenges related to drug formulation are specific to the various routes of medication administration, though errors associated with medication appearance and labeling occur among all drug formulations and routes of administration. Addressing these multifaceted challenges requires a multimodal approach. Changes in technology, training, systems, and safety culture are all strategies to potentially reduce medication errors related to drug formulation in the intensive care unit. PMID:25210478
Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M. M.
Context: Medication errors are the most common types of medical errors in hospitals and leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals. Settings and Design: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected healthcare professionals in eight hospitals in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: An 18-item survey was designed and comprised questions on demographic data, knowledge of medication errors, availability of reporting systems in hospitals, attitudes toward error reporting, causes of medication errors. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software Version 17. Results: A total of 323 of healthcare professionals completed the questionnaire with 64.6% response rate of 138 (42.72%) physicians, 34 (10.53%) pharmacists, and 151 (46.75%) nurses. A majority of the participants had a good knowledge about medication errors concept and their dangers on patients. Only 68.7% of them were aware of reporting systems in hospitals. Healthcare professionals revealed that there was no clear mechanism available for reporting of errors in most hospitals. Prescribing (46.5%) and administration (29%) errors were the main causes of errors. The most frequently encountered medication errors were anti-hypertensives, antidiabetics, antibiotics, digoxin, and insulin. Conclusions: This study revealed differences in the awareness among healthcare professionals toward medication errors in hospitals. The poor knowledge about medication errors emphasized the urgent necessity to adopt appropriate measures to raise awareness about medication errors in Saudi hospitals. PMID:27330261
Kerwat, Klaus; Goedecke, Marcel; Wulf, Hinnerk
Vaccinations are among the most efficient and important preventive medical procedures. Modern vaccines are well tolerated. In Germany there are no longer laws for mandatory vaccinations, either for the general public or for medical personnel. Vaccinations are now merely "officially recommended" by the top health authorities on the basis of recommendations from the Standing Committee on Vaccinations (STIKO) of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) according to § 20 para 3 of the Protection against Infection law (IfSG). The management of vaccine damage due to officially recommended vaccinations is guaranteed by the Federal States. Whereas vaccinations in childhood are generally considered to be a matter of course, the willingness to accept them decreases markedly with increasing age. In the medical sector vaccinations against, for example, hepatitis B are well accepted while other vaccinations against, for example, whooping cough or influenza are not considered to be so important. The fact that vaccinations, besides offering protection for the medical personnel, may also serve to protect the patients entrusted to medical care from nosocomial infections is often ignored.
Chung, Kyusuk; Choi, Young B; Moon, Sangho
Hospitals and other health-care providers today are being pressed more than ever to use technologies for reducing medical errors. Particularly, medication errors are likely to increase fast as Americans age. This paper intends to provide a starting point for understanding information technologies and database systems supporting such technologies as Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE), Automated Dispensing System (ADS), and Bar Coding System designed to reduce medication errors in hospitals. Although vendors provide the necessary communication software and applications, actions involving governments, technology vendors, pharmaceutical companies, and clinical researchers are needed to put to actual use the applications with a massive potential to significantly reduce medication-related errors.
Ozkan, Suzan; Kocaman, Gulseren; Ozturk, Candan; Seren, Seyda
This study examined the frequency of pediatric medication administration errors and contributing factors. This research used the undisguised observation method and Critical Incident Technique. Errors and contributing factors were classified through the Organizational Accident Model. Errors were made in 36.5% of the 2344 doses that were observed. The most frequent errors were those associated with administration at the wrong time. According to the results of this study, errors arise from problems within the system.
Johnson, Maree; Young, Helen
Medication administration is a frequent nursing activity that is prone to error. In this study of 318 self-reported medication incidents (including near misses), very few resulted in patient harm-7% required intervention or prolonged hospitalization or caused temporary harm. Aronson's classification system provided an excellent framework for analysis of the incidents with a close connection between the type of error and the change strategy to minimize medication incidents. Taking a behavioral approach to medication error classification has provided helpful strategies for nurses such as nurse-call cards on patient lockers when patients are absent and checking of medication sign-off by outgoing and incoming staff at handover.
Gawron, Valerie J; Drury, Colin G; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Berger, Roseanne C
The goal of human factors engineering is to optimize the relationship between humans and systems by studying human behavior, abilities, and limitations and using this knowledge to design systems for safe and effective human use. With the assumption that the human component of any system will inevitably produce errors, human factors engineers design systems and human/machine interfaces that are robust enough to reduce error rates and the effect of the inevitable error within the system. In this article, we review the extent and nature of medical error and then discuss human factors engineering tools that have potential applicability. These tools include taxonomies of human and system error and error data collection and analysis methods. Finally, we describe studies that have examined medical error, and on the basis of these studies, present conclusions about how human factors engineering can significantly reduce medical errors and their effects.
Machado Alba, Jorge Enrique; Moreno Gutiérrez, Paula Andrea; Moncada Escobar, Juan Carlos
Objetivos: analizar los errores de medicacion reportados en un sistema de farmacovigilancia en 26 hospitales para pacientes del sistema de salud de Colombia. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo que evaluo las bases de datos sistematizadas de reportes de errores de medicacion entre el 1 de enero de 2008 y el 12 de septiembre de 2013 de los medicamentos dispensados por la empresa Audifarma S.A a hospitales de Colombia. Se utilizo la clasificacion taxonomica del National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP). El analisis de los datos se realizo mediante SPSS 22.0 para Windows Se determino como nivel de significacion estadistica una p < 0,05. Resultados: se reportaron 9.062 EM en 45 servicios farmaceuticos hospitalarios. El 51,9% (n = 4.707) de los errores realmente se produjeron, de los cuales el 12,0% (n = 567) afectaron al paciente (categorias C a I) y causaron dano (categorias E a I) a 17 (0,36%). El proceso implicado en los EM ocurridos (categorias B a I) con mayor frecuencia fue la prescripcion (n = 1.758, 37,3%), seguido por la dispensacion (n = 1.737, 36,9%), la transcripcion (n = 970, 20,6%) y, por ultimo, la administracion (n = 242, 5,1%). Los errores relacionados con los procesos de administracion aumentaban 45,2 veces el riesgo de que el medicamento erroneo afectara al paciente (IC 95% 20,2-100,9). Conclusiones: es necesario aumentar la cobertura de los sistemas de reporte de errores de medicacion, y crear estrategias para su prevencion, especialmente en la etapa de administracion del medicamento.
Wholey, Douglas; Moscovice, Ira; Hietpas, Terry; Holtzman, Jeremy
The environmental context of patient safety and medical errors was explored with specific interest in rural settings. Special attention was paid to unique features of rural health care organizations and their environment that relate to the patient safety issue and medical errors (including the distribution of patients, types of adverse events…
Belanger, April; Devine, Lauren T.; Lane, Aaron; Condren, Michelle E.
This study described discharge prescription medication errors written for emergency department patients. This study used content analysis in a cross-sectional design to systematically categorize prescription errors found in a report of 1000 discharge prescriptions submitted in the electronic medical record in February 2015. Two pharmacy team members reviewed the discharge prescription list for errors. Open-ended data were coded by an additional rater for agreement on coding categories. Coding was based upon majority rule. Descriptive statistics were used to address the study objective. Categories evaluated were patient age, provider type, drug class, and type and time of error. The discharge prescription error rate out of 1000 prescriptions was 13.4%, with “incomplete or inadequate prescription” being the most commonly detected error (58.2%). The adult and pediatric error rates were 11.7% and 22.7%, respectively. The antibiotics reviewed had the highest number of errors. The highest within-class error rates were with antianginal medications, antiparasitic medications, antacids, appetite stimulants, and probiotics. Emergency medicine residents wrote the highest percentage of prescriptions (46.7%) and had an error rate of 9.2%. Residents of other specialties wrote 340 prescriptions and had an error rate of 20.9%. Errors occurred most often between 10:00 am and 6:00 pm.
having the disease • Believe disease is not serious • Low health literacy • Cost of medication • Too many medications • Medication side effects • Poor...Scientific Sessions; 1997 Jun 21–24; Boston, MA. 21. Wagner EH, Sandhu N, Newton KM, et al. Effect of improved glycemic control on health care costs and...adverse events, disability, death, and excess medical care costs . This paper addresses three specific objectives: (1) to present a conceptual model of
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Flannery, Alexander H; Parli, Sara E
PubMed/MEDLINE (1966-November 2014) was searched to identify relevant published studies on the overall frequency, types, and examples of medication errors during medical emergencies involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation and related situations, and the breakdown by type of error. The overall frequency of medication errors during medical emergencies, specifically situations related to resuscitation, is highly variable. Medication errors during such emergencies, particularly cardiopulmonary resuscitation and surrounding events, are not well characterized in the literature but may be more frequent than previously thought. Depending on whether research methods included database mining, simulation, or prospective observation of clinical practice, reported occurrence of medication errors during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and surrounding events has ranged from less than 1% to 50%. Because of the chaos of the resuscitation environment, errors in prescribing, dosing, preparing, labeling, and administering drugs are prone to occur. System-based strategies, such as infusion pump policies and code cart management, as well as personal strategies exist to minimize medication errors during emergency situations.
Li, Wei-jia; Quan, Jian-guo
Preventive maintenance of medical equipment can be helpful in improving the efficiency of medical devices, establishing a standardized management and plan, a classification of maintenance of medical devices, inspection tour of devices and operating condition of dynamic monitoring devices. It has benefit in prolonging the useful life of medical devices, reducing maintenance cost and improving management and service quality.
Garfield, Sara; Vincent, Charles; Franklin, Bryony Dean
Purpose Medications are mostly taken in patients’ own homes, increasingly administered by carers, yet studies of medication safety have been largely conducted in the hospital setting. We aimed to review studies of how carers cause and/or prevent medication administration errors (MAEs) within the patient’s home; to identify types, prevalence and causes of these MAEs and any interventions to prevent them. Methods A narrative systematic review of literature published between 1 Jan 1946 and 23 Sep 2013 was carried out across the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, COCHRANE and CINAHL. Empirical studies were included where carers were responsible for preventing/causing MAEs in the home and standardised tools used for data extraction and quality assessment. Results Thirty-six papers met the criteria for narrative review, 33 of which included parents caring for children, two predominantly comprised adult children and spouses caring for older parents/partners, and one focused on paid carers mostly looking after older adults. The carer administration error rate ranged from 1.9 to 33% of medications administered and from 12 to 92.7% of carers administering medication. These included dosage errors, omitted administration, wrong medication and wrong time or route of administration. Contributory factors included individual carer factors (e.g. carer age), environmental factors (e.g. storage), medication factors (e.g. number of medicines), prescription communication factors (e.g. comprehensibility of instructions), psychosocial factors (e.g. carer-to-carer communication), and care-recipient factors (e.g. recipient age). The few interventions effective in preventing MAEs involved carer training and tailored equipment. Conclusion This review shows that home medication administration errors made by carers are a potentially serious patient safety issue. Carers made similar errors to those made by professionals in other contexts and a wide variety of contributory factors were
La Pietra, L; Calligaris, L; Molendini, L; Quattrin, R; Brusaferro, S
Medical errors represent a serious public health problem and pose a threat to patient safety. All patients are potentially vulnerable, therefore medical errors are costly from a human, economic, and social viewpoint. The present report aims not only to provide an overview of the problem on the basis of the published literature, but also to stress the importance of adopting standard terminology and classifications, fundamental tools for researchers to obtain valid and reliable methods for error identification and reporting. In fact, agreement on standard definitions allows comparison of data in different contexts. Errors can be classified according to their outcome, the setting where they take place (inpatient, outpatient), the kind of procedure involved (medication, surgery, etc.) or the probability of occurring (high, low). Error categories are analysed taking into consideration their prevalence, avoidance and associated factors as well as the different strategies for detecting medical errors. Incident reporting and documentation of near-misses are described as useful sources of information, and Healthcare Failure Mode Effect Analysis (HFMEA) and Root Cause Analysis (RCA) are seen as powerful methods for process analysis. Furthermore, means to increase patient safety are considered in the broader context of clinical risk management. New approaches in the field of medical errors are aimed at minimizing the recurrence of avoidable patterns associated with higher error rate. A system approach and a blame-free environment, aimed at better organizational performances, lead to much better results than focusing on individuals. Furthermore, use of technology, information accessibility, communication, patient collaboration and multi-professional team-work are successful strategies to reach the goal of patient safety within healthcare organizations.
Kapelusznik, Luciano; Prakash, Kavitha; Gonzalez, Javier; Orta, Lurmag Y.; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Changrani, Jyotsna
Background Twenty-two million Americans have limited English proficiency. Interpreting for limited English proficient patients is intended to enhance communication and delivery of quality medical care. Objective Little is known about the impact of various interpreting methods on interpreting speed and errors. This investigation addresses this important gap. Design Four scripted clinical encounters were used to enable the comparison of equivalent clinical content. These scripts were run across four interpreting methods, including remote simultaneous, remote consecutive, proximate consecutive, and proximate ad hoc interpreting. The first 3 methods utilized professional, trained interpreters, whereas the ad hoc method utilized untrained staff. Measurements Audiotaped transcripts of the encounters were coded, using a prespecified algorithm to determine medical error and linguistic error, by coders blinded to the interpreting method. Encounters were also timed. Results Remote simultaneous medical interpreting (RSMI) encounters averaged 12.72 vs 18.24 minutes for the next fastest mode (proximate ad hoc) (p = 0.002). There were 12 times more medical errors of moderate or greater clinical significance among utterances in non-RSMI encounters compared to RSMI encounters (p = 0.0002). Conclusions Whereas limited by the small number of interpreters involved, our study found that RSMI resulted in fewer medical errors and was faster than non-RSMI methods of interpreting. PMID:17957418
Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott
Emphasis on participatory medicine requires that patients and consumers participate in tasks traditionally reserved for healthcare providers. This includes reading and comprehending medical documents, often but not necessarily in the context of interacting with Personal Health Records (PHRs). Research suggests that while giving patients access to medical documents has many benefits (e.g., improved patient-provider communication), lay people often have difficulty understanding medical information. Informatics can address the problem by developing tools that support comprehension; this requires in-depth understanding of the nature and causes of errors that lay people make when comprehending clinical documents. The objective of this study was to develop a classification scheme of comprehension errors, based on lay individuals’ retellings of two documents containing clinical text: a description of a clinical trial and a typical office visit note. While not comprehensive, the scheme can serve as a foundation of further development of a taxonomy of patients’ comprehension errors. Eighty participants, all healthy volunteers, read and retold two medical documents. A data-driven content analysis procedure was used to extract and classify retelling errors. The resulting hierarchical classification scheme contains nine categories and twenty-three subcategories. The most common error made by the participants involved incorrectly recalling brand names of medications. Other common errors included misunderstanding clinical concepts, misreporting the objective of a clinical research study and physician’s findings during a patient’s visit, and confusing and misspelling clinical terms. A combination of informatics support and health education is likely to improve the accuracy of lay comprehension of medical documents. PMID:22925723
Krzyzaniak, Natalia; Bajorek, Beata
Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the medication errors in hospitalized patients, comparing those in neonates with medication errors across the age spectrum. Method: In tier 1, PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar were searched, using selected MeSH terms relating to hospitalized paediatric, adult and elderly populations. Tier 2 involved a search of the same electronic databases for literature relating to hospitalized neonatal patients. Results: A total of 58 articles were reviewed. Medication errors were well documented in each patient group. Overall, prescribing and administration errors were most commonly identified across each population, and mostly related to errors in dosing. Errors due to patient misidentification and overdosing were particularly prevalent in neonates, with 47% of administration errors involving at least tenfold overdoses. Unique errors were identified in elderly patients, comprising duplication of therapy and unnecessary prescribing of medicines. Overall, the medicines most frequently identified with error across each patient group included: heparin, antibiotics, insulin, morphine and parenteral nutrition. While neonatal patients experience the same types of medication errors as other hospitalized patients, the medication-use process within this group is more complex and has greater consequences resulting from error. Suggested strategies to help overcome medication error most commonly involved the integration of a clinical pharmacist into the treating team. Conclusion: This review highlights that each step of the medication-use process is prone to error across the age spectrum. Further research is required to develop targeted strategies relevant to specific patient groups that integrate key pharmacy services into wards. PMID:27298721
da Silva, Brianna A.; Krishnamurthy, Mahesh
Case description A 71-year-old female accidentally received thiothixene (Navane), an antipsychotic, instead of her anti-hypertensive medication amlodipine (Norvasc) for 3 months. She sustained physical and psychological harm including ambulatory dysfunction, tremors, mood swings, and personality changes. Despite the many opportunities for intervention, multiple health care providers overlooked her symptoms. Discussion Errors occurred at multiple care levels, including prescribing, initial pharmacy dispensation, hospitalization, and subsequent outpatient follow-up. This exemplifies the Swiss Cheese Model of how errors can occur within a system. Adverse drug events (ADEs) account for more than 3.5 million physician office visits and 1 million emergency department visits each year. It is believed that preventable medication errors impact more than 7 million patients and cost almost $21 billion annually across all care settings. About 30% of hospitalized patients have at least one discrepancy on discharge medication reconciliation. Medication errors and ADEs are an underreported burden that adversely affects patients, providers, and the economy. Conclusion Medication reconciliation including an ‘indication review’ for each prescription is an important aspect of patient safety. The decreasing frequency of pill bottle reviews, suboptimal patient education, and poor communication between healthcare providers are factors that threaten patient safety. Medication error and ADEs cost billions of health care dollars and are detrimental to the provider–patient relationship. PMID:27609720
Ciminera, J L; Lease, M P
There is a need to monitor reported medication errors in a hospital setting. Because the quantity of errors vary due to external reporting, quantifying the data is extremely difficult. Typically, these errors are reviewed using classification systems that often have wide variations in the numbers per class per month. The authors recommend the use of control charts to review historical data and to monitor future data. The procedure they have adopted is a modification of schemes using absolute (i.e., positive) values of successive differences to estimate the standard deviation when only single incidence values are available in time rather than sample averages, and when many successive differences may be zero.
Mixon, Amanda S.; Myers, Amy P.; Leak, Cardella L.; Mary Lou Jacobsen, J.; Cawthon, Courtney; Goggins, Kathryn M.; Nwosu, Samuel; Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Schnelle, John F.; Speroff, Theodore; Kripalani, Sunil
Objective To examine the association of patient- and medication-related factors with post-discharge medication errors. Patients and Methods The Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study (VICS) includes adults hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and/or acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). We measured health literacy, subjective numeracy, marital status, cognition, social support, education, income, depression, global health status, and medication adherence in patients enrolled between October 2011 and August 2012. We used binomial logistic regression to determine predictors of discordance between the discharge medication list and patient-reported list during post-discharge medication review. Results Among 471 patients, mean age was 59 years; mean total number of medications reported was 12; and 17% had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Half (51%) of patients had ≥1 one discordant medication (i.e., appeared either on the discharge or patient-reported list but not both); 27% failed to report a medication on their discharge list; and 36% reported a medication not on their discharge list. Additionally, 59% had a misunderstanding in indication, dose, or frequency in a cardiac medication. In multivariable analyses, higher subjective numeracy (Odds Ratio (OR)=0.81, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.67-0.98) was associated with lower odds of having discordant medications. For cardiac medications, participants with higher health literacy (OR=0.84, CI 0.74-0.95), higher subjective numeracy (OR=0.77, CI 0.63-0.95), and who were female (OR=0.60, CI 0.46-0.78) had lower odds of misunderstandings in indication, dose, or frequency. Conclusion Medication errors are present in approximately half of patients following hospital discharge and are more common among patients with lower numeracy or health literacy. PMID:24998906
Costantino, Giorgio; Casazza, Giovanni; Cernuschi, Giulia; Solbiati, Monica; Birocchi, Simone; Ceriani, Elisa; Duca, Piergiorgio; Montano, Nicola
The editorial and peer-review processes should guarantee readers as to the reliability of published data. The first step of these processes is to check for errors. The aim of our study was to look for the presence of objective errors in consecutive articles published on three of the most authoritative clinical journals. Two reviewers evaluated the presence of any error in 200 consecutive original articles containing at least two tables, allowing a reanalysis of the data, published between October 2010 and April 2011. Error was considered any action different from what was planned. Errors were listed as: methodological, numerical and slips. They were considered as severe if numbers in the abstract were completely different from numbers reported in the full text. Among the 125 articles included in the study, 102 (82 %, 95 % CI 74-88 %) contained some kind of error, even multiple. Nine articles (7 %, 95 % CI 3-13 %) contained one slip, 92 articles (74 %, 95 % CI 65-81 %) contained at least one numerical error, and 22 articles (18 %, 95 % CI 11-25 %) contained one methodological error. Five articles (4 %, 95 % CI 1-9 %) contained one serious error. None of the errors retrieved (0 %, 95 % CI 0-2 %) would have changed the results of the studies. Most of the articles published in the most important medical journals present mistakes. Our results could be a clue to editorial and peer review systems system weaknesses. A debate within the scientific medical community about these systems, and possible alternative adjustments are needed.
Anderson, M E; McKeag, M S; Trahey, G E
The results of a quantitative study of the impact of sound speed errors on the spatial resolution and amplitude sensitivity of a commercial medical ultrasound scanner are presented in the context of their clinical significance. The beamforming parameters of the scanner were manipulated to produce sound speed errors ranging over +/-8% while imaging a wire target and an attenuating, speckle-generating phantom. For the wire target, these errors produced increases in lateral beam width of up to 320% and reductions in peak echo amplitude of up to 10.5 dB. In the speckle-generating phantom, these errors produced increases in speckle intensity correlation cell area of up to 92% and reductions in mean speckle brightness of up to 5.6 dB. These results are applied in statistical analyses of two detection tasks of clinical relevance. The first is of low contrast lesion detectability, predicting the changes in the correct decision probability as a function of lesion size, contrast, and sound speed error. The second is of point target detectability, predicting the changes in the correct decision probability as function of point target reflectivity and sound speed error. Representative results of these analyses are presented and their implications for clinical imaging are discussed. In general, sound speed errors have a more significant impact on point target detectability over lesion detectability by these analyses, producing up to a 22% reduction in correct decisions for a typical error.
Salmasi, Shahrzad; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hong, Yet Hoi; Ming, Long Chiau; Wong, Tin Wui
Background Medication error (ME) is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region. Methods The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages) that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages. Results The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional. Discussion The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed. PMID:26340679
Benjamin, David M
Today, reducing medication errors and improving patient safety have become common topics of discussion for the president of the United States, federal and state legislators, the insurance industry, pharmaceutical companies, health care professionals, and patients. But this is not news to clinical pharmacologists. Improving the judicious use of medications and minimizing adverse drug reactions have always been key areas of research and study for those working in clinical pharmacology. However, added to the older terms of adverse drug reactions and rational therapeutics, the now politically correct expression of medication error has emerged. Focusing on the word error has drawn attention to "prevention" and what can be done to minimize mistakes and improve patient safety. Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary has several definitions of error, but the one that seems to be most appropriate in the context of medication errors is "an act that through ingnorance, deficiency, or accident departs from or fails to achieve what should be done." What should be done is generally known as "the five rights": the right drug, right dose, right route, right time, and right patient. One can make an error of omission (failure to act correctly) or an error of commission (acted incorrectly). This article now summarizes what is currently known about medication errors and translates the information into case studies illustrating common scenarios leading to medication errors. Each case is analyzed to provide insight into how the medication error could have been prevented. "System errors" are described, and the application of failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) is presented to determine the part of the "safety net" that failed. Examples of reengineering the system to make it more "error proof" are presented. An error can be prevented. However, the practice of medicine, pharmacy, and nursing in the hospital setting is very complicated, and so many steps occur from "pen to patient" that there
Given the complexity of the intravenous medication process, systematic thinking is essential to reduce medication errors. Two thousand eight hundred cases of 'Hiyari-Hatto' were analyzed. Eight important factors which cause intravenous medication error were clarified as a result. In the following I summarize the systematic approach for each factor. 1. Failed communication of information: illegible handwritten orders, and inaccurate verbal orders and copying cause medication error. Rules must be established to prevent miscommunication. 2. Error-prone design of the hardware: Look-alike packaging and labeling of drugs and the poor design of infusion pumps cause errors. The human-hardware interface should be improved by error-resistant design by manufacturers. 3. Patient names similar to simultaneously operating surgical procedures and interventions: This factor causes patient misidentification. Automated identification devices should be introduced into health care settings. 4. Interruption in the middle of tasks: The efficient assignment of medical work and business work should be made. 5. Inaccurate mixing procedure and insufficient mixing space: Mixing procedures must be standardized and the layout of the working space must be examined. 6. Time pressure: Mismatch between workload and manpower should be improved by reconsidering the work to be done. 7. Lack of information about high alert medications: The pharmacist should play a greater role in the medication process overall. 8. Poor knowledge and skill of recent graduates: Training methods and tools to prevent medication errors must be developed.
Tovar-Bobo, M; Cerecedo-Pérez, M J; Rozadilla-Arias, A
Society has shifted issues of subjective and social reality of the population into the medical field, with the obsession with perfect health becoming a predominant pathogenic factor in the increase in the number of diseases and patients, while the level of health in the population is improving. The power of medicine has made the idea of «medicalising» various aspects of life that can be perceived as medical problems as attractive even when it is not the case. Living entails times of unhappiness and anguish but, should we treat these episodes? We are in the health culture of «everything, here and now». In this article, the ethical implications of unnecessary interventions are analysed, along with the different alternatives that the professionals involved may perform to redirect this situation. It is reflected if we want a world where we all risk wearing labels for this or that disease.
Laha, Baisakhi; Hazra, Avijit
Labetalol, a combined alfa and beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, is used as an antihypertensive drug. We report a case of an acute rise in blood pressure and lower limb pain due to the inadvertent intrathecal administration of labetalol, mistaking it for bupivacaine, during obstetric anesthesia. The situation was rescued by converting to general anesthesia. The cesarean delivery was uneventful, and mother as well as newborn child showed no ill-effect. This particular medication error was attributable to a failure on the part of the doctors administering the injection to read and cross-check medication labels and the practice of keeping multiple injections together. In the absence of an organized medication error reporting system and action on that basis, such events may recur in future. PMID:26288484
Pinto, Jose Miguel; Arrieta, Cristobal; Andia, Marcelo E; Uribe, Sergio; Ramos-Grez, Jorge; Vargas, Alex; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Tejos, Cristian
Additive manufacturing (AM) models are used in medical applications for surgical planning, prosthesis design and teaching. For these applications, the accuracy of the AM models is essential. Unfortunately, this accuracy is compromised due to errors introduced by each of the building steps: image acquisition, segmentation, triangulation, printing and infiltration. However, the contribution of each step to the final error remains unclear. We performed a sensitivity analysis comparing errors obtained from a reference with those obtained modifying parameters of each building step. Our analysis considered global indexes to evaluate the overall error, and local indexes to show how this error is distributed along the surface of the AM models. Our results show that the standard building process tends to overestimate the AM models, i.e. models are larger than the original structures. They also show that the triangulation resolution and the segmentation threshold are critical factors, and that the errors are concentrated at regions with high curvatures. Errors could be reduced choosing better triangulation and printing resolutions, but there is an important need for modifying some of the standard building processes, particularly the segmentation algorithms.
Lent, V; Smentkowski, U; Weber, B; Brummeisl, W
In liability law, a medical review is considered to be an expert opinion that is provided at the request of those involved (patient or physician) of a course of treatment. It must be carried out according to defined criteria with the aim of providing a plausible basis for arbitration. This is achieved by means of an objective determination of the facts, a reasonable assessment of the error(s) and (where appropriate) a realistic description of the injury involved. The following fields should be covered in a concise review: conditions and procedures applied to the review, criteria to be used in the review, types of error that are possible during the treatment, assessment of the treatment errors committed, possible treatment errors that can occur in urology, conclusions to be drawn from the review. In summary, a medical assessment carried out in the course of claims for damages should provide a balanced assessment that takes into account the confidential relationship between the physician and patient. This means that the review procedure must be performed under the best possible conditions for professional standards and care.
Lahue, Betsy J.; Pyenson, Bruce; Iwasaki, Kosuke; Blumen, Helen E.; Forray, Susan; Rothschild, Jeffrey M.
Background Harmful medication errors, or preventable adverse drug events (ADEs), are a prominent quality and cost issue in healthcare. Injectable medications are important therapeutic agents, but they are associated with a greater potential for serious harm than oral medications. The national burden of preventable ADEs associated with inpatient injectable medications and the associated medical professional liability (MPL) costs have not been previously described in the literature. Objective To quantify the economic burden of preventable ADEs related to inpatient injectable medications in the United States. Methods Medical error data (MedMarx 2009–2011) were utilized to derive the distribution of errors by injectable medication types. Hospital data (Premier 2010–2011) identified the numbers and the types of injections per hospitalization. US payer claims (2009–2010 MarketScan Commercial and Medicare 5% Sample) were used to calculate the incremental cost of ADEs by payer and by diagnosis-related group (DRG). The incremental cost of ADEs was defined as inclusive of the time of inpatient admission and the following 4 months. Actuarial calculations, assumptions based on published literature, and DRG proportions from 17 state discharge databases were used to derive the probability of preventable ADEs per hospitalization and their annual costs. MPL costs were assessed from state- and national-level industry reports, premium rates, and from closed claims databases between 1990 and 2011. The 2010 American Hospital Association database was used for hospital-level statistics. All costs were adjusted to 2013 dollars. Results Based on this medication-level analysis of reported harmful errors and the frequency of inpatient administrations with actuarial projections, we estimate that preventable ADEs associated with injectable medications impact 1.2 million hospitalizations annually. Using a matched cohort analysis of healthcare claims as a basis for evaluating incremental
Barger, Laura K; Ayas, Najib T; Cade, Brian E; Cronin, John W; Rosner, Bernard; Speizer, Frank E; Czeisler, Charles A
Background A recent randomized controlled trial in critical-care units revealed that the elimination of extended-duration work shifts (≥24 h) reduces the rates of significant medical errors and polysomnographically recorded attentional failures. This raised the concern that the extended-duration shifts commonly worked by interns may contribute to the risk of medical errors being made, and perhaps to the risk of adverse events more generally. Our current study assessed whether extended-duration shifts worked by interns are associated with significant medical errors, adverse events, and attentional failures in a diverse population of interns across the United States. Methods and Findings We conducted a Web-based survey, across the United States, in which 2,737 residents in their first postgraduate year (interns) completed 17,003 monthly reports. The association between the number of extended-duration shifts worked in the month and the reporting of significant medical errors, preventable adverse events, and attentional failures was assessed using a case-crossover analysis in which each intern acted as his/her own control. Compared to months in which no extended-duration shifts were worked, during months in which between one and four extended-duration shifts and five or more extended-duration shifts were worked, the odds ratios of reporting at least one fatigue-related significant medical error were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3–3.7) and 7.5 (95% CI, 7.2–7.8), respectively. The respective odds ratios for fatigue-related preventable adverse events, 8.7 (95% CI, 3.4–22) and 7.0 (95% CI, 4.3–11), were also increased. Interns working five or more extended-duration shifts per month reported more attentional failures during lectures, rounds, and clinical activities, including surgery and reported 300% more fatigue-related preventable adverse events resulting in a fatality. Conclusions In our survey, extended-duration work shifts were associated with an
Patel, Nrupal; Desai, Mira; Shah, Samdih; Patel, Prakruti; Gandhi, Anuradha
Objective: To determine the nature and types of medication errors (MEs), to evaluate occurrence of drug-drug interactions (DDIs), and assess rationality of prescription orders in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A prospective, observational study was conducted in General Medicine and Pediatric ward of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad during October 2012 to January 2014. MEs were categorized as prescription error, dispensing error, and administration error (AE). The case records and treatment charts were reviewed. The investigator also accompanied the staff nurse during the ward rounds and interviewed patients or care taker to gather information, if necessary. DDIs were assessed by Medscape Drug Interaction Checker software (version 4.4). Rationality of prescriptions was assessed using Phadke's criteria. Results: A total of 1109 patients (511 in Medicine and 598 in Pediatric ward) were included during the study period. Total number of MEs was 403 (36%) of which, 195 (38%) were in Medicine and 208 (35%) were in Pediatric wards. The most common ME was PEs 262 (65%) followed by AEs 126 (31%). A potential significant DDIs were observed in 191 (17%) and serious DDIs in 48 (4%) prescriptions. Majority of prescriptions were semirational 555 (53%) followed by irrational 317 (30%), while 170 (17%) prescriptions were rational. Conclusion: There is a need to establish ME reporting system to reduce its incidence and improve patient care and safety. PMID:27843792
Parshuram, Christopher S.; To, Teresa; Seto, Winnie; Trope, Angela; Koren, Gideon; Laupacis, Andreas
Introduction Errors in the concentration of intravenous medications are not uncommon. We evaluated steps in the infusion-preparation process to identify factors associated with preventable medication errors. Methods We included 118 health care professionals who would be involved in the preparation of intravenous medication infusions as part of their regular clinical activities. Participants performed 5 infusion-preparation tasks (drug-volume calculation, rounding, volume measurement, dose-volume calculation, mixing) and prepared 4 morphine infusions to specified concentrations. The primary outcome was the occurrence of error (deviation of > 5% for volume measurement and > 10% for other measures). The secondary outcome was the magnitude of error. Results Participants performed 1180 drug-volume calculations, 1180 rounding calculations and made 1767 syringe-volume measurements, and they prepared 464 morphine infusions. We detected errors in 58 (4.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7% to 6.2%) drug-volume calculations, 30 (2.5%, 95% CI 1.6% to 3.4%) rounding calculations and 29 (1.6%, 95% CI 1.1% to 2.2%) volume measurements. We found 7 errors (1.6%, 95% CI 0.4% to 2.7%) in drug mixing. Of the 464 infusion preparations, 161 (34.7%, 95% CI 30.4% to 39%) contained concentration errors. Calculator use was associated with fewer errors in dose-volume calculations (4% v. 10%, p = 0.001). Four factors were positively associated with the occurence of a concentration error: fewer infusions prepared in the previous week (p = 0.007), increased number of years of professional experience (p = 0.01), the use of the more concentrated stock solution (p < 0.001) and the preparation of smaller dose volumes (p < 0.001). Larger magnitude errors were associated with fewer hours of sleep in the previous 24 hours (p = 0.02), the use of more concentrated solutions (p < 0.001) and preparation of smaller infusion doses (p < 0.001). Interpretation Our data suggest that the reduction of provider
... Practices to Reduce Medication Errors; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... Packaging Practices to Reduce Medication Errors.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to initiate... practices to develop proprietary names to reduce medication errors. The input from this workshop will...
Comer, Rachel; Lizer, Mitsi
A 69-year-old Caucasian male with a 25-year history of paranoid schizophrenia was brought to the emergency department because of violence toward the staff in his nursing facility. He was diagnosed with a urinary tract infection and was admitted to the behavioral health unit for medication stabilization. History included a five-year state psychiatric hospital admission and nursing facility placement. Because of poor cognitive function, the patient was unable to corroborate medication history, so the pharmacy student on rotation performed an in-depth chart review. The review revealed a transcription error in 2003 deleting amantadine 100 mg twice daily and adding amiodarone 100 mg twice daily. Subsequent hospitalization resulted in another transcription error increasing the amiodarone to 200 mg twice daily. All electrocardiograms conducted were negative for atrial fibrillation. Once detected, the consulted cardiologist discontinued the amiodarone, and the primary care provider was notified via letter and discharge papers. An admission four months later revealed that the nursing facility restarted the amiodarone. Amiodarone was discontinued and the facility was again notified. This case reviews how a 10-year-old medication error went undetected in the electronic medical records through numerous medication reconciliations, but was uncovered when a single comprehensive medication review was conducted.
Milch, Catherine E; Salem, Deeb N; Pauker, Stephen G; Lundquist, Thomas G; Kumar, Sanjaya; Chen, Jack
OBJECTIVE To describe the rate and types of events reported in acute care hospitals using an electronic error reporting system (e-ERS). DESIGN Descriptive study of reported events using the same e-ERS between January 1, 2001 and September 30, 2003. SETTING Twenty-six acute care nonfederal hospitals throughout the U.S. that voluntarily implemented a web-based e-ERS for at least 3 months. PARTICIPANTS Hospital employees and staff. INTERVENTION A secure, standardized, commercially available web-based reporting system. RESULTS Median duration of e-ERS use was 21 months (range 3 to 33 months). A total of 92,547 reports were obtained during 2,547,154 patient-days. Reporting rates varied widely across hospitals (9 to 95 reports per 1,000 inpatient-days; median=35). Registered nurses provided nearly half of the reports; physicians contributed less than 2%. Thirty-four percent of reports were classified as nonmedication-related clinical events, 33% as medication/infusion related, 13% were falls, 13% as administrative, and 6% other. Among 80% of reports that identified level of impact, 53% were events that reached a patient (“patient events”), 13% were near misses that did not reach the patient, and 14% were hospital environment problems. Among 49,341 patient events, 67% caused no harm, 32% temporary harm, 0.8% life threatening or permanent harm, and 0.4% contributed to patient deaths. CONCLUSIONS An e-ERS provides an accessible venue for reporting medical errors, adverse events, and near misses. The wide variation in reporting rates among hospitals, and very low reporting rates by physicians, requires investigation. PMID:16390502
Fasolino, Tracy; Snyder, Rita
Clinical unit nurse characteristics, practice environment, and team member effectiveness are assumed to play a critical role in medication safety. This study used a multimethod approach to examine the association of these factors with medication errors. Findings suggested that older, more experienced registered nurses made less medication errors. Environment and team member effectiveness were not strongly associated with medication error incidence. Numerous system factors limited implementation and outcomes of this safety study and are discussed.
Yu, Yao-Chang; Hou, Ting-Wei; Chiang, Tzu-Chiang
An Institute of Medicine Report stated there are 98,000 people annually who die due to medication related errors in the United States, and hospitals and other medical institutions are thus being pressed to use technologies to reduce such errors. One approach is to provide a suitable protocol that can cooperate with low cost RFID tags in order to identify patients. However, existing low cost RFID tags lack computational power and it is almost impossible to equip them with security functions, such as keyed hash function. To address this issue, a so a real lightweight binding proof protocol is proposed in this paper. The proposed protocol uses only logic gates (e.g. AND, XOR, ADD) to achieve the goal of proving that two tags exist in the field simultaneously, without the need for any complicated security algorithms. In addition, various scenarios are provider to explain the process of adopting this binding proof protocol with regard to guarding patient safety and preventing medication errors.
Reducing the number of preventable adverse events has become a public health issue. The paper discusses in which ways the law can contribute to that goal, especially by encouraging a culture of safety among healthcare professionals. It assesses the need or the usefulness to pass so-called disclosure laws and apology laws, to adopt mandatory but strictly confidential Critical Incidents Reporting Systems in hospitals, to change the fault-based system of medical liability or to amend the rules on criminal liability. The paper eventually calls for adding the law to the present agenda of patient safety. Significance for public health The extent of preventable adverse events and the correlative need to improve patient safety are recognized today as a public health issue. In order to lower the toll associated with preventable adverse events, the former culture of professionalism (based on the premise that a good physician doesn’t make mistakes) must be replaced by a culture of safety, which requires a multi-pronged approach that includes all the main stakeholders within the healthcare system. A number of legal reforms could help in prompting such a change. This contribution stresses the need to include legal aspects when trying to find appropriate responses to public health issues. PMID:25170502
Surgical errors recorded between 2002 and 2008 in a US medical liability insurance database have been analysed. Twenty-five wrong-patient procedures were recorded, resulting in 5 serious adverse events: three unnecessary prostatectomies were performed after prostate biopsy samples were mislabelled; vitrectomy was performed on the wrong patient in an ophthalmology department after confusion between two patients with identical names; and a child scheduled for adenoidectomy received a tympanic drain. There were also 107 wrong-site procedures, with one death resulting from implantation of a pleural drain on the wrong side. Another 38 patients experienced significant harm: 5 patients had surgery on the wrong vertebrae; 4 had chest tubes placed on the wrong side; 4 underwent vascular surgery at the wrong site; and 4 underwent resection of the wrong segment of the intestine. In addition, there were: 4 organ resection errors; 6 wrong-site or wrong-sided limb surgeries; 2 wrong-sided ovariectomies; 2 wrong-sided eye operations; 2 wrong-sided craniotomies; 2 wrong-sided ureteric procedures; 1 wrong-sided maxillofacial operation; and 2 radiation therapy field errors. Most errors were due to poor communication, incorrect diagnosis, or failure to implement a final set of preoperative checks. Other studies conducted in the United Kingdom and the United States have provided similar results, while data are lacking in France. The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist is an effective way of preventing such errors but its adoption by healthcare professionals is variable. In practice, surgical errors involving the wrong patient or wrong body site are preventable. Final pre-operative checks must be applied methodically and systematically.This includes asking the patient to confirm his/her identity and the intended site of the operation. Healthcare staff must be aware of these measures.
Pegler, Joe; Lehane, Elaine; Livingstone, Vicki; McCarthy, Nora; Sahm, Laura J.; Tabirca, Sabin; O’Driscoll, Aoife; Corrigan, Mark
Background Patient safety requires optimal management of medications. Electronic systems are encouraged to reduce medication errors. Near field communications (NFC) is an emerging technology that may be used to develop novel medication management systems. Methods An NFC-based system was designed to facilitate prescribing, administration and review of medications commonly used on surgical wards. Final year medical, nursing, and pharmacy students were recruited to test the electronic system in a cross-over observational setting on a simulated ward. Medication errors were compared against errors recorded using a paper-based system. Results A significant difference in the commission of medication errors was seen when NFC and paper-based medication systems were compared. Paper use resulted in a mean of 4.09 errors per prescribing round while NFC prescribing resulted in a mean of 0.22 errors per simulated prescribing round (P=0.000). Likewise, medication administration errors were reduced from a mean of 2.30 per drug round with a Paper system to a mean of 0.80 errors per round using NFC (P<0.015). A mean satisfaction score of 2.30 was reported by users, (rated on seven-point scale with 1 denoting total satisfaction with system use and 7 denoting total dissatisfaction). Conclusions An NFC based medication system may be used to effectively reduce medication errors in a simulated ward environment. PMID:28293602
Matsubara, Kazuo; Toyama, Akira; Satoh, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Awaya, Toshio; Tasaki, Yoshikazu; Yasuoka, Toshiaki; Horiuchi, Ryuya
It is obvious that pharmacists play a critical role as risk managers in the healthcare system, especially in medication treatment. Hitherto, there is not a single multicenter-survey report describing the effectiveness of clinical pharmacists in preventing medical errors from occurring in the wards in Japan. Thus, we conducted a 1-month survey to elucidate the relationship between the number of errors and working hours of pharmacists in the ward, and verified whether the assignment of clinical pharmacists to the ward would prevent medical errors between October 1-31, 2009. Questionnaire items for the pharmacists at 42 national university hospitals and a medical institute included the total and the respective numbers of medication-related errors, beds and working hours of pharmacist in 2 internal medicine and 2 surgical departments in each hospital. Regardless of severity, errors were consecutively reported to the Medical Security and Safety Management Section in each hospital. The analysis of errors revealed that longer working hours of pharmacists in the ward resulted in less medication-related errors; this was especially significant in the internal medicine ward (where a variety of drugs were used) compared with the surgical ward. However, the nurse assignment mode (nurse/inpatients ratio: 1 : 7-10) did not influence the error frequency. The results of this survey strongly indicate that assignment of clinical pharmacists to the ward is critically essential in promoting medication safety and efficacy.
Pape, Tess M.
Causal factors contributing to errors in medication administration should be thoroughly investigated, focusing on systems rather than individual nurses. Unless systemic causes are addressed, many errors will go unreported for fear of reprisal. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)
El-Shazly, Ahmed N; Al-Azzouny, Mahmoud A; Soliman, Doaa R; Abed, Neveen T; Attia, Sameh S
This study was conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit of Benha University Hospital, Egypt from 1 August 2012 to the 31 January 2013 to identify medical errors and to determine the risk factors and consequences of these errors. Errors were detected by follow-up of neonates and review of reports including nursing followup sheets, resident progression notes and investigation reports. We detected 3819 errors that affected 97% of neonates. Types of errors included 403 medication errors (10.55% of total errors), 652 errors in daily routine procedures (17.07%), 1042 errors in invasive procedures (27.28%), 68 errors in nutrition (1.78%), 63 equipment errors (1.64%), 260 administration errors (6.8%), 656 staffing errors (17.18%), 107 environmental errors (2.8%), 448 infection control errors (11.73%) and 120 nosocomial infection errors (3.14%). Medical errors were high in low birth weight, low gestational age neonates and increased with duration of admission.
Anand, K; Saini, SK; Singh, BK; Veermaram, C
In the medical device field, there are a number of players, having quite different responsibilities and levels of understanding of the processes, but all with one common interest, that of ensuring the availability of sound medical devices to the general public. To assist in this very important process, there is a need for a common method for describing and identifying these medical devices in an unambiguous manner. The Global Medical Device Nomenclature (GMDN) now provides, for the first time, an international tool for identifying all medical devices, at the generic level, in a meaningful manner that can be understood by all users. Prior to the GMDN, many nomenclature systems existed, all built upon different structures, and used locally or nationally for special purposes, with unusual approaches. These diverse systems, although often workable in their own right, have had no impact on improving the overall situation of providing a common platform, whereby, medical devices could be correctly identified and the related data safely exchanged between the involved parties. Work by standard organizations such as, CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and ISO (International Organization for Standardization), from 1993 to 1996, resulted in a standard that specified a structure for a new nomenclature, for medical devices. In this article we are trying to explain GMDN as the prime method to reduce medical device errors, and to understand the concept of GMDN, to regulate the medical device throughout the globe. Here we also make an attempt to explain various aspects of the GMDN system, such as, the process of development of the GMDN-CEN report, purpose, benefits, and their structural considerations. In addition, there will be an explanation of the coding system, role of the GMDN agency, and their utilization in the unique device identification (UDI) System. Finally, the current area of focus and vision for the future are also mentioned. PMID:21264103
Colussi, G; De Ferrari, M E; Brunati, C; Civati, G
Despite revolutionary developments in minimally invasive methods for the removal of stones in the last 15 years, the medical prevention of urinary stones remains very rewarding, due to the continual increase in the prevalence of nephrolithiasis in western countries, the high recurrence rate of the disease, its complications, discomfort and the costs of lithotripsy. Medical prevention is highly effective (50-95% efficacy in different series) and cost-convenient; its basic elements are appropriate metabolic evaluation, adequate hydration, "common sense" diet, and, in selected cases, drugs of proven efficacy. Clinical-metabolic evaluation should aim at the recognition of specific types of nephrolithiasis, and sort out secondary and/or remediable cases, define urinary risk factors, assess patients' compliance and the side effects of any therapy during follow-up. Hydration has proved effective in clinical trials and population-based observational studies; "fluids" may consist of water (any kind), coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated), tea, beer and wine; grapefruit juice appears to have an unexplained ill effect. Despite the lack of clinical demonstration that dietary manipulations reduce the recurrences of stones, biochemical and epidemiological data suggest that high sodium, animal protein and sucrose intake increase the risk. Undue reductions in Ca intake also appear to be detrimental both for stone recurrences and bone mineralisation: "adequate" Ca intake (800-1000 mg/day) should be encouraged, but only in food since supplemental Ca, as drugs, appears to increase the risk of stones. Effective drugs are available for cystine, uric acid, infected stones and several secondary causes of Ca nephrolithiasis; in "idiopathic" Ca nephrolithiasis, thiazides, allopurinol, K and K-Mg citrate and possibly neutral K phosphate have been shown to be effective, at least in specific metabolic contexts.
Mendonça, Vitor Silva; Custódio, Eda Marconi
Medical error stems from inadequate professional conduct that is capable of producing harm to life or exacerbating the health of another, whether through act or omission. This situation has become increasingly common in Brazil and worldwide. In this study, the aim was to understand what being the victim of medical error is like and to investigate the circumstances imposed on this condition of victims in Brazil. A semi-structured interview was conducted with twelve people who had gone through situations of medical error in their lives, creating a space for narratives of their experiences and deep reflection on the phenomenon. The concept of medical error has a negative connotation, often being associated with the incompetence of a medical professional. Medical error in Brazil is demonstrated by low-quality professional performance and represents the current reality of the country because of the common lack of respect and consideration for patients. Victims often remark on their loss of identity, as their social functions have been interrupted and they do not expect to regain such. It was found, however, little assumption of error in the involved doctors’ discourses and attitudes, which felt a need to judge the medical conduct in an attempt to assert their rights. Medical error in Brazil presents a punitive character and is little discussed in medical and scientific circles. The stigma of medical error is closely connected to the value and cultural judgments of the country, making it difficult to accept, both by victims and professionals. PMID:27403461
Mendonça, Vitor Silva; Custódio, Eda Marconi
Medical error stems from inadequate professional conduct that is capable of producing harm to life or exacerbating the health of another, whether through act or omission. This situation has become increasingly common in Brazil and worldwide. In this study, the aim was to understand what being the victim of medical error is like and to investigate the circumstances imposed on this condition of victims in Brazil. A semi-structured interview was conducted with twelve people who had gone through situations of medical error in their lives, creating a space for narratives of their experiences and deep reflection on the phenomenon. The concept of medical error has a negative connotation, often being associated with the incompetence of a medical professional. Medical error in Brazil is demonstrated by low-quality professional performance and represents the current reality of the country because of the common lack of respect and consideration for patients. Victims often remark on their loss of identity, as their social functions have been interrupted and they do not expect to regain such. It was found, however, little assumption of error in the involved doctors' discourses and attitudes, which felt a need to judge the medical conduct in an attempt to assert their rights. Medical error in Brazil presents a punitive character and is little discussed in medical and scientific circles. The stigma of medical error is closely connected to the value and cultural judgments of the country, making it difficult to accept, both by victims and professionals.
Urban, Michal; Leššo, Roman; Pelclová, Daniela
The purpose of the article was to study unintentional pharmaceutical-related poisonings committed by laypersons that were reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic. Identifying frequency, sources, reasons and consequences of the medication errors in laypersons could help to reduce the overall rate of medication errors. Records of medication error enquiries from 2013 to 2014 were extracted from the electronic database, and the following variables were reviewed: drug class, dosage form, dose, age of the subject, cause of the error, time interval from ingestion to the call, symptoms, prognosis at the time of the call and first aid recommended. Of the calls, 1354 met the inclusion criteria. Among them, central nervous system-affecting drugs (23.6%), respiratory drugs (18.5%) and alimentary drugs (16.2%) were the most common drug classes involved in the medication errors. The highest proportion of the patients was in the youngest age subgroup 0-5 year-old (46%). The reasons for the medication errors involved the leaflet misinterpretation and mistaken dose (53.6%), mixing up medications (19.2%), attempting to reduce pain with repeated doses (6.4%), erroneous routes of administration (2.2%), psychiatric/elderly patients (2.7%), others (9.0%) or unknown (6.9%). A high proportion of children among the patients may be due to the fact that children's dosages for many drugs vary by their weight, and more medications come in a variety of concentrations. Most overdoses could be prevented by safer labelling, proper cap closure systems for liquid products and medication reconciliation by both physicians and pharmacists.
Eva, Kevin W.
This paper examines diagnostic error from an educational perspective. Rather than addressing the question of how educators in the health professions can help learners avoid error, however, the literature reviewed leads to the conclusion that educators should be working to induce error in learners, leading them to short term pain for long term…
Rodríguez Vargas, Blanca; Delgado Silveira, Eva; Iglesias Peinado, Irene; Bermejo Vicedo, Teresa
Background Care transitions are risk points for medication discrepancies, especially in the elderly. Objective This study was undertaken to assess prevalence and describe medication reconciliation errors during admission in elderly patients and to analyze associated risk factors. We also evaluate the effect of these errors on the length of hospital stay. Setting General surgery, orthopedics, internal medicines and infectious diseases departments of a 1070-bed Spanish teaching hospital. Method This is a prospective observational study. Patients >65 years and taking ≥5 medications were randomly selected from those admitted to hospital. The pharmacist obtained the best possible medication history based on medical records, medical notes from patients' previous admissions to hospital, "brown bag" review, community care prescriptions, and comprehensive patient interviews. It was compared to current inpatient prescription to detect unintentional discrepancies (discrepancy with no apparent clinical explanation), which were reported to the physician. When the physician accepted the discrepancy by changing the medication order, it was recorded as a medication reconciliation error and classified by type of error. Several variables were analyzed as possible risk/protective factors. Main outcome measure Is prevalence of medication reconciliation errors at admission. Results Reconciliation was performed on 206 patients. Medication reconciliation errors occurred in 49.5 % (102/206) of patients. 1996 medications were recorded, and 359 had unintentional discrepancies (56.0 % (201/359) medication reconciliation errors). The most common was omission (65.1 %). Identified risk factors were as follows: physician experience, number of pre-admission prescribed medications, and previous surgeries. Computerized order entry system was a protective factor. Conclusion Medication reconciliation errors occur in almost half of the elderly patients at admission, especially omissions. Risk
Medical care is frequently compared to aviation, as many of the factors which lead to errors in both fields are similar. In this article we review the literature on such events and discuss the ethical, legal and practical aspects of civil liability in the case of medical error. Ethics, professional policy and the law, as well as the relevant empirical literature, suggest that timely and candid disclosure should be standard practice. In harmonization to ethical codex, the physician is obliged to inform the patient about the origin of medical error. Civil liability is one of the most important parts of law that regulates health care service. Medical chambers could be having a very important role in alternative methods of medical error disciplinary screening proceedings. Guidelines for disclosure of medical error to patients, and their families if necessary, are proposed.
This review begins with the history of the events starting with the death of Libby Zion that lead to the Bell Commission, that the studied her death and made recommendations for improvement that were codified into law in New York state as the 405 law that the ACGME essentially adopted in putting a cap on work hours and establishing the level of staff supervision that must be available to residents in clinical situations particularly the emergency room and acute care units. A summary is then provided of the findings of the laboratory effects of total sleep deprivation including acute total sleep loss and the consequent widespread physiologic alterations, and of the effects of selective and chronic sleep loss. Generally the sequence of responses to increasing sleep loss goes from mood changes to cognitive effects to performance deficits. In the laboratory situation, deficits resulting from sleep deprivation are clearly and definitively demonstrable. Sleep loss in the clinical situation is usually sleep deprivation superimposed on chronic sleep loss. An examination of questionnaire studies, the literature on reports of sleep loss, studies of the reduction of work hours on performance as well as observational and a few interventional studies have yielded contradictory and often equivocal results. The residents generally find they feel better working fewer hours but improvements in patient care are often not reported or do not occur. A change in the attitude of the resident toward his role and his patient has not been salutary. Decreasing sleep loss should have had a positive effect on patient care in reducing medical error, but this remains to be unequivocally demonstrated. PMID:21188260
MacCourt, Duncan; Bernstein, Joseph
physicians cede their implicit "right to remain silent", even if some injured patients will receive less than they do today. Likewise, physicians will be happier with a system that avoids blame-even if this system placed strict requirements for high quality care and disclosure of error. We therefore conceive of de facto trade between patients and physicians, a Pareto improvement, taking form via the establishment of "Societies of Quality Medicine." Physicians working within these societies would consent to onerous processes for disclosing, rectifying and preventing medical error. Patients would in turn contractually agree to assert their claims in arbitration and with limits on recovery. The role of plaintiffs' lawyers would be unchanged, but due to increased disclosure, discovery costs would diminish and the likelihood of prevailing will more than triple. This article examines the legal and policy issues surrounding the establishment of Societies of Quality Medicine, particularly the issues of contracting over liability, and outlines a means of overcoming the theoretical and practical difficulties with enterprise liability, alternative dispute resolution and the imposition of limits on recovery for non-pecuniary damages. We aim to build a welfare enhancing system that rebuffs the culture of silence and promotes error reduction, a system that is at the same time legally sound, fiscally prudent and politically possible.
Vazin, Afsaneh; Zamani, Zahra; Hatam, Nahid
This study was conducted with the purpose of determining the frequency of medication errors (MEs) occurring in tertiary care emergency department (ED) of a large academic hospital in Iran. The incidence of MEs was determined through the disguised direct observation method conducted by a trained observer. A total of 1,031 medication doses administered to 202 patients admitted to the tertiary care ED were observed over a course of 54 6-hour shifts. Following collection of the data and analysis of the errors with the assistance of a clinical pharmacist, frequency of errors in the different stages was reported and analyzed in SPSS-21 software. For the 202 patients and the 1,031 medication doses evaluated in the present study, 707 (68.5%) MEs were recorded in total. In other words, 3.5 errors per patient and almost 0.69 errors per medication are reported to have occurred, with the highest frequency of errors pertaining to cardiovascular (27.2%) and antimicrobial (23.6%) medications. The highest rate of errors occurred during the administration phase of the medication use process with a share of 37.6%, followed by errors of prescription and transcription with a share of 21.1% and 10% of errors, respectively. Omission (7.6%) and wrong time error (4.4%) were the most frequent administration errors. The less-experienced nurses (P=0.04), higher patient-to-nurse ratio (P=0.017), and the morning shifts (P=0.035) were positively related to administration errors. Administration errors marked the highest share of MEs occurring in the different medication use processes. Increasing the number of nurses and employing the more experienced of them in EDs can help reduce nursing errors. Addressing the shortcomings with further research should result in reduction of MEs in EDs. PMID:25525391
... Practices to Reduce Medication Errors; Public Workshop; Change of Meeting Location AGENCY: Food and Drug... Practices to Reduce Medication Errors.'' A new address is given for those attending the workshop. DATES: The... on describing practices for naming, labeling, and packaging drugs and biologics to reduce...
Wolf, Zane Robinson; Hicks, Rodney; Serembus, Joanne Farley
Faculty concentrate on teaching nursing students about safe medication administration practices and on challenging them to develop skills for calculating drug dose and intravenous flow rate problems. In spite of these efforts, students make medication errors and little is known about the attributes of these errors. Therefore, this descriptive, retrospective, secondary analysis study examined the characteristics of medication errors made by nursing students during the administration phase of the medication use process as reported to the MEDMARX, a database operated by the United States Pharmacopeia through the Patient Safety Program. Fewer than 3% of 1,305 student-made medication errors occurring in the administration process resulted in patient harm. Most were omission errors, followed by errors of giving the wrong dose (amount) of a drug. The most prevalent cause of the errors was students' performance deficits, whereas inexperience and distractions were leading contributing factors. The antimicrobial therapeutic class of drugs and the 10 subcategories within this class were the most commonly reported medications involved. Insulin was the highest-frequency single medication reported. Overall, this study shows that students' administration errors may be more frequent than suspected. Faculty might consider curriculum revisions that incorporate medication use safety throughout each course in nursing major courses.
Isik, Oguz; Bayin, Gamze; Ugurluoglu, Ozgur
Objective: This study was performed with the aim of identifying how news on medical errors have be transmitted, and how the types, reasons, and conclusions of medical errors have been reflected to by the media in Turkey. Methods: A content analysis method was used in the study, and in this context, the data for the study was acquired by scanning five newspapers with the top editions on the national basis between the years 2012 and 2015 for the news about medical errors. Some specific selection criteria was used for the scanning of resulted news, and 116 news items acquired as a result of all the eliminations. Results: According to the results of the study; the vast majority of medical errors (40.5%) transmitted by the news resulted from the negligence of the medical staff. The medical errors were caused by physicians in the ratio of 74.1%, they most commonly occurred in state hospitals (31.9%). Another important result of the research was that medical errors resulted in either patient death to a large extent (51.7%), or permanent damage and disability to patients (25.0%). Conclusion: The news concerning medical errors provided information about the types, causes, and the results of these medical errors. It also reflected the media point of view on the issue. The examination of the content of the medical errors reported by the media were important which calls for appropriate interventions to avoid and minimize the occurrence of medical errors by improving the healthcare delivery system. PMID:27882026
... TM Help Prevent Errors in Your Care Behavioral Health Care To prevent health care errors, patients are urged to... SpeakUP TM Service ... individuals should be involved in their own behavioral health care. These efforts to increase consumer awareness and involvement ...
Nguyen, Huong-Thao; Nguyen, Tuan-Dung; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Taxis, Katja
Background Evidence from developed countries showed that medication errors are common and harmful. Little is known about medication errors in resource-restricted settings, including Vietnam. Objectives To determine the prevalence and potential clinical outcome of medication preparation and administration errors, and to identify factors associated with errors. Methods This was a prospective study conducted on six wards in two urban public hospitals in Vietnam. Data of preparation and administration errors of oral and intravenous medications was collected by direct observation, 12 hours per day on 7 consecutive days, on each ward. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to identify factors contributing to errors. Results In total, 2060 out of 5271 doses had at least one error. The error rate was 39.1% (95% confidence interval 37.8%- 40.4%). Experts judged potential clinical outcomes as minor, moderate, and severe in 72 (1.4%), 1806 (34.2%) and 182 (3.5%) doses. Factors associated with errors were drug characteristics (administration route, complexity of preparation, drug class; all p values < 0.001), and administration time (drug round, p = 0.023; day of the week, p = 0.024). Several interactions between these factors were also significant. Nurse experience was not significant. Higher error rates were observed for intravenous medications involving complex preparation procedures and for anti-infective drugs. Slightly lower medication error rates were observed during afternoon rounds compared to other rounds. Conclusions Potentially clinically relevant errors occurred in more than a third of all medications in this large study conducted in a resource-restricted setting. Educational interventions, focusing on intravenous medications with complex preparation procedure, particularly antibiotics, are likely to improve patient safety. PMID:26383873
Ravichandran, K.; Arulchelvan, S.
This research study brings out the factors behind the increase in medical malpractices in the Indian subcontinent in the present day environment and impacts of television media awareness towards it. Increased media reporting of medical malpractices and errors lead to hospitals taking corrective action and improve the quality of medical services that they provide. The model of Cultivation Theory can be used to measure the influence of media in creating awareness of medical errors. The patient's perceptions of various errors rendered by the medical industry from different parts of India were taken up for this study. Bayesian method was used for data analysis and it gives absolute values to indicate satisfaction of the recommended values. To find out the impact of maintaining medical records of a family online by the family doctor in reducing medical malpractices which creates the importance of service quality in medical industry through the ICT.
Okafor, Nnaemeka G.; Doshi, Pratik B.; Miller, Sara K.; McCarthy, James J.; Hoot, Nathan R.; Darger, Bryan F.; Benitez, Roberto C.; Chathampally, Yashwant G.
Introduction Medical errors are frequently under-reported, yet their appropriate analysis, coupled with remediation, is essential for continuous quality improvement. The emergency department (ED) is recognized as a complex and chaotic environment prone to errors. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a web-based ED-specific incident reporting system using an iterative process. Methods A web-based, password-protected tool was developed by members of a quality assurance committee for ED providers to report incidents that they believe could impact patient safety. Results The utilization of this system in one residency program with two academic sites resulted in an increase from 81 reported incidents in 2009, the first year of use, to 561 reported incidents in 2012. This is an increase in rate of reported events from 0.07% of all ED visits to 0.44% of all ED visits. In 2012, faculty reported 60% of all incidents, while residents and midlevel providers reported 24% and 16% respectively. The most commonly reported incidents were delays in care and management concerns. Conclusion Error reporting frequency can be dramatically improved by using a web-based, user-friendly, voluntary, and non-punitive reporting system. PMID:26759657
Zaghloul, Ashraf Ahmad; Rahman, Syed Azizur; Abou El-Enein, Nagwa Younes
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify healthcare providers’ obligation towards medical errors disclosure as well as to study the association between the severity of the medical error and the intention to disclose the error to the patients and their families. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design was followed to identify the magnitude of disclosure among healthcare providers in different departments at a randomly selected tertiary care hospital in Dubai. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The total sample size accounted for 106 respondents. Data were collected using a questionnaire composed of two sections namely; demographic variables of the respondents and a section which included variables relevant to medical error disclosure. RESULTS: Statistical analysis yielded significant association between the obligation to disclose medical errors with male healthcare providers (X2 = 5.1), and being a physician (X2 = 19.3). Obligation towards medical errors disclosure was significantly associated with those healthcare providers who had not committed any medical errors during the past year (X2 = 9.8), and any type of medical error regardless the cause, extent of harm (X2 = 8.7). Variables included in the binary logistic regression model were; status (Exp β (Physician) = 0.39, 95% CI 0.16–0.97), gender (Exp β (Male) = 4.81, 95% CI 1.84–12.54), and medical errors during the last year (Exp β (None) = 2.11, 95% CI 0.6–2.3). CONCLUSION: Education and training of physicians about disclosure conversations needs to start as early as medical school. Like the training in other competencies required of physicians, education in communicating about medical errors could help reduce physicians’ apprehension and make them more comfortable with disclosure conversations. PMID:27567766
Plessen, Kerstin J.; Allen, Elena A.; Eichele, Heike; van Wageningen, Heidi; Høvik, Marie Farstad; Sørensen, Lin; Worren, Marius Kalsås; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Eichele, Tom
Background We examined the blood-oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) activation in brain regions that signal errors and their association with intraindividual behavioural variability and adaptation to errors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods We acquired functional MRI data during a Flanker task in medication-naive children with ADHD and healthy controls aged 8–12 years and analyzed the data using independent component analysis. For components corresponding to performance monitoring networks, we compared activations across groups and conditions and correlated them with reaction times (RT). Additionally, we analyzed post-error adaptations in behaviour and motor component activations. Results We included 25 children with ADHD and 29 controls in our analysis. Children with ADHD displayed reduced activation to errors in cingulo-opercular regions and higher RT variability, but no differences of interference control. Larger BOLD amplitude to error trials significantly predicted reduced RT variability across all participants. Neither group showed evidence of post-error response slowing; however, post-error adaptation in motor networks was significantly reduced in children with ADHD. This adaptation was inversely related to activation of the right-lateralized ventral attention network (VAN) on error trials and to task-driven connectivity between the cingulo-opercular system and the VAN. Limitations Our study was limited by the modest sample size and imperfect matching across groups. Conclusion Our findings show a deficit in cingulo-opercular activation in children with ADHD that could relate to reduced signalling for errors. Moreover, the reduced orienting of the VAN signal may mediate deficient post-error motor adaptions. Pinpointing general performance monitoring problems to specific brain regions and operations in error processing may help to guide the targets of future treatments for ADHD. PMID:26441332
Cho, Insook; Park, Hyeok; Choi, Youn Jeong; Hwang, Mi Heui; Bates, David W.
Objectives We investigated incidence rates to understand the nature of medication errors potentially introduced by utilizing a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system in the three clinical phases of the medication process: prescription, administration, and documentation. Methods Overt observations and chart reviews were employed at two surgical intensive care units of a 950-bed tertiary teaching hospital. Ten categories of high-risk drugs prescribed over a four-month period were noted and reviewed. Error definition and classifications were adapted from previous studies for use in the present research. Incidences of medication errors in the three phases of the medication process were analyzed. In addition, nurses' responses to prescription errors were also assessed. Results Of the 534 prescriptions issued, 286 (53.6%) included at least one error. The proportion of errors was 19.0% (58) of the 306 drug administrations, of which two-thirds were verbal orders classified as errors due to incorrectly entered prescriptions. Documentation errors occurred in 205 (82.7%) of 248 correctly performed administrations. When tracking incorrectly entered prescriptions, 93% of the errors were intercepted by nurses, but two-thirds of them were recorded as prescribed rather than administered. Conclusion The number of errors occurring at each phase of the medication process was relatively high, despite long experience with a CPOE system. The main causes of administration errors and documentation errors were prescription errors and verbal order processes. To reduce these errors, hospital-level and unit-level efforts toward a better system are needed. PMID:25526059
Pace, Wilson D.; Staton, Elizabeth W.; Higgins, Gregory S.; Main, Deborah S.; West, David R.; Harris, Daniel M.
Medical error reporting systems are important information sources for designing strategies to improve the safety of health care. Applied Strategies for Improving Patient Safety (ASIPS) is a multi-institutional, practice-based research project that collects and analyzes data on primary care medical errors and develops interventions to reduce error. The voluntary ASIPS Patient Safety Reporting System captures anonymous and confidential reports of medical errors. Confidential reports, which are quickly de-identified, provide better detail than do anonymous reports; however, concerns exist about the confidentiality of those reports should the database be subject to legal discovery or other security breaches. Standard database elements, for example, serial ID numbers, date/time stamps, and backups, could enable an outsider to link an ASIPS report to a specific medical error. The authors present the design and implementation of a database and administrative system that reduce this risk, facilitate research, and maintain near anonymity of the events, practices, and clinicians. PMID:12925548
Pace, Wilson D; Staton, Elizabeth W; Higgins, Gregory S; Main, Deborah S; West, David R; Harris, Daniel M
Medical error reporting systems are important information sources for designing strategies to improve the safety of health care. Applied Strategies for Improving Patient Safety (ASIPS) is a multi-institutional, practice-based research project that collects and analyzes data on primary care medical errors and develops interventions to reduce error. The voluntary ASIPS Patient Safety Reporting System captures anonymous and confidential reports of medical errors. Confidential reports, which are quickly de-identified, provide better detail than do anonymous reports; however, concerns exist about the confidentiality of those reports should the database be subject to legal discovery or other security breaches. Standard database elements, for example, serial ID numbers, date/time stamps, and backups, could enable an outsider to link an ASIPS report to a specific medical error. The authors present the design and implementation of a database and administrative system that reduce this risk, facilitate research, and maintain near anonymity of the events, practices, and clinicians.
... information: • Your child’s medical history. Include vaccinations, allergies, current health problems, and the dates of any surgeries ... medicine? Tell the doctor or nurse your child’s current weight or ask them to weigh your child ( ...
... and the health care professional calls it a “chemistry panel,” speak up. Ask your doctor for a ... information or brochures— are from your doctor and pharmacy. • Read all medical forms. Make sure you understand ...
Giraldo, Priscila; Sato, Luke; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Comas, Mercè; Dwyer, Kathy; Sala, Maria; Castells, Xavier
Objectives To evaluate and compare the characteristics of court verdicts on medical errors allegedly harming patients in Spain and Massachusetts from 2002 to 2012. Design, setting and participants We reviewed 1041 closed court verdicts obtained from data on litigation in the Thomson Reuters Aranzadi Westlaw databases in Spain (Europe), and 370 closed court verdicts obtained from the Controlled Risk and Risk Management Foundation of Harvard Medical Institutions (CRICO/RMF) in Massachusetts (USA). We included closed court verdicts on medical errors. The definition of medical errors was based on that of the Institute of Medicine (USA). We excluded any agreements between parties before a judgement. Results Medical errors were involved in 25.9% of court verdicts in Spain and in 74% of those in Massachusetts. The most frequent cause of medical errors was a diagnosis-related problem (25.1%; 95% CI 20.7% to 31.1% in Spain; 35%; 95% CI 29.4% to 40.7% in Massachusetts). The proportion of medical errors classified as high severity was 34% higher in Spain than in Massachusetts (p=0.001). The most frequent factors contributing to medical errors in Spain were surgical and medical treatment (p=0.001). In Spain, 98.5% of medical errors resulted in compensation awards compared with only 6.9% in Massachusetts. Conclusions This study reveals wide differences in litigation rates and the award of indemnity payments in Spain and Massachusetts; however, common features of both locations are the high rates of diagnosis-related problems and the long time interval until resolution. PMID:27577585
Koller, Donna; Rummens, Anneke; Le Pouesard, Morgane; Espin, Sherry; Friedman, Jeremy; Coffey, Maitreya; Kenneally, Noah
Medical errors are common within paediatrics; however, little research has examined the process of disclosing medical errors in paediatric settings. The present systematic review of current research and policy initiatives examined evidence regarding the disclosure of medical errors involving paediatric patients. Peer-reviewed research from a range of scientific journals from the past 10 years is presented, and an overview of Canadian and international policies regarding disclosure in paediatric settings are provided. The purpose of the present review was to scope the existing literature and policy, and to synthesize findings into an integrated and accessible report. Future research priorities and policy implications are then identified. PMID:27429578
Koller, Donna; Rummens, Anneke; Le Pouesard, Morgane; Espin, Sherry; Friedman, Jeremy; Coffey, Maitreya; Kenneally, Noah
Medical errors are common within paediatrics; however, little research has examined the process of disclosing medical errors in paediatric settings. The present systematic review of current research and policy initiatives examined evidence regarding the disclosure of medical errors involving paediatric patients. Peer-reviewed research from a range of scientific journals from the past 10 years is presented, and an overview of Canadian and international policies regarding disclosure in paediatric settings are provided. The purpose of the present review was to scope the existing literature and policy, and to synthesize findings into an integrated and accessible report. Future research priorities and policy implications are then identified.
completed and FDA labeling is provided for a medication, it is unclear which dose is most appropriate for children. For example, olanzapine is an...antipsychotic medication that is not currently licensed for use in children under age 18 years. Table 2 represents different pediatric doses for olanzapine ...recommended in several selected sources. Table 2. Dosing information for olanzapine Source Recommended pediatric dose* Harriet Lane Handbook19
Bleetman, Anthony; Sanusi, Seliat; Dale, Trevor; Brace, Samantha
Emergency departments are one of the highest risk areas in health care. Emergency physicians have to assemble and manage unrehearsed multidisciplinary teams with little notice and manage critically ill patients. With greater emphasis on management and leadership skills, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of human factors in making changes to improve patient safety. Non-clinical skills are required to achieve this in an information-poor environment and to minimise the risk of errors. Training in these non-clinical skills is a mandatory component in other high-risk industries, such as aviation and, needs to be part of an emergency physician's skill set. Therefore, there remains an educational gap that we need to fill before an emergency physician is equipped to function as a team leader and manager. This review will examine the lessons from aviation and how these are applicable to emergency medicine. Solutions to averting errors are discussed and the need for formal human factors training in emergency medicine.
Kutsuma, Nobuaki; Yamaura, Katsunori; Hosaka, Shigeru; Kasuga, Kazuo; Koresawa, Taketoshi; Nagamura, Miho; Takayanagi, Masayuki; Nemoto, Eiichi; Ohshima, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Saito, Yukiya
In this study, a survey was conducted to determine the rate of drug-dispensing errors with the use of medicine bags printed with photographs of prescribed medicines (hereafter "medicine bag") for a 6-week period from June 20 to July 31, 2005. During this period, 393928 prescriptions were filled in 127 medical facilities that use the medicine bag. The efficacy of the medicine bag in the prevention of drug-dispensing errors was investigated. A total of 6550 (1.66%) drug-dispensing errors were identified: 70.6% were identified at the inspecting stage; 27.4% at the providing medicine and information stage; and 2% after the medication was dispensed. The drug-dispensing errors identified in the inspecting and providing stages included a) using the wrong contents, b) dispensing the wrong drugs, c) missing drugs, d) calculation errors, e) weighing/measuring errors, and f) others. No significant difference was observed in the error rates; thus it was assumed that the type of error was not dependent on the stage at which dispensing errors was discovered. However, it was found that approximately 25% of errors at the providing stage were discovered as a result of the medicine bag. Errors of types a), b), and c) were often discovered because the photograph was printed on the medicine bag. Therefore it was assumed that the photographs contributed to the discovery of drug-dispensing errors.
Frith, Karen H
Medication errors in intensive care units put patients at risk for injury or death every day. Safety requires an organized and systematic approach to improving the tasks, technology, environment, and organizational culture associated with medication systems. The Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model can help leaders and health care providers understand the complicated and high-risk work associated with critical care. Using this model, the author combines a human factors approach with the well-known structure-process-outcome model of quality improvement to examine research literature. The literature review reveals that human factors, including stress, high workloads, knowledge deficits, and performance deficits, are associated with medication errors. Factors contributing to medication errors are frequent interruptions, communication problems, and poor fit of health information technology to the workflow of providers. Multifaceted medication safety interventions are needed so that human factors and system problems can be addressed simultaneously.
Fusco, Julie A; Paulus, Eric J; Shubat, Alexandra R; Miah, Sharminara
A 62-year-old African American man received unintentional duplicate anticoagulation therapy with warfarin 5 mg and rivaroxaban 20 mg daily for the treatment of recurrent pulmonary embolism. The patient presented to the anticoagulation clinic 6 days after hospital discharge with an International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 2.3 and he was instructed to continue warfarin 5 mg daily. Seven days later, he returned to the clinic with an INR >8.0 using a point-of-care device. He denied any signs or symptoms of bleeding. During the interview, he reported starting a new medication for neuropathy 5 days earlier. The clinical pharmacist contacted the dispensing pharmacy and determined rivaroxaban 20 mg was the new medication. The patient denied receiving new prescription counseling at the dispensing pharmacy. Because rivaroxaban can falsely elevate INR results, the actual INR value was unknown. To minimize the risk for recurrent venous thromboembolism, vitamin K was not administered and no warfarin doses were held. Rather, the patient was instructed to stop rivaroxaban and reduce the warfarin dose. Five days later, the patient returned with an INR of 4.3. He still had not experienced any signs or symptoms of bleeding. The patient was quickly stabilized on a warfarin maintenance dose of 22.5 mg weekly. The anticoagulation clinic pharmacist notified management at the clinic and at the dispensing pharmacy in an effort to identify process errors and prevent additional incidents.
Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique
The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs.
Saleh, Neven; Balestra, Gabriella
Throughout the medical equipment life cycle, preventive maintenance is considered one of the most important stages that should be managed properly. However, the need for better management and control by giving a reasonable prioritization for preventive maintenance becomes essential. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive framework for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Fuzzy Logic (FL). The quality function deployment is proposed in order to identify the most important criteria that could impact preventive maintenance priority decision; meanwhile the role of the fuzzy logic is to generate a priority index of the list of equipment considering those criteria. The model validation was carried out on 140 pieces of medical equipment belonging to two hospitals. In application, we propose to classify the priority index into five classes. The results indicate that the strong correlation existence between risk-based criteria and preventive maintenance priority decision.
Chapman, Robert J.
The intent of this brochure is to review the pros and cons of employing what has come to be known as a Good Samaritan Policy or what some refer to as Medical Amnesty. Such policies are designed to address dangerous student drinking off campus. These policies differ in their details but have a common focus in an attempt to protect the inebriate…
Silva, Thiago Christiano; Zhao, Liang
Semisupervised learning is a machine learning approach which is able to employ both labeled and unlabeled samples in the training process. It is an important mechanism for autonomous systems due to the ability of exploiting the already acquired information and for exploring the new knowledge in the learning space at the same time. In these cases, the reliability of the labels is a crucial factor, because mislabeled samples may propagate wrong labels to a portion of or even the entire data set. This paper has the objective of addressing the error propagation problem originated by these mislabeled samples by presenting a mechanism embedded in a network-based (graph-based) semisupervised learning method. Such a procedure is based on a combined random-preferential walk of particles in a network constructed from the input data set. The particles of the same class cooperate among them, while the particles of different classes compete with each other to propagate class labels to the whole network. Computer simulations conducted on synthetic and real-world data sets reveal the effectiveness of the model.
Emami, Shahram; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Mashayekhi, Simin; Asgharian, Parina
Enteral feeding tube is employed for feeding of critically ill patients who are unable to eat. In the cases of oral medication administration to enterally fed patients, some potential errors could happen. We report a 53-year-old man who was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of a teaching hospital due to the post-CPR hypoxemic encephalopathy. The patient was intubated and underwent mechanical ventilation. A nasogastric (NG) tube was used as the enteral route for nutrition and administration of oral medications. Oral medications were crushed then dissolved in tap water and were given to the patient through NG tube. In present article we report several medication errors occurred during enterally drug administration, including errors in dosage form selection, methods of oral medication administration and drug interactions and incompatibility with nutrition formula. These errors could reduce the effects of drugs and lead to unsuccessful treatment of patient and also could increase the risk of potential adverse drug reactions. Potential leading causes of these errors include lack of drug knowledge among physicians, inadequate training of nurses and lack of pharmacists participation in medical settings. PMID:24991587
Villaveces, A; Kammeyer, J; Bencevic, H
Background: Injuries account for an estimated 9% of global mortality. Health professionals worldwide receive little formal injury prevention training, especially in developing countries. Objective: To identify injury prevention training topics taught in a sample of medical schools throughout the world. Design and setting: Cross sectional survey of 82 medical schools from 31 countries. Based on a convenience sample, respondents recalled the injury prevention concepts they were taught, estimated the time dedicated to these topics, specified the courses and rotations where these concepts were taught, and noted whether they were compulsory or elective sessions. Participants: Medical students in their last year of medical training. Main exposure measures: Student recall of classes and rotations where topics of injury prevention and control were discussed. Results: Basic injury prevention concepts including risk factors for injuries and injury classification systems were not covered in 60% of medical schools. Concepts related to child abuse and neglect and emergency care were more commonly taught than others such as traffic injury prevention and youth violence prevention. In general, injury prevention and control concepts were less frequently taught in Middle Eastern and African universities compared with other regions and some topics such as violence prevention were more frequently taught in medical schools in the Americas. Injury prevention concepts were taught most frequently in preventive medicine, forensic medicine, emergency medicine, surgery and pediatrics courses, and rotations. Conclusions: Injury prevention and control education is infrequent and fragmented in medical schools around the world. Inclusion or further development of curricula on this subject could benefit prevention and control efforts. PMID:16326768
Coombs, R H; Perell, K; Ruckh, J M
An extensive literature on medical students' and physicians' emotional impairment indicates the need for primary preventive programs, but few have been reported. This paper describes a seminar for premedical students aimed at preventing their later disillusionment and distress as medical trainees by fostering realistic expectations and emotional exploration. The seminar consists of open-ended discussions between premedical students and medical trainees/practitioners about stress and coping at various career stages, a physician preceptor for each student, and emotionally expressive readings and videotapes. Course-end and follow-up evaluations found that both the students' realism about their careers and their personal well-being were markedly increased.
Koppel, Ross; Leonard, Charles E; Localio, A Russell; Cohen, Abigail; Auten, Ruthann; Strom, Brian L
All methods of identifying medication prescribing errors are fraught with inaccuracies and systematic bias. A systematic, efficient, and inexpensive way of measuring and quantifying prescribing errors would be a useful step for reducing them. We ask if rapid discontinuations of prescription-orders--where physicians stop their orders within 2 hours--would be an expedient proxy for prescribing errors? To study this we analyzed CPOE-system medication orders entered and then discontinued within 2 hours. We investigated these phenomena in real time via interviews with corresponding ordering physicians. Each order was also independently reviewed by a clinical pharmacist or physicians. We found that of 114 rapidly discontinued orders by 75 physicians, two-thirds (35 of 53, PPV = 66; 95% CI = 53-77) of medication orders discontinued within 45 minutes were deemed inappropriate (overdose, underdose, etc.). Overall, 55% (63 of 114; 95% CI = 46-64%) of medication orders discontinued within 2 hours were deemed inappropriate. This measure offers a rapid, constant, inexpensive, and objective method to identify medication orders with a high probability of error. It may also serve as a screening and teaching mechanism for physicians-in-training.
Perri, Rinaldo Livio; Berchicci, Marika; Lucci, Giuliana; Spinelli, Donatella; Di Russo, Francesco
In cognitive tasks, error commission is usually followed by a performance characterized by post-error slowing (PES) and post-error improvement of accuracy (PIA). Three theoretical accounts were hypothesized to support these post-error adjustments: the cognitive, the inhibitory, and the orienting account. The aim of the present ERP study was to investigate the neural processes associated with the second error prevention. To this aim, we focused on the preparatory brain activities in a large sample of subjects performing a Go/No-go task. The main results were the enhancement of the prefrontal negativity (pN) component -especially on the right hemisphere- and the reduction of the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) -especially on the left hemisphere- in the post-error trials. The ERP data suggested an increased top-down and inhibitory control, such as the reduced excitability of the premotor areas in the preparation of the trials following error commission. The results were discussed in light of the three theoretical accounts of the post-error adjustments. Additional control analyses supported the view that the adjustments-oriented components (the post-error pN and BP) are separated by the error-related potentials (Ne and Pe), even if all these activities represent a cascade of processes triggered by error-commission. PMID:27534593
Olson, D.M.; Zhao, X.; Pan, W.; Zimmer, L.O.; Goldstein, L.B.; Alberts, M.J.; Fagan, S.C.; Fonarow, G.C.; Johnston, S.C.; Kidwell, C.; LaBresh, K.A.; Ovbiagele, B.; Schwamm, L.; Peterson, E.D.
Objective: Data on long-term use of secondary prevention medications following stroke are limited. The Adherence eValuation After Ischemic stroke–Longitudinal (AVAIL) Registry assessed patient, provider, and system-level factors influencing continuation of prevention medications for 1 year following stroke hospitalization discharge. Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke or TIA discharged from 106 hospitals participating in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines–Stroke program were surveyed to determine their use of warfarin, antiplatelet, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and diabetes medications from discharge to 12 months. Reasons for stopping medications were ascertained. Persistence was defined as continuation of all secondary preventive medications prescribed at hospital discharge, and adherence as continuation of prescribed medications except those stopped according to health care provider instructions. Results: Of the 2,880 patients enrolled in AVAIL, 88.4% (2,457 patients) completed 1-year interviews. Of these, 65.9% were regimen persistent and 86.6% were regimen adherent. Independent predictors of 1-year medication persistence included fewer medications prescribed at discharge, having an adequate income, having an appointment with a primary care provider, and greater understanding of why medications were prescribed and their side effects. Independent predictors of adherence were similar to those for persistence. Conclusions: Although up to one-third of stroke patients discontinued one or more secondary prevention medications within 1 year of hospital discharge, self-discontinuation of these medications is uncommon. Several potentially modifiable patient, provider, and system-level factors associated with persistence and adherence may be targets for future interventions. PMID:21900638
Pal, Doyel; Chen, Tingting; Khethavath, Praveen
Background Linking medical records across different medical service providers is important to the enhancement of health care quality and public health surveillance. In records linkage, protecting the patients’ privacy is a primary requirement. In real-world health care databases, records may well contain errors due to various reasons such as typos. Linking the error-prone data and preserving data privacy at the same time are very difficult. Existing privacy preserving solutions for this problem are only restricted to textual data. Objective To enable different medical service providers to link their error-prone data in a private way, our aim was to provide a holistic solution by designing and developing a medical record linkage system for medical service providers. Methods To initiate a record linkage, one provider selects one of its collaborators in the Connection Management Module, chooses some attributes of the database to be matched, and establishes the connection with the collaborator after the negotiation. In the Data Matching Module, for error-free data, our solution offered two different choices for cryptographic schemes. For error-prone numerical data, we proposed a newly designed privacy preserving linking algorithm named the Error-Tolerant Linking Algorithm, that allows the error-prone data to be correctly matched if the distance between the two records is below a threshold. Results We designed and developed a comprehensive and user-friendly software system that provides privacy preserving record linkage functions for medical service providers, which meets the regulation of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. It does not require a third party and it is secure in that neither entity can learn the records in the other’s database. Moreover, our novel Error-Tolerant Linking Algorithm implemented in this software can work well with error-prone numerical data. We theoretically proved the correctness and security of our Error
Kern, Donna H.; Shrader, Sarah P.
Objective. To evaluate the impact of an Interprofessional Communication Skills Workshop on pharmacy student confidence and proficiency in disclosing medical errors to patients. Pharmacy student behavior was also compared to that of other health professions’ students on the team. Design. Students from up to four different health professions participated in a simulation as part of an interprofessional team. Teams were evaluated with a validated rubric postsimulation on how well they handled the disclosure of an error to the patient. Individually, each student provided anonymous feedback and self-reflected on their abilities via a Likert-scale evaluation tool. A comparison of pharmacy students who completed the workshop (active group) vs all others who did not (control group) was completed and analyzed. Assessment. The majority of students felt they had adequate training related to communication issues that cause medication errors. However, fewer students believed that they knew how to report such an error to a patient or within a health system. Pharmacy students who completed the workshop were significantly more comfortable explicitly stating the error disclosure to a patient and/or caregiver and were more likely to apologize and respond to questions forthrightly (p<0.05). Conclusions. This data affirms the need to devote more time to training students on communicating with patients about the occurrence of medical errors and how to report these errors. Educators should be encouraged to incorporate such training within interprofessional education curricula. PMID:27899834
Thomas, Eric J; Brennan, Troyen A
Objective To determine the incidence and types of preventable adverse events in elderly patients. Design Review of random sample of medical records in two stage process by nurses and physicians to detect adverse events. Two study investigators then judged preventability. Setting Hospitals in US states of Utah and Colorado, excluding psychiatric and Veterans Administration hospitals. Subjects 15 000 hospitalised patients discharged in 1992. Main outcome measures Incidence of preventable adverse events (number of preventable events per 100 discharges) in elderly patients (⩾65 years old) and non-elderly patients (16-64 years). Results When results were extrapolated to represent all discharges in 1992 in both states, non-elderly patients had 8901 adverse events (incidence 2.80% (SE 0.18%)) compared with 7419 (5.29% (0.37%)) among elderly patients (P=0.001). Non-elderly patients had 5038 preventable adverse events (incidence 1.58% (0.14%)) compared with 4134 (2.95% (0.28%)) in elderly patients (P=0.001). Elderly patients had a higher incidence of preventable events related to medical procedures (such as thoracentesis, cardiac catheterisation) (0.69% (0.14%) v 0.13% (0.04%)), preventable adverse drug events (0.63% (0.14%) v 0.17% (0.05%)), and preventable falls (0.10% (0.06%) v 0.01% (0.02%)). In multivariate analyses, adjusted for comorbid illnesses and case mix, age was not an independent predictor of preventable adverse events. Conclusions Preventable adverse events were more common among elderly patients, probably because of the clinical complexity of their care rather than age based discrimination. Preventable adverse drug events, events related to medical procedures, and falls were especially common in elderly patients and should be targets for efforts to prevent errors. PMID:10720355
Williams, E; Talley, R
Failure Mode Effect and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) is the systematic assessment of a process or product that enables one to determine the location and mechanism of potential failures. It has been used by engineers, particularly in the aerospace industry, to identify and prioritize potential failures during product development when there is a lack of data but an abundance of expertise. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices has recommended its use in analyzing the medication administration process in hospitals and in drug product development in the pharamceutical industry. A medication error subcommittee adopted and modified FMECA to identify and prioritize significant failure modes in its specific medication administration process. Based on this analysis, the subcommittee implemented solutions to four of the five highest ranked failure modes. FMECA provided a method for a multidisciplinary group to address the most important medication error concerns based upon the expertise of the group members. It also facilitated consensus building in a group with varied perceptions.
Kushniruk, Andre; Triola, Mark; Stein, Ben; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kannry, Joseph
This paper describes an innovative approach to the evaluation of a handheld prescription writing application. Participants (10 physicians) were asked to perform a series of tasks involving entering prescriptions into the application from a medication list. The study procedure involved the collection of data consisting of transcripts of the subjects who were asked to "think aloud" while interacting with the prescription writing program to enter medications. All user interactions with the device were video and audio recorded. Analysis of the protocols was conducted in two phases: (1) usability problems were identified from coding of the transcripts and video data (2) actual errors in entering prescription data were also identified. The results indicated that there were a variety of usability problems, with most related to issues of ease of use. In addition, other problems were identified which were related to limitations of the content of the program. In examining the relationship between usability problems and errors, it was found that certain types of usability problems were closely associated with the occurrence of specific types of errors in prescription of medications. Implications for the improvement of safety of health care information systems are discussed.
Haji Aghajani, Mohammad; Ghazaeian, Monireh; Mehrazin, Hamid Reza; Sistanizad, Mohammad; Miri, Mirmohammad
Medication errors are one of the important factors that increase fatal injuries to the patients and burden significant economic costs to the health care. An appropriate medical history could reduce errors related to omission of the previous drugs at the time of hospitalization. The aim of this study, as first one in Iran, was evaluating the discrepancies between medication histories obtained by pharmacists and physicians/nurses and first order of physician. From September 2012 until March 2013, patients admitted to the post CCU of a 550 bed university hospital, were recruited in the study. As a part of medication reconciliation on admission, the physicians/nurses obtained medication history from all admitted patients. For patients included in the study, medication history was obtained by both physician/nurse and a pharmacy student (after training by a faculty clinical pharmacist) during the first 24 h of admission. 250 patients met inclusion criteria. The mean age of patients was 61.19 ± 14.41 years. Comparing pharmacy student drug history with medication lists obtained by nurses/physicians revealed 3036 discrepancies. On average, 12.14 discrepancies, ranged from 0 to 68, were identified per patient. Only in 20 patients (8%) there was 100 % agreement among medication lists obtained by pharmacist and physician/nurse. Comparing the medications by list of drugs ordered by physician at first visit showed 12.1 discrepancies on average ranging 0 to 72. According to the results, omission errors in our setting are higher than other countries. Pharmacy-based medication reconciliation could be recommended to decrease this type of error.
Sears, Kim; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Stevens, Bonnie; Murphy, Gail Tomblin
Medication errors are one of the most common incidents in the hospitals. They can be harmful, and they are even more detrimental for pediatric patients. This study explored the relationship between nursing experience, education, the frequency and severity of reported pediatric medication administration errors (PMAEs). The data for this study were collected from a larger pan Canadian study. A survey tool was developed to collect self-reported data from nurses. In addition to descriptive statistics, a Poisson regression or a multiple linear regression was completed to address the research questions, and a Boneferrai correction was conducted to adjust for the small sample size. Results demonstrated that on units with more nurses with a higher level of current experience, more PMAEs were reported (p=.001), however; the PMAEs reported by these nurses were not as severe (p=.003). Implications to advance both safe medication delivery in the pediatric setting and safe culture of reporting for both actual and potential errors are identified.
Nesar, Shagufta; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Rahim, Najia; Muhammad, Iyad Naeem
Medication errors (ME) are human errors, which are very frequent in cardiovascular patients and result in patient morbidity and mortality. This study was focused to evaluate the quality of prescriptions and to emphasize the placement of clinical pharmacist in health care team. This study was carried out in different outpatient settings of (in) Karachi, Pakistan. The study period was June 2011 till June 2012. Retrospective data was analyzed for the outpatients' prescription of beta blocker drugs. During the study, prescriptions (n=450) were collected from different outpatient settings of (in) Karachi, Pakistan. Prescription containing beta-blockers were analyzed for the essential elements to be mentioned in prescription. Drug-drug interactions were identified by the Micromedex.2.0 Drug-Reax database and severity of medication error was determined by NCCMERP Index. A total of 1627 medication errors were identified in 450 prescriptions. The most frequent error was not mentioning the patient's weight (95%), followed by missing diagnosis (79.4%) and drug-drug interactions (69.5%). Twenty-two prescriptions were placed in the most severe category I (4.88%). Average number of drugs per prescription was 4.76. Significant difference was observed (χ(2)=52.418, p<0.05) using SPSS 19 for those prescription orders having more than 5 drugs with Beta-blockers. This indicates that the errors in prescription such as drug-drug interactions, wrong dose etc. was significantly increased with the number of drugs per prescription. Results showed that medication errors are very frequent in prescription written in outpatient setting of various hospitals and clinics in Karachi. This shows that the irrational prescribing is a common practice in developing countries. Placement of skilled pharmacist in the health care system is the only solution for avoidance of these medication related problems.
Huang, Yanhong; Xu, Honglei; Tu, Rong; Zhang, Xu; Huang, Min
In this paper, the common errors in medical devices test reports are classified and analyzed. And then the main 11 influence factors for these inspection report errors are summarized. The hierarchy model was also developed and verified by presentation data using MATLAB. The feasibility of comprehensive weights quantitative comparison has been analyzed by using the analytic hierarchy process. In the end, this paper porspects the further research direction.
Yoshii, Isaac; Sayegh, Rockan; Lotfipour, Shahram; Vaca, Federico E
Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among the U.S. population aged 1 to 44 years. In 2006 more than 179,000 fatalities were attributed to injury. Despite increasing awareness of the global epidemic of injury and violence, a considerable gap remains between advances in injury-prevention research and prevention knowledge that is taught to medical students. This article discusses the growing need for U.S medical schools to train future physicians in the fundamentals of injury prevention and control. Teaching medical students to implement injury prevention in their future practice should help reduce injury morbidity and mortality. Deliberate efforts should be made to integrate injury-prevention education into existing curriculum. Key resources are available to do this. Emergency physicians can be essential advocates in establishing injury prevention training because of their clinical expertise in treating injury. Increasing the number of physicians with injury- and violence- prevention knowledge and skills is ultimately an important strategy to reduce the national and global burden of injury.
Levy, Barry S; Wegman, David H
Because medical students and residents receive inadequate education and training in public health and preventive medicine, they will miss many opportunities, as they practice medicine, to improve the health of individual patients and populations. Although there is an ongoing need to expand the number and improve the specialist training of public health and preventive medicine residents, all medical students and residents should enter practice with substantive knowledge and practical skills in public health and preventive medicine. This knowledge and these skills will make them more effective in such areas as enabling patients to make lifestyle changes, identifying and reducing occupational and environmental risk factors, and empowering patients to manage their chronic health conditions. The authors propose a paradigm shift to establish public health and preventive medicine as the context for medical education and medical care.
Spieser, Laure; van den Wildenberg, Wery; Hasbroucq, Thierry; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Burle, Borís
To err is human. However, an inappropriate urge does not always result in error. Impulsive errors thus entail both a motor system capture by an urge to act and a failed inhibition of that impulse. Here we show that neuromodulatory electrical stimulation of the supplementary motor complex in healthy humans leaves action urges unchanged but prevents them from turning into overt errors. Subjects performed a choice reaction-time task known to trigger impulsive responses, leading to fast errors that can be revealed by analyzing accuracy as a function of poststimulus time. Yet, such fast errors are only the tip of the iceberg: electromyography (EMG) revealed fast subthreshold muscle activation in the incorrect response hand in an even larger proportion of overtly correct trials, revealing covert response impulses not discernible in overt behavior. Analyzing both overt and covert response tendencies enables to gauge the ability to prevent these incorrect impulses from turning into overt action errors. Hyperpolarizing the supplementary motor complex using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) preserves action impulses but prevents their behavioral expression. This new combination of detailed behavioral, EMG, and tDCS techniques clarifies the neurophysiology of impulse control, and may point to avenues for improving impulse control deficits in various neurologic and psychiatric disorders.
Wang, Tiansheng; Benedict, Neal; Olsen, Keith M; Luan, Rong; Zhu, Xi; Zhou, Ningning; Tang, Huilin; Yan, Yingying; Peng, Yao; Shi, Luwen
Pharmacists are integral members of the multidisciplinary team for critically ill patients. Multiple nonrandomized controlled studies have evaluated the outcomes of pharmacist interventions in the intensive care unit (ICU). This systematic review focuses on controlled clinical trials evaluating the effect of pharmacist intervention on medication errors (MEs) in ICU settings. Two independent reviewers searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases. The inclusion criteria were nonrandomized controlled studies that evaluated the effect of pharmacist services vs no intervention on ME rates in ICU settings. Four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results suggest that pharmacist intervention has no significant contribution to reducing general MEs, although pharmacist intervention may significantly reduce preventable adverse drug events and prescribing errors. This meta-analysis highlights the need for high-quality studies to examine the effect of the critical care pharmacist.
Upon implantation or insertion into patient's body for exerting the intended purpose like salvage of normal functions of vital organs, the medical devices are unfortunately becoming the sites of competition between host cell integration and microbial adhesion. Moreover, since there is an increased use of implanted medical devices, the incidence of biofilm-and medical devices-related nosocomial infections is also increasing progressively. To control microbial colonization and subsequent biofilm formation of the medical devices, different approaches either to enhance the efficiency of certain antimicrobial agents or to disrupt the basic physiology of the pathogenic microorganisms including novel small molecules and antipathogenic drugs are being explored. In addition, the various lipid-and polymer-based drug delivery carriers are also investigated for applying antibiofilm coating of the medical devices especially over catheters. The main intention of this review is therefore to summarize the major and/breakthrough inventions disclosed in patent literature as well as in research papers related to microbial colonization of medical devices and novel preventive strategies. This review starts with an overview of the preventive strategies followed by a short description about the potential of different lipidic-and polymeric-drug delivery carriers in eradicating the biofilm-associated infections from the medical devices.
For several years now, with the introduction of the health care sector reform we have been observing a considerable drop in the number of postmortem examinations performed in patients who died in hospitals. The decrease amounts to as much as 50 to 70%. This is undoubtedly a consequence of financial restrictions imposed on the management of these inpatient facilities. On the other hand, Departments of Forensic Medicine established to evaluate the so-called medical errors are swamped with an increasing avalanche of complaints concerning the appropriateness of therapeutic management. This leads to a growing number of orders from penal prosecution and jurisdiction agencies with requests for assessment whether a medical error has been committed in a particular case. The result of a postmortem examination is practically the only basis for a factual evaluation of a given case. When no autopsy has been performed, the experts are virtually helpless, and in the majority of such instances, they are forced to refuse passing an expert opinion. The report presents basic principles of medico-legal opinionating in criminal cases (including proceedings pertaining to medical errors), the rules governing the medical error assessment, as well as problems encountered in evaluating the appropriate course of treatment when a post mortem examination has been waived.
disease states, and allergies. Evaluation methods The research associates evaluated each prescription for medication errors using a structured ... computer -based system. Using five screens, they progressed in sequence, entering all data, one prescription at a time, into the database (except that
Tanti, A; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J
The Maltese Medicines Authority was tasked with developing a reporting form that captures high-quality case information on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and medication errors in order to fulfil its public-health obligations set by the European Union (EU) legislation on pharmacovigilance. This paper describes the process of introducing the first combined ADR/medication error reporting form in the EU for health-care professionals, the analysis of reports generated by it and the promotion of the system. A review of existing ADR forms was carried out and recommendations from the European Medicines Agency and World Health Organization audits integrated. A new, combined ADR/medication error reporting form was developed and pilot tested based on case studies. The Authority's quality system (ISO 9001 certified) was redesigned and a promotion strategy was deployed. The process used in Malta can be useful for countries that need to develop systems relative to ADR/medication error reporting and to improve the quality of data capture within their systems.
Carhart, Elliot D.
This applied dissertation investigated the effect of crew resource management (CRM) training on medical errors in a simulated prehospital setting. Specific areas addressed by this program included situational awareness, decision making, task management, teamwork, and communication. This study is believed to be the first investigation of CRM…
Hospenthal, Duane R; Green, Andrew D; Crouch, Helen K; English, Judith F; Pool, Jane; Yun, Heather C; Murray, Clinton K
Infections have complicated the care of combat casualties throughout history and were at one time considered part of the natural history of combat trauma. Personnel who survived to reach medical care were expected to develop and possibly succumb to infections during their care in military hospitals. Initial care of war wounds continues to focus on rapid surgical care with debridement and irrigation, aimed at preventing local infection and sepsis with bacteria from the environment (e.g., clostridial gangrene) or the casualty's own flora. Over the past 150 years, with the revelation that pathogens can be spread from patient to patient and from healthcare providers to patients (including via unwashed hands of healthcare workers, the hospital environment and fomites), a focus on infection prevention and control aimed at decreasing transmission of pathogens and prevention of these infections has developed. Infections associated with combat-related injuries in the recent operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have predominantly been secondary to multidrug-resistant pathogens, likely acquired within the military healthcare system. These healthcare-associated infections seem to originate throughout the system, from deployed medical treatment facilities through the chain of care outside of the combat zone. Emphasis on infection prevention and control, including hand hygiene, isolation, cohorting, and antibiotic control measures, in deployed medical treatment facilities is essential to reducing these healthcare-associated infections. This review was produced to support the Guidelines for the Prevention of Infections Associated With Combat-Related Injuries: 2011 Update contained in this supplement of Journal of Trauma.
Tapia Juayek, R; de la Garza, M A; Carrillo Farga, A M
The subject of the article is medical education in Mexico, particularly in the area of preventive and social medicine. It emphasizes the impact on this instruction of the country's economic and cultural dependence. It then presents some important qualitative data such as those on the existence of the administrative academic body responsible for the area, the names of the academic subjects in the area of preventive and social medicine, the educational objectives and study plan of this area; its connection with undergraduate internship and social service; agreements with other institutions for instructions; the semester in which the subjects in the area are taught and the faculty members teaching them. Finally, on the basis of the information presented, several conclusions are reached which make it possible to asseverate that the teaching of preventive and social medicine is not given the importance it merits, in the study plan of any medical school in the country.
Boussoussou, Nora; Boussoussou, Melinda; Nemes, Attila
The aim of this article is to draw attention to the medical meteorology from the perspective of the history of science. Unfortunately medical meteorology is not part of the daily medical practice. The climate change is a new challenge for health care worldwide. It concerns millions of people a higher morbidity and mortality rate. Knowing the effects of the meteorological parameters as risk factors can allow us to create new prevention strategies. These new strategies could help to decrease the negative health effects of the meteorological parameters. Nowadays on the field of the medical prevention the medical meteorology is a new horizon and in the future it could play an important role. Health care professionals have the most important role to fight against the negative effects of the global climate change. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(5), 187-191.
Woo, Yeonju; Kim, Hyung Eun; Chung, Sooyoun; Park, Byung Joo
Children have dynamic process of maturation and substantial changes in growth and development which eventually make the drug safety profiles different from adults. Medication errors (MEs) in pediatrics are reported to occur three times more likely than adults. The aims of this study were to identify the characteristics of pediatric MEs in Korea at national level and help raise awareness of risks from the MEs in pediatrics. We conducted a descriptive analysis with the pediatric ME reports in Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database from 1989 to 2012 and 208 ME reports in pediatrics were found. Based on KAERS database, the proportion of reported pediatric ME in adverse drug event (ADE) reports was 2.73 times (95% CI, 2.35-3.17) higher than that of adult ME. In 208 ME reports, we found a total of 236 ME-related terms within 19 types of MEs. The most common type of MEs was "accidental overdose" (n=58, 24.6%), followed by "drug maladministration" (n=50, 21.2%) and "medication error" (n=41, 17.4%). After the narratives of ME reports were reviewed, we noticed that most of them did no harm to patients, but some cases were needed for medical treatment. Our data suggest that MEs in pediatrics are not negligible in Korea. We expect that this study would increase the awareness of the problem in pediatric MEs and induce the need for further development of an effective national ME preventing system in Korea.
Naples, Jennifer G.; Hanlon, Joseph T.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Semla, Todd P.
Medication errors and adverse drug events are common in older adults, but locating literature addressing these issues is often challenging. The objective of this article was to summarize recent studies addressing medication errors and adverse drug events in a single location to improve accessibility for individuals working with older adults. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature search for studies published in 2014 and identified 51 potential articles. After critical review, 17 studies were selected for inclusion based on innovation, rigorous observational or experimental study designs, and use of reliable, valid measures. Four articles characterizing potentially inappropriate prescribing and interventions to optimize medication regimens were annotated and critiqued in detail. We hope that health policy makers and clinicians find this information helpful in improving the quality of care for older adults. PMID:26804210
Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Nøhr, Christian
The paper presents design game as a technique for participatory design for a Computerized Decision Support System (CDSS) for minimizing medical errors. Design game is used as a technique for working with the skills of users, the complexity of the use practice and the negotiation of design here within the challenging domain of medication. The paper presents a developed design game based on game inspiration from a computer game, theoretical inspiration on electronic decision support, and empirical grounding in scenarios of medical errors. The game has been played in a two-hour workshop with six clinicians. The result is presented as a list of central themes for design of CDSS and derived design principles from these themes. These principles are currently under further exploration in follow up prototype based activities.
D'Souza, Neil; Holden, Lori; Robson, Sheila; Mah, Kathy; Di Prospero, Lisa; Wong, C. Shun; Chow, Edward; Spayne, Jacqueline
Purpose: To examine whether treatment workload and complexity associated with palliative radiation therapy contribute to medical errors. Methods and Materials: In the setting of a large academic health sciences center, patient scheduling and record and verification systems were used to identify patients starting radiation therapy. All records of radiation treatment courses delivered during a 3-month period were retrieved and divided into radical and palliative intent. 'Same day consultation, planning and treatment' was used as a proxy for workload and 'previous treatment' and 'multiple sites' as surrogates for complexity. In addition, all planning and treatment discrepancies (errors and 'near-misses') recorded during the same time frame were reviewed and analyzed. Results: There were 365 new patients treated with 485 courses of palliative radiation therapy. Of those patients, 128 (35%) were same-day consultation, simulation, and treatment patients; 166 (45%) patients had previous treatment; and 94 (26%) patients had treatment to multiple sites. Four near-misses and 4 errors occurred during the audit period, giving an error per course rate of 0.82%. In comparison, there were 10 near-misses and 5 errors associated with 1100 courses of radical treatment during the audit period. This translated into an error rate of 0.45% per course. An association was found between workload and complexity and increased palliative therapy error rates. Conclusions: Increased complexity and workload may have an impact on palliative radiation treatment discrepancies. This information may help guide the necessary recommendations for process improvement for patients who require palliative radiation therapy.
Samsiah, A.; Othman, Noordin; Jamshed, Shazia; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi
Objective To explore and understand participants’ perceptions and attitudes towards the reporting of medication errors (MEs). Methods A qualitative study using in-depth interviews of 31 healthcare practitioners from nine publicly funded, primary care clinics in three states in peninsular Malaysia was conducted for this study. The participants included family medicine specialists, doctors, pharmacists, pharmacist assistants, nurses and assistant medical officers. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Analysis of the data was guided by the framework approach. Results Six themes and 28 codes were identified. Despite the availability of a reporting system, most of the participants agreed that MEs were underreported. The nature of the error plays an important role in determining the reporting. The reporting system, organisational factors, provider factors, reporter’s burden and benefit of reporting also were identified. Conclusions Healthcare practitioners in primary care clinics understood the importance of reporting MEs to improve patient safety. Their perceptions and attitudes towards reporting of MEs were influenced by many factors which affect the decision-making process of whether or not to report. Although the process is complex, it primarily is determined by the severity of the outcome of the errors. The participants voluntarily report the errors if they are familiar with the reporting system, what error to report, when to report and what form to use. PMID:27906960
Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara; Drozd, Radosław
Declaration of death is a diagnosis and it has legal consequences. While declaring death, there is a possibility of committing a medical error. The majority of irregularities in declaring an individual dead occur in emergency situations. When a physician declares death, he is released from the professional obligation of saving the individual's life. The studies were based on the results of medico-legal evaluations in criminal cases in medical errors. In case death is erroneously declared, we may face a situation of squandering the chance of saving the life of a human being. Exposure to loss of life or to severe detriment to health are possible charges here, along with failure to offer medical assistance, although a deliberate character of the offence according to article 162 of the Polish penal code renders such a legal qualification dubious in case of medical errors. In both cases verification is needed whether an interest protected by law was still in existence, i.e. whether the individual was still alive when the physician incorrectly declared him dead.
Mahato, Margaret E
The stigma and discrimination due to disabilities in leprosy has a profound effect on a leprosy individual and the disability hampers his/her earning capacity and therefore socio-economic status. The Government of India has recently come out with an approved plan for disability prevention and medical rehabilitation. There are some objectives to provide appropriate services to the disabled or to prevent the disability. In order to prevent disability early treatment is necessary but there are a lot of studies on delayed presentation. It is in fact suggested that not only early correct treatment of leprosy with MDT but also early correct treatment of reactions and nuritis can prevent disability. Some cases as specified in the text require referral to prevent the menace. Many deformities can be corrected by reconstructive surgery. The management protocol to prevent primary impairment is depicted in Figs within the article.
Gul, Zeynep; Monga, Manoj
The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention.
International Taxonomy of Medical Errors in Primary Care have been developed and revised based on four research studies carried out in family...percentages for column four reflect the percent of error codes. Qualitative findings from AAFP error-report studies The supplemental AHRQ grant to the
The article deals with the study results related to preventive activities in the primary medical sanitary care system. It is demonstrated that the prevention activities of physicians are lacking of both proper organization and adequate involvement into the process. The medical personnel in the primary medical sanitary system need enhancing of professional qualification especially in the field of health promotion and disease prevention. The study proved the necessity of including the prevention into the actual health policy and health care planning.
Ohashi, Kumiko; Dykes, Patricia; McIntosh, Kathleen; Buckley, Elizabeth; Wien, Matt; Kreitzman, Kevin; Dumais, Michael; Bates, David W
Computerized smart infusion pumps have been widely implemented to decrease the rate of intravenous (IV) medication errors in hospitals. However, these devices have not always achieved their potential, and important IV errors still persist. Findings from a previous study  that assessed the frequency of IV medication errors and the impact of smart infusion pumps identified major issues related to use of smart infusion pumps in a single facility, but generalizability of these results is uncertain. Additionally, lack of standardized methodology for measuring these errors remains an issue. In this study, we developed an observational tool to capture IV medication errors through iterative participatory design with interdisciplinary experts and then tested the tool by using incident cases regarding smart pump errors. We found that the tool could capture all smart infusion pump errors and is ready for testing for use as standard data collection tool in different hospital settings.
Volpe, Cris Renata Grou; de Melo, Eveline Maria Magalhães; de Aguiar, Lucas Barbosa; Pinho, Diana Lúcia Moura; Stival, Marina Morato
ABSTRACT Objective: to compare electronic and manual prescriptions of a public hospital of Brasilia, identifying risk factors for the occurrence of medication errors. Method: descriptive-exploratory, comparative and retrospective study. Data collection occurred from July 2012 to January 2013, using an instrument for the review of the information contained in medical records related to the medication process. A total of 190 manual and 199 electronic records composed the sample, with 2027 prescriptions each. Results: compared to the manual prescription, a significant reduction was observed in the risk factors after implantation of the electronic prescription, in items such as "lack of the form of dilution" (71.1% to 22.3%) and "prescription with brand name" (99.5% to 31.5%). Conversely, the risk factors "no check" and "lack of CRM of the prescriber" increased. The lack of the allergy registration and the occurrences related to medication were the same for both groups. Conclusion: generally, the use of the electronic prescription system was associated with a significant reduction in risk factors for medication errors, concerning the following aspects: illegibility, prescription with brand name and presence of essential items that provide a safe and effective prescription. PMID:27508913
Awdishu, Linda; Namba, Jennifer
Objective. To evaluate first-year pharmacy students’ ability to identify medication errors involving the top 100 prescription medications. Design. In the first quarter of a 3-quarter pharmacy self-care course, a didactic lecture on the most common prescribing and dispensing prescription errors was presented to first-year pharmacy students (P1) in preparation for a prescription review simulation done individually and as a group. In the following quarter, they were given a formal prescription review workshop before a second simulation involving individual and group review of a different set of prescriptions. Students were evaluated based on the number of correctly checked prescriptions and a self-assessment of their confidence in reviewing prescriptions. Assessment. All 63 P1 students completed the prescription review simulations. The individual scores did not significantly change, but group scores improved from 79 (16.2%) in the fall quarter to 98.6 (4.7%) in the winter quarter. Students perceived improvement of their prescription checking skills, specifically in their ability to fill a prescription on their own, identify prescribing and dispensing errors, and perform pharmaceutical calculations. Conclusion. A prescription review module consisting of a didactic lecture, workshop and simulation-based methods to teach prescription analysis was successful at improving first year pharmacy students’ knowledge, confidence, and application of these skills. PMID:27402989
Atayee, Rabia S; Awdishu, Linda; Namba, Jennifer
Objective. To evaluate first-year pharmacy students' ability to identify medication errors involving the top 100 prescription medications. Design. In the first quarter of a 3-quarter pharmacy self-care course, a didactic lecture on the most common prescribing and dispensing prescription errors was presented to first-year pharmacy students (P1) in preparation for a prescription review simulation done individually and as a group. In the following quarter, they were given a formal prescription review workshop before a second simulation involving individual and group review of a different set of prescriptions. Students were evaluated based on the number of correctly checked prescriptions and a self-assessment of their confidence in reviewing prescriptions. Assessment. All 63 P1 students completed the prescription review simulations. The individual scores did not significantly change, but group scores improved from 79 (16.2%) in the fall quarter to 98.6 (4.7%) in the winter quarter. Students perceived improvement of their prescription checking skills, specifically in their ability to fill a prescription on their own, identify prescribing and dispensing errors, and perform pharmaceutical calculations. Conclusion. A prescription review module consisting of a didactic lecture, workshop and simulation-based methods to teach prescription analysis was successful at improving first year pharmacy students' knowledge, confidence, and application of these skills.
Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara; Rorat, Marta; Drozd, Radosław
The authors review the doctrine of criminal law and the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in search of a starting point for the legal protection of human life and health. In cases of medical errors in obstetrics concerning a fetus, an act of a perpetrator can be classified as manslaughter or exposure to direct danger of loss of life or great bodily injury depending on whether the fetus is recognized as "a human being". The authors criticize the doctrinal criteria of the beginning of legal protection: spatial, physiological, obstetric, and developmental, pointing to the possibilities of decriminalization of medical errors of omission. A solution to this situation is the presented evolution of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. It moves towards establishing the beginning of legal and criminal protection of life and health at the "moment of emergence of objective grounds to necessitate delivery".
Kundel, Harold L.
Visual perception is such an intimate part of human experience that we assume that it is entirely accurate. Yet, perception accounts for about half of the errors made by radiologists using adequate imaging technology. The true incidence of errors that directly affect patient well being is not known but it is probably at the lower end of the reported values of 3 to 25%. Errors in screening for lung and breast cancer are somewhat better characterized than errors in routine diagnosis. About 25% of cancers actually recorded on the images are missed and cancer is falsely reported in about 5% of normal people. Radiologists must strive to decrease error not only because of the potential impact on patient care but also because substantial variation among observers undermines confidence in the reliability of imaging diagnosis. Observer variation also has a major impact on technology evaluation because the variation between observers is frequently greater than the difference in the technologies being evaluated. This has become particularly important in the evaluation of computer aided diagnosis (CAD). Understanding the basic principles that govern the perception of medical images can provide a rational basis for making recommendations for minimizing perceptual error. It is convenient to organize thinking about perceptual error into five steps. 1) The initial acquisition of the image by the eye-brain (contrast and detail perception). 2) The organization of the retinal image into logical components to produce a literal perception (bottom-up, global, holistic). 3) Conversion of the literal perception into a preferred perception by resolving ambiguities in the literal perception (top-down, simulation, synthesis). 4) Selective visual scanning to acquire details that update the preferred perception. 5) Apply decision criteria to the preferred perception. The five steps are illustrated with examples from radiology with suggestions for minimizing error. The role of perceptual
Printezis, Antonios; Gopalakrishnan, Mohan
One of the reasons for rising health care costs is medical errors, a majority of which result from faulty systems and processes. Health care in the past has used process-based initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Continuous Quality Improvement, and Six Sigma to reduce errors. These initiatives to redesign health care, reduce errors, and improve overall efficiency and customer satisfaction have had moderate success. Current trend is to apply the successful Toyota Production System (TPS) to health care since its organizing principles have led to tremendous improvement in productivity and quality for Toyota and other businesses that have adapted them. This article presents insights on the effectiveness of TPS principles in health care and the challenges that lie ahead in successfully integrating this approach with other quality initiatives.
225 Development of a Multipurpose Dataset to Evaluate Potential Medication Errors in Ambulatory Settings K. Arnold Chan for the HMO Research...Network CERT Patient Safety Investigators Abstract Ten health maintenance organizations ( HMOs ) of the HMO Research Network Center for Education and...through June 30, 2001, were selected from each of the 10 HMOs . The study population included all of the health plan members in a randomly selected
Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Anderson, James G; Anderson, Marilyn M
We describe a novel approach to the study and prediction of technology-induced error in healthcare. The objective of our approach is to identify and reduce the potential for error so that the benefits of introducing information technology, such as Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) or Electronic Health Records (EHRs), are maximized. The approach involves four phases. In Phase 1, we typically conduct small scale clinical simulations to assess whether or not the use of a new information technology can introduce error. (Human subjects are involved and user-system interactions are recorded.) In Phase 2, we analyze the results from Phase 1 to identify statistically significant relationships between usability issues and the occurrence of error (e.g., medication error). In Phase 3, we enter the results from Phase 2 into computer-based simulation models to explore the potential impact of the technology over time and across user populations. In Phase 4, we conduct naturalistic studies to examine whether or not the predictions made in Phases 2 and 3 apply to the real world. In closing, we discuss how the approach can be used to increase the safety of health information systems.
Schimpfhauser, Frank; And Others
Findings of two independently conducted longitudinal studies conducted in follow-up to the development and implementation of pre-clinical cancer prevention courses at different medical schools are discussed. While required to meet common contract objectives, each program was designed and integrated relative to content and instructional methods to…
Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori
Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals.
Shamliyan, Tatyana A; Duval, Sue; Du, Jing; Kane, Robert L
Objective To examine the association between computerization of physician orders and prescribing medication errors. Data Sources Studies published in English language were identified through MEDLINE (1990 through December 2005), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and bibliographies of retrieved articles. Of 252 identified in the search, 12 (4.8 percent) original investigations that compared rates of prescribing medication errors with handwritten and computerized physician orders were included. Data Collection Information on study design, participant characteristics, clinical settings, and outcomes rates were abstracted independently by two investigators using a standardized protocol. Principal Findings Compared with handwritten orders, 80 percent of studies (8/10 studies) reported a significant reduction in total prescribing errors, 43 percent in dosing errors (3/7 studies), and 37.5 percent in adverse drug events (3/8 studies). The use of computerized orders was associated with a 66 percent reduction in total prescribing errors in adults (odds ratio [OR]=0.34; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 0.22–0.52) and a positive tendency in children (p for interaction=.028). The benefit of computerized orders was larger when the rate of errors was more than 12 percent with handwritten orders (p for interaction=.022). Significant heterogeneity in the results compromised pooled relative risks. One randomized controlled intervention demonstrated the greatest benefits of computerized orders on total prescribing errors (OR=0.02, 95 percent CI 0.01–0.02) and dosing errors (OR=0.28; 95 percent CI 0.15–0.52) with 775 avoided prescribing errors (95 percent CI 752–811) per 1,000 orders in a pediatric hospital. Conclusions Computerization of physicians' orders shows great promise. It will be more effective when linked to other computerized systems to detect and prevent prescribing errors. PMID:18211517
Steen, R Grant
Media attention to retracted research suggests that a substantial number of papers are corrupted by misinformation. In reality, every paper contains misinformation; at issue is whether the balance of correct versus incorrect information is acceptable. This paper postulates that analysis of retracted research papers can provide insight into medical misinformation, although retracted papers are not a random sample of incorrect papers. Error is the most common reason for retraction and error may be the principal cause of misinformation as well. Still, one-quarter of retracted papers are fraudulent, and misinformation may also arise through fraud. This paper hypothesises that error and fraud are the main sources of misinformation and that error is more common than fraud. Retraction removes misinformation from the literature; bias is non-retracted misinformation. Bias arises when scientific impropriety results in false research findings. Impropriety can involve experimental design, data collection, data analysis, or data presentation. Yet impropriety also arises through earnest error or statistical naiveté; not all bias is fraud. Several measures are proposed to minimise misinformation in the medical literature, including: greater detail in the clinical trial registry, with rigorous definition of inclusion and exclusion criteria and primary endpoints; clear statistical criteria for every aspect of clinical trials, especially sample size; responsibility for data integrity that accrues to all named authors; increased transparency as to how the costs of research were paid; and greater clarity as to the reasons for retraction. Misinformation can arise without malicious intent; authors of incorrect papers are owed a presumption of incompetence, not malice.
Minossi, José Guilherme
Generally, medico-legal conflicts which occur in surgical and medical practice are a source of worry for both the medical profession and the society as a whole, because on one hand, they could cause high emotional stress for doctors, and on the other hand, patients could be rejected. Once consolidated, defensive medicine increases treatment costs and the doctor-patient relationship could transform into a tragedy. There are many causes for this, including non-treatment factors, such as an unsupported and disorganized health system, lack of participation from society and the doctor in improving this system, the training machine which launches a large number of young unprepared doctors to practice in this noble profession, along with a lack of continuing training, as there are few public or private institutions providing preparation, or further medical training. The related treatment factors are generally, a deficient doctor-patient relationship, poor work condition, power abuse by the doctor, a lack of clear agreement, and poor medical record keeping. These conflicts cannot be solved by simple creating legislation, or by denying the existence of medical error, which occurs at higher frequency than the actual conflicts. It is very important to improve the doctor-patient relationship because an effective fraternal relationship reduces the chance of a judicial demand. The doctor still needs to fully understand his/her conduct obligations and mainly to avoid power abuse. Doctors must also professionally link themselves with politicians who fight for the individual's rights against the system. Society must also understand that health is not just an issue exclusive for doctors, and people must fight to improve living conditions. Society must seriously show its frustration with the increasing disparity between scientific possibilities and actual wellbeing. The training machine needs immediate profound changes to produce professionals with the highest qualifications equipped
Schneider, M P; Cotting, J; Pannatier, A
The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency and the types of errors which occur regarding the preparation and the administration of medication and to identify the main causes of these errors in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at the University Hospital in Lausanne (Switzerland). In this prospective study, based on the observation of nurses' activities, the data were collected over a period of 10 weeks. The error classification was based on the American Society of Hospital Pharmacy (ASHP) definitions. The frequency of errors was calculated as the sum of all noted errors divided by the total administered drugs, plus the sum of all omitted drugs, multiplied by 100. The sum of all given doses plus all omitted doses gives the 'total opportunity for errors'. This total was 275 and the total frequency of errors was 26.9%. The most frequent errors were wrong-time errors (32.4%), wrong-administration-technique errors (32.4%) and preparation errors (23.0%). In relation with other studies conducted under comparable conditions, a lesser number of omissions and wrong-time errors were observed. On the contrary, administration-technique and dose-preparation errors were more frequent at our hospital. A program of systematic assistance and survey by professional pharmacists could improve the quality of the preparation and administration of medication in the PICU.
In June 2012, the German Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer) published the statistics of medical malpractice for 2011 (published at http://www.bundesaerztekammer.de). Still ENT-specific accusations of medical malpractice are by far the fewest in the field of hospitals and actually even in the outpatient context. Clearly most of the unforeseen incidents still occur in the disciplines of trauma surgery and orthopedics. In total, however, an increasing number of errors in treatment can be noticed on the multidisciplinary level: in 25.5% of the registered cases, an error in treatment was found to be the origin of damage to health justifying a claim for compensation of the patient. In the year before, it was only 24.7%. The reasons may be manifold, but the medical system itself certainly plays a major role in this context: the recent developments related to health policy lead to a continuous economisation of medical care. Rationing and limited remuneration more and more result in the fact that therapeutic decision are not exclusively made for the benefit of the patient but that they are oriented at economic or bureaucratic aspects. Thus, in the long term, practising medicine undergoes a change. According to the §§ 1, 3 of the professional code of conduct for doctors (Musterberufsordnung für Ärzte; MBO-Ä) medical practice as liberal profession is principally incompatible with the pursuit of profit, however, even doctors have to earn money which more and more makes him play the role of a businessman. Lack of personnel and staff savings lead to excessive workloads of physicians, caregivers, and nurses, which also favour errors. The quality and even the confidential relationship between doctor and patient, which is important for the treatment success, are necessarily affected by the cost pressure. The victims in this context are not only the patients but also the physicians find themselves in the continuous conflict between ethical requirements of their profession
Background The Italian code of medical deontology recently approved stipulates that physicians have the duty to inform the patient of each unwanted event and its causes, and to identify, report and evaluate adverse events and errors. Thus the obligation to supply information continues to widen, in some way extending beyond the doctor-patient relationship to become an essential tool for improving the quality of professional services. Discussion The new deontological precepts intersect two areas in which the figure of the physician is paramount. On the one hand is the need for maximum integrity towards the patient, in the name of the doctor’s own, and the other’s (the patient’s) dignity and liberty; on the other is the physician’s developing role in the strategies of the health system to achieve efficacy, quality, reliability and efficiency, to reduce errors and adverse events and to manage clinical risk. Summary In Italy, due to guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health and to the new code of medical deontology, the role of physicians becomes a part of a complex strategy of risk management based on a system focused approach in which increasing transparency regarding adverse outcomes and full disclosure of health- related negative events represent a key factor. PMID:25023339
Lebeaux, David; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Lucet, Jean-Christophe
Medical progress led to an increase in the number of indications for indwelling devices. However, colonization of implanted devices by pathogenic microorganisms also increases risks of formation of microbial communities surrounded by an extracellular matrix called biofilms. Biofilms are able to survive in the presence of high concentrations of antimicrobials, therefore leading to treatment difficulties and exposing patients to the risk of infection recurrence. Because of these features, preventive measures reducing the risk of microbial contamination are cornerstone for the management of any patient carrying an indwelling device.
Tamuz, M; Thomas, E; Franchois, K
Background: It is important for healthcare providers to report safety related events, but little attention has been paid to how the definition and classification of events affects a hospital's ability to learn from its experience. Objectives: To examine how the definition and classification of safety related events influences key organizational routines for gathering information, allocating incentives, and analyzing event reporting data. Methods: In semi-structured interviews, professional staff and administrators in a tertiary care teaching hospital and its pharmacy were asked to describe the existing programs designed to monitor medication safety, including the reporting systems. With a focus primarily on the pharmacy staff, interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative research methods. Results: Eighty six interviews were conducted, including 36 in the hospital pharmacy. Examples are presented which show that: (1) the definition of an event could lead to under-reporting; (2) the classification of a medication error into alternative categories can influence the perceived incentives and disincentives for incident reporting; (3) event classification can enhance or impede organizational routines for data analysis and learning; and (4) routines that promote organizational learning within the pharmacy can reduce the flow of medication error data to the hospital. Discussion: These findings from one hospital raise important practical and research questions about how reporting systems are influenced by the definition and classification of safety related events. By understanding more clearly how hospitals define and classify their experience, we may improve our capacity to learn and ultimately improve patient safety. PMID:14757794
That article concerns with the influences of medical practitioners in witch hunts in the Salem (1692). Witch trials in England and English colonies in the XVII century were mainly criminal trials. Witchcraft had been there considered principally as a crime-tool rather then the crime itself. Witches were usually accused of crimes such as the murder and the disease sending. Physicians normally played in that situations the role of court experts. They decided if analyzed disease had normal or abnormal, artificial origin. In the Salem an medical practitioner judged that an illness which touched some children had come from the acts of sorcery. That was the beginning of a long and bloody witch hunt. Death sentences in the Salem trial were also justified with applying medical and physical categories to show the objectivity of a witchcraft. Salem judges were sure that by using "objective" categories they had been able to proof the existence of material relations between the witch and bewitched persons without the possibility of error.
This commentary on the article by Shulman et al. examines what we understand by 'medication errors', what we mean by 'computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems', how we measure errors, and what types of errors we are 'reducing' with CPOE systems. As the research of Shulman and colleagues highlights, much of the existing research on CPOE systems does not differentiate among: types of medication errors; consequential versus inconsequential medication errors; CPOE systems that include/exclude formal decision support packages; and the extent to which decision support information is implicitly presented to physicians via the CPOE system, for example, pull down menus with dosages. I discuss these issues and their implications for the evaluation of CPOE systems and of other emerging healthcare technologies.
Costich, Julia Field
The case of Nicolas Perruche gave rise to a national debate in France over compensation for serious consequences of medical error. Ultimately, legislation was enacted banning the cause of action known in Anglo-American law as wrongful life, and an agency was established to adjudicate subsequent claims. As other developed nations continue to wrestle with rapid increases in the cost of professional liability coverage and health care in general, a review of the Perruche case and its influence on French health policy may advance the discussion beyond the current stalemate of hardened advocacy positions.
Hospital administrators frequently rely on the use of mandatory or voluntary overtime to cover staff nurse vacancies. This practice is common in the perioperative setting, but it can lead to staff-member fatigue that may adversely affect patient safety. This literature review explores the effect that nurse staffing patterns have on the frequency of medical errors, fatigue, and nurse burnout. The evidence indicates that inadequate nurse staffing leads to adverse patient outcomes and increased nurse burnout. Hospital administrators should invest in adequate nurse staffing to improve patient safety and increase nurse retention.
Carstens, Deborah Sater; Rodriguez, Walter; Wood, Michael B
Task and error analysis research was performed to identify: a) the process for healthcare organisations in managing healthcare for patients with mental illness or substance abuse; b) how the process can be enhanced and; c) if electronic medical records (EMRs) have a role in this process from a business and safety perspective. The research question is if EMRs have a role in enhancing the healthcare for patients with mental illness or substance abuse. A discussion on the business of EMRs is addressed to understand the balancing act between the safety and business aspects of an EMR.
... Is Strong Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... to avoid secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...
Kranz, A.M.; Rozier, R.G.; Preisser, J.S.; Stearns, S.C.; Weinberger, M.; Lee, J.Y.
Objective: Nearly all state Medicaid programs reimburse nondental primary care providers (PCPs) for providing preventive oral health services to young children; yet, little is known about how treatment outcomes compare with children visiting dentists. This study compared the association between the provider of preventive services (PCP, dentist, or both) with Medicaid-enrolled children before their third birthday and subsequent dental caries-related treatment (CRT) and CRT payment. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of young children enrolled in North Carolina Medicaid during 2000 to 2006. The annual number of CRT and CRT payments per child between the ages of 3 and 5 yr were estimated with a zero-inflated negative binomial regression and a hurdle model, respectively. Models were adjusted for relevant child- and county-level characteristics and used propensity score weighting to address observed confounding. Results: We examined 41,453 children with > 1 preventive oral health visit from a PCP, dentist, or both before their third birthday. Unadjusted annual mean CRT and payments were lowest among children who had only PCP visits (CRT = 0.87, payment = $172) and higher among children with only dentist visits (CRT = 1.48, payment = $234) and both PCP and dentist visits (CRT = 1.52, payment = $273). Adjusted results indicated that children who had dentist visits (with or without PCP visits) had significantly more CRT and higher CRT payments per year during the ages of 3 and 4 yr than children who had only PCP visits. However, these differences attenuated each year after age 3 yr. Conclusions: Because of children’s increased opportunity to receive multiple visits in medical offices during well-child visits, preventive oral health services provided by PCPs may lead to a greater reduction in CRT than dentist visits alone. This study supports guidelines and reimbursement policies that allow preventive dental visits based on individual needs. PMID:24891593
Riga, Marina; Vozikis, Athanassios; Pollalis, Yannis; Souliotis, Kyriakos
The economic crisis in Greece poses the necessity to resolve problems concerning both the spiralling cost and the quality assurance in the health system. The detection and the analysis of patient adverse events and medical errors are considered crucial elements of this course. The implementation of MERIS embodies a mandatory module, which adopts the trigger tool methodology for measuring adverse events and medical errors an intensive care unit [ICU] environment, and a voluntary one with web-based public reporting methodology. A pilot implementation of MERIS running in a public hospital identified 35 adverse events, with approx. 12 additional hospital days and an extra healthcare cost of €12,000 per adverse event or of about €312,000 per annum for ICU costs only. At the same time, the voluntary module unveiled 510 reports on adverse events submitted by citizens or patients. MERIS has been evaluated as a comprehensive and effective system; it succeeded in detecting the main factors that cause adverse events and discloses severe omissions of the Greek health system. MERIS may be incorporated and run efficiently nationally, adapted to the needs and peculiarities of each hospital or clinic.
Khowaja, Khurshid; Nizar, Rozmin; Merchant, Rashida J; Dias, Jacqueline; Bustamante-Gavino, Irma; Malik, Amina
Introduction: Administering medication is one of the high risk areas for any health professional. It is a multidisciplinary process, which begins with the doctor’s prescription, followed by review and provision by a pharmacist, and ends with preparation and administration by a nurse. Several studies have highlighted a high medication incident rate at several healthcare institutions. Methods: Our study design was exploratory and evaluative and used methodological triangulation. Sample size was of two types. First, a convenient sample of 1000 medication dosages to estimate the medication error (95% CI). We took another sample from subjects involved in medication usage processes such as physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and patients. Two sets of instruments were designed via extensive literature review: a medication tracking error form and a focus group interview questionnaire. Results: Our study findings revealed 100% compliance with a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system by physicians, nurses, and pharmacists. The main error rate was 5.5% and pharmacists contributed an higher error rate of 2.6% followed by nurses (1.1%) and physicians (1%). Major areas for improvement in error rates were identified: delay in medication delivery, lab results reviewed electronically before prescription, dispension, and administration. PMID:19209247
Wang, Qi; Webster, Thomas J
Biofilms are a common cause of persistent infections on medical devices as they are easy to form and hard to treat. The objective of this study was for the first time to coat selenium (a natural element in the body) nanoparticles on the surface of polycarbonate medical devices (such as those used for medical catheters) and to examine their effectiveness at preventing biofilm formation. The size and distribution of selenium coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The strength of the selenium coating on polycarbonate was assessed by tape-adhesion tests followed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results showed that selenium nanoparticles had a diameter of 50-100 nm and were well distributed on the polycarbonate surface. In addition, more than 50% of the selenium coating survived the tape-adhesion test as larger nanoparticles had less adhesion strength to the underlying polycarbonate substrate than smaller selenium nanoparticles. Most significantly, the results of this in vitro study showed that the selenium coatings on polycarbonate significantly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth to 8.9% and 27% when compared with an uncoated polycarbonate surface after 24 and 72 h, respectively. Importantly, this was accomplished without using antibiotics but rather with an element (selenium) that is natural to the human body. Thus, this study suggests that coating polymers (particularly, polycarbonate) with nanostructured selenium is a fast and effective way to reduce bacteria functions that lead to medical device infections. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 100A: 3205-3210, 2012.
Pomrehn, Paul R.; Davis, Mary V.; Chen, D. W.; Barker, William
Discusses the importance of teaching preventive medicine and presents a set of core competencies in preventive medicine for undergraduate medical education recommended by a 1997 task force of medical educators. Also reviews the Medical School Objectives Project, which describes in broad terms the knowledge, attitudes and skills students must…
Latkin, Carl A.; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A.; Knowlton, Amy R.; Alexander, Kamila A.; Williams, Chyvette T.; Boodram, Basmattee
This article reviews current issues and advancements in social network approaches to HIV prevention and care. Social network analysis can provide a method to understand health disparities in HIV rates and treatment access and outcomes. Social network analysis is a value tool to link social structural factors to individual behaviors. Social networks provide an avenue for low cost and sustainable HIV prevention interventions that can be adapted and translated into diverse populations. Social networks can be utilized as a viable approach to recruitment for HIV testing and counseling, HIV prevention interventions, and optimizing HIV medical care and medication adherence. Social network interventions may be face-to-face or through social media. Key issues in designing social network interventions are contamination due to social diffusion, network stability, density, and the choice and training of network members. There are also ethical issues involved in the development and implementation of social network interventions. Social network analyses can also be used to understand HIV transmission dynamics. PMID:23673888
Chen, Miankang; Yu, Shizhun; Bao, Juncheng; Zhang, Wenlong; Zhou, Na; Xia, Guanqun
This paper analyzes the characteristics of medical equipment's preventive maintenance, and it expounds the objective and methods of introducing risk management to medical equipment's preventive maintenance,what's more,the problem of establishment object and cycle of preventive maintenance was solved scientifically.
Sagi, Sreedhar; Wendt-Nordahl, Gunnar; Alken, Peter; Knoll, Thomas
Medical treatment for cystinuria aims to decrease the concentration of cystine in the urine, increase its solubility and therefore prevent stone formation. Ascorbic acid and captopril have been recommended as alternatives to thiol drugs, though conflicting data undermining their efficacy has been widely reported, too. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of ascorbic acid and captopril on cystine stone formation in the cystinuria mouse model. A total of 28 male homozygous pebbles mice were used for characterizing the mice on normal diet, ascorbic acid and captopril supplemented diets. The baseline physiological parameters of the mice were determined initially. The normal diet was then replaced with the supplemented diet (ascorbic acid/captopril) for the next 48 weeks and various biochemical parameters in urine and plasma were analyzed. All homozygous mice developed urinary cystine stones during the first year of life. No reduction in the urinary cystine concentration was seen with either of the supplemented diets. The stone mass varied widely in the study and a beneficial effect of ascorbic acid in some of the animals was possible though an overall statistical significance was not seen. Conclusions: The cystinuria mouse model provides an ideal tool for evaluation of stone preventive measures in a standardized environment. This study confirms that ascorbic acid and captopril are not effective in cystinuria.
Welagedara, Suminda; Swe, Tokyo Moe; Sriram, Krishna Bajee
We report the case of an elderly Asian man where a medical error and diagnostic delays obscured the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB). The patient was hospitalized for evaluation of a unilateral pleural effusion. Initially, the patient was subjected to a pleural aspiration on the wrong side due to a lack of bedside ultrasound guidance. Subsequently, the patient underwent several investigations but not a blind closed pleural biopsy (BCPB) due to a lack of equipment. Furthermore, the patient was deemed to be too sick to undergo a thoracoscopic pleural procedure. Eventually, a bronchoscopy was performed, and washings from the right upper lobe were cultured, which established the diagnosis of TB. This case highlights the need to use bedside ultrasound in the investigation of pleural effusions, the role of BCPB especially in frail patients and finally the utility of bronchoscopy in establishing a diagnosis of pleural TB. PMID:28144068
Quality improvements in decreasing medication administration errors made by nursing staff in an academic medical center hospital: a trend analysis during the journey to Joint Commission International accreditation and in the post-accreditation era
Wang, Hua-fen; Jin, Jing-fen; Feng, Xiu-qin; Huang, Xin; Zhu, Ling-ling; Zhao, Xiao-ying; Zhou, Quan
Background Medication errors may occur during prescribing, transcribing, prescription auditing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring. Medication administration errors (MAEs) are those that actually reach patients and remain a threat to patient safety. The Joint Commission International (JCI) advocates medication error prevention, but experience in reducing MAEs during the period of before and after JCI accreditation has not been reported. Methods An intervention study, aimed at reducing MAEs in hospitalized patients, was performed in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China, during the journey to JCI accreditation and in the post-JCI accreditation era (first half-year of 2011 to first half-year of 2014). Comprehensive interventions included organizational, information technology, educational, and process optimization-based measures. Data mining was performed on MAEs derived from a compulsory electronic reporting system. Results The number of MAEs continuously decreased from 143 (first half-year of 2012) to 64 (first half-year of 2014), with a decrease in occurrence rate by 60.9% (0.338% versus 0.132%, P<0.05). The number of MAEs related to high-alert medications decreased from 32 (the second half-year of 2011) to 16 (the first half-year of 2014), with a decrease in occurrence rate by 57.9% (0.0787% versus 0.0331%, P<0.05). Omission was the top type of MAE during the first half-year of 2011 to the first half-year of 2014, with a decrease by 50% (40 cases versus 20 cases). Intravenous administration error was the top type of error regarding administration route, but it continuously decreased from 64 (first half-year of 2012) to 27 (first half-year of 2014). More experienced registered nurses made fewer medication errors. The number of MAEs in surgical wards was twice that in medicinal wards. Compared with non-intensive care units, the intensive care units exhibited higher occurrence rates of MAEs
... Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Using Medications Safely Pharmacists in hospitals and health systems play an important role in preventing medication errors. To make sure you use medicines safely ...
Keers, Richard N; Williams, Steven D; Cooke, Jonathan; Ashcroft, Darren M
Objectives To investigate the underlying causes of intravenous medication administration errors (MAEs) in National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. Setting Two NHS teaching hospitals in the North West of England. Participants Twenty nurses working in a range of inpatient clinical environments were identified and recruited using purposive sampling at each study site. Primary outcome measures Semistructured interviews were conducted with nurse participants using the critical incident technique, where they were asked to discuss perceived causes of intravenous MAEs that they had been directly involved with. Transcribed interviews were analysed using the Framework approach and emerging themes were categorised according to Reason's model of accident causation. Results In total, 21 intravenous MAEs were discussed containing 23 individual active failures which included slips and lapses (n=11), mistakes (n=8) and deliberate violations of policy (n=4). Each active failure was associated with a range of error and violation provoking conditions. The working environment was implicated when nurses lacked healthcare team support and/or were exposed to a perceived increased workload during ward rounds, shift changes or emergencies. Nurses frequently reported that the quality of intravenous dose-checking activities was compromised due to high perceived workload and working relationships. Nurses described using approaches such as subconscious functioning and prioritising to manage their duties, which at times contributed to errors. Conclusions Complex interactions between active and latent failures can lead to intravenous MAEs in hospitals. Future interventions may need to be multimodal in design in order to mitigate these risks and reduce the burden of intravenous MAEs. PMID:25770226
Riaz, Muhammad Kashif; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Riaz, Mohammad; Hussain, Khalid
The knowledge of medication errors is an essential prerequisite for better healthcare delivery. The present study investigated prescribing errors in prescriptions from outpatient departments (OPDs) and emergency wards of two public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. A manual prescription system was followed in Hospital A. Hospital B was running a semi-computerised prescription system in the OPD and a fully computerised prescription system in the emergency ward. A total of 510 prescriptions from both departments of these two hospitals were evaluated for patient characteristics, demographics and medication errors. The data was analysed using a chi square test for comparison of errors between both the hospitals. The medical departments in OPDs of both hospitals were the highest prescribers at 45%–60%. The age group receiving the most treatment in emergency wards of both the hospitals was 21–30 years (21%–24%). A trend of omitting patient addresses and diagnoses was observed in almost all prescriptions from both of the hospitals. Nevertheless, patient information such as name, age, gender and legibility of the prescriber’s signature were found in almost 100% of the electronic-prescriptions. In addition, no prescribing error was found pertaining to drug concentrations, quantity and rate of administration in e-prescriptions. The total prescribing errors in the OPD and emergency ward of Hospital A were found to be 44% and 60%, respectively. In hospital B, the OPD had 39% medication errors and the emergency department had 73.5% errors; this unexpected difference between the emergency ward and OPD of hospital B was mainly due to the inclusion of 69.4% omissions of route of administration in the prescriptions. The incidence of prescription overdose was approximately 7%–19% in the manual system and approximately 8% in semi and fully electronic system. The omission of information and incomplete information are contributors of prescribing errors in both manual and
Riaz, Muhammad Kashif; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Riaz, Mohammad; Hussain, Khalid
The knowledge of medication errors is an essential prerequisite for better healthcare delivery. The present study investigated prescribing errors in prescriptions from outpatient departments (OPDs) and emergency wards of two public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. A manual prescription system was followed in Hospital A. Hospital B was running a semi-computerised prescription system in the OPD and a fully computerised prescription system in the emergency ward. A total of 510 prescriptions from both departments of these two hospitals were evaluated for patient characteristics, demographics and medication errors. The data was analysed using a chi square test for comparison of errors between both the hospitals. The medical departments in OPDs of both hospitals were the highest prescribers at 45%-60%. The age group receiving the most treatment in emergency wards of both the hospitals was 21-30 years (21%-24%). A trend of omitting patient addresses and diagnoses was observed in almost all prescriptions from both of the hospitals. Nevertheless, patient information such as name, age, gender and legibility of the prescriber's signature were found in almost 100% of the electronic-prescriptions. In addition, no prescribing error was found pertaining to drug concentrations, quantity and rate of administration in e-prescriptions. The total prescribing errors in the OPD and emergency ward of Hospital A were found to be 44% and 60%, respectively. In hospital B, the OPD had 39% medication errors and the emergency department had 73.5% errors; this unexpected difference between the emergency ward and OPD of hospital B was mainly due to the inclusion of 69.4% omissions of route of administration in the prescriptions. The incidence of prescription overdose was approximately 7%-19% in the manual system and approximately 8% in semi and fully electronic system. The omission of information and incomplete information are contributors of prescribing errors in both manual and electronic
Harada, Saki; Suzuki, Akio; Nishida, Shohei; Kobayashi, Ryo; Tamai, Sayuri; Kumada, Keisuke; Murakami, Nobuo; Itoh, Yoshinori
Insulin is frequently used for glycemic control. Medication errors related to insulin are a common problem for medical institutions. Here, we prepared a standardized sliding scale insulin (SSI) order sheet and assessed the effect of its introduction. Observations before and after the introduction of the standardized SSI template were conducted at Gifu University Hospital. The incidence of medication errors, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia related to SSI were obtained from the electronic medical records. The introduction of the standardized SSI order sheet significantly reduced the incidence of medication errors related to SSI compared with that prior to its introduction (12/165 [7.3%] vs 4/159 [2.1%], P = .048). However, the incidence of hyperglycemia (≥250 mg/dL) and hypoglycemia (≤50 mg/dL) in patients who received SSI was not significantly different between the 2 groups. The introduction of the standardized SSI order sheet reduced the incidence of medication errors related to SSI.
Reed, Jason Bailey; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Bacon, Melanie C.; Bailey, Robert; Cherutich, Peter; Curran, Kelly; Dickson, Kim; Farley, Tim; Hankins, Catherine; Hatzold, Karin; Justman, Jessica; Mwandi, Zebedee; Nkinsi, Luke; Ridzon, Renee; Ryan, Caroline; Bock, Naomi
As the science demonstrating strong evidence for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention has evolved, the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has collaborated with international agencies, donors, and partner country governments supporting VMMC programming. Mathematical models forecast that quickly reaching a large number of uncircumcised men with VMMC in strategically chosen populations may dramatically reduce community-level HIV incidence and save billions of dollars in HIV care and treatment costs. Because VMMC is a 1-time procedure that confers life-long partial protection against HIV, programs for adult men are vital short-term investments with long-term benefits. VMMC also provides a unique opportunity to reach boys and men with HIV testing and counseling services and referrals for other HIV services, including treatment. After formal recommendations by WHO in 2007, priority countries have pursued expansion of VMMC. More than 1 million males have received VMMC thus far, with the most notable successes coming from Kenya’s Nyanza Province. However, a myriad of necessary cultural, political, and ethical considerations have moderated the pace of overall success. Because many millions more uncircumcised men would benefit from VMMC services now, US President Barack Obama committed PEPFAR to provide 4.7 million males with VMMC by 2014. Innovative circumcision methods—such as medical devices that remove the foreskin without injected anesthesia and/or sutures—are being rigorously evaluated. Incorporation of safe innovations into surgical VMMC programs may provide the opportunity to reach more men more quickly with services and dramatically reduce HIV incidence for all. PMID:22797745
Reed, Jason Bailey; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Bacon, Melanie C; Bailey, Robert; Cherutich, Peter; Curran, Kelly; Dickson, Kim; Farley, Tim; Hankins, Catherine; Hatzold, Karin; Justman, Jessica; Mwandi, Zebedee; Nkinsi, Luke; Ridzon, Renee; Ryan, Caroline; Bock, Naomi
As the science demonstrating strong evidence for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention has evolved, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has collaborated with international agencies, donors, and partner country governments supporting VMMC programming. Mathematical models forecast that quickly reaching a large number of uncircumcised men with VMMC in strategically chosen populations may dramatically reduce community-level HIV incidence and save billions of dollars in HIV care and treatment costs. Because VMMC is a 1-time procedure that confers life-long partial protection against HIV, programs for adult men are vital short-term investments with long-term benefits. VMMC also provides a unique opportunity to reach boys and men with HIV testing and counseling services and referrals for other HIV services, including treatment. After formal recommendations by WHO in 2007, priority countries have pursued expansion of VMMC. More than 1 million males have received VMMC thus far, with the most notable successes coming from Kenya's Nyanza Province. However, a myriad of necessary cultural, political, and ethical considerations have moderated the pace of overall success. Because many millions more uncircumcised men would benefit from VMMC services now, US President Barack Obama committed PEPFAR to provide 4.7 million males with VMMC by 2014. Innovative circumcision methods-such as medical devices that remove the foreskin without injected anesthesia and/or sutures-are being rigorously evaluated. Incorporation of safe innovations into surgical VMMC programs may provide the opportunity to reach more men more quickly with services and dramatically reduce HIV incidence for all.
Alsweed, Fatimah; Alshaikh, Anwar; Ahmed, Anwar; Yunus, Faisel; Househ, Mowafa
There is a paucity of research on the impact of computerised provider order entry (CPOE) system on the front line staff. We assessed nurses perspectives of the impact of CPOE system implementation on their workflow, patient safety and medication errors in a Saudi Arabian hospital. We conducted a cross-sectional survey involving 112 nurses between April and May 2012. The workflow was easy to manage for nurses who rated CPOE training as of good quality (p = 0.001) and they found that CPOE helped in reducing medication errors (p = 0.001). The nurses who rated CPOE training as of good quality also stated that patient safety was better with CPOE implementation and its use (p < 0.05). Provision of adequate CPOE training improves nurses' perception of the system's role in their workflow, patient safety and medication errors, and is critical in the success of CPOE use and its long-term adoption.
Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of an electronic medication management system to reduce medication errors, adverse drug events and average length of stay at two paediatric hospitals: a study protocol
Westbrook, J I; Li, L; Raban, M Z; Baysari, M T; Prgomet, M; Georgiou, A; Kim, T; Lake, R; McCullagh, C; Dalla-Pozza, L; Karnon, J; O'Brien, T A; Ambler, G; Day, R; Cowell, C T; Gazarian, M; Worthington, R; Lehmann, C U; White, L; Barbaric, D; Gardo, A; Kelly, M; Kennedy, P
Introduction Medication errors are the most frequent cause of preventable harm in hospitals. Medication management in paediatric patients is particularly complex and consequently potential for harms are greater than in adults. Electronic medication management (eMM) systems are heralded as a highly effective intervention to reduce adverse drug events (ADEs), yet internationally evidence of their effectiveness in paediatric populations is limited. This study will assess the effectiveness of an eMM system to reduce medication errors, ADEs and length of stay (LOS). The study will also investigate system impact on clinical work processes. Methods and analysis A stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) will measure changes pre-eMM and post-eMM system implementation in prescribing and medication administration error (MAE) rates, potential and actual ADEs, and average LOS. In stage 1, 8 wards within the first paediatric hospital will be randomised to receive the eMM system 1 week apart. In stage 2, the second paediatric hospital will randomise implementation of a modified eMM and outcomes will be assessed. Prescribing errors will be identified through record reviews, and MAEs through direct observation of nurses and record reviews. Actual and potential severity will be assigned. Outcomes will be assessed at the patient-level using mixed models, taking into account correlation of admissions within wards and multiple admissions for the same patient, with adjustment for potential confounders. Interviews and direct observation of clinicians will investigate the effects of the system on workflow. Data from site 1 will be used to develop improvements in the eMM and implemented at site 2, where the SWCRCT design will be repeated (stage 2). Ethics and dissemination The research has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network and Macquarie University. Results will be reported through academic journals and
Akimkin, V G; Azarov, I I; Volynkov, I O; Bobylev, V A
Infection prevention in medical organizations is an essential task to ensure quality of medical care and create a safe environment for patients and medical staff. The main task of a specialist of medical and preventive profile in the hospital is to maintain sanitary and epidemiological safety and control fulfillment of a complex of preventive measures. To achieve these goals specialists monitor epidemiological and microbiological fulfilment of the implementation and effectiveness of preventive measures, which allow to except infection entry to the hospital and possible carrying out beyond the hospital, occurrence and spread of disease. An obligatory activity of the specialist of medical and preventive profile in the hospital is a scientific and methodical work. The authors propose adoption of preventive structural subdivisions to the state largest diversified military hospitals.
Volpato, Chiara; Schiff, Sami; Facchini, Silvia; Silvoni, Stefano; Cavinato, Marianna; Piccione, Francesco; Antonini, Angelo; Birbaumer, Niels
Dopamine systems mediate key aspects of reward learning. Parkinson’s disease (PD) represents a valuable model to study reward mechanisms because both the disease process and the anti-Parkinson medications influence dopamine neurotransmission. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether the level of levodopa differently modulates learning from positive and negative feedback and its electrophysiological correlate, the error related negativity (ERN), in PD. Ten PD patients and ten healthy participants performed a two-stage reinforcement learning task. In the Learning Phase, they had to learn the correct stimulus within a stimulus pair on the basis of a probabilistic positive or negative feedback. Three sets of stimulus pairs were used. In the Testing Phase, the participants were tested with novel combinations of the stimuli previously experienced to evaluate whether they learned more from positive or negative feedback. PD patients performed the task both ON- and OFF-levodopa in two separate sessions while they remained on stable therapy with dopamine agonists. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded during the task. PD patients were less accurate in negative than positive learning both OFF- and ON-levodopa. In the OFF-levodopa state they were less accurate than controls in negative learning. PD patients had a smaller ERN amplitude OFF- than ON-levodopa only in negative learning. In the OFF-levodopa state they had a smaller ERN amplitude than controls in negative learning. We hypothesize that high tonic dopaminergic stimulation due to the dopamine agonist medication, combined to the low level of phasic dopamine due to the OFF-levodopa state, could prevent phasic “dopamine dips” indicated by the ERN needed for learning from negative feedback. PMID:27822182
van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; Spieser, Laure; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard
Abstract In a rich environment, with multiple action affordances, selective action inhibition is critical in preventing the execution of inappropriate responses. Here, we studied the origin and the dynamics of incorrect response inhibition and how it can be modulated by task demands. We used EEG in a conflict task where the probability of compatible and incompatible trials was varied. This allowed us to modulate the strength of the prepotent response, and hence to increase the risk of errors, while keeping the probability of the two responses equal. The correct response activation and execution was not affected by compatibility or by probability. In contrast, incorrect response inhibition in the primary motor cortex ipsilateral to the correct response was more pronounced on incompatible trials, especially in the condition where most of the trials were compatible, indicating a modulation of inhibitory strength within the course of the action. Two prefrontal activities, one medial and one lateral, were also observed before the response, and their potential links with the observed inhibitory pattern observed are discussed. PMID:27005956
Belciug, Smaranda; Gorunescu, Florin
Automated medical diagnosis models are now ubiquitous, and research for developing new ones is constantly growing. They play an important role in medical decision-making, helping physicians to provide a fast and accurate diagnosis. Due to their adaptive learning and nonlinear mapping properties, the artificial neural networks are widely used to support the human decision capabilities, avoiding variability in practice and errors based on lack of experience. Among the most common learning approaches, one can mention either the classical back-propagation algorithm based on the partial derivatives of the error function with respect to the weights, or the Bayesian learning method based on posterior probability distribution of weights, given training data. This paper proposes a novel training technique gathering together the error-correction learning, the posterior probability distribution of weights given the error function, and the Goodman-Kruskal Gamma rank correlation to assembly them in a Bayesian learning strategy. This study had two main purposes; firstly, to develop anovel learning technique based on both the Bayesian paradigm and the error back-propagation, and secondly,to assess its effectiveness. The proposed model performance is compared with those obtained by traditional machine learning algorithms using real-life breast and lung cancer, diabetes, and heart attack medical databases. Overall, the statistical comparison results indicate that thenovellearning approach outperforms the conventional techniques in almost all respects.
Igarashi, Hiroshi; Fukushi, Masahiro; Shinoda, Naoki; Miyamoto, Akira; Hirata, Masaharu; Ishidate, Miyako; Kuraishi, Masahiko; Doi, Kunio
The first objective in this study was to identify the errors of incidents and accidents that occurred in general and mobile X-ray examinations. Based on the analysis of results, the second purpose in this study was to propose useful measures to prevent such errors. As much as 553 radiological technologists in the Gunma Prefecture were surveyed on their experience with errors related to general and mobile X-ray examinations. The questionnaire asked for descriptions of errors experienced during examinations and the responses given (multiple answers possible), and evaluations of the degree of busyness on a five-point scale. A total of 115 questionnaires were returned. Analysis revealed that there was no significant relationship between errors and degree of busyness for either general or mobile examinations. The most frequent error both in general and in mobile examinations was to X-ray a patient mistakenly, the cause of which was cited as failure to confirm the patient's name. After the use of solution priority number to evaluate proposed preventive measures, such as finger-pointing and call, independent double-checks, and verbal self-confirmation would be the simplest and most easily implemented countermeasure.
Knoll, Andrew M
Medical errors cause 44,000 to 98,000 deaths per year, which is due, in part, to the lack of privileged self-reporting systems. Such systems are of great value to the medical community, especially to new doctors and to medical students. Nonetheless, because documents produced for self-reporting conferences and statements made against self-interest are admissible in court, many observers believe that doctors are discouraged from self-reporting errors. The author proposes the creation of a new medical self-disclosure privilege to protect and promote self-reporting systems, which will lead to a reduction in medical errors.
Shawahna, Ramzi; Haddad, Aseel; Khawaja, Baraa; Raie, Rand; Zaneen, Sireen; Edais, Tasneem
Background Medication dispensing errors (MDEs) are frequent in community pharmacy practice. A definition of MDEs and scenarios representing MDE situations in Palestinian community pharmacy practice were not previously approached using formal consensus techniques. Objective This study was conducted to achieve consensus on a definition of MDEs and a wide range of scenarios that should or should not be considered as MDEs in Palestinian community pharmacy practice by a panel of community pharmacists. Setting Community pharmacy practice in Palestine. Method This was a descriptive study using the Delphi technique. A panel of fifty community pharmacists was recruited from different geographical locations of the West Bank of Palestine. A three round Delphi technique was followed to achieve consensus on a proposed definition of MDEs and 83 different scenarios representing potential MDEs using a nine-point scale. Main outcome measure Agreement or disagreement of a panel of community pharmacists on a proposed definition of MDEs and a series of scenarios representing potential MDEs. Results In the first Delphi round, views of key contact community pharmacists on MDEs were explored and situations representing potential MDEs were collected. In the second Delphi round, consensus was achieved to accept the proposed definition and to include 49 (59 %) of the 83 proposed scenarios as MDEs. In the third Delphi round, consensus was achieved to include further 13 (15.7 %) scenarios as MDEs, exclude 9 (10.8 %) scenarios and the rest of 12 (14.5 %) scenarios were considered equivocal based on the opinions of the panelists. Conclusion Consensus on a definition of MDEs and scenarios representing MDE situations in Palestinian community pharmacy practice was achieved using a formal consensus technique. The use of consensual definitions and scenarios representing MDE situations in community pharmacy practice might minimize methodological variations and their significant effects on the
Jaffer, Amir K; Amin, Alpesh N; Brotman, Daniel J; Deitelzweig, Steven B; McKean, Sylvia C; Spyropoulos, Alex C
Hospitalized acutely ill medical patients are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), and clinical trials clearly demonstrate that pharmacologic prophylaxis of VTE for up to 14 days significantly reduces the incidence of VTE in this population. Guidelines recommend use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or unfractionated heparin (5,000 U three times daily) for VTE prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients with risk factors for VTE; in patients with contraindications to anticoagulants, mechanical prophylaxis is recommended. All hospitalized medical patients should be assessed for their risk of VTE at admission and daily thereafter, and those with reduced mobility and one or more other VTE risk factors are candidates for aggressive VTE prophylaxis. Based on results from the recently reported EXCLAIM trial, extended postdischarge prophylaxis with LMWH for 28 days should be considered for hospitalized medical patients with reduced mobility who are older than age 75 or have a cancer diagnosis or a history of VTE.
Kranz, J; Sommer, K-J; Steffens, J
Patient safety and risk/complication management rank among the current megatrends in modern medicine, which has undoubtedly become more complex. In time-critical, error-prone and difficult situations, which often occur repeatedly in everyday clinical practice, guidelines are inappropriate for acting rapidly and intelligently. With the establishment and consistent use of standard operating procedures like in commercial aviation, a possible strategic approach is available. These medical aids to decision-making - quick reference cards - are short, optimized instructions that enable a standardized procedure in case of medical claims.
Clay, Daniel; Farris, Karen; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Howarth, Robyn
Medications are administered every day in schools across the country. Researchers and clinicians have studied school nurses' and educators' experiences with medication administration, but not the experiences of children or their parents. This study examined medication administration from the child and parent perspectives to (a) determine problems…
Thornton, J; McCally, M; Orris, P; Weinberg, J
CHLORINATED DIOXINS and related compounds are extremely potent toxic substances, producing effects in humans and animals at extremely low doses. Because these compounds are persistent in the environment and accumulate in the food chain, they are now distributed globally, and every member of the human population is exposed to them, primarily through the food supply and mothers' milk. An emerging body of information suggests that dioxin contamination has reached a level that may pose a large-scale, long-term public health risk. Of particular concern are dioxin's effects on reproduction, development, immune system function, and carcinogenesis. Medical waste incineration is a major source of dioxins. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic, as the dominant source of organically bound chlorine in the medical waste stream, is the primary cause of "iatrogenic" dioxin produced by the incineration of medical wastes. Health professionals have a responsibility to work to reduce dioxin exposure from medical sources. Health care institutions should implement policies to reduce the use of PVC plastics, thus achieving major reductions in medically related dioxin formation.
Thornton, J; McCally, M; Orris, P; Weinberg, J
CHLORINATED DIOXINS and related compounds are extremely potent toxic substances, producing effects in humans and animals at extremely low doses. Because these compounds are persistent in the environment and accumulate in the food chain, they are now distributed globally, and every member of the human population is exposed to them, primarily through the food supply and mothers' milk. An emerging body of information suggests that dioxin contamination has reached a level that may pose a large-scale, long-term public health risk. Of particular concern are dioxin's effects on reproduction, development, immune system function, and carcinogenesis. Medical waste incineration is a major source of dioxins. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic, as the dominant source of organically bound chlorine in the medical waste stream, is the primary cause of "iatrogenic" dioxin produced by the incineration of medical wastes. Health professionals have a responsibility to work to reduce dioxin exposure from medical sources. Health care institutions should implement policies to reduce the use of PVC plastics, thus achieving major reductions in medically related dioxin formation. Images p298-a p299-a p300-a p301-a p305-a p307-a p310-a PMID:8711095
Clinic at Malcom Grow Medical Center, Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. Preventive counseling Preventing the occurrence of both mental and physical ...of their care. The primary care provider assumes ongoing responsibility for health maintenance and therapy for illness, including consultation with...PA) or a Medical Doctor (M.D.). Doctor of Osteopathy (D.O.), or Registered Nurse (R.N.). Safety helmet For the purpose of this study, the safety
Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter
Exacerbations have significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most guidelines emphasise prevention of exacerbations by treatment with long-acting bronchodilators and/or anti-inflammatory drugs. Whereas most of this treatment is evidence-based, it is clear that patients differ regarding the nature of exacerbations and are likely to benefit differently from different types of treatment. In this short review, we wish to highlight this, suggest a first step in differentiating pharmacological exacerbation prevention and call for more studies in this area. Finally, we wish to highlight that there are perhaps easier ways of achieving similar success in exacerbation prevention using nonpharmacological tools.
Pankova, V B; Golysheva, G V; Khvastunov, R M; Makarov, A A
The paper reflects the priority role of preliminary and periodic medical examinations in the system of measures implemented by therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions of the Ministry of Railway of Russia. It gives a comprehensive assessment of the medical, social, and economic aspects of the efficiency of preventive medical examinations. Emphasis is laid on the necessity of elaborating methods to evaluate the economic efficiency of medical measures under the conditions of market economy. At the same time, light is shed on the difficulties available when a full-scale, within the whole industry, economic evaluation of periodic medical examinations is made. The role of a cost-effect analysis is shown as the most flexible existing principle in the evaluation of the efficiency of medical preventive measures.
Mennoial, Nunzio Valerio; Napoli, Paola; Battaglia, Andrea; Candura, Stefano M
In Italy, the Law n. 395/1990 defines the tasks and attributions of prison officers. According to the article 25 of the Legislative Decree n. 81/2008, the occupational physician should participate to risk assessment, and carry out the sanitary surveillance. This report analyzes the various tasks of prison staff, identifies the risk factors, and discusses the preventive strategies, including workers formation and education. Biological agents and work-related stress are the main risk factors, as a consequence of prison overcrowding, personnel shortage and work organization complexity. In his preventive action, and particularly in formulating the judgment on work fitness, the occupational physician often clashes with inadequate ministerial funding.
Howard, R; Avery, A; Howard, P; Partridge, M
Objective: To describe the drugs and types of medicine management problems most frequently associated with preventable drug related admissions to an acute medical admissions unit. Design: Observation study. Setting: Medical admissions unit in a teaching hospital in Nottingham, UK. Participants: 4093 patients seen by pharmacists on the medical admissions unit between 1 January and 30 June 2001. Main outcome measures: Proportion of admissions that were drug related and preventable, classification of the underlying causes of preventable drug related admissions, and identification of drugs most commonly associated with preventable drug related admissions. Results: Of the admissions seen by pharmacists, 265 (6.5%) were judged to be drug related and 178 (67%) of these were judged to be preventable. Preventable admissions were mainly due to problems with prescribing (63 cases (35%)), monitoring (46 cases (26%)), and adherence to medication (53 cases (30%)). The drugs most commonly implicated were NSAIDs, antiplatelets, antiepileptics, hypoglycaemics, diuretics, inhaled corticosteroids, cardiac glycosides, and beta-blockers. Conclusions: Potentially preventable drug related morbidity was associated with 4.3% of admissions to a medical admissions unit. In 91% of cases these admissions were related to problems with either prescribing, monitoring, or adherence. PMID:12897361
Frank, Erica; Schlair, Sheira; Elon, Lisa; Saraiya, Mona
Little is known about the extent to which evidence-based prevention topics are taught in medical school. All class of 2003 medical students (n = 2316) at 16 US schools were eligible to complete three questionnaires: at the beginning of first and third years and in their senior year, with 80.3% responding. We queried these students about 21…
Van Tilburg, Christopher; Grissom, Colin K; Zafren, Ken; McIntosh, Scott; Radwin, Martin I; Paal, Peter; Haegeli, Pascal; Smith, William Will R; Wheeler, Albert R; Weber, David; Tremper, Bruce; Brugger, Hermann
To provide guidance to clinicians and avalanche professionals about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the prevention, rescue, and medical management of avalanche and nonavalanche snow burial victims. Recommendations are graded on the basis of quality of supporting evidence according to the classification scheme of the American College of Chest Physicians.
van den Bemt, P. M. L. A.; Robertz, R.; de Jong, A. L.; van Roon, E. N.; Leufkens, H. G. M.
Background: Medication errors can result in harm, unless barriers to prevent them are present. Drug administration errors are less likely to be prevented, because they occur in the last stage of the drug distribution process. This is especially the case in non-alert patients, as patients often form the final barrier to prevention of errors.…
Identity theft worries have found their way into medical practices. By August 1, 2009, all "creditors" must have a written program to prevent, detect, and minimize damage from identity theft. Any medical practice that bills patients is considered a creditor. Like HIPAA, these new Red Flag guidelines will serve to protect your practice from lawsuits as well as protect your patients from identity theft of their financial, personal, and medical information.
Veitia, Marie C.; And Others
A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)
Altekruse, Joan; And Others
Ideas for integrating preventive medicine into the undergraduate medical curriculum include options for curricula in quantitative skills, clinical preventive medicine, primary care rotation, community health services, and independent continuing education. Recommendations are based on a guide assessing the effectiveness of 169 types of preventive…
Napier, T Celeste; Herrold, Amy A; de Wit, Harriet
Stimuli, including contexts, which predict the availability or onset of a drug effect, can acquire conditioned incentive motivational properties. These conditioned properties endure after withdrawal, and can promote drug-seeking which may result in relapse. Conditioned place preference (CPP) assesses the associations between drugs and the context in which they are experienced. Here, we review the potential utility of CPP procedures in rodents and humans to evaluate medications that target conditioned drug-seeking responses. We discuss the translational potential of the CPP procedure from rodents to humans, and review findings with FDA-approved treatments that support the use of CPP to develop relapse-reduction medications. We also discuss challenges and methodological questions in applying the CPP procedure to this purpose. We argue that an efficient and valid CPP procedure in humans may reduce the burden of full clinical trials with drug-abusing patients that are currently required for testing promising treatments.
Horner, J S
The prosecution of doctors guilty of appalling human rights abuses at Nuremberg was achieved on the mistaken premise that the research community already had a code of conduct which, if applied, would have made such abuses impossible. In fact, not only was there no such code but when the 'Nuremberg Code' was published after the trial it continued to be ignored by many doctors for some thirty years afterwards. Indeed its central principle of informed consent has itself been eroded by subsequent international agreements on the ethics of medical research. This review shows that the mechanisms for approval of medical research which have now been promulgated in England and Wales, in practice, are applied on a very variable basis. Research in vulnerable groups unable to give fully informed consent such as children, prisoners and the incompetent elderly require the application of more rigorous standards of ethical control than those currently in operation. The use of vulnerable populations in the developing world and the application of international standards to them is also considered. A number of suggestions for improvements in current procedures in all these areas are put forward. The proposals for the United Kingdom would meet the requirements of the European Convention on bioethical research and the recent government consultation paper on medical treatment and research in incompetent adults.
Kapoian, Toros; Meyer, Klemens B.
Infections continue to be a major cause of disease and contributor to death in patients on dialysis. Despite our knowledge and acceptance that hemodialysis catheters should be avoided and eliminated, most patients who begin dialysis initiate treatment through a central vein hemodialysis catheter. Dialysis Medical Directors must be the instrument through which our industry changes. We must lead the charge to educate our dialysis staff and our dialysis patients. We must also educate ourselves so that we not only know that our facility policies are consistent with the best evidence available, but we must also know where local and federal regulations differ. When these differences impact on patient care, we must speak out and have these regulations changed. But it is not enough to know the rules and write them. We must lead by example and show our patients, our nephrology colleagues and our dialysis staff that we always follow these same policies. We need to practice what we preach and be willing and available to redirect those individuals who have difficulty following the rules. In order to effectively change process meaningful data must be collected, analyzed and acted upon. Dialysis Medical Directors must direct and lead the quality improvement process. We hope this review provides Dialysis Medical Directors with the necessary tools to effectively drive this process and improve care. PMID:25710803
van der Sijs, Heleen; Lammers, Laureen; van den Tweel, Annemieke; Aarts, Jos; Berg, Marc; Vulto, Arnold; van Gelder, Teun
Time-dependent drug–drug interactions (TDDIs) are drug combinations that result in a decreased drug effect due to coadministration of a second drug. Such interactions can be prevented by separately administering the drugs. This study attempted to reduce drug administration errors due to overridden TDDIs in a care provider order entry (CPOE) system. In four periods divided over two studies, logged TDDIs were investigated by reviewing the time intervals prescribed in the CPOE and recorded on the patient chart. The first study showed significant drug administration error reduction from 56.4 to 36.2% (p < 0.05), whereas the second study was not successful (46.7 and 45.2%; p > 0.05). Despite interventions, drug administration errors still occurred in more than one third of cases and prescribing errors in 79–87%. Probably the low alert specificity, the unclear alert information content, and the inability of the software to support safe and efficient TDDI alert handling all diminished correct prescribing, and consequently, insufficiently reduced drug administration errors. PMID:19717806
van der Sijs, Heleen; Lammers, Laureen; van den Tweel, Annemieke; Aarts, Jos; Berg, Marc; Vulto, Arnold; van Gelder, Teun
Time-dependent drug-drug interactions (TDDIs) are drug combinations that result in a decreased drug effect due to coadministration of a second drug. Such interactions can be prevented by separately administering the drugs. This study attempted to reduce drug administration errors due to overridden TDDIs in a care provider order entry (CPOE) system. In four periods divided over two studies, logged TDDIs were investigated by reviewing the time intervals prescribed in the CPOE and recorded on the patient chart. The first study showed significant drug administration error reduction from 56.4 to 36.2% (p<0.05), whereas the second study was not successful (46.7 and 45.2%; p>0.05). Despite interventions, drug administration errors still occurred in more than one third of cases and prescribing errors in 79-87%. Probably the low alert specificity, the unclear alert information content, and the inability of the software to support safe and efficient TDDI alert handling all diminished correct prescribing, and consequently, insufficiently reduced drug administration errors.
Caruso, Claire C; Hitchcock, Edward M
Rehabilitation nurses work shift schedules or long hours to provide essential patient services around the clock. These demanding hours can lead to sleep difficulties, declines in performance, and increased worker errors. This article gives an overview of selected declines in cognitive performance that are associated with inadequate sleep and several factors that increase riskforfatigue-related errors. Selected strategies for nurses and managers to reduce these risks are discussed, such as better sleep practices, improved work schedule design, naps, caffeine, exposure to light, and rest breaks. Both nurses and managers share responsibility for implementing strategies to reduce risks from inadequate sleep.
Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimarães; Tavares, Marcelo de Sousa
In the past few decades pediatric urolithiasis has become more frequent. The reason for this increase is not completely clear but has been attributed to changes in climate, nutritional habits and possibly other environmental factors. Although less frequent than adult stone disease, urolithiasis in the pediatric age group is also related to significant morbidity, particularly since stones tend to recur, and, thus, should not be underestimated. Most children with idiopathic stone disease have an underlying metabolic abnormality substantiating the importance of metabolic evaluation already following initial diagnosis of urolithiasis. Identification of the metabolic abnormality allows for more specific prescription of non pharmacological and pharmacological interventions aimed at preventing recurrent stone formation. A better understanding of the causes of kidney stone disease will provide better strategies for stone prevention in children. PMID:26380196
Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San; Hahn, Garam
The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator consists of an injector and a synchrotron for an ion medical accelerator that is the first carbon-ion therapy system in Korea. The medium energy beam transport(MEBT) line connects the interdigital H-mode drift tube linac and the synchrotron. We investigated the beam conditions after the charge stripper by using the LISE++ and the SRIM codes. The beam was stripped from C4+ into C6+ by using the charge stripper. We investigated the performance of a de-buncher in optimizing the energy spread and the beam distribution in z-dW/W (direction of beam progress-beam and energy) phase. We obtained the results of the tracking simulation and the error analysis by using the TRACK code. Possible misalignments and rotations of the magnets were considered in the simulations. States of the beam were examined when errors occurred in the magnets by the applying analytic fringe field model in TRACK code. The condition for the beam orbit was optimized by using correctors and profile monitors to correct the orbit. In this paper, we focus on the beam dynamics and the error studies dedicated to the MEBT beam line and show the optimized beam parameters for the MEBT.
Sopwith, Will; Hart, Tony; Garner, Paul
Background In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) had eight sets of conflicting recommendations for decontaminating medical equipment. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies to assist WHO in reconciling the various guidelines. This paper summarises the methods developed and illustrates the results for three procedures – alcohol, bleach and povidone iodine. Methods We developed a Medline search strategy and applied inclusion criteria specifying the decontamination procedures of interest and an outcome of microbial destruction for a set of marker organisms. We developed protocols to assess the quality of studies and categorised them according to the reliability of the methods used. Through an iterative process we identified best practice for the decontamination methods and key additional factors required to ensure their effectiveness. We identified 88 published papers for inclusion, describing 135 separate studies of decontamination. Results For disinfection with alcohol, best practice was identified from 23 studies as an exposure to 70–80% ethanol or isopropanol for at least 5 minutes. Bleach was effective for sterilization at a concentration of 5000 ppm for 5 minutes and for disinfection at 1000 ppm for 10 minutes (33 studies). Povidone iodine was only partially effective for disinfection at a concentration of 1% for 15 minutes (15 studies). Conclusions Our findings provide an evidence base for WHO guidelines on decontaminating medical equipment. The results support the recommended use of bleach and show that alcohol could be used more widely than current guidelines suggest, provided best practice is followed. The effectiveness of povidone iodine is uncertain. PMID:11916458
Harding, T W
A new European convention creates a mechanism for the prevention of torture and inhuman or degrading treatments of detained people through visits by outside, independent teams with unlimited access to places of detention. The convention has important implications for the medical profession: firstly, visits to psychiatric hospitals will be included and, in particular, to secure facilities, where the risk of human rights abuses is well established; and, secondly, the adequacy and ethics of medical care in prisons will be a key issue in assessing the protection of prisoners' human rights. The convention should be welcomed by the medical profession as a stimulus to the improvement of medical care for detained people.
Shimazu, Chisato; Hoshino, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taiji
We constructed an integrated personal identification workflow chart using both bar code reading and an all in-one laboratory information system. The information system not only handles test data but also the information needed for patient guidance in the laboratory department. The reception terminals at the entrance, displays for patient guidance and patient identification tools at blood-sampling booths are all controlled by the information system. The number of patient identification errors was greatly reduced by the system. However, identification errors have not been abolished in the ultrasound department. After re-evaluation of the patient identification process in this department, we recognized that the major reason for the errors came from excessive identification workflow. Ordinarily, an ultrasound test requires patient identification 3 times, because 3 different systems are required during the entire test process, i.e. ultrasound modality system, laboratory information system and a system for producing reports. We are trying to connect the 3 different systems to develop a one-time identification workflow, but it is not a simple task and has not been completed yet. Utilization of the laboratory information system is effective, but is not yet perfect for patient identification. The most fundamental procedure for patient identification is to ask a person's name even today. Everyday checks in the ordinary workflow and everyone's participation in safety-management activity are important for the prevention of patient identification errors.
Foodborne Disease Illness Investigation 2 081-850-0203 Epidemiology Conduct a Malaria Investigation 2 081-850-0204 Epidemiology Conduct a Hepatitis ...Water Supply Source 3 081-850-0322 Preventive Medicine Procedures Conduct a Zoonotic Disease Epidemic Investigation 3 081-850-0323 Preventive Medicine
Tsaregorodtseva, S A
We studied the efficiency of the method complex for psychotherapy (psychocorrection) of those who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) with the purpose of prevention and reduction of psychovegetative disorders and aging pace which would prevent from early disability and death. We studied 82 male patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder aged from 22 to 35 who endured combat psychologic traumatic experience. In our study we used 4 method approaches enabling to assess a functional state of an organism sequentially and fully. Those included: 1) a clinical psychopathological approach; 2) an experimental psychological approach; 3) a spectral analysis of the heart rate variability; 4) assessment of biological age dimensions. It was ascertained that PTSD can be seen as one of the factors increasing BA (biological age) and aging pace of people who experienced extreme situations. Our study proved that combined methods of psychotherapeutic rehabilitation also normalize parameters of vegetative heart rate regulation circuit. It is shown that positive changes in psychovegetative sphere achieved in people suffering from PTSD decrease an organism's aging pace.
Moshkanbaryans, Lia; Meyers, Craig; Ngu, Andrew
Abstract Infection control and prevention is critical to delivering safe and high‐quality care to patients undergoing sonographic procedures. In Australia comprehensive standards for reprocessing of ultrasound probes are based on the AS/NZS, TGA and ASUM recommendations. These standards align with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations. However compliance to these guidelines is not ideal and there exists an unmet need for refinement of the guidelines relating to specific factors in clinical sonography. Significant microbiological evidence exists reflecting the increased risk of infection transmission specifically through inadequately reprocessed ultrasound probes. Studies have reported > 80% of transvaginal ultrasound probe handles are contaminated with disease causing pathogens since handle disinfection is omitted from standard reprocessing protocols. Significantly, it was recently discovered that widely‐used high level disinfectants referred to in guidelines are unable to kill HPV while it is becoming increasingly apparent that attention must be paid to the clinical sonography environment as a potential source of nosocomial pathogens. Ultrasound probe reprocessing guidelines and standards are comprehensive however the challenge is in general awareness and effective implementation into practice. As future research in this area is performed, guidelines will need to be amenable to revision to provide patients with the best standard of care. PMID:28191249
West, Jamie; Atherton, Jennifer; Costelloe, Seán J; Pourmahram, Ghazaleh; Stretton, Adam; Cornes, Michael
Preanalytical errors have previously been shown to contribute a significant proportion of errors in laboratory processes and contribute to a number of patient safety risks. Accreditation against ISO 15189:2012 requires that laboratory Quality Management Systems consider the impact of preanalytical processes in areas such as the identification and control of non-conformances, continual improvement, internal audit and quality indicators. Previous studies have shown that there is a wide variation in the definition, repertoire and collection methods for preanalytical quality indicators. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Working Group on Laboratory Errors and Patient Safety has defined a number of quality indicators for the preanalytical stage, and the adoption of harmonized definitions will support interlaboratory comparisons and continual improvement. There are a variety of data collection methods, including audit, manual recording processes, incident reporting mechanisms and laboratory information systems. Quality management processes such as benchmarking, statistical process control, Pareto analysis and failure mode and effect analysis can be used to review data and should be incorporated into clinical governance mechanisms. In this paper, The Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine PreAnalytical Specialist Interest Group review the various data collection methods available. Our recommendation is the use of the laboratory information management systems as a recording mechanism for preanalytical errors as this provides the easiest and most standardized mechanism of data capture.
8. Jay G, Risser DT. Formal teamwork training improved teamwork and reduced emergency department errors. Acad Emerg Med 1999;6:408. 9. Ioannidis...communications. Sheffield, England: Centre for Health Information Management Research; 1998. 19. Risser DT, Rice MM, Salisbury ML, et al. The potential for
including therapeutic intent of an activity, language barriers , and errors of judgment. Harm was also associated with 10 constructs within the taxonomy...shown in Table 2. These codes include communication problems based on language barriers , clinician judgment, and lack of office safety systems
Malamed, S F
It was assumed that dentists employ a complete system of physical evaluation for all new patients in their dental practices. Results of a survey of 1,588 dentists demonstrated that the use of a written medical history questionnaire was commonplace; however, recording of blood pressure and heart rate and rhythm on all new patients was quite limited. A greater percentage of dentists monitored blood pressure when there was a history of cardiovascular disease or high blood pressure. Monitoring of the heart rate and rhythm, even in patients with cardiovascular disease or high blood pressure, was severely limited in scope. A significant number of dentists still employ racemic epinephrine impregnated gingival retraction cord, and of these, 40% had observed "epinephrine-reactions."
Ohrt, Colin; Purnomo; Sutamihardja, M Awalludin; Tang, Douglas; Kain, Kevin C
Microscopy is an imperfect reference standard used for malaria diagnosis in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to provide an assessment of the accuracy of basic microscopy, to compare polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnosis with microscopy results, and to assess the effect of microscopy error on apparent protective efficacy. The sensitivity and specificity of basic, compared with expert, microscopy was determined to be 91% and 71%, respectively. In a clinical trial, agreement between PCR and microscopy results improved with expert confirmation of initial results. In a simulated 12-week trial with weekly routine malaria smears, a very high specificity (>99%) for each malaria smear was found to be necessary for an estimate of protective efficacy to be within 10%-25% of the true value, but sensitivity had little effect on this estimate. Microscopy error occurs and can affect clinical trial results.
Hart, Genevra; Holmes, Nathan M; Harris, Justin A; Westbrook, R Frederick
Three experiments examined the effect of systemic administration of the benzodiazepine midazolam on extinction and re-extinction of conditioned fear. Experiment 1 demonstrated that midazolam administration prior to extinction of a conditioned stimulus (CS) impaired that extinction when rats were subsequently tested drug free; however, extinction was spared if rats were extinguished, reconditioned, and re-extinguished under midazolam. Experiment 2 provided a replication of this effect within-subjects; rats were conditioned to two CSs (A and B), extinguished to one (A-), reconditioned to both, and then extinguished/re-extinguished to both stimuli in compound (AB-), under either vehicle or midazolam. On the drug-free test, rats given midazolam froze more to the CS that had been extinguished (B) than the one that been re-extinguished (A). The final experiment examined whether extinction under midazolam was regulated by prediction error. Rats were trained with three CSs (A, B, C) and extinguished to two (A-, C-). These stimuli then underwent additional extinction under midazolam or vehicle, with one CS now presented in compound with the non-extinguished CS (AB-, C-). Rats were then tested for fear of A relative to C. Rats given vehicle showed a deepening of extinction to A relative to C, as is predicted from error-correction models; however, rats given midazolam failed to show any such discrepancy in responding. The results are interpreted to indicate that the drug reduced prediction error during extinction by reducing fear, and rats were able to re-extinguish fear via a retrieval mechanism that is independent of prediction error.
Ferrell, Kelli W; Woodard, Laresa M; Woodard, Todd J
Patient medication adherence is a long-standing problem and is one that raises serious issues for patient health, public health, and health care quality. Medication nonadherence costs the US economy an estimated US$290 billion in avoidable medical spending every year. One of the most costly health conditions is HIV disease, which continues to be a serious health issue for parts of the world. About 34 million people are living with HIV around the world. With the emerging preventative treatment against HIV, known as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), come concerns surrounding the potential impact of nonadherence to this newly approved medication therapy. Nonadherence to antiretroviral treatments are commonly the root cause for patients not reaching their treatment goals, putting them at risk of progression and worsening of their disease and complications, such as increased risk of opportunistic infections. Therefore, it is essential to improve antiretroviral medication adherence. By identifying members who are nonadherent to their prescribed antiretroviral medications and working collaboratively with patients, physicians, and pharmacists, Medication Therapy Management (MTM) can potentially increase medication adherence by helping patients identify, resolve, and prevent issues that may affect their decision not to take a medication as intended.
Estrada, Amara H; Pariaut, Romain; Moïse, N Sydney
Electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation is now commonly performed in veterinary medicine. Successful timing of the delivery of energy is important in order to avoid ventricular fibrillation. This brief communication describes how to ensure that proper energy delivery is performed.
primary language. We measured health literacy for English and Spanish speakers using the abbreviated version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in...23 to 36.30 Because health literacy and patient recall may be influenced by unmeasured or undiagnosed cognitive deficits,31–33 we measured cognitive...gender, language, health literacy level, cognitive score (s-CASI ≤ 19), co-morbidity (3 or more co-existing co-morbid conditions), and complexity
Khazanie, Uma; Rowe, Emily; Fauman, Karen
We report the case of a 4-month-old girl who developed encephalopathy, seizures, and respiratory compromise as a result of baclofen toxicity. After some investigation, the accidental ingestion of baclofen was caused by an error in compounding the patient's prescribed omeprazole with baclofen rather than sodium bicarbonate at a retail pharmacy. This error occurred because these two drugs, which were available as powders, were located side by side on the pharmacy shelf. The pharmacist further reported that their normal practice was to use injectable sodium bicarbonate rather than powder to compound an omeprazole suspension; however, the injectable form was not available due to a national shortage. This report demonstrates how a drug shortage contributed to severe clinical consequences and intensive care hospitalization of a patient. It also highlights the need for system improvement to minimize drug shortages. PMID:28018156
Lau, Bonnie; Khazanie, Uma; Rowe, Emily; Fauman, Karen
We report the case of a 4-month-old girl who developed encephalopathy, seizures, and respiratory compromise as a result of baclofen toxicity. After some investigation, the accidental ingestion of baclofen was caused by an error in compounding the patient's prescribed omeprazole with baclofen rather than sodium bicarbonate at a retail pharmacy. This error occurred because these two drugs, which were available as powders, were located side by side on the pharmacy shelf. The pharmacist further reported that their normal practice was to use injectable sodium bicarbonate rather than powder to compound an omeprazole suspension; however, the injectable form was not available due to a national shortage. This report demonstrates how a drug shortage contributed to severe clinical consequences and intensive care hospitalization of a patient. It also highlights the need for system improvement to minimize drug shortages.
mixed methods approach to analyzing narrative error event reports. Mixed methods studies integrate one or more qualitative and quantitative techniques for...authors present a protocol for applying a mixed methods approach to the study of patient safety reporting data to inform the development of interventions...Using mixed methods to study patient safety is an effective and efficient approach to data analysis that provides both information and motivation for developing and implementing patient safety
Hunger, H; Tröger, H D; Urban, R
There are significant differences in the frequency of CO intoxication and its relation to other not natural causes of death between the autopsy cases of Leipzig (DDR) and Hannover (BRD). While the percentage of all autopsies in Leipzig runs up to 7.6%, in Hannover it runs up to only 1.5%. Beside the well-known cases of not recognized CO intoxication at the autopsy with or without following intoxication of other persons, two concrete cases of not recognized CO intoxication with the survival of the victims discussed. The not noticed CO intoxication followed by the death of the victim is usually considered in medicolegal opinious as "medical malpractice". In cases of survived not noticed CO intoxications this opinion ist only supposed in special cases with longer anamnesis and a typical seasonal rythmic of symptoms.
Jayaram, Geetha; Doyle, Daniel; Steinwachs, Donald; Samuels, Jack
Medication errors (MEs) in psychiatry have not been extensively studied. No long-term prospective efforts to demonstrate error reduction in psychiatric care using multidisciplinary interventions have been published in the literature. This article discusses the implementation of the Patient Safety Net (PSN) (an error reporting system) and of the Provider Order Entry (POE) program (a prescribing system). We educated and trained staff in their use, conducted concurrent chart reviews to estimate true error reduction, and provided continuous feedback as errors occurred. The intervention described here resulted in a reduction in MEs in association with performance improvement efforts that were conducted over 5 years and involved 65,466 patient days, and 617,524 billed doses, which is the largest study of an intervention to reduce psychiatric medication errors reported to date.
Anil, Shirin; Zawahir, Mohamed Shukry; Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed
Preventive medicine has been incorporated in the medical school curriculum, but its effectiveness and the factors that affect it are yet to be widely looked into in the context of Malaysia. We aimed to measure the familiarity with, perception about the importance to learn, and the ability to practice preventive medicine as well as its determinants among the medical students in Malaysia. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted through an anonymous online survey among 387 randomly selected final year medical students of four large public medical schools in Malaysia from March to September 2014. Of the total sample, 340 (response rate 87.8%) gave a written informed consent and took part in the survey. The familiarity of the sample with preventive medicine was measured in 19 preventive medicine areas, and their perception about the importance of preventive medicine and their ability to practice it were gauged on a Likert scale (low score indicates disagreement and high indicates agreement). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, followed by logistic regression. The mean age of the respondents was 23.7 (SD 0.77) years, and 61.2% (n = 208) of them were females. Results showed that 22.9% of the sample (n = 78) had a low familiarity with preventive medicine, whereas 76.8% (n = 261) had a high familiarity. The study sample specified that among all the preventive medicine subjects, screening and control as well as smoking cessation and immunization are "extremely important to learn." In univariable analysis, being a female, medical school, family size, and perception about the importance to learn preventive medicine were associated with the ability to practice it. In multivariable analysis, the perception towards the importance to learn preventive medicine was the only significant determinant: aOR (adjusted odds ratio) for those who "agreed" 17.28 (95% CI aOR 4.44-67.26, P < 0.001) and for "strongly agreed" 35.87 (95% CI aOR 8.04-159.87, P < 0.001). Considering
Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Salzberg, Claudia; Keohane, Carol A; Zigmont, Katherine; Devita, Jim; Gandhi, Tejal K; Dalal, Anuj K; Bates, David W; Poon, Eric G
Objective To report the frequency, types, and causes of errors associated with outpatient computer-generated prescriptions, and to develop a framework to classify these errors to determine which strategies have greatest potential for preventing them. Materials and methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 3850 computer-generated prescriptions received by a commercial outpatient pharmacy chain across three states over 4 weeks in 2008. A clinician panel reviewed the prescriptions using a previously described method to identify and classify medication errors. Primary outcomes were the incidence of medication errors; potential adverse drug events, defined as errors with potential for harm; and rate of prescribing errors by error type and by prescribing system. Results Of 3850 prescriptions, 452 (11.7%) contained 466 total errors, of which 163 (35.0%) were considered potential adverse drug events. Error rates varied by computerized prescribing system, from 5.1% to 37.5%. The most common error was omitted information (60.7% of all errors). Discussion About one in 10 computer-generated prescriptions included at least one error, of which a third had potential for harm. This is consistent with the literature on manual handwritten prescription error rates. The number, type, and severity of errors varied by computerized prescribing system, suggesting that some systems may be better at preventing errors than others. Conclusions Implementing a computerized prescribing system without comprehensive functionality and processes in place to ensure meaningful system use does not decrease medication errors. The authors offer targeted recommendations on improving computerized prescribing systems to prevent errors. PMID:21715428
Jensen, Jo Anne G; Moreno, Elizabeth L; Rice, Tara M
The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) developed a systematic approach to review for medical accuracy the educational materials proposed for use in Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) programs. This process is also used by the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) for review of materials used in the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS) Program. This article describes the review process, explaining the methodology, the team implementing the reviews, and the process for distributing review findings and implementing changes. Provided also is the definition of "medically accurate and complete" as used in the programs, and a description of what constitutes "complete" information when discussing sexually transmitted infections and birth control methods. The article is of interest to program providers, curriculum developers and purveyors, and those who are interested in providing medically accurate and complete information to adolescents.
Saleh, Neven; Sharawi, Amr A; Elwahed, Manal Abd; Petti, Alberto; Puppato, Daniele; Balestra, Gabriella
Preventive maintenance is a core function of clinical engineering, and it is essential to guarantee the correct functioning of the equipment. The management and control of maintenance activities are equally important to perform maintenance. As the variety of medical equipment increases, accordingly the size of maintenance activities increases, the need for better management and control become essential. This paper aims to develop a new model for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment using quality function deployment as a new concept in maintenance of medical equipment. We developed a three-domain framework model consisting of requirement, function, and concept. The requirement domain is the house of quality matrix. The second domain is the design matrix. Finally, the concept domain generates a prioritization index for preventive maintenance considering the weights of critical criteria. According to the final scores of those criteria, the prioritization action of medical equipment is carried out. Our model proposes five levels of priority for preventive maintenance. The model was tested on 200 pieces of medical equipment belonging to 17 different departments of two hospitals in Piedmont province, Italy. The dataset includes 70 different types of equipment. The results show a high correlation between risk-based criteria and the prioritization list.
Abe, Yusuke; Sako, Kosuke; Takagaki, Kentaro; Hirayama, Youko; Uchida, Kazuhiko S K; Herman, Jacob A; DeLuca, Jennifer G; Hirota, Toru
Incorrect attachment of kinetochore microtubules is the leading cause of chromosome missegregation in cancers. The highly conserved chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), containing mitotic kinase Aurora B as a catalytic subunit, ensures faithful chromosome segregation through destabilizing incorrect microtubule attachments and promoting biorientation of chromosomes on the mitotic spindle. It is unknown whether CPC dysfunction affects chromosome segregation fidelity in cancers and, if so, how. Here, we show that heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is an essential CPC component required for full Aurora B activity. HP1 binding to the CPC becomes particularly important when Aurora B phosphorylates kinetochore targets to eliminate erroneous microtubule attachments. Remarkably, a reduced proportion of HP1 bound to CPC is widespread in cancers, which causes an impairment in Aurora B activity. These results indicate that HP1 is an essential modulator for CPC function and identify a molecular basis for chromosome segregation errors in cancer cells.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advancing the Development of Medical Products Used In the... ``Advancing the Development of Medical Products Used in the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Neglected... the development of medical products (drugs, biological products, and medical devices) used in...
Negrete, J C
There is agreement that physicians can play a major role in the prevention of alcohol problems among their patients and that medical schools should prepare physicians for this role by teaching three major subject areas: knowledge, attitudes and clinical skills. Despite this agreement and the acknowledged high prevalence of alcohol problems in clinical populations, medical school coverage of these problems is not proportional to their importance. Barriers to adequate coverage of alcohol problems are traditional attitudes, confusion as to whether such problems are "medical" and lack of adequate faculty role models. These problems could be remedied by encouragement and training of interested faculty members, establishment of substance abuse centres in university medical schools, integration of alcohol-related material with relevant topics in all departments and inclusion of alcohol-related questions on medical qualifying exams. PMID:2224672
Berthe, Anaïs; Fronteau, Clémentine; Le Fur, Éloïse; Morin, Caroline; Huon, Jean-François; Rouiller-Furic, Isabelle; Berlioz-Thibal, Marielle; Berrut, Gilles; Lepelletier, Aline
Iatrogenic effects represent a large part of emergency admissions among elderly people. Throughout the care pathway of a patient, whether he is at home or hospitalized, many different health professionals are involved regarding the patient's medication. Medication reconciliation is one way to prevent adverse drug events at all care transitions for every patient by eliminating undocumented intentional discrepancies and unintentional discrepancies in the patient's medication. The aim of this article is to present the different activities of clinical pharmacy developed since 2011 in a follow up and rehabilitation geriatric care service, including medication reconciliation activity. Monitoring of this activity started in March 2014, indicators show that almost 90% of patients were reconciled at admission and discharge from the geriatric unit. Physicians and pharmacists play an active role in reviewing, managing and monitoring a patient's medication. Care coordination and communication among the many members of the medical care team have become one of the greatest challenges healthcare professionals face. At the time of discharge, the patient also plays a key role in medication reconciliation and should be educated when it's possible on the importance of managing medication information. Finally, the hospital pharmacist's role is to keep the primary care physicians and community pharmacists informed about medication changes.
Idzinga, J. C.; de Jong, A. L.; van den Bemt, P. M. L. A.
Background: Previous studies, both in hospitals and in institutions for clients with an intellectual disability (ID), have shown that medication errors at the administration stage are frequent, especially when medication has to be administered through an enteral feeding tube. In hospitals a specially designed intervention programme has proven to…
Davis, Chris; Engeln, Anna; Johnson, Eric L; McIntosh, Scott E; Zafren, Ken; Islas, Arthur A; McStay, Christopher; Smith, William R; Cushing, Tracy
To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the treatment and prevention of lightning injuries. These guidelines include a review of the epidemiology of lightning and recommendations for the prevention of lightning strikes, along with treatment recommendations organized by organ system. Recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original WMS Practice Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Lightning Injuries published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2012;23(3):260-269.
Schwartz, Neil E; Albers, Gregory W
Antiplatelet agents are the medications of choice for preventing non-cardioembolic strokes. The diverse pathways involved in platelet function suggest the possibility of synergistic effects by combining various agents. In heart disease and in the setting of coronary artery stents, antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin has established benefits. Although it is tempting to extrapolate the benefits of this combination for stroke prevention, recent clinical trials have not borne this out. Unacceptable bleeding risks without additional efficacy weigh against the routine use of clopidogrel with aspirin for stroke prophylaxis. The combination of aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole has demonstrated superiority over aspirin in two large secondary stroke prevention trials.
Burrows, J. K.
Research on error patterns associated with whole number computation is reviewed. Details of the results of some of the individual studies cited are given in the appendices. In Appendix A, 33 addition errors, 27 subtraction errors, 41 multiplication errors, and 41 division errors are identified, and the frequency of these errors made by 352…
Francolini, Iolanda; Donelli, Gianfranco
Biofilms play a pivotal role in healthcare-associated infections, especially those related to the implant of medical devices, such as intravascular catheters, urinary catheters and orthopaedic implants. This paper reviews the most successful approaches for the control and prevention of these infections as well as promising perspectives for the development of novel devices refractory to microbial adhesion, colonization and biofilm formation.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Lung Diseases.
These guidelines for developing an undergraduate medical education curriculum in pulmonary disease prevention emphasize not only the most current scientific practice but also the active application of cognitive and behavioral skills related to patient education. Chapter 1 introduces the guidelines and the issues and trends in preventative…
Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Wierucki, Lukasz; Ignaszewska-Wyrzykowska, Agata; Zarzeczna-Baran, Marzena; Wojdak-Haasa, Ewa; Mogilnaya, Irina; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Szczech, Radosław; Rutkowski, Marcin; Bandosz, Piotr; Januszko, Wiktor; Krupa-Wojciechowska, Barbara; Wyrzykowski, Bogdan
Constant worsening of epidemiological situation in cardiovascular diseases in Poland in the 70's and 80's called for intensive measures in the field of preventive cardiology. Thus in 90's, in order to change this situation, among others, team from Department of Hypertension and Diabetology from Medical University of Gdańsk started, in cooperation with other medical universities, important regional and national research programs and preventive interventions. The aim of the educational program carried out in years 1999-2001 for Members of the Polish Parliament, opinion leaders and decision makers was to increase knowledge of the Polish elites about epidemic of cardiovascular diseases in our country. These actions made possible receiving greater support from the government for new epidemiological and preventive programs in this field. Thanks to NATPOL PLUS project, carried out on the representative sample of adults in 2002, we determined for the first time the prevalence and control of main cardiovascular risk factors in Poland. Results of this program helped planning preventive tasks in the National Cardiovascular Diseases Prevention and Treatment Program POLKARD 2003-2005. The aim of the preventive programmes: SOPKARD and Polish Four-Cities Project was to work out standards of modern, comprehensive interventions. They permitted planning and introduction of the largest preventive program: the Polish 400 Cities Project (PP400M). The PP400M is addressed to citizens of all small towns (to 8000 citizens) and surrounding villages in the whole country. All these accomplishments in the field of quickly expanded clinical epidemiology and cardiovascular prevention are directed mainly to Pomeranian and Polish citizens, especially those who are not aware of high risk of myocardial infarction or stroke. The main principle of our strategy is the role of university as an expert in preparation and supervision of the programs, which were carried out by the specialized organizations
Frank, Erica; Schlair, Sheira; Elon, Lisa; Saraiya, Mona
Little is known about the extent to which evidence-based prevention topics are taught in medical school. All class of 2003 medical students (n = 2316) at 16 US schools were eligible to complete three questionnaires: at the beginning of first and third years and in their senior year, with 80.3% responding. We queried these students about 21 preventive medicine topics, concerning the extent of their training and their patient counseling frequency at some of these time points. At the beginning of the third year, self-reported extensive training was low for all preventive medicine topics (range 7-26%). USPSTF-recommended topics received more curricular time (median for topics: 36% if recommended versus 24.5% if not, P = 0.025), as did topics addressed through testing rather than through discussion (median for topics: 37% for testing and 25% for discussion, P = 0.005). Extensive training was always associated with higher counseling frequency, and intention to go into primary care, female gender, a positive attitude toward prevention and positive personal health habits were associated with higher counseling frequency. Although some bemoan the overall low levels of US medical students' prevention-related training and practice, we demonstrate that at least they are preferentially evidence-based, a novel and encouraging finding for preventionists.
Paumel, Kevin; Lhuillier, Christian
Identifying subassemblies by ultrasound is a method that is being considered to prevent handling errors in sodium fast reactors. It is based on the reading of a code (aligned notches) engraved on the subassembly head by an emitting/receiving ultrasonic sensor. This reading is carried out in sodium with high temperature transducers. The resulting one-dimensional C-scan can be likened to a binary code expressing the subassembly type and number. The first test performed in water investigated two parameters: width and depth of the notches. The code remained legible for notches as thin as 1.6 mm wide. The impact of the depth seems minor in the range under investigation. (authors)
Kerwin, Leonard Y; El Tal, Abdel Kader; Stiff, Mark A; Fakhouri, Tarek M
Cosmetic, functional, and structural sequelae of scarring are innumerable, and measures exist to optimize and ultimately minimize these sequelae. To evaluate the innumerable methods available to decrease the cosmetic, functional, and structural repercussions of scarring, pubMed search of the English literature with key words scar, scar revision, scar prevention, scar treatment, scar remodeling, cicatrix, cicatrix treatment, and cicatrix remodeling was done. Original articles and reviews were examined and included. Seventy-nine manuscripts were reviewed. Techniques, comparisons, and results were reviewed and tabulated. Overall, though topical modalities are easier to use and are usually more attractive to the patient, the surgical approaches still prove to be superior and more reliable. However, advances in topical medications for scar modification are on the rise and a change towards medical treatment of scars may emerge as the next best approach. Comparison studies of the innumerable specific modalities for scar revision and prevention are impossible. Standardization of techniques is lacking. Scarring, the body's natural response to a wound, can create many adverse effects. At this point, the practice of sound, surgical fundamentals still trump the most advanced preventative methods and revision techniques. Advances in medical approaches are available, however, to assist the scarring process, which even the most advanced surgical fundamentals will ultimately lead to. Whether through newer topical therapies, light treatment, or classical surgical intervention, our treatment armamentarium of scars has expanded and will allow us to maximize scar prevention and to minimize scar morbidity.
Steinberg, J K; Wellman, J; Melrod, J
Despite increases in national rates of sexually transmitted disease (STD), surveys indicate that medical students generally lack programs to train them in STD prevention techniques and in counseling patients about STD. The authors of this proposal investigated STD education for medical students at the University of California at Los Angeles and propose a project to involve third-year medical students in STD prevention techniques during their STD-clinic rotation. The long-term goal is to decrease the incidence and prevalence of STD. The immediate aims are to increase medical students' knowledge of STD prevention and to help them develop the communication skills necessary to effectively counsel patients about STD. Interventions would consist of a series of lectures and workshops using audiovisual aids, small group discussions, and role playing, and would be conducted by health educators and guest lecturers. A quasi-experimental research design would be used in testing the effectiveness of the project in two experimental and two control groups involving a total of 80 third-year medical students. The first intervention would be a 1-week lecture series. Written tests would be given before and after the first intervention to measure the baseline of the students' knowledge of STD prevention methods. The second intervention would be a 1-week workshop series. Students' interviews with patients would be videotaped before and after the second intervention so that the interviewer's communication skills may be assessed and compared. Sets of interventions would be scheduled for the fall of 1990 and the spring of 1991. Six months after the completion of the project, a followup questionnaire would be given to evaluate the project's overall effectiveness. PMID:1902314
Shever, Leah L; Titler, Marita G; Mackin, Melissa Lehan; Kueny, Angela
The purpose of this article was to describe nursing practices (e.g., assessment, interventions) around fall prevention, as perceived by nurse managers in adult, medical-surgical nursing units. One hundred forty nurse managers from 51 hospitals from across the United States participated. Descriptive frequencies are used to describe nurse manager responses. The most commonly used fall risk assessment tool was the Morse Fall Risk Assessment Tool (40%). The most common fall prevention interventions included bed alarms (90%), rounds (70%), sitters (68%), and relocating the patient closer to the nurses' station (56%). Twenty-nine percent of nurse managers identified physical restraints as an intervention to prevent falls whereas only 10% mentioned ambulation. No nurse manager identified that RN hours per patient-day were adjusted to prevent falls or fall-related injuries. More work is needed to build systems that ensure evidence-based nursing interventions are consistently applied in acute care.
The Hartford HealthCare Medical Group instituted 3 types of shared medical appointments (SMAs) in 2013, one being for the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit (AWV). While traditionally there have been 2 types of SMAs-either a chronic disease follow-up model or an annual physical examination model, the SMA AWV offers a preventive care focus in a dedicated visit for the elderly population, without co-pays and without logistics of conducting a physical examination. This article reviews the benefits and challenges of SMAs, including those specific to conducting the AWV, as well as the overall patient experience with the AWV SMA.
Makarov, I Iu; Kovalev, A V; Kutsenko, K I; Evteeva, I A
The results of analysis of the data presented in the special literature and normative legal documentation indicate that the forensic medical aspects of the injuries inflicted by gunshots of limited-lethality weapons either need to be clarified or remain virtually unexplored. There is the long overdue necessity to consolidate efforts of forensic medical experts and specialists from other agencies and institutions for the comprehensive solution of the problems related to the injury prevention characteristics of limited-lethality weapons and participation in the interdepartmental activities for the improvement of the legislation regulating weapon trafficking.
Silva, Maria das Dores Graciano; Rosa, Mário Borges; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Reis, Adriano Max Moreira; Anchieta, Lêni Márcia; Mota, Joaquim Antônio César
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence and types of prescribing and dispensing errors occurring with high-alert medications and to propose preventive measures to avoid errors with these medications. INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of adverse events in health care has increased, and medication errors are probably the most common cause of these events. Pediatric patients are known to be a high-risk group and are an important target in medication error prevention. METHODS: Observers collected data on prescribing and dispensing errors occurring with high-alert medications for pediatric inpatients in a university hospital. In addition to classifying the types of error that occurred, we identified cases of concomitant prescribing and dispensing errors. RESULTS: One or more prescribing errors, totaling 1,632 errors, were found in 632 (89.6%) of the 705 high-alert medications that were prescribed and dispensed. We also identified at least one dispensing error in each high-alert medication dispensed, totaling 1,707 errors. Among these dispensing errors, 723 (42.4%) content errors occurred concomitantly with the prescribing errors. A subset of dispensing errors may have occurred because of poor prescription quality. The observed concomitancy should be examined carefully because improvements in the prescribing process could potentially prevent these problems. CONCLUSION: The system of drug prescribing and dispensing at the hospital investigated in this study should be improved by incorporating the best practices of medication safety and preventing medication errors. High-alert medications may be used as triggers for improving the safety of the drug-utilization system. PMID:22012039
Tefft, Nathan; Kageleiry, Andrew
ObjectiveTo study the association between macroeconomic conditions and preventive medical service utilization. Data Sources/Study SettingSecondary data collection of a survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of adults (age 18 and older) in the United States between 1987 and 2010. Study DesignRegression analyses that adjust for individual-level demographic and socioeconomic determinants, state and time-fixed effects, and state-specific time trends. Data Collection/Extraction MethodsState health departments, with technological and methodological assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducted a cross-sectional yearly telephone survey using a standardized questionnaire. Principal FindingsThe use of preventive medical services is procyclical: a 1 percentage point increase in the state-level unemployment rate is associated with a 1.58 percent decrease in the quantity of distinct preventive care services utilized. Women and economically disadvantaged populations are shown to be especially sensitive to macroeconomic fluctuations. ConclusionsPolicy makers should be aware of cyclical changes in preventive care use, particularly among disadvantaged populations, when making challenging budgetary decisions during economic downturns. As physician recommendations can have a strong impact on patients’ use, health care providers could increase efforts to persuade patients to seek screening exams and necessary vaccinations during periods of high unemployment. PMID:23855636
COBB, B O; WILLIAMS, J H; CORSA, L
A study of childhood accidents was begun by the Alameda-Contra Costa Medical Association to determine the incidence of various kinds of accidents, the causes and possible means of prevention. Hospitals, the State Department of Public Health and county and city health departments gave willing assistance when their aid was sought. Data gathered thus far have served to better identify the problems and can be used to set priorities for various phases of future study.
Lin, Li Li; Xie, Tong; Xu, Jian Ya; Shen, Cun Si; Di, Liu Qing; Chen, Jia Bin
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common viral pathogen of the lower respiratory tract, which, in the absence of effective management, causes millions of cases of severe illness per year. Many of these infections develop into fatal pneumonia. In a review of English and Chinese medical literature, recent traditional Chinese medical herb- (TCMH-) based progress in the area of prevention and treatment was identified, and the potential anti-RSV compounds, herbs, and formulas were explored. Traditional Chinese medical herbs have a positive effect on inhibiting viral attachment, inhibiting viral internalization, syncytial formation, alleviation of airway inflammation, and stimulation of interferon secretion and immune system; however, the anti-RSV mechanisms of TCMHs are complicated, which should be further investigated. PMID:27688789
Naik, Aanand Dinkar; Rao, Raghuram; Petersen, Laura Ann
Diagnostic errors are poorly understood despite being a frequent cause of medical errors. Recent efforts have aimed to advance the "basic science" of diagnostic error prevention by tracing errors to their most basic origins. Although a refined theory of diagnostic error prevention will take years to formulate, we focus on communication breakdown, a major contributor to diagnostic errors and an increasingly recognized preventable factor in medical mishaps. We describe a comprehensive framework that integrates the potential sources of communication breakdowns within the diagnostic process and identifies vulnerable steps in the diagnostic process where various types of communication breakdowns can precipitate error. We then discuss potential information technology-based interventions that may have efficacy in preventing one or more forms of these breakdowns. These possible intervention strategies include using new technologies to enhance communication between health providers and health systems, improve patient involvement, and facilitate management of information in the medical record. PMID:18373151
... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23330698 . The Joint Commission. Hospital: 2014 National Patient Safety Goals. www.jointcommission. ... October 24, 2014. Accessed October 27, 2016. The Joint Commission. Hospital: 2016 National Patient Safety Goals. Updated January ...
Sohn, David H
Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort system in the United States; and review current and future solutions, including medical malpractice reform, alternative dispute resolution, health courts, and no-fault compensation systems. The current political environment favors investigation of non-cap tort reform remedies; investment into more rational oversight systems, such as health courts or no-fault systems may reap both quantitative and qualitative benefits for a less costly and safer health system. PMID:23426783
Fors, Uno GH; Tofighi, Shahram; Tessma, Mesfin; Ellenius, Johan
Background Despite the significant effect of computerized physician order entry (CPOE) in reducing nonintercepted medication errors among neonatal inpatients, only a minority of hospitals have successfully implemented such systems. Physicians' resistance and users' frustration seem to be two of the most important barriers. One solution might be to involve nurses in the order entry process to reduce physicians’ data entry workload and resistance. However, the effect of this collaborative order entry method in reducing medication errors should be compared with a strictly physician order entry method. Objective To investigate whether a collaborative order entry method consisting of nurse order entry (NOE) followed by physician verification and countersignature is as effective as a strictly physician order entry (POE) method in reducing nonintercepted dose and frequency medication errors in the neonatal ward of an Iranian teaching hospital. Methods A four-month prospective study was designed with two equal periods. During the first period POE was used and during the second period NOE was used. In both methods, a warning appeared when the dose or frequency of the prescribed medication was incorrect that suggested the appropriate dosage to the physicians. Physicians’ responses to the warnings were recorded in a database and subsequently analyzed. Relevant paper-based and electronic medical records were reviewed to increase credibility. Results Medication prescribing for 158 neonates was studied. The rate of nonintercepted medication errors during the NOE period was 40% lower than during the POE period (rate ratio 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] .50, .71;P < .001). During the POE period, 80% of nonintercepted errors occurred at the prescription stage, while during the NOE period, 60% of nonintercepted errors occurred in that stage. Prescription errors decreased from 10.3% during the POE period to 4.6% during the NOE period (P < .001), and the number of warnings
Crayon , et al. , 2004; Patterson, Cook and Render 2002). The approximation used to determine the number of subjects above was based on previous efforts...units that used electronic bar-coding. Consistent with the findings of Crayon , et.al. (2004), when accruing subjects for observation methodology
Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Young-Mee
In recent years, several high-profile cases related with misconduct by doctors and medical students have led to increased media interest and public concern regarding doctors who fail to maintain the expected professional standards. In response to these concerns and the increasing awareness of the social responsibility of medicine, the importance of professionalism in medical school is receiving renewed attention in our medical society. Many studies in other countries have stressed the early detection and intervention of unprofessional behaviors in medical students using an adequate evaluation system. The authors intended to explore strategies that reinforce professionalism education and prevent misconduct in medical students. We conducted an extensive literature review to identify patterns and categorize issues of misconduct and unprofessional behavior by medical students; existing evidence to determine why early detection and intervention of are crucial to prevent future misbehavior and disciplinary action by doctors; and education and evaluation systems to enhance professionalism for medical students.
Jamison, James; Graffy, Jonathan; Mullis, Ricky; Mant, Jonathan; Sutton, Stephen
Background Medications are highly effective at reducing risk of recurrent stroke, but success is influenced by adherence to treatment. Among survivors of stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA), adherence to medication is known to be suboptimal. Aim To identify and report barriers to medication adherence for the secondary prevention of stroke/TIA. Design and setting A qualitative interview study was conducted within general practice surgeries in the East of England, UK. Method Patients were approached by letter and invited to take part in a qualitative research study. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with survivors of stroke, caregivers, and GPs to explore their perspectives and views around secondary prevention and perceived barriers to medication adherence. Key themes were identified using a grounded theory approach. Verbatim quotes describing the themes are presented here. Results In total, 28 survivors of stroke, including 14 accompanying caregivers and five GPs, were interviewed. Two key themes were identified. Patient level barriers included ability to self-care, the importance people attach to a stroke event, and knowledge of stroke and medication. Medication level barriers included beliefs about medication and beliefs about how pills work, medication routines, changing medications, and regimen complexity and burden of treatment. Conclusion Patients who have had a stroke are faced with multiple barriers to taking secondary prevention medications in UK general practice. This research suggests that a collaborative approach between caregivers, survivors, and healthcare professionals is needed to address these barriers and facilitate medication-taking behaviour. PMID:27215572
Predicting and preventing suicide represent very difficult challenges for clinicians. The awareness of adolescent suicide as a major social and medical problem has increased over the past years. However, many health care professionals who have frequent contact with adolescents are not sufficiently trained in suicide evaluation techniques and approaches to adolescents with suicidal behavior. Suicide prevention efforts among adolescents are restricted by the fact that there are five key problems related to the evaluation and management of suicidality in adolescents: 1. Many clinicians underestimate the importance of the problem of adolescent suicidal behavior and underestimate its prevalence. 2. There is a misconception that direct questioning of adolescents about suicidality is sufficient to evaluate suicide risk. 3. Another misconception is that adolescents with non-psychiatric illnesses do not need to be evaluated for suicidality. 4. Many clinicians do not know about or underestimate the role of contagion in adolescent suicidal behavior. 5. There is a mistaken belief that adolescent males are at lower suicide risk than adolescent females. Educating medical professionals and trainees about the warning signs and symptoms of adolescent suicide and providing them with tools to recognize, evaluate, and manage suicidal patients represent a promising approach to adolescent suicide prevention.
Sachdeva, Ajit K.
Discussion of faculty development and integration of prevention into medical school curriculum considers sound educational models, role of the institution, faculty development activities (including program components, processes, needed expertise, and barriers to participation), and faculty rewards and recognition. (DB)
Ferrante, Jeanne M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Hahn, Karissa A.; Hudson, Shawna V.; Shaw, Eric K.; Crosson, Jesse C.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.
Accurate measurement of cancer-preventive behaviors is important for quality improvement, research studies, and public health surveillance. Findings differ, however, depending on whether patient self-report or medical records are used as the data source. We evaluated concordance between patient self-report and medical records on risk factors, cancer screening, and behavioral counseling among primary care patients. Data from patient surveys and medical records were compared from 742 patients in 25 New Jersey primary care practices participating at baseline in SCOPE (supporting colorectal cancer outcomes through participatory enhancements), an intervention trial to improve colorectal cancer screening in primary care offices. Sensitivity, specificity, and rates of agreement describe concordance between self-report and medical records for risk factors (personal or family history of cancer, smoking), cancer screening (breast, cervical, colorectal, prostate), and counseling (cancer screening recommendations, diet or weight loss, exercise, smoking cessation). Rates of agreement ranged from 41% (smoking cessation counseling) to 96% (personal history of cancer). Cancer screening agreement ranged from 61% (Pap and prostate-specific antigen) to 83% (colorectal endoscopy) with self-report rates greater than medical record rates. Counseling was also reported more frequently by self-report (83% by patient self-report versus 34% by medical record for smoking cessation counseling). Deciding which data source to use will depend on the outcome of interest, whether the data is used for clinical decision making, performance tracking, or population surveillance; the availability of resources; and whether a false positive or a false negative is of more concern. PMID:18990740
KOCASOY ORHAN, Elif; BAYKAN, Betül
Medication overuse headache (MOH) is well-defined clinically and is one of the common reasons of chronic daily headache, but its pathophysiology has not been elucidated yet. MOH has varying clinical features in regard to regional, psychosocial, medical and economic factors. Even though, the studies have shown that many factors may play a role, MOH is likely to occur in patients who are prone to primary headaches. Mainstay of the treatment is to withdraw the excessively used analgesic drugs. The primary prevention with education of the patients as well as early diagnosis and treatment of MOH will reduce its increasing financial burden on both patients and countries. Meticulous and multifactorial evaluation of the disease besides the diagnosis and treatment of the comorbid diseases will reduce the risk of recurrences.
Bergmann, J F; Kevorkian, J P; Chassany, O
In medical patients there are numerous and variable risk factors for deep vein thrombosis. Placebo-controlled clinical trials are rare. The efficacy of standard heparin or low molecular weight heparin for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis is clearly demonstrated for patients with recent myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke with hemiplegia or severe pulmonary sepsis with lung failure. Pharmacological prophylaxis is probably also efficient in patients with a severe acute disease and a certain history of deep vein thrombosis. For all other medical and especially for bedridden elderly patients, use of low molecular weight heparin might decrease the incidence of deep vein thrombosis but might not modify the overall mortality. In these situations, placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed for best evaluation of the benefit-risk ratio.
Purpose of review This review was designed to evaluate the progress in studies of the use of oral and topical antiretroviral medication for primary HIV prevention. Recent findings Non-human primate data has suggested that the administration of antiretroviral medication before or after retroviral exposure can protect against the establishment of chronic infection. Over the past two decades, observational studies have demonstrated the safety of antiretroviral agents for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and more recent efficacy studies have demonstrated that tenofovir with or without emtricitabine can protect against HIV when used as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Efficacy studies have been conducted in diverse populations, including men and transgender women who have sex with men, young African heterosexuals, and injection drug users. Three studies in African women evaluating oral and topical tenfovir-based regimens did not demonstrate efficacy, in large part because of suboptimal medication adherence. Further research is underway to determine the optimal ways to provide chemoprophylaxis, the optimal medications, and dosing regimens. Summary PrEP can be effective in decreasing HIV transmission to at risk uninfected persons, but further research is needed to determine the optimal modes of delivery. PMID:26049946
Dror, Naama; Mandel, Mathilda; Hazan, Zadik; Lavie, Gad
Microbial biofilms are a major impediment to the use of indwelling medical devices, generating device-related infections with high morbidity and mortality. Major efforts directed towards preventing and eradicating the biofilm problem face difficulties because biofilms protect themselves very effectively by producing a polysaccharide coating, reducing biofilm sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. Techniques applied to combating biofilms have been primarily chemical. These have met with partial and limited success rates, leading to current trends of eradicating biofilms through physico-mechanical strategies. Here we review the different approaches that have been developed to control biofilm formation and removal, focusing on the utilization of acoustic energy to achieve these objectives.
Evans, D Gareth; Diggle, Tim; Kurniawan, Sri H; Blenkhorn, Paul
This paper presents the results of an investigation into tools to support blind authors in the creation and checking of word processed documents. Eighty-nine documents produced by 14 blind authors are analyzed to determine and classify common types of layout and formatting errors. Based on the survey result, two prototype tools were developed to assist blind authors in the creation of documents: a letter creation wizard, which is used before the document is produced; and a format/layout checker that detects errors and presents them to the author after the document has been created. The results of a limited evaluation of the tools by 11 blind computer users are presented. A survey of word processor usage by these users is also presented and indicates that: authors have concerns about the appearance of the documents that they produce; many blind authors fail to use word processor tools such as spell checkers, grammar checkers and templates; and a significant number of blind people rely on sighted help for document creation or checking. The paper concludes that document formatting and layout is a problem for blind authors and that tools should be able to assist.
Duff, Jed; Walker, Kim; Omari, Abdullah; Middleton, Sandy; McInnes, Elizabeth
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized medical patients. Evidence-based guidelines exist for preventing VTE; unfortunately, these guidelines are not always adhered to by clinicians. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, utility and clinical impact of an educational outreach visit (EOV) on nurses' provision of mechanical prophylaxis to hospitalized medical patients using a prospective, uncontrolled, before-and-after design. Nurses received a 1-to-1 educational session on mechanical VTE prevention by a trained nurse facilitator. The EOV intervention was designed by a multidisciplinary group of healthcare professionals using social marketing theory. Eighty-five of the 120 eligible nurses (71%) attended the EOV. The median length of each visit was 11.5 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 10-15) and the median time spent arranging and conducting each visit was 63 minutes (IQR, 49-85). Eighty-four (99%) of the 85 participants gave a verbal commitment to trial the new evidence-based mechanical VTE prevention practices. However, there were no measurable improvements in the proportion of patients risk assessed (-1.7% improvement; 95% confidence interval [CI], -7.0 to 10.3; P = .68) or provided appropriate mechanical prophylaxis (-0.3% improvement; 95% CI, -13.4 to 14; P = .96). Researchers conclude that EOV should not be used to improve nurses' use of mechanical VTE prevention because it has no measurable impact on clinical practice and is resource intensive, requiring 4.5 minutes of preparation for every minute spent face to face with participants. Further research into the specific mechanism of action is required to explain the variability in clinical effect seen with this intervention.
Cohen, Michael R; Smetzer, Judy L
Mathews, Robin; Wang, Tracy Y.; Honeycutt, Emily; Henry, Timothy D.; Zettler, Marjorie; Chang, Michael; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Peterson, Eric D.
Background Persistent use of secondary prevention therapies after acute myocardial infarction (MI) is critical to optimizing long-term outcomes. Methods Medication persistence was assessed among 7,955 MI patients in 216 hospitals participating in the TRANSLATE-ACS study from 2010 to 2012. Persistence was defined as continuation of aspirin, adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors (ADPRi), beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and statins from discharge to 6 months post-MI. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine factors associated with non-persistence, defined as <80% persistence with all medication classes. Results Overall, 31% of MI patients stopped taking a least one medication by 6 months. The most common reasons cited for medications discontinuation were side effects and physician instruction (57%), while financial concerns were cited in 8% overall. After multivariable modeling, black race (odds ratio [OR] 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.62), older age (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.02–1.12), atrial fibrillation (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.33–2.09), dialysis (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.15–2.78), and depression (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.02–1.45) were associated with lower likelihood of persistence. Private insurance (OR 0.85, 95% 0.76–0.95), prescription cost assistance (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.54–0.75), and outpatient follow-up arranged prior to discharge (OR 0.89. 95% CI 0.80–0.99) were associated with higher persistence. Conclusions Nearly one-third of MI patients are no longer persistent with their prescribed medications by 6 months. Patients at high risk of non-persistence may be identified by clinical and sociodemographic features. These observations underscore key opportunities to optimize longitudinal use of secondary prevention therapies. PMID:26093865
Shete, Rahul B; Muniswamy, Vimalkumar J; Pandit, Ashlesha P; Khandelwal, Kishanchandra R
An attempt was made to formulate medicated chewing gum to prevent motion sickness using natural gum base for faster onset of action and easy administration, anywhere and anytime, without access to water. To avoid the discard issue of gum cud, natural gum base of Triticum aestivum (wheat grain) was explored because of its biodegradable and biocompatible nature and easy availability. Prolamin, extracted from wheat, showed good chewing capacity, elasticity, high water retention capacity, antifungal activity, and compatibility with the drug. Formulations were prepared based on a two-factor and three-level factorial design. Amount of calcium carbonate (texturizer) and gum base were selected as independent variables. Elasticity and drug release were considered as the dependent variables. All batches were evaluated for the content uniformity, elasticity study, texture study, in vitro drug release study, and chewiness study. Results revealed that medicated chewing gum containing 80 mg of calcium carbonate and 500 mg of gum base showed good elasticity and more than 90% drug release within 16 min. Thus, this study suggested that both good elasticity and chew ability and abundant availability of wheat grain can act as a potential gum base for medicated chewing gum.
Steffensen, Søren Langer; Vestergaard, Merete Hedemark; Groenning, Minna; Alm, Martin; Franzyk, Henrik; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck
Bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on medical devices constitute major challenges in clinical long-term use of e.g. catheters due to the risk of (re)infection of patients, which would result in additional use of antibiotics risking bacterial resistance development. The aim of the present project was to introduce a novel antibacterial approach involving an advanced composite material applicable for medical devices. The polymeric composites investigated consisted of a hydrogel network of cross-linked poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) embedded in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) silicone elastomer produced using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). In these materials, the hydrogel may contain an active pharmaceutical ingredient while the silicone elastomer provides the sufficient mechanical stability of the material. In these conceptual studies, the antimicrobial agent ciprofloxacin was loaded into the polymer matrix by a post-polymerization loading procedure. Sustained release of ciprofloxacin was demonstrated, and the release could be controlled by varying the hydrogel content in the range 13-38% (w/w) and by changing the concentration of ciprofloxacin during loading in the range of 1-20mg/mL. Devices containing 25% (w/w) hydrogel and loaded with ciprofloxacin displayed a strong antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus bacterial colonization and subsequent biofilm formation on the device material was inhibited for 29days. In conclusion, the hydrogel/silicone composite represents a promising candidate material for medical devices that prevent bacterial colonization during long-term use.
Hanada, Eisuke; Takano, Kyoko; Antoku, Yasuaki; Matsumura, Kouji; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Nose, Yoshiaki
Problems involving electromagnetic interference (EMI) with electronic medical equipment are well-documented. However, no systematic investigation of EMI has been done. We have systematically investigated the causes of EMI. The factors involved in EMI were determined as follows: 1) Electric-field intensity induced by invasive radio waves from outside a hospital. 2) Residual magnetic-flux density at welding points in a building. 3) Electric-field intensity induced by conveyance systems with a linear motor. 4) The shielding capacity of hospital walls. 5) The shielding capacity of commercial shields against a wide range frequency radio waves. 6) The immunity of electronic medical equipment. 7) EMI by cellular telephone and personal handy-phone system handsets. From the results of our investigation, we developed a following practical procedure to prevent EMI. 1) Measurement of electric-field intensity induced by invasive radio waves from outside the hospital and industrial systems in the hospital. 2) Measurement of residual magnetic-flux density at electric welding points of hospital buildings with steel frame structures. 3) Control of the electromagnetic environment by utilizing the shielding capacity of walls. 4) Measurement of the immunity of electronic medical equipment. And 5) Installation of electronic gate equipment at the building entrance to screen for handsets.
Forster, A C; Passos, A D; Dal-Fabbro, A L; Laprega, M R
In the present study we discuss some transformations in undergraduate training in Preventive and Social Medicine in the Department of Social Medicine of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeiro Preto, University of So Paulo, from 1993 to 1999. Aspects of the relationship between medical training and the reorganization of local services of the Brazilian national health system, and between graduate teaching in Preventive and Social Medicine and medical education as a whole are discussed. The crisis in Preventive and Social Medicine and its influence of medical training are evaluated. Trends for the application of a body of knowledge of the specialty and for the relationship between the department and the medical school are discussed.
Sgaier, Sema K; Reed, Jason B; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009-2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up." The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform.
Isaac, Lisa M.; And Others
Assessed multiple aspects of cognitive performance, medication planning ability, and medication compliance in 20 elderly outpatients. Findings suggest that aspects of attention/concentration, visual and verbal memory, and motor function which are untapped by simple mental status assessment are related to medication access, planning, and compliance…
Inborn errors of metabolism may present as a spectrum ranging from neonatal lethality to non-specific symptoms. Neuropsychiatric manifestations have been identified in three groups: those presenting as emergencies, those with chronic fluctuating symptoms, and those associated with mental retardation. Milder central nervous system specific inborn errors of metabolism may also present later in life with isolated psychiatric symptoms. Inborn errors of metabolism presenting with neuropsychiatric symptoms are described with illustrative case examples. Metabolomic and genomic approaches to identification and treatment are described. PMID:23525354
participants are also presented with a scenario of recovering from errors forced on them by the robotic tool. Figure 3 Bowel Anastomosis station...collected data from surgery faculty, residents, and medical students (N=15) on the variable tissue simulator designed to assess performance while suturing on...Submitted to the journal Surgery . SBAS (accepted-poster) Maag, A.D., Rutherford, D.N., Laufer, S., Kwan, C., Cohen, E.R., Pugh, C.M. (2014). The
Combescure, Christophe; Lacroix, Laurence; Haddad, Kevin; Sanchez, Oliver; Gervaix, Alain; Lovis, Christian; Manzano, Sergio
Background During pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), vasoactive drug preparation for continuous infusion is both complex and time-consuming, placing children at higher risk than adults for medication errors. Following an evidence-based ergonomic-driven approach, we developed a mobile device app called Pediatric Accurate Medication in Emergency Situations (PedAMINES), intended to guide caregivers step-by-step from preparation to delivery of drugs requiring continuous infusion. Objective The aim of our study was to determine whether the use of PedAMINES reduces drug preparation time (TDP) and time to delivery (TDD; primary outcome), as well as medication errors (secondary outcomes) when compared with conventional preparation methods. Methods The study was a randomized controlled crossover trial with 2 parallel groups comparing PedAMINES with a conventional and internationally used drugs infusion rate table in the preparation of continuous drug infusion. We used a simulation-based pediatric CPR cardiac arrest scenario with a high-fidelity manikin in the shock room of a tertiary care pediatric emergency department. After epinephrine-induced return of spontaneous circulation, pediatric emergency nurses were first asked to prepare a continuous infusion of dopamine, using either PedAMINES (intervention group) or the infusion table (control group), and second, a continuous infusion of norepinephrine by crossing the procedure. The primary outcome was the elapsed time in seconds, in each allocation group, from the oral prescription by the physician to TDD by the nurse. TDD included TDP. The secondary outcome was the medication dosage error rate during the sequence from drug preparation to drug injection. Results A total of 20 nurses were randomized into 2 groups. During the first study period, mean TDP while using PedAMINES and conventional preparation methods was 128.1 s (95% CI 102-154) and 308.1 s (95% CI 216-400), respectively (180 s reduction, P=.002). Mean
MEDICAL PERSONNEL, DISEASES, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS , INFECTIOUS DISEASES, HAZARDS, IMMUNITY, TUBERCULIN, MEDICAL EXAMINATION, PUBLIC HEALTH, GERMICIDES, HOSPITALS, HYGIENE, TRAINING, WEST GERMANY.
The real paradigm shift for healthcare is often stated to include a transition from accentuating health care production and instead emphasize patient value by moving to a ‘value-based health care delivery’. In this transition, personalized medicine is sometimes referred to as almost a panacea in solving the current and future health challenges. In theory, the progress of precision medicine sounds uncontroversial and most welcomed with its promise of a better healthcare for all, with real benefits for the individual patient provided a tailored and optimized treatment plan suitable for his or her genetic makeup. And maybe, therefore, the assumptions underpinning personalized medicine have largely escaped questioning. The use of personalized medicine and the use of digital technologies is reshaping our health care system and how we think of health interventions and our individual responsibility. However, encouraging individuals to engage in preventive health activities possibly avoids one form of medicalization (clinical), but on the other hand, it takes up another form (preventive medicine and ‘self-care’) that moves medical and health concerns into every corner of everyday life. This ought to be of little value to the individual patient and public health. We ought to instead demand proof of these value ideas and the lacking research. Before this is in place critical appraisal and cynicism are requisite skills for the future. Otherwise, we are just listening to visionaries when we put our future health into their hands and let personalized solutions reach into people's everyday life regardless of patient safety and integrity.
Panayides, Andreas; Antoniou, Zinonas C; Mylonas, Yiannos; Pattichis, Marios S; Pitsillides, Andreas; Pattichis, Constantinos S
In this study, we describe an effective video communication framework for the wireless transmission of H.264/AVC medical ultrasound video over mobile WiMAX networks. Medical ultrasound video is encoded using diagnostically-driven, error resilient encoding, where quantization levels are varied as a function of the diagnostic significance of each image region. We demonstrate how our proposed system allows for the transmission of high-resolution clinical video that is encoded at the clinical acquisition resolution and can then be decoded with low-delay. To validate performance, we perform OPNET simulations of mobile WiMAX Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical (PHY) layers characteristics that include service prioritization classes, different modulation and coding schemes, fading channels conditions, and mobility. We encode the medical ultrasound videos at the 4CIF (704 × 576) resolution that can accommodate clinical acquisition that is typically performed at lower resolutions. Video quality assessment is based on both clinical (subjective) and objective evaluations.
Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey
Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of irradiated human population or radiation intoxications include early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and all persons which exposed by radiation, decontamination program and procedures, radiation control, and medical countermeasures which include medical diagnosis,differential diagnosis of Acute Radiation Syndromes by Immune Enzyme Assay , pre-exposure vaccination with Human Antiradiation Vaccine, post-exposure specific treatment - de-intoxication with Radiation Antidote IgG (blocking Antiradiation Antibodies). Our Advanced Medical Technology elaborated as a part of effective countermeasure include Plan of Action.Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of high level of lethality and severe forms of radiation illness or intoxications include A.early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and persons exposed,b. appropriate decontamination, c. radiation control, and d.medical countermeasures and medical management of ARS. Medical countermeasures, which include medical interventions such as active immuneprophylaxis with Human Antiradiation Vaccine , passive immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Antitoxins immune-globulins IgG , and chemoprophylaxis - post-exposure antioxidants prophylaxis and antibioticprophylaxis. Medical countermeasures with Antiradiation Vaccine should be initiated before an exposure (if individuals are identified as being at high risk for exposure)but after a confirmed exposure event Antiradiation Vaccine not effective and Antiradiation Antidot IgG must be applyed for treatment of Acute Radiation Syndromes.
Englebright, Jane D; Franklin, Michelle
The national focus on medication errors has stimulated rapid adoption of medication administration technologies with bar code verification. The effectiveness of these technologies in preventing errors is directly related to how consistently practitioners use the technology to verify both patient identity and drug identity with each administration. The authors discuss management strategies that have proven effective at increasing staff compliance with using bar code-enabled medication systems.
Mayr, Andreas; Schmid, Matthias; Pfahlberg, Annette; Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf
Measurement errors of medico-technical devices can be separated into systematic bias and random error. We propose a new method to address both simultaneously via generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) in combination with permutation tests. More precisely, we extend a recently proposed boosting algorithm for GAMLSS to provide a test procedure to analyse potential device effects on the measurements. We carried out a large-scale simulation study to provide empirical evidence that our method is able to identify possible sources of systematic bias as well as random error under different conditions. Finally, we apply our approach to compare measurements of skin pigmentation from two different devices in an epidemiological study.
The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG), Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP), National Cancer Institute (NCI), has an opening for an experienced Medical Officer. BGCRG focuses on fostering the development and conduct of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. Learn more about BGCRG. |
Brown, Jamie N; Britnell, Sara R; Stivers, Andrew P; Cruz, Jennifer L
Standardized safety practices for investigational drugs in clinical research protocols are limited and the vast majority of research pharmacists have concerns regarding its safety. Identified areas for medication safety risks include protocol complexity, medication ordering, and the processes for packaging, storage, and dispensing investigational medications. Inclusion of a pharmacist creates multiple mechanisms to promote safety and improve the quality of clinical research. This is accomplished through collaborating in the development of a research protocol, reviewing as a member of an advisory committee, developing mechanisms that contribute to safety, and assuring compliance with local and national regulations and standards. Ultimately, the profession of pharmacy has foundational responsibility for assuring the safe and effective use of medications, including investigational drugs in clinical research. It is through multidisciplinary collaboration that a research study will attain the highest standards for safety and maximize the quality and effectiveness of the data obtained in the clinical trial.
Brown, Jamie N.; Britnell, Sara R.; Stivers, Andrew P.; Cruz, Jennifer L.
Standardized safety practices for investigational drugs in clinical research protocols are limited and the vast majority of research pharmacists have concerns regarding its safety. Identified areas for medication safety risks include protocol complexity, medication ordering, and the processes for packaging, storage, and dispensing investigational medications. Inclusion of a pharmacist creates multiple mechanisms to promote safety and improve the quality of clinical research. This is accomplished through collaborating in the development of a research protocol, reviewing as a member of an advisory committee, developing mechanisms that contribute to safety, and assuring compliance with local and national regulations and standards. Ultimately, the profession of pharmacy has foundational responsibility for assuring the safe and effective use of medications, including investigational drugs in clinical research. It is through multidisciplinary collaboration that a research study will attain the highest standards for safety and maximize the quality and effectiveness of the data obtained in the clinical trial. PMID:28356900
Frese, Michael; Keith, Nina
Every organization is confronted with errors. Most errors are corrected easily, but some may lead to negative consequences. Organizations often focus on error prevention as a single strategy for dealing with errors. Our review suggests that error prevention needs to be supplemented by error management--an approach directed at effectively dealing with errors after they have occurred, with the goal of minimizing negative and maximizing positive error consequences (examples of the latter are learning and innovations). After defining errors and related concepts, we review research on error-related processes affected by error management (error detection, damage control). Empirical evidence on positive effects of error management in individuals and organizations is then discussed, along with emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral pathways of these effects. Learning from errors is central, but like other positive consequences, learning occurs under certain circumstances--one being the development of a mind-set of acceptance of human error.
Hohenstein, Christian; Fleischmann, Thomas; Rupp, Peter; Hempel, Dorothea; Wilk, Sophia; Winning, Johannes
BACKGROUND: Communication failure in prehospital emergency medicine can affect patient safety as it does in other areas of medicine as well. We analyzed the database of the critical incident reporting system for prehospital emergency medicine in Germany retrospectively regarding communication errors. METHODS: Experts of prehospital emergency medicine and risk management screened the database for verbal communication failure, non-verbal communication failure and missing communication at all. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2015, 845 reports were analyzed, of which 247 reports were considered to be related to communication failure. An arbitrary classification resulted in six different kinds: 1) no acknowledgement of a suggestion; 2) medication error; 3) miscommunication with dispatcher; 4) utterance heard/understood improperly; 5) missing information transfer between two persons; and 6) other communication failure. CONCLUSION: Communication deficits can lead to critical incidents in prehospital emergency medicine and are a very important aspect in patient safety. PMID:27313802
Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Carvalho, Christopher
Internationally, health information systems (HIS) safety has emerged as a significant concern for governments. Recently, research has emerged that has documented the ability of HIS to be implicated in the harm and death of patients. Researchers have attempted to develop methods that can be used to prevent or reduce technology-induced errors. Some researchers are developing methods that can be employed prior to systems release. These methods include the development of safety heuristics and clinical simulations. In this paper, we outline our methodology for developing safety heuristics specific to identifying the features or functions of a HIS user interface design that may lead to technology-induced errors. We follow this with a description of a methodological approach to validate these heuristics using clinical simulations. PMID:23606902
Maben, Jill; Murrells, Trevor; Griffiths, Peter
Objectives A wide range of patient benefits have been attributed to single room hospital accommodation including a reduction in adverse patient safety events. However, studies have been limited to the US with limited evidence from elsewhere. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on safety outcomes of the move to a newly built all single room acute hospital. Methods A natural experiment investigating the move to 100% single room accommodation in acute assessment, surgical and older people’s wards. Move to 100% single room accommodation compared to ‘steady state’ and ‘new build’ control hospitals. Falls, pressure ulcer, medication error, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile rates from routine data sources were measured over 36 months. Results Five of 15 time series in the wards that moved to single room accommodation revealed changes that coincided with the move to the new all single room hospital: specifically, increased fall, pressure ulcer and Clostridium difficile rates in the older people’s ward, and temporary increases in falls and medication errors in the acute assessment unit. However, because the case mix of the older people’s ward changed, and because the increase in falls and medication errors on the acute assessment ward did not last longer than six months, no clear effect of single rooms on the safety outcomes was demonstrated. There were no changes to safety events coinciding with the move at the new build control site. Conclusion For all changes in patient safety events that coincided with the move to single rooms, we found plausible alternative explanations such as case-mix change or disruption as a result of the re-organization of services after the move. The results provide no evidence of either benefit or harm from all single room accommodation in terms of safety-related outcomes, although there may be short-term risks associated with a move to single rooms. PMID:26811373
Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah
Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…
Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been accepted to be an inert and nonfunctional molecule in our body. We have turned this concept by demonstrating that H2 reacts with strong oxidants such as hydroxyl radical in cells, and proposed its potential for preventive and therapeutic applications. H2 has a number of advantages exhibiting extensive effects: H2 rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells, and it is mild enough neither to disturb metabolic redox reactions nor to affect signaling reactive oxygen species; therefore, there should be no or little adverse effects of H2. There are several methods to ingest or consume H2; inhaling H2 gas, drinking H2-dissolved water (H2-water), injecting H2-dissolved saline (H2-saline), taking an H2 bath, or dropping H2-saline into the eyes. The numerous publications on its biological and medical benefits revealed that H2 reduces oxidative stress not only by direct reactions with strong oxidants, but also indirectly by regulating various gene expressions. Moreover, by regulating the gene expressions, H2 functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic, and stimulates energy metabolism. In addition to growing evidence obtained by model animal experiments, extensive clinical examinations were performed or are under investigation. Since most drugs specifically act to their targets, H2 seems to differ from conventional pharmaceutical drugs. Owing to its great efficacy and lack of adverse effects, H2 has promising potential for clinical use against many diseases.
Ibrahim, Awab Ali; Elshafie, Sittana Shamseldin
Background Medical students can be exposed to serious health care-associated infections, if they are not following infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. There is limited information regarding the knowledge, awareness, and practices of medical students regarding IPC and the educational approaches used to teach them these practices. Aim To evaluate the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of medical students toward IPC guidelines, and the learning approaches to help improve their knowledge. Methods A cross-sectional, interview-based survey included 73 medical students from Weill Cornell Medical College, Qatar. Students completed a questionnaire concerning awareness, knowledge, and attitude regarding IPC practices. Students’ knowledge was assessed by their correct answers to the survey questions. Findings A total of 48.44% of the respondents were aware of standard isolation precautions, 61.90% were satisfied with their training in IPC, 66.13% were exposed to hand hygiene training, while 85.48% had sufficient knowledge about hand hygiene and practiced it on a routine basis, but only 33.87% knew the duration of the hand hygiene procedure. Conclusion Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of IPC measures among Weill Cornell Medical Students in Qatar were found to be inadequate. Multifaceted training programs may have to target newly graduated medical practitioners or the training has to be included in the graduate medical curriculum to enable them to adopt and adhere to IPC guidelines. PMID:27579002
Espejo-Villalobos, J. D.; Franco-Cabrera, M. C.; Estrada-Hernandez, C.; Quintero-Castelan, M. S.
When facing the challenge of implementing new technologies in Radiotherapy, a reflection on philosophical and ethical principles is in order for the Medical Physicist to assume a reality of increased risks of harm to the patient. A series of ideas from philosophers and clinical professionals are reviewed to encourage an increased awareness of our ethical responsibility towards patients that entrust us with their hopes for alleviating their disease.
Espejo-Villalobos, J. D.; Franco-Cabrera, M. C.; Estrada-Hernandez, C.; Quintero-Castelan, M. S.
When facing the challenge of implementing new technologies in Radiotherapy, a reflection on philosophical and ethical principles is in order for the Medical Physicist to assume a reality of increased risks of harm to the patient. A series of ideas from philosophers and clinical professionals are reviewed to encourage an increased awareness of our ethical responsibility towards patients that entrust us with their hopes for alleviating their disease.
Illinois State Dept. on Aging, Springfield.
This manual, which was originally developed to supplement a corresponding continuing education program offered by the Illinois Pharmacy Foundation and Illinois Pharmacists Association, is intended as a resource for pharmacists and other health care professionals who work to prevent alcohol and drug misuse/abuse in older patients. Discussed in…
Egger, Flavio; Targa, Federica; Unterholzner, Ivan; Grant, Russell P.; Herrmann, Markus; Wiedermann, Christian J.
Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy may be inappropriate if prescription was incorrect, the patient’s physiological parameters change, or interacting concomitant medications are erroneously added. The aim of this report was to illustrate inappropriate NOAC prescription in a 78-year-old woman with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and borderline renal dysfunction who was switched from warfarin to rivaroxaban and subsequently developed bruising with hemorrhagic shock and acute on chronic renal failure. Administration of 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate effectively reversed coagulopathy and stopped bleeding. Retrospective determination of circulating plasma levels of rivaroxaban and warfarin confirmed that excessive anticoagulation was likely due to warfarin that the patient probably continued to take although rivaroxaban was initiated. Pharmacodynamic interaction between rivaroxaban and warfarin may not only be additive but synergistic. In patients at high risk of complications, judicious prescribing and dosing of NOACs, and regular monitoring of concomitant medications and renal function are highly recommended. PMID:27777713
Kitsios, Georgios D.; Dahabreh, Issa J.; Abu Dabrh, Abd Moain; Thaler, David E.; Kent, David M.
Background and Purpose Patients discovered to have a patent foramen ovale in the setting of a cryptogenic stroke may be treated with percutaneous closure, antiplatelet therapy, or anticoagulants. A recent randomized trial (CLOSURE I) did not detect any benefit of closure over medical treatment alone; the optimal medical therapy is also unknown. We synthesized the available evidence on secondary stroke prevention in patients with patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke. Methods A MEDLINE search was performed for finding longitudinal studies investigating medical treatment or closure, meta-analysis of incidence rates (IR), and IR ratios of recurrent cerebrovascular events. Results Fifty-two single-arm studies and 7 comparative nonrandomized studies and the CLOSURE I trial were reviewed. The summary IR of recurrent stroke was 0.36 events (95% CI, 0.24–0.56) per 100 person-years with closure versus 2.53 events (95% CI, 1.91–3.35) per 100 person-years with medical therapy. In comparative observational studies, closure was superior to medical therapy (IR ratio=0.19; 95% CI, 0.07–0.54). The IR for the closure arm of the CLOSURE I trial was higher than the summary estimate from observational studies; there was no significant benefit of closure over medical treatment (P=0.002 comparing efficacy estimates between observational studies and the trial). Observational and randomized data (9 studies) comparing medical therapies were consistent and suggested that anticoagulants are superior to antiplatelets for preventing stroke recurrence (IR ratio=0.42; 95% CI, 0.18–0.98). Conclusions Although further randomized trial data are needed to precisely determine the effects of closure on stroke recurrence, the results of CLOSURE I challenge the credibility of a substantial body of observational evidence strongly favoring mechanical closure over medical therapy. PMID:22180252
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Slesinger, Doris P.
Based on an in-depth study of 125 mothers of young infants in both urban and rural areas of Wisconsin, this study analyzed the utilization of preventive medical services for the infant. The hypothesis that "mothers who are more socially integrated will be more likely to use preventive medical services than those who are less integrated,…
Dunn, Laura B.; Iglewicz, Alana; Moutier, Christine
Objective: This article proposes and illustrates a conceptual model of medical student well-being. Method: The authors reviewed the literature on medical student stress, coping, and well-being and developed a model of medical student coping termed the "coping reservoir." Results: The reservoir can be replenished or drained by various aspects of…
Dvorak, Jiri; Kramer, Efraim B; Schmied, Christian M; Drezner, Jonathan A; Zideman, David; Patricios, Jon; Correia, Luis; Pedrinelli, André; Mandelbaum, Bert
Life-threatening medical emergencies are an infrequent but regular occurrence on the football field. Proper prevention strategies, emergency medical planning and timely access to emergency equipment are required to prevent catastrophic outcomes. In a continuing commitment to player safety during football, this paper presents the FIFA Medical Emergency Bag and FIFA 11 Steps to prevent sudden cardiac death. These recommendations are intended to create a global standard for emergency preparedness and the medical response to serious or catastrophic on-field injuries in football.
Quinino, Roberto C.; Ho, Linda Lee
The procedure for online process control by attributes consists of inspecting a single item at every m produced items. It is decided on the basis of the inspection result whether the process is in-control (the conforming fraction is stable) or out-of-control (the conforming fraction is decreased, for example). Most articles about online process control have cited the stoppage of the production process for an adjustment when the inspected item is non-conforming (then the production is restarted in-control, here denominated as corrective adjustment). Moreover, the articles related to this subject do not present semi-economical designs (which may yield high quantities of non-conforming items), as they do not include a policy of preventive adjustments (in such case no item is inspected), which can be more economical, mainly if the inspected item can be misclassified. In this article, the possibility of preventive or corrective adjustments in the process is decided at every m produced item. If a preventive adjustment is decided upon, then no item is inspected. On the contrary, the m-th item is inspected; if it conforms, the production goes on, otherwise, an adjustment takes place and the process restarts in-control. This approach is economically feasible for some practical situations and the parameters of the proposed procedure are determined minimizing an average cost function subject to some statistical restrictions (for example, to assure a minimal level-fixed in advance-of conforming items in the production process). Numerical examples illustrate the proposal.
Mateescu, Mihaela; Baixe, Sébastien; Garnier, Tony; Jierry, Loic; Ball, Vincent; Haikel, Youssef; Metz-Boutigue, Marie Hélène; Nardin, Michel; Schaaf, Pierre; Etienne, Olivier; Lavalle, Philippe
Implanted medical devices are prone to infection. Designing new strategies to reduce infection and implant rejection are an important challenge for modern medicine. To this end, in the last few years many hydrogels have been designed as matrices for antimicrobial molecules destined to fight frequent infection found in moist environments like the oral cavity. In this study, two types of original hydrogels containing the antimicrobial peptide Cateslytin have been designed. The first hydrogel is based on alginate modified with catechol moieties (AC gel). The choice of these catechol functional groups which derive from mussel’s catechol originates from their strong adhesion properties on various surfaces. The second type of gel we tested is a mixture of alginate catechol and thiol-terminated Pluronic (AC/PlubisSH), a polymer derived from Pluronic, a well-known biocompatible polymer. This PlubisSH polymer has been chosen for its capacity to enhance the cohesion of the composition. These two gels offer new clinical uses, as they can be injected and jellify in a few minutes. Moreover, we show these gels strongly adhere to implant surfaces and gingiva. Once gelled, they demonstrate a high level of rheological properties and stability. In particular, the dissipative energy of the (AC/PlubisSH) gel detachment reaches a high value on gingiva (10 J.m-2) and on titanium alloys (4 J.m-2), conferring a strong mechanical barrier. Moreover, the Cateslytin peptide in hydrogels exhibited potent antimicrobial activities against P. gingivalis, where a strong inhibition of bacterial metabolic activity and viability was observed, indicating reduced virulence. Gel biocompatibility tests indicate no signs of toxicity. In conclusion, these new hydrogels could be ideal candidates in the prevention and/or management of periimplant diseases. PMID:26659616
Adamali, H; Suliman, A M; Zaid, H; O'Donoghue, E; Burke, A; Suliman, A W; Salem, M; O'Toole, A; Yearoo, A Ibrahim; Javid, S; Ullah, I; Bolger, K; Dunican, E; McCullagh, B; Curtin, D; Lonergan, M T; Dillon, L; Murphy, A W; Gaine, S
We established a national audit to assess the thromboprophylaxis rate for venous thromoembolism (VTE) in at risk medical patients in acute hospitals in the Republic of Ireland and to determine whether the use of stickers to alert physicians regarding thromboprophylaxis would double the rate prophylaxis in a follow-up audit. 651 acute medical admission patients in the first audit and 524 in the second re-audit were recruited. The mean age was 66.5 yrs with similar numbers of male and female patients and 265 (22.6%) patients were active smokers. The first and second audits identified 549 (84%) and 487 (93%) of patients at-risk for VTE respectively. Of the at-risk patients, 163 (29.7%) and 132 (27.1%) received LMWH in the first and second audit respectively. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis was instigated in 75 (13.6%) patients in the first and 86 (17.7%) patients in the second audit. The placement of stickers in patient charts didn't produce a significant increase in the number of at risk patients treated in the second audit. There is unacceptably low adherence to the ACCP guidelines in Ireland and more complex intervention than chart reminders are required to improve compliance.
This article aims to examine barriers to the efficient use of resources relating to medical devices, by focusing specifically on an economic analysis of the market structure of medical devices and on the assessment procedures for medical devices. A desktop analysis was conducted of the health economic literature relating to both of these aspects. This information was structured and analysed with a view to identifying and discussing the major issues that may threaten the efficient use of medical devices. Medical device sectors do not tend to operate as perfectly competitive markets because of the presence of heterogeneous products, information asymmetry and a restricted number of manufacturers. There is a need for government intervention to keep prices down, restrict public reimbursement and promote an efficient use of medical devices. Assessment procedures governing pricing and reimbursement of medical devices are lacking, are in development, or have only recently been established in the majority of developed countries. There is limited transparency and less formal attention of decision makers to assessment of the efficient use of resources in medical device sectors as compared with medicines. In conclusion, there is a need for more studies exploring the safety, effectiveness, cost effectiveness and budget impact of medical devices, so that decision makers can make informed pricing and reimbursement decisions based on objective analyses. Additionally, there is a need for more formal assessment systems for medical devices.
Liu, Xiang; Ge, Bin; Liu, Jinchu
In this paper, we interpret the new YY/T 0841-2011 standard and contrast the difference between it and GB9706.1-2007 standard. Then, we improved the current preventive maintenance work. After the improvement, we not only have more effective detection of the electrical safety performance of all kinds of medical electrical equipment, but also reduce the workload of clinical engineers, improve efficiency, and reduce the risk of electrical shock.
Objectives Health information technology (HIT) research findings suggested that new healthcare technologies could reduce some types of medical errors while at the same time introducing classes of medical errors (i.e., technology-induced errors). Technology-induced errors have their origins in HIT, and/or HIT contribute to their occurrence. The objective of this paper is to review current trends in the published literature on HIT safety. Methods A review and synthesis of the medical and life sciences literature focusing on the area of technology-induced error was conducted. Results There were four main trends in the literature on technology-induced error. The following areas were addressed in the literature: definitions of technology-induced errors; models, frameworks and evidence for understanding how technology-induced errors occur; a discussion of monitoring; and methods for preventing and learning about technology-induced errors. Conclusions The literature focusing on technology-induced errors continues to grow. Research has focused on the defining what an error is, models and frameworks used to understand these new types of errors, monitoring of such errors and methods that can be used to prevent these errors. More research will be needed to better understand and mitigate these types of errors. PMID:23882411
Banerjee, Amitava; Khandelwal, Shweta; Nambiar, Lavanya; Saxena, Malvika; Peck, Victoria; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Faria Neto, Jose Rocha; Quinto, Katherine Curi; Smyth, Andrew; Leong, Darryl; Werba, José Pablo
Background Secondary prevention is cost-effective for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but uptake is suboptimal. Understanding barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention for CVD at multiple health system levels may inform policy. Objectives To conduct a systematic review of barriers and facilitators to adherence/persistence to secondary CVD prevention medications at health system level. Methods Included studies reported effects of health system level factors on adherence/persistence to secondary prevention medications for CVD (coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease). Studies considered at least one of β blockers, statins, angiotensin–renin system blockers and aspirin. Relevant databases were searched from 1 January 1966 until 1 October 2015. Full texts were screened for inclusion by 2 independent reviewers. Results Of 2246 screened articles, 25 studies were included (12 trials, 11 cohort studies, 1 cross-sectional study and 1 case–control study) with 132 140 individuals overall (smallest n=30, largest n=63 301). 3 studies included upper middle-income countries, 1 included a low middle-income country and 21 (84%) included high-income countries (9 in the USA). Studies concerned established CVD (n=4), cerebrovascular disease (n=7) and coronary heart disease (n=14). Three studies considered persistence and adherence. Quantity and quality of evidence was limited for adherence, persistence and across drug classes. Studies were concerned with governance and delivery (n=19, including 4 trials of fixed-dose combination therapy, FDC), intellectual resources (n=1), human resources (n=1) and health system financing (n=4). Full prescription coverage, reduced copayments, FDC and counselling were facilitators associated with higher adherence. Conclusions High-quality evidence on health system barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention medications for CVD is lacking, especially for low-income settings. Full prescription coverage
Antman, Karen H; Berman, Harris A; Flotte, Terence R; Flier, Jeffrey; Dimitri, Dennis M; Bharel, Monica
Drug overdose has become the leading cause of injury death in the United States. More than half of those deaths involve prescription drugs, specifically opioids. A key component of addressing this national epidemic is improving prescriber practices.A review of the curricula at the four medical schools in Massachusetts revealed that, although they taught components of addiction medicine, no uniform standard existed to ensure that all students were taught prevention and management strategies for prescription drug misuse. To fill this gap, the governor and the secretary of health and human services invited the deans of the state's four medical schools to convene to develop a common educational strategy for teaching safe and effective opioid-prescribing practices. With leadership from the Department of Public Health and Massachusetts Medical Society, the deans formed the Medical Education Working Group in 2015. This group reviewed the relevant literature and current standards for treating substance use disorders and defined 10 core competencies for the prevention and management of prescription drug misuse.The medical schools have incorporated these competencies into their curricula and have committed to assessing students' competence in these areas. The members of the Medical Education Working Group have agreed to continue to work together on key next steps, including connecting these competencies to those for residents, equipping interprofessional teams to address prescription drug misuse, and developing materials in pain management and opioid misuse for practicing physicians. This first-in-the-nation partnership has yielded cross-institutional competencies that aim to address a public health emergency in real time.
Dall'Oglio, Immacolata; Fiori, Martina; Di Ciommo, Vincenzo; Tiozzo, Emanuela; Mascolo, Rachele; Bianchi, Natalia; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Ferracci, Antonella; Gawronski, Orsola; Pomponi, Manuel; Raponi, Massimiliano
Objective To assess the effectiveness of an improvement programme to reduce the number of interruptions during the medication administration process in a paediatric hospital. Design and methods A prestudy–post study design was used to monitor nursing interruptions during medication cycles in a paediatric hospital. Interruptions were reported on an observation sheet (MADOS-P) adapted to the paediatric context. Setting A 600-bed tertiary paediatric research hospital in Italy. Intervention The interventions included a yellow sash worn by nurses during medication cycles, a yellow-taped floor area indicating the ‘No interruption area’, visual notices in the medication areas, education sessions for healthcare providers and families, patient and parent information material. Results 225 medication cycles were observed before the intervention (T0) and 261 after the intervention (T1). The median of interruptions occurring in each cycle decreased significantly from baseline to postintervention (8.0 vs 2.0, p=0.002), as the rate ratios (interruptions/patient post–pre ratio: 0.34; interruptions/medication post–pre ratio: 0.37; interruptions/hour of medication cycle post–pre ratio: 0.53, p<0.001). During preintervention, the main causes of interruptions were ‘other patients’ (19.9%), ‘other nurses’ (17.2%) and ‘conversation’ (15.7%); during postintervention, they were ‘other nurses’ (26.1%), ‘conversation’ (18.2%) and ‘other patients’ (17.4%). Conclusions This bundle of interventions proved to be an effective improvement programme to prevent interruptions during medication administration in a paediatric context. PMID:28062470
Stewart, Della Wyatt
Fiduciary duty is the responsibility to act in the best interest of a person or organization. Health care professionals, as well as managers in other industries, struggle continuously with the dilemma of whether or not to admit potentially harmful mistakes to unsuspecting customers and patients. Limited public disclosure of medical errors will benefit health care staff, organizational executives, and patients if specific policies are enacted to improve error prevention.
Fink, Max; Shorter, Edward; Taylor, Michael A.
Catatonia is a motor dysregulation syndrome described by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874. He understood catatonia as a disease of its own. Others quickly recognized it among diverse disorders, but Emil Kraepelin made it a linchpin of his concept of dementia praecox. Eugen Bleuler endorsed this singular association. During the 20th century, catatonia has been considered a type of schizophrenia. In the 1970s, American authors identified catatonia in patients with mania and depression, as a toxic response, and in general medical and neurologic illnesses. It was only occasionally found in patients with schizophrenia. When looked for, catatonia is found in 10% or more of acute psychiatric admissions. It is readily diagnosable, verifiable by a lorazepam challenge test, and rapidly treatable. Even in its most lethal forms, it responds to high doses of lorazepam or to electroconvulsive therapy. These treatments are not accepted for patients with schizophrenia. Prompt recognition and treatment saves lives. It is time to place catatonia into its own home in the psychiatric classification. PMID:19586994
Fink, Max; Shorter, Edward; Taylor, Michael A
Catatonia is a motor dysregulation syndrome described by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874. He understood catatonia as a disease of its own. Others quickly recognized it among diverse disorders, but Emil Kraepelin made it a linchpin of his concept of dementia praecox. Eugen Bleuler endorsed this singular association. During the 20th century, catatonia has been considered a type of schizophrenia. In the 1970s, American authors identified catatonia in patients with mania and depression, as a toxic response, and in general medical and neurologic illnesses. It was only occasionally found in patients with schizophrenia. When looked for, catatonia is found in 10% or more of acute psychiatric admissions. It is readily diagnosable, verifiable by a lorazepam challenge test, and rapidly treatable. Even in its most lethal forms, it responds to high doses of lorazepam or to electroconvulsive therapy. These treatments are not accepted for patients with schizophrenia. Prompt recognition and treatment saves lives. It is time to place catatonia into its own home in the psychiatric classification.
Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Acharya, Sushama D.; Jacob, Verughese; Proia, Krista K.; Hopkins, David P.; Pronk, Nicolaas P.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Kottke, Thomas E.; Rask, Kimberly J.; Lackland, Daniel T.; Braun, Lynne T.
Introduction Hypertension and hyperlipidemia are major cardiovascular disease risk factors. To modify them, patients often need to adopt healthier lifestyles and adhere to prescribed medications. However, patients’ adherence to recommended treatments has been suboptimal. Reducing out-of-pocket costs (ROPC) to patients may improve medication adherence and consequently improve health outcomes. This Community Guide systematic review examined the effectiveness of ROPC for medications prescribed for patients with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Methods We assessed effectiveness and economics of ROPC for medications to treat hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or both. Per Community Guide review methods, reviewers identified, evaluated, and summarized available evidence published from January 1980 through July 2015. Results Eighteen studies were included in the analysis. ROPC interventions resulted in increased medication adherence for patients taking blood pressure and cholesterol medications by a median of 3.0 percentage points; proportion achieving 80% adherence to medication increased by 5.1 percentage points. Blood pressure and cholesterol outcomes also improved. Nine studies were included in the economic review, with a median intervention cost of $172 per person per year and a median change in health care cost of −$127 per person per year. Conclusion ROPC for medications to treat hypertension and hyperlipidemia is effective in increasing medication adherence, and, thus, improving blood pressure and cholesterol outcomes. Most ROPC interventions are implemented in combination with evidence-based health care interventions such as team-based care with medication counseling. An overall conclusion about the economics of the intervention could not be reached with the small body of inconsistent cost-benefit evidence. PMID:26605708
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge into class II (special controls). The special controls will apply to the device in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. A hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge provides support to the perianal region during the labor and delivery process.
... Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Guidance Infection Control: Hospital Infection Control: Home ... Mouth Infection) Poxvirus and Rabies Branch Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Prevention Recommend on ...
Kostin, A V; Kostina, S A
The authors determined criteria of medical and psychologic training of railway transport workers, with applied information digital technologies. The results obtained prove that application of software "Railway worker" ("Zheleznodorozhnik") reduces frequency and duration of "emotional stress states".
Background Clinical research and practice require affordable objectives, sustainable tools, rewarding training strategies and meaningful collaboration. Method Our unit delivers courses on project design and management promoting ideas, useful skills, teaching and exploring implementation of networks and existing collaborations. We investigated the effectiveness of a sustainable approach of comprehensive diagnosis and care and its usefulness within concrete models of research project teaching methodology. Results The model of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM) of adolescent hypertension, developed since 1976 and still active, was displayed. This is a paradigm of comprehensive PPPM aimed at the management of a recognized, but actually neglected, societal and clinical problem. The second model was addressed to the analysis of performance of an outpatient diagnostic and therapy unit and its relationship with the emergency department. Part of the patients, 4,057 cancer patients presenting at the emergency care, were addressed to the outpatient diagnostic and therapy unit for further assessment, treatment and follow-up. The stay in DH was 6.3 ± 2.1 non-consecutive days, with shortage of costs, vs. in-hospital stays. Research planning courses, based on these models, ensued in an increase of competitive project submission and successful funding. Discussion Active promotion of interdisciplinary knowledge and skills is warranted. Misleading messages and information are detrimental not only to healthy and sick people but, equally, to all health professionals: efforts for basing on evidence by research any statement are needed. The actual pre-requisite of personalized medicine is the coherent and articulated promotion of the professional quality of staff. Health professionals should and can be skilled in sustainable non-invasive diagnostic procedures, in non-pharmacological intervention, in translational research (from epidemiology to personalized
Cochran, Susan D.
Evaluated the efficacy of a preventive compliance intervention based on cognitive therapy principles with newly admitted lithium outpatients (N=28). Results indicated that the intervention significantly enhanced compliance at both postintervention and 6-month follow-up assessment. (LLL)
Medication errors are a leading cause of injury and death in health care, and nurses are the last line of defense for patient safety. Nursing educators must develop curriculum to effectively teach nursing students to prevent medication errors and protect the public. The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to determine if…
Traditional, complementary and alternative medical (TCAM) systems contribute to the foundation of person-centred medicine (PCM), an epistemological orientation for medical science which places the person as a physical, psychological and spiritual entity at the centre of health care and of the therapeutic process. PCM wishes to broaden the bio-molecular reductionistic approach of medical science towards an integration that allows people, doctors, nurses, health-care professionals and patients to become the real protagonists of the health-care scene. The doctor or caregiver needs to act out of empathy to meet the unique value of each human being, which unfolds over the course of a lifetime from conception to natural death. Knowledge of the human being should not be instrumental to economic or political interests, ideology, theories or religious dogma. Research needs to be broadened with methodological tools to investigate person-centred medical interventions. Salutogenesis is a fundamental principle of PCM, promoting health and preventing illness by strengthening the individual's self-healing abilities. TCAM systems also give tools to predict the insurgence of illness and treat it before the appearance of overt organic disease. A task of PCM is to educate people to take better care of their physical, psychological and spiritual health. Health-care education needs to be broadened to give doctors and health-care workers of the future the tools to act in innovative and highly differentiated ways, always guided by deep respect for individual autonomy, personal culture, religion and beliefs. PMID:23126628
Roy, Pierre-Marie; Rachas, Antoine; Meyer, Guy; Le Gal, Grégoire; Durieux, Pierre; El Kouri, Dominique; Honnart, Didier; Schmidt, Jeannot; Legall, Catherine; Hausfater, Pierre; Chrétien, Jean-Marie; Mottier, Dominique
Background Misuse of thromboprophylaxis may increase preventable complications for hospitalized medical patients. Objectives To assess the net clinical benefit of a multifaceted intervention in emergency wards (educational lectures, posters, pocket cards, computerized clinical decision support systems and, where feasible, electronic reminders) for the prevention of venous thromboembolism. Patients/Methods Prospective cluster-randomized trial in 27 hospitals. After a pre-intervention period, centers were randomized as either intervention (n = 13) or control (n = 14). All patients over 40 years old, admitted to the emergency room, and hospitalized in a medical ward were included, totaling 1,402 (712 intervention and 690 control) and 15,351 (8,359 intervention and 6,992 control) in the pre-intervention and intervention periods, respectively. Results Symptomatic venous thromboembolism or major bleeding (primary outcome) occurred at 3 months in 3.1% and 3.2% of patients in the intervention and control groups, respectively (adjusted odds ratio: 1.02 [95% confidence interval: 0.78–1.34]). The rates of thromboembolism (1.9% vs. 1.9%), major bleedings (1.2% vs. 1.3%), and mortality (11.3% vs. 11.1%) did not differ between the groups. Between the pre-intervention and intervention periods, the proportion of patients who received prophylactic anticoagulant treatment more steeply increased in the intervention group (from 35.0% to 48.2%: +13.2%) than the control (40.7% to 44.1%: +3.4%), while the rate of adequate thromboprophylaxis remained stable in both groups (52.4% to 50.9%: -1.5%; 49.1% to 48.8%: -0.3%). Conclusions Our intervention neither improved adequate prophylaxis nor reduced the rates of clinical events. New strategies are required to improve thromboembolism prevention for hospitalized medical patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01212393 PMID:27227406
MIZUNO, Yuko; ZHU, Julia; CREPAZ, Nicole; BEER, Linda; PURCELL, David W.; JOHNSON, Christopher H.; VALVERDE, Eduardo E.; SKARBINSKI, Jacek
Objective Guidelines recommend risk-reduction counseling by HIV providers to all HIV-infected persons. Among HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States, we estimated prevalence of exposure to three types of HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk-reduction interventions and described the characteristics of persons who received these interventions. Design Data were from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), a supplemental HIV surveillance system designed to produce nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States. Methods Descriptive analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure to each type of HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess associations between the selected correlates with each exposure variable. Results About 44% of participants reported a one-on-one conversation with a health care provider about HIV/STD prevention, 30% with a prevention program worker, 16% reported participation in a small group risk-reduction intervention, and 52% reported receiving at least one of the three interventions in the past 12 months. Minority race/ethnicity, low income, and risky sexual behavior consistently predicted greater intervention exposure. However, 39% of persons who reported risky sex did not receive any HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions. Conclusions HIV-infected persons in care with fewer resources or those who engaged in risk behaviors were more likely to receive HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions. However, less than half of HIV-infected persons in care received HIV/STD prevention counseling from their provider, an intervention that has been shown to be effective and is supported by guidelines. PMID:24056066
Bugaj, Till Johannes; Mücksch, Christine; Schmid, Carolin; Junne, Florian; Erschens, Rebecca; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph
Introduction: From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning “on an equal footing”, the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL) is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation. Project description: With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students) in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree). Results: 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years). The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory) in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors’ competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale). Discussion: The seminar sessions’ importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective. Conclusion: PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking. PMID:26958651
Medical anthropology provides a broader contextual framework for understanding complex causal factors associated with diabetes among American Indians and how to minimize these factors in education/treatment programs. Discusses historical, epidemiological, and genetic considerations in American Indian diabetes; cultural factors related to foods,…
Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Schwartz, Alex
The authors assessed the effectiveness of a home visitation program in enhancing the early parenting history of infants born at medical risk--a population that is at risk for mistreatment. A randomized clinical trial design was used to compare the effects of a cognitively based extension of the Healthy Start home visitation program (HV+) with a…
Rodriguez, Daniel; Cox, Margueritte; Zimmer, Louise O.; Olson, DaiWai M.; Goldstein, Larry B.; Drew, Laura; Peterson, Eric D.; Bushnell, Cheryl D.
Purpose: Rural residents are less likely to obtain optimal care for many serious conditions and have poorer health outcomes than those residing in more urban areas. We determined whether rural vs urban residence affected postdischarge medication persistence and 1 year outcomes after stroke. Methods: The Adherence eValuation After Ischemic…
Chen, Xinguang; Tang, Xiaolan; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Hanwu; Chen, Weiqing
Purpose: The reduction of tobacco use among medical students is a potentially powerful strategy to reduce tobacco use among future health professionals, who in turn, can have significant impact on tobacco use among patients as well as the general population in China. The goal of this study is to update information on the prevalence of cigarette…
Cornish, James P.
Describes a pilot program designed to prepare models for health promotion and disease prevention through participation in a planned program for the expressed purpose of affecting improvement in the health and health promotion acuity of laboratory professionals, with a plan to expand the concept for use by other hospital employees, and the…
It is well known that the common goal of all central sterile supply departments (CSSDs) is to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Such infections entail high costs to society, not only economic but also social. Therefore, delivering safe medical devices and guaranteeing a positive contribution to the control of healthcare-associated infections form the main responsibilities of a CSSD. The monitoring of the effectiveness of medical device cleaning processes is highly recommended. However, ensuring a flawless environment for the preparation, assembly, and packaging of medical devices and clean handling of sterilized items is crucial to achieving the goal of safe medical devices. This study analyzed not only the cleanliness of surgical instruments but also two critical aspects of the surrounding environment: the cleanliness of work surfaces and the cleanliness of workers' hands. To evaluate the cleanliness of surgical instruments, two methods were used: the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection method and a residual protein test. It was not the intention of this work to make an exhaustive comparison of these methods. The ATP bioluminescence method was also used for monitoring the cleanliness of work surfaces and workers' hands. The aims of this study were to establish the most suitable method of evaluating the cleanliness of reusable medical devices in the CSSD and to assess the quality of the environment. Assessing the surgical instruments, work surfaces, and staff hands for cleanliness allowed the identification of possible contamination sources and to correct them by improving cleaning/disinfection protocols. Furthermore, the use of ATP monitoring tests of workers' hands highlighted the importance of staff compliance with good practice guidelines. Thus, these results have a positive impact on the CSSD quality system and, consequently, on patient safety.
Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Gorup, Luiz Fernando; Takamiya, Aline Satie; Ruvollo-Filho, Adhemar Colla; de Camargo, Emerson Rodrigues; Barbosa, Debora Barros
Research has clarified the properties required for polymers that resist bacterial colonisation for use in medical devices. The increase in antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has prompted interest in the use of silver as an antimicrobial agent. Silver-based polymers can protect the inner and outer surfaces of devices against the attachment of microorganisms. Thus, this review focuses on the mechanisms of various silver forms as antimicrobial agents against different microorganisms and biofilms as well as the dissociation of silver ions and the resulting reduction in antimicrobial efficacy for medical devices. This work suggests that the characteristics of released silver ions depend on the nature of the silver antimicrobial used and the polymer matrix. In addition, the elementary silver, silver zeolite and silver nanoparticles, used in polymers or as coatings could be used as antimicrobial biomaterials for a variety of promising applications.
Salamone, Francesco; Danza, Ludovico; Meroni, Italo; Pollastro, Maria Cristina
nEMoS (nano Environmental Monitoring System) is a 3D-printed device built following the Do-It-Yourself (DIY) approach. It can be connected to the web and it can be used to assess indoor environmental quality (IEQ). It is built using some low-cost sensors connected to an Arduino microcontroller board. The device is assembled in a small-sized case and both thermohygrometric sensors used to measure the air temperature and relative humidity, and the globe thermometer used to measure the radiant temperature, can be subject to thermal effects due to overheating of some nearby components. A thermographic analysis was made to rule out this possibility. The paper shows how the pervasive technique of additive manufacturing can be combined with the more traditional thermographic techniques to redesign the case and to verify the accuracy of the optimized system in order to prevent instrumental systematic errors in terms of the difference between experimental and actual values of the above-mentioned environmental parameters.
Sandler, Niklas; Salmela, Ida; Fallarero, Adyary; Rosling, Ari; Khajeheian, Mohammad; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Genina, Natalja; Nyman, Johan; Vuorela, Pia
The use of three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies is transforming the way that materials are turned into functional devices. We demonstrate in the current study the incorporation of anti-microbial nitrofurantoin in a polymer carrier material and subsequent 3D printing of a model structure, which resulted in an inhibition of biofilm colonization. The approach taken is very promising and can open up new avenues to manufacture functional medical devices in the future.
Interconnections between the faith-based and medical sectors are multifaceted and have existed for centuries, including partnerships that have evolved over the past several decades in the U.S. This paper outlines ten points of intersection that have engaged medical and healthcare professionals and institutions across specialties, focusing especially on primary care, global health, and community-based outreach to underserved populations. In a time of healthcare resource scarcity, such partnerships-involving religious congregations, denominations, and communal and philanthropic agencies-are useful complements to the work of private-sector medical care providers and of federal, state, and local public health institutions in their efforts to protect and maintain the health of the population. At the same time, challenges and obstacles remain, mostly related to negotiating the complex and contentious relations between these two sectors. This paper identifies pressing legal/constitutional, political/policy, professional/jurisdictional, ethical, and research and evaluation issues that need to be better addressed before this work can realize its full potential.
Echevarria, Ilia M; Schwoebel, Ann
Aspiration pneumonia is associated with significantly high morbidity and mortality rates, accompanied by high health care costs. As a result, aspiration pneumonia preventive efforts are a national priority. The development of an intervention model for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia in high-risk medical-surgical inpatients at an urban teaching hospital is described. The intervention model consists of the implementation and evaluation of a risk assessment tool and development of an aspiration pneumonia prevention protocol.
Wivel, N A; Walters, L
There has been considerable debate about the ethics of human germ-line gene modification. As a result of recent advances in the micromanipulation of embryos and the laboratory development of transgenic mice, a lively discussion has begun concerning both the technical feasibility and the ethical acceptability of human germ-line modification for the prevention of serious disease. This article summarizes some of the recent research on germ-line gene modification in animal models. Certain monogenic deficiency diseases that ultimately might be candidates for correction by germ-line intervention are identified. Several of the most frequently considered ethical issues relative to human germ-line gene modification are considered in the context of professional ethics, parental responsibility, and public policy. Finally, it is suggested that there is merit in continuing the discussion about human germ-line intervention, so that this technique can be carefully compared with alternative strategies for preventing genetic disease.
Cohen, Alexander T; Harrington, Robert; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hull, Russell; Gibson, C Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F; Kitt, Michael M; Lorenz, Todd J
Randomized clinical trials have identified a population of acute medically ill patients who remain at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) beyond the standard duration of therapy and hospital discharge. The aim of the APEX study is to determine whether extended administration of oral betrixaban (35-42 days) is superior to a standard short course of prophylaxis with subcutaneous enoxaparin (10 ± 4 days followed by placebo) in patients with known risk factors for post-discharge VTE. Patients initially are randomized to receive either betrixaban or enoxaparin (and matching placebo) in a double dummy design. Following a standard duration period of enoxaparin treatment (with placebo tablets) or betrixaban (with placebo injections), patients receive only betrixaban (or alternative matching placebo). Patients are considered for enrollment if they are older than 40 years, have a specified medical illness, and restricted mobility. They must also meet the APEX criteria for increased VTE risk (aged ≥75 years, baseline D-Dimer ≥2× upper the limit of "normal", or 2 additional ancillary risk factors for VTE). The primary efficacy end point is the composite of asymptomatic proximal deep venous thrombosis, symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, non-fatal (pulmonary embolus) pulmonary embolism, or VTE-related death through day 35. The primary safety outcome is the occurrence of major bleeding. We hypothesize that extended duration betrixaban VTE prophylaxis will be safe and more effective than standard short duration enoxaparin in preventing VTE in acute medically ill patients with known risk factors for post hospital discharge VTE.
Hoffman, Jacob Robin; Arendse, Kirsten D; Larbi, Carl; Johnson, Naomi; Vivian, Lauraine M H
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been recommended for the prevention of HIV transmission, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Uptake of the campaign has been relatively poor, particularly in traditionally non-circumcising regions. This study evaluates the knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical male circumcision (MC) of 104 community members exposed to promotional campaigns for VMMC for five years. Results show that 93% of participants have heard of circumcision and 72% have heard of some health benefit from the practice. However, detailed knowledge of the relationship with HIV infection is lacking: 12.2% mistakenly believed you could not get HIV after being circumcised, while 75.5% believe that a circumcised man is still susceptible and another 12.2% do not know of any relationship between HIV and MC. There are significant barriers to the uptake of the practice, including misperceptions and fear of complications commonly attributed to traditional, non-medical circumcision. However, 88.8% of participants believe circumcision is an acceptable practice, and community-specific promotional campaigns may increase uptake of the service.
Menezes, Esme V; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Soomro, Tanya; Haws, Rachel A; Darmstadt, Gary L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Background An estimated two-thirds of the world's 3.2 million stillbirths occur antenatally, prior to labour, and are often overlooked in policy and programs. Poorly recognised, untreated or inadequately treated maternal infections such as syphilis and malaria, and maternal conditions including hypertensive disorders, are known risk factors for stillbirth. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the evidence for 16 antenatal interventions with the potential to prevent stillbirths. We searched a range of sources including PubMed and the Cochrane Library. For interventions with prior Cochrane reviews, we conducted additional meta-analyses including eligible newer randomised controlled trials following the Cochrane protocol. We focused on interventions deliverable at the community level in low-/middle-income countries, where the burden of stillbirths is greatest. Results Few of the studies we included reported stillbirth as an outcome; most that did were underpowered to assess this outcome. While Cochrane reviews or meta-analyses were available for many interventions, few focused on stillbirth or perinatal mortality as outcomes, and evidence was frequently conflicting. Several interventions showed clear evidence of impact on stillbirths, including heparin therapy for certain maternal indications; syphilis screening and treatment; and insecticide-treated bed nets for prevention of malaria. Other interventions, such as management of obstetric intrahepatic cholestasis, maternal anti-helminthic treatment, and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria, showed promising impact on stillbirth rates but require confirmatory studies. Several interventions reduced known risk factors for stillbirth (e.g., anti-hypertensive drugs for chronic hypertension), yet failed to show statistically significant impact on stillbirth or perinatal mortality rates. Periodontal disease emerged as a clear risk factor for stillbirth but no interventions have reduced stillbirth rates
Marsac, Meghan L.; Kohser, Kristen L.; Kenardy, Justin; March, Sonja; Winston, Flaura K.
Objective To assess feasibility and estimate effect size of a self-directed online intervention designed to prevent persistent posttraumatic stress after acute trauma. Methods Children aged 8–12 years with a recent acute medical event were randomized to the intervention (N = 36) or a 12-week wait list (N = 36). Posttraumatic stress, health-related quality of life, appraisals, and coping were assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 weeks. Results Most children used the intervention; half completed it. Medium between-group effect sizes were observed for change in posttraumatic stress severity from baseline to 6 weeks (d = −.68) or 12 weeks (d = −.55). Exploratory analyses suggest greatest impact for at-risk children, and a small effect for intervention initiated after 12 weeks. Analysis of covariance did not indicate statistically significant group differences in 12-week outcomes. Conclusions This pilot randomized controlled trial provides preliminary evidence that a self-directed online preventive intervention is feasible to deliver, and could have an effect in preventing persistent posttraumatic stress. PMID:26089554
Design-induced errors and error prevention as well as the concept of lines of defense against human error are discussed. The concept of human error prevention, whose main focus has been on hardware, is extended to other features of the human-machine interface vulnerable to design-induced errors. In particular, it is pointed out that human factors and human error prevention should be part of the process of transport certification. Also, the concept of error tolerant systems is considered as a last line of defense against error.
Di Nisio, Marcello; Porreca, Ettore
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication among acutely ill medical patients hospitalized for congestive heart failure, acute respiratory insufficiency, rheumatologic disorders, and acute infectious and/or inflammatory diseases. Based on robust data from randomized controlled studies and meta-analyses showing a reduced incidence of VTE by 40% to about 60% with pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis, prevention of VTE with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), unfractionated heparin (UFH), or fondaparinux is currently recommended in all at-risk hospitalized acutely ill medical patients. In patients who are bleeding or are at high risk for major bleeding, mechanical prophylaxis with graduated compression stockings or intermittent pneumatic compression may be suggested. Thromboprophylaxis is generally continued for 6 to 14 days or for the duration of hospitalization. Selected cases could benefit from extended thromboprophylaxis beyond this period, although the risk of major bleeding remains a concern, and additional studies are needed to identify patients who may benefit from prolonged prophylaxis. For hospitalized acutely ill medical patients with renal insufficiency, a low dose (1.5 mg once daily) of fondaparinux or prophylactic LMWH subcutaneously appears to have a safe profile, although proper evaluation in randomized studies is lacking. The evidence on the use of prophylaxis for VTE in this latter group of patients, as well as in those at higher risk of bleeding complications, such as patients with thrombocytopenia, remains scarce. For critically ill patients hospitalized in intensive care units with no contraindications, LMWH or UFH are recommended, with frequent and careful assessment of the risk of bleeding. In this review, we discuss the evidence for use of thromboprophylaxis for VTE in acutely ill hospitalized medical patients, with a focus on (low-dose) fondaparinux.
An obligation to be healthy in the sauce of a categorical imperative "You shall change your life!" (P. Sloterdijk) does not exist. There is however a moral responsibility to shape ones own life in such a way that the resulting potentials for development can be realized within one owns possibilities (I. Kant). The example of predictive medicine illustrates, why the right not to know can be a responsible way of self governance when dealing with the knowledge of modern biomedicine. This allows the setting of limits within prevention, which preserve the quality of life of the exposed as well as enabling the individual the "acceptance of self" (R. Guardini).
Background A study was made to identify the most effective protocol for reducing the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) following tooth extraction in patients subjected to treatment with antiresorptive or antiangiogenic drugs. Material and Methods A MEDLINE and SCOPUS search (January 2003 - March 2015) was made with the purpose of conducting a systematic literature review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. All articles contributing information on tooth extractions in patients treated with oral or intravenous antiresorptive or antiangiogenic drugs were included. Results Only 13 of the 380 selected articles were finally included in the review: 11 and 5 of them offered data on patients treated with intravenous and oral bisphosphonates, respectively. No randomized controlled trials were found – all publications corresponding to case series or cohort studies. The prevalence of ONJ in the patients treated with intravenous and oral bisphosphonates was 6,9% (range 0-34.7%) and 0.47% (range 0-2.5%), respectively. The main preventive measures comprised local and systemic infection control. Conclusions No conclusive scientific evidence is available to date on the efficacy of ONJ prevention protocols in patients treated with antiresorptive or antiangiogenic drugs subjected to tooth extraction. Key words:Bisphosphonates, angiogenesis inhibitors, antiresorptive drugs, extraction, osteonecrosis. PMID:26827065
Guille, Constance; Zhao, Zhuo; Krystal, John; Nichols, Breck; Brady, Kathleen; Sen, Srijan
Importance In the United States, approximately one physician dies by suicide every day. Training physicians are at particularly high risk, with suicidal ideation increasing over four-fold during the first three months of internship year. Despite this dramatic increase, very few efforts have been made to prevent the escalation of suicidal thoughts among training physicians. Objective To assess the effectiveness of a Web-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (wCBT) program delivered prior to the start of internship year in the prevention of suicidal ideation in medical interns. Design, Setting and Participants A randomized controlled trial conducted at two university hospitals with 199 interns from multiple specialties during academic years 2009-10 or 2011-12. Interventions Interns were randomly assigned to study groups (wCBT, n=100; attention-control group (ACG), n=99), and completed study activities lasting 30-minutes each week for four weeks prior to starting internship year. Subjects assigned to wCBT completed online-CBT modules and subjects assigned to ACG received emails with general information about depression, suicidal thinking and local mental health providers. Main Outcome Measure The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was employed to assess suicidal ideation (i.e., “thoughts that you would be better off dead, or hurting yourself in some way”) prior to the start of intern year and at 3-month intervals throughout the year. Results 62.2% (199/320) of individuals agreed to take part in the study. During at least one time point over the course of internship year 12% (12/100) of interns assigned to wCBT endorsed suicidal ideation, compared to 21%(21/99) of interns assigned to ACG. After adjusting for covariates identified a priori that have previously shown to increase the risk for suicidal ideation, interns assigned to wCBT were 60% less likely to endorse suicidal ideation during internship year (RR: 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.91; p=0.03), compared to those
Padua, Darin A.; DiStefano, Lindsay J.; Beutler, Anthony I.; de la Motte, Sarah J.; DiStefano, Michael J.; Marshall, Steven W.
Context Identifying neuromuscular screening factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a critical step toward large-scale deployment of effective ACL injury-prevention programs. The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is a valid and reliable clinical assessment of jump-landing biomechanics. Objective To investigate the ability of the LESS to identify individuals at risk for ACL injury in an elite-youth soccer population. Design Cohort study. Setting Field-based functional movement screening performed at soccer practice facilities. Patients or Other Participants A total of 829 elite-youth soccer athletes (348 boys, 481 girls; age = 13.9 ± 1.8 years, age range = 11 to 18 years), of whom 25% (n = 207) were less than 13 years of age. Intervention(s) Baseline preseason testing for all participants consisted of a jump-landing task (3 trials). Participants were followed prospectively throughout their soccer seasons for diagnosis of ACL injuries (1217 athlete-seasons of follow-up). Main Outcome Measure(s) Landings were scored for “errors” in technique using the LESS. We used receiver operator characteristic curves to determine a cutpoint on the LESS. Sensitivity and specificity of the LESS in predicting ACL injury were assessed. Results Seven participants sustained ACL injuries during the follow-up period; the mechanism of injury was noncontact or indirect contact for all injuries. Uninjured participants had lower LESS scores (4.43 ± 1.71) than injured participants (6.24 ± 1.75; t1215 = −2.784, P = .005). The receiver operator characteristic curve analyses suggested that 5 was the optimal cutpoint for the LESS, generating a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 64%. Conclusions Despite sample-size limitations, the LESS showed potential as a screening tool to determine ACL injury risk in elite-youth soccer athletes. PMID:25811846
Mandato, Ylenia; Reginelli, Alfonso; Galasso, Rosario; Iacobellis, Francesca; Berritto, Daniela; Cappabianca, Salvatore
Physicians are subjected to an increasing number of medical malpractice claims, and radiology is one of the specialties most liable to claims of medical negligence The etiology of radiological error is multifactorial, deriving by poor technique, failures of perception, lack of knowledge, and misjudgments. Reducing errors will improve patient care, may reduce costs, and will improve the image of the hospital. The main reason for studying medical errors is to try to prevent them. This article focuses on the spectrum of diagnostic errors in radiology, including a classification of the errors, and highlights the malpractice issues in methods for functional alimentary tract examination: swallowing act study, 3-dimensional endoanal ultrasound, defecography, and defecography in magnetic resonance.
ISMP Medication Error Report Analysis: Aggrastat-Argatroban Mix-ups Don't Expect Radiofrequency Identification Stock Systems To Be Perfect Paralyzed by Mistakes: Reassess the Safety of Neuromuscular Blockers in Your Facility.
Cohen, Michael R; Smetzer, Judy L
ISMP Medication Error Report Analysis: Reporting and Second-Order Problem Solving Can Turn Short-Term Fixes Into Long-Term Remedies Fifty Hospital Employees Given Insulin Instead of Influenza Vaccine Reminder: Eliminating Ratio Expressions Strength Confusion.
Cohen, Michael R; Smetzer, Judy L
These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again-perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural-safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were receivedthrough the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program. Any reports published by ISMP will be anonymous. Comments are also invited; the writers' names will be published if desired. ISMP may be contacted at the address shown below. Errors, close calls, or hazardous conditions may be reported directly to ISMP through the ISMP Web site (www.ismp.org), by calling 800-FAIL-SAFE, or via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. ISMP guarantees the confidentiality and security of the information received and respects reporters' wishes as to the level of detail included in publications.
CIVIL AVIATION, *ALTIMETERS, FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS, RELIABILITY, ERRORS , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), BAROMETERS, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE, ALTITUDE, CORRECTIONS, AVIATION SAFETY, USSR.
Mbonye, Martin; Kuteesa, Monica; Seeley, Janet; Levin, Jonathan; Weiss, Helen; Kamali, Anatoli
Local beliefs and practices about voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) may influence uptake and effectiveness. Data were gathered through interviews with 40 people from four ethnically mixed fishing communities in Uganda. Some men believed that wound healing could be promoted by contact with vaginal fluids while sex with non-regular partners could chase away spirits - practices which encouraged unsafe sexual practices. Information given by providers stressed that VMMC did not afford complete protection from sexually-transmitted infections, however, a number of male community members held the view that they were fully protected once circumcised. Both men and women said that VMMC was good not just for HIV prevention but also as a way of maintaining hygiene among the men. The implementation of VMMC in high-HIV prevalence settings needs to take account of local beliefs about circumcision, working with local religious/social group leaders, women and peers in the roll-out of the intervention.
Tong, S; Mackenzie, J; Pitman, A J; FitzGerald, G; Nicholls, N; Selvey, L
Climate change is unequivocal. The fourth assessment report of the Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change has recently projected that global average surface temperature will increase by 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C by 2100. Anthropogenic warming during the twenty-first century would be much greater than that observed in the twentieth century. Most of the warming observed over the last six decades is attributable to human activities. Climate change is already affecting, and will increasingly have profound effects on human health and well-being. Therefore, there is an urgent need for societies to take both preemptive and adaptive actions to protect human populations from adverse health consequences of climate change. It is time to mainstream health risks and their prevention in relation to the effects of climate change on the medical research and policy agenda.
Kamath, Veena; Limaye, Rupali J
A number of programs have focused on scale-up and implementation research regarding voluntary medical male circumcision; however, there is limited research with regard to factors and strategies related to abstinence compliance and the effects of resuming sex during the wound healing period (42-day post-circumcision). We searched the literature for peer-reviewed articles examining early resumption of sex during this period. This review identifies factors that may predispose a client to engage in sex during the 42-day postoperative period, examines how early resumption of sex can inhibit wound healing and increase seroconversion, and reviews strategies that may increase adherence to abstinence during the wound healing period. We found that the most common factor that may predispose a client to engage in sex before the end of the postoperative period is marriage or cohabitation with a sexual partner. With regard to the effect of sex during the postoperative period on wound healing and seroconversion, we found that adverse events incurred were mild, and there was an increased risk of seroconversion. The only strategy studied to increase compliance to abstinence during the postoperative period utilized text messaging, and the trial results indicate that text messaging did not increase abstinence compliance.
Navas, H; Graffi Moltrasio, L; Ares, F; Strumia, G; Dourado, E; Alvarez, M
Within preventable medical errors, those related to medications are frequent in every stage of the prescribing cycle. Nursing is responsible for maintaining each patients safety and care quality. Moreover, nurses are the last people who can detect an error in medication before its administration. Medication administration is one of the riskiest tasks in nursing. The use of information and communication technologies is related to a decrease in these errors. Including mobile devices related to 2D code reading of patients and medication will decrease the possibility of error when preparing and administering medication by nurses. A cross-platform software (iOS and Android) was developed to ensure the five Rights of the medication administration process (patient, medication, dose, route and schedule). Deployment in November showed 39% use.
Halavska, L.; Batrak, O.
A new trend in the world is the clothing production using the new types of ecological raw materials application - milk, pineapple, coconut, hemp, banana, eucalyptus, clams, corn, bamboo, soya, nettle yarn. This makes it possible to create textile materials of new generation with unique antibacterial and antiseptic properties. Such materials have a positive preventive and sometimes therapeutic effect on people, and their health. Eco-raw materials clothing is able to protect the human body from the environment harmful effects: cold, heat, rain, dust, opportunely remove from underclothing layer the steam and gases, sweat; maintain in underclothing layer the necessary microclimate for normal organism functioning. Study of knitwear consumer properties, produced with eco-materials, is an urgent task of the world vector, directed on ecological environmental protection. This paper presents the research results of hygroscopicity and capillarity weft knitted fabrics, what knitted from different types of eco-raw materials: bamboo yarn, yarn containing soybean and nettle yarn. Character of influence of the liquid raising level changes depending on the experiment time and the knitting structure is revealed.
Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.
Background The use of e-prescribing is increasing annually, with over 788 million e-prescriptions received in US pharmacies in 2012. Approximately 9% of e-prescriptions have medication errors. Objective To describe the process used by community pharmacy staff to detect, explain, and correct e-prescription errors. Methods The error recovery conceptual framework was employed for data collection and analysis. 13 pharmacists and 14 technicians from five community pharmacies in Wisconsin participated in the study. A combination of data collection methods were utilized, including direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. The transcription and content analysis of recordings were guided by the three-step error recovery model. Results Most of the e-prescription errors were detected during the entering of information into the pharmacy system. These errors were detected by both pharmacists and technicians using a variety of strategies which included: (1) performing double checks of e-prescription information; (2) printing the e-prescription to paper and confirming the information on the computer screen with information from the paper printout; and (3) using colored pens to highlight important information. Strategies used for explaining errors included: (1) careful review of patient’ medication history; (2) pharmacist consultation with patients; (3) consultation with another pharmacy team member; and (4) use of online resources. In order to correct e-prescription errors, participants made educated guesses of the prescriber’s intent or contacted the prescriber via telephone or fax. When e-prescription errors were encountered in the community pharmacies, the primary goal of participants was to get the order right for patients by verifying the prescriber’s intent. Conclusion Pharmacists and technicians play an important role in preventing e-prescription errors through the detection of errors and the verification of prescribers’ intent. Future studies are needed
Goldschmidt, Pablo; Einterz, Ellen
Background: Health authorities are working toward the global elimination of trachoma by the year 2020 with actions focused on the World Health Organization SAFE strategy (surgery of trichiasis, antibiotics, face washing and environmental changes) with emphasis on hygienist approaches for education. Objectives: The present survey was performed to assess the sustainability of the SAFE strategy 3 years after trachoma was eliminated from 6 villages. Methods: In February 2013 a rapid trachoma assessment was conducted in 6 villages of Kolofata’s district, Extreme north Region, Cameroon, where trachoma was eliminated in 2010. A total of 300 children (1–10 years) from 6 villages were examined by trained staff. Results: The prevalence of active trachoma (children aged > 1 and < 10 years) in 2013 was 15% and in at least 25% was observed absence of face washing and flies in their eyes and nose. Income level, quality of roads, hygiene, and illiteracy were similar in all the villages; they did not change between 2010 and 2013 and could not be analyzed as independent risk factors. Discussion: The heterogeneity of methods described for clinical trials makes it inappropriate to conduct meta-analysis for the present and for other SAFE-related trials. The results obtained after implementation the SAFE strategy (recurrence) reveal that the causes (infectious agents and dirtiness) and effects (illness) were not connected by illiterate people living under conditions of extreme poverty. So far, antibiotics, surgery and hygiene education are insufficient for the sustainability of trachoma elimination and highlight that hypothetic-deductive processes seem not operational after implementing the awareness campaigns. Trachoma recurrence detected in 2013 in sedentary populations of Kolofata receiving efficacious treatments against Chlamydia sp. suggest that the elimination goals will be delayed if strategies are limited to medical actions. Restricting efforts to repeated pharmacological
Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Mantz, Michael B.; Bailey, Bridget; Douaihy, Antoine
Abstract Bipolar disorder (BP) in youth is an impairing psychiatric disorder associated with high rates of relapse and recurrence. High rates of psychiatric and medical co-morbidities account for additional illness burden in pediatric BP. The elevated risk of overweight and obesity in this population is of particular concern. One of the likely etiologies for weight gain in youth with BP is use of mood-stabilizing medications. Although these medications can be effective for mood stabilization, excessive weight gain is a common side effect. Obesity is associated with a host of medical problems and is also correlated with worse psychiatric outcomes in BP, rendering the prevention of weight gain in this population particularly clinically relevant. In this article, we describe the rationale and development of a brief motivational intervention for preventing weight gain among youth with BP initiating mood-stabilizing pharmacological treatment and then present a case example illustrating the principles of the intervention. PMID:21663430
Parnes, Bennett; Fernald, Douglas; Quintela, Javán; Araya‐Guerra, Rodrigo; Westfall, John; Harris, Daniel; Pace, Wilson
Objective To present a novel examination of how error cascades are stopped (ameliorated) before they affect patients. Design Qualitative analysis of reported errors in primary care. Setting Over a three‐year period, clinicians and staff in two practice‐based research networks voluntarily reported medical errors to a primary care patient safety reporting system, Applied Strategies for Improving Patient Safety (ASIPS). The authors found a number of reports where the error was corrected before it had an adverse impact on the patient. Results Of 754 codeable reported events, 60 were classified as ameliorated events. In these events, a participant stopped the progression of the event before it reached or affected the patient. Ameliorators included doctors, nurses, pharmacists, diagnostic laboratories and office staff. Additionally, patients or family members may be ameliorators by recognising the error and taking action. Ameliorating an event after an initial error requires an opportunity to catch the error by systems, chance or attentiveness. Correcting the error before it affects the patient requires action either directed by protocols and systems or by vigilance, power to change course and perseverance on the part of the ameliorator. Conclusion Despite numerous individual and systematic methods to prevent errors, a system to prevent all potential errors is not feasible. However, a more pervasive culture of safety that builds on simple acts in addition to more costly and complex electronic systems may improve patient outcomes. Medical staff and patients who are encouraged to be vigilant, ask questions and seek solutions may correct otherwise inevitable wrongs. PMID:17301195
Ravasco, Paula; Ferreira, Catarina; Camilo, Maria Ermelinda
. These are the interventions and attitudes that make a difference and that are actually effective in preventing and/or treating many chronic diseases. Hence it is possible to improve health and quality of health services provided to the population (public health scope) and that of patients (clinical practice scope) as well as to optimize costs in health.
Durán-García, Esther; Fernandez-Llamazares, Cecilia M; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel A
Medication reconciliation errors occur across transitions in patient care. Of all medication errors in a hospital, 25 % in hospitalised patients are caused by a failure to reconcile new prescriptions with ongoing home treatments. These errors are more common at discharge, but the critical moment for detecting and resolving them is at the time of admission. This commentary reviews the different ways in which reconciliation errors can be prevented. The reconciliation process should be standardised and implemented in daily practice as a routine part of healthcare provision. To achieve this, professional development of hospital pharmacists is of paramount importance. The commentary goes on to describe the factors that affect the reconciliation process and the stages involved in its implementation. Finally, we discuss the use of information technology as a means to help integrating medication reconciliation into clinical practice.
Kato-Kataoka, A; Nishida, K; Takada, M; Suda, K; Kawai, M; Shimizu, K; Kushiro, A; Hoshi, R; Watanabe, O; Igarashi, T; Miyazaki, K; Kuwano, Y; Rokutan, K
This pilot study investigated the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on psychological, physiological, and physical stress responses in medical students undertaking an authorised nationwide examination for promotion. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 24 and 23 healthy medical students consumed a fermented milk containing LcS and a placebo milk, respectively, once a day for 8 weeks until the day before the examination. Psychophysical state, salivary cortisol, faecal serotonin, and plasma L-tryptophan were analysed on 5 different sampling days (8 weeks before, 2 weeks before, 1 day before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after the examination). Physical symptoms were also recorded in a diary by subjects during the intervention period for 8 weeks. In association with a significant elevation of anxiety at 1 day before the examination, salivary cortisol and plasma L-tryptophan levels were significantly increased in only the placebo group (P<0.05). Two weeks after the examination, the LcS group had significantly higher faecal serotonin levels (P<0.05) than the placebo group. Moreover, the rate of subjects experiencing common abdominal and cold symptoms and total number of days experiencing these physical symptoms per subject were significantly lower in the LcS group than in the placebo group during the pre-examination period at 5-6 weeks (each P<0.05) and 7-8 weeks (each P<0.01) during the intervention period. Our results suggest that the daily consumption of fermented milk containing LcS may exert beneficial effects preventing the onset of physical symptoms in healthy subjects exposed to stressful situations.
Jayawardena, Suriya; Eisdorfer, Jacob; Indulkar, Shalaka; Pal, Sethi Ajith; Sooriabalan, Danushan; Cucco, Robert
Adverse drug events occur often in hospitals. They can be prevented to a large extent by minimizing the human errors of prescription writing. To evaluate the efficacy of a computerized prescription order entry (CPOE) system with the help of ancillary support in minimizing prescription errors. Retrospective study carried out in a community-based urban teaching hospital in south Brooklyn, NY from January 2004 to January 2005. Errors were categorized into inappropriate dosage adjustment for creatinine clearance, duplication, incorrect orders, allergy verification, and incomplete orders. The pharmacists identified the type of error, the severity of error, the class of drug involved, and the department that made the error. A total of 466,311 prescriptions were entered in the period of 1 year. There were 3513 errors during this period (7.53 errors per 1000 prescriptions). More than half of these errors were made by the internal medicine specialty. In our study, 50% of the errors were severe errors (overdosing medications with narrow therapeutic index or over-riding allergies), 46.28% were moderate errors (overdosing, wrong dosing, duplicate orders, or prescribing multiple antibiotics), and 3.71% were not harmful errors (wrong dosing or incomplete orders). The errors were also categorized according to the class of medication. Errors in antibiotic prescription accounted for 53.9% of all errors. The pharmacist detected all these prescription errors as the prescriptions were reviewed in the CPOE system. Prescription errors are common medical errors seen in hospitals. The CPOE system has prevented and alerted the prescriber and pharmacist to dosage errors and allergies. Involvement of the pharmacist in reviewing the prescription and alerting the physician has minimized prescription errors to a great degree in our hospital setting. The incidence of prescription errors before the CPOE has been reported to range from 3 to 99 per 1000 prescriptions. The disparity could be due to
Matsui, Takemi; Hagisawa, Kousuke; Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Takase, Bonpei; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Makoto
In order to prevent secondary exposure of medical personnel to toxic materials under biochemical hazard conditions, we performed a noncontact determination of exposure to toxic conditions via 1215-MHz microwave radar and thermography. A toxic condition was induced by intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rabbits. The exposure to LPS was determined by linear discriminant analysis using non-contact derived variables.
Marshall, Carter L.
Focus in this preventive medicine monograph for health professionals is on consumer health education and the current and potential effects of mass communication on the quality of medical care. Following an introduction, the content is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 covers the state of the art in consumer health education and discusses three…
Bieling, Peter J.; Hawley, Lance L.; Bloch, Richard T.; Corcoran, Kathleen M.; Levitan, Robert D.; Young, L. Trevor; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Segal, Zindel V.
Objective: To examine whether metacognitive psychological skills, acquired in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), are also present in patients receiving medication treatments for prevention of depressive relapse and whether these skills mediate MBCT's effectiveness. Method: This study, embedded within a randomized efficacy trial of MBCT,…
Patel, Shilpa N.; Marks, Gary; Gardner, Lytt; Golin, Carol E.; Shinde, Sanjyot; O'Daniels, Christine; Wilson, Tracey E.; Quinlivan, E. Byrd; Banderas, Julie W.
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether brief training of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) medical providers increased the frequency with which they routinely delivered prevention counselling to patients, and whether patient characteristics were associated with receipt of that counselling. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Seven HIV…
Scherer, Philipp O. J.
Input data as well as the results of elementary operations have to be represented by machine numbers, the subset of real numbers which is used by the arithmetic unit of today's computers. Generally this generates rounding errors. This kind of numerical error can be avoided in principle by using arbitrary precision arithmetics or symbolic algebra programs. But this is unpractical in many cases due to the increase in computing time and memory requirements. Results from more complex operations like square roots or trigonometric functions can have even larger errors since series expansions have to be truncated and iterations accumulate the errors of the individual steps. In addition, the precision of input data from an experiment is limited. In this chapter we study the influence of numerical errors on the uncertainties of the calculated results and the stability of simple algorithms.
Wiener, Earl L.
This report examines the management of human error in the cockpit. The principles probably apply as well to other applications in the aviation realm (e.g. air traffic control, dispatch, weather, etc.) as well as other high-risk systems outside of aviation (e.g. shipping, high-technology medical procedures, military operations, nuclear power production). Management of human error is distinguished from error prevention. It is a more encompassing term, which includes not only the prevention of error, but also a means of disallowing an error, once made, from adversely affecting system output. Such techniques include: traditional human factors engineering, improvement of feedback and feedforward of information from system to crew, 'error-evident' displays which make erroneous input more obvious to the crew, trapping of errors within a system, goal-sharing between humans and machines (also called 'intent-driven' systems), paperwork management, and behaviorally based approaches, including procedures, standardization, checklist design, training, cockpit resource management, etc. Fifteen guidelines for the design and implementation of intervention strategies are included.
Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A.; Zane, Suzanne B.
Background With changing patterns and increasing use of medical abortion in the United States, it is important to have accurate statistics on the use of this method regularly available. This study assesses the accuracy of medical abortion data reported annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and describes trends over time in the use of medical abortion relative to other methods. Study Design This analysis included data reported to CDC for 2001–2008. Year-specific analyses included all states that monitored medical abortion for a given year, while trend analyses were restricted to states that monitored medical abortion continuously from 2001 to 2008. Data quality and completeness were assessed by (a) examining abortions reported with an unspecified method type within the gestational age limit for medical abortion (med-eligible abortions) and (b) comparing the percentage of all abortions and med-eligible abortions reported to CDC as medical abortions with estimates based on published mifepristone sales data for the United States from 2001 to 2007. Results During 2001–2008, the percentage of med-eligible abortions reported to CDC with an unspecified method type remained low (1.0%–2.2%); CDC data and mifepristone sales estimates for 2001–2007 demonstrated strong agreement [all abortions: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.983; med-eligible abortions: ICC=0.988]. During 2001–2008, the percentage of abortions reported to CDC as medical abortions increased (p<.001 for all abortions and for med-eligible abortions). Among states that reported medical abortions for 2008, 15% of all abortions and 23% of med-eligible abortions were reported as medical abortions. Conclusion CDC’s Abortion Surveillance System provides an important annual data source that accurately describes the use of medical abortion relative to other methods in the United States. PMID:22770796
and non - ionizing radiation, to include licensing and authorizations, personal protective measures, radiation detection and measuring equipment, control...located at and providing OH services primarily for non -DA(such as the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA)) installations. (2) The DA Form 3076 will be...failure. Hepatitis A and non -A non -B hepa- titis are transmitted by the fecal-oral route, while hepatitis B is transmitted through the exchange of
Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris
Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to
Golmohamdi, Fateme Rostami; Abbasi, Mahnaz; Karyani, Ali Kazemi; Sari, Ali Akbari
Introduction Fractures caused by osteoporosis are prevalent among elderly females, which reduce quality of life significantly. This study aimed at comparing cost-effectiveness of Zoledronic acid in preventing and treating post-menopause osteoporosis as compared with routine medical treatment. Methods This cost-effectiveness study was carried out retrospectively from the Ministry of Health and insurance organizations perspective. Costs were evaluated based on the cost estimation of a sample of patients. Outcomes were obtained from a systematic review. The Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (CER) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for outcome of femoral neck Bone Mineral Density (BMD), hip trochanter BMD, total hip BMD and lumbar spine BMD and cost-benefit of consuming Zoledronic Acid were calculated for fracture outcome obtained from reviewing hospital records. Results The results and the ICER calculated for study outcomes indicated that one percent increase of BMD on femoral neck BMD requires further cost of $386. One percent increase of BMD on hip trochanter BMD requires further cost of $264. One percent increase of BMD on total hip BMD requires further cost of $388, one percent increase of BMD on lumbar spine BMD requires further cost of $347. The Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) calculated for vertebral and hip fracture, non-vertebral fracture, any clinical fracture, and morphometric fracture for a 36-month period were about 0.82, 0.57, and 1.06, respectively. Vertebral and hip fractures, and non-vertebral fractures or any clinical fracture for a 12-month period were calculated as 1.14 and 0.64, respectively. In other words, Zoledronic acid consumption approach is a cheaper and better approach based on an economic assessment, and it can be considered as a dominant approach. Conclusion According to the cost-effectiveness of zoledronic acid in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in women, despite the costs, it is recommended that insurance coverage for the
Five-rights - medication; Medication administration - hospital; Medical errors - medication; Patient safety - medication safety ... Medication safety means you get the right medicine, the right dose, at the right times. During your ...
Broder, Joshua S; Fox, James W; Milne, Judy; Theiling, Brent Jason; White, Ann
Medical errors are commonly multifactorial, with adverse clinical consequences often requiring the simultaneous failure of a series of protective layers, termed the Swiss Cheese model. Remedying and preventing future medical errors requires a series of steps, including detection, mitigation of patient harm, disclosure, reporting, root cause analysis, system modification, regulatory action, and engineering and manufacturing reforms. We describe this process applied to two cases of improper orientation of a Heimlich valve in a thoracostomy tube system, resulting in enlargement of an existing pneumothorax and the development of radiographic features of tension pneumothorax. We analyse elements contributing to the occurrence of the error and depict the implementation of reforms within our healthcare system and with regulatory authorities and the manufacturer. We identify features of the Heimlich valve promoting this error and suggest educational, design, and regulatory reforms for enhanced patient safety.
Fastman, Barbara Rabin; Kaplan, Harold S
The phrase "patient safety" represents freedom from accidental or preventable harm due to events occurring in the healthcare setting. Practitioners aim to reduce, if not prevent, medical errors and adverse outcomes. Yet studies performed from many perspectives show that medical error constitutes a serious worldwide problem. Transfusion medicine, with its interdisciplinary intricacies and the danger of fatal outcomes, serves as an exemplar of lessons learned. Opportunity for error in complex systems is vast, and although errors are traditionally blamed on humans, they are often set up by preexisting factors. Transfusion has inherent hazards such as clinical vulnerabilities (eg, contracting an infectious agent or experiencing a transfusion reaction), but there also exists the possibility of hazards associated with process errors. Sample collection errors, or preanalytic errors, may occur when samples are drawn from donors during blood donation, as well as when drawn from patients prior to transfusion-related testing, and account for approximately one-third of events in transfusion. Errors in the analytic phase of the transfusion chain, slips and errors in the laboratory, comprise close to one-third of patient safety-related transfusion events. As many as 40% of mistransfusions are due to errors in the postanalytic phase: often failures in the final check of the right blood and the right patient at the bedside. Bar-code labels, radiofrequency identification tags, and even palm vein-scanning technology are increasingly being utilized in patient identification. The last phase of transfusion, careful monitoring of the recipient for adverse signs or symptoms, when performed diligently can help prevent or manage a potentially fatal reaction caused by an earlier process error or an unavoidable physiologic condition. Ways in which we can and do deal with potential hazards of transfusion are discussed, including a method of hazard reduction termed inherently safer design
de Souza-Borges, Fernanda Ribeiro Fagundes; Ribeiro, Larissa Araújo; de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Marques
A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the frequencies and characteristics of occupational exposures among medical and nursing students at a Brazilian public university, in addition to their prevention and post-exposure behavior. During the second semester of 2010, a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was completed by 253/320 (79.1%) medical students of the clinical course and 149/200 (74.5%) nursing students who were already performing practical activities. Among medical students, 53 (20.9%) suffered 73 injuries, which mainly occurred while performing extra-curricular activities (32.9%), with cutting and piercing objects (56.2%), in the emergency room (39.7%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (54.8%). Among nursing students, 27 (18.1%) suffered 37 injuries, which mainly occurred with hollow needles (67.6%) in the operating room or wards (72.2%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (62.1%). Among medical and nursing students, respectively, 96.4% and 48% were dissatisfied with the instructions on previously received exposure prevention; 48% and 18% did not always use personal protective equipment; 67.6% and 16.8% recapped used needles; 49.3% and 35.1% did not bother to find out the source patient's serological results post-exposure; and 1.4% and 18.9% officially reported injuries. In conclusion, this study found high frequencies of exposures among the assessed students, inadequate practices in prevention and post-exposure, and, consequently, the need for training in “standard precautions” to prevent such exposures. PMID:24626419
Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W
Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.
Dobson, Keith S.; Hollon, Steven D.; Dimidjian, Sona; Schmaling, Karen B.; Kohlenberg, Robert J.; Gallop, Robert J.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Dunner, David L.; Jacobson, Neil S.
This study followed treatment responders from a randomized controlled trial of adults with major depression. Patients treated with medication but withdrawn onto pill-placebo had more relapse through 1 year of follow-up compared to patients who received prior behavioral activation, prior cognitive therapy, or continued medication. Prior…
Moro Agud, Marta; Menéndez Colino, Rocío; Mauleón Ladrero, María Del Coro; Ruano Encinar, Margarita; Díez Sebastián, Jesús; Villamañán Bueno, Elena; Herrero Ambrosio, Alicia; González Montalvo, Juan Ignacio
Background During care transitions, discrepancies and medication errors often occur, putting patients at risk, especially older patients with polypharmacy. Objective To assess the results of a medication reconciliation and information programme for discharge of geriatric patients conducted through hospital information systems. Setting A 1300-bed university hospital in Madrid, Spain. Method A prospective observational study. Geriatricians selected candidates for medication reconciliation at discharge, and sent an electronic inter-consultation request to the pharmacy department. Pharmacists reviewed the medication list, comparing it with electronic prescriptions, medication previously prescribed by primary care physicians and other medical records, and resolved any discrepancies. An individualized and tailored drug information at discharge sheet was sent to geriatricians and made available to primary care physicians. Main outcome measure The number and type of discrepancies, the number, type and severity of errors, and the main pharmacological groups involved. Results Medication reconciliation was performed for 118 patients with a mean age of 87 years (SD 5.9), involving a total of 2054 medications, or 17.4 per patient. Discrepancies were found in 723 (35 %) drugs, 105 of which were considered medication errors (15 %); 66 patients (56 %) had at least one error. This gave 0.9 reconciliation errors per patient reviewed and 1.6 per patient with errors. Of the 105 errors, 14 (13 %) were considered serious. The most frequent errors were incomplete prescriptions (40 %) and omissions (35 %). Conclusion An electronic medication reconciliation programme helps pharmacists detect serious medication errors in frail elderly patients and provides complete and up-to-date written information to prevent additional errors at home.
Economides, Sotirios; Boziari, Argiro; Vogiatzi, Stavroula; Hourdakis, Konstantinos J; Kamenopoulou, Vassiliki; Dimitriou, Panagiotis
Embryo/fetus (E/F) irradiation as a result of medical exposure of the mother should be avoided, unless there are strong clinical indications. Medical practitioners are assigned the primary task and obligation of ensuring overall patient protection and safety in the prescription of and during the delivery of medical exposure. In cases of unintended exposure of embryo/fetus (E/F), the risk analysis and communication is conducted by or under the supervision of medical physicists at local level. National competent authorities can contribute to the prevention, risk analysis and communication of inadvertent E/F exposure to ionizing radiation by recording, analyzing and disseminating the relevant information. Since 2001, Greek Atomic Energy Commission has established a committee with the mandate to provide advice, to keep records, to analyze and disseminate the experience gained in cases of unintended E/F exposure. During the period 2001-2011, the committee was consulted by 269 pregnant women undergone medical exposures. The conclusions from the relevant data analysis, as well as the experience gained are herein presented and discussed.
Marsac, Meghan L.; Kohser, Kristen L.; Winston, Flaura K.; Kenardy, Justin; March, Sonja; Kassam-Adams, Nancy
Background Medical events including acute illness and injury are among the most common potentially traumatic experiences for children. Despite the scope of the problem, only limited resources are available for prevention of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after pediatric medical events. Web-based programs provide a low-cost, accessible means to reach a wide range of families and show promise in related areas of child mental health. Objectives To describe the design of a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate feasibility and estimate preliminary efficacy of Coping Coach, a web-based preventive intervention to prevent or reduce PTSS after acute pediatric medical events. Method Seventy children and their parents will be randomly assigned to either an intervention or a waitlist control condition. Inclusion criteria require that children are aged 8–12 years, have experienced a medical event, have access to Internet and telephone, and have sufficient competency in the English language to complete measures and understand the intervention. Participants will complete baseline measures and will then be randomized to the intervention or waitlist control condition. Children in the intervention condition will complete module 1 (Feelings Identification) in the hospital and will be instructed on how to complete modules 2 (Appraisals) and 3 (Avoidance) online. Follow-up assessments will be conducted via telephone at 6, 12, and 18 weeks after the baseline assessment. Following the 12-week assessment, children in the waitlist control condition will receive instructions for completing the intervention. Results Primary study outcomes include data on intervention feasibility and outcomes (child appraisals, coping, PTSS and health-related quality of life). Discussion Results will provide data on the feasibility of the implementation of the Coping Coach intervention and study procedures as well as estimations of efficacy to determine sample size for a larger study
Woosley, R L; Whyte, J; Mohamadi, A; Romero, K
For decades, medical practice has increasingly relied on prescription medicines to treat, cure, or prevent illness but their net benefit is reduced by prescribing errors that result in adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and tens of thousands of deaths each year. Optimal prescribing requires effective management of massive amounts of data. Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) can help manage information and support optimal therapeutic decisions before errors are made by operating as the prescribers' "autopilot."
Milford, Cecilia; Smit, Jennifer A; Beksinska, Mags E; Ramkissoon, Arthi
Three clinical trials have demonstrated the partial efficacy (40-60%) of surgically conducted medical male circumcision (MMC) in preventing HIV transmission to circumcised men. This research formed part of a larger study exploring the importance of integration of sexual and reproductive health with HIV services. The objective was to elicit key informant views on the introduction of MMC for HIV prevention in South Africa. Twenty-one key informants representing the South African Health Department, local and international NGOs and universities, were asked, via semi-structured interviews about their views on introducing MMC as an HIV prevention strategy in South Africa. Interviews were transcribed and all discussions on MMC were coded for analysis using NVivo 8. The majority of the key informants were knowledgeable about MMC for HIV prevention and felt that making MMC available in South Africa was a good idea, with some recommending immediate introduction. Others felt that MMC should be introduced with caution. Various factors were recommended for consideration, including culture, the impact of circumcision on women, possible increase in sexual risk behaviour from behavioural disinhibition and that MMC may become another vertical health service programme. Most felt that MMC should be undertaken in neonates, however, acknowledged concerns about cultural responses to this. Recommendations on the implementation of MMC ranged from integrating services at primary health care level, to provision by private medical practitioners. In conclusion, MMC is viewed as a key HIV prevention strategy. However, there are numerous factors which could hinder introduction and uptake in South Africa and in the region. It is important to explore and understand these factors and for these to be aligned in the national MMC policy.
Marcilly, Romaric; Boog, Cesar; Leroy, Nicolas; Pelayo, Sylvia
The Medical Device regulation requires manufacturers to anticipate and prevent risks of use errors of their medical device. However, manufacturers experience difficulties to understand the concept of "usability-induced use-errors". Based on a "usability framework" aiming at describing the relationship between usability design principles, usability flaws, usage problems, and outcomes, a usability evaluation reporting form had been designed to support understanding the use-error concept. This paper reports the preliminary evaluation of the perceived usefulness of this form. Results show that manufacturers found helpful the presentation of the results of a usability evaluation through this form for it supports the understanding of the usability origins and the consequences of use-errors. Even if the use of this reporting form should be made easier as usability experts experience difficulties to fill it, it seems a promising way to clearly present "usability-induced use-errors" to manufacturers.
Frisof, Kenneth B.; Moseley, James L.
The prevalence of writing errors made by third-year medical students from the class of 1981 at a large midwestern medical school was studied. The papers of 253 students taking family medicine were evaluated for spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. Four types of grammar errors and seven punctuation errors were analyzed, and each word…
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Imberti, Davide; Benedetti, Raffaella; Ageno, Walter
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common potentially life-threatening complication in acutely ill medical patients; over 70 % of the fatal episodes of pulmonary embolism during hospitalization occur in non-surgical patients. In the absence of thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of venographically detected deep vein thrombosis is about 15 % in medical patients. Several trials and meta-analyses have clearly demonstrated the prophylactic role of unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin and fondaparinux. Although over the past few years the knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and prophylaxis in medical patients has significantly improved, there remain a number of controversial areas that require further investigation. Newer VTE risk assessment models have been proposed to select high risk hospitalized medical patients, but they still require external validation; scarce data are available to stratify patients to identify their individual bleeding risk. The optimal duration of thromboprophylaxis in medical patients is still a matter of debate; currently, extended prophylaxis after discharge is not recommended, but it may be required for subgroup of patients with persistently high VTE risk and a negligible risk of bleeding. Based on the results of recent studies, the new oral anticoagulants appear to have a very limited role, if any. However, a better risk stratification of patients who have a persistently increased risk of VTE is warranted to improve the risk to benefit profile of any anticoagulant drug to be used in this setting.
Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Greene, Michael F; Chambers, Christina D; Sahin, Leyla; Collins Sharp, Beth A; Honein, Margaret A
To address information gaps that limit informed clinical decisions on medication use in pregnancy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) solicited expert input on a draft prototype outlining a systematic approach to evaluating the quality and strength of existing evidence for associated risks. The draft prototype outlined a process for the systematic review of available evidence and deliberations by a panel of experts to inform clinical decision making for managing health conditions in pregnancy. At an expert meeting convened by the CDC in January 2013, participants divided into working groups discussed decision points within the prototype. This report summarizes their discussions of best practices for formulating an expert review process, developing evidence summaries and treatment guidance, and disseminating information. There is clear recognition of current knowledge gaps and a strong collaboration of federal partners, academic experts, and professional organizations willing to work together toward safer medication use during pregnancy.
Astanina, S Iu; Dovgalev, A S
Professional medical education is most cost-based when training highly skilled personnel. This is associated with expensive material and technical resources and a high labor-to-output ratio of practicing programs. The network model makes it possible to blaze new trails to achieve the quality of training the staff and the governmental support of its educational programs strengthens the coordination between higher educational establishments, research organizations, and professional learning communities. By using the training of medical parasitologists as an example, the paper shows a network model how to implement the educational program.
Wei, Jiao; Cheng, Fu; Qun, Qu; Nurbek; Xu, Shi-Dong; Sun, Li-Feng; Han, Xin-Kui; Muhan; Han, Ling-Ling; Irixiati; Jie, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Jiu; Islayin; Chai, Jun-jie
To assess the epidemiological efficacy of type SRP III slow-released praziquantel-medicated bars for dogs in the prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis in man and livestock, praziquantel-medicated bars were implanted subcutaneously in over 90% of dogs in villages in north Xinjiang, China, where cystic echinococcosis is highly endemic. After implantation, infection rate of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs, specific antibodies in children and prevalence of echinococcosis in one-year-old lambs were observed for 3 years. Coproantigen of E. granulosus was positive in 41.2% of the dogs at the start of experiment. In the second and third year after medicated-bar implantation, coproantigen was undetectable in any dogs examined, while 3.0% of dogs were positive at the end of the fourth year. The antibody positive rate in 7-year-old pupils, that was 41.2% before the experiment, declined gradually and it was 5.4% in the fourth year, while children in the non-intervention control area showed 30.6% seropositivity. The prevalence of hydatid disease in children aged 7-16 years also declined significantly. The prevalence of hydatidosis in lambs one year of age was 44.8% in the first year, dropping to 10.7% in the fourth year, while in the non-intervention control area the level of infection was 46.4%. These results demonstrated not only that the slow released praziquantel-medicated bars efficiently blocked reinfection in dogs at least for 2 years, but also the measure was effective in preventing transmission of cystic echinococcosis to both man and livestock.
Marrero, David G.; Ma, Yong; de Groot, Mary; Horton, Edward S.; Price, David W.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Knowler, William C.
Objective To assess in participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program and Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPP/DPPOS) whether diagnosis of diabetes predicted: elevated depressive symptoms (DS) or antidepressant medicine (ADM) use after diagnosis; diabetes status or duration had significant effect on DS or ADM use; and associations between A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), normalization of FPG and DS or ADM use post diagnosis. Methods DPP participants in 3 treatment arms [intensive lifestyle (ILS), metformin (MET), placebo (PLC)] were assessed semiannually or annually for diabetes, glucose control, ADM use, and DS. DS was measured using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaire. Among the total 3234 enrolled participants, 1285 developed diabetes whose levels of depression were measured before and after their diabetes diagnosis. Results Neither DS nor ADM use increased significantly following diabetes diagnosis. After diabetes diagnosis, higher FPG was associated with greater ADM use in the ILS arm independent of potential confounders; a 10 mg/dl higher in FPG is associated with 8.8% more odds of ADM use. Higher FPG, and higher A1C were associated with higher BDI scores in all three arms. On average, a participant with 10 mg/dl higher rise in FPG had a 0.07 increase in BDI score. Similarly, 1% higher A1c was associated with a 0.21 point increase in BDI score. On contrary, normalization of FPG was associated with lower BDI scores. In participants with FPG that had normalized, there was a decrease of 0.30 points in the BDI score compared to those whose FPG had not normalized. Conclusions Contrary to clinical attributions, the diagnosis of diabetes did not show an immediate impact on BDI scores or ADM use. However, higher glucose levels after diagnosis were associated with small but significant higher BDI score and more ADM use. PMID:25775165
Xavier, Luiz Eduardo De Freitas; Bernardes-Souza, Breno; Lisboa, Oscar Campos; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David Alexander; Tran, Thien-An; Fries, Fabian Norbert; Corrêa, Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto
Background Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Education Against Tobacco (EAT) is a large network of medical students in 13 countries who volunteer for school-based prevention in the classroom setting. A recent quasi-experimental EAT study conducted in Germany showed significant short-term smoking cessation effects on 11- to 15-year-old adolescents. Objective The aim of this study is both to describe and to provide the first randomized long-term evaluation of the EAT intervention involving a photoaging app for its effectiveness to reduce the smoking prevalence among 12- to 17-year-old pupils in Brazilian public schools. Methods A randomized controlled trial will be conducted among approximately 1500 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in grades 7-11 of public secondary schools in Brazil. The prospective experimental study design includes measurements at baseline and at 6 and 12 months postintervention. The study groups will consist of randomized classes receiving the standardized EAT intervention (90 minutes of mentoring in a classroom setting) and control classes within the same schools (no intervention). The questionnaire measures smoking status, gender, social, and cultural aspects as well as predictors of smoking. Biochemical validation of smoking status is conducted via random carbon monoxide measurements. The primary end point is the difference of the change in smoking prevalence in the intervention group versus the difference in the control group at 12 months of follow-up. The differences in smoking behavior (smoking onset, quitting) between the 2 groups as well as effects on the different genders will be studied as secondary outcomes. Results The recruitment of schools, participating adolescents, and medical students was conducted from August 2016 until January 2017. The planned period of data collection is February 2017 until June 2018. Data analysis will follow in July 2018 and data presentation/publication will
VanSteelandt, Amanda; Conly, John; Ghali, William; Mather, Charles
The physical design of hospital wards is associated with transmission of pathogenic organisms and hospital-acquired infections. A novel hospital unit, the Medical Ward of the 21st Century (W21C), optimizes features for infection prevention and control practices. Ethnographic research on the W21C versus conventional hospital wards examined the experiential and behavioural elements of the different designs. Three recurring themes emerged regarding the design features on the W21C and included visual cues, 'having a place for things', and less sharing of spaces and materials. Observational data of healthcare worker practices demonstrated significantly higher compliance with hand hygiene opportunities on the W21C compared with older hospital units. These findings suggest how the physical design of a hospital ward may enhance infection prevention and control practices.
Collins, David; Abadi, Melissa Harris; Johnson, Knowlton; Shamblen, Steve; Thompson, Kirsten
This article examines prevalence of non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) in a sample of elementary and high school students in an Appalachian Tennessee county. We found that lifetime prevalence of NMUPD (35%) was higher than prevalence of cigarette use (28%) and marijuana use (17%), but lower than lifetime prevalence of alcohol use (46%).…
Personalised, predictive and preventive medication process in hospitals—still rather missing: professional opinion survey on medication safety in Czech hospitals (based on professional opinions of recognised Czech health care experts)
The survey had the following aims: (1) to rationalise the hypothesis that risks and losses relating to medication process' errors in Czech hospitals are at least comparable with the other developed countries and EU countries especially, (2) to get a valid professional opinion/estimate on the rate of adverse drug events happening in Czech hospitals, (3) to point out that medication errors represent real and serious risks and (4) to induce the hospital management readiness to execute fundamental changes and improvements to medication processes. We read through a lot of studies inquiring into hospitals' medication safety. Then, we selected the studies which brought reliable findings and formulated credible conclusions. Finally, we addressed reputable Czech experts in health care and asked them structured questions whether the studies' findings and conclusions corresponded with our respondents' own experience in the Czech hospital clinical practice and what their own estimates of adverse drug events' consequences were like. Based on the reputable Czech health care expert opinions/estimates, the rate of a false drug administration may exceed 5%, and over 7% of those cause serious health complications to Czech hospital inpatients. Measured by an average length of stay (ALOS), the Czech inpatients, harmed by a false drug administration, stay in hospital for more than 2.6 days longer than necessary. Any positive changes to a currently used, traditional, ways of drug dispensing and administration, along with computerisation, automation, electronic traceability, validation, or verification, must well pay off. Referring to the above results, it seems to be wise to follow the EU priorities in health and health care improvements. Thus, a right usage of the financial means provided by the EC—in terms of its new health programmes for the period 2014–2020 (e.g. Horizon 2020)—has a good chance of a good result in doing the right things right, at the right time and in the
Hackett, Caitriona Bridget; Healy, Vourneen; Ramsay, Bart
A low-grade sebaceous carcinoma was excised from a 55-year-old woman's neck. At follow-up, 11 months later, a recent diagnosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colon and history of clear cell endometrial carcinoma were identified. A strong family history of bowel cancer suggested Muir-Torre syndrome. Unexpectedly, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer had previously been genetically confirmed; the results were found loosely filed in the paper chart. The patient had not informed us about her diagnosis; having discussed the case with other physicians she felt the diagnosis would be common knowledge. In 1999, US National Institute of Medicine estimated that preventable medical error resulted in the deaths of 44–98 000 people yearly in US hospitals. Four categories of medical error, including diagnosis, treatment, preventive and ‘other’ were described, while the reasoning processes that result in these errors are outlined by Reason et al. We utilise this rare case to illustrate these important concepts. PMID:25795746
Parrinello, Michael C
Patients who are taking atypical antipsychotic medications have a high incidence of metabolic complications, including increased weight, waist circumference, blood sugar, lipid levels, and blood pressure. In 2004, the American Diabetic Association and three other associations, including the American Psychiatric Association, developed guidelines to screen for metabolic syndrome, but in practice, adherence to the guidelines varies. This article describes a process to implement the guidelines in a suburban psychiatric day treatment hospital using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations model. Measurement of waist circumference was identified as an opportunity to improve the current metabolic screening protocol. Post-intervention evaluation revealed increased adherence to the guidelines (0% pre versus 95% post). Adherence to the guidelines demonstrates the effect of the systematic application of Rogers' model on acceptance of practice change. Fully implementing the guidelines meets recommendations for the standard of practice and can improve the health and quality of life of patients prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications.
Knobloch, Karsten; Redeker, Joern; Vogt, Peter M
Dupuytren's disease is a progress fibromatosis of unknown origin first described in 1831. Nonoperative treatment options have been suggested involving radiation therapy, vitamin E, local injection therapy suing calcium channel blockers, interferon, corticosteroids or collagenase. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and its downstream Smad signalling system is well established as a key player during fibrogenesis. A number of in vitro experiments have been assessed the blockade of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta 2. Clinically, a number of antifibrotic agents are available such as N-acetyl-L-cysteins (NAC) as well as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or AT II antagonists. However, to date none of the well known substances has been tested clinically in fibromatosis such as Dupuytren's disease especially to prevent recurrences after surgical release. Antifibrotic medication using a combination of N-acetyl-L-cystein (NAC) and ACE inhibitor can prevent the recurrence of Dupyutren's disease. Given the fact that recurrence rate in Dupuytren's disease is high and unpredictable after surgical release, an antifibrotic intervention might be worthwhile to consider in the clinical setting. Antifibrotic agents inhibit TGF-beta1, which play a key role in fibromatosis. Thus, antifibrotic medication might reduce the recurrence rate in fibromatosis such as Dupuytren's disease in a clinical significant way.
General practitioner management related to skin cancer prevention and screening during standard medical encounters: a French cross-sectional study based on the International Classification of Primary Care
Rat, Cédric; Houd, Sara; Gaultier, Aurélie; Grimault, Charlotte; Quereux, Gaelle; Mercier, Alain; Letrilliart, Laurent; Dreno, Brigitte; Nguyen, Jean Michel
Objective The aim of this study was to assess general practitioner (GP) management practices related to skin cancer prevention and screening during standard medical encounters. Setting Data on medical encounters addressing skin cancer issues were obtained from a French database containing information from 17 019 standard primary care consultations. Participants Data were collected between December 2011 and April 2012 by 54 trainees who reported the regular practice of 128 GPs using the International Classification of Primary Care. Outcome measures Reasons for encounters and the following care processes were recorded: counselling, clinical examinations and referral to a specialist. Medical encounters addressing skin cancer issues were compared with medical encounters that addressed other health problems using a multivariate analysis. Results Only 0.7% of medical encounters addressed skin cancer issues. When patients did require management of a skin cancer-related issue, this was more likely initiated by the doctor than the patient (70.7% vs 29.3%; p<0.001). Compared with medical encounters addressing other health problems, encounters that addressed skin cancer problems required more tasks (3.7 vs 2.5; p<0.001) and lasted 1 min and 20 s longer (p=0.003). GPs were less involved in clinical examinations (67.5% vs 97.1%; p<0.001), both complete (7.3% vs 22.3%, p<0.001) and partial examinations (60.2% vs 74.9%), and were less involved in counselling (5.7% vs 16.9%; p<0.001). Patients presenting skin cancer issues were referred to a specialist more often than patients consulting for other health problems (39.0% vs 12.1%; p<0.001). GPs performed a biopsy in 6.7% of all skin cancer-related encounters. Conclusions This study demonstrates discrepancies between the high prevalence of skin cancer and the low rate of medical encounters addressing these issues in general practice. Our findings should be followed by qualitative interviews to better understand the observed
Michalak, Suzanne M; Rolston, John D; Lawton, Michael T
.001 and p = 0.028, respectively). CONCLUSIONS This study is the only of its kind to elicit error reporting from multiple members of the operating team, and it demonstrates error is truly in the eye of the beholder-the types and timing of perioperative errors vary based on whom you ask. The authors estimate that previous studies surveying only the attending physician missed up to 75% of perioperative errors. By finding significant correlations between technical DOCs and prolonged hospital stays and reported and actual delays, this study shows that these surveys provide relevant and useful information for improving clinical practice. Overall, the results of this study emphasize that research on medical error must include input from all members of the operating team; it is only by understanding every perspective that surgical staff can begin to efficiently prevent errors, improve patient care and safety, and decrease delays.
Anderson, James G.; Jay, Stephen J.; Anderson, Marilyn; Hunt, Thaddeus J.
Background: The annual cost of morbidity and mortality due to medication errors in the U.S. has been estimated at $76.6 billion. Information technology implemented systematically has the potential to significantly reduce medication errors that result in adverse drug events (ADEs). Objective: To develop a computer simulation model that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of information technology applications designed to detect and prevent medication errors that result in adverse drug effects. Methods: A computer simulation model was constructed representing the medication delivery system in a hospital. STELLA, a continuous simulation software package, was used to construct the model. Parameters of the model were estimated from a study of prescription errors on two hospital medical/surgical units and used in the baseline simulation. Five prevention strategies were simulated based on information obtained from the literature. Results: The model simulates the four stages of the medication delivery system: prescribing, transcribing, dispensing, and administering drugs. We simulated interventions that have been demonstrated in prior studies to decrease error rates. The results suggest that an integrated medication delivery system can save up to 1,226 days of excess hospitalization and $1.4 million in associated costs annually in a large hospital. The results of the analyses regarding the effects of the interventions on the additional hospital costs associated with ADEs are somewhat sensitive to the distribution of errors in the hospital, more sensitive to the costs of an ADE, and most sensitive to the proportion of medication errors resulting in ADEs. Conclusions: The results suggest that clinical information systems are potentially a cost-effective means of preventing ADEs in hospitals and demonstrate the importance of viewing medication errors from a systems perspective. Prevention efforts that focus on a single stage of the process had limited impact on the
Godfrey, Emily M
The United States has made substantial progress in reducing teenage birth rates in recent decades, but rates remain high. Teen pregnancy can increase the risk of poor health outcomes and lead to decreased educational attainment, increased poverty, and welfare use, as well as increased cost to taxpayers. One of the most effective ways to prevent teenage pregnancy is through the use of effective birth control methods. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention has made the prevention of teenage pregnancy 1 of its 10 winnable battles. The CDC has released 2 evidence-based clinical guideline documents regarding contraceptive use for adolescents and adults. The first guideline, US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010, helps clinicians recognize when a contraceptive method may not be safe to use for a particular adolescent but also when not to withhold a contraceptive method that is safe to use. The second document, US Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013, provides guidance for how to use contraceptive methods safely and effectively once they are deemed safe. Health care providers are encouraged to use these documents to provide safe and effective contraceptive care to patients seeking family planning, including adolescents.
Reynolds, Matthew; Jheeta, Seetal; Benn, Jonathan; Sanghera, Inderjit; Jacklin, Ann; Ingle, Digby; Franklin, Bryony Dean
Background Prescribing errors occur in up to 15% of UK inpatient medication orders. However, junior doctors report insufficient feedback on errors. A barrier preventing feedback is that individual prescribers often cannot be clearly identified on prescribing documentation. Aim To reduce prescribing errors in a UK hospital by improving feedback on prescribing errors. Interventions We developed three linked interventions using plan–do–study–act cycles: (1) name stamps for junior doctors who were encouraged to stamp or write their name clearly when prescribing; (2) principles of effective feedback to support pharmacists to provide feedback to doctors on individual prescribing errors and (3) fortnightly prescribing advice emails that addressed a common and/or serious error. Implementation and evaluation Interventions were introduced at one hospital site in August 2013 with a second acting as control. Process measures included the percentage of inpatient medication orders for which junior doctors stated their name. Outcome measures were junior doctors' and pharmacists' perceptions of current feedback provision (evaluated using quantitative pre-questionnaires and post-questionnaires and qualitative focus groups) and the prevalence of erroneous medication orders written by junior doctors between August and December 2013. Results The percentage of medication orders for which junior doctors stated their name increased from about 10% to 50%. Questionnaire responses revealed a significant improvement in pharmacists' perceptions but no significant change for doctors. Focus group findings suggested increased doctor engagement with safe prescribing. Interrupted time series analysis showed no difference in weekly prescribing error rates between baseline and intervention periods, compared with the control site. Conclusion Findings suggest improved experiences around feedback. However, attempts to produce a measurable reduction in prescribing errors are likely to need a
Hisam, Aliya; Rana, Mariam Nadeem; Mahmood-Ur-Rahman
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Ebola virus disease (EVD) among medical students of Rawalpindi. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in a medical college of Rawalpindi from September 2014-November 2014. About 400 students were inducted with 77% (n=308) response rate. After taking informed verbal consent from students and administration, a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was circulated among students of third, fourth and final year MBBS as well as third and fourth year BDS. The data collected was entered and analyzed using SPSS 20. Results: The response rate was 77% (308/400). About 244 (79.2%) of students had heard about EVD before. One hundred and sixty four (53.2%) of the students correctly identified that no treatment is available for EVD as yet. Also 163 (52.9%) said that no vaccine was available against the virus either. Washing hands every time after touching a patient in clinics/wards was important for 151 (49.0%) while 223 (72.4%) claimed to use proper techniques to dispose off used injections. Conclusion: Students have basic knowledge regarding EVD. However, there is deficient information regarding the diagnosis and precautionary measures required to control it. PMID:27648059
Hansen, Frederick D.
Human error is the subject of research in almost every industry and profession of our times. This term is part of our daily language and intuitively understood by most people however, it would be premature to assume that everyone's understanding of human error s the same. For example, human error is used to describe the outcome or consequence of human action, the causal factor of an accident, deliberate violations,a nd the actual action taken by a human being. As a result, researchers rarely agree on the either a specific definition or how to prevent human error. The purpose of this article is to explore the specific concept of human error using Concept Analysis as described by Walker and Avant (1995). The concept of human error is examined as currently used in the literature of a variety of industries and professions. Defining attributes and examples of model, borderline, and contrary cases are described. The antecedents and consequences of human error are also discussed and a definition of human error is offered.
Kalmykov, A A; Aminev, R M; Alimov, A V; Nosarev, V G; Poliakov, V S
Among factors of acute respiratory diseases morbidity in military personnel one of most important is frequent interfuisions, of military personnel and long-term occupancy in barracks in conditions of overcrowding. These factors conduce accumulation and communication of causative agents. Prophylaxis focused on prevention ofaerogenous transmission of infection. It is very important if ventilation in barracks is ineffective. Principally new possibilities of air sanitation in barracks are aerosol generators. Application of these generators unlike standard disinfection method provides massive exposure of fine aerosol to rooms. Authors highlight successful experience ofaerosol generators type Raster ULV that helped to reduce acute respiratory diseases morbidity in military personnel.
Vuk, Tomislav; Barišić, Marijan; Očić, Tihomir; Mihaljević, Ivanka; Šarlija, Dorotea; Jukić, Irena
Background. Continuous and efficient error management, including procedures from error detection to their resolution and prevention, is an important part of quality management in blood establishments. At the Croatian Institute of Transfusion Medicine (CITM), error management has been systematically performed since 2003. Materials and methods. Data derived from error management at the CITM during an 8-year period (2003–2010) formed the basis of this study. Throughout the study period, errors were reported to the Department of Quality Assurance. In addition to surveys and the necessary corrective activities, errors were analysed and classified according to the Medical Event Reporting System for Transfusion Medicine (MERS-TM). Results. During the study period, a total of 2,068 errors were recorded, including 1,778 (86.0%) in blood bank activities and 290 (14.0%) in blood transfusion services. As many as 1,744 (84.3%) errors were detected before issue of the product or service. Among the 324 errors identified upon release from the CITM, 163 (50.3%) errors were detected by customers and reported as complaints. In only five cases was an error detected after blood product transfusion however without any harmful consequences for the patients. All errors were, therefore, evaluated as “near miss” and “no harm” events. Fifty-two (2.5%) errors were evaluated as high-risk events. With regards to blood bank activities, the highest proportion of errors occurred in the processes of labelling (27.1%) and blood collection (23.7%). With regards to blood transfusion services, errors related to blood product issuing prevailed (24.5%). Conclusion. This study shows that comprehensive management of errors, including near miss errors, can generate data on the functioning of transfusion services, which is a precondition for implementation of efficient corrective and preventive actions that will ensure further improvement of the quality and safety of transfusion treatment. PMID
Yang, T. D.; Pei, J. S.; Yang, S. L.; Liu, Z. Q.; Sun, R. L.
Space motion sickness (MS) is one of the most important problems in the field of space medicine. In order to prevent space MS, a new medicine, PMPA, has been prepared by means of synthesizing in our laboratory. The purposes of this study were to set up animal models of PMPA against MS, and to observe its effects on anti-MS, and to prove its function of antagonism to choline. Eight cats, forty rabbits and two hundred and ten rats were selected as animal subjects. The parallel swing stimulus, a method causing the reversal syndromes and tests of anti-choline function were used in our experiments. The results are as follows: (1) The score of MS symptoms in cats with PMPA or scopolamine (SCOP) is significantly lower than that in cats with placebo (p<0.01), while the incidences of efficiency and prevention of PMPA (87.5%, 75%) are higher than those of SCOP (75.0%, 50%) in cats. (2) PMPA of 1.6 mg/kg or 0.8 mg/kg could antagonize the reversal syndromes and repress reversal rotation significantly in rabbits like SCOP in comparison with placebo (p<0.01). (3) PMPA could inhibit tremor evoked by oxotremorine or by nicotine-procaine in rats like SCOP, and play an important role in the antagonism to central M-choline and N-choline receptors. The animal experiments demonstrate that PMPA is an effective medicine against MS with antagonism function to choline.
Waitzkin, H; Britt, T
This study asked how patients and doctors process self-destructive behaviors that warrant preventive action, such as smoking, substance use, and sexual practices. Although many suggestions have appeared about how physicians should encourage health promotion and disease prevention by counseling patients about self-destructive personal habits, few studies have examined actual encounters to assess how patients and doctors communicate about these matters, and prior research rarely has considered the social context of self-destructive habits. The present research has been influenced by a growing recognition of narratives, embedded in the sociocultural context of medical encounters, as an important analytic focus in the study of patient-doctor communication. Our conceptual work extended perspectives from literary criticism, critical theory, and narrative analysis in the humanities and social sciences to focus on elements of sociocultural context, ideology, social control, underlying structure, and superficially marginal features of discourse in medical encounters. Based on a critical review of both quantitative and qualitative techniques in research on patient-doctor communication, we developed an interpretive method with systematic criteria to guide the sampling of encounters, transcription of recordings, interpretation of transcripts, and presentation of findings. We applied the interpretive method to 50 encounters selected randomly from a stratified random sample of 336 audiotaped encounters involving patients and primary care internists. As shown by two illustrative encounters, the discourse of health care reinforces ideologic principles of professional surveillance and individual control in dealing with patients' self-destructive tendencies. Contextual issues remain largely marginal features of the discourse, despite their pertinence to the goal of prevention. Narrative analysis provides a useful method to study the processing of self-destructive behavior in medical
Purvis, Suzanne; Gion, Therese; Kennedy, Gregory; Rees, Susan; Safdar, Nasia; VanDenBergh, Shelly; Weber, Jessica
An interdisciplinary clinical improvement workgroup was formed at this academic medical center with the goal of reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). In 2011, the CAUTI rate was noted to be 4.7 CAUTIs per 1000 catheter days. Rounding by 2 lead clinical nurse specialists revealed deficiencies in current practice, which were addressed with multifaceted strategies, including evidence-based indwelling urinary catheter and bladder management protocols, education of staff, reporting of data, and utilization of an icon in the electronic health record (EHR). After the implementation of these strategies, the CAUTI rate decreased and was noted to be 2.4 in February 2013. In addition to this, there was a downward trend line for catheter days.
In the past few years, a considerable amount of work has been undertaken to examine the work of the early Medical Officers of Health (MOsH), but this has been more of a general overview of their work rather than looking at the work of individuals. It is a great omission that the first three MOsH for Nottingham have been neglected; little is recorded in the literature about these three men who were at the vanguard of public health in the city. This article aims to examine a small part of their work: the environment; the spread of disease; and the use of isolation in controlling disease and vaccination. This is only a small window on the work of these men, but it goes some way to rectify the previous lack of information.
Mérens, Audrey; Rapp, Christophe; Delaune, Deborah; Danis, Julien; Berger, Franck; Michel, Remy
Infection is a major complication associated with combat-related injuries. Beside immobilization, wound irrigation, surgical debridement and delayed coverage, post-injury antimicrobials contribute to reduce combat-related infections, particularly those caused by bacteria of the early contamination flora. In modern warfare, bacteria involved in combat-related infections are mainly Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the late contamination flora. These bacteria are frequently resistant or multiresistant to antibiotics and spread through the deployed chain of care. This article exposes the principles of war wounds antimicrobial prophylaxis recommended in the French Armed Forces and highlights the need for high compliance to hygiene standard precautions, adapted contact precautions and judicious use of antibiotics in French deployed military medical treatment facilities (MTF).
Yen, Yi-Chung; Lo, Nai-Wei; Wu, Tzong-Chen
Medication error can easily cause serious health damage to inpatients in hospital. Consequently, the whole society has to spend huge amount of extra resources for additional therapies and medication on those affected inpatients. In order to prevent medication errors, secure inpatient medication administration system is required in a hospital. Using RFID technology, such administration system provides automated medication verification for inpatient's medicine doses and generates corresponding medication evidence, which may be audited later for medical dispute. Recently, Peris-Lopez et al. (Int. J. Med. Inform., 2011) proposed an IS-RFID system to enhance inpatient medication safety. Nevertheless, IS-RFID system does not detect the denial of proof attack efficiently and the generated medication evidence cannot defend against counterfeit evidence generated from the hospital. That is, the hospital possesses enough privilege from the design of IS-RFID system to modify generated medication evidence whenever it is necessary. Hence, we design two lightweight RFID-based solutions for secure inpatient medication administration, one for online verification environment and the other for offline validation situation, to achieve system security on evidence generation and provide early detection on denial of proof attack.
Logan, Timothy J
The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future.
Logan, Timothy J.
The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future.
In May 2000, senior officials of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and NASA signed an agreement that would commit the two agencies to create the Patient Safety Reporting System (PSRS) to report: events or situations that could have resulted in accident, injury, or illness, but did not, either by chance or through timely intervention (close-calls); unexpected serious occurrences that involved a patient or employee's death, physical injury, or psychological injury; lessens learned; and safety ideas. The VA provided NASA with funding for the initial development of the new system, which automatically removes all personal names, facility names and locations, and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. Designed to complement the VA's current internal reporting systems, the PSRS is modeled after NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System, which was established in 1975 under a Memorandum of Agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA and began operation in 1976.
Krakower, Douglas S.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Mitty, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Ira B.; Kurth, Ann E.; Maloney, Kevin M.; Gallagher, Donna; Mayer, Kenneth H.
Background Antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infection before immunologic decline (early ART) and pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) can prevent HIV transmission, but routine adoption of these practices by clinicians has been limited. Methods Between September and December 2013, healthcare practitioners affiliated with a regional AIDS Education and Training Center in New England were invited to complete online surveys assessing knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding early ART and PrEP. Multivariable models were utilized to determine characteristics associated with prescribing intentions and practices. Results Surveys were completed by 184 practitioners. Respondent median age was 44 years, 58% were female, and 82% were white. Among ART-prescribing clinicians (61% of the entire sample), 64% were aware that HIV treatment guidelines from the Department of Health and Human Services recommended early ART, and 69% indicated they would prescribe ART to all HIV-infected patients irrespective of immunologic status. However, 77% of ART-prescribing clinicians would defer ART for patients not ready to initiate treatment. Three-fourths of all respondents were aware of guidance from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommending PrEP provision, 19% had prescribed PrEP, and 58% of clinicians who had not prescribed PrEP anticipated future prescribing. Practitioners expressed theoretical concerns and perceived practical barriers to prescribing early ART and PrEP. Clinicians with higher percentages of HIV-infected patients (aOR 1.16 per 10% increase in proportion of patients with HIV-infection, 95% CI 1.01–1.34) and infectious diseases specialists (versus primary care physicians; aOR 3.32, 95% CI 0.98–11.2) were more likely to report intentions to prescribe early ART. Higher percentage of HIV-infected patients was also associated with having prescribed PrEP (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.34), whereas female gender (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10–0.71) was associated
Rubin, G; George, A; Chinn, D; Richardson, C
Objective: To describe a classification of errors and to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a method for recording staff reported errors in general practice. Design: An iterative process in a pilot practice was used to develop a classification of errors. This was incorporated in an anonymous self-report form which was then used to collect information on errors during June 2002. The acceptability of the reporting process was assessed using a self-completion questionnaire. Setting: UK general practice. Participants: Ten general practices in the North East of England. Main outcome measures: Classification of errors, frequency of errors, error rates per 1000 appointments, acceptability of the process to participants. Results: 101 events were used to create an initial error classification. This contained six categories: prescriptions, communication, appointments, equipment, clinical care, and "other" errors. Subsequently, 940 errors were recorded in a single 2 week period from 10 practices, providing additional information. 42% (397/940) were related to prescriptions, although only 6% (22/397) of these were medication errors. Communication errors accounted for 30% (282/940) of errors and clinical errors 3% (24/940). The overall error rate was 75.6/1000 appointments (95% CI 71 to 80). The method of error reporting was found to be acceptable by 68% (36/53) of respondents with only 8% (4/53) finding the process threatening. Conclusion: We have developed a classification of errors and described a practical and acceptable method for reporting them that can be used as part of the process of risk management. Errors are common and, although all have the potential to lead to an adverse event, most are administrative. PMID:14645760
Bruguera, M; Arimany, J; Bruguera, R; Barberia, E; Ferrer, F; Sala, J; Pujol Robinat, A; Medallo Muñiz, J
Claims due to presumed medical malpractice are increasing in all developed countries and many of them have no basis. To prevent legal complaints, the physicians should know the reasons why complaints are made by their patients and adopt the adequate preventive measures. In the case of a complaint, it is essential to follow the guidelines that allow for adequate legal defense and the action of the physician before the judge that inspires confidence and credibility. The risk of the claims can be reduced with adequate information to the patient, the following of the clinical guidelines, control of the risk factors and adoption of verification lists in each invasive procedure. In case of complication or serious adverse effect, explanations should be given to the patient and family and it should be reported to the facility where one works and to the insurance company. If the physician received a claim, he/she should report it to the insurance compare so that it can name a lawyer responsible for the legal defense who will advise the physician regarding the appearance in court before the judge.
Wakiyama, Thweicyka Pinheiro; França, Maria Laura Marconi; Carvalho, Larissa Pierri; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde
BACKGROUND Basal cell carcinoma is the malignant tumor most often diagnosed in the National Campaign for Skin Cancer Prevention (NCSCP). Little is known about the profile of these lesions compared to the profile of lesions diagnosed by conventional routes of public dermatological care. OBJECTIVE To identify if basal cell carcinomas identified in prevention campaigns and referred to surgery are smaller than those routinely removed in a same medical institution. METHODS Cross-sectional study including tumors routed from 2011-2014 campaigns and 84 anatomopathological reports of outpatients. RESULTS The campaigns identified 223 individuals with suspicious lesions among 2,531 examinations (9%), with 116 basal cell carcinomas removed. Anatomopathological examinations revealed that the primary lesions identified in the national campaigns were smaller than those referred to surgery by the conventional routes of public health care (28 [13-50] x 38 [20-113] mm2, p <0.01). On the other hand, after a mean follow-up of 15.6 ± 10.3 months, 31% of cases identified in campaigns showed new basal cell carcinoma lesions. STUDY LIMITATIONS Retrospective study and inaccuracies in the measurements of the lesions. CONCLUSIONS The NCSCP promotes an earlier treatment of basal cell carcinomas compared to patients referred to surgery by the conventional routes of public health care, which can result in lower morbidity rates and better prognosis. PMID:28225952
Ferreira, Carolina Justus Buhrer; Plodek, Caroline Koga; Soares, Franciny Kossemba; de Andrade, Rayza Assis; Teleginski, Fernanda; da Rocha, Maria Dagmar
Abstract Objective: to analyze the impact of guidelines regarding errors in medications prescribed for administration through enteral tubes. Method: quantitative study, in three phases, undertaken in internal medicine, neurology and an intensive care unit in a general teaching hospital. In Phase 1, the following was undertaken: a protocol for dilution and unit-dose repackaging and administration for 294 medications via enteral tubes; a decision flowchart; operational-standard procedures for dilution and unit-dose repackaging of oral pharmaceutical forms and for administration of medications through enteral tubes. In phase 2, errors in 872 medications prescribed through enteral tubes, in 293 prescriptions for patients receiving inpatient treatment between March and June, were investigated. This was followed by training of the teams in relation to the guidelines established. In Phase 3, pharmaceutical errors and interventions in 945 medications prescribed through enteral tubes, in 292 prescriptions of patients receiving inpatient treatment between August and September, were investigated prospectively. The data collected, in a structured questionnaire, were compiled in the Microsoft Office Excel(r) program, and frequencies were calculated. Results: 786 errors were observed, 63.9% (502) in Phase 2, and 36.1% (284) in Phase 3. In Phase 3, a reduction was ascertained in the frequency of prescription of medications delivered via enteral tubes, medications which were contraindicated, and those for which information was not available. Conclusion: guidelines and pharmaceutical interventions were determined in the prevention of errors involving medications delivered through enteral tubes. PMID:27276019
Cho, Young Jong; Un, Chong Kwan
In this paper, we investigate the effect of forward/backward channel memory (statistical dependence in the occurrence of transmission errors) on ARQ error controls. To take into account the effect of backward channel errors in the performance analysis, we suppose some modified ARQ schemes that have an effective retransmission strategy to prevent the deadlock incurred by the errors on acknowledgments. In the study, we consider two modified go-back-N schemes with timer control and with buffer control.
Nelson, W R; Haney, L N; Ostrom, L T; Richards, R E
Human performance plays a significant role in the development and operation of any complex system, and human errors are significant contributors to degraded performance, incidents, and accidents for technologies as diverse as medical systems, commercial aircraft, offshore oil platforms, nuclear power plants, and space systems. To date, serious accidents attributed to human error have fortunately been rare in space operations. However, as flight rates go up and the duration of space missions increases, the accident rate could increase unless proactive action is taken to identity and correct potential human errors in space operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed and applied structured methods of human error analysis to identify potential human errors, assess their effects on system performance, and develop strategies to prevent the errors or mitigate their consequences. These methods are being applied in NASA-sponsored programs to the domain of commercial aviation, focusing on airplane maintenance and air traffic management. The application of human error analysis to space operations could contribute to minimize the risks associated with human error in the design and operation of future space systems.
Ziegler, O; Sirveaux, M A; Brunaud, L; Reibel, N; Quilliot, D
This review is an update of the long-term follow-up of nutritional and metabolic issues following bariatric surgery, and also discusses the most recent guidelines for the three most common procedures: adjustable gastric bands (AGB); sleeve gastrectomy (SG); and roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP). The risk of nutritional deficiencies depends on the percentage of weight loss and the type of surgical procedure performed. Purely restrictive procedures (AGB, SG), for example, can induce digestive symptoms, food intolerance or maladaptative eating behaviours due to pre- or postsurgical eating disorders. GBP also has a minor malabsorptive component. Iron deficiency is common with the three types of bariatric surgery, especially in menstruating women, and GBP is also associated with an increased risk of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiencies. Rare deficiencies can lead to serious complications such as encephalopathy or protein-energy malnutrition. Long-term problems such as changes in bone metabolism or neurological complications need to be carefully monitored. In addition, routine nutritional screening, recommendations for appropriate supplements and monitoring compliance are imperative, whatever the bariatric procedure. Key points are: (1) virtually routine mineral and multivitamin supplementation; (2) prevention of gallstone formation with the use of ursodeoxycholic acid during the first 6 months; and (3) regular, life-long, follow-up of all patients. Pre- and postoperative therapeutic patient education (TPE) programmes, involving a new multidisciplinary approach based on patient-centred education, may be useful for increasing patients'long-term compliance, which is often poor. The role of the general practitioner has also to be emphasized: clinical visits and follow-ups should be monitored and coordinated with the bariatric team, including the surgeon, the obesity specialist, the dietitian and mental health professionals.
...) Medications and related medical supplies and equipment required on a routine basis to sustain life; (5) Preventive or protective medications and medical supplies and equipment (vaccinations, inoculations,...
A Qualitative Study of Medical Mistrust, Perceived Discrimination, and Risk Behavior Disclosure to Clinicians by U.S. Male Sex Workers and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men: Implications for Biomedical HIV Prevention.
Underhill, Kristen; Morrow, Kathleen M; Colleran, Christopher; Holcomb, Richard; Calabrese, Sarah K; Operario, Don; Galárraga, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H
Access to biomedical HIV prevention technologies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires individuals to disclose risk behavior to clinicians, but experiences of discrimination and medical mistrust may limit disclosure among male sex workers and other MSM. We explored experiences of perceived discrimination, medical mistrust, and behavior disclosure among male sex workers compared to other men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted 56 interviews with MSM and compared findings about medical mistrust, discrimination, and disclosure for 31 men who engaged in sex work vs. 25 men who did not. MSM who engaged in sex work reported more medical mistrust and healthcare discrimination due to issues beyond MSM behavior/identity (e.g., homelessness, substance use, poverty). MSM who did not report sex work described disclosing sex with men to clinicians more often. Both subgroups reported low PrEP awareness, but willingness to disclose behavior to obtain PrEP. Medical mistrust and perceived discrimination create barriers for sexual behavior disclosure to clinicians, potentially impeding access to PrEP and other forms of biomedical HIV prevention. These barriers may be higher among male sex workers compared to other MSM, given overlapping stigmas including sex work, substance use, homelessness, and poverty. An intersectionality framework for understanding multiple stigmas can help to identify how these dynamics may limit access to biomedical HIV prevention among male sex workers, as well as suggesting strategies for addressing stigmas to improve the delivery of PrEP and other HIV prevention approaches in this population.
Hankins, Catherine; Warren, Mitchell
Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices. This supplement presents the results of mathematical modeling using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008) model, and the age structured mathematical (ASM) model. These models are helping countries examine the potential effects on program impact and cost-effectiveness of prioritizing specific subpopulations for VMMC services, for example, by client age, HIV-positive status, risk group, and geographical location. The modeling also examines long-term sustainability strategies, such as adolescent and/or early infant male circumcision, to preserve VMMC coverage gains achieved during rapid scale-up. The 2016–2021 UNAIDS strategy target for VMMC is an additional 27 million VMMC in high HIV-prevalence settings by 2020, as part of access to integrated sexual and reproductive health services for men. To achieve further scale-up, a combination of evidence, analysis, and impact estimates can usefully guide strategic planning and funding of VMMC services and related demand-creation strategies in priority countries. Mid
Hankins, Catherine; Warren, Mitchell; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel
Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices. This supplement presents the results of mathematical modeling using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008) model, and the age structured mathematical (ASM) model. These models are helping countries examine the potential effects on program impact and cost-effectiveness of prioritizing specific subpopulations for VMMC services, for example, by client age, HIV-positive status, risk group, and geographical location. The modeling also examines long-term sustainability strategies, such as adolescent and/or early infant male circumcision, to preserve VMMC coverage gains achieved during rapid scale-up. The 2016-2021 UNAIDS strategy target for VMMC is an additional 27 million VMMC in high HIV-prevalence settings by 2020, as part of access to integrated sexual and reproductive health services for men. To achieve further scale-up, a combination of evidence, analysis, and impact estimates can usefully guide strategic planning and funding of VMMC services and related demand-creation strategies in priority countries. Mid-course corrections
Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fagen
Patient medication safety is an important issue in patient medication systems. In order to prevent medication errors, integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into automated patient medication systems is required in hospitals. Based on RFID technology, such systems can provide medical evidence for patients' prescriptions and medicine doses, etc. Due to the mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, RFID authentication scheme is the best choice for automated patient medication systems. In this paper, we present a RFID mutual authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to enhance patient medication safety. Our scheme can achieve security requirements and overcome various attacks existing in other schemes. In addition, our scheme has better performance in terms of computational cost and communication overhead. Therefore, the proposed scheme is well suitable for patient medication systems.
Baumann, Michèle; Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Le Bihan, Etienne
Background Patients of the National Institute of Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology in Luxembourg who underwent coronary angiography were surveyed for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and overweight/obesity between 2008/9 and 2013/4. For each cardiovascular risk factor (CVRFs), we analysed the associations between the quality of the patients' communication with the medical practitioner and their adherence declared to preventive behaviours. Methods 1,289 completed a self-administered questionnaire on communication with the medical practitioner (P’Com-5 items scale; Cronbach 0.87). 61.8% stopped smoking, 57.9% reduced or stopped their consumption of salt, 71.9% of fat, and 62.8% of sugar, and whereas 65% increased their consumption of fruit and vegetables and 19.8% increased their physical activity. Around 37% reported having made changes following their doctor's advice. 90% were followed by a cardiologist and 95.9% by an attending physician. Results No link was observed between declaration of physical activity, smoking, fats, and quality of communication. Significant associations: for increased consumption of fruit and vegetables was linked with the quality of doctor-patient communication when patients were overweight (OR = 1.081), obese (OR = 1.130), hypercholesterolemic (OR = 1.102), hypertensive (OR = 1.084) or diabetic (OR = 1.103). Reduction in salt intake was linked only to patients with hypertension (OR = 1.102), whereas reduction or cessation of sugar consumption was linked to overweight (OR = 1.093), and more so obese, (OR = 1.106), hypercholesterolemics (OR = 1.103) and diabetics (OR = 1.173). Conclusions Good doctor-patient communication was related to nutrition, particularly increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Accurate perception of CVRFs by both patients and medical practitioners is essential for CV protection. The aim of instructing patients is to encourage them to make informed decisions about how to change
... Product Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance for industry entitled ``Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication Errors... using a systems approach to minimize medication errors relating to product design. The draft...
A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They range ... may need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep instructions ...
... Risks Cancer Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Medications After transplants, the focus for patients transitions from ... a donor organ to learning how to manage medications and their side effects as part of daily ...