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Sample records for preventing dental decay

  1. [Dynamics of tooth decay prevalence in children receiving long-term preventive program in school dental facilities].

    PubMed

    Avraamova, O G; Kulazhenko, T V; Gabitova, K F

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the assessment of tooth decay prevalence in clinically homogenous groups of children receiving long-term preventive program (PP) in school dental facilities. Five-years PP were introduced in clinical practice in 2 Moscow schools. Preventive treatment was performed by dental hygienist. The results show that systematic preventive treatment in school dental offices starting from elementary school allows reducing dental caries incidence 46-53% and stabilize the incidence of caries complications. It should be mentioned though that analysis of individualized outcomes proves heterogeneity of study results despite of equal conditions of PP. Potentially significant hence is early diagnostics and treatment of initial caries forms as demineralization foci, especially in children with intensive tooth decay. Optimization of pediatric dentist and dental hygienist activity in school dental facilities is the main factor of caries prevention efficiency. PMID:27239995

  2. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution.

  3. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796

  4. Weaker Dental Enamel Explains Dental Decay

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is “weaker” while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796

  5. The Importance of Tooth Decay Prevention in Children under Three

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen; Chi, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Tooth decay and tooth loss was once the norm but public health interventions have led to major improvements for most people. Nevertheless, not all children have benefited. Dental disease in young children is unacceptably high. Tooth decay is preventable. Early childhood educators are often the first to notice the problem. Professional…

  6. Prevention and dental health services.

    PubMed

    Widström, Eeva

    2004-01-01

    There has been, and still is a firm belief that regular use of dental services is beneficial for all. Thus governments in most European countries have shown some interest in training oral health care professionals, distributing the dental workforce and cost sharing. Constantly evolving treatment options and the introduction of new methods make dental clinicians feel uncertain as to which treatments are most useful, who would benefit from them, and which treatments will achieve cost-effective health gain. Although there is a considerable quantity of scientific literature showing that most available preventive measures are effective, and the number of sensible best-practice guidelines in prevention is growing, there are few studies on cost-efficiency of different methods and, secondly, the prevention and treatment guidelines are poorly known among general practitioners. In the eyes of the public, it is obvious that preventive methods practised by patients at home have been eclipsed by clinical procedures performed in dental clinics. Reliance on an increasingly individualistic approach to health care leads to the medicalisation of issues that are not originally health or medical problems. It is important to move general oral disease prevention back to the people who must integrate this in their daily routines. Prevention primarily based on healthy lifestyles, highlighted in the new public health strategy of the European Union (EU), is the key to future health policy.

  7. The demand for preventive and restorative dental services.

    PubMed

    Meyerhoefer, Chad D; Zuvekas, Samuel H; Manski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Chronic tooth decay is the most common chronic condition in the United States among children ages 5-17 and also affects a large percentage of adults. Oral health conditions are preventable, but less than half of the US population uses dental services annually. We seek to examine the extent to which limited dental coverage and high out-of-pocket costs reduce dental service use by the nonelderly privately insured and uninsured. Using data from the 2001-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and an American Dental Association survey of dental procedure prices, we jointly estimate the probability of using preventive and both basic and major restorative services through a correlated random effects specification that controls for endogeneity. We found that dental coverage increased the probability of preventive care use by 19% and the use of restorative services 11% to 16%. Both conditional and unconditional on dental coverage, the use of dental services was not sensitive to out-of-pocket costs. We conclude that dental coverage is an important determinant of preventive dental service use, but other nonprice factors related to consumer preferences, especially education, are equal if not stronger determinants.

  8. The demand for preventive and restorative dental services.

    PubMed

    Meyerhoefer, Chad D; Zuvekas, Samuel H; Manski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Chronic tooth decay is the most common chronic condition in the United States among children ages 5-17 and also affects a large percentage of adults. Oral health conditions are preventable, but less than half of the US population uses dental services annually. We seek to examine the extent to which limited dental coverage and high out-of-pocket costs reduce dental service use by the nonelderly privately insured and uninsured. Using data from the 2001-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and an American Dental Association survey of dental procedure prices, we jointly estimate the probability of using preventive and both basic and major restorative services through a correlated random effects specification that controls for endogeneity. We found that dental coverage increased the probability of preventive care use by 19% and the use of restorative services 11% to 16%. Both conditional and unconditional on dental coverage, the use of dental services was not sensitive to out-of-pocket costs. We conclude that dental coverage is an important determinant of preventive dental service use, but other nonprice factors related to consumer preferences, especially education, are equal if not stronger determinants. PMID:23349123

  9. Preventing dental caries in children: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Marya, C M; Dahiya, V; Bhatia, H P; Dhingra, S

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in developing countries like India is increasing to an alarming level in contrast to developed countries where it has decreased because of variety of preventive measures at the community and individual level. There is no State or Centre funded programs for prevention of dental diseases in India. The present review enlists the targeted prevention of dental caries in permanent teeth of 6 to 16 years old children presenting for dental care.

  10. Protocol for “Seal or Varnish?” (SoV) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the relative cost and effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants and fluoride varnish in preventing dental decay

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    scales, a schools questionnaire and interviews with children, parents, dentists, dental nurses and school staff. The primary outcome measure will be the proportion of children developing new caries on any one of up to four treated first permanent molars. Discussion The objectives of this study have been identified by the National Institute for Health Research as one of importance to the National Health Service in the UK. The results of this trial will provide guidance on which of these technologies should be adopted for the prevention of dental decay in the most susceptible tooth-surface in the most at risk children. Trial registrations ISRCTN ref: ISRCTN17029222 EudraCT: 2010-023476-23 UKCRN ref: 9273 PMID:23167481

  11. The relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience in antenatal mothers.

    PubMed

    Esa, Rashidah; Savithri, Vengadasalam; Humphris, Gerry; Freeman, Ruth

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience among antenatal mothers attending Maternal and Child Health clinics in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a consecutive sample of 407 antenatal mothers in Seremban, Malaysia. The questionnaire consisted of participants' demographic profile and the Dental Fear Survey. The D(3cv)MFS was employed as the outcome measure and was assessed by a single examiner (intraclass correlation = 0.98). A structural equation model was designed to inspect the relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience. The mean Dental Fear Survey score for all participants was 35.1 [95% confidence interval (34.0, 36.3)]. The mean D(3cv)MFS score was 10.8 [95% confidence interval (9.5, 12.1)]. Participants from low socio-economic status groups had significantly higher D(3cv)MFS counts than those from high socio-economic status groups. The path model with dental anxiety and socio-economic status as predictors of D(3cv)MFS showed satisfactory fit. The correlation between dental anxiety and dental decay experience was 0.30 (standardized estimate), indicating a positive association. Socio-economic status was also statistically significantly associated with the D(3cv)MFS count (beta = 0.19). This study presented robust evidence for the significant relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience in antenatal mothers. PMID:20156266

  12. The relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience in antenatal mothers.

    PubMed

    Esa, Rashidah; Savithri, Vengadasalam; Humphris, Gerry; Freeman, Ruth

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience among antenatal mothers attending Maternal and Child Health clinics in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a consecutive sample of 407 antenatal mothers in Seremban, Malaysia. The questionnaire consisted of participants' demographic profile and the Dental Fear Survey. The D(3cv)MFS was employed as the outcome measure and was assessed by a single examiner (intraclass correlation = 0.98). A structural equation model was designed to inspect the relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience. The mean Dental Fear Survey score for all participants was 35.1 [95% confidence interval (34.0, 36.3)]. The mean D(3cv)MFS score was 10.8 [95% confidence interval (9.5, 12.1)]. Participants from low socio-economic status groups had significantly higher D(3cv)MFS counts than those from high socio-economic status groups. The path model with dental anxiety and socio-economic status as predictors of D(3cv)MFS showed satisfactory fit. The correlation between dental anxiety and dental decay experience was 0.30 (standardized estimate), indicating a positive association. Socio-economic status was also statistically significantly associated with the D(3cv)MFS count (beta = 0.19). This study presented robust evidence for the significant relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience in antenatal mothers.

  13. Modern management of dental decay in children and adolescents - a review.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Alexandrina; Mesaros, Anca Stefania; Festila, Dana; Mesaros, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Health is a right that requires responsible individual actions. Oral health corresponds to an important part of general health, even if for a large majority of people healthy teeth are equal with beautiful teeth. For children and adolescents "having an attractive smile" is synonymous with social acceptance and success. Dental decay has a high incidence in children in our country and progress in decay prevention, diagnosis and treatment is not reflected in children and adolescents' oral health. It is established by studies conducted by dentists and psychologists that dental decay can affect the quality of life by engendering specific eating behaviors, particular ways of speech or smile and unfortunately pain. The aim of this article is to emphasize the modern approach of dental decay in line with principles of non-invasive strategies. An important element to be considered - prophylactic methods - must be included in every treatment plan, in order to control individual caries risk. The time invested in prevention during childhood represents a real benefit for the future adult's oral health. Many a dental problems can be avoided if dental decay management relies on the link between medical science and every day practice. PMID:26528061

  14. Education on and prevention of dental trauma: it's time to act!

    PubMed

    Levin, Liran; Zadik, Yehuda

    2012-02-01

    Dental trauma is, unfortunately, not uncommon and may be even more prevalent in high-risk populations. It should be emphasized and acknowledged that many cases of dental trauma are preventable. Appropriate management includes primary prevention, i.e. avoidance of pathology development, and secondary prevention, i.e. early diagnosing and treatment of the pathology before significant morbidity occurs. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the current dental trauma literature with regard to education and knowledge and with relevance to primary and secondary prevention. As the duty of providing the public with measures for the maintenance of proper oral health is of the dental profession, the responsibility of providing primary and secondary prevention of dental trauma is of dentists, dental hygienists, and dental nurses. They may, and should, educate other medical, paramedical, and non-medical professionals, taking into account that those non-dental professionals could not maintain a high level of knowledge and service regarding dental trauma without a continuous backing by the dental professionals. It should be remembered that as the prevalence of dental decay has reduced in the Western world during recent decades, dental trauma plays a significant part in causing dental morbidity and mortality (tooth loss). It seems that now is the time to act for the benefit of our community and move from 'treating' toward 'managing' risk factors and prevention.

  15. Dental experiences and parenting practices of Native American mothers and caretakers: what we can learn for the prevention of baby bottle tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, P; Troyer, R; Jacobi, D; Moccasin, M

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to gather information concerning the dental experiences, beliefs, and parenting practices of Native Americans. Five Native American women were trained to conduct interviews in their own language. After pilot testing, seventeen questions were asked. Sixty-two interviews were taperecorded and transcribed. Content analysis was performed on the transcriptions. Results indicate maternal and caretaker upset and displeasure with the dental experiences of adults and children. Fear and pain were prominent. Parenting practices indicate children are expected to clean their own teeth at about a year of age and parental awareness of risks associated with sleeping with a bottle. About half of the mothers and caretakers who used a bottle as a pacifier report engaging in one or more protective activities such as removing the bottle when the child falls asleep. Mothers and caretakers with greater parenting experience are likelier to be aware of these protective activities. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of providing positive dental experiences for mothers and caretakers and the need to be aware of actual parenting practices before making recommendations or counseling mothers or caretakers.

  16. Near-IR imaging of occlusal dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, Christopher M.; Fried, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near-IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains and pigmentation. Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  17. Education About Dental Hygienists' Roles in Public Dental Prevention Programs: Dental and Dental Hygiene Students' and Faculty Members' and Dental Hygienists' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more. PMID:27587574

  18. Application of a novel confocal imaging technique for early the detection of dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Christel; Girkin, John M.; Vaidya, Shilpa; Hall, Andrew F.; Whitters, C. J.; Creanor, Steve L.

    2002-06-01

    In order to stop or prevent the progression of dental disease, early detection and quantification of decay are crucially important. Dental decay (caries) detection methods have traditionally involved clinical examination by eye, using probes and dental radiography, but up to 60% of lesions are missed. What the dentist requires is a cheap, reliable method of detection of early disease, ideally with information on the depth and rate of growth or healing. Conventional commercial scanning confocal microscopes are unsuitable for use on dental patients. We report on a fibre optic based confocal microscope designed for in vivo examination of caries lesions. The system utilizes a common fibre both as the source and to detect the reflected confocal signal. The initial system has been optimized using dielectric mirrors and the thickness of the stack has been measured with high precision. Dental samples have been examined and the system has been demonstrated to provide information on the depth and mineral loss of a lesion. Fibre optic microscopy (FOCM) demonstrates a practical route to developing an in vivo caries profiler. In this paper, the FOCM and its applications in caries detection are described and the potential of this scheme as a practical dental probe is discussed.

  19. Dental fluorosis: exposure, prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Abanto Alvarez, Jenny; Rezende, Karla Mayra P C; Marocho, Susana María Salazar; Alves, Fabiana B T; Celiberti, Paula; Ciamponi, Ana Lidia

    2009-02-01

    Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel, caused by successive exposures to high concentrations of fluoride during tooth development, leading to enamel with lower mineral content and increased porosity. The severity of dental fluorosis depends on when and for how long the overexposure to fluoride occurs, the individual response, weight, degree of physical activity, nutritional factors and bone growth. The risk period for esthetic changes in permanent teeth is between 20 and 30 months of age. The recommended level for daily fluoride intake is 0.05 - 0.07 mg F/Kg/day, which is considered of great help in preventing dental caries, acting in remineralization. A daily intake above this safe level leads to an increased risk of dental fluorosis. Currently recommended procedures for diagnosis of fluorosis should discriminate between symmetrical and asymmetrical and/or discrete patterns of opaque defects. Fluorosis can be prevented by having an adequate knowledge of the fluoride sources, knowing how to manage this issue and therefore, avoid overexposure.

  20. The reliability and validity of the RAPIDD scale: readiness assessment of parents concerning infant dental decay.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, P; Riedy, C A

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the instrument, Readiness Assessment of Parents concerning Infant Dental Decay (RAPIDD), as a measure of parental readiness to change children's dental behaviors. The 38-item instrument based on four constructs (Openness to Health Information, Valuing Dental Health, Convenience/Difficulty, Child Permissiveness) was administered to a random sample of parents of 6-to-36 month old children on Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA. Alpha values for each construct's internal consistency ranged from 0.51 to 0.75. Correlations were found with feeding (e.g., Convenience/Difficulty and receiving bottle (r = .24, p < 0.01)) and oral hygiene (e.g., Valuing Dental Health and tooth-cleaning (r = .27, p < 0.01)). Parental responses were used to categorize respondents into precontemplators (16 percent), contemplators (77 percent), and actions (6.7 percent). This categorization was associated with the number of decalcified and decayed surfaces (alpha 2 = 34.8, p = 0.04; alpha 2 = 65.7, p < 0.01). This suggests that parental readiness is associated with infant dental health and that most parents would be willing to contemplate prevention.

  1. INSIGHTS INTO PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR DENTAL EROSION

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Wiegand, Annette; Rios, Daniela; Honório, Heitor Marques; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2009-01-01

    Dental erosion is defined as the loss of tooth substance by acid exposure not involving bacteria. The etiology of erosion is related to different behavioral, biological and chemical factors. Based on an overview of the current literature, this paper presents a summary of the preventive strategies relevant for patients suffering from dental erosion. Behavioral factors, such as special drinking habits, unhealthy lifestyle factors or occupational acid exposure, might modify the extent of dental erosion. Thus, preventive strategies have to include measures to reduce the frequency and duration of acid exposure as well as adequate oral hygiene measures, as it is known that eroded surfaces are more susceptible to abrasion. Biological factors, such as saliva or acquired pellicle, act protectively against erosive demineralization. Therefore, the production of saliva should be enhanced, especially in patients with hyposalivation or xerostomia. With regard to chemical factors, the modification of acidic solutions with ions, especially calcium, was shown to reduce the demineralization, but the efficacy depends on the other chemical factors, such as the type of acid. To enhance the remineralization of eroded surfaces and to prevent further progression of dental wear, high-concentrated fluoride applications are recommended. Currently, little information is available about the efficacy of other preventive strategies, such as calcium and laser application, as well as the use of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. Further studies considering these factors are required. In conclusion, preventive strategies for patients suffering from erosion are mainly obtained from in vitro and in situ studies and include dietary counseling, stimulation of salivary flow, optimization of fluoride regimens, modification of erosive beverages and adequate oral hygiene measures. PMID:19274390

  2. A dental public health approach based on computational mathematics: Monte Carlo simulation of childhood dental decay.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie

    2013-02-01

    This study developed a Monte Carlo simulation approach to examining the prevalence and incidence of dental decay using Australian children as a test environment. Monte Carlo simulation has been used for a half a century in particle physics (and elsewhere); put simply, it is the probability for various population-level outcomes seeded randomly to drive the production of individual level data. A total of five runs of the simulation model for all 275,000 12-year-olds in Australia were completed based on 2005-2006 data. Measured on average decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT) and DMFT of highest 10% of sample (Sic10) the runs did not differ from each other by more than 2% and the outcome was within 5% of the reported sampled population data. The simulations rested on the population probabilities that are known to be strongly linked to dental decay, namely, socio-economic status and Indigenous heritage. Testing the simulated population found DMFT of all cases where DMFT<>0 was 2.3 (n = 128,609) and DMFT for Indigenous cases only was 1.9 (n = 13,749). In the simulation population the Sic25 was 3.3 (n = 68,750). Monte Carlo simulations were created in particle physics as a computational mathematical approach to unknown individual-level effects by resting a simulation on known population-level probabilities. In this study a Monte Carlo simulation approach to childhood dental decay was built, tested and validated.

  3. A preventive dental care programme at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Westerman, B

    1993-06-01

    Employees from an industrial group in Brisbane were examined at the workplace and found to have generally low levels of dental disease. At the same time, the Australian Bureau of Statistics suggests that less than 45 per cent of Australians attend a dentist annually. This low attendance for regular dental care reduces the effectiveness of any preventive dental service. A pilot scheme of preventive dental care was provided for employees at the workplace in Brisbane. The aim of the programme was to provide regular health counselling and reinforcement of oral health activities, general dental information, regular prophylaxis, scaling and cleaning, and referrals for restorative care. The preventive programme was appropriate given the disease levels. The services were effective in improving the periodontal status and restorative care which resulted from referrals. As well, the preventive dental care programme proved to be readily acceptable to both employees and management.

  4. Association of Streptococcus mutans with Human Dental Decay

    PubMed Central

    Loesche, W. J.; Rowan, J.; Straffon, L. H.; Loos, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The association of Streptococcus mutans with human dental decay was investigated by using several types of samples: (i) paraffin-stimulated saliva samples taken from children with from 0 to 15 decayed teeth; (ii) pooled occlusal and approximal plaque taken from children with no decayed or filled teeth, or from children with rampant caries of 10 or more teeth; (iii) plaque removed from single occlusal fissures that were either carious or noncarious. The results showed a significant association between plaque levels of S. mutans and caries. The strongest association, P < 0.0001, was found when plaque was removed from single occlusal fissures. Seventy-one percent of the carious fissures had S. mutans accounting for more than 10% of the viable flora, whereas 70% of the fissures that were caries free had no detectable S. mutans. Sixty-five percent of the pooled plaque samples from the children with rampant caries had S. mutans accounting for more than 10% of the viable flora, whereas 40% of the pooled samples from children that were caries free had no detectable S. mutans. Saliva samples tended to have low levels of S. mutans and were equivocal in demonstrating a relationship between S. mutans and caries. PMID:1140847

  5. Exploring the effect of dentition, dental decay and familiality on oral health using metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Foxman, Betsy; Srinivasan, Usha; Wen, Ai; Zhang, Lixin; Marrs, Carl F; Goldberg, Deborah; Weyant, Robert; McNeil, Daniel; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary

    2014-03-01

    As a proof of principle, we used an untargeted global metabolic profiling of saliva to understand the biochemical processes associated with dental decay, dentition (primary and secondary tooth eruption) and familiality in a sample of 25 sibling pairs. Pairs were selected to represent four different combinations of dentition and tooth health: (1) both siblings with primary teeth and no decay (n=5); (2) both siblings with primary teeth and discordant for dental decay (n=6); (3) both siblings with primary teeth and dental decay (n=4); and (4) one sibling with primary teeth the other with mixed dentition and both with no dental decay (n=10). There was a strong effect of sibship on the metabolite profiles identified; this may reflect the effects of common genes, environment and behaviors, and shared oral microbial communities. Nested in the familial effects were associations of metabolite profile with dentition and with dental decay. Using three different analyses (Euclidean distance, hierarchical clustering and PCA using selected biochemicals) metabolite profiles of saliva from children with decayed teeth were more similar than the metabolite profiles of saliva from children with healthy (sound) teeth. Larger studies that include host behaviors, environmental factors, oral microbiota composition and structure, and host genetic predisposition are required to identify biomarkers for decay, and to estimate the relative contribution of host factors and oral microbes on risk of dental decay. PMID:24080168

  6. The role of dental hygienists in oral health prevention.

    PubMed

    Ohrn, Kerstin

    2004-01-01

    Most dental diseases are preventable. This indicates that the main concept of dentistry could be changed to a situation in which the dental hygienist becomes the principal oral care professional. The competencies of dental hygienists focus on disease prevention and oral health promotion; thus referral to a dentist would only become necessary in the event of a failure in the preventive program where disease cannot be controlled. Future oral health care personnel need to be better educated to encourage people to implement healthy lifestyles rather than to treat teeth. In addition, the connection between oral health, general health and health-related quality of life will necessitate a multidisciplinary approach to prevention and oral health promotion. To focus strictly on oral health would too narrowly define the role of the dental hygienist in comprehensive prevention and health promotion. There is no precise boundary between the oral cavity and the rest of the body. Dietary advice to prevent dental caries and smoking cessation counseling to prevent periodontal disease and oral cancer also promote general health. Consequently the focus on prevention and health promotion makes the dental hygienist a very important person in the dental team of the future.

  7. Prevention of dental disease versus surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    The members of the Minnesota legislature have debated methods by which access to dental care and treatment of dental disease can be improved at a cost lower than that of present delivery systems. This review sheds light on some significant aspects of what the dental profession has learned over the last century that has proven significantly beneficial to the overall health of the American populace. Recommendations are made in the use of cost-effective dental public health interventions that could be used to provide better access and improved dental health at lower cost.

  8. Receipt of preventive dental care among special-needs children enrolled in Medicaid: a crisis in need of attention.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jean M; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2008-10-01

    Although not widely recognized, tooth decay is the most common childhood chronic disease among children ages five to seventeen. Despite higher rates of dental caries and greater needs, low-income minority children enrolled in Medicaid are more likely to go untreated relative to their higher income counterparts. No research has examined this issue for children with special needs. We analyzed Medicaid enrollment and claims data for special-needs children enrolled in the District of Columbia Medicaid program to evaluate receipt of recommended preventive dental care. Use of preventive dental care is abysmally low and has declined over time. Enrollment in managed care rather than fee for service improves the likelihood that special-needs children receive recommended preventive dental services, whereas residing farther from the Metro is an impediment to receipt of dental care. PMID:18818426

  9. Utilization of Preventive Dental Practices by Graduates of One U.S. Dental School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripa, Louis W.; Johnson, Robin M.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 113 graduates of the State University of New York at Stony Brook dental school now in general practice found a high rate of self-reported use of preventive practices (oral hygiene instruction, pit-and-fissure sealants, fluorides, and diet analysis) included in the dental school's curriculum. (MSE)

  10. Taekwondo coaches knowledge about prevention and management of dental trauma.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Dina; Gorseta, Kristina; Bursac, Danijel; Glavina, Domagoj; Skrinjarić, Tomislav

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess level of knowledge about prevention and dental trauma management among taekwondo coaches in Croatia. The questionnaire submitted to the taekwondo coaches contained 16 items about dental trauma prevention and management. The questionnaires were filled in by 131 taekwondo coaches; 28 females and 103 males. Descriptive statistics was used to describe and analyze the obtained data. The coaches were familiar with dental injuries in high percentage: 41 (31.3%) have observed dental injury and 36 (27.5%) have experienced a dental injury themselves. Eight of them had tooth avulsion, fourteen crown fracture, and eight had tooth luxation. About half of all interviewed coaches 68 (52.7%) were aware of the possibility of replanting avulsed teeth. Twenty six (19.8%) were familiar with the tooth rescue kit. Only 99 out of 131 coaches (75.6%) have used a mouthguard. The obtained results show low knowledge about possibilities for prevention of dental trauma. Insufficient use of mouthguards in this contact sport requires more attention of dentists and coaches education about dental trauma prevention.

  11. Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Patients Undergoing Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Watters, William; Rethman, Michael P; Hanson, Nicholas Buck; Abt, Elliot; Anderson, Paul A; Carroll, Karen C; Futrell, Harry C; Garvin, Kevin; Glenn, Stephen O; Hellstein, John; Hewlett, Angela; Kolessar, David; Moucha, Calin; O'Donnell, Richard J; O'Toole, John E; Osmon, Douglas R; Evans, Richard Parker; Rinella, Anthony; Steinberg, Mark J; Goldberg, Michael; Ristic, Helen; Boyer, Kevin; Sluka, Patrick; Martin, William Robert; Cummins, Deborah S; Song, Sharon; Woznica, Anne; Gross, Leeaht

    2013-03-01

    The Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Patients Undergoing Dental Procedures evidence-based clinical practice guideline was codeveloped by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Dental Association. This guideline replaces the previous AAOS Information Statement, "Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Bacteremia in Patients With Joint Replacement," published in 2009. Based on the best current evidence and a systematic review of published studies, three recommendations have been created to guide clinical practice in the prevention of orthopaedic implant infections in patients undergoing dental procedures. The first recommendation is graded as Limited; this recommendation proposes that the practitioner consider changing the long-standing practice of routinely prescribing prophylactic antibiotic for patients with orthopaedic implants who undergo dental procedures. The second, graded as Inconclusive, addresses the use of oral topical antimicrobials in the prevention of periprosthetic joint infections. The third recommendation, a Consensus statement, addresses the maintenance of good oral hygiene.

  12. Office-Based Preventive Dental Program and Statewide Trends in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Ashley M.; Rozier, R. Gary

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a North Carolina Medicaid preventive dentistry program in primary care medical offices (Into the Mouths of Babes Program [IMBP]) on decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) of kindergarten students statewide and in schools with a large proportion of students from low-income families. METHODS: An ecologic study using panel data of 920 505 kindergarten students with 11 694 school-year observations examined the effect of the IMBP on dmft scores from 1998 to 2009. Ordinary least squares regression with fixed effects determined the association between IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county and mean dmft scores per kindergarten student per school, controlling for school-level poverty and ethnicity, county-level Medicaid enrollment, and supply of dentists and physicians. RESULTS: Mean dmft per kindergarten student per school increased from 1.53 in 1998 to 1.84 in 2004, then decreased to 1.59 in 2009. The mean number of IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county increased from 0.01 in 2000 to 0.22 in 2009. A 1-unit increase in IMBP visits per county was associated with a 0.248 (95% confidence interval, −0.40 to −0.10) decrease in dmft per kindergarten student per school. For schools with more students at high risk for dental disease, a 1-unit increase in IMBP visits was associated with a 0.320 (95% confidence interval, −0.55 to −0.09) decrease in dmft. CONCLUSIONS: IMBP reduced dental caries among targeted vulnerable children, which helped reduce oral health disparities among preschool-aged children in North Carolina. PMID:24685954

  13. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. Nutrition Education--1973. Part 6--Phosphate Research and Dental Decay. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., April 16, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate include testimony on the subject of research into the use of phosphates to prevent dental decay. The purpose of the hearing was to explore certain dental health questions raised during the committee's recent hearings on the Television Advertising of…

  14. Treating dental caries as an infectious disease. Applying the medical model in practice to prevent dental caries.

    PubMed

    Limeback, H

    1996-01-01

    The above diagnostic and treatment principles may be self evident to most dental practitioners. To many, however, this treatment philosophy is a new one. Continuing dental education and quality assurance programs will play a significant role in helping dentists make the philosophical shift from a highly technical restorative approach to one that uses the medical model and treats dental caries as an infectious disease. While a total cure in humans suffering from dental disease may never be attainable, dental practitioners should soon be better able to direct more of their attention to the patients who already demonstrate a high incidence of dental decay and to those who are clearly at risk to develop future dental decay. PMID:9470624

  15. Child abuse and dental neglect: the dental team's role in identification and prevention.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E; Lepore, Mm; Montagna, F; Marcario, V; De Rosa, S; Solarino, B; Di Vella, G

    2009-05-01

    Health, education and social services are placing increasing emphasis on preventing abuse and neglect by early intervention to support families where children and young people may be at risk. Dental hygienist and dental assistants, like all other health professionals, can have a part in recognizing and preventing children from those who would cause them harm. They should be aware of the warning signs, recognizing what to consider as abuse or dental neglect and know how to deal with these young patients, and to fulfil their legal and ethical obligation to report suspected cases. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and dental neglect thus helping the dental team in detecting such conditions. In particular, this report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, early childhood caries and diseases that may be indicative of child abuse or neglect. Emphasis is placed on an appropriate protocol to follow in the dental practice to best treat and protect children who may have suffered abuse, helping the team in the diagnosis and documentation. PMID:19413546

  16. Natural products for dental caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Badria, Farid A; Zidan, Omar A

    2004-01-01

    Selected natural compounds were evaluated for their effects on dental caries due to different strains of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Out of 39 tested compounds, four (catechol, emetine, quinine, and flavone) showed potent inhibitory activity on different strains of S. mutans at 6.25 microg/mL or less with inhibition of adherence <50%, two compounds (5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy isoflavone and ellagic acid) exhibited a moderate inhibitory effect at 12.5 microg/mL with inhibition to adherence <50%, and 12 compounds exhibited weak antibacterial activity at 125 microg/mL or more with inhibition of adherence <25%. These compounds represent three major classes of natural products: tannins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Further study for possible application of these compounds as inhibitors for dental caries is underway. PMID:15383236

  17. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Christopher; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-24

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  18. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  19. Preventing baby bottle tooth decay in American Indian and Alaska native communities: a model for planning.

    PubMed

    Bruerd, B; Kinney, M B; Bothwell, E

    1989-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease which surveys have shown affects more than 50 percent of Native American children. An experimental program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 Native American communities. The project represented a cooperative effort by three Department of Health and Human Service agencies: Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, Head Start Bureau; Indian Health Service, Dental Program; and Centers for Disease Control, Dental Disease Prevention Activity. Intervention strategies included the training of parent volunteers, health professionals, and the tribal employees who counseled caretakers of young children and made group presentations. There was also a media campaign in each community that ran for a 3-year period. Numerous educational materials were developed including training manuals, counseling booklets, tippee cups, posters, and bumper stickers. The BBTD project's planners encouraged tailoring the education materials and strategies to fit each community. Preliminary results documented statistically significant decreases in the prevalence of BBTD at the pilot sites. This multidisciplinary, comprehensive intervention offers a model for organizing members of minority communities to prevent health problems.

  20. Fluoride Programs in the School Setting: Preventive Dental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebich, Theodore, Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two types of school-based programs that increase students' use of fluoride for preventive dental health are described. In fluoride mouthrinse programs, teachers give their students a fluoride solution once a week in a paper cup. In areas where the level of fluoride in the water supply is insufficient, the flouride tablet program is used. (JN)

  1. School-Based Preventive Dental Care: A Different View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebich, Theodore, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Takes issue with the preceding article on the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program. Argues that while the program's report has made a useful contribution to public health planning, its results are not valid as a reference for cost or effectiveness data for school-based dental health programs. (KH)

  2. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.

  3. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash. PMID:19570617

  4. Tobacco prevention and control in dental practice: the future.

    PubMed

    Mecklenburg, R E

    2001-04-01

    Tobacco use adversely affects oral health and dental care. Globally, the health consequences of tobacco use are worsening, particularly those caused by cigarette smoking. Concerned government and nongovernmental organizations are attempting to contain the transnational tobacco companies' promotion of tobacco use and its disregard for the serious health consequences. Dependence prevents most tobacco users from easily breaking free from their high-risk behavior. Evidence-based clinical treatment methods that substantially increase quit rates are available in the Public Health Service clinical practice guideline, Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Guideline recommendations are as useful to dental clinicians as to other health care disciplines. Dental educators have a strategic role in ensuring that clinicians are well informed and are skilled in and committed to providing tobacco prevention and cessation services to their patients. Dental organizations must identify and overcome perceived and real clinician and practice barriers to adopting essential cessation services. The dental profession is in an excellent position to play a major role in several emerging issues, such as helping the public and policymakers understand the chronic nature of tobacco dependence and supporting cessation services for all people, particularly pregnant women and youths. Such messages should be presented in terms that resonate with the public because tobacco industry activities and products continue to undermine well-being, the health economy, and individual self-directed behavior of choice.

  5. Dental Decay in Southern Illinois Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers: An Analysis of Clinical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukes, Sherri M.; Simon, Bret

    2005-01-01

    Context: Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are a population at risk for oral health problems. Data on the oral health conditions of migrant and seasonal farmworkers' permanent teeth are particularly lacking. Purpose: To document the relative rates of treated and untreated dental decay in a sample of southern Illinois migrant and seasonal…

  6. Dental Decay in Southern Illinois Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers: An Analysis of Clinical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukes, Sherri M.; Simon, Bret

    2005-01-01

    Context: Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are a population at risk for oral health problems. Data on the oral health conditions of migrant and seasonal farmworkers? permanent teeth are particularly lacking. Purpose: To document the relative rates of treated and untreated dental decay in a sample of southern Illinois migrant and seasonal…

  7. Evidence-based prevention, management, and monitoring of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lois Rigmont; Wilkins, Esther M

    2002-01-01

    Dental caries, not unlike periodontal diseases, is now recognized as an infectious, transmissible, multifactorial disease of bacterial origin. Current evidence-based emphasis is on the need to recognize a carious lesion in its earliest stage before demineralization has produced a cavitated lesion that requires restoration by a dentist. As a result of current understanding of caries control, the dental hygienist's role as a prevention specialist is to determine the dental caries risk factors for patients of all ages and to introduce remineralization strategies into the patient's dental hygiene care plan. Conservative strategies of a concentrated program include initial infection control with a chlorhexidine rinse; extra daily fluoride exposures; placement of pit and fissure sealants where indicated; control of sucrose exposures; use of sugar substitutes, particularly xylitol-containing sugar-free chewing gum; and an emphasis on a daily bacterial plaque removal routine. Evidence supports the management and monitoring of dental caries. Caries risk level must be reevaluated at each maintenance appointment. Appropriate in-office strategies to preserve tooth structure should be carried out and followed by applicable home regimens that are based on need, not age.

  8. Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Ohara, Takahiro; Shaffer, John R; Donahue, Danielle; Zerfas, Patricia; Dullnig, Andrew; Crecelius, Christopher; Beniash, Elia; Marazita, Mary L; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-12-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and has a unique combination of hardness and fracture toughness that protects teeth from dental caries, the most common chronic disease worldwide. In addition to a high mineral content, tooth enamel comprises organic material that is important for mechanical performance and influences the initiation and progression of caries; however, the protein composition of tooth enamel has not been fully characterized. Here, we determined that epithelial hair keratins, which are crucial for maintaining the integrity of the sheaths that support the hair shaft, are expressed in the enamel organ and are essential organic components of mature enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 386 children and 706 adults, we found that individuals harboring known hair disorder-associated polymorphisms in the gene encoding keratin 75 (KRT75), KRT75(A161T) and KRT75(E337K), are prone to increased dental caries. Analysis of teeth from individuals carrying the KRT75(A161T) variant revealed an altered enamel structure and a marked reduction of enamel hardness, suggesting that a functional keratin network is required for the mechanical stability of tooth enamel. Taken together, our results identify a genetic locus that influences enamel structure and establish a connection between hair disorders and susceptibility to dental caries.

  9. Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Ohara, Takahiro; Shaffer, John R.; Donahue, Danielle; Zerfas, Patricia; Dullnig, Andrew; Crecelius, Christopher; Beniash, Elia; Marazita, Mary L.; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and has a unique combination of hardness and fracture toughness that protects teeth from dental caries, the most common chronic disease worldwide. In addition to a high mineral content, tooth enamel comprises organic material that is important for mechanical performance and influences the initiation and progression of caries; however, the protein composition of tooth enamel has not been fully characterized. Here, we determined that epithelial hair keratins, which are crucial for maintaining the integrity of the sheaths that support the hair shaft, are expressed in the enamel organ and are essential organic components of mature enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 386 children and 706 adults, we found that individuals harboring known hair disorder–associated polymorphisms in the gene encoding keratin 75 (KRT75), KRT75A161T and KRT75E337K, are prone to increased dental caries. Analysis of teeth from individuals carrying the KRT75A161T variant revealed an altered enamel structure and a marked reduction of enamel hardness, suggesting that a functional keratin network is required for the mechanical stability of tooth enamel. Taken together, our results identify a genetic locus that influences enamel structure and establish a connection between hair disorders and susceptibility to dental caries. PMID:25347471

  10. Preventative measures for bulimic patients with dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, G; Bartlett, D

    2001-03-01

    The preventative techniques suggested to bulimic patients are frequently undervalued and ignored in favour of restorative treatment, possibly because the dentist may not be aware of the eating disorder. Educating bulimic patients about fluoride application, the use of brushing techniques, antacids, cheese, xylitol chewing gum and the possible use of mouth guards may minimise the effect of acids. Together with attempts at improving patient compliance they can be a valuable adjunct to treatment of bulimic patients with dental problems. Monitoring the wear on teeth by comparing study casts is a good way to maintain control but there are circumstances when restorations are indicated, perhaps when further delay may result in the prognosis of the teeth being compromised. Following a brief introduction to causes of bulimia and the consequences to the dentition, this paper, based on a literature review, considers patient-orientated techniques for prevention and provisional management of erosion of dental hard tissues for patients with bulimia nervosa.

  11. Prevention and Control of Dental Disease through Improved Access to Comprehensive Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL.

    Prevention of dental disease is the key to improving the nation's oral health. The American Dental Association (ADA) program of prevention and control of dental disease through improved access to comprehensive care concentrates on those who have special difficulties in receiving care: the poor, the elderly, the handicapped, the institutionalized…

  12. Preventive dental care among New York City children, 2009.

    PubMed

    Norton, Jennifer M; Jasek, John P; Kaye, Katherine

    2013-08-01

    This study aims to describe the prevalence of preventive dental care among New York City (NYC) children, including disparities by race/ethnicity or poverty and to identify health care utilization factors associated with these outcomes. Data were obtained from the 2009 NYC Child Community Health Survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated for preventive dental visits in the past 12 months among children aged 2-12 years (n = 2,435) and receipt of sealants among children aged 6-12 years (n = 1,416). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs). One in four (23.3 %) NYC children aged 2-12 years, including 57.3 % of 2-3-year olds, had no preventive dental visit in the past 12 months. Lack of preventive visits was more prevalent among Asian/Pacific Islander children compared with non-Hispanic white children (aPR 1.42 [95 % CI 1.07-1.89]), and among children living in poorer households compared with wealthier households (aPR 1.47 [95 % CI 1.13-1.92]). Two-thirds (64.5 %) of children aged 6-12 years never had sealants. Compared with non-Hispanic white children, Asian/Pacific Islander (aPR 1.26 [95 % CI 1.01-1.56]), non-Hispanic black (aPR 1.24 [95 % CI 1.06-1.46]), and Hispanic (aPR 1.21 [95 % CI 1.04-1.41]) children were more likely not to have sealants, as were children without a personal health care provider compared with children with a provider (aPR 1.33 [95 % CI 1.14-1.56]). Disparities in preventive dental care exist by race/ethnicity, poverty, and health care utilization. Personal health care providers may improve children's oral health by linking them to preventive dental care and promoting sealant application. PMID:23468320

  13. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of efforts by primary care clinicians to prevent ... children can prevent tooth decay. Potential Benefits and Harms of Actions to Prevent Tooth Decay in Young ...

  14. Prevention of dental accidents in Swiss boxing clubs.

    PubMed

    Ifkovits, Tatjana; Kühl, Sebastian; Connert, Thomas; Krastl, Gabriel; Dagassan-Berndt1, Dorothea; Filippi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Boxing involves a high risk of dental trauma due to the impact of enormous external forces against the head. Wearing a mouthguard is, therefore, mandatory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental trauma as well as the utilization and quality of mouthguards in Swiss boxing clubs. In order to achieve this, data on the mouthguards of 217 boxers in total were collected using questionnaires and examination forms, which were statistically evaluated. Out of the 217 boxers, 75 (34.6%) had already experienced a dental accident, but only 8 (10.7%) of them while practicing their sport. Professional boxers were most frequently affected by dental trauma (p = 0.001). Crown fractures were most often observed, followed by tooth dislocations. All interviewed athletes owned a mouthguard, which they used much more consistently during full-contact sparring (practice fighting) than during regular partner exercises. Most of the boxers used prefabricated mouthguards, which could be individually adapted using the “boil and bite” system. The majority of the athletes received their mouthguards from the boxing club. Impaired speaking when wearing a mouthguard was, by far, the problem most frequently mentioned by the athletes. In terms of these bothering factors, custom-made mouthguards from dentists received the best rating (p = 0.002). The quality of the mouthguard was assessed by evaluating the following criteria: coverage of the buccolabial surface, occlusal support of the opposing dentition, thickness of the occlusal layer, and rounded edges. Of the 215 mouthguards examined, 193 (89.8%) were insufficient (p = 0.002). Despite the observed deficiencies, only a few dental injuries occurred during boxing. This study shows that although basic preventive measures do exist in Swiss boxing, they should be improved substantially by providing better instruction and more information. PMID:26678302

  15. Local complications in dental implant surgery: prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    ANNIBALI, S.; RIPARI, M.; LA MONACA, G.; TONOLI, F.; CRISTALLI, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY There are many detailed articles regarding accidents and local complications in dental implantation. Comparison of the data they report is not always easy because different criteria have been followed in the various classifications and there is confusion between the terms accident and complication. The aim of this paper is to propose a classification that considers the timing of the events and makes a distinction between the two terms. Accidents are events that occur during surgery and complications are all the pathological conditions that appear postoperatively. The proper diagnostic procedures and surgical techniques for complications prevention and treatment are also described. PMID:23285333

  16. 76 FR 10899 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... of Dental Caries; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Health... fluoride in drinking water to 0.7 mg/L to provide the best of balance of protection from dental caries... recommendations for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries has been...

  17. Prevalence of dental caries in dentistry students.

    PubMed

    Pavleova, G; Vesela, S; Stanko, P

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates dental caries prevalence in dentistry students. They represent a sample of individuals with good dental status, socio-economical level and access to dental care. The values of teeth number with decay and filling and values of surfaces of teeth with decay and filling indices in group with lower caries incidence give the information as to what could be achieved by systemic care and prevention of dental caries in whole population (Tab. 4. Ref. 25).

  18. [Fluoride content in potable water and drinks. Connection with dental caries prevention and dental fluorosis].

    PubMed

    Borinskiĭ, Iu N; Rumiantsev, V A; Borinskaia, E Iu; Beliaev, V V

    2009-01-01

    Content of fluoride by ion selective electrode in potable water (municipal water supply, bottled, from draw-wells and springs), in juices of industrial and compotes of domestic preparation, in drinks of various grades of the tea made by water with unequal contents of fluorine was analyzed. Fluoride entered organism of the population in non-control mode more often in minimum quantities that explained, in certain measures a wide caries incidence. Granting of the information upon concentration of fluorides in potable water, juices and drinks used by population would allow people to adjust this microelement intake in the organism with the purpose of preventing of dental caries and fluorosis.

  19. Assessment of dental caries prevention program applied to a cohort of elementary school children of Kebemer, a city in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Daouda, Faye; Aïda, Kanouté; Mbacké, Lo Cheikh; Mamadou, Mbaye

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries is frequently observed in children, particularly among those residing in developing countries. The most adapted strategies against this pathology remains prevention based on information, education, and communication (IEC), as well as on early diagnosis and treatment. We carried out a study that aimed to analyze the development of dental caries in a cohort of school children followed during their primary education. The objective was to assess the evolution of the dental status of a cohort of students during their elementary curriculum. Materials and Methods: A cohort of school children was followed during 6 years from the first grade to the sixth grade. Monitoring of these school children focused every year on IEC based on learning methods of brushing messages, dietary advice, systematic visits, fluoride use, and primary dental care. During the school year, the students were periodically subjected to education and communication briefings (IEC). Primary care consisted of extracting and descaling rhizalyzed teeth in the same period. The data from this review were collected using the World Health Organization questionnaire, and statistical analysis was performed with the software Epi-info version 6.04 d. Results: The mean age of the 171 school children was 6 years in the first grade and 11 years in the sixth grade. In the first grade, the decayed permanent teeth prevalence was 31.6% and the In permanent teeth: Decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMF/T) was 0.47. The decayed primary teeth prevalence was 75% and the in primary teeth: decayed or filled teeth (df/t) 2.23. In the sixth year, the prevalence of decayed permanent teeth was 51% and DMF/T 0.36 whereas the decayed primary teeth prevalence was 12% and the df/t was 0.19. The prevalence of decayed permanent teeth increased from 31.6 to 51% whereas the mean DMF/T was not statistically different between school children of the first and sixth grade class. Conclusion: The promotion of oral health

  20. Assessment of dental caries prevention program applied to a cohort of elementary school children of Kebemer, a city in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Daouda, Faye; Aïda, Kanouté; Mbacké, Lo Cheikh; Mamadou, Mbaye

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries is frequently observed in children, particularly among those residing in developing countries. The most adapted strategies against this pathology remains prevention based on information, education, and communication (IEC), as well as on early diagnosis and treatment. We carried out a study that aimed to analyze the development of dental caries in a cohort of school children followed during their primary education. The objective was to assess the evolution of the dental status of a cohort of students during their elementary curriculum. Materials and Methods: A cohort of school children was followed during 6 years from the first grade to the sixth grade. Monitoring of these school children focused every year on IEC based on learning methods of brushing messages, dietary advice, systematic visits, fluoride use, and primary dental care. During the school year, the students were periodically subjected to education and communication briefings (IEC). Primary care consisted of extracting and descaling rhizalyzed teeth in the same period. The data from this review were collected using the World Health Organization questionnaire, and statistical analysis was performed with the software Epi-info version 6.04 d. Results: The mean age of the 171 school children was 6 years in the first grade and 11 years in the sixth grade. In the first grade, the decayed permanent teeth prevalence was 31.6% and the In permanent teeth: Decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMF/T) was 0.47. The decayed primary teeth prevalence was 75% and the in primary teeth: decayed or filled teeth (df/t) 2.23. In the sixth year, the prevalence of decayed permanent teeth was 51% and DMF/T 0.36 whereas the decayed primary teeth prevalence was 12% and the df/t was 0.19. The prevalence of decayed permanent teeth increased from 31.6 to 51% whereas the mean DMF/T was not statistically different between school children of the first and sixth grade class. Conclusion: The promotion of oral health

  1. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  2. Self-perceived loss of control and untreated dental decay in African American adults with and without sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Brian; Woods, Dexter; George, David; Onyekwere, Onyinye; Katz, Ralph; Lanzkron, Sophie; Diener-West, Marie; Powe, Neil

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between self-perceived loss of control as measured by dental external locus of control summary scores, with the amount of untreated dental decay in African American adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and African Americans adults without SCD. The sample included 102 subjects with SCD and 103 subjects without SCD matched on age, sex, and recruitment location (mean age of all subjects 35.4 years, 55.6% female). Subjects with SCD in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 2.58-fold (CI 1.05, 6.34) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) in multivariable analysis using the negative binomial regression model. For subjects without SCD, those in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 3.00-fold (CI 1.38, 6.49) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) using similar analysis. This study showed that higher dental external locus of control is associated with increased untreated tooth decay, both for African Americans with and without SCD and that the magnitude of the association did not differ across groups. PMID:16960327

  3. Dental Sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data & Statistics > Find Data by Topic > Dental Sealants Dental Sealants Main Content Dental sealants are thin plastic coatings that protect the chewing surfaces of children’s back teeth from tooth decay. Overall, the prevalence of sealants ...

  4. An Evaluation of the School-Based Dental Disease Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Office of the Legislative Analyst.

    This report analyzes the effect of the California Dental Disease Prevention Program (DDPP). The program includes education about dental health and nutrition, daily toothbrushing and flossing, and weekly application of a fluoride mouthrinse. The DDPP serves approximately 350,000 elementary school children. The implementation of the DDPP is…

  5. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Practice Management and for Preventive Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. The guidelines were developed by the Sections on Community and Preventive Dentistry and Practice Administration. (MLW)

  6. [Dental diseases prevention and treatment among foreign students from different regions of the world].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Daurova, F Iu; Piatigorskaia, N V

    2013-01-01

    420 foreign first year students of Peoples' Friendship University of Russia from different regions of the world were examined for oral health status. The main dental indexes were analyzed and recommendations for dental diseases prevention and treatment were given for each region group. For students from Africa the leading direction is caries prevention. Students from Middle East and Latin America need in caries treatment and endodontic treatment. The main problem of students from Asia is periodontal diseases.

  7. Patients' perception of infection prevention in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew J; Wilson, Sarah L; Read, Sarah; Welsh, Janine; Gammie, Elise; Szuster, Jennifer; Davidson, Jennifer; Binnie, Vivian

    2014-03-01

    Patient's perceptions of risk from bloodborne viruses (BBVs) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (vCJD) in relation to attendance at dental practice is understudied. This survey of an opportunistic sample of 50 dental practice patients examined patients' perceptions of the risk of acquiring BBVs and vCJD following dental treatment. Major concerns of patients revolved around hand hygiene practices rather than risks from BBVs or vCJD. No patient had avoided or delayed a visit to the dentist because of concerns over risks of cross infection.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of preventing dental caries and full mouth dental reconstructions among Alaska Native children in the Yukon–Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Charisma Y.; Thomas, Timothy K.; Lenaker, Dane; Day, Gretchen M.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of five specific dental interventions to help guide resource allocation. Methods We developed a spreadsheet-based tool, from the healthcare payer perspective, to evaluate the cost effectiveness of specific dental interventions that are currently used among Alaska Native children (6-60 months). Interventions included: water fluoridation, dental sealants, fluoride varnish, tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste, and conducting initial dental exams on children <18 months of age. We calculated the cost-effectiveness ratio of implementing the proposed interventions to reduce the number of carious teeth and full mouth dental reconstructions (FMDRs) over 10 years. Results A total of 322 children received caries treatments completed by a dental provider in the dental chair, while 161 children received FMDRs completed by a dental surgeon in an operating room. The average cost of treating dental caries in the dental chair was $1,467 (~258,000 per year); while the cost of treating FMDRs was $9,349 (~1.5 million per year). All interventions were shown to prevent caries and FMDRs; however tooth brushing prevented the greatest number of caries at minimum and maximum effectiveness with 1,433 and 1,910, respectively. Tooth brushing also prevented the greatest number of FMDRs (159 and 211) at minimum and maximum effectiveness. Conclusions All of the dental interventions evaluated were shown to produce cost savings. However, the level of that cost saving is dependent on the intervention chosen. PMID:26990678

  9. Parent-Reported Distress in Children Under 3-years Old During Preventive Medical and Dental Care

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Travis M.; Huebner, Colleen E.; Kim, Amy; Scott, JoAnna M.; Pickrell, Jacqueline E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined factors related to young children’s distress during preventive oral health visits. Additionally, associations between parent-reported child behavior during the dental visit and during prior medical visits were tested. Methods One hundred twenty two children under 3 years of age enrolled in a government insurance program for low-income children were seen for examination, prophylaxis, and fluoride application at a university-based dental clinic. Child distress was rated by parents on a numerical rating scale. Results The average age of children enrolled was 23.5 ± 7.3 months. The majority (55.7%) were judged to have little or no distress pre-examination. Mild or no distress during the examination was reported for 42.6% of the children and severe distress was reported for 39.4%. Intensity of distress during the examination was not associated with the child’s age, gender, dental health, or prior experience with dental care. Distress was also unrelated to the caregiver’s education level or own dental health. Intensity of distress was associated with the child’s pre-dental examination distress and distress during prior medical examinations and injections. Conclusions Dental professionals can better anticipate child distress by assessing children before examination and inquiring about previous medical experiences. Strategies to prepare parents and alleviate distress may help children cope with the preventive dental visit. PMID:25514877

  10. Radiation-induced dental caries, prevention and treatment - A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishtha; Pal, Manoj; Rawat, Sheh; Grewal, Mandeep S.; Garg, Himani; Chauhan, Deepika; Ahlawat, Parveen; Tandon, Sarthak; Khurana, Ruparna; Pahuja, Anjali K.; Mayank, Mayur; Devnani, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs) involves radiotherapy. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNCs are prone to dental complications. Radiotherapy to the head and neck region causes xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction which dramatically increases the risk of dental caries and its sequelae. Radiation therapy (RT) also affects the dental hard tissues increasing their susceptibility to demineralization following RT. Postradiation caries is a rapidly progressing and highly destructive type of dental caries. Radiation-related caries and other dental hard tissue changes can appear within the first 3 months following RT. Hence, every effort should be focused on prevention to manage patients with severe caries. This can be accomplished through good preoperative dental treatment, frequent dental evaluation and treatment after RT (with the exception of extractions), and consistent home care that includes self-applied fluoride. Restorative management of radiation caries can be challenging. The restorative dentist must consider the altered dental substrate and a hostile oral environment when selecting restorative materials. Radiation-induced changes in enamel and dentine may compromise bonding of adhesive materials. Consequently, glass ionomer cements have proved to be a better alternative to composite resins in irradiated patients. Counseling of patients before and after radiotherapy can be done to make them aware of the complications of radiotherapy and thus can help in preventing them. PMID:27390489

  11. Radiation-induced dental caries, prevention and treatment - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nishtha; Pal, Manoj; Rawat, Sheh; Grewal, Mandeep S; Garg, Himani; Chauhan, Deepika; Ahlawat, Parveen; Tandon, Sarthak; Khurana, Ruparna; Pahuja, Anjali K; Mayank, Mayur; Devnani, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs) involves radiotherapy. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNCs are prone to dental complications. Radiotherapy to the head and neck region causes xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction which dramatically increases the risk of dental caries and its sequelae. Radiation therapy (RT) also affects the dental hard tissues increasing their susceptibility to demineralization following RT. Postradiation caries is a rapidly progressing and highly destructive type of dental caries. Radiation-related caries and other dental hard tissue changes can appear within the first 3 months following RT. Hence, every effort should be focused on prevention to manage patients with severe caries. This can be accomplished through good preoperative dental treatment, frequent dental evaluation and treatment after RT (with the exception of extractions), and consistent home care that includes self-applied fluoride. Restorative management of radiation caries can be challenging. The restorative dentist must consider the altered dental substrate and a hostile oral environment when selecting restorative materials. Radiation-induced changes in enamel and dentine may compromise bonding of adhesive materials. Consequently, glass ionomer cements have proved to be a better alternative to composite resins in irradiated patients. Counseling of patients before and after radiotherapy can be done to make them aware of the complications of radiotherapy and thus can help in preventing them. PMID:27390489

  12. [Current and future prospects concerning the prevention of dental caries].

    PubMed

    Simonetti D'Arca, A; Marino, F; Rosica, L

    1989-01-01

    Caries is a disease which on the basis of numerous epidemiological data it should be possible to control. The preventive interventions which have proved to have the greatest effect on the diffusion of this disease are essentially: fluoroprophylaxis, oral hygiene, food hygiene and periodic dental examination. The common denominator, which has the greatest effect on success, is a good level of health education of the populations affected by the programme, with specific reference to the teeth. The importance of the diet as a possible element predisposing to caries is an ascertained fact by now, and in fact it is well known that the greatest cariogenic effect is achieved after eating foods containing large quantities of fermentable sugars at irregular intervals throughout the day, especially in the form of products of high density and viscosity. The proposal to replace sugar with substitutive sweeteners such as: xilitol, sorbitol, licasin, talin, palatinit and, more recently, aspartame does not completely solve the problem; and apart from this the clearcut reduction of caries achieved in different European and non-European countries does not appear to be directly connected with a drop in sugar consumption, while more and more importance is ascribed to individual food choices. Oral hygiene procedures aim not only at the cleaning of teeth but also, to some extent, controlling the bacterial plaque. For this reason these are sometimes included among anticaries interventions; however opinions differ in this regard, with a clear prevalence of negative views. The question changes radically if we combine with mechanical procedures alone the use of fluoride-based toothpastes, which are recognised, in combination with other interventions, as playing a fundamental role in the rapid decline of caries in industralised countries. Toothpaste is considered as an excellent vehicle for the topical application of fluoride since it comes into contact with the teeth is slight

  13. Focus on Fluorides: Update on the Use of Fluoride for the Prevention of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title: Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Background Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Methods Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Conclusions The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. PMID:24929594

  14. [The use of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental procedures for the prevention of prosthetic joint infection].

    PubMed

    Volfin, G; Yarom, N; Elad, S; Volpin, G

    2011-04-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe illness which may cause pain and discomfort, may damage the quality of life and may even be life-threatening. A variety of studies have demonstrated the presence of bacteria in a small but potentially dangerous number of prosthetic joint infections that may have originated in the oral cavity. Some dental treatments such as calculus removal, extractions, dental implants placements etc. and daily oral hygiene routines such as tooth brushing may cause bacteremia. Recently the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) published updated guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent prosthetic joint infections. These guidelines suggest a direct and established connection between dental treatments and prosthetic joint infections, and expand the criteria to prescribe antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental procedures associated with bacteremia. The purpose of this review is to introduce these new guidelines, and to review the literature regarding the relationship between dental care and prosthetic joint infections.

  15. The Cost and Effectiveness of School-Based Preventive Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program assessed the cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures. The program involved 20,052 first, second, and fifth graders from five fluoridated and five non-fluoridated communities. These children were examined at baseline and…

  16. The Cost and Effectiveness of School-Based Preventive Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures were assessed in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program, a four-year study involving more than 20,000 students, from ten schools nationwide. Communal water fluoridation was reaffirmed as the most cost-effective means of…

  17. Inequalities in preventive and restorative dental services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cheema, J; Sabbah, W

    2016-09-01

    Aims The objective of this study is to assess socioeconomic inequalities in the use of selected dental procedures.Methods Data is from the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of England, Northern Ireland and Wales. Overall, 6,279 participants were included in the analysis. Occupational classification and education were used to assess variations in the use of preventive, restorative services and tooth extraction using a series of logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, DMFT, self-reported oral health, dental visits and country.Results There were clear socioeconomic variations in the utilisation of preventive and restorative services. In the fully adjusted model those with no educational qualification were less likely to report ever having preventive services than those with a degree (OR 0.48, 95%CI: 0.36,0.65). Similarly, individuals in routine/manual occupation were significantly less likely to report ever having preventive services than those in managerial/professional occupation (OR 0.58, 95%CI: 0.46,0.74) in the fully adjusted model.Conclusion The findings imply that despite relatively equitable access and higher use of dental services in UK, the least educated and those at the bottom of social hierarchy are less likely to have preventive and restorative dental services.

  18. Inequalities in preventive and restorative dental services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cheema, J; Sabbah, W

    2016-09-01

    Aims The objective of this study is to assess socioeconomic inequalities in the use of selected dental procedures.Methods Data is from the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of England, Northern Ireland and Wales. Overall, 6,279 participants were included in the analysis. Occupational classification and education were used to assess variations in the use of preventive, restorative services and tooth extraction using a series of logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, DMFT, self-reported oral health, dental visits and country.Results There were clear socioeconomic variations in the utilisation of preventive and restorative services. In the fully adjusted model those with no educational qualification were less likely to report ever having preventive services than those with a degree (OR 0.48, 95%CI: 0.36,0.65). Similarly, individuals in routine/manual occupation were significantly less likely to report ever having preventive services than those in managerial/professional occupation (OR 0.58, 95%CI: 0.46,0.74) in the fully adjusted model.Conclusion The findings imply that despite relatively equitable access and higher use of dental services in UK, the least educated and those at the bottom of social hierarchy are less likely to have preventive and restorative dental services. PMID:27608576

  19. [The impact of arterial hypertension in children on dental decay activity].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L R; Dolgih, V V; Kolesnikova, L I; Vlasov, B Ya; Natyaganova, L V

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-five children aged 8 to 13 years, of which 113 are diagnosed with essential arterial hypertension (EAH), and 82 children from the control group without somatic diseases including EAH were examined. All children underwent dental examination. The values of the substrates and the primary products of lipid peroxidation (LPO)--double bond (DB) and diene conjugates (DC) were determined. The index of caries intensity exceeded the similar indicator in comparison with the control group of children with EAH. The intensity of the oxidation of substrates of LPO in patients with EAH compared with healthy children was also higher. The article discusses the index of low value of DB in patients with 1st stage of caries in combination with EAH, as a potential negative factor limiting the generation of biologically active compounds in systemic blood flow involved in the prevention of caries process.

  20. Perceived Barriers Affecting Access to Preventive Dental Services: Application of DEMATEL Method

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Asghari, Baratali

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying perceived access barriers to preventive dental services is one of the basic steps to improve the public health. Objectives This study aimed to determine the perceived barriers affecting access to preventive dental services in one of Tehran dental clinics in 2012. Patients and Methods This research was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study conducted in one of Tehran dental clinics in 2012 using decision–making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method. The study sample included all patients (100 patients) who had referred to the endodontic treatment department from 26 - 31 May, 2012. The required data were collected using a questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and MATLAB 7.9.0 SPSSS 18.0, as well as, some descriptive and analytical tests including Mean, Standard Deviation (SD), and Independent T- Test. Results The five determinants of cost, inconvenience, fear, organization, and patient-dentist relationship were determined as barriers to access to dental services among which the cost and patient-dentist relationship were identified as the first and last priorities with the coordinates (1.4 and 1.4) and (1.25 and -0.65), respectively. Conclusions High cost of dental care has led to not referring patients to the clinic. Oral health costs are too high; however insurance organizations have no commitment to support such services. Policymakers, administrators, and insurance organizations have a major role in improving access to dental services. These decision-makers in making their policies can provide the required financial resources, shift the available resources towards preventive care and periodic checkups, and consider providing proper and sufficient places for dental care facilities. PMID:24578831

  1. Factors associated with receiving treatment for dental decay among Medicaid-enrolled children younger than 12 years of age in Iowa, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Zilversmit, Leah; Kane, Debra J.; Rochat, Roger; Rodgers, Tracy; Russell, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Iowa Department of Public Health I-Smile program provides dental screening and care coordination to over 23,000 low-income and Medicaid-enrolled children per year. The purposes of this study were to evaluate I-Smile program effectiveness to ensure that Medicaid-enrolled children obtained dental treatment after having been screened and to determine the factors associated with failure to receive dental care after screening through the I-Smile program. Methods Based on I-Smile program priorities, we limited our sample to children younger than 12 years of age who screened positive for decay and who linked to a paid Medicaid claim for dental treatment (n = 1,816). We conducted bivariate analyses to examine associations between children’s characteristics who screened positive for decay and received treatment within 6 months of their initial screening. We also performed multivariate logistic regression to assess the association of sociodemographic characteristics with receipt of treatment among children who screened positive for decay. Results Eleven percent of children screened positive for decay. Nearly 24 percent of children with decay received treatment based on a Medicaid-paid claim. Being 5 years or older [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.48, confidence interval (CI): 1.17, 1.88] and not having a dental home (aOR: 1.90, CI: 1.41, 2.58) were associated with higher odds of not receiving dental treatment. Conclusions Children 5 years and older and without a dental home were less likely to obtain dental treatment. Opportunities exist for the I-Smile program to increase the numbers of at-risk children with dental homes and who obtain dental care after screening. PMID:25131658

  2. [Serial clinical examinations as the main approach to dental caries prevention in children].

    PubMed

    Skripkina, G I; Garifullina, A Zh

    2015-01-01

    Leading scientific and organizational prerequisites for the feasibility of clinical examination of the entire child population of the Russian Federation to the dentist is, above all, the high prevalence and intensity of dental diseases in children of all ages. As a result of many years of research and follow-up of children of preschool and school age we have proved the need to distinguish a group of children with zero activity of dental caries. The referring criteria are determined according to the results of comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination in order to determine the degree of risk of dental caries and individual caries resistance. The age-specific risk group is settled by "Stop caries" software. In order to optimize the preventive activities children are divided in 5 groups for routine preventive dental care. Unfortunately the efforts of modern dental services aimed at eliminating the consequences of caries process by filling cavities. Individualized preventive approach will increase the effectiveness of preventive measures and save public funds allocated in the amount of compulsory health insurance for pediatric dentistry.

  3. What Maryland Adults With Young Children Know and Do About Preventing Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Dushanka V.; Wang, Min Qi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine Maryland adults’ knowledge, understanding, opinions, and practices with respect to prevention and early detection of dental caries. Methods. We conducted a statewide random-digit-dialing, computer-assisted telephone survey in 2010 among 770 adults who had a child aged 6 years or younger living in their home. A traditional random-digit sample and a targeted low-income sample were included. Analyses included frequencies, percentages, the χ2 test, and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents’ overall level of knowledge about preventing dental caries was low. Those with higher levels of education were more likely to have correct information regarding prevention and early detection of dental caries. Nearly all respondents (97.9%) reported that they were aware of fluoride, but only 57.8% knew its purpose. More than one third (35.1%) of the respondents were not aware of dental sealants. Those with lower levels of education were significantly less likely to drink tap water, as were their children, and significantly less likely to have had a dental appointment in the preceding past 12 months. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate the need to increase oral health literacy regarding caries prevention and early detection. PMID:23597372

  4. Persistent pain and neurosensory disturbance after dental implant surgery: prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Okeson, Jeffrey P; Bertoli, Elizangela; Medynski, Denielle C; Khalaf, Mohd W

    2015-01-01

    Nerve trauma caused by dental implant placement is associated with altered sensation and chronic pain. Complete or partial loss of sensation is often reported by patients who have experienced nerve trauma during implant surgery. Some patients report persistent pain and neurosurgery disturbance long after the normal healing time has passed. In addition, neuropathic pain is reported after implant surgery. Practitioners who place dental implants must be familiar with the differential diagnosis, prevention, and management of neuropathic pain. This article provides insights into the prevention and management of neurosensory deficits and chronic persistent neuropathic pain and considerations for patient referral.

  5. Persistent pain and neurosensory disturbance after dental implant surgery: prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Okeson, Jeffrey P; Bertoli, Elizangela; Medynski, Denielle C; Khalaf, Mohd W

    2015-01-01

    Nerve trauma caused by dental implant placement is associated with altered sensation and chronic pain. Complete or partial loss of sensation is often reported by patients who have experienced nerve trauma during implant surgery. Some patients report persistent pain and neurosurgery disturbance long after the normal healing time has passed. In addition, neuropathic pain is reported after implant surgery. Practitioners who place dental implants must be familiar with the differential diagnosis, prevention, and management of neuropathic pain. This article provides insights into the prevention and management of neurosensory deficits and chronic persistent neuropathic pain and considerations for patient referral. PMID:25434563

  6. [Problem of motivation of the population to prevention and treatment dental diseases].

    PubMed

    Kochlashvili, L Sh; Gogilashvili, K T; Gerzmava, O Kh

    2012-10-01

    Dental health is an integral part of a normal state of a human body and, first of all, depends on knowledge of the population of bases of individual hygiene of an oral cavity and ability to use them in practical life. Numerous researches indicate low level of knowledge of the population in questions of prevention of dental diseases and individual hygiene of an oral cavity that testifies to existence of problems in the organization of sanitary education. Existing practice of hygienic training and education, in a certain measure, lags behind modern requirements, and some questions demand specification and optimization. For efficiency of sanitary and preventive actions it is necessary to study character and motivation structure to prevention and treatment of dental diseases and to develop an effective method of its increase. Therefore actual search of new forms of psycho hygiene and psycho prevention with use of modern information technologies which should provide high level of dental health of the military personnel is represented. The purpose of the real research was establishment of the factors forming motivation to prevention and treatment of the main dental diseases, and development of a psycho physiological method of its increase. The carried-out research allows to expand and systematize ideas necessary for the practical doctor of the major factors forming motivation to prevention and treatment of the main dental diseases. Development of an objective technique of a complex assessment of level of motivation of patients to prevention and treatment of dental pathology will allow to prove the new perspective direction of the sanitary educational work, allowing to reduce fobiya level, effectively to increase motivation of the patient to receiving the timely dental help. It especially is important if to consider that numerous programs of hygienic training and the education, applied in our country, didn't lead to change of hygienic skills of the population in expected

  7. How to deliver a comprehensive preventive dentistry service that dental insurance carriers can underwrite.

    PubMed

    Nizel, A E

    1976-05-01

    The successful practice management of preventive dentistry requires that it be comprehensive and include both chairside and counseling procedures. The chairside clinical procedures are a prophylaxis, topical application of fluorides, application of pit and fissure sealants, and fabrication of mouth-guards and space maintainers. The counseling procedures include plaque control and nutritional guidance. The caries activity test can be used as a means of monitoring excessive sugar intake. It is the responsibility of the dentist to determine the preventive dentistry needs of his patient based on the latter's caries score, periodontal, gingival, and plaque indexes, and diet evaluation. Since patients are prone to certain dental problems during particular age periods, the preventive management procedures must consider the existing and anticipated dental problems on the basis of the patient's age. Each of the preventive services is objective in nature because it involves either chairside or counseling procedures. During the counseling service,worksheets and clinical case notes are kept as part of the patient's dental record. The progressive effectiveness of the home-care preventive dentistry counsling procedures can be measured by scores and indexes. The frequency of repeating the service depends on proven clinical merit and the individual needs of the patient. The delivery of preventive dentistry services can be monitored by dental insurance carriers through peer review of clinical services, data sheets, case notes, a preventive dentistry record, and by patient questionnaire. A method for managing, measuring, and monitoring an objective, comprehensive preventive dentistry service has been presented so that the insurance carrier can underwrite this type of coverage as part of its dental insurance plan.

  8. Clinical issues in the prevention of dental-induced endocarditis and prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Wahl, M J

    1994-08-01

    No issue in medicine or dentistry is the subject of more misunderstanding than the prevention of infective endocarditis and late prosthetic joint infections. To resolve some of the confusion, national medical groups have published guidelines for the prevention of these infections, including the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for certain dental procedures and certain at-risk patients. While these guidelines are helpful, there still are clinicians who either do not recommend antibiotics when indicated or recommend antibiotics without indication. An understanding of these issues helps to prevent not only the infections but also the adverse antibiotic effects and associated legal problems. The learning objective of this article is to to educate clinicians on the prevention of dental-induced endocarditis and prosthetic joint infections.

  9. Clinical issues in the prevention of dental-induced endocarditis and prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Wahl, M J

    1995-08-01

    No issue in medicine or dentistry is the subject of more misunderstanding than the prevention of infective endocarditis and late prosthetic joint infections. To resolve some of the confusion, national medical groups have published guidelines for the prevention of these infections, including the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for certain dental procedures and certain at-risk patients. While these guidelines are helpful, there still are clinicians who either do not recommend antibiotics when indicated or recommend antibiotics without indication. An understanding of these issues helps to prevent not only the infections but also the adverse antibiotic effects and associated legal problems. The learning objective of this article is to educate clinicians on the prevention of dental-induced endocarditis and prosthetic joint infections.

  10. Use of Caries Prevention Agents in Children: Findings from the Dental Practice-based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Richman, Joshua S.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Qvist, Vibeke; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gordan, Valeria V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Scientific evidence supports the application of caries preventive agents in children and this knowledge must transfer into the practice of dentistry. There is little multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize the use of caries preventive agents in pediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of dental practices. Methods This study surveyed Dental Practice-based Research Network dentists who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment and use of prevention techniques in children ages 6-18. Results Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries preventive agents ranged from 36%-7%, with non-prescription fluoride rinse the most common. Dentists who practiced in a large group practice model and dentists from the Scandinavian region more frequently use caries risk assessment than regions that were predominately dentists in private practice. Whether or not dentists used caries risk assessment with their pediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries preventive treatments on patients. Conclusion Although dentists reported the use of some form of in-office caries prevention, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practicing dentists about the benefits of caries preventive agents or a function of differing financial incentives or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk. PMID:21180672

  11. Novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries: a patent survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu; Wang, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field: Dental caries is one of the most common preventable childhood diseases; people are susceptible to this ailment throughout their lifetime. In the United States, 90% of late adolescents and young adults have dental caries, while 94% of all dentate adults had evidence of treated or untreated coronal caries. Dental caries is often not self-limiting and without proper care, caries can progress until the tooth is destroyed. Areas covered in this review: In this paper, the etiology of dental caries was briefly introduced. It was followed by a thorough review of patents and literatures on the recent development of various novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. What the reader will gain: Recent advances in anti-plaque agents, including chemoprophylactic agents, antimicrobial peptides, vaccines, probiotics/replacement therapy and sugar substitutes, and remineralization agents including fluorides and casein phosphopeptides are analyzed. Take home massage: Both the discovery of new anti-caries agents and the development of dentotropic delivery systems will be the future focus of this research field. PMID:20230309

  12. Electron spin resonance studies of dental composites: effects of irradiation time, decay over time, pulverization, and temperature variations.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, M F; Fiorini, A; Mason, P N; Corvaja, C

    1992-03-01

    Polymerization induced by UV-VIS light of composite dental materials produces a solid matrix within which terminal radicals of non-polymerized monomers remain trapped. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) allowed three different types of radicals to be identified. The analysis of ten normally available commercial products gave information on: (1) the propagation of the conversion reaction as a result of exposure to light; (2) the time necessary for the decay of each type of radical; and (3) the variations with temperature and the effects of shattering on the materials under study. The presence of inorganic filling material slowed the process of polymerization, while it accelerated the decay of radicals. It was suggested that the nature of these processes depended on the composition of the base resin materials, whereas it did not depend on the sizes of the filler particles. Moreover, the complete propagation of the conversion reaction needed a period of light exposure greater than that currently suggested by the manufacturers. The structural stability and the resistance of the composites were confirmed by both the long period of decay and the high temperatures needed to overcome the potential barrier for starting the radical decay process. Finally, the composite shattering investigation indicated that particles removed by surface abrasion experience rapid radical decay, thus reducing the possibility of harmful effects on internal organs.

  13. Occupational Hepatitis B Exposure: A Peek into Indian Dental Students' Knowledge, Opinion, and Preventive Practices

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Basak, Debashish; Kumar, Amit; Dasar, Pralhad; Mishra, Prashant; Kumar, Arunoday; Kumar Singh, Siddharth; Debnath, Nitai; Gupta, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the level of knowledge, opinions, and preventive practices followed by dental students against Hepatitis B. The study also explored if any correlation existed between knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices score. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a dental teaching institution. The subjects comprised 216 dental students. The study was conducted using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared to assess knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices against Hepatitis B. Kruskal-Wallis and Kendall Tau test were performed. Results. The study found that only 44.4% of the students were vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine. 59.3% of the students reported washing their hands after contact with patient's body fluids. 63.9% used personal protective measures like facemask, aprons, head cap, eye shields, and so forth, while treating patients. Median knowledge, opinion, and practice scores were found to be 5.00, 3.00, and 3.00, respectively. Significant correlation was obtained between knowledge and preventive practices score (r = 0.385, p value <0.0001). Conclusion. Effective measures need to be taken to improve preventive practices of the students to prevent them from risk of Hepatitis transmission. Mandatory vaccination against Hepatitis B needs to be implemented. PMID:26413091

  14. Occupational Hepatitis B Exposure: A Peek into Indian Dental Students' Knowledge, Opinion, and Preventive Practices.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Basak, Debashish; Kumar, Amit; Dasar, Pralhad; Mishra, Prashant; Kumar, Arunoday; Kumar Singh, Siddharth; Debnath, Nitai; Gupta, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the level of knowledge, opinions, and preventive practices followed by dental students against Hepatitis B. The study also explored if any correlation existed between knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices score. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a dental teaching institution. The subjects comprised 216 dental students. The study was conducted using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared to assess knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices against Hepatitis B. Kruskal-Wallis and Kendall Tau test were performed. Results. The study found that only 44.4% of the students were vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine. 59.3% of the students reported washing their hands after contact with patient's body fluids. 63.9% used personal protective measures like facemask, aprons, head cap, eye shields, and so forth, while treating patients. Median knowledge, opinion, and practice scores were found to be 5.00, 3.00, and 3.00, respectively. Significant correlation was obtained between knowledge and preventive practices score (r = 0.385, p value <0.0001). Conclusion. Effective measures need to be taken to improve preventive practices of the students to prevent them from risk of Hepatitis transmission. Mandatory vaccination against Hepatitis B needs to be implemented. PMID:26413091

  15. Chair-side preventive interventions in the Public Dental Service in Norway.

    PubMed

    Widström, E; Tillberg, A; Byrkjeflot, L I; Skudutyte-Rysstad, R

    2016-08-26

    Objective and setting In Norway, the Public Dental Service (PDS) caters for the young (<19 years) and smaller numbers of adults, mostly special needs patients. This study surveyed chair-side preventive measures used in the public clinics and compared them with recommendations in evidence-based guidelines in the neighbouring countries.Materials and methods After ethical approval, the regional Chief Dental Officers (CDOs) emailed questionnaires to their local clinics (N = 421) where the most experienced dentist and dental hygienist were asked to respond on behalf of the clinic. Answers were received from 256 clinics (response rate 61%). Altogether, 215 dentists and 166 dental hygienists answered.Results Of the respondents, 26% reported that their clinic had agreed guidelines on preventive treatment to be used by all staff. Oral hygiene and fluoride toothpaste recommendations were considered appropriate. Almost 60% claimed that flossing instructions were given to all children and adolescents and 40% that fluoride varnish was used on all the young. Fissure sealants were used after individual assessment (80%). A third of the respondents claimed that fluoride tablets and fluoride rinse were recommended for all or most children and fluoride rinses for adults, even in addition to regular use of fluoride toothpaste. Dental hygienists used all methods more often than dentists. On adults, preventive measures were more often used on individual assessment. Half (48%) of the respondents were interested in new evidence-based national guidelines on preventive care.Conclusions Chair-side preventive treatment measures were numerous in the well-resourced Norwegian PDS, but partly outdated. PMID:27561578

  16. Readability of pediatric health materials for preventive dental care

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Rachel L; Huebner, Colleen E; Riedy, Christine A

    2006-01-01

    Background This study examined the content and general readability of pediatric oral health education materials for parents of young children. Methods Twenty-seven pediatric oral health pamphlets or brochures from commercial, government, industry, and private nonprofit sources were analyzed for general readability ("usability") according to several parameters: readability, (Flesch-Kincaid grade level, Flesch Reading Ease, and SMOG grade level); thoroughness, (inclusion of topics important to young childrens' oral health); textual framework (frequency of complex phrases, use of pictures, diagrams, and bulleted text within materials); and terminology (frequency of difficult words and dental jargon). Results Readability of the written texts ranged from 2nd to 9th grade. The average Flesch-Kincaid grade level for government publications was equivalent to a grade 4 reading level (4.73, range, 2.4 – 6.6); F-K grade levels for commercial publications averaged 8.1 (range, 6.9 – 8.9); and industry published materials read at an average Flesch-Kincaid grade level of 7.4 (range, 4.7 – 9.3). SMOG readability analysis, based on a count of polysyllabic words, consistently rated materials 2 to 3 grade levels higher than did the Flesch-Kincaid analysis. Government sources were significantly lower compared to commercial and industry sources for Flesch-Kincaid grade level and SMOG readability analysis. Content analysis found materials from commercial and industry sources more complex than government-sponsored publications, whereas commercial sources were more thorough in coverage of pediatric oral health topics. Different materials frequently contained conflicting information. Conclusion Pediatric oral health care materials are readily available, yet their quality and readability vary widely. In general, government publications are more readable than their commercial and industry counterparts. The criteria for usability and results of the analyses presented in this article can

  17. Oral diagnosis and treatment planning: part 5. Preventive and treatment planning for dental caries.

    PubMed

    Yip, K; Smales, R

    2012-09-01

    The practice of operative dentistry continues to evolve, to reflect the many changes occurring in society and in dental diseases and conditions. However, the belief that all questionable and early carious lesions should be restored still persists. This belief is largely based upon the concept that the removal of all carious tissue followed by meticulous restoration of the tooth is the treatment of choice for dental caries. Yet restorations are not permanent and do not cure caries, as the causes remain. On the other hand, preventive measures can remove or partially remove the causes, thereby reducing the risks for future caries recurrence at the same site or elsewhere in the mouth.

  18. Factors That Drive Dentists towards or Away from Dental Caries Preventive Measures: Systematic Review and Metasummary

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimarães; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; Fujimaki, Mitsue; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Vissoci, João Ricardo N.; Rodrigues, Clarissa G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a serious public health concern. The high cost of dental treatment can be avoided by effective preventive measures, which are dependent on dentists’ adherence. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that drive dentists towards or away from dental caries preventive measures. Methods and Findings This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42012002235). Several databases as well as the reference lists and citations of the included publications were searched according to PRISMA guidelines, yielding 18,276 titles and abstracts, which were assessed to determine study eligibility. Seven qualitative studies and 41 surveys (36,501 participants) remained after data extraction and interpretation. A total of 43 findings were abstracted from the reports and were grouped together into 6 categories that were judged to be topically similar: education and training, personal beliefs, work conditions, remuneration, gender, place of residence and patients. The main findings for adherence based on their calculated frequency effect sizes (ES) were teamwork (21%) and post-graduation (12%), while for non-adherence were biologicism (27%), and remuneration for preventive procedures (25%). Intensity ES were also calculated and demonstrated low prevalence of the findings. Quality assessment of the studies demonstrated that the methodological quality, particularly of surveys, varied widely among studies. Conclusions Despite the questionable quality of the included reports, the evidence that emerged seems to indicate that further education and training coupled with a fairer pay scheme would be a reasonable approach to change the balance in favor of the provision of dental caries preventive measures by dentists. The results of this review could be of value in the planning and decision making processes aimed at encouraging changes in professional dental practice that could result in the improvement of the oral health care provided to the population in

  19. [Dental care in cross-cultural networks-- case management--approaches in group prevention].

    PubMed

    Robke, F J

    2000-01-01

    Oral epidemiology studies of previous years have shown an increasing difference in caries cases in respect of different social strata. Thus, frequency of caries cases is related to social status. High rates of caries prevalence are found especially among children from typical areas of welfare problems. Already, today every fifth child is born into a family of immigrants. In areas of typical social deprivation their share is about 40% and more. Since the previous educational campaigns for social fringe groups have hardly shown any positive effect on dental health, new strategies are necessary. In a community of Hanover with low socio-economic status and a generally high caries level, the treatment strategies of dental care for the young have centred on the case-management approaches of social welfare programmes since the early 90s. Beside the expanded basic preventive programme, which includes application of a fluoride varnish for children, social compensatory measures with intercultural networks are also being taken. This concept shows very clearly that the dental health of children living in areas of social disorganisation can be effectively improved by means of these strategies. For the future, dental care for these children requires more intercultural competence and more knowledge of social welfare work by adolescent dental care providers. PMID:11037670

  20. [DYNAMICS OF DENTAL CARIES' INDEXES IN CHILDREN WITH DENTOALVEOLAR ANOMALIES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES].

    PubMed

    Kaskova, L F; Marchenko, K V; Berezhnaja, E E; Amosova, L I

    2015-01-01

    Frequency dentition anomalies in children and adolescents according to different authors, ranging from rising 50.8 to 81%. Anomalies of dental systems lead to aesthetic and functional disturbances affecting the child's psyche, and often lead to the development of dental caries and periodontal diseases. So, the purpose of our study was to investigate the dynamics of dental caries' indexes in children with dentoalveolar anomalies under the influence of preventive measures. We observed 50 children aged 12, who were divided into four groups. The most effective prophylactic complex in terms of reduction of growth of caries (59.4%) was the one that involved the use of "Tooth Mousse" (applying to the surface of the teeth 5 minutes after eating one time a day, in the morning after brushing teeth), "Osteovit" (one tablet three times a day), "Pektodent--dentifrice? (dental cleaning powder twice a day--in the morning and evening). This complex creates conditions for increasing the resistance of hard dental tissues, resulting in low levels of intensity of caries in children.

  1. Seal Out Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics > Tooth Decay (Caries) > Seal Out Tooth Decay Seal Out Tooth Decay Main Content What are dental ... back teeth decay so easily? Who should get seal​ants? Should sealants be put on baby teeth? ...

  2. Antibacterial Peptides: Opportunities for the Prevention and Treatment of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Pepperney, Adam; Chikindas, Michael L

    2011-06-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that is a growing and costly global health concern. The onset of disease is a consequence of an ecological imbalance within the dental plaque biofilm that favors specific acidogenic and aciduric caries pathogens, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. It is now recognized by the scientific and medical community that it is neither possible nor desirable to totally eliminate dental plaque. Conversely, the chemical biocides most commonly used for caries prevention and treatment indiscriminately attack all plaque microorganisms. These treatments also suffer from other drawbacks such as bad taste, irritability, and staining. Furthermore, the public demand for safe and natural personal hygiene products continues to rise. Therefore, there are opportunities that exist to develop new strategies for the treatment of this disease. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, antibacterial peptides have been explored greatly over the last three decades for many different therapeutic uses. There are currently tens of hundreds of antibacterial peptides characterized across the evolutionary spectrum, and among these, many demonstrate physical and/or biological properties that may be suitable for a more targeted approach to the selective control or elimination of putative caries pathogens. Additionally, many peptides, such as nisin, are odorless, colorless, and tasteless and do not cause irritation or staining. This review focuses on antibacterial peptides for their potential role in the treatment and prevention of dental caries and suggests candidates that need to be explored further. Practical considerations for the development of antibacterial peptides as oral treatments are also discussed. PMID:26781572

  3. Infective endocarditis prophylaxis: moving from dental prophylaxis to global prevention?

    PubMed

    Chirouze, C; Hoen, B; Duval, X

    2012-09-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infectious disease which mainly affects elderly patients. Staphylococcus aureus is the main microorganism and IE, which used to be associated with a previously known heart disease, is now associated with healthcare procedures. For a long time, it was thought necessary to prevent IE with antibiotics before starting many invasive procedures. But in the last few years, there has been a change, with a drastic limitation on the situations in which antibiotic prophylaxis is required. Epidemiological studies emphasize changes in the profile of IE, which is moving from a streptococcal disease in patients with previously known heart disease to a staphylococcal healthcare-associated disease in elderly patients suffering from many comorbidities or having intracardiac devices. These changes should lead us to question the validity of our current management of antibiotic prophylaxis. There are already recommendations from the American Heart Association (AHA) for the prevention of implantable cardiovascular electronic device implantation, but apart from this particular situation, should we not extend prophylaxis to more comprehensive prevention in patients who have comorbidities? To find an answer, we need to acquire more data on the pathophysiology of IE while continuing epidemiological surveillance of the disease.

  4. AN EXAMINATION OF THE ADVANCES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF PREVENTION OF TOOTH DECAY IN YOUNG CHILDREN SINCE THE SURGEON GENERAL’S REPORT ON ORAL HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T.; Tanzer, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda that incomplete at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and PVP-iodine may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diammine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the US. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the Surgeon General's Report. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice. PMID:19837019

  5. An examination of the advances in science and technology of prevention of tooth decay in young children since the Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T; Tanzer, Jason M

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing, although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine (PVI-I) may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diamine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the United States. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the report Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice.

  6. Prevention of iatrogenic inferior alveolar nerve injuries in relation to dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Renton, T

    2010-09-01

    This article aims to review current hypotheses on the aetiology and prevention of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injuries in relation to dental procedures. The inferior alveolar nerve can be damaged during many dental procedures, including administration of local anaesthetic, implant bed preparation and placement, endodontics, third molar surgery and other surgical interventions. Damage to sensory nerves can result in anaesthesia, paraesthesia, pain, or a combination of the three. Pain is common in inferior alveolar nerve injuries, resulting in significant functional problems. The significant disability associated with these nerve injuries may also result in increasing numbers of medico-legal claims. Many of these iatrogenic nerve injuries can be avoided with careful patient assessment and planning. Furthermore, if the injury occurs there are emerging strategies that may facilitate recovery. The emphasis of this review is on how we may prevent these injuries and facilitate resolution in the early post surgical phase. PMID:21133047

  7. Screening preharvest/postharvest strategies to prevent fruit rot decay.

    PubMed

    Vorstermans, B; Creemers, P

    2007-01-01

    In fruit growing preharvest sprayings in the orchard are mainly applied to protect fruit from decaying. Next to multisite fungicides (captan, thiram, tolylfluanid) the most commonly used products recognized for the Belgium market are Bellis (pyraclostrobin & boscalid) and the combination of Topsin M (thiophanate-methyl) and Frugico (diethofencarb). In general the spraying schedule varies depending on weather conditions (infection risk), preharvest interval of available fungicides, fruitgrower and cultivar of pome fruit (apple/pear). Facing the climatological conditions before picking the residue loading on the fruit surface can differ enormously. Also wet (pre)grading is considered to decrease the product residue resulting to fruits which are less protected before entering the cold storage room. In this context a partially replacement of the preharvest treatments by one postharvest application could offer a reliable alternative to the PPP reduction program (Plant Protection Products) in the orchard. A standardized application method by dipping or drenching will cover the fruits homogenically resulting in a rationalized fungicide use compared to the preharvest sprayings in the orchard. For the Belgium market Philabuster (imazalil & pyrimethanil) is registered for postharvest treatments since for this product a proper solution for the waste water of postharvest uses was developed to protect surface waters (Funds technology). Philabuster provides an advanced mould control towards fruit rot pathogens Gloeosporium spp., Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium spp. In this context several trials were set up to evaluate the biological efficacy of Philabuster alone or in combination with preharvest sprayings in the orchard. In concrete different preharvest spraying schedules were applied in the last six weeks before harvest on apple and pear facing parameters as rational fungicide use, antifungal effectiveness and cost price. The purpose was to select the optimal combination in

  8. Skill-mix in preventive dental practice - will it help address need in the future?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Population health needs are changing. The levels of dental caries and periodontal disease across the population as a whole is falling. The proportion of adults with a functional dentition in many developed countries has increased substantially and edentulous rates have dropped to some of their lowest levels. Despite this, a pronounced social gradient still exists, many adults do not attend dental services regularly and disease in young children remains intransigent amongst the poorest. New challenges are emerging too as the growing number of older people, above sixty-five years of age, retain their teeth. Methods Ensuring “the right number of people with the right skills are in the right place at the right time to provide the right services to the right people” is critical for future dental service provision, both to meet the new challenges ahead and to ensure future services are cost-effective, efficient and reduce health-inequalities. Greater use of “skill-mix” models could have a substantial role in the future, as dentistry moves from a “cure” to a “care” culture. Discussion The provision of dental services in many countries currently adopts a “one-size-fits-all”, where the dentist is the main care-giver and the emphasis is on intervention. As needs change in the future, the whole of the dental team should be utilised to deliver primary, secondary and tertiary prevention in an integrated model. Growing evidence suggests that other members of the dental team are effective in providing care, but introducing this paradigm shift is not without its challenges. The provision of incentives within funding systems and social acceptability are amongst the key determinants in producing a service that is responsive to need, improves access and delivers equity. PMID:26391730

  9. Enzyme replacement therapy prevents dental defects in a model of hypophosphatasia.

    PubMed

    McKee, M D; Nakano, Y; Masica, D L; Gray, J J; Lemire, I; Heft, R; Whyte, M P; Crine, P; Millán, J L

    2011-04-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) occurs from loss-of-function mutation in the tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) gene, resulting in extracellular pyrophosphate accumulation that inhibits skeletal and dental mineralization. TNALP-null mice (Akp2(-/-)) phenocopy human infantile hypophosphatasia; they develop rickets at 1 week of age, and die before being weaned, having severe skeletal and dental hypomineralization and episodes of apnea and vitamin B(6)-responsive seizures. Delay and defects in dentin mineralization, together with a deficiency in acellular cementum, are characteristic. We report the prevention of these dental abnormalities in Akp2(-/-) mice receiving treatment from birth with daily injections of a mineral-targeting, human TNALP (sALP-FcD(10)). sALP-FcD(10) prevented hypomineralization of alveolar bone, dentin, and cementum as assessed by micro-computed tomography and histology. Osteopontin--a marker of acellular cementum--was immuno-localized along root surfaces, confirming that acellular cementum, typically missing or reduced in Akp2(-/-) mice, formed normally. Our findings provide insight concerning how acellular cementum is formed on tooth surfaces to effect periodontal ligament attachment to retain teeth in their osseous alveolar sockets. Furthermore, they provide evidence that this enzyme-replacement therapy, applied early in post-natal life--where the majority of tooth root development occurs, including acellular cementum formation--could prevent the accelerated tooth loss seen in individuals with HPP. PMID:21212313

  10. Preventive Dental Practices Motivational Model for Elementary Teachers in Training Institutions; Dental Health Instruction Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Darwin

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of instruction upon the dental health behavior of university students. The experimental group of 68 subjects, all elementary education majors, were exposed to a three--stage dental health motivational model: Dental Health Skills Instruction (four hours of laboratory instruction), Cognitive…

  11. Preventing Tooth Decay: A Guide for Implementing Self-Applied Fluoride in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Dental Research (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This guidebook was developed to assist citizens in initiating programs to prevent tooth decay in young children through the use of fluoridation. It contains outlines for determining the needs of the school and community for fluoride in drinking water, and presents the various steps and activities that are necessary for developing and implementing…

  12. Triphala in prevention of dental caries and as an antimicrobial in oral cavity- a review.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Vagish K L

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a widely prevalent infectious disease afflicting the humans worldwide. Each year oral infections such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis significantly adds to the economic burden of the world. Though there are standard management techniques for these diseases; they do have side effects and are not cost effective. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine that is being practiced in the Indian peninsula since ages. Among the various herbal medicines in ayurveda, triphala occupies a royal position due to its wide beneficial systemic actions. Triphala is a mixture of fruits of Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The antimicrobial actions of triphala are well documented in the literature. However availability of review articles regarding triphala as an antimicrobial against oral infections is limited. Need was felt to review this aspect of triphala. The present article reviews the use of triphala and its constituents in the prevention and control of dental caries and other common oral infections. Thorough review of the literature indicated that triphala can be effectively used to manage dental caries, gingival and periodontal diseases. Further it can also be utilized as a root canal irrigant and against oral candida species.

  13. A holistic food labelling strategy for preventing obesity and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cinar, A B; Murtomaa, H

    2009-05-01

    Obesity and dental caries in childhood are among the major public health concerns described as a global pandemic because of their global distribution and severe consequences. A consensus has developed as to a recently emerging and alarming common risk factor that leads to the double burden of dental caries and obesity; energy-dense foods (sugar-coated cereals, high-sugar yogurt, soft drinks) are becoming very popular among children because of their dense marketing, cheaper price, increased supply and variety. Implementation of health-promoting and -supporting marketing strategies for healthy food can be one initial cornerstone for successful application of the common risk factor approach in prevention of obesity and dental caries, as also suggested by World Health Organization. Labelling healthy food with a 'health-friendly' logo, illustrating that the teeth and the heart are both parts of the whole body (standing side by side supporting each other as close friends), both happy and protected because of consumption of healthy food for the whole body, can promote the foods that are friendly to health of the whole body, implementing the common risk factor approach under a single theme. Labelling healthy food as 'health-friendly' based on an international consensus will provide a clear and uniform picture of what is healthy to eat and result in an international integrated programme for prevention of obesity and caries.

  14. Needle stick injuries among dental students: risk factors and recommendations for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gaballah, Kamis; Warbuton, Dorothy; Sihmbly, Kamal; Renton, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the risk factors of needle stick injuries (NSIs) sustained by undergraduate dental students and nurse students at the King's College London (KCL) Dental Institute. Materials and methods A retrospective study evaluated the incident reports relating to NSIs reported over a period of 2 years. Factors including the dental department, study year, and when the injury took place during administration of local anaesthesia (LA) and recapping conventional syringe or clearing work surface or during disposal. Results This report showed that students are at the highest risk of NSIs at the fourth year of their 5-year BDS course. About one-third of injuries were reported among this group of students followed by year 5 students (25%). Oral surgery clinics were the major source of incident reporting when compared with other specialised dental clinics within the institute. The left hands of the students were the most frequently affected by such injuries and then the right hands of student dental nurses. The attempt of needle recapping of conventional syringes was the least reported mechanism of injuries and constituted only 15% of the total injuries and mainly occurred in third year students. The most frequent injuries among student nurses were during disposal of the needle. Conclusion Less NSIs occur when using safety syringes. A non-recapping policy with immediate disposal of either the conventional or safety syringe systems after injection would prevent all clearance-related NSIs sustained by nurses. To avoid NSIs, education plays a vital role particularly with effective implementation of the change to safety syringes with appropriate training. PMID:22741025

  15. Perception of tobacco use prevention and cessation among faculty members in Latin American and Caribbean dental schools

    PubMed Central

    Tamí-Maury, Irene; Aigner, Carrie J.; Hong, Judy; Strom, Sara; Chambers, Mark S.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of tobacco use are increasing in regions of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Unfortunately, tobacco cessation education is not a standard component of dental curriculum in LAC dental schools. The objective of this study was to identify the perceptions of LAC dental faculty members regarding the tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) competencies that should be addressed in dental curricula. Dental deans and faculty completed a web-based questionnaire in Spanish, Portuguese, French, or English. The questionnaire contained 32 competencies grouped into the 5A’s (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) of tobacco cessation and 6 supplementary questions for identifying barriers to providing TUPAC education to dental students. Respondents indicated the degree to which they believed each competency should be incorporated into dental curricula using a 5-point Likert scale (“1”= strongly disagree to “5”=strongly agree). Responses were obtained from 390 faculty members (66% South America, 18% Mexico/Central America, 16% the Caribbean). Two%, 12%, and 83% of respondents reported that smoking was allowed in clinical environments, other indoor environments, and outdoor environments of their dental schools, respectively. Mean importance ratings for each of the competencies were as follows: Ask (4.71), Advise (4.54), Assess (4.41), Assist (4.07), and Arrange (4.01). Overall, LAC dental educators agree that TUPAC training should be incorporated in dental curricula. Assist and Arrange competencies were rated lower, relative to other competencies. Tobacco use among dental educators and high rates of on-campus smoking could potentially pose barriers to promoting cessation interventions in the LAC dental schools. PMID:24385339

  16. First aid for dental trauma caused by sports activities: state of knowledge, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Emerich, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Jan

    2010-05-01

    In view of the widespread lack of knowledge of first aid procedures in cases of dental trauma, this article describes the current state of knowledge and highlights the need for education of those likely to witness or be victims of dental trauma while practising sports. Dental and oral injuries, the commonest type of orofacial injuries, are often sustained by athletes playing contact sports; indeed, they represent the most frequent type of sporting injury. Studies of a large group of children and adults have shown that as many as 31% of all orofacial injuries are caused by sporting activities. Furthermore, current literature on the subject emphasizes that awareness of appropriate triage procedures following dental trauma is unsatisfactory. Delay in treatment is the single most influential factor affecting prognosis. What should we know and, more importantly, what should we do? Immediate replantation of an avulsed tooth is the best treatment option at the site of the accident. If replantation is impossible, milk is the preferred transport medium for the avulsed tooth. There is a general low level of awareness about the need for prompt triage of traumatic dental injuries sustained in sports, despite their relative frequency. When a cohort of Swiss basketball players was interviewed, only half were aware that an avulsed tooth could be replanted. Cheap, commercially available tooth storage devices containing an isotonic transport medium (so-called 'Save-a-Tooth boxes'), can maintain the viability of an avulsed tooth for up to 72 hours, prior to replantation. More readily available storage media such as milk, sterile saline or even saliva may be used, but knowledge of this information is rare among sports participants. For example, just 6.6% of the Swiss basketball players interviewed were aware of the 'Tooth Rescue box' products. Sporting organizations seem to offer very little information about sports-related risks or preventive strategies for orodental trauma. Having

  17. First aid for dental trauma caused by sports activities: state of knowledge, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Emerich, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Jan

    2010-05-01

    In view of the widespread lack of knowledge of first aid procedures in cases of dental trauma, this article describes the current state of knowledge and highlights the need for education of those likely to witness or be victims of dental trauma while practising sports. Dental and oral injuries, the commonest type of orofacial injuries, are often sustained by athletes playing contact sports; indeed, they represent the most frequent type of sporting injury. Studies of a large group of children and adults have shown that as many as 31% of all orofacial injuries are caused by sporting activities. Furthermore, current literature on the subject emphasizes that awareness of appropriate triage procedures following dental trauma is unsatisfactory. Delay in treatment is the single most influential factor affecting prognosis. What should we know and, more importantly, what should we do? Immediate replantation of an avulsed tooth is the best treatment option at the site of the accident. If replantation is impossible, milk is the preferred transport medium for the avulsed tooth. There is a general low level of awareness about the need for prompt triage of traumatic dental injuries sustained in sports, despite their relative frequency. When a cohort of Swiss basketball players was interviewed, only half were aware that an avulsed tooth could be replanted. Cheap, commercially available tooth storage devices containing an isotonic transport medium (so-called 'Save-a-Tooth boxes'), can maintain the viability of an avulsed tooth for up to 72 hours, prior to replantation. More readily available storage media such as milk, sterile saline or even saliva may be used, but knowledge of this information is rare among sports participants. For example, just 6.6% of the Swiss basketball players interviewed were aware of the 'Tooth Rescue box' products. Sporting organizations seem to offer very little information about sports-related risks or preventive strategies for orodental trauma. Having

  18. Xylitol pediatric topical oral syrup to prevent dental caries: a double blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Peter; Ly, Kiet A.; Tut, Ohnmar K.; Mancl, Lloyd; Roberts, Marilyn C.; Briand, Kennar; Gancio, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a xylitol pediatric topical oral syrup to reduce the incidence of dental caries of very young children. Design Randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. Setting Communities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Participants 108 children aged 9 to 15 months were screened and 100 were enrolled. Intervention Children were randomized and parents administered topical oral xylitol syrup two times (Xyl-2X, two xylitol 4.00 g/dose + one sorbitol dose) or three times (Xyl-3X, three xylitol 2.67 g/dose) per day (total 8 g) or control (one xylitol 2.67 g/dose + two sorbitol dose). Outcome Measures The outcome end-point of the study was the number of decayed primary teeth. Results Ninety-four of 100 children (mean±SD age, 15.0±2.7 months at randomization) with at least one follow-up exam were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. The mean±SD follow-up period was 10.5±2.2 months. Nearly 52% of children in the control condition had tooth decay compared to 40.6% among Xyl-3X and 24.2% among Xyl-2X conditions. The mean±SD number of decayed teeth was 1.9±2.4 for control, 1.0±1.4 for Xyl-3X, and 0.6±1.1 for Xyl-2X condition. Compared to controls, there was significantly fewer decayed teeth in the Xyl-2X (relative risk [RR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13, 0.66; P=.003) and Xyl-3X (RR, 0.50; 95% CI 0.26, 0.96; P=0.037) conditions. There was no statistical difference between the two xylitol treatment conditions (P=0.22). Conclusion Oral xylitol syrup administered topically two or three times each day at a total dose of 8 g was effective in preventing Early Childhood Caries. PMID:19581542

  19. Dental plaque, preventive care, and tooth brushing associated with dental caries in primary teeth in schoolchildren ages 6–9 years of Leon, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    del Socorro Herrera, Miriam; Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of various risk indicators for dental caries on primary teeth of Nicaraguan children (from Leon, Nicaragua) ages 6 to 9, using the negative binomial regression model. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 794 schoolchildren ages 6 to 9 years, randomly selected from 25 schools in the city of León, Nicaragua. Clinical examinations for dental caries (dmft index) were performed by 2 trained and standardized examiners. Socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were self-reported using questionnaires. Multivariate negative binomial regression (NBR) analysis was used. Results Mean age was 7.49±1.12 years. Boys accounted for 50.1% of the sample. Mean dmft was 3.54±3.13 and caries prevalence (dmft >0) was 77.6%. In the NBR multivariate model (p<0.05), for each year of age, the expected mean dmft decreased by 7.5%. Brushing teeth at least once a day and having received preventive dental care in the last year before data collection were associated with declines in the expected mean dmft by 19.5% and 69.6%, respectively. Presence of dental plaque increased the expected mean dmft by 395.5%. Conclusions The proportion of students with caries in this sample was high. We found associations between dental caries in the primary dentition and dental plaque, brushing teeth at least once a day, and having received preventive dental care. To improve oral health, school programs and/or age-appropriate interventions need to be developed based on the specific profile of caries experience and the associated risk indicators. PMID:24247119

  20. A Pilot Study of Parent, Dentist, and Independent Rater Assessment of Child Distress During Preventive Dental Visits

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Travis M.; Huebner, Colleen E.; Kim, Amy; Scott, JoAnna M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although typically not painful, preventive dental care can be distressing to young children. A greater understanding of how adults perceive child distress may enable clinicians to improve the patient/parent experience through alignment of values and facilitation of shared decision-making. This study examined the association between parent, dentist, and independent observer (IO) ratings of child distress during preventive dental procedures. Methods 65 children under 3 years of age were seen for preventive dental care at a university-based dental clinic. Parents, dentists, and an IO rated intensity of child distress (0 = none; 5 = extreme) during 4 phases of the dental visit: pre-exam, positioning, prophylaxis/exam/fluoride, and post-exam. Results The average age of the children was 24.4 months (SD 7.2). The prophylaxis/exam/fluoride phase was judged to be most distress inducing. Mean distress ratings for this phase were: 2.30 (parents), 2.47 (dentists), and 3.08 (IO). This difference was statistically significant (p = .04). The IO ratings were significantly different from parents (for 3 phases) and dentists (for 1 phase); no statistically significant differences were noted between parent and dentist ratings for any phase. Conclusions There was a strong agreement between parents’ and dentists’ ratings of child distress during preventive dental procedures. PMID:27620517

  1. Preferences for caries prevention agents in adult patients: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Ajmo, Craig T.; Amundson, Craig; Anderson, Gerald A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors that are significantly associated with dentists’ use of specific caries preventive agents in adult patients, and whether dentists who use one preventive agent are also more likely to use certain others. Methods Data were collected from 564 practitioners in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network, a multi-region consortium of participating practices and dental organizations. Results In-office topical fluoride was the method most frequently used. Regarding at-home preventive agents, there was little difference in preference between non-prescription fluoride, prescription fluoride, or chlorhexidine rinse. Dentists who most frequently used caries prevention were also those who regularly perform caries risk assessment and individualize caries prevention at the patient level. Higher percentages of patients with dental insurance were significantly associated with more use of in-office prevention modalities. Female dentists and dentists with more-recent training were more likely to recommend preventive agents that are applied by the patient. Dentists who reported more-conservative decisions in clinical treatment scenarios were also more likely to use caries preventive agents. Groups of dentist who shared a common preference for certain preventive agents were identified. One group used preventive agents selectively, whereas the other groups predominately used either in-office or at-home fluorides. Conclusions Caries prevention is commonly used with adult patients. However, these results suggest that only a subset of dentists base preventive treatments on caries risk at the individual patient level. PMID:20560997

  2. [Assessment of disinfection and sterilization processes in dental practice as an important factors in prevention of infections].

    PubMed

    Podgórska, Marta; Jakimiak, Bozenna; Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Chojecka, Agnieszka

    2009-01-01

    The dental health-care settings is an environment where disease transmission occurs easily. Prevention of cross infection is therefore a crucial aspect of dental practice and dental clinic stuffmust adopt certain basic routines while practicing. Infections may be transmitted in the dental operatory through direct contact with blood, oral fluids or other secretions; via indirect contact with contaminated instruments, equipment or environmental surfaces; or by contact with airborne contaminants present in either droplet splatter or aerosols of oral and respiratory fluids. Strategies to prevent dental patient infections have focused on disinfection and sterilization. This study evaluates basic routines in prevention of cross-infection in the dentistry. The sample comprised 100 dentists, who completed questionnaires. Based on inquires the conditions for disinfection and sterilization of medical devices were assessed. The following issues were taken into consideration: the way of disinfection and preparation of the disinfectants, the localization of disinfection, preparing to disinfection, washing and packing of dental devices, the frequency of disinfection, methods of sterilization and the monitoring system, type of sterilizers and the available cycles. The dental practices are well equiped to proceed the steam sterilization, but 33% of dentists don't know the available cycles in their autoclaves. Only 35% of them made sterilization process protocols. Very common are three failures of instruments disinfections: multiple use of disinfectant, adding of disinfectant, adding new instruments. There is still need for improvement in disinfection and sterilization in dental practice, especially including: monitoring and documentation of sterilization process, proper use of disinfectants according to manufactures instructions, frequent disinfection of surfaces which contact with patients. Dental stuff should take part in advanced training courses about disinfection and

  3. [Assessment of disinfection and sterilization processes in dental practice as an important factors in prevention of infections].

    PubMed

    Podgórska, Marta; Jakimiak, Bozenna; Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Chojecka, Agnieszka

    2009-01-01

    The dental health-care settings is an environment where disease transmission occurs easily. Prevention of cross infection is therefore a crucial aspect of dental practice and dental clinic stuffmust adopt certain basic routines while practicing. Infections may be transmitted in the dental operatory through direct contact with blood, oral fluids or other secretions; via indirect contact with contaminated instruments, equipment or environmental surfaces; or by contact with airborne contaminants present in either droplet splatter or aerosols of oral and respiratory fluids. Strategies to prevent dental patient infections have focused on disinfection and sterilization. This study evaluates basic routines in prevention of cross-infection in the dentistry. The sample comprised 100 dentists, who completed questionnaires. Based on inquires the conditions for disinfection and sterilization of medical devices were assessed. The following issues were taken into consideration: the way of disinfection and preparation of the disinfectants, the localization of disinfection, preparing to disinfection, washing and packing of dental devices, the frequency of disinfection, methods of sterilization and the monitoring system, type of sterilizers and the available cycles. The dental practices are well equiped to proceed the steam sterilization, but 33% of dentists don't know the available cycles in their autoclaves. Only 35% of them made sterilization process protocols. Very common are three failures of instruments disinfections: multiple use of disinfectant, adding of disinfectant, adding new instruments. There is still need for improvement in disinfection and sterilization in dental practice, especially including: monitoring and documentation of sterilization process, proper use of disinfectants according to manufactures instructions, frequent disinfection of surfaces which contact with patients. Dental stuff should take part in advanced training courses about disinfection and

  4. [Sugar substitutes in the prevention of dental caries: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Borges Yáñez, S A

    1991-08-01

    The prevention of dental caries is not only limited to the use of fluorides or sealants which, in combination with health education programmes and an appropriate oral hygiene, decrease the prevalence of the disease. The partial substitution of sucrose with nonfermentable sweeteners in the diet have shown to have a caries-inhibitory effect. A literature review regarding sugar substitutes is presented. The objective is to identify and describe the different kinds of sweeteners, with special emphasis in sugar alcohols like xylitol and sorbitol, which have shown to have such caries inhibitory-effect.

  5. Oral health disparity in older adults: dental decay and tooth loss.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Paula K; Kaufman, Laura B; Karpas, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Progress has been made in reducing dental caries and edentulism in older adults, but disparities continue to exist related to race, ethnicity, socioeconomic level, and sex. Lack of training in treating medically complex patients, economic factors including absence of coverage for oral health services in Medicare and as a required service for adults in Medicaid, and attitudinal issues on the part of patients, caregivers, and providers contribute to barriers to care for older adults. In addition to the impact of oral health on overall health, oral health impacts quality of life and social and employment opportunities.

  6. Assessing implementation difficulties in tobacco use prevention and cessation counselling among dental providers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco use adversely affects oral health. Clinical guidelines recommend that dental providers promote tobacco abstinence and provide patients who use tobacco with brief tobacco use cessation counselling. Research shows that these guidelines are seldom implemented, however. To improve guideline adherence and to develop effective interventions, it is essential to understand provider behaviour and challenges to implementation. This study aimed to develop a theoretically informed measure for assessing among dental providers implementation difficulties related to tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) counselling guidelines, to evaluate those difficulties among a sample of dental providers, and to investigate a possible underlying structure of applied theoretical domains. Methods A 35-item questionnaire was developed based on key theoretical domains relevant to the implementation behaviours of healthcare providers. Specific items were drawn mostly from the literature on TUPAC counselling studies of healthcare providers. The data were collected from dentists (n = 73) and dental hygienists (n = 22) in 36 dental clinics in Finland using a web-based survey. Of 95 providers, 73 participated (76.8%). We used Cronbach's alpha to ascertain the internal consistency of the questionnaire. Mean domain scores were calculated to assess different aspects of implementation difficulties and exploratory factor analysis to assess the theoretical domain structure. The authors agreed on the labels assigned to the factors on the basis of their component domains and the broader behavioural and theoretical literature. Results Internal consistency values for theoretical domains varied from 0.50 ('emotion') to 0.71 ('environmental context and resources'). The domain environmental context and resources had the lowest mean score (21.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 17.2 to 25.4) and was identified as a potential implementation difficulty. The domain emotion provided the highest

  7. Near-infrared image-guided laser ablation of dental decay

    PubMed Central

    Tao, You-Chen; Fried, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Image-guided laser ablation systems are now feasible for dentistry with the recent development of nondestructive high-contrast imaging modalities such as near-IR (NIR) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that are capable of discriminating between sound and demineralized dental enamel at the early stages of development. Our objective is to demonstrate that images of demineralized tooth surfaces have sufficient contrast to be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural and artificial caries lesions. NIR imaging and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) operating at 1310-nm are used to acquire images of natural lesions on extracted human teeth and highly patterned artificial lesions produced on bovine enamel. NIR and PS-OCT images are analyzed and converted to binary maps designating the areas on the samples to be removed by a CO2 laser to selectively remove the lesions. Postablation NIR and PS-OCT images confirmed preferential removal of demineralized areas with minimal damage to sound enamel areas. These promising results suggest that NIR and PS-OCT imaging systems can be integrated with a CO2 laser ablation system for the selective removal of dental caries. PMID:19895146

  8. Near-infrared image-guided laser ablation of dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, You-Chen; Fried, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Image-guided laser ablation systems are now feasible for dentistry with the recent development of nondestructive high-contrast imaging modalities such as near-IR (NIR) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that are capable of discriminating between sound and demineralized dental enamel at the early stages of development. Our objective is to demonstrate that images of demineralized tooth surfaces have sufficient contrast to be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural and artificial caries lesions. NIR imaging and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) operating at 1310-nm are used to acquire images of natural lesions on extracted human teeth and highly patterned artificial lesions produced on bovine enamel. NIR and PS-OCT images are analyzed and converted to binary maps designating the areas on the samples to be removed by a CO2 laser to selectively remove the lesions. Postablation NIR and PS-OCT images confirmed preferential removal of demineralized areas with minimal damage to sound enamel areas. These promising results suggest that NIR and PS-OCT imaging systems can be integrated with a CO2 laser ablation system for the selective removal of dental caries.

  9. Advances in the prevention of oral disease; the role of the International Association for Dental Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Since its foundation in 1920, prevention of oral disease has been a priority for the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) and the commitment of the organisation to the subject area is clearly expressed in its mission to improve oral health worldwide. The IADR has a current global membership of almost 11,000 people who share an interest in oral and craniofacial research. Contribution of IADR This paper provides an overview of the contribution of IADR to supporting research and associated activities in disease prevention, in disseminating knowledge and in advocating for better oral health for all citizens of the world. It looks back over time and summarises current supports. Two more recent initiatives in disease prevention are described in more detail, the Global Oral Health Inequalities Research Agenda (GOHIRA) and the proceedings at the 2013 World Conference on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD, 2013), a joint initiative between IADR and WHO. Through organisational structure, meetings, publications, scientific groups and networks and external relations, IADR has been at the forefront of advancing research for the prevention of oral diseases. Conclusions IADR is committed to ensuring research advances get disseminated and implemented and at the same time encourages and advocates for basic, clinical and translational research across disciplines so that we may uncover the major breakthrough in prevention of oral disease. PMID:26391001

  10. A randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services: the Northern Ireland Caries Prevention In Practice (NIC-PIP) trial.

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Martin; O'Neill, Ciaran; Donaldson, Michael; Birch, Stephen; Noble, Solveig; Killough, Seamus; Murphy, Lynn; Greer, Margaret; Brodison, Julie; Verghis, Rejina; Worthington, Helen V

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dental caries is the most common disease of childhood. The NHS guidelines promote preventative care in dental practices, particularly for young children. However, the cost-effectiveness of this policy has not been established. OBJECTIVE To measure the effects and costs of a composite fluoride intervention designed to prevent caries in young children attending dental services. DESIGN The study was a two-arm, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial, with an allocation ratio of 1 : 1. Randomisation was by clinical trials unit, using randomised permuted blocks. Children/families were not blinded; however, outcome assessment was blinded to group assessment. SETTING The study took place in 22 NHS dental practices in Northern Ireland, UK. PARTICIPANTS The study participants were children aged 2-3 years, who were caries free at baseline. INTERVENTIONS The intervention was composite in nature, comprising a varnish containing 22,600 parts per million (p.p.m.) fluoride, a toothbrush and a 50-ml tube of toothpaste containing 1450 p.p.m. fluoride; plus standardised, evidence-based prevention advice provided at 6-monthly intervals over 3 years. The control group received the prevention advice alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were the number of decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces in primary dentition (dmfs) in caries-active children, the number of episodes of pain, the number of extracted teeth and the costs of care. Adverse reactions (ARs) were recorded. RESULTS A total of 1248 children (624 randomised to each group) were recruited and 1096 (549 in the intervention group and 547 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. A total of 87% of the intervention children and 85% of control children attended every 6-month visit (p = 0.77). In total, 187 (34%) children in the intervention group converted to caries active, compared

  11. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Cadore, Peterson; Gallon, Andrea; Imanishi, Soraia Almeida Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the crosscontamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Methods: Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Results: Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tested and the presence of invisible and remnant blood was identified in 28 (58.3%) items. Conclusions: We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting. PMID:25400895

  12. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…

  13. A comparative study of the effect of probiotics on cariogenic biofilm model for preventing dental caries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Jae

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries is induced by oral biofilm containing Streptococcus mutans. Probiotic bacteria were mainly studied for effect on the gastrointestinal tract and have been known to promote human health. However, the information of probiotics for oral health has been lack yet. In this study, we investigated influence of various probiotics on oral bacteria or cariogenic biofilm and evaluated candidate probiotics for dental caries among them. The antimicrobial activity of the spent culture medium of probiotics for oral streptococci was performed. Probiotics were added during the biofilm formation with salivary bacteria including S. mutans. The oral biofilms were stained with a fluorescent dye and observed using the confocal laser scanning microscope. To count bacteria in the biofilm, the bacteria were plated on MSB and BHI agar plates after disrupting the biofilm and cultivated. Glucosyltransferases (gtfs) expression of S. mutans and integration of lactobacilli into the biofilm were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Among probiotics, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited growth of oral streptococci. Moreover, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited formation of cariogenic biofilm model. The expression of gtfs was significantly reduced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The integration of L. rhamnosus into the biofilm model did not exhibit. However, L. acidophilus and L casei integrated into the biofilm model. These results suggest that L. rhamnosus may inhibit oral biofilm formation by decreasing glucan production of S. mutans and antibacterial activity and did not integrate into oral biofilm, which can be a candidate for caries prevention strategy.

  14. Preventing dental calculus formation in lemurs (Lemur catta, Eulemur fulvus collaris) and baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    PubMed

    Willis, G P; Kapustin, N; Warrick, J M; Miller, L L; Stookey, G K; Hopkins, D T; Doan, E J; Ross, S R

    1999-09-01

    The prevention of calculus accumulation in exotic animals is a relatively unexplored topic. A 6-mo study in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and collared lemurs (Eulemur fulvus collaris) and two studies in baboons (Papio cynocephalus) (7.5 wks and 6.5 mo) tested the benefits of a primate diet coated with 0.6% sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) in controlling calculus in these species using a sequential crossover design. The control regimen was an identical, but non-HMP-coated, dry primate chow. At study initiation, the primates were given a thorough dental prophylaxis and provided with the control diet or experimental diet. At the conclusion of the test period, the animals were anesthetized and examined for clinical calculus independently by two examiners. The animals were then given another dental prophylaxis, provided the alternate ration, and the foregoing procedures were repeated. When the animals were provided the HMP-coated diet, significant reductions in calculus formation of 48-62% were observed in the lemurs and the baboons. No clinically significant changes were observed in body weights or in blood chemistry values as a result of ingestion of the HMP-coated regimen. PMID:10572860

  15. The Caries Management System: an evidence-based preventive strategy for dental practitioners. Application for adults.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W; Pakdaman, A; Dennison, P J; Howe, E L C

    2008-03-01

    In the absence of effective caries preventive methods, operative care became established as the means for caries control in general practice. Water fluoridation resulted in a declining caries incidence which decreased further following the advent of fluoridated toothpaste. The challenge today is to develop a non-invasive model of practice that will sustain a low level of primary caries experience in the younger generation and reduce risk of caries experience in the older generations. The Caries Management System is a ten step non-invasive strategy to arrest and remineralize early lesions. The governing principle of this system is that caries management must include consideration of the patient at risk, the status of each lesion, patient management, clinical management and monitoring. Both dental caries risk and treatment are managed according to a set of protocols that are applied at various steps throughout patient consultation and treatment. The anticipated outcome of implementing the Caries Management System in general dental practice is reduction in caries incidence and increased patient satisfaction. Since the attainment and maintenance of oral health is determined mainly by controlling both caries and periodontal disease, the implementation of the Caries Management System in general practice will promote both outcomes.

  16. Computer laser system for prevention and treatment of dental diseases: new methods and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyai, S. G.; Prochonchukov, Alexander A.; Zhizhina, Nina A.; Metelnikov, Michael A.

    1995-05-01

    We report results of clinical application of the new computer-laser system. The system includes hardware and software means, which are applied for new efficient methods of prevention and treatment of main dental diseases. The hardware includes a laser physiotherapeutic device (LPD) `Optodan' and a fiberoptic laser delivery system with special endodontic rigging. The semiconductor AG-AL-AG laser diode with wavelengths in the spectral range of 850 - 950 nm (produced by Scientific-Industrial Concern `Reflector') is used as a basic unit. The LPD `Optodan' and methods of treatment are covered by Russian patent No 2014107 and certified by the Russian Ministry of Health. The automated computer system allows us to examine patients quickly and to input differential diagnosis, to determine indications (and contraindications), parameters and regimen of laser therapy, to control treatment efficacy (for carious -- through clinical indexes of enamel solubles, velocity of demineralization and other tests; for periodontal diseases trough complex of the periodontal indexes with automated registry and calculation). We present last results of application of the new technique and methods in treatment of dental diseases in Russian clinics.

  17. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS): A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v) dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983) were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions) from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877 PMID:20923557

  18. The use of topical fluoride to prevent or reverse dental caries.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Peter; Young, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Topical fluoride has been the main stay of caries prevention for many decades. There are several mechanisms which make it beneficial including inhibiting demineralization, enhancing remineralization, and inhibiting bacterial growth. Topical fluoride is available in many different forms. The concentrations of various fluoride preparations range from 225 parts per million (ppm) fluoride in over-the-counter oral rinses to 22,600 ppm in the fluoride varnishes. The clinician must decide which type of topical preparation is best suited for their patient. Patients with high caries risk may benefit from prescription strength fluorides (along with the other chemical and dietary therapies described in this issue of Special Care in Dentistry). The application of fluoride varnish is an excellent topical form for those patients who have access to dental care and for whom it is difficult to comply with the use of other topical forms.

  19. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping

    This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.

  20. Critique of the review of 'Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries' published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2015.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, A J; Spencer, A J; Whelton, H P; Jones, C; Beal, J F; Castle, P; Cooney, P V; Johnson, J; Kelly, M P; Lennon, M A; McGinley, J; O'Mullane, D; Sgan-Cohen, H D; Sharma, P P; Thomson, W M; Woodward, S M; Zusman, S P

    2016-04-01

    The Cochrane Review on water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries was published in 2015 and attracted considerable interest and comment, especially in countries with extensive water fluoridation programmes. The Review had two objectives: (i) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on the prevention of dental caries, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on dental fluorosis. The authors concluded, inter alia, that there was very little contemporary evidence, meeting the Review's inclusion criteria, that evaluated the effectiveness of water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. The purpose of this critique is to examine the conduct of the above Review, and to put it into context in the wider body of evidence regarding the effectiveness of water fluoridation. While the overall conclusion that water fluoridation is effective in caries prevention agrees with previous reviews, many important public health questions could not be answered by the Review because of the restrictive criteria used to judge adequacy of study design and risk of bias. The potential benefits of using wider criteria in order to achieve a fuller understanding of the effectiveness of water fluoridation are discussed. PMID:27056513

  1. The Outcome of a Preventive Dental Care Programme on the Prevalence of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis in Down's Syndrome Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigmond, Maora; Stabholz, A.; Shapira, J.; Bachrach, G.; Chaushu, G.; Becker, A.; Yefenof, E.; Merrick, J.; Chaushu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Periodontal disease in Down's syndrome (DS) individuals develops earlier and is more rapid and extensive than in age-matched normal individuals. The present study evaluated a group of DS patients, who had been participating in a 10-year preventive dental programme, for the impact of the programme on their periodontal status. Methods:…

  2. Tackling stress management, addiction, and suicide prevention in a predoctoral dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    Brondani, Mario A; Ramanula, Dhorea; Pattanaporn, Komkhamn

    2014-09-01

    Health care professionals, particularly dentists, are subject to high levels of stress. Without proper stress management, problems related to mental health and addiction and, to a lesser extent, deliberate self-harm such as suicide may arise. There is a lack of information on teaching methodologies employed to discuss stress management and suicide prevention in dental education. The purpose of this article is to describe a University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry module designed to address stress management and suicide prevention, using students' personal reflections to illustrate the impact of the pedagogies used. The module enrolls more than 200 students per year and has sessions tailored to the discussion of stress management and suicide prevention. The pedagogies include standardized patients, invited guest lectures, in-class activities, video presentation, and self-reflections. More than 500 students' self-reflections collected over the past five years illustrate the seriousness of the issues discussed and the level of discomfort students experience when pondering such issues. The instructors hope to have increased students' awareness of the stressors in their profession. Further studies are needed to unravel the extent to which such pedagogy influences a balanced practice of dentistry.

  3. American Dental Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Prevention Summit ADA Find-a-Dentist Health Literacy in Dentistry Volunteer Efforts Dental Benefit Plan Information ... on Sleep Bruxism Rethinking Dental Insurance Oral Health Literacy's Role in Missed Appointments Dental Implant Failure Rate ...

  4. Prevention of infective endocarditis: a review of the medical and dental literature.

    PubMed

    Barco, C T

    1991-08-01

    This paper is a review of what is presently known about the cause and prevention of infective endocarditis. Systemic antibiotics alone are not always enough for an effective prevention of infective endocarditis. Non-streptococcus bacteria frequently found in the periodontal pocket are now reported as causing infective endocarditis; these bacteria are not uniformly susceptible to the antibiotics recommended for prophylaxis. Animal studies indicate that periodontal disease does increase the incidence of infective endocarditis and that the number of microbes entering the blood stream may not be as important in the production of infective endocarditis as other qualities, such as the microbe's ability to adhere. Antibiotics may affect the ability of a microorganism to adhere to tissues of the heart, but this association is yet unclear and may vary with the antibiotic and species of bacteria. Reduction of inflammation of the periodontal tissues is of the utmost importance in the prevention of infective endocarditis; however, mouthrinses have a very limited effect in a periodontal pocket of more than 3 mm in depth and irrigation of a periodontal pocket may create a dangerous bacteremia. Nevertheless, in addition to systemic antibiotics, local antimicrobial agents followed by routine dental treatment and maintenance show promise as an effective means for the prevention of infective endocarditis. Future research in the prevention of infective endocarditis should include placement of antimicrobials in the periodontal pocket and systemic agents that reduce platelet adhesion. The suggestions presented in this review are only recommendations for further research and are not to be construed as a substitute for the current guidelines.

  5. Access to Dental Care for Children in Rhode Island. Rhode Island Kids Count Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Linda; Fontes, Janice; Ross, Maureen; Lawrence, Robin; Andrews, John; Kernan, Sharon; Leddy, Tricia; O'Bara, Joan; Young, John

    Dental disease restricts activities in school, work, and home, and often significantly diminishes the quality of life for many children and adults, especially those who are low income or uninsured. Noting that dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common preventable chronic childhood disease, this Kids Count issue brief considers the extent to…

  6. Alternatives to fluoride in the prevention and treatment of dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Wiegand, Annette

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, different agents have been discussed as potential alternatives to fluoride in the prevention of dental erosion. These agents are intended to form acid-resistant layers on the surface, to induce repair of eroded lesions by mineral precipitation or to prevent the enzymatic degradation of demineralised collagen. The application of adhesives and/or fissure sealants is considered to be an effective alternative to fluoride, but requires professional application and, depending on the product used, a re-sealing of the surface every several months. Studies testing film-forming products, such as polymers, have suggested the potential effectiveness of some of these approaches, such as chitosan, although further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this approach. Other studies have demonstrated that products designed to deliver calcium and/or phosphate have not been successful at providing a significant anti-erosive effect. In advanced erosive lesions, the demineralised collagenous dentine matrix can be degraded by host enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). As well as fluorides, epigallocatechin gallate and chlorhexidine have been identified as effective MMP inhibitors, with the potential to reduce the progression of dentine erosion. While fluoride compounds have been shown to have an anti-erosive potential, particularly those containing tin, alternative approaches that provide even greater protective capacity still need to be developed and proven to be effective.

  7. Application of chimeric glucanase comprising mutanase and dextranase for prevention of dental biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Ryoko; Imai, Susumu; Murata, Takatoshi; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Tsumori, Hideaki; Kakuta, Erika; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Momoi, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) produced by mutans streptococci, an important cariogenic pathogen, plays an important role in the formation of dental biofilm and adhesion of biofilm to tooth surfaces. Glucanohydrolases, such as mutanase (α-1,3-glucanase) and dextranase (α-1,6-glucanase), are able to hydrolyze WIG. The purposes of this study were to construct bi-functional chimeric glucanase, composed of mutanase and dextranase, and to examine the effects of this chimeric glucanase on the formation and decomposition of biofilm. The mutanase gene from Paenibacillus humicus NA1123 and the dextranase gene from Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were cloned and ligated into a pE-SUMOstar Amp plasmid vector. The resultant his-tagged fusion chimeric glucanase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and partially purified. The effects of chimeric glucanase on the formation and decomposition of biofilm formed on a glass surface by Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 glucosyltransferases were then examined. This biofilm was fractionated into firmly adherent, loosely adherent, and non-adherent WIG fractions. Amounts of WIG in each fraction were determined by a phenol-sulfuric acid method, and reducing sugars were quantified by the Somogyi-Nelson method. Chimeric glucanase reduced the formation of the total amount of WIG in a dose-dependent manner, and significant reductions of WIG in the adherent fraction were observed. Moreover, the chimeric glucanase was able to decompose biofilm, being 4.1 times more effective at glucan inhibition of biofilm formation than a mixture of dextranase and mutanase. These results suggest that the chimeric glucanase is useful for prevention of dental biofilm formation.

  8. Level of information concerning dental injuries and their prevention in Swiss basketball--a survey among players and coaches.

    PubMed

    Perunski, Sandra; Lang, Björn; Pohl, Yango; Filippi, Andreas

    2005-08-01

    Basketball carries a medium risk of dental injuries. Swiss data are not available in this respect. Using a standardized questionnaire 302 basketball players from 29 Swiss teams and their 29 coaches were interviewed. The questions focused on the frequency of dental accidents, their prevention and subsequent procedure. The participating 302 players came from three divisions: semi-professional players of National League A and B (102), amateurs of Regional League 2 and 3 (100) and young people of up to the age of 18 (100). The data were evaluated in relation to division, sex and team function. Of the 331 interviewed persons 102 had already seen a dental trauma in basketball and 55 had already had a dental trauma. Only four of the interviewed persons wore mouthguards. The awareness of the procedure following a dental trauma was unsatisfactory. The results of the survey show that significantly more information and education is required in Swiss basketball not only through sports associations but also through coaches and dentists.

  9. Effects of common dental materials used in preventive or operative dentistry on dentin permeability and remineralization.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Salvatore; Thompson, Ian; Watson, Timothy F

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dentin remineralization induced by bioactive substances contained in common dental materials used in preventive and operative dentistry. Several materials were applied on human dentin segments. Dentin permeability was quantified using a fluid filtration system working at 20 cm H(2)O. Micro-Raman, SEM-EDX, and microhardness calculation were used to evaluate changes in the mineralization of dentin. Dentin treated with the prophylactic materials showed different dentin permeability values, in particular subsequent to immersion in remineralizing solutions (RSS). The bioactive glass (Sylc) was the only substance able to reduce dentin permeability after immersion in remineralizing solution and to show hydroxyapatite precipitation as a sign of dentin remineralization. The reduction in dentin permeability obtained after the application of the other prophylactic materials used in this study was due to the presence of the remnant material in the dentinal tubules, with no remineralization effect after storage in remineralizing solution. In conclusion, the results indicated that bioactive glass prophy powder may induce immediate remineralization of dentin. PMID:21777102

  10. Hand-held water fluoride analysis: An accessible caries prevention tool for dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Quock, Ryan L; Yank, Stephanie W; Chan, Jarvis T

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to compare the relative accuracy of a commercially available hand-held water fluoride analysis unit with a standard laboratory bench-top fluoride-specific electrode/millivoltmeter apparatus, with the goal of identifying possible practical applications of the hand-held unit for preventive dentistry. The units analyzed identical gravimetrically prepared fluoride solutions ranging from 0.1 to 4.0 ppm. The average difference between the measurements from the hand-held unit and the nominal values of the fluoride solutions was 0.011 ppm (SD = 0.068), and the average difference between the hand-held unit's measurements and the bench-top unit's measurements was 0.030 ppm (SD = 0.115). T-test analysis demonstrated no statistical difference between measurements from the hand-held unit with either the nominal values of the fluoride solutions or the bench-top unit's measurements. Results indicate that the hand-held water fluoride analysis unit has an appropriate level of accuracy for the measurement of fluoride levels in drinking water samples by dental professionals.

  11. Comparison of the effects of secondary prevention in schoolchildren between hospitals with and without mobile dental services in Southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tianviwat, Sukanya; Birch, Stephen; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of hospital clinics with and without adjunct mobile services for the delivery of secondary prevention for caries in Thai schoolchildren. A dental survey was conducted in schools served by different dental services. 711 schoolchildren were selected from primary schools in Southern Thailand by multistage cluster random sampling. WHO basic oral health survey methods were employed to evaluate three outcomes of secondary prevention: 1) Coverage of secondary prevention - all filled teeth (FT+D(F)T) among caries experienced teeth (DMFT), 2) Effectiveness of secondary prevention - successfully filled teeth (FT) among all filled teeth (FT+D(F)T) and 3) Protective effect of secondary prevention- successfully filled teeth (FT) among caries experienced teeth (DMFT). The respective percentages were 74.3, 97.5 and 72.5 in the children served by hospital-only services, and 41.3, 97.2 and 40.2 in the other group. From clustered logistic regression modeling, only the first and third outcomes were significantly different between the two access groups. This study showed that adjunct mobile service may be less effective in secondary prevention.

  12. Community-oriented administration of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries: a summary of the current situation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P E; Baez, R J; Lennon, M A

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease affecting human populations around the world. It is recognized that fluoride plays a significant role in dental caries reduction. Meanwhile, several low- and middle-income countries of Asia have not yet implemented systematic fluoride programs; contributing factors relate to misconceptions about the mechanisms of fluoride, low priority given to oral health in national health policy and strategic plans, and lack of interest among public health administrators. A workshop on the effective use of fluoride in Asia took place in Phang-Nga, Thailand, in 2011. A series of country presentations addressed some of the topics mentioned above; in addition, speakers from countries of the region provided examples of successful fluoride interventions and discussed program limitations, barriers encountered, and solutions, as well as possibilities for expanding coverage. Participants acknowledged that automatic fluoridation through water, salt, and milk is the most effective and equitable strategy for the prevention of dental caries. Concerns were expressed that government-subsidized community fluoride prevention programs may face privatization. In addition, the use of affordable fluoride-containing toothpastes should be encouraged. The workshop identified: strengths and weaknesses of ongoing community-based fluoride programs, as well as the interest of countries in a particular method; the requirement for World Health Organization (WHO) technical assistance on various aspects, including fluoridation process, feasibility studies, and implementation of effective epidemiological surveillance of the program; exchange of information; and the need for inter-country collaboration. It was acknowledged that program process and evaluation at the local and country levels need further dissemination. The meeting was co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, the International Association for Dental Research, and the World Dental Federation.

  13. [Nosocomial infections--study about the implementation level of preventive measures in the dental office].

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Cristina; Anţilă, Melisa; Suciu, Oana; Cheptănariu, Delia; Olariu, T R

    2006-01-01

    Nosocomial infection occurs in the hospital and other medical offices and expresses any disease, that affects the patient due to hospital admission or the received care, the activity of the medical personnel, no matter that symptoms appear or not in the hospital or outside. In the performed study we proposed to investigate the implementation level of the measures of nosocomial infections prophylaxis in dental office. The study consisted in a transversal epidemiologic inquiry through a specific questionnaire applying in a sample of 50 patients treated for dental diseases in the dental office. The items refer to the implementation level of the prophylaxis measures in the dental office. The obtained results revealed a proper patients' addressing at dental office and some deficiencies of the personnel medical activity in dental office, such as : does not wear the surgery gloves and mask, does not use the salvo vacuum for patients protection. Also, we find out a deficient medical education referring to hygiene conditions in dental office. In conclusion, there are deficiencies of the prophylaxis measures in dental office.

  14. Quality of Reporting in Economic Evaluations of Interventions to Prevent Dental Caries Needs Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Susan O.; Jones, Kari

    2016-01-01

    . Conclusions The authors conclude that the quality of reporting in economic evaluations of interventions to prevent dental caries needs to be improved. PMID:23407213

  15. Effect of honey in preventing gingivitis and dental caries in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Atwa, AL-Dany A.; AbuShahba, Ramadan Y.; Mostafa, Marwa; Hashem, Mohamed I.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the following: (1) the effects of chewing honey on plaque formation in orthodontic patients, (2) the effect of chewing honey on dental plaque bacterial counts, (3) determine if honey possesses antibacterial effects on bacteria recovered from plaques. Methods Female orthodontic patients (n = 20, 12–18 years of age) participated in this randomized controlled study. The effects of honey were compared to treatment with either 10% sucrose or 10% sorbitol that served as positive and negative controls, respectively. The pH of plaque was measured using a digital pH meter prior to baseline and at 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min after chewing honey or rinsing with control solutions and the numbers of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli, and Prophymonas gingivalis in respective plaques were determined. The antibacterial activity of honey was tested against commonly used antibiotics using the disk diffusion method. Results Significant differences in pH were observed in the honey and sucrose groups compared to the pH observed in the sorbitol group (p ⩽ 0.001). The maximum pH drop occurred at 5 min in both the honey and sucrose groups; however the pH in the honey group rapidly recovered 10–20 min after exposure and did not drop below the critical decalcification pH of 5.5. On the other hand, the pH following sucrose exposure fell <5.5 and was associated with a 30 min recovery time. The pH observed for the sorbitol group did not change over time. Bacterial counts were significantly reduced in the honey group compared to the other treatment groups (p ⩽ 0.001) and honey significantly inhibited the growth of all studied strains compared to inhibition observed with antibiotics (p ⩽ 0.001). Conclusions Honey can be used as an alternative to traditional remedies for the prevention of dental caries and gingivitis following orthodontic treatment. PMID:25057231

  16. Republic of the Marshall Islands: planning and implementation of a dental caries prevention program for an island nation.

    PubMed

    Tut, Ohnmar K; Greer, Mark H K; Milgrom, Peter

    2005-03-01

    The Republic of Marshall Islands (R.M.I.) is an island state in eastern Micronesia with a landmass of 70 square miles scattered across 750,000 square miles of the western Pacific Ocean with a national population of approximately 51,000. In a 2002 children's oral health survey, 85 percent of six year old children in the R.M.I. capital of Majuro were found to have had at least one carious tooth and 65 percent had 5 or more affected teeth. The mean caries prevalence among primary (or baby) teeth was 5.79 decayed or filled teeth (dft), a caries prevalence rate close to three times the U.S. national mean. While 12.3 percent were caries-free, 65.0 percent had experienced 5 or more affected teeth (rampant caries). Of these, less than 1 percent had received any form of dental treatment. Comparably remarkable early childhood dental disease rates were also observed on other populated islands and atolls. In response to the rampant dental disease shown to be affecting young children, the R.M.I. Ministry of Health has proposed the implementation of a strategy targeting the pre-natal / pen-natal environment, young parents, pre-school and elementary school children. PMID:18181475

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase-20 mediates dental enamel biomineralization by preventing protein occlusion inside apatite crystals.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Saumya; Tao, Jinhui; Ruan, Qichao; De Yoreo, James J; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of enamel-like materials is a central topic of research in dentistry and material sciences. The importance of precise proteolytic mechanisms in amelogenesis to form a hard tissue with more than 95% mineral content has already been reported. A mutation in the Matrix Metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) gene results in hypomineralized enamel that is thin, disorganized and breaks from the underlying dentin. We hypothesized that the absence of MMP-20 during amelogenesis results in the occlusion of amelogenin in the enamel hydroxyapatite crystals. We used spectroscopy and electron microscopy techniques to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze occluded proteins within the isolated enamel crystals from MMP-20 null and Wild type (WT) mice. Our results showed that the isolated enamel crystals of MMP-20 null mice had more organic macromolecules occluded inside them than enamel crystals from the WT. The crystal lattice arrangements of MMP-20 null enamel crystals analyzed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) were found to be significantly different from those of the WT. Raman studies indicated that the crystallinity of the MMP-20 null enamel crystals was lower than that of the WT. In conclusion, we present a novel functional mechanism of MMP-20, specifically prevention of unwanted organic material entrapped in the forming enamel crystals, which occurs as the result of precise amelogenin cleavage. MMP-20 action guides the growth morphology of the forming hydroxyapatite crystals and enhances their crystallinity. Elucidating such molecular mechanisms can be applied in the design of novel biomaterials for future clinical applications in dental restoration or repair.

  18. Child- and state-level characteristics associated with preventive dental care access among U.S. children 5-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei; Sappenfield, William; Hernandez, Leticia; Clark, Cheryl; Liu, Jihong; Collins, Jennifer; Carle, Adam C

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study is to identify factors associated with lack of preventive dental care among U.S. children and state-level factors that explain variation in preventive dental care access across states. We performed bivariate analyses and multilevel regression analyses among 68,350 children aged 5-17 years using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health data and relevant state-level data. Odds ratios (ORs) for child- and state-level variables were calculated to estimate associations with preventive dental care. We calculated interval odds ratios (IOR), median odds ratios (MOR), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to quantify variation in preventive dental care across states. Lack of preventive dental care was associated with various child-level factors. For state-level factors, a higher odds of lack of preventive dental care was associated with a higher percentage of Medicaid-enrolled children not receiving dental services (OR = 1.30, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.47); higher percentage of children uninsured (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.29-1.69); lower dentist-to-population ratio (OR = 1.36, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.80); and lower percentage of dentists submitting Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program claims (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI: 1.01-1.06). IORs for the first three state-level factors did not contain one, indicating that these state-level characteristics were important in understanding variation across states. Lack of preventive dental care varied by state (MOR = 1.40). The state-level variation (ICC = 3.66 %) accounted for a small percentage of child- and state-level variation combined. Child- and state-level characteristics were associated with preventive dental care access among U.S. children aged 5-17 years. State-level factors contribute to variation in dental care access across states and need to be considered in state-level planning.

  19. The prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease from the cradle to the grave: what is the best available evidence?

    PubMed

    Davies, Robin M

    2003-05-01

    Increasing weight is being given to applying an evidence-based approach to clinical practice. There is evidence to support a range of preventive measures which the profession and patients can apply to maximize the control of caries and periodontal disease. This paper examines the strength of evidence to support the advice and procedures that may be used by dental professionals to provide an effective preventive programme of advice and procedures for patients of all ages. A hierarchy of evidence is used ranging from Cochrane Reviews at the top, observational studies in the middle, and opinion at the bottom. Whilst the evidence to support preventive advice and procedures in children and adolescents is relatively strong, few studies have been conducted in adults and the elderly.

  20. (1→3)-α-D-Glucan hydrolases in dental biofilm prevention and control: A review.

    PubMed

    Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Wiater, Adrian; Janczarek, Monika; Szczodrak, Janusz

    2015-08-01

    Dental plaque is a highly diverse biofilm, which has an important function in maintenance of oral and systemic health but in some conditions becomes a cause of oral diseases. In addition to mechanical plaque removal, current methods of dental plaque control involve the use of chemical agents against biofilm pathogens, which however, given the complexity of the oral microbiome, is not sufficiently effective. Hence, there is a need for development of new anti-biofilm approaches. Polysaccharides, especially (1→3),(1→6)-α-D-glucans, which are key structural and functional constituents of the biofilm matrix, seem to be a good target for future therapeutic strategies. In this review, we have focused on (1→3)-α-glucanases, which can limit the cariogenic properties of the dental plaque extracellular polysaccharides. These enzymes are not widely known and have not been exhaustively described in literature.

  1. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and dental practice Part 2. Risk factors for dentistry, magnitude of the problem, prevention, and dental ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Yamalik, Nermin

    2007-02-01

    As a consequence of occupational stresses placed on their bodies, oral health care providers (OHP) are vulnerable to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Muscular imbalance, neuromuscular inhibition, and pain and dysfunction may frequently be observed among OHP. Repeated unnatural, deviated or inadequate working postures, forceful hand movements, inadequate equipment or workplace designs and inappropriate work patterns are likely to be the particular risk factors. However, WMSDs are not an avoidable part of OHPs' professional lives. Paying the necessary attention to occupational and individual risk factors, prevalence, symptoms and consequences of WMSDs, and implementing the recommended health and safety measures can enable a long and healthy career. This review essentially aims to provide background information for OHP regarding the magnitude of the problem, particular risk factors and the available recommendations for prevention. PMID:17378349

  2. Sequential years of dental outreach to Jamaica. Gains toward improved caries status of children.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Charles D; Larsen, Michael D; Kim, Michelle; Yang, Esther; Brown, Noel; Cunningham, Ralph P

    2014-01-01

    In the years 2007 to 2011, faculty, pediatric dental residents and dental students lead by New York University College of Dentistry and Healthcare International Reachout, Inc., traveled to the Hoolebury School, Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica, where they provided treatment to 172 children. The service project focused on dental health promotion, education and prevention. Although not a randomized controlled trial, the statistical evidence from records of treatment received and the presence of decay strongly suggests the positive benefit of repeat dental visits and the placement of sealants on permanent molars in these children.

  3. Use of caries preventive agents on adult patients compared to pediatric patients by general practitioners: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Williams, O. Dale; Ritchie, Lloyd K.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that caries prevention reduces caries in adults. This study tested the frequency of recommended caries prevention agents for children compared to adult patients. Methods This study surveyed 467 Dental Practice-Based Research Network general dentists who practice within the United States and treat both pediatric and adult patients. Dentists were asked the percentage of their patients who are administered or recommended dental sealants, in-office and at-home fluoride, chlorhexidine rinse, and xylitol gum. Results Adults were less likely to receive in-office caries preventive agents compared to pediatric patients. However, the rate of recommendation for at-home preventive regimens was very similar. Dentists with a conservative approach to caries treatment were the most likely to use caries prevention at similar rates in adults as in children. In addition, practices with a greater number of patients with dental insurance were significantly less likely to provide in-office fluoride or sealants to adult patients than to their pediatric patients. Conclusion In-office caries prevention agents are more commonly used by general dentists for their pediatric patients compared to their adult patients. Practice Implications Some general dentists should consider providing additional in-office prevention agents for their adult patients who are at increased risk for dental caries. PMID:20516100

  4. Caries Risk Assessment for Determination of Focus and Intensity of Prevention in a Dental School Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Michael W. J.; Suddick, Richard P.

    1995-01-01

    A study at the University of Texas, San Antonio's dental school resulted in development of a system of caries risk assessment, applied to all undergraduate clinic patients. The rationale, structure, elements, and application of the system are outlined, and course content supporting the system is noted. Need for validation and other improvements is…

  5. 76 FR 2383 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Child Nutrition Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for... children across various ambient air temperatures. DATES: To receive consideration, comments on the proposed... prevalence of dental fluorosis, fluid intake among children, and the contribution of fluoride in...

  6. Optical coherence tomography guided dental drill

    DOEpatents

    DaSilva, Luiz B.; Colston, Jr., Bill W.; James, Dale L.

    2002-01-01

    A dental drill that has one or multiple single mode fibers that can be used to image in the vicinity of the drill tip. It is valuable to image below the surface being drilled to minimize damage to vital or normal tissue. Identifying the boundary between decayed and normal enamel (or dentine) would reduce the removal of viable tissue, and identifying the nerve before getting too close with the drill could prevent nerve damage. By surrounding a drill with several optical fibers that can be used by an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) to image several millimeters ahead of the ablation surface will lead to a new and improved dental treatment device.

  7. Drug resistance of bacterial dental biofilm and the potential use of natural compounds as alternative for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Al Qurashi, Yasir Mohammed A; Chaieb, Kamel

    2015-03-01

    Oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease are directly linked with the ability of bacteria to form biofilm. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria colonizing the supragingival biofilm (Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria forming a subgingival plaque (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Cells embedded in biofilm are up to 1000-fold more resistant to antibiotics compared to their planctonic ones. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain biofilms drug resistance. Given the increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics currently used in dentistry, a great importance is given to natural compounds for the prevention of oral bacterial growth, adhesion and colonization. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. It has been well documented that medicinal plants and natural compounds confer considerable antibacterial activity against various microorganisms including cariogenic and periodontal pathogens. This paper provides a review of the literature focusing on the studies on (i) biofilm in the oral cavity, (ii) drug resistance of bacterial biofilm and (iii) the potential use of plant extracts, essential oils and natural compounds as biofilm preventive agents in dentistry, involving their origin and their mechanism of biofilm inhibition.

  8. Dental erosion as oral disease. Insights in etiological factors and pathomechanisms, and current strategies for prevention and therapy.

    PubMed

    Ganss, Carolina; Lussi, Adrian; Schlueter, Nadine

    2012-12-01

    Dental erosion is induced by the exposure to acids, and together with physical impacts, contributes to the wear and tear of the dentition throughout a lifetime. It is a multifactorial condition, and so far several etiological and protecting factors have been identified. Based on a thorough diagnosis and identification of the acid sources, current preventive and therapeutic strategies focus on causal strategies bringing the acid exposure to a safe level, and/or strengthening the tooth surface against demineralization. There is increasing knowledge about the erosion inhibiting potential of fluorides particularly of compounds with polyvalent metal cations. The paper critically reviews the current literature providing a brief overview on what is known about diagnosis, prevalence, etiology and risk factors with the main focus on preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  9. Enhancing implementation of tobacco use prevention and cessation counselling guideline among dental providers: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco use adversely affects oral health. Tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) counselling guidelines recommend that healthcare providers ask about each patient's tobacco use, assess the patient's readiness and willingness to stop, document tobacco use habits, advise the patient to stop, assist and help in quitting, and arrange monitoring of progress at follow-up appointments. Adherence to such guidelines, especially among dental providers, is poor. To improve guideline implementation, it is essential to understand factors influencing it and find effective ways to influence those factors. The aim of the present study protocol is to introduce a theory-based approach to diagnose implementation difficulties of TUPAC counselling guidelines among dental providers. Methods Theories of behaviour change have been used to identify key theoretical domains relevant to the behaviours of healthcare providers involved in implementing clinical guidelines. These theoretical domains will inform the development of a questionnaire aimed at assessing the implementation of the TUPAC counselling guidelines among Finnish municipal dental providers. Specific items will be drawn from the guidelines and the literature on TUPAC studies. After identifying potential implementation difficulties, we will design two interventions using theories of behaviour change to link them with relevant behaviour change techniques aiming to improve guideline adherence. For assessing the implementation of TUPAC guidelines, the electronic dental record audit and self-reported questionnaires will be used. Discussion To improve guideline adherence, the theoretical-domains approach could provide a comprehensive basis for assessing implementation difficulties, as well as designing and evaluating interventions. After having identified implementation difficulties, we will design and test two interventions to enhance TUPAC guideline adherence. Using the cluster randomised controlled design, we aim

  10. N-Acetyl Cysteine Depletes Reactive Oxygen Species and Prevents Dental Monomer-Induced Intrinsic Mitochondrial Apoptosis In Vitro in Human Dental Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Liu, Qian; Liu, Ying; Song, Qian; Yu, Fan; Yu, Haohan; Liu, Huan; Huang, Li; Chen, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the involvement of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis in dental monomer-induced cytotoxicity and the influences of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on this process. Methods Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) were exposed to several dental monomers in the absence or presence of NAC, and cell viability, intracellular redox balance, morphology and function of mitochondria and key indicators of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis were evaluated using various commercial kits. Results Dental monomers exerted dose-dependent cytotoxic effects on hDPCs. Concomitant to the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of glutathione (GSH), differential changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were detected. Apoptosis, as indicated by positive Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining and activation of caspase-3, was observed after dental monomer treatment. Dental monomers impaired the morphology and function of mitochondria, and induced intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis in hDPCs via up-regulation of p53, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. NAC restored cell viability, relieved oxidative stress and blocked the apoptotic effects of dental monomers. Conclusions Dental monomers induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis in hDPCs. NAC could reduce the oxidative stress and thus protect hDPCs against dental monomer-induced apoptosis. PMID:26808507

  11. Mucoadhesive electrospun chitosan-based nanofibre mats for dental caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Samprasit, Wipada; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Sukma, Monrudee; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-03-01

    The mucoadhesive electrospun nanofibre mats were developed using chitosan (CS) and thiolated chitosan (CS-SH) as mucoadhesive polymers. Garcinia mangostana (GM) extract was incorporated into nanofibre mats. The antibacterial activity in the single and combined agents was evaluated against dental caries pathogens. The morphology of mats was observed using SEM. The mats were evaluated for GM extract amount, mucoadhesion, in vitro release, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. The mucoadhesion and antibacterial activity were determined in healthy human volunteers. The prepared mats were in nanoscale with good physical and mucoadhesive properties. The CS-SH caused the higher mucoadhesion. All mats rapidly released active substances, which had the synergistic antibacterial activity. In addition, the reduction of bacteria and good mucoadhesion in the oral cavity occurred without cytotoxicity. The results suggest that mats have the potential to be mucoadhesive dosage forms to maintain oral hygiene by reducing the bacterial growth that causes the dental caries.

  12. Applicability Of Nd:YAG Laser On Prevention Of Dental Caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Toshio; Tagomori, Shoko

    1988-06-01

    The extent of the resistance of human dental enamel against acid decalcification by using a normal pulse Nd:YAG laser was observed. Furthermore, specimens of human enamel were topically applied with a solution of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) before and after the laser irradiation. APF treatment after the laser irradiation caused the most remarkable acid resistance of the enamel with a greater fluoride uptake into the enamel structure, whereas the APF treatment before laser irradiation caused a lesser effect.

  13. Results of a promising open trial to prevent baby bottle tooth decay: a fluoride varnish study.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, P; Domoto, P; Koday, M; Leroux, B

    1994-01-01

    One hundred thirty-three farm worker children with an average age of 17 months participated in a study of a fluoride varnish in WIC programs in the Yakima Valley of Central Washington. After parents were interviewed, the child was examined and a fluoride varnish applied to the maxillary incisors. At the six-month recall 62 children and their parents returned. Results indicated a significant decrease in decalcification from 35 percent to 21 percent and an increase in decay from 3 percent to 16 percent. The rate of decay was lower than the 30 percent found in this age-group in this population. Of 130 sound teeth at baseline, 13 percent were decayed or decalcified in six months; of 73 decalcified teeth at baseline, 51 percent were found to be sound in six months. Additional experimentation with fluoride varnish is warranted.

  14. Status of occupational hazards and their prevention among dental professionals in Chandigarh, India: A comprehensive questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Abhishek; Gupta, Mohit; Upadhyaya, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the status of occupational hazards and their prevention among the practicing dentists in Chandigarh city, India. Materials and Methods: A closed-ended questionnaire was prepared to record demographic status, types of occupational hazards encountered, and status of measures used for their prevention. A total 113 out of 130 dentists completed the questionnaire and the response rate was 86.9%. Frequency tables were prepared and coefficient of correlation was computed to check correlation between different variables. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The most common occupational hazard reported was injury from “sharps” (77%), out of which needle prick injury was the most frequent. Of the other occupational problems job related stress (43.3%), musculoskeletal problems (39.8%), and allergies (23.8%) from things used in dental clinics were most common. A reasonably high percentage of dentists were immunized against hepatitis-B virus (88.4%) and were following proper infection control measures and hospital waste disposal methods. Very few dentists were following the correct method of disposal of excess amalgam (11%) and measurement of radiation exposure (27.5%) within their clinic. Most of them (90.2%) were satisfied with their current working hours and job. Conclusion: Prevalence of occupational hazards among the studied group was high and certain preventive measures were not being followed properly. Therefore, there is a need to improve the knowledge of dentists regarding these hazards and their prevention. PMID:24130578

  15. [Dental plaque as a biofilm - a risk in oral cavity and methods to prevent].

    PubMed

    Chałas, Renata; Wójcik-Chęcińska, Ilona; Woźniak, Michał J; Grzonka, Justyna; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J

    2015-10-13

    Bacteria living constantly in the oral cavity are in the form of a biofilm. The biofilm formed on a solid base such as the enamel of the teeth, fillings, restorations, orthodontic appliances or obturators is dental plaque. Disturbance of homeostasis of biofilm, excessive growth or increase in the number of acid-forming bacteria leads to the development of the most common diseases of the oral cavity, i.e. dental caries and periodontal disease. The presence of bacterial biofilm on the walls of the root canal or at the top of the root on an outer wall leads to complications and failure in endodontic treatment. The aim of the study was to present the latest information on the occurrence, development and the role of biofilm in the etiopathogenesis of oral diseases and its control. Based on the literature analyzed, it can be concluded that the biofilm, due to its complex structure and numerous mechanisms of bacteria adaptation, is an effective barrier against the traditional agents with antibacterial properties. There are now great hopes for nanotechnology as an innovative method for obtaining new structures of nanometric size and different properties than source materials. The use of antibacterial properties of nano-silver used in dentistry significantly reduces the metabolic activity and the number of colony forming bacteria and lactic acid production in the biofilm.

  16. Disinfection protocols to prevent cross-contamination between dental offices and prosthetic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Salvia, Ana Carolina Rodrigues Danzi; Matilde, Fernanda Dos Santos; Rosa, Francine Cristina Silva; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Balducci, Ivan; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi

    2013-10-01

    Control of cross-contamination between dental offices and prosthetic laboratories is of utmost importance to maintain the health of patients and dental office staff. The purpose of this study was to evaluate disinfection protocols, considering antimicrobial effectiveness and damage to the structures of prostheses. Solutions of 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, 50% vinegar and sodium perborate were evaluated. Specimens were contaminated in vitro with standardized suspensions of Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis spores. Disinfection by immersion for 10 min was performed. Final counts of microorganisms were obtained using the plating method. Results were statistically compared by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Dunn's test. The surface roughness of 40 specimens was analyzed before and after 10 disinfection cycles, and results were compared statistically using Student's t test. The solution of 50% vinegar was as effective as 1% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine against C. albicans, E. coli and S. mutans. The sodium perborate solution showed the lowest antimicrobial effectiveness. Superficial roughness increased after cycles in 1% sodium hypochlorite (p=0.02). Solutions of 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine and 50% vinegar were effective for the disinfection of heat-polymerized acrylic specimens. Sodium hypochlorite increased the superficial roughness. PMID:23999338

  17. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  18. [The overview of the prevention and treatment of dental disease in ancient China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Qi

    2009-03-01

    About 2000 years ago, our country already had a record about mouth washing. It was one of the earliest countries that invented teeth brushing and the toothbrush. It mentioned many kinds of effective techniques of teeth protection and health improvment such as swallowing the saliva, knocking the teeth and practising Qigong. About 3000 years ago, our country already had records about dental disease and had established the specialty of stomatology and dentistry in the Tang dynasty. The methods of treating toothache by acupuncture and external medicine, treating caries by arsenic trioxide and using silver paste to fill the teeth, using artificial teeth for restoration, and treating periodontosis by teeth-cleaning techniques all took the lead in the world. Traditional Chinese Medicines are still used today to treat toothache and periodontosis in clinic.

  19. Effect of pretreatment with an Er:YAG laser and fluoride on the prevention of dental enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    dos Reis Derceli, Juliana; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana Jendiroba; Azevedo, Danielle Torres; Wang, Linda; Bataglion, César; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Er:YAG laser and its association with fluoride (1.23% acidulate phosphate fluoride gel) on the prevention of enamel erosion. Sixty specimens were obtained from bovine enamel (4 × 4 mm), which were ground flat, polished, and randomly divided into five groups according to the preventive treatments: control-fluoride application; L--Er:YAG laser; L+F--laser + fluoride; F+L--fluoride + laser; L/F--laser/fluoride simultaneously. Half of the enamel surface was covered with nail varnish (control area), and the other half was pretreated with one of the preventive strategies to subsequently be submitted to erosive challenge. When the laser was applied, it was irradiated for 10 s with a focal length of 4 mm and 60 mJ/2 Hz. Fluoride gel was applied for 4 min. Each specimen was individually exposed to regular Coca-Cola® for 1 min, four times/day, for 5 days. Wear analysis was performed with a profilometer, and demineralization was assessed with an optical microscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (wear)/Dunn test and ANOVA/Fisher's exact tests. The group L/F was similar to control group. The other groups showed higher wear, which did not present differences among them. In the demineralization assessment, the groups F+L and L/F showed lower demineralization in relation to the other groups. It can be concluded that none preventive method was able to inhibit dental wear. The treatments L/F and F+L showed lower enamel demineralization.

  20. Emerging science in the dietary control and prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Al-Dajani, Mahmoud; Limeback, Hardy

    2012-10-01

    The key environmental factor involved in caries incidence is fermentable carbohydrates. Because of the high costs of caries treatment, researchers continue to explore dietary control as a promising preventive method. While dietary change has been demonstrated to reduce Streptococcus mutans, a preventive role is expected for "functional foods" and dietary habit alterations. The authors consider how recent advances in the understanding of caries pathology can reveal dietary control as a valuable method in promoting a healthy dentition.

  1. Comparing Dental and Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions on Public Health and Preventive Health Care Course

    PubMed Central

    Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Dogan, Fethi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services. PMID:22347604

  2. Screening of Probiotic Candidates in Human Oral Bacteria for the Prevention of Dental Disease.

    PubMed

    Terai, Tomohiko; Okumura, Takekazu; Imai, Susumu; Nakao, Masumi; Yamaji, Kazuaki; Ito, Masahiko; Nagata, Tsuyoshi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Miyazaki, Kouji; Okada, Ayako; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity in healthy subjects has a well-balanced microbiota that consists of more than 700 species. However, a disturbance of this balance, with an increase of harmful microbes and a decrease of beneficial microbes, causes oral disorders such as periodontal disease or dental caries. Nowadays, probiotics are expected to confer oral health benefits by modulating the oral microbiota. This study screened new probiotic candidates with potential oral health benefits and no harmful effects on the oral cavity. We screened 14 lactobacillus strains and 36 streptococcus strains out of 896 oral isolates derived from healthy subjects. These bacteria did not produce volatile sulfur compounds or water-insoluble glucan, had higher antibacterial activity against periodontal bacteria, and had higher adherence activity to oral epithelial cells or salivary-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro. We then evaluated the risk of primary cariogenicity and infective endocarditis of the selected oral isolates. As a result, Lactobacillus crispatus YIT 12319, Lactobacillus fermentum YIT 12320, Lactobacillus gasseri YIT 12321, and Streptococcus mitis YIT 12322 were selected because they showed no cariogenic potential in an artificial mouth system and a lower risk of experimental infective endocarditis in a rat model. These candidates are expected as new probiotics with potential oral health benefits and no adverse effects on general health. PMID:26053410

  3. Screening of Probiotic Candidates in Human Oral Bacteria for the Prevention of Dental Disease

    PubMed Central

    Terai, Tomohiko; Okumura, Takekazu; Imai, Susumu; Nakao, Masumi; Yamaji, Kazuaki; Ito, Masahiko; Nagata, Tsuyoshi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Miyazaki, Kouji; Okada, Ayako; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity in healthy subjects has a well-balanced microbiota that consists of more than 700 species. However, a disturbance of this balance, with an increase of harmful microbes and a decrease of beneficial microbes, causes oral disorders such as periodontal disease or dental caries. Nowadays, probiotics are expected to confer oral health benefits by modulating the oral microbiota. This study screened new probiotic candidates with potential oral health benefits and no harmful effects on the oral cavity. We screened 14 lactobacillus strains and 36 streptococcus strains out of 896 oral isolates derived from healthy subjects. These bacteria did not produce volatile sulfur compounds or water-insoluble glucan, had higher antibacterial activity against periodontal bacteria, and had higher adherence activity to oral epithelial cells or salivary-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro. We then evaluated the risk of primary cariogenicity and infective endocarditis of the selected oral isolates. As a result, Lactobacillus crispatus YIT 12319, Lactobacillus fermentum YIT 12320, Lactobacillus gasseri YIT 12321, and Streptococcus mitis YIT 12322 were selected because they showed no cariogenic potential in an artificial mouth system and a lower risk of experimental infective endocarditis in a rat model. These candidates are expected as new probiotics with potential oral health benefits and no adverse effects on general health. PMID:26053410

  4. Screening of Probiotic Candidates in Human Oral Bacteria for the Prevention of Dental Disease.

    PubMed

    Terai, Tomohiko; Okumura, Takekazu; Imai, Susumu; Nakao, Masumi; Yamaji, Kazuaki; Ito, Masahiko; Nagata, Tsuyoshi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Miyazaki, Kouji; Okada, Ayako; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity in healthy subjects has a well-balanced microbiota that consists of more than 700 species. However, a disturbance of this balance, with an increase of harmful microbes and a decrease of beneficial microbes, causes oral disorders such as periodontal disease or dental caries. Nowadays, probiotics are expected to confer oral health benefits by modulating the oral microbiota. This study screened new probiotic candidates with potential oral health benefits and no harmful effects on the oral cavity. We screened 14 lactobacillus strains and 36 streptococcus strains out of 896 oral isolates derived from healthy subjects. These bacteria did not produce volatile sulfur compounds or water-insoluble glucan, had higher antibacterial activity against periodontal bacteria, and had higher adherence activity to oral epithelial cells or salivary-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro. We then evaluated the risk of primary cariogenicity and infective endocarditis of the selected oral isolates. As a result, Lactobacillus crispatus YIT 12319, Lactobacillus fermentum YIT 12320, Lactobacillus gasseri YIT 12321, and Streptococcus mitis YIT 12322 were selected because they showed no cariogenic potential in an artificial mouth system and a lower risk of experimental infective endocarditis in a rat model. These candidates are expected as new probiotics with potential oral health benefits and no adverse effects on general health.

  5. Phosphorylation of Tristetraprolin by MK2 Impairs AU-Rich Element mRNA Decay by Preventing Deadenylase Recruitment▿

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Sandra L.; Scheckel, Claudia; Stoecklin, Georg; Lykke-Andersen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    mRNA turnover is a critical step in the control of gene expression. In mammalian cells, a subset of mRNAs regulated at the level of mRNA turnover contain destabilizing AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3′ untranslated regions. These transcripts are bound by a suite of ARE-binding proteins (AUBPs) that receive information from cell signaling events to modulate rates of ARE mRNA decay. Here we show that a key destabilizing AUBP, tristetraprolin (TTP), is repressed by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated kinase MK2 due to the inability of phospho-TTP to recruit deadenylases to target mRNAs. TTP is tightly associated with cytoplasmic deadenylases and promotes rapid deadenylation of target mRNAs both in vitro and in cells. TTP can direct the deadenylation of substrate mRNAs when tethered to a heterologous mRNA, yet its ability to do so is inhibited upon phosphorylation by MK2. Phospho-TTP is not impaired in mRNA binding but does fail to recruit the major cytoplasmic deadenylases. These observations suggest that phosphorylation of TTP by MK2 primarily affects mRNA decay downstream of RNA binding by preventing recruitment of the deadenylation machinery. Thus, TTP may remain poised to rapidly reactivate deadenylation of bound transcripts to downregulate gene expression once the p38 MAPK pathway is deactivated. PMID:21078877

  6. Head Start Combats Baby Bottle Tooth Decay Among Native American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Margaret G.; Stubbs, Phyllis E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents current developments concerning nursing bottle caries--"baby bottle tooth decay"--and spotlights a program funded by Head Start to reduce the prevalence of these painful and disfiguring, but preventable, children's dental diseases among American Indians and Alaska Native families. (Author/BB)

  7. Minimal intervention dentistry: part 3. Paediatric dental care--prevention and management protocols using caries risk assessment for infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gomez, F J; Crystal, Y O; Domejean, S; Featherstone, J D B

    2012-11-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children throughout the world highlight the need for a simple but effective infant oral care programme. This programme needs to include a medical disease prevention management model with an early establishment of a dental home and a treatment approach based on individual patient risk. This article presents an updated approach with practical forms and tools based on the principles of caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA. This method will aid the general practitioner to develop and maintain a comprehensive protocol adequate for infant and young children oral care visits. Perinatal oral health is vitally important in preventing early childhood caries (ECC) in young children. Providing dental treatment to expectant mothers and their young children in a 'dual parallel track' is an effective innovative strategy and an efficient practice builder. It promotes prevention rather than intervention, and this may be the best way to achieve long-lasting oral health for young patients. General dental practice can adopt easy protocols that will promote early preventive visits and anticipatory guidance/counselling rather than waiting for the need for restorative treatment.

  8. Dental care - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zakher B, Mitchell JP, Pappas M. Preventing dental caries in children <5 years: systematic review updating USPSTF ... chap 7. Ng MW, Chase I. Early childhood caries: risk-based disease prevention and management. Dent Clin ...

  9. Dental Amalgam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is ...

  10. Epidemiology of dental caries in children in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers. PMID:24860920

  11. Epidemiology of dental caries in children in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers.

  12. Impact of the "Guidelines for infection prevention in dentistry" (2006) by the Commission of Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention at the Robert Koch-Institute (KRINKO) on hygiene management in dental practices – analysis of a survey from 2009

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Handrup, Stephan; Meyer, Georg; Kramer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess trends in hygiene management in dental practices in comparison to an earlier survey in 2002/2003 and to point out key aspects for future efforts. Method: The infection prevention management of all dental practices in Greifswald (n=35) was determined by a questionnaire in a personal interview in 2008/2009. Results: 26% of the dentists did not use sufficient personal protective equipment during the general examination of the patient. In conservative and prosthetic dentistry, 15% still did not use adequate measures and 9% did not even in surgical interventions. Vaccination coverage was clearly too low, as only 35% of dentists were vaccinated against influenza and coverage with other vaccinations was also quite low. 11% of the dentists did not perform a documented anamnesis and in 29% of the dental practices no appointment system for risk patients existed. There were significant deficiencies in the reprocessing of medical devices and in the equipment needed for reprocessing. The opportunity to participate in further training in this field was rejected by 23% of the dentists. In 10 dental practices, the colony count in the dental unit water-conducting system was five times higher than the limit. A contamination with P. aeruginosa was discovered in 4 practices. All units were renovated. Discussion: Overall, both the hygiene management and hygiene equipment in the practices have improved considerably compared to the previous survey in 2002/2003. This demonstrates the positive effect of the KRINKO guidelines from 2006. However, the survey again showed relevant deficiences in the hygiene management of dental practices, which agrees with a Germany-wide online survey from 2009. Conclusion: While the study revealed persistent deficiencies in hygiene management, especially in reprocessing, it confirms that the KRINKO guidelines for dental practices from 2006 led to significant improvements in hygiene management. Doubts about the impact of the guidelines are not

  13. Antioxidant capacity and in vitro prevention of dental plaque formation by extracts and condensed tannins of Paullinia cupana.

    PubMed

    Yamaguti-Sasaki, Elza; Ito, Lia Akina; Canteli, Vanessa Cristina Dias; Ushirobira, Tânia Mara Antonelli; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo

    2007-08-20

    Chemical evaluation of the semi-purified fraction from the seeds of guaraná, Paullinia cupana H.B.K. var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke, yielded the following compounds: caffeine, catechin, epicatechin, ent-epicatechin, and procyanidins B1, B2, B3, B4, A2, and C1. Measurement of the antioxidant activity by reduction of the DPPH radical confirmed the anti-radical properties of the aqueous (AqE) and crude (EBPC) extracts and semi-purified (EPA and EPB) fractions. The EPA fraction showed radical-scavenging activity (RSA) and protected DPPH from discoloration at 5.23 +/- 0.08 (RSD% = 1.49) microg/mL, and for the phosphomolybdenum complex showed a higher Relative Antioxidant Capacity (RAC) at 0.75 +/- 0.01 (1.75). The EPA fraction had a total polyphenolics content of 65.80% +/- 0.62 (RSD% = 0.93). The plant drug showed 5.47% +/- 0.19 (RSD% = 3.51) and 6.19% +/- 0.08 (RSD% = 1.29) for total polyphenolics and methylxanthines, respectively. In vitro assessment of the antibacterial potential of the Paullinia cupana extracts against Streptococcus mutans showed that these could be used in the prevention of bacterial dental plaque.

  14. NIDR--40 years of research advances in dental health.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, P G

    1988-01-01

    The National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) was created by President Harry S Truman on June 24, 1948, as the third of the National Institutes of Health. NIDR's legislation contained the mandate to conduct research and research training to improve oral health. An impetus for federally funded dental research was the finding in World War II that the major cause of rejection for military service was missing teeth. Because of the population's widespread tooth decay problems, early NIDR research focused on eliminating dental caries. NIDR scientists confirmed the safety and effectiveness of the use of fluoride in tooth decay prevention, leading to one of the nation's most successful public health efforts, community water fluoridation. During the past 40 years, NIDR scientists have provided research advances and fostered technologies which changed the philosophy and practice of dentistry and brought dental sciences into the mainstream of biomedical research. Dental researchers contribute to studies of such diseases and problems as AIDS, cancer, arthritis, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, herpes, craniofacial anomalies, pain, and bone and joint disorders. NIDR's 40th anniversary in 1988 recognizes its continuing commitment to oral disease prevention and health research, and to achieving the goal of people maintaining their natural dentition for a lifetime.

  15. NIDR--40 years of research advances in dental health.

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, P G

    1988-01-01

    The National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) was created by President Harry S Truman on June 24, 1948, as the third of the National Institutes of Health. NIDR's legislation contained the mandate to conduct research and research training to improve oral health. An impetus for federally funded dental research was the finding in World War II that the major cause of rejection for military service was missing teeth. Because of the population's widespread tooth decay problems, early NIDR research focused on eliminating dental caries. NIDR scientists confirmed the safety and effectiveness of the use of fluoride in tooth decay prevention, leading to one of the nation's most successful public health efforts, community water fluoridation. During the past 40 years, NIDR scientists have provided research advances and fostered technologies which changed the philosophy and practice of dentistry and brought dental sciences into the mainstream of biomedical research. Dental researchers contribute to studies of such diseases and problems as AIDS, cancer, arthritis, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, herpes, craniofacial anomalies, pain, and bone and joint disorders. NIDR's 40th anniversary in 1988 recognizes its continuing commitment to oral disease prevention and health research, and to achieving the goal of people maintaining their natural dentition for a lifetime. Images p495-a p495-b p496-a p496-b p497-a p497-b p498-a PMID:3140276

  16. John G.C. Adams: father of Dental Public Health in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kenny, David J; Dale, Anne C; Wencer, David G

    2014-01-01

    John Gennings Curtis Adams (1839-1922), Canada's first resident dental missionary, was the father of Dental Public Health in Canada. He established, personally funded and operated the first free dental hospital in North America for poor children and their mothers in Toronto from 1872, three years before the founding of The Hospital for Sick Children; he later became their first dentist of record. He was a visionary zealot for prevention of decay, dental education, and treatment over extraction. Dr. Adams understood that neither parents (rich or poor) nor physicians were aware of the extent of pathosis present in children's mouths. He petitioned individuals, lobbied politicians and unions and pressured dental organizations on the importance of twice-annual school inspections to demonstrate disease so that parents would seek care for their children. He wanted government-funded dental hospitals like his own to treat those who could not afford care. He realized his objectives and his reforms to prevent suffering, as Toronto school inspections began in 1911 and Toronto's first publicly-funded free dental clinic opened in 1913. He was Canada's first dental philanthropist and a visionary for preventive dentistry.

  17. John G.C. Adams: father of Dental Public Health in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kenny, David J; Dale, Anne C; Wencer, David G

    2014-01-01

    John Gennings Curtis Adams (1839-1922), Canada's first resident dental missionary, was the father of Dental Public Health in Canada. He established, personally funded and operated the first free dental hospital in North America for poor children and their mothers in Toronto from 1872, three years before the founding of The Hospital for Sick Children; he later became their first dentist of record. He was a visionary zealot for prevention of decay, dental education, and treatment over extraction. Dr. Adams understood that neither parents (rich or poor) nor physicians were aware of the extent of pathosis present in children's mouths. He petitioned individuals, lobbied politicians and unions and pressured dental organizations on the importance of twice-annual school inspections to demonstrate disease so that parents would seek care for their children. He wanted government-funded dental hospitals like his own to treat those who could not afford care. He realized his objectives and his reforms to prevent suffering, as Toronto school inspections began in 1911 and Toronto's first publicly-funded free dental clinic opened in 1913. He was Canada's first dental philanthropist and a visionary for preventive dentistry. PMID:25549402

  18. Chemico-therapeutic approach to prevention of dental caries. [using stannous fluoride gel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, I. L.

    1975-01-01

    The program of chemical preventive dentistry is based primarily upon the development of a procedure for stabilizing stannous fluoride in solution by forcing it into glycerin. New topical fluoride treatment concentrates, fluoride containing gels and prophylaxis pastes, as well as a completely stable stannous fluoride dentifrice are made possible by the development of a rather complicated heat application method to force stannous fluoride into solution in glycerin. That the stannous fluoride is clinically effective in such a preparation is demonstrated briefly on orthodontic patients.

  19. Secondary syphilis in the oral cavity and the role of the dental surgeon in STD prevention, diagnosis and treatment: a case series study.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Creta Elisa; Munerato, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Syphilis has three clinical stages and may present various oral manifestations, mainly at the secondary stage. The disease mimics other more common oral mucosa lesions, going undiagnosed and with no proper treatment. Despite the advancements in medicine toward prevention, diagnosis, and treatment syphilis remains a public health problem worldwide. In this sense, dental surgeons should be able to identify the most common manifestations of the disease in the oral cavity, pointing to the role of this professional in prevention and diagnosis. This study describes a case series of seven patients with secondary syphilis presenting different oral manifestations. PMID:27208390

  20. Dental hygiene in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C; Krizanová, M

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on the development of the dental hygiene profession in Slovakia from a global perspective. The aim is to inform about current developments and to examine, how access to qualified dental hygiene care might be improved and how professional challenges might be met. For an international study on dental hygiene, secondary source data were obtained from members of the House of Delegates of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists (IFDH) or by fax and e-mail from experts involved in the national professional and educational organization of dental hygiene in non-IFDH member countries, such as Slovakia. Responses were followed-up by interviews, e-mail correspondence, visits to international universities, and a review of supporting studies and reference literature. Results show that the introduction of dental hygiene in Slovakia in 1992 was inspired by the delivery of preventive care in Switzerland. Initiating local dentists and dental hygienists strive to attain a high educational level, equitable to that of countries in which dental hygiene has an established tradition of high quality care. Low access to qualified dental hygiene care may be a result of insufficient funding for preventive services, social and cultural lack of awareness of the benefits of preventive care, and of limitations inherent in the legal constraints preventing unsupervised dental hygiene practice. These may be a result of gender politics affecting a female-dominated profession and of a perception that dental hygiene is auxiliary to dental care. International comparison show that of all Eastern European countries, the dental hygiene profession appears most advanced in Slovakia. This is expressed in high evidence-based academic goals, in extensive work with international consultants from the Netherlands and Switzerland, in annual congresses of high professional quality, and in the establishment of a profession, which has not been introduced in all Western EU countries

  1. Employment of Dental Hygienists as Dental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Cynthia; Odrich, Johanna

    1987-01-01

    A study of the use of dental hygienists to teach periodontics, preventive dentistry, community dentistry, and public health courses looked at employment patterns and practices and the qualifications of the teachers. (MSE)

  2. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the

  3. Minority Participation in a School-Based Randomized Clinical Trial of Tooth Decay Prevention in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the strategies--based on the social triad concept of a partnership of researchers, school personnel and community-- employed to recruit low-income, minority parent/caregivers of kindergarten children into a school-based tooth decay prevention trial in the United States. Methods The study site was an urban school district with five elementary schools. Recruitment was carried out once each year for three years. Recruitment involved strategies at the school district, school, classroom, and student-parent level. A coalition of researchers, school personnel and community individuals was established for communication and recruitment. Outreach workers from the community were hired to promote, recruit, and disseminate oral health information. Study promotion included both print materials (logos, flyers, pictorial story boards) and presentations at school and community events. Results The School District Superintendent and administrators approved the study, and all five school principals and kindergarten teachers participated. All children within the classrooms were eligible: the overall participation rate of was 86% (580/672). Community outreach workers actively facilitated the recruitment and participants were recruited at open house for parent-teacher meeting (37% of all participants), sending letters and consent forms home (31%), at a prearranged convenient time during drop off and pick up of the child at their respective schools (30%), curriculum nights and health fairs (2%). Conclusion Utilizing the social triad concept led to success in planning and carrying out the recruitment of predominantly minority school children with high participation rates. PMID:21986390

  4. The effect of diode laser irradiation on dentin as a preventive measure against dental erosion: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    de-Melo, Mary A S; Passos, Vanara F; Alves, Jose J; Barros, Eduardo B; Santiago, Sérgio L; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2011-09-01

    Increasing rates of non-carious cervical lesions due to dental erosion, exposure of dentinal tubules, and hypersensitivity to environmental stimuli have led to the development of new prevention strategies. This study evaluated the effects of a low-intensity diode laser (λ = 808 nm) on the dentinal chemical composition and prevention of demineralization. In addition, the study monitored temperature changes during the course of irradiation. Forty dentin specimens were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 10): G1 - No treatment (control), G2 - irradiated with 15 J/cm(2), G3 - irradiated with 30 J/cm(2), and G4 - irradiated with 60 J/cm(2). Each specimen was partially covered with nail varnish, treated according to the group irradiation levels, and exposed to an erosive challenge (1.0 M hydrochloric acid) for 5 min. Afterwards, dentin loss was profilometrically analyzed and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Intrapulpal temperatures were measured during the dentin irradiation. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05) were performed to assess differences. For all irradiated groups, intrapulpal temperature changes were less than 3°C. The G2 group showed statistically significant differences when compared to the other groups, representing the lowest temperature increase. A quantitative element analysis via EDX did not significantly differ (p < 0.05) for Ca, P, F, O, or C between the four groups when measured after irradiation/erosion. The mean wear rates (± SD, μm) were 35.66 ± 7.28; 40.70 ± 5.03; 38.17 ± 10.81 and 25.25 ± 6.87 for G1-G4, respectively. The G4 group statistically differed from all other groups representing the lowest wear rate. These results suggest that dentin irradiation, using a diode laser with levels set at 60 J/cm(2), may induce inhibitory effects on root dentin demineralization without causing any harmful thermal effects. However, the exact mechanism of the action of the laser

  5. Clinical leadership and prevention in practice: is a needs led preventive approach to the delivery of care to improve quality, outcomes and value in primary dental care practice a realistic concept?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a need to improve access to, and the quality of, service delivery in NHS primary dental care. Building public health thinking and leadership capacity in clinicians from primary care teams was seen as an underpinning component to achieving this goal. Clinical teams contributed to service redesign concepts and were contractually supported to embrace a preventive approach. Methods Improvement in quality and preventive focus of dental practice care delivery was explored through determining the impact of several projects, to share how evidence, skill mix and clinical leadership could be utilised in design, implementation and measurement of care outcomes in general dental practice in order to champion and advocate change, during a period of substantial change within the NHS system. The projects were: 1. A needs-led, evidence informed preventive care pathway approach to primary dental care delivery with a focus on quality and outcomes. 2. Building clinical leadership to influence and advocate for improved quality of care; and spread of learning through local professional networks. This comprised two separate projects: improved access for very young children called “Baby Teeth DO Matter” and the production of a clinically led, evidence-based guidance for periodontyal treatment in primary care called “Healthy Gums DO Matter”. Results What worked and what hindered progress, is described. The projects developed understanding of how working with ‘local majorities’ of clinicians influenced, adoption and spread of learning, and the impact in prompting wider policy and contract reform in England. Conclusions The projects identified issues that required change to meet population need. Clinicians were allowed to innovate in an evironment working together with commissioners, patients and public health colleagues. Communication and the development of clinical leadership led to the development of an infrastructure to define care pathways and decision

  6. Dental Assisting Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard dental assisting curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level dental assistants, and includes job skills in the technical areas of preventive dentistry; four-handed dentistry; chairside assisting with emphasis in diagnostics,…

  7. Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers Crude Extract and Fractions: Prevention of Dental Biofilm Formation and Immunomodulatory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Mayara Brito; Júnior, José Otávio Carrera Silva; Barbosa, Wagner Luiz Ramos; da Silva Valério, Erika; da Mata Lima, Andriele; de Araújo, Marlon Heggdorne; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Teixeira, Francisco Martins

    2016-01-01

    Background: Caries and periodontal diseases remain as important diseases in the Brazilian population. One important pathogen associated with this situation is Streptococcus mutans and other important factor is this pathogen's ability to adhere firmly to the tooth surface leading to dental biofilm formation and caries development. Objectives: Determine the antibacterial and other biological activities of P. venusta related to its potential to be used in the treatment of caries and periodontal disease. Methods: The growth inhibition by P. venusta of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, S. oralis and Candida albicans was determined using the broth microdilution method. In addition, the effect of the samples in adherence and reducing production of acids by S. mutans, and germ-tube formation of C. albicans was analysed. The Nitric Oxide (NO) production and cytotoxicity of P. venusta to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and RAW 264.7 Cell Line Murine Macrophage from Blood were assessed. Results: The crude extract (CE) and ethyl-acetate (AF) and n-butanol (BF) fractions showed antibacterial activity. The ethyl-acetate (AF) fraction showed the highest inhibition percentage against the adherence of S. mutans and C. albicans cells without budding, beyond NO production inhibition. There was not any cytotoxicity in the murine macrophages RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that P. venusta presents potential to be used as a preliminary source of compounds that can provide helpful activity when used in prophylaxis or treatment of caries or periodontal disease. SUMMARY Biological activities of Pyrostegia venusta and its potential for use in formulations for the prevention of oral diseases. Abbreviations used: NO: Nitric oxide, PBMC: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, CE: Crude extract, AF: Ethyl-acetate fraction, BF: n-butanol fraction, HF: Hexane fraction, WF: Water fraction, MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration, MBC: Minimum bactericidal concentration, ATCC

  8. Dental onlay bridge-like prosthesis in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus): the use of Premise trimodal composite to prevent interproximal Eucalyptus spp. retention and infection.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sean M; Pye, Geoffrey W; Fagan, David A

    2014-06-01

    Three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) presented with moderate to severe interproximal space accumulation with Eucalyptus spp. at the San Diego Zoo. Premise trimodal composite was used to create dental onlay bridge-like prostheses to eliminate open, enlarged interproximal spaces. The prostheses prevented further leaf material accumulation within the interproximal spaces and consequently reduced periodontal disease. Aesthetically, the prosthesis replicates normal tooth coloration and appearance and wears at a similar rate to surrounding teeth. Prosthetic repair or replacement may be required, so periodic examination every 3-6 mo is recommended. PMID:25000719

  9. Dental demineralization and caries in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Jackson, Leanne; Epstein, Joel B; Migliorati, Cesar A; Murphy, Barbara A

    2015-09-01

    Concurrent chemoradiation (CCR) therapy is a standard treatment for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). It is well documented that CCR causes profound acute and late toxicities. Xerostomia (the symptom of dry mouth) and hyposalivation (decreased salivary flow) are among the most common treatment side effects in this cohort of patients during and following treatment. They are the result of radiation-induced damage to the salivary glands. Patients with chronic hyposalivation are at risk for demineralization and dental cavitation (dental caries), often presenting as a severe form of rapidly developing decay that results in loss of dentition. Usual post-radiation oral care which includes the use of fluoride, may decrease, but does not eliminate dental caries associated with radiation-induced hyposalivation. The authors conducted a narrative literature review regarding dental caries in HNC population based on MEDLINE, PubMed, CLNAHL, Cochrane database, EMBASE, and PsycINFO from 1985 to 2014. Primary search terms included head and/or neck cancer, dental caries, dental decay, risk factor, physical symptom, physical sequellea, body image, quality of life, measurement, assessment, cost, prevention, and treatment. The authors also reviewed information from National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), American Dental Association (ADA), and other related healthcare professional association web sites. This literature review focuses on critical issues related to dental caries in patients with HNC: potential mechanisms and contributing factors, clinical assessment, physical sequellea, negative impact on body image and quality of life, potential preventative strategies, and recommendations for practice and research in this area. PMID:26198979

  10. Review of Spaceflight Dental Emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Anil

    2012-01-01

    All exploration class missions--extending beyond earth's orbit--differ from existing orbital missions by being of longer duration and often not having a means of evacuation. If an exploration mission extends beyond a year, then there will be a greater lapse since the crewmembers last terrestrial dental exams, which routinely occur each year. This increased time since professional dental care could increase the chance of a dental emergency such as intractable pain, dental decay requiring a temporary filling, crown replacement, exposed pulp, abscess, tooth avulsion, or toothache. Additionally, any dental emergency will have to be treated in-flight with available resources and personnel who may not have extensive training in dental care. Thus, dental emergencies are an important risk to assess in preparation for exploration missions.

  11. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries.

    PubMed

    Duijster, Denise; van Loveren, Cor; Dusseldorp, Elise; Verrips, Gijsbert H W

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) scores were extracted from dental records. A validated parental questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and oral hygiene behaviours. Data on neighbourhood quality were obtained from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics. Structural equation modelling indicated that the model was valid after applying a few modifications. In the revised model, lower maternal education level was related to poorer family organization, lower levels of social support, lower dental self-efficacy, and an external dental health locus of control. These, in turn, were associated with poorer oral hygiene behaviours, which were linked to higher levels of childhood dental caries. In addition, lower maternal education level and poorer neighbourhood quality were directly associated with higher caries levels in children. This model advances our understanding of determinants of childhood dental caries and the pathways in which they operate. Conception of these pathways is essential for guiding the development of caries-preventive programmes for children. Clues for further development of the model are suggested.

  12. Tobacco use and dental disease.

    PubMed

    Hart, G T; Brown, D M; Mincer, H H

    1995-04-01

    The previously cited Indiana University School of Dentistry teaching monograph, "The Impact of Tobacco Use and Cessation on Nonmalignant and Precancerous Oral and Dental Diseases and Conditions," reviewed over 800 articles and concluded that tobacco use is strongly associated with many dental and oral mucosal diseases, and may contribute to others. Our study of a relatively small sample of 200 patients, of whom 33 percent were tobacco users, found statistically significant data correlating tobacco use with a higher Decayed, Missing and Filled Index (a measurement of caries and tooth loss experience of patients) and relating periodontal bone loss to smokeless tobacco use. And, while this investigation did not find a statistically significant correlation between smoking and periodontitis severity, there was a data trend in that direction. Conclusions about tooth loss in the Indiana monograph were limited to smokers; however, there was an association of ST use with gingival recession, which can become quite severe in the area in which the smokeless tobacco is placed. It might be theorized that the significantly larger number of missing teeth among ST users in our study is associated with the generally poor oral hygiene and less sophisticated outlook on health care that tobacco users often display. Indeed, of the 65 denture wearers in our study, 7.7 percent were ST users and 40.0 percent were tobacco users of some type. In view of the large amount of data in the scientific literature associating tobacco with dental diseases as summarized by the Indiana monograph, and the position of several groups such as the American Cancer Society that tobacco is one of the risk factors most associated with intraoral cancer, it would appear that dentists have a vested professional interest in promoting tobacco use cessation among their patients. Dentists should take every reasonable opportunity to persuade patients to discontinue the tobacco habit, thus preventing life

  13. Medicaid: Extent of Dental Disease in Children Has Not Decreased, and Millions Are Estimated to Have Untreated Tooth Decay. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-08-1121

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgrove, James C.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, concerns have been raised about the adequacy of dental care for low-income children. Attention to this subject became more acute due to the widely publicized case of Deamonte Driver, a 12-year-old boy who died as a result of an untreated infected tooth that led to a fatal brain infection. Deamonte had health coverage through…

  14. Seal Out Tooth Decay: A Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Seal Out Tooth Decay A Fact Sheet for Parents What are dental sealants? Sealants are thin, plastic coatings painted on the chewing surfaces of ...

  15. History of dental hygiene research.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society. PMID:24046337

  16. History of dental hygiene research.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society.

  17. Wireless sensor networks evaluation for heritage monitoring; in the development of decay detecting techniques for a preventive conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inmaculada Martínez Garrido, María; Fort, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring systems using sensor techniques are widely used in the field of cultural heritage. In recent decades, the use of monitoring techniques involving sensors has been evolving in a wide way, because of the increasing importance they have in the observation of decay phenomena in order to establish predictive strategies to promote a preventive conservation. Wireless sensor networks, formed by a group of sensors nodes or monitoring points which have wireless communication, allow us a great number of nonexistent advantages until now since they have an easier way of installation, maintenance and fault detection versus wired networks previously used, with the costs reduction and the increase of reliability in measurement systems that this fact entails. To assess the suitability of wireless sensor networks it is necessary to take into account many factors since heritage is a very demanding field. This paper evaluates the quality of communications in various deployments of heritage interest, both architectural and natural heritage, of a competitive wireless sensor networks platform which has been subjected to different conditions of range in demanding monitoring environments. To measure the communication quality, multiple parameters for the characterization of the received signal and the links were taken into account, such as the RSSI, which measures the power level of the received signal and the percentage of correctly received messages, among others. Additionally, it will be also of relevance to achieve a long-term and low energy monitoring, since measured parameters do not undergo significant variations in short periods of study, so that the evaluation includes energy and consumption aspects of wireless sensor networks systems, establishing a final assessment methodology for this type of technology applied to the heritage monitoring field. Furthermore some design software / hardware aspects are evaluated for an appropriate validation of the system from the point

  18. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Mexican American Children Aged 5 to 17 Years: Results from Southwestern HHANES, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Amid L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children of the southwestern United States occur mainly in molars, lending strong support for the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. This study also reports on the prevalence of fillings decay and gingivitis in this population. (VM)

  19. Control of cross-infection risks in the dental operatory: prevention of water retraction by bur cooling spray systems.

    PubMed

    Crawford, J J; Broderius, C

    1988-05-01

    A new dental unit control system was found to overcome the possibility of mechanically retracting bacteria from the mouth into the water line used to provide a spray of water to cool high-speed burs during treatments. This was demonstrated by results obtained after clinical use and after use in simulated, worst case test conditions using a red tempera indicator solution and indicator bacteria.

  20. Application of Stem Cell Technology in Dental Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ruoxue; Lengner, Chistopher

    2013-01-01

    Significance In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the isolation and characterization of dental tissue-derived stem cells and address the potential of these cell types for use in regenerative cell transplantation therapy. Recent Advances Looking forward, platforms for the delivery of stem cells via scaffolds and the use of growth factors and cytokines for enhancing dental stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are discussed. Critical Issues We aim to understand the developmental origins of dental tissues in an effort to elucidate the molecular pathways governing the genesis of somatic dental stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of several dental stem cells are discussed, including the developmental stage and specific locations from which these cells can be purified. In particular, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth may act as a very practical and easily accessibly reservoir for autologous stem cells and hold the most value in stem cell therapy. Dental pulp stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells should also be considered for their triple lineage differentiation ability and relative ease of isolation. Further, we address the potentials and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cells as a cell source in dental regenerative. Future Directions From an economical and a practical standpoint, dental stem cell therapy would be most easily applied in the prevention of periodontal ligament detachment and bone atrophy, as well as in the regeneration of dentin-pulp complex. In contrast, cell-based tooth replacement due to decay or other oral pathology seems, at the current time, an untenable approach. PMID:24527351

  1. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures. PMID:27482994

  2. Dental caries in South Pacific populations: a review.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W

    2003-03-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) was uncommon in Pacific Island communities before European trading and migration expanded into the Region. The etiology of this oral microbial disease is a consequence of changed diets, food preparation and lifestyle. In particular, the easy availability of a high level of frequent dietary supplementation with refined sucrose (sugar) and carbohydrates is the key factor in the etiology of tooth decay. While tooth decay initially developed as a health problem in the more accessible Pacific islands over a century ago, it has spread increasingly as trading, travel and cash economies have developed to include even the more geographically remote communities. In this review selected epidemiological data are presented to show the magnitude, variation and secular changes in the prevalence of tooth decay in different communities. Tooth decay in conjunction with the historically endemic adult gum diseases poses a major public health problem in terms of pain, premature loss of teeth and the need for oral rehabilitation. Implementation and monitoring of caries control programs is a priority need in most communities. It is impractical to consider a return to indigenous diets and lifestyles as a strategy for caries prevention. Instead promotion of proven modern community preventive programmes, notably appropriate use of fluorides, 'fissure sealants' together with control of excessive consumption of diets rich in refined sugar is required if a significant increase in the levels of tooth decay is to be avoided.

  3. Dental caries in South Pacific populations: a review.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W

    2003-03-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) was uncommon in Pacific Island communities before European trading and migration expanded into the Region. The etiology of this oral microbial disease is a consequence of changed diets, food preparation and lifestyle. In particular, the easy availability of a high level of frequent dietary supplementation with refined sucrose (sugar) and carbohydrates is the key factor in the etiology of tooth decay. While tooth decay initially developed as a health problem in the more accessible Pacific islands over a century ago, it has spread increasingly as trading, travel and cash economies have developed to include even the more geographically remote communities. In this review selected epidemiological data are presented to show the magnitude, variation and secular changes in the prevalence of tooth decay in different communities. Tooth decay in conjunction with the historically endemic adult gum diseases poses a major public health problem in terms of pain, premature loss of teeth and the need for oral rehabilitation. Implementation and monitoring of caries control programs is a priority need in most communities. It is impractical to consider a return to indigenous diets and lifestyles as a strategy for caries prevention. Instead promotion of proven modern community preventive programmes, notably appropriate use of fluorides, 'fissure sealants' together with control of excessive consumption of diets rich in refined sugar is required if a significant increase in the levels of tooth decay is to be avoided. PMID:16276946

  4. Prevention of oral mucositis in patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation: a randomised controlled trial comparing two protocols of dental care.

    PubMed

    Borowski, B; Benhamou, E; Pico, J L; Laplanche, A; Margainaud, J P; Hayat, M

    1994-01-01

    Between February 1986 and November 1989, 166 patients who were candidates for a bone marrow transplantation entered a randomised controlled clinical trial to compare limited oral hygiene care (LIM) and intensive oral hygiene care (INT) in the prevention of mucositis. Randomisation was stratified on the initial oral status (good vs. bad IOS). Intensive oral hygiene care included an initial treatment of dental lesions and tooth and gum brushing during aplasia. Limited oral hygiene care excluded preventive dental treatment and gingival and tooth brushing. Mucositis was classified as absent, mild, moderate or severe, according to the clinical aspects of the different sites in the mouth and to two scales of pain evaluation. Of the 150 evaluable patients (75 in each group), 134 developed moderate/severe mucositis (64 in the INT group and 70 in the LIM group) (log-rank test P < 0.02). The superiority of intensive oral care was observed both in patients with and without total body irradiation (TBI) and in patients with a good or bad IOS; the observed risk of mucositis was reduced by 70% in each of these four subgroups. Duration of moderate/severe mucositis was, although not significantly, lower in the INT group (17 days, S.D. = 12) than in the LIM group (19 days, S.D. = 13). The median time of mucositis occurrence was 11 days in the INT group and 9 days in the LIM group. Contrary to a widespread belief, the percentage of documented septicaemia was not higher in patients who underwent intensive oral care. We conclude that, although statistically significant, the superiority of intensive oral hygiene care is not clinically impressive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8032307

  5. 42 CFR 440.100 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dental services. 440.100 Section 440.100 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.100 Dental services. (a) “Dental services” means diagnostic, preventive, or corrective procedures provided by or under...

  6. Saliva and dental erosion

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; HANNAS, Angélicas Reis; KATO, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods A search was undertaken on MEDLINE website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects. PMID:23138733

  7. The Chemistry of Modern Dental Filling Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, John W.; Anstice, H. Mary

    1999-01-01

    Discusses materials used by dentists to restore teeth after decay has been removed. Shows how dental-material science is an interdisciplinary field in which chemistry plays a major part. Reviews the many developments polymer chemistry has contributed to the field of dental fillings. (CCM)

  8. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  9. IMPACT OF FLUORIDE ON DENTAL HEALTH QUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Medjedovic, Eida; Medjedovic, Senad; Deljo, Dervis; Sukalo, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fluoride is natural element that strengthens teeth and prevents their decay. Experts believe that the best way to prevent cavities is the use of fluoride from multiple sources. Studies even show that in some cases, fluoride can stop already started damage of the teeth. In children younger than 6 years fluoride is incorporated into the enamel of permanent teeth, making the teeth more resistant to the action of bacterial and acids in food. Goal: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of improving the health status of teeth after six months treatment with the use of topical fluoridation 0.5% NaF, and the level and quality of the impact of treatment with chemical 0.5% NaF on the dental health of children at age from 8 to 15 years, in relation to gender and chronological age. This study included school children aged 8 to 15 years who visited health and dental services dependent in Mostar. Results: It is obvious that after the implementation of treatment with 5% NaF by the method of topical fluoridation, health status of subjects from the experimental group significantly improved, so that at the final review 89.71% or 61 subjects of the experimental group had healthy (cured teeth), tooth with dental caries only 5.88% or 4 respondents tooth with dental caries and filling 4.41% or 3 respondents, extracted baby tooth 14.71% or 10 respondents, while for 13.24% of respondents was identified state with still unerupted teeth. Our findings are indirectly confirmed that the six-month treatment of fluoridation with 5% NaF, contributed to statistically significant improvement in overall oral health of the experimental group compared to the control group which was not treated by any dental treatment. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is a statistically significant difference in the evaluated parameters of oral health of children in the control group compared to the studied parameters of oral health the experimental group of children at the final

  10. The Level of Dental Anxiety and Dental Status in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dobros, Katarzyna; Hajto-Bryk, Justyna; Wnek, Anna; Zarzecka, Joanna; Rzepka, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to assess potential correlation between dental anxiety and overall dental status in adult patients, in consideration of the frequency of dental appointments and individual dental hygiene practices. Materials and Methods: Individual dental anxiety levels were assessed with the aid of the Corah’s dental anxiety scale (DAS). The study embraced 112 patients of the University Dental Clinic, Kraków. Following clinical and X-ray exams, respectively, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index and dental treatment index (DTI) were computed for each study subject. Results: Mean DAS among the 112 subjects under study was 9.41 standard deviation (SD = 3.36). Mean DMFT value was 15.86 (SD = 7.00), whereas DTI value was 0.76 (SD = 0.27). The number of decayed teeth and an individual dental anxiety level were found to be correlated (r = 0.26). Higher dental anxiety correlated with lower DTI value (r = −0.22) and lesser frequency of dental appointments (r = 0.22). Conclusions: Individual dental anxiety level appears to impact overall dental status, frequency of dental appointments and everyday oral health practices. Every conceivable effort should therefore be undertaken with a view to effectively diminishing dental anxiety levels in the patients. How to cite the article: Dobros K, Hajto-Bryk J, Wnęk A, Zarzecka J, Rzepka D. The level of dental anxiety and dental status in adult patients. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):11-4. PMID:25083026

  11. Dental Hygienists

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy, patient management, and periodontics, which is the study of gum disease. High school students interested in becoming dental hygienists should take courses in biology, chemistry, and math. Most dental hygiene programs also require applicants to have completed at ...

  12. Dental sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000779.htm Dental sealants To use the sharing features on this ... case a sealant needs to be replaced. How Dental Sealants Are Applied Your dentist applies sealants on ...

  13. Dental care demand among children with dental insurance.

    PubMed Central

    Grembowski, D; Conrad, D A; Milgrom, P

    1987-01-01

    As the number of families with dental insurance and expenditures for dental care has increased over the past two decades, so has interest in determining cost-sharing effects on dental demand among insureds. Using a representative sample of Pennsylvania Blue Shield children insureds during 1980, we estimate cost-sharing effects on dental demand for basic (diagnostic, preventive, restorative, endodontic, and extraction services) and orthodontic care. Results indicate that cost-sharing has little influence on the probability of using any dental services and basic expenditures. However, the probability of using orthodontic services decreases 2.1 percent when the proportion of orthodontic expenditures paid by the parent increases 10 percent. By reducing the cost of care, cost-sharing reduces social class differences in dental demand common in unisured populations, likely producing public oral health benefits. PMID:2952622

  14. Dental complications of rickets in early childhood: case report on 2 young girls.

    PubMed

    Davit-Béal, Tiphaine; Gabay, Julie; Antoniolli, Pauline; Masle-Farquhar, Jeanne; Wolikow, Maryse

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin D is an essential hormone for calcium gut absorption. It is also involved in child growth, cancer prevention, immune system responses, and tooth formation. Due to inadequate vitamin D intake and/or decreased sunlight exposure, vitamin D deficiency has resurfaced in developed countries despite known inexpensive and effective preventive methods. Vitamin D deficiency is a common cause of rickets, a condition that affects bone development in children and that can have serious dental complications. Deficiency during pregnancy can cause enamel hypoplasia of primary teeth. Enamel regeneration is currently impossible; hypoplasia is therefore irreversible, and once affected, teeth are prone to fast caries development. Deficiency during early childhood can affect permanent teeth and ensuing caries can sometimes lead to tooth loss at a young age. Oral manifestations of rickets should be diagnosed early by both physicians and dentists to prevent severe dental complications. This case study presents 2 young girls with rickets in early childhood who suffered from subsequent serious tooth decay.

  15. The Impact of Stannous, Fluoride Ions and Its Combination on Enamel Pellicle Proteome and Dental Erosion Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Algarni, A. A.; Mussi, M. C. M.; Moffa, E. B.; Lippert, F.; Zero, D. T.; Siqueira, W. L.; Hara, A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effects of stannous (Sn) and fluoride (F) ions and their combination on acquired enamel pellicle (AEP) protein composition (proteome experiment), and protection against dental erosion (functional experiment). Methods In the proteome experiment, bovine enamel specimens were incubated in whole saliva supernatant for 24h for AEP formation. They were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10), according to the rinse treatment: Sn (800ppm/6.7mM, SnCl2), F (225ppm/13mM, NaF), Sn and F combination (Sn+F) and deionized water (DIW, negative control). The specimens were immersed 3× in the test rinses for 2min, 2h apart. Pellicles were collected, digested, and analyzed for protein content using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In the functional experiment, bovine enamel specimens (n=10) were similarly treated for pellicle formation. Then, they were subjected to a five-day erosion cycling model, consisting of 5min erosive challenges (15.6 mM citric acid, pH 2.6, 6×/d) and 2min treatment with the rinses containing Sn, F or Sn+F (3×/d). Between the treatments, all specimens were incubated in whole saliva supernatant. Surface loss was determined by profilometry. Results Our proteome approach on bovine enamel identified 72 proteins that were common to all groups. AEP of enamel treated with Sn+F demonstrated higher abundance for most of the identified proteins than the other groups. The functional experiment showed reduction of enamel surface loss for Sn+F (89%), Sn (67%) and F (42%) compared to DIW (all significantly different, p<0.05). Conclusion This study highlighted that anti-erosion rinses (e.g. Sn+F) can modify quantitatively and qualitatively the AEP formed on bovine enamel. Moreover, our study demonstrated a combinatory effect that amplified the anti-erosive protection on tooth surface. PMID:26030135

  16. Anti-Streptococcal activity of Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest plant extracts presents potential for preventive strategies against dental caries

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Juliana Paola Corrêa; de CASTILHO, Adriana Lígia; SARACENI, Cíntia Helena Couri; DÍAZ, Ingrit Elida Collantes; PACIÊNCIA, Mateus Luís Barradas; SUFFREDINI, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Caries is a global public health problem, whose control requires the introduction of low-cost treatments, such as strong prevention strategies, minimally invasive techniques and chemical prevention agents. Nature plays an important role as a source of new antibacterial substances that can be used in the prevention of caries, and Brazil is the richest country in terms of biodiversity. Objective In this study, the disk diffusion method (DDM) was used to screen over 2,000 Brazilian Amazon plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. Material and Methods Seventeen active plant extracts were identified and fractionated. Extracts and their fractions, obtained by liquid-liquid partition, were tested in the DDM assay and in the microdilution broth assay (MBA) to determine their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). The extracts were also subjected to antioxidant analysis by thin layer chromatography. Results EB271, obtained from Casearia spruceana, showed significant activity against the bacterium in the DDM assay (20.67±0.52 mm), as did EB1129, obtained from Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae) (15.04±2.29 mm). EB1493, obtained from Ipomoea alba, was the only extract to show strong activity against Streptococcus mutans (0.08 mg/mLprevention strategies to treat caries. PMID:24676578

  17. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.

    1998-09-01

    We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

  18. Effect of 5 years of dental studies on the oral health of Tunisian dental students.

    PubMed

    Maatouk, F; Maatouk, W; Ghedira, H; Ben Mimoun, S

    2006-09-01

    This study is a follow-up of one made in 1998-99 on first-year dental students in Monastir. Now in their fifth year, we assessed the effect of dental studies on students' oral health practices and dental health. Of the 155 students in the first study, 140 were still enrolled. Periodontal troubles, malocclusion and dental decay affected 84.3%, 80.0% and 43.0% of the students respectively. Compared with the previous study, students had achieved a better dental health status--tooth brushing rate was much higher, prevalence of dental decay and periodontal pockets had decreased, and DMF index had improved. However, the prevalence of smoking, bleeding and calculus had not changed, and the frequency of malocclusion had increased.

  19. Developing core dental public health competencies for predoctoral dental and dental hygiene students.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Ana Karina; Atchison, Kathryn Ann

    2015-01-01

    Dental professionals are an "underutilized" workforce, when it comes to advocating for prevention and wellness in populations. The goal of this HRSA-funded project is to develop dental public health (DPH) competencies and curriculum for US predoctoral dental and dental hygiene programs. These competencies and accompanying curriculum are designed to better prepare the oral health workforce to meet the needs of the entire population, including the chronically underserved, those challenged by poor health literacy, or communities encountering barriers to accessing oral health care. By increasing the DPH competency of all graduating dental providers, in population-based approaches to preventing oral diseases rather than the existing exclusive focus on treatment, the number of providers who can respond to a population or the public's unmet needs and challenges, both in private practices and publicly supported clinics, will increase. This paper describes the competency development process and the eight competencies that were identified. PMID:26630639

  20. Developing core dental public health competencies for predoctoral dental and dental hygiene students.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Ana Karina; Atchison, Kathryn Ann

    2015-01-01

    Dental professionals are an "underutilized" workforce, when it comes to advocating for prevention and wellness in populations. The goal of this HRSA-funded project is to develop dental public health (DPH) competencies and curriculum for US predoctoral dental and dental hygiene programs. These competencies and accompanying curriculum are designed to better prepare the oral health workforce to meet the needs of the entire population, including the chronically underserved, those challenged by poor health literacy, or communities encountering barriers to accessing oral health care. By increasing the DPH competency of all graduating dental providers, in population-based approaches to preventing oral diseases rather than the existing exclusive focus on treatment, the number of providers who can respond to a population or the public's unmet needs and challenges, both in private practices and publicly supported clinics, will increase. This paper describes the competency development process and the eight competencies that were identified.

  1. Dental visits, dental health status and need for dental treatment in a Danish industrial population.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P E

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the utilization of dental services, the distribution of dental diseases and treatment needs in a Danish industrial population. The study covered the male population at a Danish shipyard, and a sample of 988 workers and clerical and managerial staff was drawn by stratified random sampling. 841 persons were interviewed regarding dental visits and attitudes towards dental health services and data on dental health and treatment needs were collected. 61% of the participants aged 15-64 years made regular dental visits at least once a year. The percentages of regular visitors varied according to age and occupation, from 68 to 82% among clerical staff to 34 to 51% among workers. The mean DMF-T increased from 16.6 in the age group 15-24 to 27.0 among the 55-64-year-olds. Untreated dental decay was predominant among workers and persons never seeing a dentist, whereas there were more filled teeth and fewer missing teeth among staff and regular visitors. The periodontal status was less satisfactory in the older age groups and among workers, and most denture wearers were found in the age group 35-64 and among workers. Concordant to the findings on dental health status, dental treatment needs due to caries and periodontal disease as well as prosthetic treatment needs varied according to age, occupation and dental visits. More radical treatment types were needed in the older age groups, among workers and non-regular visitors. The present study seems to indicate that dental diseases in the adult Danish population are not under control.

  2. Absorption and thermal study of dental enamel when irradiated with Nd:YAG laser with the aim of caries prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boari, H. G. D.; Ana, P. A.; Eduardo, C. P.; Powell, G. L.; Zezell, D. M.

    2009-07-01

    It is widely recognized that Nd:YAG can increase enamel resistance to demineralization; however, the safe parameters and conditions that enable the application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in vivo are still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine a dye as a photoabsorber for Nd:YAG laser and to verify in vitro a safe condition of Nd:YAG irradiation for caries prevention. Fifty-eight human teeth were selected. In a first morphological study, four dyes (waterproof India ink., iron oxide, caries indicator and coal paste) were tested before Nd:YAG laser irradiation, under two different irradiation conditions: 60 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (84.9 J/cm2); 80 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (113.1 J/cm2). In a second study, the enamel surface and pulp chamber temperatures were evaluated during laser irradiations. All dyes produced enamel surface melting, with the exception of the caries indicator, and coal paste was the only dye that could be completely removed. All irradiation conditions produced temperature increases of up to 615.08°C on the enamel surface. Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 60 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz and 84.9 J/cm2 promoted no harmful temperature increase in the pulp chamber (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Among all dyes tested, the coal paste was an efficient photoabsorber for Nd:YAG irradiation, considered feasible for clinical practice. Nd:YAG laser at 84.9 J/cm2 can be indicated as a safe parameter for use in caries prevention.

  3. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  4. Coinsurance effects on dental prices.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Conrad, D A

    1986-01-01

    For many Americans the cost of dental services represents a barrier to receiving regular dental care and maintaining proper oral health. The recent growth of the dental insurance industry, however, may partly offset this price barrier among insureds. Our purpose is to examine the relationship between coinsurance and dental prices for 16 dental services among a sample of Pennsylvania Blue Shield (PBS) adult insureds. The dependent price measure is the annual average gross price paid for 16 specific preventive, restorative, periodontic, endodontic, prosthodontic, and surgical dental services. Independent variables in the price model include the insured's age, education, coinsurance rates, time costs, market area, non-wage income, oral health status, area dentist-population ratio and usual source of care. Data sources are 1980 PBS claims and coinsurance rate data and a mail survey of sampled insureds. OLS regression analysis reveals that the model's independent variables explain little dental price variation. No variable is consistently significant across services, but market area, coinsurance rates, and time costs alternately dominate across equations. These results suggest that, among adult insureds, coinsurance and time costs influence dental fees in a minority of dental services. Insurance reduces the patient's sensitivity to money price, and non-price factors correspondingly seem to become more important in patient search.

  5. The use of sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation in prevention of dental caries during orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brulat, Nathalie; Milia, Giulia; Rockl, Andrea; Rocca, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This « in-vitro » study had two specific aims: the first, to test using a universal testing machine whether sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation prior to acid etching is effective in orthodontic bracket bonding and secondly using micro-hardness measurements and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations to investigate the effectiveness of de-mineralization reduction in enamel treated with sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation followed by fluoride varnish application. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty bovine permanent maxillary incisors were selected for shear bond strength testing and microhardness measurements. Sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation was set at a power density of 2.5 J/cm2, a frequency of 7 Hz and air/water spray. Brackets were bonded with an auto-curing resin paste. The shear bond strength was measured comparing laser irradiated and non-irradiated enamel surface, followed by SEM observation of the bracket-resin-enamel interface. Microhardness measurements were made on enamel samples before treatment, after samples preparation, and after demineralization. Results: While the adhesion of orthodontic brackets to bovine enamel after sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation and acid etching is comparable to that obtained after conventional acid etching, the effect of laser irradiation associated with topical application of fluoride varnish increases the microhardness of enamel. Conclusion: Sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation before the acid etching doesn't reduce the shear bond whereas when associated with fluoride application it may play a role in caries prevention. Further studies will be necessary to establish the mechanism by which the protective laser activated fluoride effect is achieved. PMID:25368443

  6. Dental knowledge and attitude toward school dental-health programs among parents of kindergarten children in Winterthur.

    PubMed

    Gläser-Ammann, Patricia; Lussi, Adrian; Bürgin, Walter; Leisebach, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the attitudes and knowledge regarding diet and oral hygiene of parents with kindergarten children. The parents' statements were evaluated in terms of their socioeconomic background and were compared with the annual clinical examination of the children. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the school dental-health program and adapt it to today's societal needs. Of those who participated in the interview, 61% were Swiss, 16% were from former Yugoslavia or Turkey, and 12% each from the EU or other countries. Of the children examined, 39% already had caries, and 18% of those showed more than two lesions. The parents' knowledge correlated with the severity of the child's caries as well as with the parents' income, country of origin, and education. There was a correlation between the child's dental decay and lower income, as well as lower education and non-Swiss nationality of the parents. Parents with higher income and better education more often participated in the preschool's preventive program. Parents from former Yugoslavia or Turkey participated less frequently than parents from other countries. The study demonstrated that parents who especially needed instruction and prophylaxis are contacted too late or not at all through the dental-health program at kindergarten and that new approaches to prevention should be implemented to more effectively reach the parents. PMID:25120153

  7. Dental Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Procedures Dental Implants Dentures Direct Bonding Implants versus Bridges Orthodontics and Aligners Periodontal Plastic Surgery Porcelain Crowns Porcelain Fixed Bridges Porcelain Veneers Repairing Chipped Teeth Teeth Whitening Tooth- ...

  8. Access to Fluoridated Water and Adult Dental Caries: A Natural Experiment.

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Barbato, P R; Höfelmann, D A

    2016-07-01

    Systematic reviews have found no evidence to support a benefit of water fluoridation (WF) to prevent dental caries in adult populations. The aim of this natural experiment was to investigate whether lifetime access to fluoridated water is associated with dental caries experience among adults from Florianópolis, Brazil. The data originated from a population-based cohort study (EpiFloripa Adult) initiated in 2009 (n = 1,720) when participants were aged 20 to 59 years. The second wave was carried out in 2012 (n = 1,140) and included a dental examination and a face-to-face questionnaire. Participants residing at the same address since the age of 7 y or before were included in the primary analyses. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. WF was implemented in the city in 2 different periods of time: 1982 (60% of the population) and 1996. Dental caries was assessed by the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. A combination of residential status, participant's age, and year of implementation of WF permitted the creation of participants' lifetime access to fluoridated water: >75%, 50% to 75%, and <50% of a participant's lifetime. Covariates included sex, age, socioeconomic mobility, educational attainment, income, pattern of dental attendance, and smoking. Participants who accessed fluoridate water <50% of their lifetime presented a higher mean rate ratio of DMFT (1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.84) compared with those living >75% of their lifetime with residential access to fluoridated water. Participants living between 50% and 75% and <50% of their lives in fluoridated areas presented a decayed and filled teeth mean ratio of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02-1.75) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.05-2.04) higher than those with residential access to fluoridated water >75% of their lifetime, respectively. Longer residential lifetime access to fluoridated water was associated with less dental caries even in a context of multiple exposures to fluoride. PMID:27053119

  9. Impact of dental orientation given to mothers during pregnancy on oral health of their children

    PubMed Central

    Rigo, Lilian; Dalazen, Jaqueline; Garbin, Raíssa Rigo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the perception of mothers about oral health of their children, as well as to check the influence of demographic variables, perception and preventive practice in oral health of mothers regarding guidance received during pregnancy. Methods Quantitative and cross-sectional field study, with a non-probability sample formed by all mothers who attended the primary healthcare unit of Ijuí (RS), Brazil, from January to July 2014, comprising a sample of 79 women. Self-applied questionnaires were given to these mothers. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive and inferential statistics, the χ2 test at a significance level of 5%. Results The mothers who received dental orientation during pregnancy had greater perception of oral health of their children. The mean age of mothers was 26 years, most of them attended high school education (32.9%) and worked outside the home (60.8%). There was a statistically significant relation between the outcome variable, dental orientation during pregnancy, and the independent variables: schooling level of mothers, occupation, baby’s first visit to the dentist, duration of breastfeeding, beginning of baby’s tooth brushing and knowledge about dental decay (p<0.005). Conclusion Mothers with higher schooling levels and who worked outside the home had more knowledge about oral care, because they received dental orientation during pregnancy. The dental guidance during pregnancy influences the mother in the procedures adopted with their children, as to early oral hygiene, first dentist appointment, duration of breastfeeding, knowledge about the factors that lead to dental decay. PMID:27462897

  10. Dental Hygienist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  11. Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Sonick, Michael; Hwang, Debby; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants restore function to near normal in partially or completely edentulous patients. A root-form implant is the most frequently used type of dental implant today. The basis for dental implants is osseointegration, in which osteoblasts grow and directly integrate with the surface of titanium posts surgically embedded into the jaw. Radiologic assessment is critical in the preoperative evaluation of the dental implant patient, as the exact height, width, and contour of the alveolar ridge must be determined. Moreover, the precise locations of the maxillary sinuses and mandibular canals, as well as their relationships to the site of implant surgery must be ascertained. As such, radiologists must be familiar with implant design and surgical placement, as well as augmentation procedures utilized in those patients with insufficient bone in the maxilla and mandible to support dental implants.

  12. Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your mouth made up mostly of germs. Tooth decay starts in the outer layer, called the enamel. Without a filling, the decay can get deep into the tooth and its nerves and cause a toothache or ...

  13. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  14. Utilization of dental care: An Indian outlook

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Brar, Prabhleen; Singh, Gurminder; Sofat, Anjali; Kakar, Heena

    2013-01-01

    Oral health has a significant impact on the quality of life, appearance, and self-esteem of the people. Preventive dental visits help in the early detection and treatment of oral diseases. Dental care utilization can be defined as the percentage of the population who access dental services over a specified period of time. There are reports that dental patients only visit the dentist when in pain and never bother to return for follow-up in most cases. To improve oral health outcomes an adequate knowledge of the way the individuals use health services and the factors predictive of this behavior is essential. The interest in developing models explaining the utilization of dental services has increased; issues like dental anxiety, price, income, the distance a person had to travel to get care, and preference for preservation of teeth are treated as barriers in regular dental care. Published materials which pertain to the use of dental services by Indian population have been reviewed and analyzed in depth in the present study. Dental surgeons and dental health workers have to play an adequate role in facilitating public enlightenment that people may appreciate the need for regular dental care and make adequate and proper use of the available dental care facilities. PMID:24082719

  15. [Updates on rickets and osteomalacia. dental diseases in rickets].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Takuo

    2013-10-01

    Rickets is characterized by mineralization defect in bone and cartilage. X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is the most common form of inherited rickets. Mineralization defect is observed in dentin as well as in bone and cartilage in XLH. The dominant feature is the occurrence of infectious periradicular abscesses on deciduous and permanent teeth, not associated with trauma or decay. Dental care including the maintenance of good oral hygiene and periodical examinations should be performed. A preventive sealing of occlusal surfaces can be considered. Endodontic treatment or extraction are carried out in the presence of periradicular abscesses. Further studies are necessary for elucidating mechanisms of dentin mineralization defect and the occurrence of periradicular abscesses and for developing preventive and curative measures in XLH.

  16. Dental caries experience and use of dental services among Brazilian prisoners.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Rodrigues, Iris Sant Anna Araujo; de Melo Silveira, Ingrid Thays; de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista Sarmento; de Almeida Pinto, Magaly Suenya; Xavier, Alidianne Fabia Cabral; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Padilha, Wilton Wilney Nascimento

    2014-11-25

    This ross-sectional study involving 127 male prisoners evaluates the use of dental services and dental caries among Brazilian inmates. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination. Sociodemographic and sentencing information as well as use of dental services, self-reported dental morbidity, self-perception, and oral health impacts were investigated. The mean DMFT index value was 19.72. Of the components, the decayed component showed the highest mean value (11.06 ± 5.37). Statistically significant association was found between DMFTs with values from 22 to 32 and oral health satisfaction (p = 0.002), difficulty speaking (p = 0.024), shame of talking (p = 0.004) and smiling (p < 0.001). Regarding the use of dental services, 80% had their last dental appointment less than one year ago, with most visits occurring in prison (80%), with restorative treatment (32%), followed by dental pain (26.4%), being the main reasons for such appointments. Most prisoners used dental services provided by the prison. Although restorative treatment has been the main reason for the use of dental services, "decayed" and "missing" components contributed to the high mean DMFT index.

  17. [Optimization of dental caries prevention].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Polyakova, M A; Avdeenko, O E; Paramonov, Yu O; Kondrat'ev, S A; Pilyagina, A A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of toothpaste «Apadent Total Care» containing nanocalciumhydroxyapatite and its influence on caries resistance of tooth enamel and teeth sensitivity. The study involved 30 people: 15 patients aged 17-25 years and 15 aged 35-44 years. Study participants used «Apadent Total Care» toothpaste with nanocalciumhydroxyapatite. To evaluate the effectiveness of toothpastes clinical assessment of enamel remineralization rate was carried out, as well as the dynamics of enamel acid resistance and teeth sensitivity (Shiff index). Clinical evaluation of tooth enamel before the procedure and after 3 months of use of toothpaste with nanohydroxyapatite showed the improvement of all indices. Time for complete remineralisation of enamel in both groups did not exceed 3 days. Acid resistance of tooth enamel increased by 1.65 in group I and 1,75 in group II. The Schiff index after 3 months of using «Apadent» toothpaste also decreased in both groups.

  18. [Optimization of dental caries prevention].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Polyakova, M A; Avdeenko, O E; Paramonov, Yu O; Kondrat'ev, S A; Pilyagina, A A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of toothpaste «Apadent Total Care» containing nanocalciumhydroxyapatite and its influence on caries resistance of tooth enamel and teeth sensitivity. The study involved 30 people: 15 patients aged 17-25 years and 15 aged 35-44 years. Study participants used «Apadent Total Care» toothpaste with nanocalciumhydroxyapatite. To evaluate the effectiveness of toothpastes clinical assessment of enamel remineralization rate was carried out, as well as the dynamics of enamel acid resistance and teeth sensitivity (Shiff index). Clinical evaluation of tooth enamel before the procedure and after 3 months of use of toothpaste with nanohydroxyapatite showed the improvement of all indices. Time for complete remineralisation of enamel in both groups did not exceed 3 days. Acid resistance of tooth enamel increased by 1.65 in group I and 1,75 in group II. The Schiff index after 3 months of using «Apadent» toothpaste also decreased in both groups. PMID:27636759

  19. The sound of dental tissue ablation as a possible parameter for conservative dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Fábio Renato P.; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Matos, Adriana Bona

    2007-02-01

    Studies in cariology have been struggling for the development of caries prevention techniques, precocious diagnoses of lesions, re-mineralization of incipient carious lesions and early restorative intervention with minimally invasive procedures. When removing caries, healthy dental structure is often removed inadvertently during its final phase, for being quite difficult to precise the limits between viable and decayed dental tissues clinically. With laser technologies, a subjective clinical hint, often used to indicate when tissue ablation should be stopped is that different sounds are perceptive whether in carious (bass) or in healthy (treble) dental structure; when sound produced by ablation turned treble it would mean that healthy tissue was reached. This study aims to classify those audio differences and to turn them into objective parameters for a conservative operative dentistry with minimally invasive tissue removal when using erbium lasers. Twenty freshly extracted human teeth were used (10 decayed and 10 sound teeth). Dentine was erbium laser irradiated under same parameters, distance and refrigeration and a mono directional microphone was set 10 cm far from the operative area in order to capture and record the ablation produced sounds when working either on carious or healthy dentine. Ten pulses per file were then analysed in a computer software (200 analyses). It was permitted to draw similarities among the patterns in each group (decayed and healthy teeth) as well as differences between decayed and healthy produced sounds. Audio analysis came out to be a technical reliable objective parameter to determine whether laser ablated dentine substrates are decayed or sound; therefore it can be proposed as a conservative parameter, avoiding unnecessary removal of healthy dentine and restricting it to carious one.

  20. School-Based Fluoride Mouth-Rinse Program Dissemination Associated With Decreasing Dental Caries Inequalities Between Japanese Prefectures: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Taura, Katsuhiko; Kimoto, Kazunari; Ando, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hitoshi; Morita, Manabu; Ito, Kanade; Koyama, Shihoko; Hase, Akihiro; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental caries inequalities still severely burden individuals’ and society’s health, even in countries where fluoride toothpastes are widely used and the incidence of dental caries has been decreasing. School-based fluoride mouth-rinse (S-FMR) programs, a population strategy for dental caries prevention, might decrease dental caries inequalities. This study investigated the association between S-FMR and decreasing dental caries prevalence and caries-related inequalities in 12-year-olds by Japanese prefecture. Methods We conducted an ecological study using multi-year prefecture-level aggregated data of children born between 1994 and 2000 in all 47 Japanese prefectures. Using two-level linear regression analyses (birth year nested within prefecture), the association between S-FMR utilization in each prefecture and 12-year-olds’ decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT), which indicates dental caries experience in their permanent teeth, were examined. Variables that could explain DMFT inequalities between prefectures, such as dental caries experience at age 3 years, dentist density, and prefectural socioeconomic circumstances, were also considered. Results High S-FMR utilization was significantly associated with low DMFT at age 12 (coefficient −0.011; 95% confidence interval, −0.018 to −0.005). S-FMR utilization explained 25.2% of the DMFT variance between prefectures after considering other variables. Interaction between S-FMR and dental caries experience at age 3 years showed that S-FMR was significantly more effective in prefectures where the 3-year-olds had high levels of dental caries experience. Conclusions S-FMR, administered to children of all socioeconomic statuses, was associated with lower DMFT. Utilization of S-FMR reduced dental caries inequalities via proportionate universalism. PMID:27108752

  1. Dental Fluorosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... when children regularly consume fluoride during the teeth-forming years, age 8 and younger. Most dental fluorosis ... over a long period when the teeth are forming under the gums. Only children aged 8 years ...

  2. Organo-selenium-containing dental sealant inhibits bacterial biofilm.

    PubMed

    Tran, P; Hamood, A; Mosley, T; Gray, T; Jarvis, C; Webster, D; Amaechi, B; Enos, T; Reid, T

    2013-05-01

    Oral bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus salivarius, contribute to tooth decay and plaque formation; therefore, it is essential to develop strategies to prevent dental caries and plaque formation. We recently showed that organo-selenium compounds covalently attached to different biomaterials inhibited bacterial biofilms. Our current study investigates the efficacy of an organo-selenium dental sealant (SeLECT-Defense(TM) sealant) in inhibiting S. mutans and S. salivarius biofilm formation in vitro. The organo-selenium was synthesized and covalently attached to dental sealant material via standard polymer chemistry. By colony-forming unit (CFU) assay and confocal microscopy, SeLECT-Defense(TM) sealant was found to completely inhibit the development of S. mutans and S. salivarius biofilms. To assess the durability of the anti-biofilm effect, we soaked the SeLECT-Defense(TM) sealant in PBS for 2 mos at 37°C and found that the biofilm-inhibitory effect was not diminished after soaking. To determine if organo-selenium inhibits bacterial growth under the sealant, we placed SeLECT-Defense sealant over a lawn of S. mutans. In contrast to a control sealant, SeLECT-Defense(TM) sealant completely inhibited the growth of S. mutans. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of SeLECT-Defense(TM) sealant against S. mutans and S. salivarius biofilms is very effective and durable.

  3. Health promotion and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  4. Can coffee prevent caries?

    PubMed Central

    Anila Namboodiripad, PC; Kori, Sumathi

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society's Institute of Dental Sciences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients' histories with regard to the coffee intake, such as, period of consumption, frequency of consumption, whether taken with milk or wihout milk, with sugar or without sugar, and the brand make, was noted. History of the type of diet, consumption of sweets, periodicity of brushing, and whether they had undergone fluoride applications were also noted. A thousand patients who consumed beverages other than coffee were taken as the control. Results: The results showed that coffee most consumed was roasted coffee, and the frequency on an average was about three cups per day, for an average period of 35 years. The Decayed/Missing/Filled Surface (DMFS) scores varied from 2.9, in subjects who drank black coffee, to 5.5 in subjects who consumed coffee together with sweeteners and creaming agents. The DMFS score was 3.4 in subjects who consumed coffee together with milk but no sugar. The DMFS score of the control subjects was 4, indicating that coffee if consumed alone had anticaries action, but in the presence of additives the antibacterial and anticaries action was totally minimized. Conclusion: Thus coffee can help in prevention of dental caries if consumed without additives. PMID:20379435

  5. Planning an Education Program for Dental Hygienists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry W.; And Others

    Intended for adaptation to local situations, the handbook was prepared to assist interested groups to determine whether a dental hygiene educational program is needed and feasible, and to supply basic guidelines for planning. The introduction deals with dental hygiene in preventive dentistry and the historical development of educational programs.…

  6. First Aid for Sports-Related Dental Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castaldi, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Sports-related dental injuries are common but first aid is usually performed by non-dental personnel. This article describes basic procedures to be followed in order to diagnose the type and severity of the injury and to determine whether emergency treatment is required. Prevention of dental injuries is addressed. (Author/MT)

  7. Dental care - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluoride helps strengthen tooth enamel and helps prevent tooth decay. Replace your toothbrush every 3 to 4 months or sooner if needed. A worn-out toothbrush will not clean your teeth as well. Eat a healthy diet. You are less likely to get gum disease ...

  8. Radioactive decay.

    PubMed

    Groch, M W

    1998-01-01

    When a parent radionuclide decays to its daughter radionuclide by means of alpha, beta, or isomeric transition, the decay follows an exponential form, which is characterized by the decay constant lambda. The decay constant represents the probability per unit time that a single radioatom will decay. The decay equation can be used to provide a useful expression for radionuclide decay, the half-life, the time when 50% of the radioatoms present will have decayed. Radiotracer half-life has direct implications in nuclear imaging, radiation therapy, and radiation safety because radionuclide half-life affects the ability to evaluate tracer kinetics and create appropriate nuclear images and also affects organ, tumor, and whole-body radiation dose. The number of radioatoms present in a sample is equal to the activity, defined as the number of transitions per unit time, divided by the decay constant; the mass of radioatoms present in a sample can be calculated to determine the specific activity (activity per unit mass). The dynamic relationship between the number of parent and daughter atoms present over time may lead to radioactive equilibrium, which takes two forms--secular and transient--and has direct relevance to generator-produced radionuclides.

  9. Reducing dental plaque formation and caries development. A review of current methods and implications for novel pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kalesinskas, Povilas; Kačergius, Tomas; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Pečiulienė, Vytautė; Ericson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is an oral disease, which has a high worldwide prevalence despite the availability of various prophylactic means, including the daily use of fluoride toothpastes, water fluoridation, dental sealants, oral health educational programs and various antiseptic mouth-rinses. One important reason for this is uncontrolled increase in consumption of foods containing considerable sucrose concentration, especially among children. Sucrose is easily metabolized by oral bacteria (mostly streptococci) to acids and, subsequently, causing tooth decay or dental caries. In the oral ecosystem, streptococci principally reside on tooth surfaces forming biofilm. Important structural and binding materials of biofilm are glucan polymers synthesized by several isoforms of glucosyltransferase enzyme present in certain species of oral bacteria, including mutans group streptococci - Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which preferably colonize humans. Thus, there is a constant need to develop the methods and chemotherapeutics for improving oral health care and decreasing teeth decay through the suppression of cariogenic biofilm formation in the oral cavity. The aim of this paper was to review literature related to the pathogenesis of dental caries as well as currently existing and experimental pharmaceutical substances used for prevention of this process. PMID:25209226

  10. Clinically Determined and Self-Reported Dental Caries Status During and After Pregnancy Among Low-Income Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Jane A.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Santo, William; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This analysis assessed, during and one-year after pregnancy: 1) the prevalence of and relationship between self-reported and clinically determined dental caries and oral health status, and whether self-reports are a potential proxy for professional determination; 2) factors associated with high levels of professionally determined or self-reported oral disease. Methods Data are from a randomized clinical trial of 301 pregnant, low-income Hispanic women at the California-Mexico border to compare two interventions to prevent early childhood caries. Interviews and dental examinations were conducted at enrollment (second trimester) and one-year post-partum (PP). Results During pregnancy and PP, 93% had untreated caries and most had gingival inflammation. Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported measures compared to dentists’ determinations were modest (ranging from 45–80% for sensitivity and 41–77% for specificity at both time points); positive predictive values for women reporting current tooth decay or fair/poor oral health were high (>94%), but negative predictive values were low (<23%). In a bivariate GEE model, factors associated with fair/poor self-reported oral health during and after pregnancy included self-reported dental symptoms (current tooth decay, bleeding gums without brushing), dental behaviors (not flossing) and number of decayed tooth surfaces. In a logistic regression model, the only significant factor PP associated with less extensive untreated disease was if women ever had their teeth cleaned professionally (OR=0.44). Conclusions There is a great need for dental treatment in this underserved population both during pregnancy and PP. Women may not be able to accurately recognize or act on their treatment needs. At baseline and PP, few demographic or behavioral factors were associated with either self-reported or clinically-determined oral disease (e.g., being less educated or acculturated and not flossing) in the bivariate

  11. The prevalence of baby bottle tooth decay among two native American populations.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M; Bruerd, B

    1987-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a disease characterized by severe dental caries in the primary dentition that may have significant short-term and long-term implications for the health of children. Its prevalence and various etiologic factors have not been addressed fully in the dental literature. In 1985, 514 Native American Head Start children in Alaska and Oklahoma were screened to establish the prevalence of BBTD in those populations. The prevalence of BBTD ranged between 17 and 85 percent, with a mean of 53 percent. BBTD is clearly a significant health problem for this population group. Concerted intervention efforts to lower the prevalence of this preventable condition should be instituted and their effectiveness evaluated for potential utility among other affected groups.

  12. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  13. Noninvasive Quantitative Evaluation of the Dentin Layer during Dental Procedures Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Bradu, Adrian; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2015-01-01

    A routine cavity preparation of a tooth may lead to opening the pulp chamber. The present study evaluates quantitatively, in real time, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the drilled cavities during dental procedures. An established noninvasive imaging technique, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), is used. The main scope is to prevent accidental openings of the dental pulp chamber. Six teeth with dental cavities have been used in this ex vivo study. The real time assessment of the distances between the bottom of the drilled cavities and the top of the pulp chamber was performed using an own assembled OCT system. The evaluation of the remaining dentin thickness (RDT) allowed for the positioning of the drilling tools in the cavities in relation to the pulp horns. Estimations of the safe and of the critical RDT were made; for the latter, the opening of the pulp chamber becomes unavoidable. Also, by following the fractures that can occur when the extent of the decay is too large, the dentist can decide upon the right therapy to follow, endodontic or conventional filling. The study demonstrates the usefulness of OCT imaging in guiding such evaluations during dental procedures. PMID:26078779

  14. Symposium on Dental Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W., Ed.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This document presents papers, critiques, and comments from a symposium which assessed the current status of preventive dental behavior. The field was divided into the following three major areas: (a) mass media programs, (b) school health programs, and (c) effect of the private practitioner. Each author was asked to review the literature, provide…

  15. Dental Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide, developed for use in dental assistant education programs in Michigan, describes a task-based curriculum that can help a teacher to develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. It is based on task analysis and reflects the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that employers expect entry-level dental…

  16. Dental Caries Experience and Use of Dental Services among Brazilian Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Leite Cavalcanti, Alessandro; Araujo Rodrigues, Iris Sant´Anna; de Melo Silveira, Ingrid Thays; Sarmento de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista; de Almeida Pinto, Magaly Suenya; Cabral Xavier, Alidianne Fabia; Dias de Castro, Ricardo; Nascimento Padilha, Wilton Wilney

    2014-01-01

    This ross-sectional study involving 127 male prisoners evaluates the use of dental services and dental caries among Brazilian inmates. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination. Sociodemographic and sentencing information as well as use of dental services, self-reported dental morbidity, self-perception, and oral health impacts were investigated. The mean DMFT index value was 19.72. Of the components, the decayed component showed the highest mean value (11.06 ± 5.37). Statistically significant association was found between DMFTs with values from 22 to 32 and oral health satisfaction (p = 0.002), difficulty speaking (p = 0.024), shame of talking (p = 0.004) and smiling (p < 0.001). Regarding the use of dental services, 80% had their last dental appointment less than one year ago, with most visits occurring in prison (80%), with restorative treatment (32%), followed by dental pain (26.4%), being the main reasons for such appointments. Most prisoners used dental services provided by the prison. Although restorative treatment has been the main reason for the use of dental services, “decayed” and “missing” components contributed to the high mean DMFT index. PMID:25429680

  17. Dental home: Patient centered dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Girish Babu, K. L.; Doddamani, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood dental caries occurs in all racial and socioeconomic groups; however, it tends to be more prevalent in children in families belonging to the low-income group, where it is seen in epidemic proportions. Dental caries results from an overgrowth of specific organisms that are a part of normally occurring human flora. Human dental flora is site specific, and an infant is not colonized until the eruption of the primary dentition at approximately 6 to 30 months of age. The most likely source of inoculation of an infant's dental flora is the mother, or another intimate care provider, shared utensils, etc. Decreasing the level of cariogenic organisms in the mother's dental flora at the time of colonization can significantly impact the child's redisposition to caries. To prevent caries in children, high-risk individuals must be identified at an early age (preferably high-risk mothers during prenatal care), and aggressive strategies should be adopted, including anticipatory guidance, behavior modifications (oral hygiene and feeding practices), and establishment of a dental home by 1 year of age for children deemed at risk. PMID:24478960

  18. Comparative study of preventive protocols in children at high cariogenic risk.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María C; Tolcachir, Betina; Lescano de Ferrer, Alfonsina; Bojanich, María A; Barembaum, Silvina R; Calamari, Silvia E; Azcurra, Ana I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two preventive protocols -fluoride gel (F) alone or combined with chlorhexidine varnishes (CHX) - on sialochemical, clinical and microbiological parameters in a group of children at high cariogenic risk Two therapeutic-preventive protocols were applied in 73 children at high cariogenic risk (average age 6.2 +/- 1.4 years old) and clinical parameters (simplified oral hygiene index: OHI-S; decayed, missing and filled teeth: dmf index; sugar intake and exposure to fluoride), as well as sialochemical parameters (salivary pH and flow, buffer capacity) and microbiological parameters (CFU/mg of dental biofilm of Streptococcus mutans group) were recorded and correlated before and after the protocols. Association was found between parameters that cause deficient control of dental biofilm: high values of OHIS index, CFU/mg dental biofilm, sugar intake and the d component of dmft index, and lower values of salivary flow rate and buffer capacity. After the protocols, a significant decrease was found in OHI-S and CFU/mg dental biofilm. No significant difference was found with children's gender and age. The association observed between OHI-S and cariogenic bacteria emphasizes the importance of prevention, especially regarding the oral health of the most vulnerable children. The early inclusion of F associated with CHX in the initial step of preventive and therapeutic protocols would provide benefits regarding oral microbe control while children acquire new habits of oral hygiene.

  19. Sociodemographic, Socio-economic, Clinical and Behavioural Factors Modifying Experience and Prevalence of Dental Caries in the Permanent Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, MS; Medina-Solis, CE; Islas-Granillo, H; Lara-Carrillo, E; Scougall-Vilchis, RJ; Escoffié-Ramírez, M; la Rosa-Santillana, R De; Avila-Burgos, L

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and caries prevalence in Nicaraguan children 9-12 years old. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 800 school children 9-12 years old in the city of León, Nicaragua. The clinical oral examinations to identify caries experience were undertaken by two trained and certified examiners. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and behavioural data were collected using questionnaires. Negative binomial regression (NBR) and binary logistic regression (BLR) models were used to model caries experience and caries prevalence, respectively. Results: Mean DMFT index was 0.98 ± 1.74 and caries prevalence (DMFT > 0) was 37.9%. In the NBR model, the categories that increase the expected DMFT mean were: older age, female gender, presence of plaque, and if the school children received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. In the BLR model, the odds of presenting with caries in the permanent dentition were increased in older children, those from large families, mothers with a positive dental attitude, and those school children who received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. Conclusions: Using different models, we identified several sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience (NBR) and prevalence (BLR) of dental caries. PMID:25867561

  20. Dental Training Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

    This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

  1. Structure and types of dental manpower.

    PubMed

    Bezroukov, V

    1979-09-01

    The different categories of dental health personnel, professional, operating and non-operating auxiliary are defined and their roles examined. Where professional and auxiliary dental manpower is in short supply the use of non-dental personnel such as teachers and health educators should be emphasised as a means of providing firrst aid and preventive measures. Manpower remains the central problem in improving oral health. Although the number of dental schools and the total number of dentists has increased in the past two decades, the dentist/population ratio has declined. Considerable variations occur between countries and the geographical distribution within countries is very uneven, an undue proportion often practising within the large cities. A greater increase in numbers of dentists, though desirable, will not be sufficient to solve the problem of adequate dental health coverage in this century. The advanced skills of the dental graduate are not required for many routine procedures and greater use must be made of operating auxiliaries. More research is needed into the best composition of the dental team. Increased use of larger, more complex teams seems likely to be the most important development for the future. This will require a careful reappraisal of the curricula for all categories of personnel. WHO is actively engaged in formulating guidelines for dental administrators in the development of educational and planning criteria for the improvment of dental health.

  2. Drug and dental impression materials.

    PubMed

    Maller, Sudhakara V; Karthik, K S; Maller, Udita S; Abraham, Mathew C; Kumar, Rachuri Narendra; Manikandan, R

    2012-08-01

    Guidelines to prevent cross contamination with infectious agents have been instituted for dental clinical and laboratory procedures. However, compliance by dental offices and clinics in disinfecting impression material has not been universal. Techniques for disinfecting impression materials are spraying or immersing impression materials. These techniques can reduce the surface detail and dimensional accuracy of impressions; most disinfectants are irritants. This study reviewed whether antimicrobial activity can be achieved by mixing certain drugs with the impression material and their effects on the disinfection are achieved through such additions.

  3. Dental practice in Paris.

    PubMed

    Baron, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    This describes dental practice and the availability of dental patent remedies in Paris. Accounts of legal disputes, from original sources, illustrate the status and social history of some of the most wealthy dental practitioners in Paris during the Revolution.

  4. Dental training and changes in oral health attitudes and behaviors in Istanbul dental students.

    PubMed

    Peker, Kadriye; Uysal, Omer; Bermek, Gülçin

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in the oral health attitudes and behaviors of dental students in Istanbul, Turkey, during their dental education. The Turkish version of the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) was distributed among 757 dental students at the Dental Faculty, Istanbul University. The response rate was 72 percent. Chi-square and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. The mean HU-DBI score of the clinical students was significantly higher than that of the preclinical students. Preclinical students significantly more often believed that it was impossible to prevent gum disease with toothbrushing alone and worried about the color of their teeth and bad breath. Most of them brushed their teeth with strong strokes, thought the condition of their teeth was getting worse despite daily toothbrushing, and would seek dental care only when symptoms arise. Clinical students more often used disclosing solutions to see how clean their teeth were and complained of bleeding gums. The variation in favorable oral health attitudes/behaviors appeared to reflect the students' educational training experience. The findings of this study highlight the relatively poor oral health behaviors of Turkish dental students, which should be improved by means of comprehensive programs that aim to promote their own dental hygiene practices and preventive oral health knowledge from the start of dental training. PMID:20837744

  5. Therapeutic ultrasound for dental tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Scheven, B A A; Shelton, R M; Cooper, P R; Walmsley, A D; Smith, A J

    2009-10-01

    Dental disease affects human health and the quality of life of millions worldwide. Tooth decay (caries) and diseases of the dental pulp result in loss of tooth vitality and function requiring invasive treatment to restore the tooth to health. "Therapeutic" low intensity pulsed ultrasound has been shown to accelerate bone fracture healing indicating that ultrasound may be used as a tool to facilitate hard tissue regeneration. We have shown recently that low frequency ultrasound is able to exert biological effects on odontoblast-like cells. In this paper, we postulate that low frequency, low intensity ultrasound may stimulate endogenous coronal tooth repair by stimulating dentine formation from existing odontoblasts or by activating dental pulp stem cells to differentiate into new reparative dentine-producing cells. Ultrasound therapy promoting dentine formation and repair may also have the potential benefit of alleviating dentine hypersensitivity by inducing occlusion of dentinal tubules. It is envisaged that therapeutic ultrasound may be used in future to facilitate dental tissue engineering and stem cell therapy applications for dental tissue regeneration. Further research is warranted in this clinically important area and we envisage that novel strategies in dental therapy will be realised that may ultimately lead to the development of novel non-invasive, multifunctional ultrasound devices for dental diagnostics, repair and regeneration.

  6. Dental Caries and the Associated Factors Influencing It in Tribal, Suburban and Urban School Children of Tamil Nadu, India: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    John, J. Baby; Asokan, Sharath; Aswanth, KP; Priya, P.R. Geetha; Shanmugaavel, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups Design and methods Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from various government schools located in Palamalai and Kolli Hills (tribal), Tiruchengode (suburban) and Erode (urban), Tamil Nadu, were included in the study. Decayed, filled, and missing teeth (DMFT), decayed and filled teeth (dft) and Significant Caries Index were recorded. A specially prepared questionnaire was used to record all the data regarding oral hygiene practices, socioeconomic background, dental treatment availability, parent’s education level were used for the study. ANOVA t-test and post hoc test were used for comparing quantitative variables between the 3 subgroups. Results The tribal school children had 89.3% caries prevalence, where as it was 77% in suburban and 55% in urban school children. The mean DMFT score among tribal, suburban and urban school children were statistically significant different (P=0.001) between the three groups. There was a highly significant difference (P=0.001) in the mean DMFT score based on brushing frequency. There was a statistically significant difference (P=0.018) in the mean DMFT scores in the urban group based on the mothers education status. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean DMFT scores based on the presence or absence of television in their house and the parents’ income. Conclusions Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services played an important role in prevalence of dental caries. It was observed that the socioeconomic status, parents’ educational status and mass

  7. Effectiveness of an Alternative Dental Workforce Model on the Oral Health of Low-Income Children in a School-Based Setting

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Mary; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia; Liu, Ying; Kelly, Patricia; Branson, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of an alternative dental workforce program—Kansas’s Extended Care Permit (ECP) program—as a function of changes in oral health. Methods. We examined data from the 2008 to 2012 electronic medical records of children (n = 295) in a Midwestern US suburb who participated in a school-based oral health program in which preventive oral health care was delivered by ECP dental hygienists. We examined changes in oral health status as a function of sealants, caries, restorations, and treatment urgency with descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Pearson correlations. Results. The number of encounters with the ECP dental hygienist had a statistically significant effect on changes in decay (P = .014), restorations (P = .002), and treatment urgency (P = .038). Based on Pearson correlations, as encounters increased, there was a significant decrease in decay (–0.12), increase in restorations (0.21), and decrease in treatment urgency (–0.15). Conclusions. Increasing numbers of encounters with alternative providers (ECP dental hygienists), such as with school-based oral health programs, can improve the oral health status of low-income children who would not otherwise have received oral health services. PMID:26180957

  8. Emerging technologies for diagnosis of dental caries: The road so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-05-01

    It is now universally recognized that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental decay at an early stage of formation could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction in the time required for clinical trials of anticaries agents. The use of technologies as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost as well as reduce the cost and time for testing potential anticaries agents. This article describes the various technologies available to aid the dental practitioners in detecting dental caries at the earliest stage of its formation, assessing the activities of the detected carious lesion, and quantitatively or qualitatively monitoring of the lesion over time. The need and the importance of these technologies were also discussed. The data discussed are primarily based on published scientific studies and reviews from case reports, clinical trials, and in vitro and in vivo studies. References have been traced manually by MEDLINE® or through manufacturer's websites. While some of the devices are fully developed and commercially available, others are still under development. The devices vary in their modes of action as well as their capability as caries diagnostic aids. It is clear that the differences in caries presentations and behavior in different anatomical sites make it unlikely that any one diagnostic modality will have adequate sensitivity and specificity of detection of carious lesions for all sites; a combination of diagnostic tools will help us diagnose lesions earlier and detect failing restorations sooner, all to avoid more costly, destructive dental procedures and truly take dentistry into the preventive rather than the reactive mode.

  9. Dental students--dental advocates.

    PubMed

    Bensch, Brittany

    2010-01-01

    Student advocacy and involvement in the political process is built into the structure of the American Student Dental Association (ASDA), especially in its Legislative Grassroots Network and an internal communication network among students to ensure political awareness. Students are concerned with such issues as a universally accepted, non-patient-based licensure process, mid-level providers, loan availability and tax deductibility, financial support for schools, and service early in one's professional career (giving forward rather than giving back). Through collaboration with the American Dental Education Association and with many state associations, students participate in lobbying, awareness campaigns, and behind the scenes as legislative aids. Although students share the same love for the profession that animates established practitioners, they are perceived by legislators as being different. Students are involved in the legislative process because it represents their future.

  10. Dental students--dental advocates.

    PubMed

    Bensch, Brittany

    2010-01-01

    Student advocacy and involvement in the political process is built into the structure of the American Student Dental Association (ASDA), especially in its Legislative Grassroots Network and an internal communication network among students to ensure political awareness. Students are concerned with such issues as a universally accepted, non-patient-based licensure process, mid-level providers, loan availability and tax deductibility, financial support for schools, and service early in one's professional career (giving forward rather than giving back). Through collaboration with the American Dental Education Association and with many state associations, students participate in lobbying, awareness campaigns, and behind the scenes as legislative aids. Although students share the same love for the profession that animates established practitioners, they are perceived by legislators as being different. Students are involved in the legislative process because it represents their future. PMID:21314046

  11. Dental health practices in Norwegian adults.

    PubMed

    Helöe, L A; Aarö, L E; Sögaard, A J

    1982-12-01

    A nationwide sample of 1511 Norwegian adults were interviewed in 1979-80 concerning health habits, including dental habits. While daily toothbrushing and regular treatment attendance appeared to have become the rule among young and middle aged individuals, use of dental floss and especially of fluoride tablets or rinses, still are the exception. Dental health habits were clustered around the variable treatment attendance with slightly different patterns for men and for women. Measures of sugar consumptions were only slightly correlated with background variables and dental health behavior. While the latter was socially dependent, consumption of sugar probably was attached to personal characteristics or situational factors. The correlations between dental health behavior and other health behavior practices were generally weak, and somewhat different for men and women. Two separate types of motives for preventive behavior were distinguished between: health motives and cosmetic motives.

  12. Musculoskeletal disorders (Msds) and dental practice. part 1. General information-terminology, aetiology, work-relatedness, magnitude of the problem, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Nermin, Yamalik

    2006-12-01

    Occupational health hazards are common in many sectors and are on the increase. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), which are problems of musculoskeletal system, are significant and costly workplace problems affecting occupational health, productivity and the careers of the working population. Although there is a lack of uniform medical information and a clear understanding of the nature of MSDs, and significant difficulties in diagnosis which generate an ongoing debate regarding many aspects of these conditions, various risk factors are identified and preventive measures are available. As safety and health at work is a realistic target and prevention is clearly the best approach, the preventive philosophy deserves particular attention. This review aims to provide background information on general features of MSDs, identified risk factors and the basic philosophy of prevention. PMID:17243470

  13. Effects of Early Dental Office Visits on Dental Caries Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rozier, R. Gary; Preisser, John S.; Stearns, Sally C.; Lee, Jessica Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the association between timing of a first dentist office visit before age 5 years and dental disease in kindergarten. Methods. We used North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999–2006) linked to state oral health surveillance data to compare caries experience for kindergarten students (2005–2006) who had a visit before age 60 months (n = 11 394) to derive overall exposure effects from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. We repeated the analysis separately for children who had preventive and tertiary visits. Results. Children who had a visit at age 37 to 48 and 49 to 60 months had significantly less disease than children with a visit by age 24 months (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81, 0.95; IRR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.69, 0.82, respectively). Disease status did not differ between children who had a tertiary visit by age 24 months and other children. Conclusions. Medicaid-enrolled children in our study followed an urgent care type of utilization, and access to dental care was limited. Children at high risk for dental disease should be given priority for a preventive dental visit before age 3 years. PMID:24134364

  14. Global burden of dental condition among children in nine countries participating in an international oral health promotion programme, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Denis M; Llodra, Juan Carlos

    2014-10-01

    The Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2 programme is a unique global partnership between FDI World Dental Federation and Unilever Oral Care which aims to provide measurable improvement of oral health on a global scale through encouraging twice-daily brushing with a fluoride toothpaste. It was based on international recommendations using the principles of health promotion within school for the implementation of preventive health strategies. This paper is an overview of the dental caries condition of children from 2012 to 2013 in nine countries included in four World Health Organisation (WHO) regions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in each country before the implementation of health-promotion measures focused on twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste. The sample was based on stratified sampling according to the WHO pathfinder recommendations. From a total of 7,949 children examined, there were 517 children (1-2 years of age), 1,667 preschool children (3-5 years of age) and 5,789 schoolchildren (6-13 years of age). The prevalence and severity of primary dental caries, early childhood caries and temporary dental caries were described using decayed, filled teeth (dft), permanent decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) indices and the significant caries index (SCI). The major findings were a high prevalence of caries, identification of high-risk groups and inequality in the distribution of the severity of dental conditions. Aggregated data from this overview should provide justification for implementing an oral health programme. The main point is the need to retain and expand the community fluoridation programme as an effective preventive measure. At the individual level, the aggregated data identify the need for more targeted efforts to reach children early - especially among specific high-risk groups.

  15. Reimbursing Dentists for Smoking Cessation Treatment: Views From Dental Insurers

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Shana; McNeely, Jennifer; Rotrosen, John; Winitzer, Rebecca F.; Pollack, Harold; Abel, Stephen; Metsch, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Screening and delivery of evidence-based interventions by dentists is an effective way to reduce tobacco use. However, dental visits remain an underutilized opportunity for the treatment of tobacco dependence. This is, in part, because the current reimbursement structure does not support expansion of dental providers’ role in this arena. The purpose of this study was to interview dental insurers to assess attitudes toward tobacco use treatment in dental practice, pros and cons of offering dental provider reimbursement, and barriers to instituting a tobacco use treatment-related payment policy for dental providers. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 dental insurance company executives. Participants were identified using a targeted sampling method and represented viewpoints from a significant share of companies within the dental insurance industry. Results: All insurers believed that screening and intervention for tobacco use was an appropriate part of routine care during a dental visit. Several indicated a need for more evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness before reimbursement for these services could be actualized. Lack of purchaser demand, questionable returns on investment, and segregation of the medical and dental insurance markets were cited as additional barriers to coverage. Conclusions: Dissemination of findings on efficacy and additional research on financial returns could help to promote uptake of coverage by insurers. Wider issues of integration between dental and medical care and payment systems must be addressed in order to expand opportunities for preventive services in dental care settings. PMID:22387994

  16. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    de Jong-Lenters, M; Duijster, D; Bruist, M A; Thijssen, J; de Ruiter, C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and controls were caries free. Cases (n = 28) and controls (n = 26) were recruited from a referral centre for paediatric dental care and a general dental practice, respectively. Parenting practices and parent-child interactions of the child's primary caregiver were observed using Structured Interaction Tasks and subsequently rated on seven dimensions: positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving, discipline, monitoring, coercion and interpersonal atmosphere. All Structured Interaction Tasks were videotaped, and coded by trained and calibrated observers blind to the dental condition. Differences in parenting dimensions between cases and controls were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance, independent samples T-tests, χ(2)-tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Controls had significantly higher scores on the dimensions positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving and interpersonal atmosphere, compared to cases. Parents of controls were also less likely to show coercive behaviours. These associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for the mother's education level, tooth brushing frequency and the frequency of consuming sugary foods and drinks, except for coercion. There was no significant difference in discipline between cases and controls. In conclusion, this case-control study found a significant relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction quality and childhood dental caries. Our findings suggest that parenting practices may be an important factor to consider in caries preventive programs. PMID:24980791

  17. Dental education in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

  18. Dental caries prevalence and bilateral occurrence in premolars and molars of adolescent school children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Denloye, O O; Ajayi, D M; Popoola, B O

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries in premolars and molars of adolescent school children in Ibadan, Nigeria with a view of comparing findings from this study with previous African studies. A cross section of 12-19 year-old school children from the five local government areas in Ibadan were examined over a period of three months by two examiners (OD and DA), using the WHO criteria for diagnosing dental caries. Only premolars and molars were examined but the third molars were excluded because they were not fully erupted in most children. The mean age of the children under study was 16.2 ± 0.83 years. Dental caries was detected in 10.8% of the children. Overall, 225 teeth had dental caries, out of which 13.3% were premolars while 86.67% were molars. Among the molars, first molars were mostly affected by caries (68.72%) while 31.28% second molars were affected. Second premolars were more affected by caries among the premolars. Also bilateral caries occurrence was highest in the mandibular first molars. In conclusion since the first molars were the most vulnerable teeth to decay, caries preventive programs on them need to be drawn up.

  19. [Access to dental care during prenatal assistance].

    PubMed

    dos Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich; Zandonade, Eliana; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2012-11-01

    This study sought to evaluate the self-perceived response to dental care during prenatal assistance in the Unified Health System (SUS) in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. 1032 postpartum women were interviewed and 1006 prenatal records copied. Postpartum women's self-perceived response was measured by the Oral Health Index Profile-14. When an impact was identified, dental care rendered in educational, preventive and curative terms was considered adequate. When there was no impact, assistance was considered adequate in educational and preventive terms. The Chi-square test revealed an association between prenatal care and dental care. Oral health impact on quality of life was 14.7%. Dental care received by mothers in educational terms was rated at 41.3%, while in preventive terms it was 21% and in curative terms it was 16.6%. Six or more prenatal appointments coupled with educational activities was closely associated with adequate dental care (p < 0.05). Access to dental care is facilitated when pregnant women attend health services and become involved in educational activities during the prenatal period. Consequently, educational measures appear to indicate an improvement in prenatal care in the SUS.

  20. AIDS and hepatitis: a problem for the dental team.

    PubMed

    Reichart, P A

    1994-02-01

    The different types of viral hepatitis are briefly reviewed in relation to transmission during dental treatment, hepatitis B remaining the greatest threat to the dental team which is not immunised. The significance of hepatitis C for the dental profession is as yet undetermined. Transmission of HIV in the dental practice may occur from patient to dentist, from patient to patient and from dentist to patient. Epidemiological data show that none of these routes seems to be common. To date only five patients have been infected with HIV in a dental practice, the mode of transmission of which is unknown. In order to minimise the risk the dental profession is advised to strongly adhere to the recommendations for preventing HIV and hepatitis virus infection in health-care settings. Between patients all dental instruments should be submitted to sterilisation such as steam autoclaving. PMID:8021033

  1. The utilization of dental hygiene students in school-based dental sealant programs.

    PubMed

    Miller, Faith Y

    2005-01-01

    Early detection of childhood caries is important to childrens' overall health. Untreated childhood caries can lead to pain, as in abscesses from prolonged neglect; altered dietary intake; and delays in the development of the permanent teeth if the primary teeth are prematurely lost. In the summer of 2000, funds were provided to various oral health care provider organizations by the Illinois Department of Public Health, Division of Oral Health, to purchase portable equipment to deliver preventive services (i.e., exams, sealants, and oral hygiene education) to second-grade and sixth-grade children who qualified for Medicaid and/or free and reduced-cost lunch programs. The Dental Sealant Grant Program at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale was a unique program that utilized dental hygiene students as the primary human resource. Within the state, the Dental Sealant Grant Program was, at the time of this report, the only grantee sponsored by a stand-alone dental hygiene program (not affiliated with a dental school). Other positive aspects of the dental hygiene-sponsored sealant program were that the supervising dentist was the primary Medicaid provider and a member of the dental hygiene faculty; dental hygiene faculty participated actively as site coordinators and clinicians; and dental hygiene students were given the opportunity to volunteer for the program as a service-learning option. PMID:16297312

  2. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison. PMID:26126345

  3. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison.

  4. Association of dental and periodontal status with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. A retrospective case controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To assess the association of oral hygiene, dental caries, and periodontal status with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. Material and methods A retrospective case-control study on 81 patients treated for neoplasms with bone metastases. Twenty-nine patients with bone necrosis and 52 controls treated with bisphosphonates were compared using the Oral Hygiene Index, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth, Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs, and Residual Periodontal Bone. The null hypothesis stated that there was no difference in parameters of oral health between patients with and without bone necrosis. Differences of means of above-mentioned variables were compared between the groups with Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney rank sum test and χ2 test. Value of p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results Poorer oral hygiene (OHIs 1.94 vs. 1.32; p = 0.065), more advanced dental caries (DMFT 26.85 vs. 22.87; p = 0.05), and more advanced periodontal disease (CPITN: = 0: 21.05% vs. 42.51%; = 1 13.16% vs. 7.29%; = 2: 0% vs. 15.38%; = 3: 65.79% vs. 28.34%; = 4: 0% vs. 6.48%, Residual periodontal bone 73.1% vs. 80.51%; p = 0,001) were characteristic of patients with bisphosphonate related jaw necrosis when compared with control group. An advanced dental caries or periodontal disease required surgical intervention which directly contributed to the development of the bone necrosis. Conclusions Dental and periodontal disease can lead to bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oncologic patients treated with bisphosphonates should be offered preventive care to reduce dental plaque, calculus, dental caries, and periodontal disease. PMID:24701224

  5. Income, income inequality, dental caries and dental care levels: an ecological study in rich countries.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, E; Sheiham, A; Sabbah, W

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that beyond a certain level of absolute income, there is a weak relationship between income and population health. On the other hand, relative income or income inequality is more strongly related to health than absolute income in rich countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships of income and income inequality with dental caries and dental care levels in 35- to 44-year-old adults among rich countries. Income was assessed by gross domestic product and gross national income, income inequality by Gini coefficient and the ratio between the income of the richest and poorest 20% of the population, dental caries by DMFT and dental care levels by the care, restorative and treatment indices. Pearson and partial correlation were used to examine the relationships between income, income inequality, caries experience and dental care. Income measures were not related to either dental caries or dental care levels. However, income inequality measures were inversely and significantly related to number of filled teeth, DMFT, care index and restorative index, but not to number of decayed or missing teeth. It is concluded that DMFT scores were higher in more equal countries and may be explained by greater levels of restorative care in those countries.

  6. Epidermolysis bullosa: dental and anesthetic management of two cases.

    PubMed

    Wright, J T

    1984-02-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of rare genetic disorders which are of dental interest because of their specific oral manifestations and management difficulties. Two cases of recessive EB which may be classified clinically as the atrophicans-gravis Herlitz type are described. Dental therapy consisted of extractions and stainless steel crown restorations, with inhalation general anesthesia. The need for and advantages of early preventive and restorative dental care are illustrated by the cases presented.

  7. Epidemiology of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Winter, G B

    1990-01-01

    The most recent epidemiological data on the prevalence of dental caries in children indicate a halting of the increasing levels in many developing countries and a continuing decrease in many highly industrialized countries of the world. However, a further fall in caries levels predicted for 5-yr-old children in the U.K. has not occurred and the decline in caries may have begun to level out. 'Polarization' of caries to a minority of high-risk individuals is occurring in the developed world, with 20-25% of children accounting for more than 50% of the disease. Socio-economic factors are important in determining the proportion of high-risk children in these countries. The multifactorial aetiology of caries allows a number of different interpretations to account for changes in the prevalence of the disease with time, in both the developing and developed countries. These changes are variously ascribed to alterations in dietary habits, especially the consumption of sugar; variations in the patterns of oral hygiene; increased contact with trace elements, especially fluoride, in the environment; changes in the ecology and/or virulence of oral and dental plaque microflora and alterations in the oral protective mechanisms including the immune status. The epidemiological evidence available on the relationship of all these social, environmental and other factors to changes in the prevalence levels of caries does not, however, fully explain all the changes that have been observed. The claim that caries is no longer a public health problem is premature, as it ignores the still high proportion of individuals with tooth decay throughout the world.

  8. Dental hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R M

    2011-08-01

    A 14-year-old girl developed dental pain and was treated for acute infected pulpitis of her right upper lateral incisor with drilling and filling. The pain continued and was helped by analgesia, sucking ice cubes and drinking cold water. Forty-eight hours later, she became confused and disoriented. She started to vomit and complained of headache. Investigations revealed hyponatraemia with normal serum potassium levels and initially normal urinary sodium excretion. Over the next 24 hours, she passed 5.45 L of urine and her serum sodium rose from 125 to 143 mmol/L. Self-induced water intoxication has been described during drinking games and initiation ceremonies, but this would appear to an unusual cause. Conservative management proved successful in allowing this girl to recover without sequelae. PMID:21873727

  9. A comprehensive oral and dental management of an epileptic and intellectually deteriorated adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sourabh Ramesh; Pendyala, Gowri Swaminatham; Saraf, Veena; Choudhari, Shantanu; Mopagar, Viddyasagar

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy along with intellectual deterioration and other neurological disorders can have social, physical, and psychological consequences, especially, when they begin in childhood. Moreover, the seizure episode along with mental deterioration may compromise the oral and dental care resulting in numerous decayed teeth. This report presents the case history of an adolescent with poor oral hygiene and numerous decayed teeth. This report also presents the comprehensive endodontic, surgical, and prosthodontic management of epileptic mentally challenged patient in the dental office. Epilepsy along with intellectual deterioration and other neurological disorders can have social, physical, and psychological consequences, especially, when they begin in childhood. Moreover, the seizure episode along with mental deterioration may compromise the oral and dental care resulting in numerous decayed teeth. This report presents the case history of an adolescent with poor oral hygiene and numerous decayed teeth. This report also presents the comprehensive endodontic, surgical, and prosthodontic management of epileptic mentally challenged patient in the dental office. PMID:24130597

  10. The potential of saliva in protecting against dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Hara, Anderson T; Zero, Domenick T

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is the most relevant biological factor for the prevention of dental erosion. It starts acting even before the acid attack, with an increase of the salivary flow rate as a response to the acidic stimuli. This creates a more favorable scenario, improving the buffering system of saliva and effectively diluting and clearing acids that come in contact with dental surfaces during the erosive challenge. Saliva plays a role in the formation of the acquired dental pellicle, a perm-selective membrane that prevents the contact of the acid with the tooth surfaces. Due to its mineral content, saliva can prevent demineralization as well as enhance remineralization. These protective properties may become more evident in hyposalivatory patients. Finally, saliva may also represent the biological expression of an individual's risk for developing erosive lesions; therefore, some of the saliva components as well as of the acquired dental pellicle can serve as potential biomarkers for dental erosion.

  11. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience.

    PubMed

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs. PMID:26916132

  12. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience.

    PubMed

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-02-26

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs.

  13. Mechanism of action of a desensitizing fluoride toothpaste delivering calcium and phosphate ingredients in the treatment of dental hypersensitivity. Part III: Prevention of dye penetration through dentin vs a calcium- and phosphate-free control.

    PubMed

    Winston, Anthony E; Charig, Andrew J; Thong, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the pain of dental hypersensitivity resulting from gum recession is from the movement of fluid within the exposed tubules of dentin, causing changes in pressure on the nerve within the pulpal cavity. One method of treating hypersensitivity is to occlude the tubules, preventing fluid movement. This article discusses the use of a dye penetration technique, which establishes this mechanism of action for a desensitizing fluoride toothpaste containing calcium and phosphate. Two groups of intact teeth were perfectly sealed with enamel paint. Windows 100-micro to 200-micro deep were opened on opposite sides of each tooth at the dentin-enamel junction and briefly etched using 20% polyacrylic acid. One batch of teeth was treated eight times for 30 mins each with a 1:3 slurry of the desensitizing toothpaste and another set with a similar slurry prepared from a calcium- and phosphate-free control. A 0.85% aqueous solution of acid red fuchsin dye was applied to each window and allowed to dry. After a brief rinse, the teeth were sectioned across the windows. Almost no dye penetration was seen in teeth treated with the desensitizing toothpaste; however, extensive penetration through the dentin was visible in the control-treated teeth. The differences in dye penetration for the two sets of teeth were significant by both subjective (P < .001) and objective (P < .01) measures. Tubule occlusion because of calcium and phosphate ions from the desensitizing toothpaste accounts for its tooth desensitizing efficacy.

  14. Report of the Task Force on AIDS and Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, John; Gray, Carolyn F.

    1988-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' task force on acquired immune deficiency syndrome and dental education recommends that educational strategies stress the necessity for routine infection control procedures in treatment, enhancing the health professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning all aspects of disease prevention.…

  15. POLICIES AND GUIDELINES FOR THE TRAINING OF DENTAL AUXILIARIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Dental Education.

    ALTHOUGH THE DENTAL PROFESSION NOW SEEKS SUPPORT FOR AUXILIARY TRAINING PROGRAMS FROM EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES OTHER THAN DENTAL SCHOOLS, IT IS CONCERNED THAT TRAINING IN NONDENTAL SCHOOL SETTINGS SUCH AS JUNIOR COLLEGES, TECHNICAL INSTITUTES, UNIVERSITY EXTENSION PROGRAMS, AND POST-HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS PREVENTS TRAINEE EXPOSURE TO…

  16. Dental Needs in Children of Mexican-American Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiAngelis, Anthony J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the children of Mexican American migrant farm workers was conducted to identify the level of dental problems and to determine the most effective and feasible intervention mechanisms for treatment and prevention. An important factor in planning dental programs is the infrequent availability of these migrant children. (JN)

  17. Hard and soft tissue surgical complications in dental implantology.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Shahid R

    2015-05-01

    This article discusses surgical complications associated with the placement of dental implants, specifically focusing on how they occur (etiology), as well as their management and prevention. Dental implant surgical complications can be classified into those of hard and soft tissues. In general, complications can be avoided with thorough preoperative treatment planning and proper surgical technique.

  18. Strand I - Physical Health; Dental Health for Grades K-3. Special Edition for Evaluation and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Curriculum Development Center.

    This is a curriculum guide for teaching dental health material to early elementary grade students. This outline emphasizes the prevention and treatment of dental diseases, and is designed to provide the knowledge and develop the habits necessary for a lifetime of good dental health. A list of seven pupil objectives is presented to develop good…

  19. Some thoughts on dental malpractice.

    PubMed

    Morris, W O

    1976-06-01

    Malpractice litigation is not new nor is it limited to the professions of medicine and dentistry. The number of dental malpractice claims is increasing in many countries though the percentage of cases in which the patient succeeds remains constant at about ten to twelve per cent. In successful cases however the monetary compensation awarded has increased substantially in the past few years. The increasing use of multi-chair dental offices and the employment of more auxiliary workers in dental practice may have contributed to the increase in litigation as has the widespread dissemination of knowledge of patients' rights by newspapers and television. It is unfair to blame the legal profession for this increase. There is evidence that the 'contingent fee' arrangement between plantiff and lawyer contributes to the number of cases brought. It has been suggested that the existence of malpractice insurance may make the dentist less careful to prevent untoward effects of dental treatment. In many states the law will not permit punitive damages to be paid by the insurance agency nor are fines imposed for criminal activities covered. It is important that the dentist should be fully informed about the details of the cover which his insurance does in fact provide. PMID:1067226

  20. Culture and Dental Health among African Immigrant School-Aged Children in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper examines African immigrant parents' views on dental decay and whether such views affect their decision to obtain dental insurance for their children. The paper also examines the cultural underpinnings of the immigrants' oral health care practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected in the states…

  1. Dental Auxiliary Occupations. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Richard D.

    As part of a dental auxiliaries project, a Dental Auxiliary National Technical Advisory Committee was established, and its major undertaking was to assist in the development of a functional inventory for each of the three dental auxiliary occupations (dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology). The analysis consisted of…

  2. Factors associated with regular dental visits among hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Masami; Shirayama, Yasuhiko; Imoto, Issei; Hinode, Daisuke; Yanagisawa, Shizuko; Takeuchi, Yuko; Bando, Takashi; Yokota, Narushi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate awareness and attitudes about preventive dental visits among dialysis patients; to clarify the barriers to visiting the dentist. METHODS Subjects included 141 dentate outpatients receiving hemodialysis treatment at two facilities, one with a dental department and the other without a dental department. We used a structured questionnaire to interview participants about their awareness of oral health management issues for dialysis patients, perceived oral symptoms and attitudes about dental visits. Bivariate analysis using the χ2 test was conducted to determine associations between study variables and regular dental check-ups. Binominal logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with regular dental check-ups. RESULTS There were no significant differences in patient demographics between the two participating facilities, including attitudes about dental visits. Therefore, we included all patients in the following analyses. Few patients (4.3%) had been referred to a dentist by a medical doctor or nurse. Although 80.9% of subjects had a primary dentist, only 34.0% of subjects received regular dental check-ups. The most common reasons cited for not seeking dental care were that visits are burdensome and a lack of perceived need. Patients with gum swelling or bleeding were much more likely to be in the group of those not receiving routine dental check-ups (χ2 test, P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that receiving dental check-ups was associated with awareness that oral health management is more important for dialysis patients than for others and with having a primary dentist (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Dialysis patients should be educated about the importance of preventive dental care. Medical providers are expected to participate in promoting dental visits among dialysis patients. PMID:27648409

  3. Factors associated with regular dental visits among hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Masami; Shirayama, Yasuhiko; Imoto, Issei; Hinode, Daisuke; Yanagisawa, Shizuko; Takeuchi, Yuko; Bando, Takashi; Yokota, Narushi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate awareness and attitudes about preventive dental visits among dialysis patients; to clarify the barriers to visiting the dentist. METHODS Subjects included 141 dentate outpatients receiving hemodialysis treatment at two facilities, one with a dental department and the other without a dental department. We used a structured questionnaire to interview participants about their awareness of oral health management issues for dialysis patients, perceived oral symptoms and attitudes about dental visits. Bivariate analysis using the χ2 test was conducted to determine associations between study variables and regular dental check-ups. Binominal logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with regular dental check-ups. RESULTS There were no significant differences in patient demographics between the two participating facilities, including attitudes about dental visits. Therefore, we included all patients in the following analyses. Few patients (4.3%) had been referred to a dentist by a medical doctor or nurse. Although 80.9% of subjects had a primary dentist, only 34.0% of subjects received regular dental check-ups. The most common reasons cited for not seeking dental care were that visits are burdensome and a lack of perceived need. Patients with gum swelling or bleeding were much more likely to be in the group of those not receiving routine dental check-ups (χ2 test, P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that receiving dental check-ups was associated with awareness that oral health management is more important for dialysis patients than for others and with having a primary dentist (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Dialysis patients should be educated about the importance of preventive dental care. Medical providers are expected to participate in promoting dental visits among dialysis patients.

  4. Gaps in Prevention and Treatment: Dental Care for Low-Income Children. New Federalism: National Survey of America's Families, Series B, No. B-15. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Genevieve M.; Ko, Grace; Ormond, Barbara A.

    Using estimates drawn from the 1997 National Survey of America's Families (NSAF), this brief examines variations in the receipt of dental care services and in unmet need for dental care across different subgroups of children aged 3 and over, both nationally and across 13 states. The NSAF is a household survey that provides information on more than…

  5. Diabetes, Gum Disease, and Other Dental Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor or dentist prescribes rinsing with a fluoride mouth rinse to prevent cavities using sugarless gum ... your teeth at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste. Fluoride protects against tooth decay. Aim for ...

  6. Infant oral exam and first dental home.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Kavitha

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to familiarize general practitioners with the components of a dental home including an infant oral exam, and to the First Dental Home initiative, which is unique to the State of Texas. This article encourages the general practitioners to actively participate in providing care for young children under the age of 3. Components of an infant oral examination are described here with emphasis on knee-to-knee or lap exam, caries risk assessment, preventive treatment, age-appropriate anticipatory guidance, and parent education. The First Dental Home is uniquely designed to help pediatric clients 6 months through 35 months of age to establish a dental home. The objectives, goal and components of FDH are discussed in detail.

  7. Death in dental clinic: Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Seshappa, Kedarnath Nakkalahalli; Rangaswamy, Shruthi

    2016-01-01

    Deaths during dental treatment or as a result of dental treatment are rare, but the unfortunate fact is that such deaths do occur. Unexpected death of a patient can be emotionally draining and even harrowing to his or her relatives. The death of a patient may bring an enormous feeling of anxiety both at the personal and professional level, stress, profound grief, damage to self-esteem, loss of self-confidence, reputation, and specter of litigation on a dental surgeon. No dentist can be guaranteed to be free of such an incident during the course of his or her practice. The dentist should respond in a compassionate and respectful manner in case of such unfortunate tragic events, and also ensure self-protection. This article emphasizes on prevention of such incidents and throws some light on how to respond in case of an unfortunate death in a dental clinic, including the medico-legal aspects. PMID:27555720

  8. Death in dental clinic: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Seshappa, Kedarnath Nakkalahalli; Rangaswamy, Shruthi

    2016-01-01

    Deaths during dental treatment or as a result of dental treatment are rare, but the unfortunate fact is that such deaths do occur. Unexpected death of a patient can be emotionally draining and even harrowing to his or her relatives. The death of a patient may bring an enormous feeling of anxiety both at the personal and professional level, stress, profound grief, damage to self-esteem, loss of self-confidence, reputation, and specter of litigation on a dental surgeon. No dentist can be guaranteed to be free of such an incident during the course of his or her practice. The dentist should respond in a compassionate and respectful manner in case of such unfortunate tragic events, and also ensure self-protection. This article emphasizes on prevention of such incidents and throws some light on how to respond in case of an unfortunate death in a dental clinic, including the medico-legal aspects. PMID:27555720

  9. Death in dental clinic: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Seshappa, Kedarnath Nakkalahalli; Rangaswamy, Shruthi

    2016-01-01

    Deaths during dental treatment or as a result of dental treatment are rare, but the unfortunate fact is that such deaths do occur. Unexpected death of a patient can be emotionally draining and even harrowing to his or her relatives. The death of a patient may bring an enormous feeling of anxiety both at the personal and professional level, stress, profound grief, damage to self-esteem, loss of self-confidence, reputation, and specter of litigation on a dental surgeon. No dentist can be guaranteed to be free of such an incident during the course of his or her practice. The dentist should respond in a compassionate and respectful manner in case of such unfortunate tragic events, and also ensure self-protection. This article emphasizes on prevention of such incidents and throws some light on how to respond in case of an unfortunate death in a dental clinic, including the medico-legal aspects.

  10. [Prosthetic rehabilitation: needs in Senegalese dental offices].

    PubMed

    Mbodj, E B; Diouf, M; Faye, D; Ndiaye, A; Seck, M T; Ndiaye, C; Diallo, P D

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of dental prosthetic needs will develop strategies for prevention and treatment through a package of individual, community and professional policies. The aim of this study was to evaluate prosthetic needs in Senegalese dental offices. The survey was conducted among people aged 15 years and more attending Senegalese dental clinics. The mean number of missing teeth was 4.4. Only 55.3% of the sample expressed the need for dentures and 81.8% had a diagnosed need for prosthesis. A statistically significant difference was noticed between the needs diagnosed and the expressed needs (p < 0.0001). Finally, this study reveals that the need for prosthetic treatment is real in the Senegalese dental offices.

  11. Comparison of Dental Explorers and CPI-probes in Diagnosing Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Yoichi; Maki, Yoshinobu; Kagami, Noriaki; Satou, Ryouichi; Sugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to compare efficiency in detecting suspected caries requiring observation (CO) and decayed teeth (DT) between dental explorers and Community Periodontal Index (CPI)-probes in school dental examinations and evaluate the effect of their respective use on Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index scores. A total of 126 elementary and high school students were examined. All the clinical findings were obtained by a pair of trained dentists examining each student at routine annual school dental examinations. A dental explorer or CPI-probe and dental mirror were used for the examination. One dentist used the dental explorer, while the other used the CPI-probe. The choice of which instrument to use by the first dentist to examine the student was made at random. A comparison of the explorers and CPI-probes revealed that the numbers of patients and permanent teeth classified as CO were greater with the former in 6th-grade elementary and high school students (p<0.05). The Kappa value for CO and DT was 0.560 for 6th-grade elementary school and 0.846 for high school students. All DMFT scores were higher with the explorers than with the CPI-probes in the 6th-grade elementary school students. No significant difference was observed between the explorers and CPI-probes in any of the DMFT scores in any group, however. The present results indicate that as long as the low rate of caries in Japanese school children is maintained, the epidemiological data on this disease should not show any significant change if a CPI-probe is used instead of an explorer in school dental examinations. PMID:26370573

  12. American Dental Education Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity and Inclusion ADEA Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education What is ADEA CCI? ADEA ... Education, 2016–2017 Beyond the Crossroads: Change and Innovation in Dental Education ADEA Guidelines for Ethical Academic ...

  13. Dental x-rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film; Digital image ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some of them are: Bitewing. Shows the crown ...

  14. Dental laser technology.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2008-10-01

    Dental technology is rapidly affecting the treatment options available to patients. Dental lasers are an innovative technology for both hard- and soft-tissue treatment applications. The ability to recontour soft tissues efficiently and predictably with immediate hemostatsis and minimal postoperative sequelae is of value to both the dentist and the patient. This article reviews the principles of dental lasers, criteria to consider when selecting a dental laser, and some of their clinical applications.

  15. Dental findings in patients with West syndrome: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Amit; Kalra, Namita; Tyagi, Rishi; Baweja, Mani; Khandelwal, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    West syndrome a rare, severe form of epilepsy occurs in early infancy. It is characterized by a triad consisting of infantile spasms that occurs in clusters, arrest of psychomotor development and hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalogram. We present here two cases of west syndrome where patients required dental care due to the presence of certain dental findings. Preventive measurements such as controlled diet and proper oral hygiene along with professional dental management are recommended in patients with west syndrome to avoid dental problems.

  16. Accreditation in Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    The Council on Dental Education cooperates with the American Dental Hygienists' Association in developing educational requirements for schools of dental hygiene. To be eligible for accreditation, schools must operate on a non-profit basis. A school applying for accreditation completes a previsitation questionnaire concerning its program. The…

  17. Dental records: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Charangowda, B K

    2010-01-01

    Dental records consist of documents related to the history of present illness, clinical examination, diagnosis, treatment done, and the prognosis. A thorough knowledge of dental records is essential for the practicing dentist, as it not only has a forensic application, but also a legal implication with respect to insurance and consumerism. This article reviews the importance of dental records in forensics. PMID:21189983

  18. Dental Manpower Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ake, James N.; Johnson, Donald W.

    Statistical data on many aspects of dental and allied dental personnel supply, distribution, characteristics, and education and on certain other aspects of dental services are presented and discussed. The data on dentist supply show the national trend in the supply of active dentists since 1950 and the concurrent changes in dentist-to-population…

  19. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  20. DENTAL SCHOOL PLANNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GALAGAN, DONALD J.

    THIS DISCUSSION PRESENTS A COMPLETE PICTURE OF THE CURRENT STATE OF DENTAL EDUCATION WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR MEETING THE DEMANDS FOR DENTAL STAFF AND FACILITIES. THE AREAS INVESTIGATED ARE (1) OBJECTIVES IN DENTAL EDUCATION--COURSES, TEACHING MODES, INNOVATIONS IN CURRICULUM, COORDINATION OF BASIC AND CLINICAL INSTRUCTION, (2) FACILITY…

  1. Bacterial aerosols in the dental clinic: a review.

    PubMed

    Leggat, P A; Kedjarune, U

    2001-02-01

    A number of sources of bacterial aerosols exist within and outside the dental clinic. The concentration of bacterial aerosols and splatters appears to be highest during dental procedures, especially those generated by some procedures such as ultrasonic scaling, or using a high speed drill. Several infectious diseases could be transmitted to staff and patients by airborne bacterial and other contaminants in the dental clinic. Air-conditioning and ventilation systems should be regularly maintained to reduce environmental contaminants and to prevent recirculation of bacterial aerosols. Pre-procedural rinsing by patients with mouthwashes as well as vacuum and electrostatic extraction of aerosols during dental procedures could also be employed. Dental staff should also consider appropriate immunizations and continue to use personal protective measures, which reduce contact with bacterial aerosols and splatters in the dental clinic.

  2. Dental injuries at the 1989 Canada games: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Lee-Knight, C T; Harrison, E L; Price, C J

    1992-10-01

    The management and prevention of dental trauma is an integral part of the medical services provided at major athletic events. This paper reviews the organization and delivery of the dental services provided at the 1989 Canada Games. The nature, incidence and management of the dental problems reported in the participant population of 3,411 athletes are also described. During the two-week competition, 15 participants were assessed and treated for various dental conditions, including hard- and soft-tissue injury of the oral cavity, and temporomandibular joint sprain. The sports with the highest incidence of dental injury for the male population were wrestling (one per cent) and basketball (0.8 per cent). For the female population, these sports were basketball (2.5 per cent) and field hockey (1.3 per cent). The dental services provided during the games included emergency assessment and treatment, fabrication of mouthguards, and in-service education to medical team members.

  3. Mediators between education and dental pain: a cross-sectional study to assess the role of dental services utilization.

    PubMed

    Constante, Helena M; Peres, Marco A; Schroeder, Fernanda C; Bastos, João L

    2016-02-01

    This study tested whether the pattern of dental services utilization and the reason for the last dental visit mediate the association between educational attainment and dental pain. This is a cross-sectional analysis (n = 1099) based on data from a prospective cohort study in adults, southern Brazil. The mediating effects were assessed by including interaction terms in logistic regression models and by the KHB method, which estimated the direct, mediated, and total effects of education on dental pain. The prevalence of dental pain was 17.5%. Individuals with less than 12 yr of study who visited the dentist to solve dental problems had a 20% higher odds of reporting dental pain than those with 12 or more years of study, who sought the dentist for preventive reasons. Dental services should also focus on preventive measures, especially if less-educated individuals visit the dentist only to treat problems; this may help reduce the frequency of negative oral health outcomes, including dental pain. PMID:26718615

  4. The pregnant dental patient.

    PubMed

    Singh, Medha

    2012-01-01

    When dealing with a pregnant patient, the dental practitioner should keep in mind the various physiological changes that occur in the pregnant female and the potential effects on the fetus in using various types of local anesthesia. This article reviews the current considerations in the use of local anesthesia in the pregnant dental patient, and the safety of local anesthetics, their dosage, and any adverse effect on mother and fetus. It also discusses various dental procedures and the trimester during which they can be performed. Lastly, this article talks about the complications that can occur with a pregnant dental patient in the dental chair.

  5. Arresting rampant dental caries with silver diamine fluoride in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease post-bone marrow transplantation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rampant caries is an advanced and severe dental disease that affects multiple teeth. This case describes the management of rampant caries in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Case presentation A 14-year-old Chinese boy suffering from β–thalassemia major was referred to the dental clinic for the management of rampant dental caries. An oral examination revealed pale conjunctiva, bruising of lips, and depapillation of tongue indicating an underlying condition of anemia. The poor oral condition due to topical and systemic immunosuppressants was seriously aggravated, and rampant caries developed rapidly, affecting all newly erupted, permanent teeth. The teeth were hypersensitive and halitosis was apparent. Strategies for oral health education and diet modification were given to the patient. Xylitol chewing gum was used to stimulate saliva flow to promote remineralization of teeth. Silver diamine fluoride was topically applied to arrest rampant caries and to relieve pain from hypersensitivity. Carious teeth with pulpal involvement were endodontically treated. Stainless steel crowns were provided on molars to restore chewing function, and polycarbonate crowns were placed on premolars, upper canines and incisors. Conclusion This case report demonstrates success in treating a young teenager with severe rampant dental decay by contemporary caries control and preventive strategy. PMID:24383434

  6. Description and Documentation of the Dental School Dental Delivery System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Rosen and Wallace, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was undertaken to describe and document the dental school dental delivery system using an integrated systems approach. In late 1976 and early 1977, a team of systems analysts and dental consultants visited three dental schools to observe the delivery of dental services and patient flow and to interview administrative staff and faculty.…

  7. Operations Handbook for Migrant Student Dental Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William E.; Resendez, Ignacio V.

    Migrant Education and the Superintendent of Public Instruction in the state of Washington have brought several agencies together to provide low cost dental services to migrant children. The program, initiated in 1980 and serving 138 children that year, has focused on the provision of preventative and emergency services. Migrant Education has…

  8. Dental Erosion in Industry

    PubMed Central

    Cate, H. J. Ten Bruggen

    1968-01-01

    Five hundred and fifty-five acid workers were examined between March 1962 and October 1964. One hundred and seventy-six (31·7%) were affected by industrial dental erosion at the first examinations. In 33 cases (6·0%) the dentine was affected. During the period of the survey, 66 (20·4%) of 324 workers examined more than once showed evidence that erosion was progressing. The prevalence and incidence of erosion were highest among battery formation workers, lower among picklers, and least among other processes covered by the survey. The age of workers did not appear to influence their susceptibility to erosion. The habit of working with the lips slightly parted had little effect. Erosion superimposed upon attrition predisposed to more severe loss of tooth structure than either operating alone. Little inconvenience or functional disability was suffered by acid workers due to erosion. Twenty-seven (23·7%) of 114 erosions were considered to be disfiguring. Regular dental treatment was sought less by acid workers than by controls, and the oral hygiene of the latter was superior. There was no evidence to show any difference between caries experience among acid workers and controls. Calculus and periodontal disease were more prevalent among acid workers than among controls, but it was not possible to attribute this to the working environment. Black staining in iron picklers was considered to be due to the working environment. The use of closed acid containers or lip extraction on open acid vats prevented significant atmospheric contamination and diminished the prevalence of erosion. The use of wall fans and detergent foaming agents was helpful. Images PMID:5723349

  9. [Dental technician's pneumoconiosis; a case report].

    PubMed

    Karaman Eyüboğlu, Canan; Itil, Oya; Gülşen, Aşkin; Kargi, Aydanur; Cimrin, Arif

    2008-01-01

    Since 1939, it has been known that, silicosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be seen among dental technicians. The interstitial disease caused by the exposure to complex substances used by dental technicians is classified as a special group called dental technician's pneumoconiosis. A 36-year-old man, who has no smoking history, presented with severe dyspnea. He had worked in different dental laboratories for 22 years, but he did not have respiratory symptoms until five years ago. After that date, he had hospitalized and had been examined for respiratory pathologies for many times. He had came to our clinic, because of the progression of his dyspnea. Diffuse pulmonary parenchymal infiltrates which can be related with pneumoconiosis and chronic type 1 respiratory deficiency had been diagnosed as the result of the examinations. While he has no history of smoking or any other risk factors or diseases in his medical history, the case was accepted as dental technician's pneumoconiosis. The factors related with the pathogenesis of dental technician's pneumoconiosis are; the complex compound of the substances (metal dusts, silica, plaster, wax and resins, chemical liquids, methyl methacrylate) used in this sector and their effects on the lung parenchyma. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis related with methyl methacrylate has been reported. The most important factor to acquire an occupational lung disease is a complex occupational exposure. The insufficient workplace airing and the lack of preventive measures added on this exposure, the risks become much more greater. PMID:18701982

  10. [Dental technician's pneumoconiosis; a case report].

    PubMed

    Karaman Eyüboğlu, Canan; Itil, Oya; Gülşen, Aşkin; Kargi, Aydanur; Cimrin, Arif

    2008-01-01

    Since 1939, it has been known that, silicosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be seen among dental technicians. The interstitial disease caused by the exposure to complex substances used by dental technicians is classified as a special group called dental technician's pneumoconiosis. A 36-year-old man, who has no smoking history, presented with severe dyspnea. He had worked in different dental laboratories for 22 years, but he did not have respiratory symptoms until five years ago. After that date, he had hospitalized and had been examined for respiratory pathologies for many times. He had came to our clinic, because of the progression of his dyspnea. Diffuse pulmonary parenchymal infiltrates which can be related with pneumoconiosis and chronic type 1 respiratory deficiency had been diagnosed as the result of the examinations. While he has no history of smoking or any other risk factors or diseases in his medical history, the case was accepted as dental technician's pneumoconiosis. The factors related with the pathogenesis of dental technician's pneumoconiosis are; the complex compound of the substances (metal dusts, silica, plaster, wax and resins, chemical liquids, methyl methacrylate) used in this sector and their effects on the lung parenchyma. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis related with methyl methacrylate has been reported. The most important factor to acquire an occupational lung disease is a complex occupational exposure. The insufficient workplace airing and the lack of preventive measures added on this exposure, the risks become much more greater.

  11. Dental and General Trauma in Team Handball.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Mateja; Kühl, Sebastian; Šlaj, Martina; Connert, Thomas; Filippi, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Handball has developed into a much faster and high-impact sport over the past few years because of rule changes. Fast sports with close body contact are especially prone to orofacial trauma. Handball belongs to a category of sports with medium risk for dental trauma. Even so, there is only little literature on this subject. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and the type of injuries, especially the occurrence of orofacial trauma, habits of wearing mouthguards, as well as degree of familiarity with the tooth rescue box. For this purpose, 77.1% (n=542/703) of all top athletes and coaches from the two highest Swiss leagues (National League A and National League B), namely 507 professional players and 35 coaches, were personally interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. 19.7% (n=100/507) of the players experienced dental trauma in their handball careers, with 40.8% (n=51/125) crown fractures being the most frequent by far. In spite of the relatively high risk of lip or dental trauma, only 5.7% (n=29/507) of the players wear mouthguards. The results of this study show that dental trauma is common among Swiss handball players. In spite of the high risk of dental trauma, the mouthguard as prevention is not adequately known, and correct procedure following dental trauma is rarely known at all. PMID:27622524

  12. Dental Usage Under Changing Economic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Manski, Richard J.; Moeller, John F.; Chen, Haiyan; Schimmel, Jody; St Clair, Patricia A.; Pepper, John V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between changes in household finances (wealth and income) and changes in dental utilization at the onset of the recent recession in a population of older Americans. Methods Data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were analyzed for U.S. individuals aged 51 years and older during the 2006 and 2008 waves of the HRS. We estimated logistic models of (1) starting and (2) stopping dental use between 2006 and 2008 survey periods as a function of changes in household wealth and income, controlling for other potentially confounding covariates. Results We found that only when household wealth falls by 50 percent or more were older adults less likely to seek dental care. Changes in household income and other changes in household wealth were not associated with changes in dental utilization among this population. Conclusions Older Americans’ dental care utilization appeared to be fairly resilient to changes in household finances; only when wealth fell by 50 percent or more did individuals decrease dental use. This finding might extend to other health care services that are preventive, routine, and relatively inexpensive. PMID:22994647

  13. The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, M. Lisa

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

  14. The Future of Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    The author, a representative of the American Dental Trade Association, identifies major challenges facing dental education in the areas of predoctoral dental education, postdoctoral dental education, and continuing dental education. Ten recommendations address preclinical and clinical courses, licensing examinations, mandatory continuing…

  15. What is dental ecology?

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context.

  16. [Outcomes of Infection Control Team Inspections at the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Mitsuhiro, Sunakawa; Hiroyuki, Matsumoto; Rie, Okihata; Hiromi, Tsuruoka; Yuichi, Yamada; Toshiko, Adachi; Yuichi, Izumi

    2015-07-01

    In the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, an infection control team (ICT) has been formed to inspect each diagnosis department of clinics and wards in order to identify problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In this study, we analyzed the inspection reports and highlighted the following serious problems: 1) inadequate hygienic hand-washing for out- and in-patient treatment, 2) incomplete wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) by dental health care workers, 3) necessity of environmental improvement in the clinics, and 4) cross-infection risk induced by. the continuous use of treatment devices without appropriate disinfection. The ICT provided feedback to the inspected departments, suggesting solutions to problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In order to enhance infection control in our hospital, dental healthcare practitioners must make further efforts on nosocomial infection control and prevention, and act according to their position by continuously educating students and enlightening hospital staff about the importance of infection control. PMID:26502663

  17. Meeting Dental Health Needs Through Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Alvin L.

    1972-01-01

    Dental health needs of the country cannot be met through education of more dentists. Rather, we must educate auxiliaries to perform many of the intraoral procedures now regarded the sole responsibility of dentists. (SB)

  18. Factor analysis on implementation of domiciliary dental care in Metropolitan Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hirata, SoIchiro; Sakayori, Takaharu; Maki, Yoshinobu; Takano, Naohisa; Ishii, Takuo

    2013-01-01

    The need for domiciliary dental care has increased with the aging of Japanese society. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government and Tokyo Dental Association conducted a survey of dental institutions within Tokyo in order to clarify which factors influenced implementation of domiciliary dental care by dental institutions. The proportion was significantly higher in (1) dentists in their 50s or older, (2) those working in cooperation with primary care physicians, (3) those providing dysphagia rehabilitation, (4) those who give information on prevention of aspiration pneumonia, (5) those who attended training on medical or domiciliary dental care for the elderly in need of nursing care, and (6) those who attended training workshops and seminars provided by the Tokyo Dental Association in 2010. In the logistic regression analysis, a significant odds ratio was obtained for the same items, excluding age. Attendance at training on medical or domiciliary dental care for the elderly in need of nursing care had the highest odds ratio. Those who attended any kind of training course implemented domiciliary dental care significantly more often. Training conducted by the Tokyo Metropolitan Center for Oral Health of Persons with Disabilities, Tokyo Dental Association, and local dental associations showed a significant odds ratio, with the highest by the Tokyo Dental Association. Traditionally, education on domiciliary dental care in the elderly is not provided at the college level. The present results indicate the importance of educating students with regard to the unique challenges such work poses. Attending seminars hosted by the Tokyo Dental Association also significantly influenced implementation of domiciliary dental care. This seems to be an important result, suggesting the effectiveness of training provided by dental associations with regard to the promotion of domiciliary dental care. This indicates the need for dental associations to provide such training throughout Japan.

  19. Can midlevel dental providers be a benefit to the American public?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Tobias E; Galka, Audrey L; Lacy, Ernestine S; Pellegrini, August D; Sweier, Domenica G; Romito, Laura M

    2013-05-01

    The use of midlevel dental providers (MLDPs) is being debated as a means of reducing oral health disparities and increasing access to care among underserved populations. Midlevel dental providers include the advanced dental hygiene practitioner, community dental health coordinator, dental health aide therapist, and dental therapist. While midlevel providers are new to the U.S. dental profession, medicine has utilized these positions for years. Medical literature has shown mixed results as to whether midlevel providers improve access to care and increased practice efficiency, however, it has demonstrated clearly that the quality of care outcomes of these providers have been comparable to those of physicians. Studies of MLDPs suggest potential practice and public health benefits. With appropriate training, licensure, supervision, and deployment to geographical areas of significant need, we believe MLDPs could increase access to care to underserved populations and help in the prevention of deaths attributable to untreated dental disease.

  20. Silver Nanoparticles in Dental Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Juliana Mattos; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Sanches, Heloísa Lajas; da Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Poiate, Isis Andréa Venturini Pola

    2015-01-01

    Silver has been used in medicine for centuries because of its antimicrobial properties. More recently, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized and incorporated into several biomaterials, since their small size provides great antimicrobial effect, at low filler level. Hence, these nanoparticles have been applied in dentistry, in order to prevent or reduce biofilm formation over dental materials surfaces. This review aims to discuss the current progress in this field, highlighting aspects regarding silver nanoparticles incorporation, such as antimicrobial potential, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and long-term effectiveness. We also emphasize the need for more studies to determine the optimal concentration of silver nanoparticle and its release over time. PMID:25667594

  1. Anxiety and depressive disorders and dental fear among adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pohjola, Vesa; Mattila, Aino K; Joukamaa, Matti; Lahti, Satu

    2011-02-01

    We studied the association between dental fear and anxiety or depressive disorders, as well as the comorbidity of dental fear with anxiety and depressive disorders, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, dental attendance, and dental health. Nationally representative data on Finnish adults, ≥ 30 yr of age (n = 5,953), were gathered through interviews and clinical examination. Dental fear was measured using the question: 'How afraid are you of visiting a dentist?' Anxiety and/or depressive disorders were assessed using a standardized structured psychiatric interview according to criteria presented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) (DSM-IV).Those with depressive disorders, generalized anxiety disorder or social phobia more commonly reported high dental fear than did those without these disorders. When age, gender, education, dental attendance, and the number of decayed, missing, and restored teeth were considered, those with generalized anxiety disorder were more likely to have high dental fear than were participants with neither anxiety nor depressive disorders. The comorbidity of depressive and anxiety disorders also remained statistically significantly associated with dental fear; those with both depressive and anxiety disorders were more likely to have high dental fear than were those without these disorders. Our findings support the suggestion that some individuals may have a personality that is vulnerable to dental fear. PMID:21244512

  2. Case based dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2009-02-01

    Dental radiology is quickly becoming integral to the standard of care in veterinary dentistry. This is not only because it is critical for proper patient care, but also because client expectations have increased. Furthermore, providing dental radiographs as a routine service can create significant practice income. This article details numerous conditions that are indications for dental radiographs. As you will see, dental radiographs are often critical for proper diagnosis and treatment. These conditions should not be viewed as unusual; they are present within all of our practices. When you choose not to radiograph these teeth, you leave behind painful pathology. Utilizing the knowledge gained from dental radiographs will both improve patient care and increase acceptance of treatment recommendations. Consequently, this leads to increased numbers of dental procedures performed at your practice. PMID:19410233

  3. [Determination of dental age].

    PubMed

    Willems, Guy

    2005-01-01

    A review of the most commonly used dental age estimating techniques is generated. The most important issue for the forensic odontologist involved in dental age estimation is to employ as many of these methods as possible by performing repetitive measurements and calculations of different age-related parameters. That is the only way in order to try and establish reliable dental age estimations. In particular, a special chapter is attributed to the complex problem of determining the age of majority. PMID:16370435

  4. Dental Implant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Yoshiki; Tuna, Elif B.; Aktören, Oya; Gençay, Koray

    2010-01-01

    Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities. PMID:20480036

  5. Dietary behaviours and dental fluorosis among Gaza Strip children.

    PubMed

    Abuhaloob, L; Abed, Y

    2013-07-01

    A high prevalence of dental fluorosis has been identified among children in the Gaza Strip. This study aimed to determine the history of breastfeeding and dietary behaviours among children in the Gaza Strip and to examine potential associations with the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. A cross-sectional study recruited a stratified cluster random sample of 350 children aged 12-18 years and their mothers. Data about dietary behaviours in the first 7 years of life were collected by interview questionnaire. Dental fluorosis was determined using the Thyllstrup-Fejerskov index. A majority of children were breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months (82.9%) but 98.1% were given tea in the first year of life. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 78.0%. Both intake of animal proteins and plant proteins were negatively associated with the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Further studies to investigate fluoride intake is required to plan preventive interventions.

  6. Predictors of dental rehabilitation in children aged 3–12 years

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan; Awad, Manal A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of completed treatments and to study the factors affecting the full mouth dental rehabilitation in pediatric patients treated by undergraduate students at the College of Dental Medicine Teaching Clinics, University of Sharjah. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 270 children aged less than 12 years (mean age 7.6, SD 2.04). Comprehensive dental rehabilitation reports of child patients that were completed by final year dental undergraduate students from the year 2009 to 2011 were reviewed. Data on complete history, oral examination, dental charting, and treatment plan were collected from pediatric dentistry case sheet. Dental caries was charted using WHO 1997 criteria. Dental treatment needs and completion of dental care delivered to children involved in this study were assessed using DMFT/deft scores. Results: Percentages of treatment provided included completed restorations (94%) and space management (84%) in primary dentition, whereas 98% of restoration and 94% of required sealants were completed in permanent dentition. The percentage of completed dental treatment including sealant placement was 61%. Age of the child and the number of decayed teeth present before the start of the treatment significantly correlated with the children in the incomplete treatment category (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Therefore, a worthy dental care was provided in a holistic approach to the children attending College of Dental Medicine training clinics. Age of the child and the number of decayed teeth were the factors affecting dental rehabilitation in children aged 3–12 years. PMID:26236683

  7. Acute focal infections of dental origin.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses or phlegmon they can reach facial spaces that communicate with each other and then spread downwards to the mediastinum or upwards to the brain. In such cases dental infections can become, if not properly treated, life-threatening. It seems that early diagnosis and treatment are imperative, and potentially infectious foci should be traced and eliminated. Dental hygiene and prophylaxis to prevent dental biofilm formation are important measures to reduce the risk of these calamities. The more compromised the host defense is, the more importance should be put on these measures. Although commensal bacteria are often involved in these infections, attention should also be paid to specific periodontal pathogens, and a proper microbial diagnosis, obtained using molecular methods plus bacterial sensitivity testing, can provide the patient with optimal care. Drainage of pus must be established where possible so that the optimal effect of antibiotics can be achieved. Penicillin is still the drug of first choice in settings where suspicion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is low.

  8. Acute focal infections of dental origin.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses or phlegmon they can reach facial spaces that communicate with each other and then spread downwards to the mediastinum or upwards to the brain. In such cases dental infections can become, if not properly treated, life-threatening. It seems that early diagnosis and treatment are imperative, and potentially infectious foci should be traced and eliminated. Dental hygiene and prophylaxis to prevent dental biofilm formation are important measures to reduce the risk of these calamities. The more compromised the host defense is, the more importance should be put on these measures. Although commensal bacteria are often involved in these infections, attention should also be paid to specific periodontal pathogens, and a proper microbial diagnosis, obtained using molecular methods plus bacterial sensitivity testing, can provide the patient with optimal care. Drainage of pus must be established where possible so that the optimal effect of antibiotics can be achieved. Penicillin is still the drug of first choice in settings where suspicion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is low. PMID:24738592

  9. Monitoring of vital signs during dental care.

    PubMed

    Fukayama, Haruhisa; Yagiela, John A

    2006-04-01

    Advances in medicine have greatly increased the survival of patients with severe health problems and have significantly prolonged life in elderly individuals with systemic disorders. Concomitant advances in dentistry and evolving societal expectations regarding dental health and function have likewise ensured that these patients are increasingly retaining their teeth and/or seeking dental care. The administration of local anaesthetics and the performance of extensive dental procedures may cause stress and systemic disturbances in such patients. In order to avoid potentially serious reactions, dentists are obligated to monitor continuously their medically challenged patients. Monitoring provides three important benefits. First, it helps the dentist detect acute medical emergencies that may require an immediate response. Second, monitoring may reveal gradual deleterious trends that can often be easily reversed before a true emergency occurs. Third, monitoring can assist the dentist in evaluating the efficacy of any emergency treatments or preventive measures that are rendered. The purposes of this article are to: briefly review monitoring techniques and devices, discuss their suitability for use in the dental office, and provide some tips for their application during dental care. In overall decreasing order of routine importance, monitoring resources include the following: responsible personnel, non-invasive blood pressure monitor, pulse oximeter, ECG, and the pretracheal stethoscope or capnograph. PMID:16620039

  10. Common Dental Injury Management in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Young, Eliot J.; Macias, C. Roger; Stephens, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Context: Orofacial and dental trauma continues to be a commonly encountered issue for the sports medicine team. All sports have some risk for dental injury, but “contact sports” presumably incur more risk. Immediate evaluation and proper management of the most common injuries to dentition can result in saving or restoration of tooth structure. Despite the growing body of evidence, mouth guard use and dental protection have not paralleled the increase in sports participation. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search from 1960 through April 2012 was conducted, as well as a review of peer-reviewed online publications. Results: Common dental injuries in sports include tooth (crown) fractures; tooth intrusion, extrusion, and avulsion; and temporomandibular joint dislocation. Mouth guards help prevent most injuries and do not significantly affect ventilation or speech if fitted properly. Conclusion: A working knowledge of the presentation as well as management of commonly encountered dental trauma in sports is essential to the immediate care of an athlete and returning to play. Mouth guard use should be encouraged for athletes of all ages in those sports that incur significant risk. PMID:26131303

  11. Dental Charting. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Trudy Karlene; Apfel, Maura

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: dental anatomical terminology; tooth numbering systems;…

  12. Dental Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

  13. The future dental workforce?

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J E; Wilson, N H F

    2009-02-28

    The Editor-in-Chief of the BDJ has previously raised important questions about dental workforce planning and the implications for dental graduates of recent changes and pressures. It is now time to revisit this issue. Much has changed since the last workforce review in England and Wales, and the rate of change is in all probability set to increase. First, at the time of writing this paper the momentous step of including dental care professionals (DCPs) on General Dental Council (GDC) registers in the United Kingdom has recently been completed. Second, the Scope of Practice of all dental professionals has been under consultation by the General Dental Council, and research evidence suggests that greater use should be made of skill-mix in the dental team. Third, within England, Lord Darzi has just published the 'Final Report of the NHS Next Stage Review', which emphasises 'quality care' and 'team-working' as key features of healthcare; this report was accompanied by an important document entitled 'A High Quality Workforce', in which plans for local workforce planning within the NHS are outlined, placing responsibilities at national, local and regional levels. Fourth, policy makers across the UK are wrestling with addressing oral health needs, promoting health and facilitating access to dental care, all of which have implications for the nature and shape of the dental workforce. Fifth, with the impact of globalisation and European policies we are net gainers of dentists as well as having more in training. Sixth, although there have been reviews and policy initiatives by regulatory, professional and other bodies in support of shaping the dental workforce, there has been little serious consideration of skill-mix and funding mechanisms to encourage team-working. Together, these events demand that we enter a fresh debate on the future dental workforce which should extend beyond professional and national boundaries and inform workforce planning. This debate is of great

  14. The future dental workforce?

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J E; Wilson, N H F

    2009-02-28

    The Editor-in-Chief of the BDJ has previously raised important questions about dental workforce planning and the implications for dental graduates of recent changes and pressures. It is now time to revisit this issue. Much has changed since the last workforce review in England and Wales, and the rate of change is in all probability set to increase. First, at the time of writing this paper the momentous step of including dental care professionals (DCPs) on General Dental Council (GDC) registers in the United Kingdom has recently been completed. Second, the Scope of Practice of all dental professionals has been under consultation by the General Dental Council, and research evidence suggests that greater use should be made of skill-mix in the dental team. Third, within England, Lord Darzi has just published the 'Final Report of the NHS Next Stage Review', which emphasises 'quality care' and 'team-working' as key features of healthcare; this report was accompanied by an important document entitled 'A High Quality Workforce', in which plans for local workforce planning within the NHS are outlined, placing responsibilities at national, local and regional levels. Fourth, policy makers across the UK are wrestling with addressing oral health needs, promoting health and facilitating access to dental care, all of which have implications for the nature and shape of the dental workforce. Fifth, with the impact of globalisation and European policies we are net gainers of dentists as well as having more in training. Sixth, although there have been reviews and policy initiatives by regulatory, professional and other bodies in support of shaping the dental workforce, there has been little serious consideration of skill-mix and funding mechanisms to encourage team-working. Together, these events demand that we enter a fresh debate on the future dental workforce which should extend beyond professional and national boundaries and inform workforce planning. This debate is of great

  15. What is dental ecology?

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. PMID:22610892

  16. Service mix in general dental practices employing and not employing dental hygienists.

    PubMed

    Brown, L F; Spencer, A J; Keily, P A

    1994-11-01

    Service mix studies conducted in Australia have indicated a low provision of periodontal services. The service mix in Australian general dental practices employing dental hygienists has not been studied. This study compares the service mix between 18 practices employing hygienists and 29 practices not employing hygienists in Adelaide. Practices employing hygienists tended to be larger group practices, with younger dentists seeing a younger set of patients. Practices employing dental hygienists provided a mean of 97.9 services to 57.2 patients over 2 days, significantly higher than the mean of 68.8 procedures to 39.1 patients in practices not employing dental hygienists. Comparing the % of procedures provided in treatment categories as a ratio of total procedures, practices employing dental hygienists provided significantly more periodontal procedures and less oral surgery, prosthetic and restorative procedures. Periodontally-related services accounted for an average of 37.7% of procedures in practices employing dental hygienists compared with 18.9% in practices not employing dental hygienists (p < 0.05). Periodontal and preventive treatment of 50.7% of patients in practices employing hygienists was delegated to a hygienist, and the level of delegation of periodontally-related procedures was 77.2%. Over 90% of procedures performed by hygienists were periodontally-related, with the removal of subgingival calculus accounting for 57.7% of all procedures provided by dental hygienists. In conclusion, practices employing hygienists had a more periodontally-orientated service mix, with hygienists acting to complement the services of dentists in the provision of periodontal services, rather than as a substitute for the dentist.

  17. Parental perceptions of dental visits and access to dental care among disabled schoolchildren in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Shyama, M; Al-Mutawa, S A; Honkala, E; Honkala, S

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe dental visiting habits and access to dental care among the disabled schoolchildren in Kuwait. A total of 308 parents of children with a physical disability (n = 211), Down syndrome (n = 97) and teachers, who had normal children (n = 112) participated in the study. Less than one-fourth (21%) of the disabled children and 37% of the normal children had never visited a dentist (p = 0.003). Majority of Down syndrome (72%) and physically disabled children (59%) received curative dental care compared to 47% of normal children (p = 0.016). A bigger proportion of disabled children (42%) visited the dentist due to tooth ache than the normal ones (25%) (p < 0.01). Only 9.6% of Down syndrome children perceived no barriers to seek the dental care compared to 26.2% of physically disabled and 32.2% of normal children (p = 0.008). Difficulty to get an appointment was the most common perceived barrier to dental care by parents of Down syndrome children and the normal children (37.3%). Parents of disabled children considered difficulty in cooperation as a more important barrier to treatment (34.7%) than the parents of normal children (20.3%). Larger proportion of parents of normal children (82%) rated the present dental services as excellent/good compared to 52% of the parents of disabled children (p < 0.001). Toothache and curative treatment need were the main reasons for dental visits among disabled children. Regular dental check-ups and preventive oral health care should be encouraged for comprehensive coverage of the national school oral health program for the disabled in Kuwait. PMID:26058308

  18. Prevalence of respiratory abnormalities and pneumoconiosis in dental laboratory technicians.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir Doğan, Derya; Ozdemir, Ali Kemal; Polat, Nilüfer Tülin; Dal, Uğur; Gümüş, Cesur; Akkurt, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    A preventable occupational disease, pneumoconiosis that is often widespread on to a very kind of quartz, carbon and metal dust exposed work place.The data for the prevalence of pneumoconiosis and respiratory findings among dental laboratory technician is insufficient. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pneumoconiosis and respiratory findings among dental laboratory technicians, working in province of Sivas. For this reason all the dental technicians (except 2, totally 36) participated in the study. A questionnaire which contains demographic characteristics, work conditions and symptoms were applied to all participants. Also spirometric measurements and chest x-rays were performed. The x-rays of dental technicians were evaluated by a radiologist and a chest disease specialist according to the ILO-2000 classification of pneumoconiosis. Almost half of the all participants have dyspnea and phlegm expectoration. The prevalence of pneumoconiosis was 5 (13.8%) among 36 dental technicians. There were no statistically significant differences between two groups with regard to respiratory symptoms. Values of lung function parameters of the dental technician group were not significantly different from those of control group except FEV(1). In conclusion, dental laboratory technicians are at significant risks for occupational respiratory diseases so the primary prevention rules are essential for these work places. PMID:20865565

  19. Nonexponential decay at late times and a different Zeno paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Jay

    2002-08-01

    The decay profile of a metastable quantum state decaying in isolation is predicted to depart from exponential behaviour after many lifetimes, and in typical cases to adopt algebraic behaviour as the late-time limit. The effect of environmental interactions, including measurement, is quite different from that of the familiar Zeno (and anti-Zeno) effects that have been observed at very early times. Instead of arresting the decay (or hastening it), the late-time interactions tend to enforce the exponential decay law, without substantially changing the decay constant intrinsic to the isolated system. The experimental challenge is to prevent these interactions and observe the crossover to the nonexponential regime.

  20. Dental hygienists in The Netherlands: the past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Jongbloed-Zoet, C; Bol-van den Hil, E M; La Rivière-Ilsen, J; van der Sanden-Stoelinga, M S E

    2012-08-01

    Dental hygiene education in the Netherlands started in 1968 after a long political debate about roles, functions and the working domain. From a slow start with five students in a school based on the American model with a 2-year curriculum, dental hygiene education is now a 4-year, higher professional education with an admission of 300 students annually who pursue the degree of Bachelor of Health at a University of Applied Sciences. In the 45 years of its existence, the dental hygiene profession has undergone a tremendous change. In the beginning, dental hygienists worked under the supervision of a dentist, which changed in 1992 to their working 'under referral' from a dentist, and again in 2006, when dental hygienists became directly accessible. One-third of the working force of approximately 2700 dental hygienists (2010) is now working in their own independent practice. The focus of professional practice has changed from the prevention of caries via periodontology to the relationship between dental health and general health and well-being. The profession, the education and the Dutch Dental Hygienists' Association (Nederlandse Vereniging van Mondhygiënisten) have matured, and its members are now serious partners in oral health care. PMID:23046003

  1. Origins and benefits of dental hygiene practice in Europe.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C

    2003-02-01

    Origins and benefits of the practice of dental hygiene were investigated in order to provide guidelines to countries where initiatives are being taken to introduce the profession. In Europe, so far the profession has been introduced in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Great Britain, Finland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. Programmes in Ireland, Poland, and Romania are not presented in this article. Information for this study was obtained using questionnaires and followed up by e-mail correspondence with additional experts, supporting studies and reference literature. All experts consulted are involved in the professional and educational organisation of dental hygiene in their countries. Results show that dentists and dental hygienists who had been inspired by the delivery of preventive care in the US, initiated the European dental hygiene movement. In some countries, opposition of organised dentistry had to be overcome. In countries where the population has limited access to qualified dental hygiene care, such as in Austria, Belgium, Germany and France, a high prevalence of untreated periodontal disease has been reported. There, the lucrative practice of delegating dental hygiene tasks to dental assistants without qualifying education has slowed efforts to implement the profession and resulted in negative health and vocational outcomes. This leads to the conclusion that an implementation of legislation governing the practice and the educational process of dental hygiene in the EU and beyond would contribute to an equitable standard of health care as well as to equal opportunities in education and employment.

  2. Pediatric Dental Trauma:Wide Horizon of Ignored Etiological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shruthi B; M, Shubha; Havale, Raghavendra

    2011-01-01

    Trauma of the oral and peroral structures are one of the most common and frequent complaints after dental caries with which a child is being referred to a dental clinic. As an emergency, we tend to treat the injuries without understanding or neglecting the cause of trauma. The different possible etiological factors are unnoticed, not revealed or not noted while taking the history of the patient. Sometimes negligence of the etiology by the dentist himself or the accompanying person could influence the prognosis and prevention. Thus, this paper is an effort towards exploring the common yet unnoticed etiological factors of pediatric dental trauma which we tend to knowingly ignore.

  3. Evidence for the decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Gomez, M. Calvo; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Caponio, F.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Akiba, K. Carvalho; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Torres, M. Cruz; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Suárez, A. Dosil; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Esen, S.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Ferguson, D.; Albor, V. Fernandez; Rodrigues, F. Ferreira; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Torreira, A. Gallas; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Gándara, M. Grabalosa; Diaz, R. Graciani; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Hafkenscheid, T. W.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Morata, J. A. Hernando; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jezabek, M.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manzali, M.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Benito, C. Marin; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Sánchez, A. Martín; Martinelli, M.; Santos, D. Martinez; Vidal, F. Martinez; Tostes, D. Martins; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Rodriguez, J. Molina; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Goicochea, J. M. Otalora; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Alvarez, A. Pazos; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Trigo, E. Perez; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Olloqui, E. Picatoste; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Casasus, M. Plo; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Molina, V. Rives; Romero, D. A. Roa; Robbe, P.; Roberts, D. A.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Vidal, A. Romero; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Valls, P. Ruiz; Sabatino, G.; Silva, J. J. Saborido; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Guimaraes, V. Salustino; Sedes, B. Sanmartin; Santacesaria, R.; Rios, C. Santamarina; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Sidorov, F.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; De Paula, B. Souza; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spinella, F.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M. Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Regueiro, P. Vazquez; Sierra, C. Vázquez; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2014-05-01

    Evidence is presented for the decay using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1, collected with the LHCb detector. A signal yield of 32 ± 8 decays is found with a significance of 4.5 standard deviations. The ratio of the branching fraction of the decay to that of the decay is measured to be where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Oral and Dental Considerations in Pediatric Leukemic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Padmini, Chiyadu; Bai, K. Yellamma

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the world, there have been drastic decline in mortality rate in pediatric leukemic population due to early diagnosis and improvements in oncology treatment. The pediatric dentist plays an important role in the prevention, stabilization, and treatment of oral and dental problems that can compromise the child's health and quality of life during, and follow up of the cancer treatment. This manuscript discusses recommendations and promotes dental care of the pediatric leukemic patients. PMID:24724033

  5. Health Instruction Packages: Permanent Teeth, Dental Deposits, and Dental Instruments. Dientes Permanentes, Depositos Dentales y Instrumentos Dentales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Patricia; Germano, Catherine

    These five learning modules use text interspersed with illustrations and reinforcement exercises to instruct dental aide and dental hygiene students about jaw bones and gums, dental deposits, and dental instruments. The first four modules were prepared by Patricia Lind in both Spanish and English. "The Gum and Bone of Permanent Teeth" ("La Encia y…

  6. Dental journals: yesterday and today.

    PubMed

    Woodmansey, Karl

    2012-10-01

    Today's dentists may subscribe to, or receive complimentarily, a number of periodical publications containing technical professional information. Dental journals are the prime example: providing timely, reliable and useful information. The development of dental journals is a component of the evolution of scientific communication. This article reviews the origins and evolution of dental journals, including the Texas Dental Journal. PMID:23311024

  7. Detection and Proportion of Very Early Dental Caries in Independent Living Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Jennifer S.; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Materials and Methods Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. Results OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Conclusions Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools

  8. Pharmacokinetics of fluoride in toddlers after application of 5% sodium fluoride dental varnish.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter; Taves, Donald M; Kim, Amy S; Watson, Gene E; Horst, Jeremy A

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of dental caries (tooth decay) among preschool children is increasing, driven partially by an earlier age of onset of carious lesions. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish at intervals increasing with caries risk status, as soon as teeth are present. However, the varnishes are marketed for treatment of tooth sensitivity and are regulated as medical devices rather than approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for prevention of dental caries (tooth decay). The objective of this research is to examine the safety of use in toddlers by characterizing the absorption and distribution profile of a currently marketed fluoride varnish. We measured urinary fluoride for 5 hours after application of fluoride varnish to teeth in 6 toddlers aged 12 to 15 months. Baseline levels were measured on a separate day. The urine was extracted from disposable diapers, measured by rapid diffusion, and extrapolated to plasma levels. The mean estimated plasma fluoride concentration was 13 μg/L (SD, 9 μg/L) during the baseline visit and 21 μg/L (SD, 8 μg/L) during the 5 hours after treatment. Mean estimated peak plasma fluoride after treatment was 57 μg/L (SD, 22 μg/L), and 20 μg/kg (SD, 4 μg/L) was retained on average. Retained fluoride was 253 times lower than the acute toxic dose of 5 mg/kg. Mean plasma fluoride after placement of varnish was within an SD of control levels. Occasional application of fluoride varnish following American Academy of Pediatrics guidance is safe for toddlers.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Fluoride in Toddlers After Application of 5% Sodium Fluoride Dental Varnish

    PubMed Central

    Taves, Donald M.; Kim, Amy S.; Watson, Gene E.; Horst, Jeremy A.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries (tooth decay) among preschool children is increasing, driven partially by an earlier age of onset of carious lesions. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish at intervals increasing with caries risk status, as soon as teeth are present. However, the varnishes are marketed for treatment of tooth sensitivity and are regulated as medical devices rather than approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for prevention of dental caries (tooth decay). The objective of this research is to examine the safety of use in toddlers by characterizing the absorption and distribution profile of a currently marketed fluoride varnish. We measured urinary fluoride for 5 hours after application of fluoride varnish to teeth in 6 toddlers aged 12 to 15 months. Baseline levels were measured on a separate day. The urine was extracted from disposable diapers, measured by rapid diffusion, and extrapolated to plasma levels. The mean estimated plasma fluoride concentration was 13 μg/L (SD, 9 μg/L) during the baseline visit and 21 μg/L (SD, 8 μg/L) during the 5 hours after treatment. Mean estimated peak plasma fluoride after treatment was 57 μg/L (SD, 22 μg/L), and 20 μg/kg (SD, 4 μg/L) was retained on average. Retained fluoride was 253 times lower than the acute toxic dose of 5 mg/kg. Mean plasma fluoride after placement of varnish was within an SD of control levels. Occasional application of fluoride varnish following American Academy of Pediatrics guidance is safe for toddlers. PMID:25136045

  10. Oral health need and access to dental services: evidence from the National Survey of Children's Health, 2007.

    PubMed

    Bell, Janice F; Huebner, Colleen E; Reed, Sarah C

    2012-04-01

    This study examines associations between parents' report of their children's oral health and receipt of a dental visit for preventive care. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of oral health status and receipt of a preventive dental visit among US children and youth, ages 1-17 years, using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (n = 86,764). Survey-weighted logistic regression was used to estimate associations between perceived oral health status and receipt of a preventive dental health visit in the prior 12 months. Overall, 78 % of children and youth received at least one preventive dental health visit in the prior year. Among the youngest children, lower oral health status was associated with higher odds of receiving a preventive dental visit; among older children, lower oral health status was associated with lower odds of receiving a dental visit for preventive care. Use of preventive dental health care is below national target goals. Younger children in worse oral health are more likely, and older youth less likely, to receive preventive dental care. Public health efforts to educate parents to seek early and ongoing preventive oral health care, rather than services in response to problems, may yield oral health benefits later in childhood and over the life course.

  11. Oral health need and access to dental services: evidence from the National Survey of Children's Health, 2007.

    PubMed

    Bell, Janice F; Huebner, Colleen E; Reed, Sarah C

    2012-04-01

    This study examines associations between parents' report of their children's oral health and receipt of a dental visit for preventive care. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of oral health status and receipt of a preventive dental visit among US children and youth, ages 1-17 years, using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (n = 86,764). Survey-weighted logistic regression was used to estimate associations between perceived oral health status and receipt of a preventive dental health visit in the prior 12 months. Overall, 78 % of children and youth received at least one preventive dental health visit in the prior year. Among the youngest children, lower oral health status was associated with higher odds of receiving a preventive dental visit; among older children, lower oral health status was associated with lower odds of receiving a dental visit for preventive care. Use of preventive dental health care is below national target goals. Younger children in worse oral health are more likely, and older youth less likely, to receive preventive dental care. Public health efforts to educate parents to seek early and ongoing preventive oral health care, rather than services in response to problems, may yield oral health benefits later in childhood and over the life course. PMID:22456986

  12. Dental student debt.

    PubMed

    Mannion, H; Bedi, R

    1995-09-01

    The aim of this investigation is to provide information about the financial status of dental students enrolled on the Bachelor of Dental Surgery degree course at the University of Birmingham. All undergraduate dental students enrolled during the academic year 1993-94 were asked to participate in the study. The pre-tested questionnaire, which was given to all students, covered personal details, expenditure levels, income, loans, overdrafts, use of government schemes ('top-up loans'), and so on. The questionnaire was completed by 115 dental students (response rate 47%). The results showed that dental students' debts increased each year throughout the course. A top-up loan (range 700 Pounds-850 Pounds) had been taken out by 36% of students. The financial status of 9% of students was severe enough to warrant their eligibility for awards from access funds. Credit cards were possessed by 52% of the surveyed students, and although only half of these owed money, 22% owed between 500 Pounds and 2000 Pounds. Personal overdrafts were held by 56% of respondents. A total of 17% of students engaged in weekly part-time employment. The average debt for final year students was 1200 Pounds. Dental students' estimates of the level of debt they were likely to incur was greater than the actual debt presently experienced by final year students. In conclusion, this preliminary study showed that most dental students incur debt during their undergraduate course and that this debt increases during the course.

  13. STIGMA AROUND HIV IN DENTAL CARE: PATIENTS' EXPERIENCES.

    PubMed

    Brondani, Mario A; Phillips, J Craig; Kerston, R Paul; Moniri, Nardin R

    2016-02-01

    Tooth decay and other oral diseases can be highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Even though dental professionals are trained to provide equal and non-judgemental services to all, intentional or unintentional biases may exist with regard to PLWHA. We conducted qualitative descriptive research using individual interviews to explore the experiences of PLWHA accessing dental care services in Vancouver, Canada. We interviewed 25 PLWHA, aged 23-67 years; 21 were men and 60% reported fair or poor oral health. Thematic analysis showed evidence of both self-stigma and public stigma with the following themes: fear, self-stigma and dental care; overcoming past offences during encounters with dental care professionals; resilience and reconciliation to achieve quality care for all; and current encounters with dental care providers. Stigma attached to PLWHA is detrimental to oral care. The social awareness of dental professionals must be enhanced, so that they can provide the highest quality care to this vulnerable population. PMID:27548661

  14. Relationship between dietary intake and dental caries in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chin-En; Huang, Yi-Chia; Hu, Suh-Woan

    2010-06-01

    This study assessed the relationship between intake of nutrients and dental caries in preschool children. One hundred and eighty-two children aged three to six years were recruited from nine day care centers in central Taiwan. These children had an oral health examination, and their parents or guardians answered a questionnaire. Each child's intake of nutrients was estimated using the 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire data. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the associations between dental caries and intake of each nutrient or food group, with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of dental caries was 73 % and increased with age. Not being a first-born and having more between-meal snacks were associated with increased caries risk. After controlling for other important factors, vitamin A intake was significantly associated with fewer dental caries (deft, decayed, indicated for extraction, and filled primary teeth: ≥ 4 vs. < 4), with an odds ratio of 0.97 (95 % confidence interval: 0.94 - 0.99) for an 100-μg increase in vitamin A intake. There was no significant association between dental caries and energy, macronutrient intake, and Ca/P ratio, respectively. Vegetable intake was also significantly associated with lower dental caries score.

  15. Mind Your Mouth: Preventing Gum Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Mind Your Mouth Preventing Gum Disease If you have it, you’ ... dental care. The problem begins with bacteria. Our mouths are packed with these tiny microbes. They combine ...

  16. Determination of dental decay rates with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, A. Z.; Zezell, D. M.; Mayer, M. P. A.; Ribeiro, A. C.; Gomes, A. S. L.; Vieira, N. D., Jr.

    2009-12-01

    We report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect and quantify demineralization process induced by S. mutans biofilm in third molars human teeth. Artificial lesions were induced by a S. mutans microbiological culture and the samples (N = 50) were divided into groups according to the demineralization time: 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 days. The OCT system was implemented using a light source delivering an average power of 96 μW in the sample arm, and spectral characteristics allowing 23 μm of axial resolution. The images were produced with lateral scans step of 10 μm and analyzed individually. As a result of the evaluation of theses images, lesion depth was calculated as function of demineralization time. The depth of the lesion in the root dentine increased from 70 μm to 230 μm (corrected by the enamel refraction index, 1.62 @ 856 nm), depending of exposure time. The lesion depth in root dentine was correlated to demineralization time, showing that it follows a geometrical progression like a bacteria growth law.

  17. Economic impact of dental hygienists on solo dental practices.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Vickie F; Guay, Albert H; Beazoglou, Tryfon J

    2012-08-01

    The fact that a significant percentage of dentists employ dental hygienists raises an important question: Are dental practices that utilize a dental hygienist structurally and operationally different from practices that do not? This article explores differences among dental practices that operate with and without dental hygienists. Using data from the American Dental Association's 2003 Survey of Dental Practice, a random sample survey of U.S. dentists, descriptive statistics were used to compare selected characteristics of solo general practitioners with and without dental hygienists. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of dental hygienists on the gross billings and net incomes of solo general practitioners. Differences in practice characteristics--such as hours spent in the practice and hours spent treating patients, wait time for a recall visit, number of operatories, square feet of office space, net income, and gross billings--were found between solo general practitioners who had dental hygienists and those who did not. Solo general practitioners with dental hygienists had higher gross billings. Higher gross billings would be expected, as would higher expenses. However, net incomes of those with dental hygienists were also higher. In contrast, the mean waiting time for a recall visit was higher among dentists who employed dental hygienists. Depending on personal preferences, availability of qualified personnel, etc., dentists who do not employ dental hygienists but have been contemplating that path may want to further research the benefits and opportunities that may be realized.

  18. Sleep medicine content in dental hygiene education.

    PubMed

    Minichbauer, Brittany C; Sheats, Rose D; Wilder, Rebecca S; Phillips, Ceib L; Essick, Gregory K

    2015-05-01

    According to the National Research Council, 70 million Americans chronically suffer from approximately 60 medically recognized sleep disorders. With most clinicians unaware of these disorders, many individuals remain undiagnosed. To effectively address this issue, health care professionals must work collaboratively to educate, identify, and treat patients with sleep disorders. However, medical and dental clinicians do not receive adequate education in sleep medicine. On the frontline regarding prevention and counseling, dental hygienists play an important role in patient education, screening, and management of sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the amount of sleep medicine content in U.S. dental hygiene programs. An electronic survey was emailed to all 334 accredited U.S. dental hygiene programs. The 18-question survey assessed the sleep medicine content presented during the 2012-13 academic year. A total of 35.3% (n=118) of the programs responded. The mean number of hours devoted to sleep medicine in their curricula was 1.55 hours (SD=1.37). Although 69% (n=79) of the responding programs reported spending time on sleep bruxism (mean=1.38 hours, SD=0.85), only 28% (n=32) reported spending time on other topics such as snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (mean=1.39 hours, SD=0.72). These results suggest that sleep medicine is included in the majority of U.S. dental hygiene programs, but the content is limited and focused on sleep bruxism. This level of training is inadequate to prepare dental hygienists for their potential role in patient education, screening, and management of sleep-related breathing disorders.

  19. Dental education and dentistry system in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pakshir, Hamid Reza

    2003-01-01

    Before 1979, there were only 5 undergraduate dental schools in Iran with a total admission of 200 students per year, and only 2,000 dentists and about 50 specialists practicing in the country. Currently, there are 18 dental schools with a total admission of 750 undergraduate students, 5 postgraduate programs in 10 disciplines with a total of 100 students, more than 11,000 dentists (1 dentist per 5,500 population) and nearly 1,000 specialists in the country. Two new schools have recently begun offering specialty training courses in 2 disciplines. The length of the dentistry curriculum is 6 years. Students take general and basic science courses during the first 2 years, then continue on the predental and dental courses for the remaining 4 years. The curriculum has been revised over the past 20 years to establish intership and specialty programs and introduce courses reflecting current trends in the dental profession. Dental services in Iran are provided by both public and private sectors. Oral health care was integrated into the Public Health Care network by 1997, and 4 levels of a Dental Health Care Delivery System were established. The first level is concerned with primary prevention at 'health houses', where auxiliary health workers called 'behvarzes' provide periodic examinations, referrals, and oral health education. At the next level, oral hygienists and dentists in 'health centers' perform basic oral health care services such as fillings, scaling, and extraction. At the third level, dentists manage and treat oral diseases in 'urban health centers', while the last level is for advanced treatment by specialists in university health centers in the cities.

  20. Attitudes of dental professionals toward tobacco use

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Dipika Kalyan; Pawar, Sudarshana Devendrasing; Mandal, Anahita; Shah, Rohit Ajay; Rodrigues, Silvia Victor; Desai, Ankit Bharat; Pathare, Pragalbha Nandkumar; Shingnapurkar, Saurabh Hemant; Vijayakar, Harshad Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The habit of tobacco consumption has plagued all nations from time immemorial. While tobacco use is decreasing in many developed countries, it is increasing in developing countries like India. Health care professionals have a key role to play to motivate and advise tobacco users to quit. Aim: The aim was to assess the attitudes and practice of dental professionals in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai toward tobacco cessation and the potential barriers faced. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire-based survey was conducted with 500 dental surgeons in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai. The questionnaire contained close-ended questions and assessed the smoking status of the professional, whether they impart tobacco cessation advice to their patients, whether the professional is trained for basic intervention, whether they would be eager to undergo training and also the potential barriers encountered by the professional. Statistical Analysis Used: The SPSS version 17 was used. Frequencies and percentages were used to determine distributions of the responses for each of the variables. Chi-square test was used for analysis. Results: It was observed that the majority of dental clinicians do not use tobacco and although 93% believed that it is the role of the dental professional to offer advice, 21% do not. Potential barriers reported were: Little chance of success, lack of training, lack of time, lack of remuneration, and the possibility of losing patients. Conclusions: Dental professionals must expand their horizon and armamentarium to tobacco intervention strategies inclusive of their regular preventive and therapeutic treatment modalities. Furthermore, the dental institutions (schools) should include tobacco intervention in the curriculum, but it should not be just theoretical knowledge rather it must have a practical component. PMID:26229275

  1. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience

    PubMed Central

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6–7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8–27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs. PMID:26916132

  2. Dental mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Paul T

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian teeth harbour mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which contribute to tooth growth and repair. These dental MSCs possess many in vitro features of bone marrow-derived MSCs, including clonogenicity, expression of certain markers, and following stimulation, differentiation into cells that have the characteristics of osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Teeth and their support tissues provide not only an easily accessible source of MSCs but also a tractable model system to study their function and properties in vivo In addition, the accessibility of teeth together with their clinical relevance provides a valuable opportunity to test stem cell-based treatments for dental disorders. This Review outlines some recent discoveries in dental MSC function and behaviour and discusses how these and other advances are paving the way for the development of new biologically based dental therapies. PMID:27381225

  3. Glossary of Dental Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... geta poker friv Home InfoBites Find an AGD Dentist Your Family's Oral Health About the AGD Dental ... and shape of teeth performed by a general dentist | More Edentulous having lost most or all of ...

  4. Infant dental care (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Even though newborns and infants do not have teeth, care of the mouth and gums is important. ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which ...

  5. Dental Care in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you and your baby and contain less sugar that can damage your teeth. Water or low-fat milk hydrates you and contains little or no sugar. For More Information American Dental Association: Pregnancy http : / / ...

  6. Curvaton scenarios with inflaton decays into curvatons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, Christian T.; Cortês, Marina; Liddle, Andrew R.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the possible decay of the inflaton into curvaton particles during reheating and analyze its effect on curvaton scenarios. Typical decay curvatons are initially relativistic then become nonrelativistic, changing the background history of the Universe. We show that this change to the background is the only way in which observational predictions of the scenario are modified. Moreover, once the required amplitude of perturbations is fixed by observation there are no signatures of such decays in other cosmological observables. The decay curvatons can prevent the Universe from becoming dominated by the curvaton condensate, making it impossible to match observations in parts of parameter space. This constrains the branching ratio of the inflaton to curvaton to be less than of order 0.1 typically. If the branching ratio is below about 10-4 it has negligible impact on the model parameter space and can be ignored.

  7. Dental arch asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to assess the dental arch asymmetry in a Yemeni sample aged (18-25) years. Materials and Methods: The investigation involved clinical examination of 1479 adults; only 253 (129 females, 124 males) out of the total sample were selected to fulfill the criteria for the study sample. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure mandibular arch dimensions. Three linear distances were utilized on each side on the dental arch: Incisal-canine distance, canine-molar distance and incisal-molar distance, which represent the dental arch segmental measurements. Results: When applying “t-test” at P < 0.05, no significant differences were found between the right and left canine-molar, incisal-canine and incisal-molar distances in both dental arches for both sexes. The greater variation (0.30 mm) was observed between right and left canine-molar distance in the maxillary dental arch in male and the smaller (0.04 mm) in the mandibular dental arch between the right and left canine-molar distance in females. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed a symmetrical pattern of dental arches, since the right and left sides showed no statistically significant difference. In general, it can be observed that the measurements related to the central incisors and canines have the widest range of reading and give the impression that the location of central incisor and canines to each other and to other teeth is the strongest factor in determining the dental arch asymmetry. PMID:24966774

  8. Dental (Odontogenic) Pain

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Tara

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a simple overview of acute trigeminal pain for the non dentist. This article does not cover oral mucosal diseases (vesiculobullous disorders) that may cause acute pain. Dental pain is the most common in this group and it can present in several different ways. Of particular interest for is that dental pain can mimic both trigeminal neuralgia and other chronic trigeminal pain disorders. It is crucial to exclude these disorders whilst managing patients with chronic trigeminal pain. PMID:26527224

  9. Dental operatory water lines.

    PubMed

    Beierle, J W

    1993-02-01

    Water samples were collected from dental handpiece and air-water syringe lines at various times during the day and cultured for the presence and prevalence of various microbes. It was found that the longer a dental unit was out of use, the greater the microbial build-up in water lines. However, purging lines for two to three minutes at the start of the day and between patients significantly reduced microbial presence.

  10. Portable Dental System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Portable dental system provides dental care in isolated communities. System includes a patient's chair and a dentist's stool, an X-ray machine and a power unit, all of which fold into compact packages. A large yellow "pumpkin" is a collapsible compressed air tank. Portable system has been used successfully in South America in out of the way communities with this back-packable system, and in American nursing homes. This product is no longer manufactured.

  11. [Dental caries--therapeutic possibilities].

    PubMed

    Perić, Tamara; Marković, Dejan; Zivković, Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  12. A Care Pathway for Children Unable to Accept Dental Care Within the General Dental Services Involving the Use of Inhalation Sedation and General Anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Allyson R; Ali, Halimah

    2015-05-01

    Dental treatment is the commonest reason for a child to be in hospital in the UK. This is a shocking statistic for a preventable disease. How can we reduce the high numbers of dental general anaesthetics? It is essential that dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) is fully justifiable, ensuring that the right patients receive the right treatment. Guidance for general dental practitioners on when to refer a child for a dental GA is discussed. Treatment planning for this dentally high-risk group of children requires a holistic approach. It is complex and requires an experienced and competent clinical team, including dental care professionals with additional postgraduate qualifications. Often, alternative treatments are successful and a GA can be avoided. An audit of 85 patients referred for GA with Oldham Community Dental Service demonstrated 35% of patients accepted treatment with local anaesthesia only, 25% required inhalation sedation and only 25% were actually referred on for GA. Treatment for this group of patients must include the availability and provision of appropriate alternative treatment modalities, with the right staff and facilities, including those for dental general anaesthetic sessions. Ongoing follow-up within the general dental services is essential for this group of patients.

  13. A national cross-sectional survey of dental anxiety in the French adult population

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Emmanuel; Collado, Valérie; Faulks, Denise; Bullier, Brigitte; Hennequin, Martine

    2007-01-01

    Background Dental anxiety is a public health problem but no epidemiological study has been undertaken in France to evaluate its prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, severity and associations of dental anxiety in a sample of the French adult population. Methods A convenience sample of 2725 adults (mean age = 47 years, SD16, minimum = 16, maximum = 101 years), representative of the French population with regard to age and urban distribution, completed a French version of the Corah Dental Anxiety scale (DAS) and a questionnaire relating to their dental appointments. Results Moderate dental anxiety (14≥DAS≥13) was revealed for 172 persons (6.2%), while 195 (7.3%) had severe dental anxiety (DAS≥15), giving an overall prevalence of dental anxiety of 13.5%. Prevalence was lower proportionally with age (P < 0.001) and was higher in French overseas territories and in the countryside (P < 0.01). Farmers and low skilled workers were significantly more anxious than executives and shopkeepers (P < 0.001). Anxiety was associated with avoidance of care (p < 0.001) and lack of regular dental appointments (p < 0.001). Conclusion Dental anxiety in France appears to concern a similar proportion of the population as in other industrialised European, Australasian or North American countries. Recommendations for prevention and management of dental anxiety are made with reference to dental education and health care services in France. PMID:17927808

  14. Dental pain and associated factors among pregnant women: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Marta S M; Lang, Celina A; Almeida, Luiza H S; Bello-Corrêa, Fernanda O; Romano, Ana R; Pappen, Fernanda G

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental pain during pregnancy and its association with sociodemographic factors and oral health conditions among 315 pregnant women in South Brazil. Participants were interviewed to obtain sociodemographic data, such as age, educational level, employment status, family income, and marital and parity status. Medical and dental histories were also collected, including the occurrence of dental pain and the use of dental services during pregnancy. Clinical examinations were performed to assess the presence of visible plaque and gingival bleeding and to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Means and standard deviations of continuous variables and frequencies and percentages of categorical variables were calculated. Independent variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 173 (54.9 %) pregnant women reported dental pain during pregnancy. After adjustment of the analysis, caries activity remained the main determinant of dental pain (odds ratio 3.33, 95 % CI 1.67-6.65). The prevalence of dental pain during pregnancy was high and the presence of caries activity was a determinant of dental pain. Moreover, access to oral health care was low, despite pregnant women's increased need for dental assistance. PMID:24894731

  15. Opinions of Romanian Dental Students Toward Tobacco Use Interventions in the Dental Setting.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, A L; Ibric, S; Ibric-Cioranu, V

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smoking habits as well as attitudes toward smoking cessation counseling among Romanian dental students in order to build an evidence base for further undergraduate curriculum development. A 38-item self-administered questionnaire was delivered to first to sixth dental students enrolled at the University "Lucian Blaga" Sibiu. The questionnaire covered sociodemographics, smoking habits, knowledge concerning health effects, attitudes, and confidence toward smoking cessation counseling. Smoking was reported by 37 % of participants and was more prevalent among clinical (48.98 %) than preclinical (29.58 %) and basic science students (35.93 %). Students' knowledge that tobacco affects general and oral/dental health and knowledge of dental students regarding the smoking and alcohol behavior taken during medical history varied according to academic year and smoking status, but not according to gender. Only 51.1 % of all students agreed or strongly agreed that they were adequately trained to provide tobacco cessation education. 58.6 %, respectively 52.9 %, strongly agreed that is part of their role as a dentist to assist their patients to stop smoking and to prevent patients from starting to use tobacco products, while only 35.8 % believed that smoking cessation counseling provided by a dentist can be effective in helping patients stop smoking. The main determinants of student's attitudes toward smoking cessation counseling were academic year, clinical experience in the dental settings, and knowledge of smoking adverse effects. Dental school should offer adequate training in tobacco dependence and available continuing education in tobacco intervention in aim to encourage oral health care practitioners to have up-to-date information in aim to play their role effectively in the overall smoking cessation and prevention activities.

  16. Laser processing of dental hard tissues (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    In addition to their use for the painless removal of dental decay, lasers are also well suited to modify the chemical composition of the mineral phase of dental hard tissues in order to render the tissues more resistant to acid dissolution and for the modification of the hard tissue morphology for better adhesion to restorative materials. In this paper the principal applications of lasers for the processing of dental hard tissues are discussed with an emphasis on the influence of an externally applied layer of water. The presence of an optically thick layer of water profoundly influences the phase composition of the laser irradiated tissue surface and the morphology resulting in more efficient ablation, better adhesion and improved resistance to acid dissolution.

  17. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following...

  18. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following...

  19. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following...

  20. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following...

  1. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following...

  2. Rare Decays at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Sam

    2014-04-01

    Rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons provide an effective method of testing the Standard Model and probing possible new physics scenarios. The LHCb experiment has published a variety of interesting results in this field, some of which are presented here. In particular the measurements of the branching fractions of B(s)0 → μ+μ- which, in combination with CMS, resulted in the first observation of the Bs0 → μ+μ- decay. Other topics include searches for the rare decay D0 → μ+μ-, the lepton flavour violating decays B(s)0 → e±μ∓, and the observation of the ψ(4160) resonance in the region of low recoil in B+ → K+μ+μ- decay. New results on the angular analysis of the decay B0 → K*0μ+μ- with form factor independent observables are also shown.

  3. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    PubMed

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  4. [Dental fluorosis in San Luis Potosi and its solution alternatives (pilot study)].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Prieto, M; Vázquez Guerrero, V; Silva Romo, E; Moreno Vélez, R; Ochoa Flores, L; Hernández, M J

    1988-12-01

    A study exposing the situation affecting the population of San Luis Potosí in central México, caused by dental fluorosis. Findings point to the need of implementing devices capable of regulating the concentrations of Fluorine ion (generating the efficient prevention of dental cavity incidence), to maintain them at optimal levels and without deletereal effects.

  5. Effective Majorana neutrino decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Lucía; Romero, Ismael; Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the decay of heavy sterile Majorana neutrinos according to the interactions obtained from an effective general theory. We describe the two- and three-body decays for a wide range of neutrino masses. The results obtained and presented in this work could be useful for the study of the production and detection of these particles in a variety of high energy physics experiments and astrophysical observations. We show in different figures the dominant branching ratios and the total decay width.

  6. Respiratory morbidity in a population of French dental technicians

    PubMed Central

    Radi, S; Dalphin, J; Manzoni, P; Pernet, D; Leboube, M; Viel, J

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To compare wage earner dental technicians with non-exposed salaried subjects for the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and function, and chest x ray abnormalities. Methods: A total of 134 dental technicians and 131 non-exposed subjects participated. A medical and an occupational questionnaire were filled in to evaluate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and occupational exposures. Subjects underwent respiratory tests and chest x ray examination. Results: Mean age of the dental technicians was 36.6 years with a mean duration of dental work of 16.5 years. There was a significant risk of cough (day and night) and usual phlegm in dental technicians. Respiratory function parameters were lower in dental technicians with a significant difference between exposed and non-exposed groups for % FVC (forced vital capacity), % FEF25 (forced mid expiratory flow), and % FEF50. The prevalence of small opacities increased with age. Small opacities were significantly related to an exposure to asbestos in the past. Conclusions: Our young population of dental technicians is at risk of respiratory morbidity. They should benefit from adequate technical prevention measures. PMID:12040116

  7. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. PMID:25572078

  8. Influence of dental materials on dental MRI

    PubMed Central

    Tymofiyeva, O; Vaegler, S; Rottner, K; Boldt, J; Hopfgartner, AJ; Proff, PC; Richter, E-J; Jakob, PM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the potential influence of standard dental materials on dental MRI (dMRI) by estimating the magnetic susceptibility with the help of the MRI-based geometric distortion method and to classify the materials from the standpoint of dMRI. Methods: A series of standard dental materials was studied on a 1.5 T MRI system using spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences and their magnetic susceptibility was estimated using the geometric method. Measurements on samples of dental materials were supported by in vivo examples obtained in dedicated dMRI procedures. Results: The tested materials showed a range of distortion degrees. The following materials were classified as fully compatible materials that can be present even in the tooth of interest: the resin-based sealer AH Plus® (Dentsply, Maillefer, Germany), glass ionomer cement, gutta-percha, zirconium dioxide and composites from one of the tested manufacturers. Interestingly, composites provided by the other manufacturer caused relatively strong distortions and were therefore classified as compatible I, along with amalgam, gold alloy, gold–ceramic crowns, titanium alloy and NiTi orthodontic wires. Materials, the magnetic susceptibility of which differed from that of water by more than 200 ppm, were classified as non-compatible materials that should not be present in the patient’s mouth for any dMRI applications. They included stainless steel orthodontic appliances and CoCr. Conclusions: A classification of the materials that complies with the standard grouping of materials according to their magnetic susceptibility was proposed and adopted for the purposes of dMRI. The proposed classification can serve as a guideline in future dMRI research. PMID:23610088

  9. Global Economic Impact of Dental Diseases.

    PubMed

    Listl, S; Galloway, J; Mossey, P A; Marcenes, W

    2015-10-01

    Reporting the economic burden of oral diseases is important to evaluate the societal relevance of preventing and addressing oral diseases. In addition to treatment costs, there are indirect costs to consider, mainly in terms of productivity losses due to absenteeism from work. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the direct and indirect costs of dental diseases worldwide to approximate the global economic impact. Estimation of direct treatment costs was based on a systematic approach. For estimation of indirect costs, an approach suggested by the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health was employed, which factored in 2010 values of gross domestic product per capita as provided by the International Monetary Fund and oral burden of disease estimates from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study. Direct treatment costs due to dental diseases worldwide were estimated at US$298 billion yearly, corresponding to an average of 4.6% of global health expenditure. Indirect costs due to dental diseases worldwide amounted to US$144 billion yearly, corresponding to economic losses within the range of the 10 most frequent global causes of death. Within the limitations of currently available data sources and methodologies, these findings suggest that the global economic impact of dental diseases amounted to US$442 billion in 2010. Improvements in population oral health may imply substantial economic benefits not only in terms of reduced treatment costs but also because of fewer productivity losses in the labor market. PMID:26318590

  10. Global Economic Impact of Dental Diseases.

    PubMed

    Listl, S; Galloway, J; Mossey, P A; Marcenes, W

    2015-10-01

    Reporting the economic burden of oral diseases is important to evaluate the societal relevance of preventing and addressing oral diseases. In addition to treatment costs, there are indirect costs to consider, mainly in terms of productivity losses due to absenteeism from work. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the direct and indirect costs of dental diseases worldwide to approximate the global economic impact. Estimation of direct treatment costs was based on a systematic approach. For estimation of indirect costs, an approach suggested by the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health was employed, which factored in 2010 values of gross domestic product per capita as provided by the International Monetary Fund and oral burden of disease estimates from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study. Direct treatment costs due to dental diseases worldwide were estimated at US$298 billion yearly, corresponding to an average of 4.6% of global health expenditure. Indirect costs due to dental diseases worldwide amounted to US$144 billion yearly, corresponding to economic losses within the range of the 10 most frequent global causes of death. Within the limitations of currently available data sources and methodologies, these findings suggest that the global economic impact of dental diseases amounted to US$442 billion in 2010. Improvements in population oral health may imply substantial economic benefits not only in terms of reduced treatment costs but also because of fewer productivity losses in the labor market.

  11. Design optimization of functionally graded dental implant.

    PubMed

    Hedia, H S; Mahmoud, Nemat-Alla

    2004-01-01

    The continuous increase of man's life span, and the growing confidence in using artificial materials inside the human body necessities introducing more effective prosthesis and implant materials. However, no artificial implant has biomechanical properties equivalent to the original tissue. Recently, titanium and bioceramic materials, such as hydroxyapatite are extensively used as fabrication materials for dental implant due to their high compatibility with hard tissue and living bone. Titanium has reasonable stiffness and strength while hydroxyapatite has low stiffness, low strength and high ability to reach full integration with living bone. In order to obtain good dental implantation of the biomaterial; full integration of the implant with living bone should be satisfied. Minimum stresses in the implant and the bone must be achieved to increase the life of the implant and prevent bone resorption. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation is to design an implant made from functionally graded material (FGM) to achieve the above advantages. The finite element method and optimization technique are used to reach the required implant design. The optimal materials of the FGM dental implant are found to be hydroxyapatite/titanium. The investigations have shown that the maximum stress in the bone for the hydroxyapatite/titanium FGM implant has been reduced by about 22% and 28% compared to currently used titanium and stainless steel dental implants, respectively.

  12. Minimally invasive dentistry and the dental enterprise.

    PubMed

    Rossomando, Edward F

    2007-03-01

    Improvements in understanding the process of remineralization have resulted in a reappraisal of repair of damaged tooth structure and call into question the principles of cavity preparation of GV Black and his principle of "extension for prevention." From this reappraisal has emerged the idea of minimally invasive dentistry (MID). The goal of MID is to remove as little of the sound tooth structure during the restoration phase as possible. This goal is in our reach in part because of availability of products that promote mineralization and of dental excavation instruments, like the dental laser, that can be managed to remove only damaged tooth structure. It is critical that the leaders of the dental enterprise endorse MID. Delay could allow new products to move from the dental profession to other health care providers. For example, a caries vaccine will soon enter the market place. Will dentists expand the scope of their practices to include the application of this vaccine, or will they ignore this new product and allow the new technology to enter the scope of practice of other health providers?

  13. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  14. Prevalence of dental caries among 12–14 year old children in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. Objectives The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12–14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12–14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. Results The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Conclusion Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region. PMID:25057232

  15. Children's Dental Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... hygiene practices such as thorough brushing with a fluoride toothpaste can help keep children from getting cavities. ... Fluoridation Nearly all naturally occurring water sources contain fluoride— a mineral that prevents tooth decay and even ...

  16. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    PubMed Central

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, KM; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods: We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result: The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion: The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries. PMID:21731272

  17. Osteoradionecrosis: Causes and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is one of the most serious complications arising from head and neck radiation therapy. Current research has shown that ORN represents nonhealing, dead bone and is not a state of infection. ORN is the result of functional and structural bony changes that may not be expressed for months or years. ORN may occur spontaneously or in response to wounding. Predisposing factors include absorbed radiation dose, fractionation, delivery modality, and dental status. Timing of dental extractions and other factors have also been shown to affect incidence. ORN may be reduced through early intraoral evaluation, treatment, and adequate healing time prior to beginning RT. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy has been beneficial in the prevention and treatment of ORN. It is of paramount importance for the medical community to recognize the factors that may reduce ORN incidence, endorse oral care protocols, and acknowledge the value of HBO therapy in the prevention and treatment of this disease. 60 references.

  18. Esthetic dental anomalies as motive for bullying in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Scheffel, Débora Lopes Salles; Jeremias, Fabiano; Fragelli, Camila Maria Bullio; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes Aparecida Martins; Hebling, Josimeri; de Oliveira, Osmir Batista

    2014-01-01

    Facial esthetics, including oral esthetics, can severely affect children's quality-of-life, causing physical, social and psychological impairment. Children and adolescents with esthetic-related dental malformations are potential targets for bullies. This study was aimed to present and discuss patients who suffered from bullying at school and family environment due to esthetic-related teeth anomalies. Providing an adequate esthetic dental treatment is an important step in their rehabilitation when the lack of esthetic is the main source of bullying. After dental treatment, we noted significant improvement in self-esteem, self-confidence, socialization and academic performance of all patients and improvement in parental satisfaction regarding the appearance of their children. It is imperative that both family and school care providers be constantly alert about bullying in order to prevent or interrupt aggressive and discriminatory practices against children and adolescents. Clearly, dental anomalies may be a motive for bullying. PMID:24966759

  19. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85). Bonding social capital (positive interaction) was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91). Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain. PMID:23289932

  20. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  1. Dental practice network of U.S. dental schools.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Monica A; Beeson, Dennis C; Hans, Mark G

    2009-12-01

    As dental schools incorporate training in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) into their curricula, students must learn how to critically evaluate systematic reviews and meta-analyses. It is important that dental education in the United States support the American Dental Association's position statement on EBD, which defines "best evidence" as data obtained from all study designs. Given that much evidence is missing when EBD is derived from Cochrane Systematic Reviews' randomized clinical trials, we propose the creation of a dental practice network of U.S. dental schools. We developed an electronic clinical dentistry research database for EBD using Epi-Info (available at www.cdc.gov/epiinfo/downloads.htm). As a free, public use software, Epi-Info provides the foundation for the development of clinical research databases that can increase the research capacity through multisite studies designed to generate outcomes data on the effectiveness of dental treatment. The creation of a dental practice network of dental schools with their large number of patients would expand the research capacity for EBD practice and advance the EBD science regarding the effectiveness of dental treatment. The next step is to link clinical dental researchers/educators at multiple dental schools through a collaborative clinical research network, so that the findings can be applied to the EBD component of problem-based learning curricula of dental education.

  2. Dental Implantology in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavitz, J. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The results of a survey of 44 dental schools corroborate the belief that dental implantology is gaining widespread acceptance in U.S. dental schools. Currently, predoctoral students have limited clinical participation. Most programs have taken the position that clinical techniques are best taught within the existing specialties at a graduate…

  3. A Systematic Review of Dental Late Effects in Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gawade, Prasad L.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Kaste, Sue C.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Constine, Louis S.; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for dental late effects. This systematic review summarizes associations between treatment exposures and dental late effects among survivors of childhood cancer. We included investigations with at least 20 study participants conducted for 2 or more years after completion of childhood, adolescent, or young adult cancer therapy. This review suggests both independent and additive effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on dental complications, and identifies vulnerable groups with specific host and treatment characteristics. This summary provides information that will assist clinicians to prevent, detect, and facilitate early intervention for dental late effects. PMID:24424790

  4. Curriculum Guidelines foe Dental Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' curriculum guidelines for dental nutrition include an overview of the curriculum, primary educational objectives, suggested prerequisites, a core content outline, and suggestions for sequencing and faculty qualifications. (MSE)

  5. Dental Health and Orthodontic Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Dental Health and Orthodontic Problems Page Content Article Body Dental Health Twin ... color can be tinted to match the teeth. Orthodontic Problems Crooked teeth, overbites and underbites are best ...

  6. Compliance with infection control practices in an university hospital dental clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mutters, Nico T.; Hägele, Ulrike; Hagenfeld, Daniel; Hellwig, Elmar; Frank, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Compliance with infection control practices is the key to quality care and excellence in dentistry. Infection control remains one of the most cost-beneficial interventions available. However, implementing control procedures requires full compliance of the whole dental team. The aim of our study was to measure the compliance in daily clinical practice. Methods: The compliance with infection control practices in dentistry by dental health care personnel (DHCP) in a German university dental clinic was observed during clinical work. In addition, a survey was conducted to assess the individual knowledge about infection control procedures. Contamination of the workplace during invasive dental procedures was tested, as well. Results: A total of 58 invasive dental treatments implying close contacts between HCWs and patients were scrutinized. All HCWs (100%) wore gloves during dental work, but in some cases (female dentists: 14.3%; dental assistants: 28.6%) gloves were neither changed nor hands were disinfected between different activities or patient contacts (female dentists: 68.6%; male dentists: 60.9%; dental assistants: 93%). Only 31.4% of female and 39.1% of male dentists carried out adequate hygienic hand disinfection after removing gloves. Male dentists wore significantly more often (100%) protective eyewear compared to 77.1% of female dentists (p<0.05). In addition, most of female dentists (62.9%) and dental assistants (80.7%) wore jewelry during dental procedures. Conclusion: Despite the knowledge of distinct hygiene procedures only a small percentage of dental staff performs hygiene practices according to recommended guidelines. Strict audit is clearly needed in the dental setting to ensure compliance with infection control guidelines to prevent transmission of pathogens. Our results provide insights for the development of a targeted education and training strategy to enhance compliance of dental staff especially of dental assistants with infection control

  7. Maintaining proper dental records.

    PubMed

    Leeuw, Wilhemina

    2014-01-01

    Referred to as Standard of Care, the legal duty of a dentist requires exercising the degree of skill and care that would be exhibited by other prudent dentists faced with the same patient-care situation. Primarily, the goal of keeping good dental records is to maintain continuity of care. Diligent and complete documentation and charting procedures are essential to fulfilling the Standard of Care. Secondly, because dental records are considered legal documents they help protect the interest of the dentist and/or the patient by establishing the details of the services rendered. Patients today are better educated and more assertive than ever before and dentists must be equipped to protect themselves against malpractice claims. Every record component must be handled as if it could be summoned to a court room and scrutinized by an attorney, judge or jury. Complete, accurate, objective and honest entries in a patient record are the only way to defend against any clinical and/or legal problems that might arise. Most medical and dental malpractice claims arise from an unfavorable interaction with the dentist and not from a poor treatment outcome. By implementing the suggestions mentioned in this course, dental health care professionals can minimize the legal risks associated with the delivery of dental care to promote greater understanding for patients of their rights and privileges to their complete record. PMID:24834675

  8. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study.

    PubMed

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health.

  9. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study.

    PubMed

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health. PMID:25661111

  10. Tuning fork decay.

    PubMed

    Miller, G W

    1979-03-01

    Tuning fork tests are used routinely by many otologists. A different group of otologists find the tests inconsistent and unreliable. This controversy has probably developed because the audiometer has replaced the tuning fork in hearing measurement. As a result, the art of use of the tuning fork is poorly learned. This study examines decay, one of the physical parameters of tuning forks. Measurements of acoustic (sound wave) and vibration (stem movement) decay were made. Alteration in decay due to pressure changes on the fork stem were studied. Acoustic signals were generated in an anechoic chamber. Vibration measurements were obtained using an artificial mastoid. Analysis of the signals was accomplished by a system of amplifiers, filters, tape recorders, and a graphic recorder. Tuning fork sound decay is a property of the instrument which occurs every time the fork is struck. The decay is a constant in decibels per second. The acoustic mode and the vibration mode decay at similar rates for the same fork. The strike frequency (a higher frequency than the fundamental produced when the fork is struck) also has a constant decay rate in decibels per second, and it is reported here for the first time. Force of 800 gm. and less applied to the bottom of the stem in vibration measurement caused minimal decay constant changes. When the physical parameters of the tuning fork (including this information on damping) are fully studied, tuning fork testing should become more of a science and less of an art.

  11. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  12. Osteoradionecrosis prevention myths

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Michael J. E-mail: WahlMichaelJ@aol.com

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractions.

  13. Occurrence and management of dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Akpata, E S

    2001-10-01

    The prevalence of dental fluorosis is on the increase in different parts of the world, even in areas with fluoride-deficient public water supplies. This may be due to increased use of fluoride in preventive dentistry. In some countries, exposure to apparently low fluoride concentrations in drinking water has resulted in severe dental fluorosis in some children. This underscores the importance of taking into consideration all sources of fluoride intake in a community before prescribing fluoride supplements or recommending appropriate fluoride concentration for the public water supply. Preventive management of dental fluorosis includes de-fluoridation of drinking water in endemic areas, cautious use of fluoride supplements and supervision of the use of fluoride toothpaste by children aged below 5 years. Aesthetically objectionable discolouration of fluorosed teeth may be managed by bleaching, micro-abrasion, veneering or crowning. The choice between these treatments depends on the severity of the fluorosis and this may be satisfactorily determined by the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index. PMID:11697585

  14. Dental ethics and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Alvin B; Wolf, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Dental ethics is often taught, viewed, and conducted as an intell enterprise, uninformed by other noncognitive factors. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is defined distinguished from the cognitive intelligence measured by Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This essay recommends more inclusion of emotional, noncognitive input to the ethical decision process in dental education and dental practice.

  15. Dental Assistant Specialist. (AFSC 98150).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eling, David R.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for dental assistant specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are an introduction to dental services (the mission and organization of medical/dental service, career ladder progressions, medical readiness/wartime training, and…

  16. Dental operatory design and equipment.

    PubMed

    Floyd, M

    1993-08-01

    Improving and expanding the dental services of a practice can involve purchasing new equipment and even modifying or expanding the physical plant. Operatory design is important to the efficiency with which dental procedures can be performed. Equipment purchases to outfit the dental operatory should be made based on the specific needs and functions of a practice.

  17. Experience of dental caries and its effects on early dental occlusion: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Luzzi, Valeria; Fabbrizi, Miriam; Coloni, Camilla; Mastrantoni, Cristina; Mirra, Carla; Bossù, Maurizio; Vestri, Annarita; Polimeni, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Summary Aim Describe the occurrence of dental caries in a sample of pre-school children and school children, aged 3 and 12, and study the possible association between caries and malocclusion. Methods We selected and analyzed the medical records of a sample of 588 patients who had their first dental examination at the Pediatric Dentistry Unit, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences of Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome. Results In the sample, 55.4% of the children had no decayed deciduous elements, while 44.6% had at least one decayed deciduous element. The prevalence of decayed permanent teeth was 10.2%, while 89.8% had no decayed permanent teeth. In the sample, 9.4% of the children showed advanced carious lesions, that needed tooth extraction and 6.6% needed a space maintainer for post-extractive interceptive treatment. In the sample, 26.7% of the examined patients had increased overjet, while 3.7% had decreased overjet and 25.4% of the sample had an increased overbite, 11, 2% had reduced over-bite values. A percentage over 10% of the sample had an anterior openbite in centric occlusion. The prevalence of posterior crossbite among entire samples was 19.8%. Conclusions Although the incidence of caries disease was high in the selected samples, the study did not show a statistically significant association between caries and clinical orthodontic abnormalities, except for the association between the midline deviation and the severe carious diseases, necessitating extraction. PMID:22238717

  18. Hypernuclear Weak Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itonaga, K.; Motoba, T.

    The recent theoretical studies of Lambda-hypernuclear weak decaysof the nonmesonic and pi-mesonic ones are developed with the aim to disclose the link between the experimental decay observables and the underlying basic weak decay interactions and the weak decay mechanisms. The expressions of the nonmesonic decay rates Gamma_{nm} and the decay asymmetry parameter alpha_1 of protons from the polarized hypernuclei are presented in the shell model framework. We then introduce the meson theoretical Lambda N -> NN interactions which include the one-meson exchanges, the correlated-2pi exchanges, and the chiral-pair-meson exchanges. The features of meson exchange potentials and their roles on the nonmesonic decays are discussed. With the adoption of the pi + 2pi/rho + 2pi/sigma + omega + K + rhopi/a_1 + sigmapi/a_1 exchange potentials, we have carried out the systematic calculations of the nonmesonic decay observables for light-to-heavy hypernuclei. The present model can account for the available experimental data of the decay rates, Gamma_n/Gamma_p ratios, and the intrinsic asymmetry parameters alpha_Lambda (alpha_Lambda is related to alpha_1) of emitted protons well and consistently within the error bars. The hypernuclear lifetimes are evaluated by converting the total weak decay rates Gamma_{tot} = Gamma_pi + Gamma_{nm} to tau, which exhibit saturation property for the hypernuclear mass A ≥ 30 and agree grossly well with experimental data for the mass range from light to heavy hypernuclei except for the very light ones. Future extensions of the model and the remaining problems are also mentioned. The pi-mesonic weak processes are briefly surveyed, and the calculations and predictions are compared and confirmed by the recent high precision FINUDA pi-mesonic decay data. This shows that the theoretical basis seems to be firmly grounded.

  19. Dental obturation materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Elizabeth; Chudej, Lauren; Bilyeu, Brian; Brostow, Witold

    2006-10-01

    During the last decades, people have tried to develop a better material for use in dental obturation materials. This new material should meet the following requirements: durability, wear resistance, biocompatibility and chemical adhesion to dentin enamel. Wear resistance is very important and it is related with the service life of dental replacements. We have obtained aesthetically promising novel nano composites that can be used as dental replacements. The main objective of this work is to study the scratch and wear resistance of these nano composites. To meet this goal, scratch tests are performed using a micro scratch tester machine (CSEM), where a diamond indenter is used to make the scratch and the penetration of this indenter is measured with high resolution (7nm). We will be looking at the penetration depth (Rp) and the residual (or healing) depth (Rh) to calculate the percent recovery. These measurements represent the scratch resistance of the material.

  20. Dental amalgam: An update

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Ramesh; Wadhwani, Kulvinder Kaur; Tikku, Aseem Prakash; Chandra, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Dental amalgam has served as an excellent and versatile restorative material for many years, despite periods of controversy. The authors review its history, summarize the evidence with regard to its performance and offer predictions for the future of this material. The PubMed database was used initially; the reference list for dental amalgam featured 8641 articles and 13 publications dealing with recent advances in dental amalgam. A forward search was undertaken on selected articles and using some author names. For the present, amalgam should remain the material of choice for economic direct restoration of posterior teeth. When esthetic concerns are paramount, tooth-colored materials, placed meticulously, can provide an acceptable alternative. All alternative restorative materials and procedures, however, have certain limitations. PMID:21217947

  1. Dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashri, Nahid Y.; Ajlan, Sumaiah A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors. PMID:26620980

  2. Dental Implant Complications.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Kevin; Delfini, Ronald H; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants have increased in the last few decades thus increasing the number of complications. Since many of these complications are easily diagnosed on postsurgical images, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with them and to be able to recognize and diagnose them. Radiologists should also have a basic understanding of their treatment. In a pictorial fashion, this article will present the basic complications of dental implants which we have divided into three general categories: biomechanical overload, infection or inflammation, and other causes. Examples of implant fracture, loosening, infection, inflammation from subgingival cement, failure of bone and soft tissue preservation, injury to surround structures, and other complications will be discussed as well as their common imaging appearances and treatment. Lastly, we will review pertinent dental anatomy and important structures that are vital for radiologists to evaluate in postoperative oral cavity imaging.

  3. Prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth and its relation with tooth brushing habits among schoolchildren in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Faraz A.; Khabeer, Abdul; Moheet, Imran A.; Khan, Soban Q.; Farooq, Imran; ArRejaie, Aws S.,

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries in the primary and permanent teeth, and evaluate the brushing habits of school children in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This study was conducted at Dammam, KSA. Oral examination of the participants was conducted from February to May 2014. The total sample size for this cross-sectional study was 711. There were 397 children between the age of 6-9 years, who were examined for primary teeth caries, and 314 between the age 10-12 years were examined for permanent teeth caries. Primary and permanent dentitions were studied for decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft [primary teeth], DMFT [permanent teeth]). Results: The overall prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was almost 73% (n=711). Among the 6-9-year-old, the prevalence of caries was approximately 78% (n=397) whereas, among the 10-12-year-old children, it was approximately 68% (n=314). Mean dmft value among the 6-9-year-olds was 3.66±3.13 with decayed (d) component of 3.28±2.92, missing (m) component of 0.11±0.69, and filled (f) component of 0.26±0.9. Mean DMFT value among the 10-12-year-old children was 1.94±2.0 with decayed (D) component of 1.76±1.85, missing (M) component of 0.03±0.22, and filled (F) of component 0.15±0.73. Daily tooth brushing had a positive effect on caries prevention, and this effect was statistically significant for caries in primary teeth. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was not found to be as high as other researchers reported from different cities of KSA, still the prevalence was high considering the World Health Organization future oral health goals. Awareness should be provided to students, as well as, teachers and parents regarding the importance of good brushing habits and regular dental visits. PMID:25987118

  4. Sugar Industry Influence on the Scientific Agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research’s 1971 National Caries Program: A Historical Analysis of Internal Documents

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Cristin E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay) within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP). The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry’s interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP. Methods and Findings We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR’s call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors. Conclusions The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects

  5. Dental patient preferences and choice in clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Fukai, Kakuhiro; Yoshino, Koichi; Ohyama, Atsushi; Takaesu, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    In economics, the concept of utility refers to the strength of customer preference. In health care assessment, the visual analogue scale (VAS), the standard gamble, and the time trade-off are used to measure health state utilities. These utility measurements play a key role in promoting shared decision-making in dental care. Individual preference, however, is complex and dynamic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between patient preference and educational intervention in the field of dental health. The data were collected by distributing questionnaires to employees of two companies in Japan. Participants were aged 18-65 years and consisted of 111 males and 93 females (204 in total). One company (Group A) had a dental program of annual check-ups and health education in the workplace, while the other company (Group B) had no such program. Statistical analyses were performed with the t-test and Chi-square test. The questionnaire items were designed to determine: (1) oral health-related quality of life, (2) dental health state utilities (using VAS), and (3) time trade-off for regular dental check-ups. The percentage of respondents in both groups who were satisfied with chewing function, appearance of teeth, and social function ranged from 23.1 to 42.4%. There were no significant differences between groups A and B in the VAS of decayed, filled, and missing teeth. The VAS of gum bleeding was 42.8 in Group A and 51.3 in Group B (p<0.05). The percentage of persons having a regular dental check-up every three months was 34.1 and 31.3% in Groups A and B respectively. These results suggest that low preference results from lack of opportunity or utilization of dental care in the worksite. Ascertaining the factors involved in patient preference may have significant potential benefits in shared decision-making.

  6. Dental patient preferences and choice in clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Fukai, Kakuhiro; Yoshino, Koichi; Ohyama, Atsushi; Takaesu, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    In economics, the concept of utility refers to the strength of customer preference. In health care assessment, the visual analogue scale (VAS), the standard gamble, and the time trade-off are used to measure health state utilities. These utility measurements play a key role in promoting shared decision-making in dental care. Individual preference, however, is complex and dynamic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between patient preference and educational intervention in the field of dental health. The data were collected by distributing questionnaires to employees of two companies in Japan. Participants were aged 18-65 years and consisted of 111 males and 93 females (204 in total). One company (Group A) had a dental program of annual check-ups and health education in the workplace, while the other company (Group B) had no such program. Statistical analyses were performed with the t-test and Chi-square test. The questionnaire items were designed to determine: (1) oral health-related quality of life, (2) dental health state utilities (using VAS), and (3) time trade-off for regular dental check-ups. The percentage of respondents in both groups who were satisfied with chewing function, appearance of teeth, and social function ranged from 23.1 to 42.4%. There were no significant differences between groups A and B in the VAS of decayed, filled, and missing teeth. The VAS of gum bleeding was 42.8 in Group A and 51.3 in Group B (p<0.05). The percentage of persons having a regular dental check-up every three months was 34.1 and 31.3% in Groups A and B respectively. These results suggest that low preference results from lack of opportunity or utilization of dental care in the worksite. Ascertaining the factors involved in patient preference may have significant potential benefits in shared decision-making. PMID:22790334

  7. Oral Disease Burden and Utilization of Dental Care Patterns Among Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Shiboski, Caroline H.; Kawada, Phyllis; Golinveaux, Megan; Tornabene, Ann; Krishnan, Sumathi; Mathias, Robert; Besten, Pamela Den; Rosenthal, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a study among pediatric renal (RTRs) and liver transplant recipients (LTRs) to determine: a) the overall burden of oral disease; and b) the frequency with which this population utilizes dental care services in relation to sociodemographic factors and oral disease burden. Methods In this cross-sectional survey, study procedures included the completion of a standardized questionnaire (by parents/guardians), oral mucosal examination, assessment of caries, gingival enlargement, and plaque index. Results The 142 children (82 RTRs and 60 LTRs) enrolled from April 2002 to November 2005 were predominantly Latino (41 percent) and Caucasian (34 percent). Forty-three percent had at least one carious surface (in either a deciduous or permanent tooth), 19 percent had five or more carious surfaces, and 25 percent had gingival enlargement. We found only one case of oral candidiasis. Even though 72 percent of parents/guardians reported their child had a regular source of dental care, only 49 percent had a dental cleaning and 44 percent had dental radiographs in the past year, reflecting a low prevalence of preventive dental care. Among children with no regular source of dental care, there were statistically significantly higher proportions of Latinos, younger children, and families with an annual household income <$35,000. Conclusion While the prevalence of oral mucosal disease and gingival enlargement was low, the prevalence of children with caries was high, and there was low use of preventive dental care. Strategies to improve this population's utilization of preventive dental care are needed. PMID:18662252

  8. Pneumoconiosis and exposures of dental laboratory technicians.

    PubMed Central

    Rom, W N; Lockey, J E; Lee, J S; Kimball, A C; Bang, K M; Leaman, H; Johns, R E; Perrota, D; Gibbons, H L

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight dental laboratory technicians and 69 non-exposed controls participated in an epidemiological respiratory study. Eight technicians who had a mean of 28 years' grinding nonprecious metal alloys were diagnosed as having a simple pneumoconiosis by chest radiograph. Mean values for per cent predicted FVC and FEV1 were reduced among male nonsmoker technicians compared to male nonsmoker controls; after controlling for age, there was also a reduction in spirometry with increasing work-years. An industrial hygiene survey was conducted in 13 laboratories randomly selected from 42 laboratories stratified by size and type of operation in the Salt Lake City, Utah metropolitan area. Personal exposures to beryllium and cobalt exceeded the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) in one laboratory. Occupational exposures in dental laboratories need to be controlled to prevent beryllium-related lung disorders as well as simple pneumoconiosis. PMID:6496819

  9. Pneumoconiosis and exposures of dental laboratory technicians

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Lockey, J.E.; Lee, J.S.; Kimball, A.C.; Bang, K.M.; Leaman, H.; Johns, R.E. Jr.; Perrota, D.; Gibbons, H.L.

    1984-11-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight dental laboratory technicians and 69 non-exposed controls participated in an epidemiological respiratory study. Eight technicians who had a mean of 28 years grinding nonprecious metal alloys were diagnosed as having a simple pneumoconiosis by chest radiograph. Mean values for per cent predicted FVC and FEV1 were reduced among male nonsmoker technicians compared to male nonsmoker controls; after controlling for age, there was also a reduction in spirometry with increasing work-years. An industrial hygiene survey was conducted in 13 laboratories randomly selected from 42 laboratories stratified by size and type of operation in the Salt Lake City, Utah metropolitan area. Personal exposures to beryllium and cobalt exceeded the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) in one laboratory. Occupational exposures in dental laboratories need to be controlled to prevent beryllium-related lung disorders as well as simple pneumoconiosis.

  10. Fluoride use in caries prevention in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Clark, Melinda B; Slayton, Rebecca L

    2014-09-01

    Dental caries remains the most common chronic disease of childhood in the United States. Caries is a largely preventable condition, and fluoride has proven effectiveness in the prevention of caries. The goals of this clinical report are to clarify the use of available fluoride modalities for caries prevention in the primary care setting and to assist pediatricians in using fluoride to achieve maximum protection against dental caries while minimizing the likelihood of enamel fluorosis.

  11. Dental Support Organizations.

    PubMed

    Dufurrena, Quinn

    2015-01-01

    The Association of Dental Support Organizations is a recently formed association of 33 companies representing a range of management and support services for dental practices. These organizations do not engage in the practice of dentistry, although in some cases they operate as holding companies for practices that do, thus separating the legal responsibility of providing treatment from the management and flow of funds. This report summarizes some of the recent trends in oral health care and dentists' practice patterns that are prompting the increased prevalence of this model. The general functioning of the DSO model is described, including some common variations, and the core values of ADSO are featured. PMID:26455048

  12. Performance of Dental Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Rekow, E.D.; Silva, N.R.F.A.; Coelho, P.G.; Zhang, Y.; Guess, P.; Thompson, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    The clinical success of modern dental ceramics depends on an array of factors, ranging from initial physical properties of the material itself, to the fabrication and clinical procedures that inevitably damage these brittle materials, and the oral environment. Understanding the influence of these factors on clinical performance has engaged the dental, ceramics, and engineering communities alike. The objective of this review is to first summarize clinical, experimental, and analytic results reported in the recent literature. Additionally, it seeks to address how this new information adds insight into predictive test procedures and reveals challenges for future improvements. PMID:21224408

  13. [Hardening of dental instruments].

    PubMed

    Gerasev, G P

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of prolonging the service life of stomatological instruments by the local hardening of their working parts is discussed. Such hardening should be achieved by using hard and wear-resistant materials. The examples of hardening dental elevators and hard-alloy dental drills are given. New trends in the local hardening of instruments are the treatment of their working parts with laser beams, the application of coating on their surface by the gas-detonation method. The results of research work and trials are presented.

  14. Dental education: a leadership challenge for dental educators and practitioners.

    PubMed

    Roth, Kathleen

    2007-08-01

    By all outward signs, the dental profession is prospering. However, signs of a looming crisis in dental education threaten the future effectiveness of the profession. Transforming dental education through the application of principles espoused by the ADEA Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education (CCI) is essential for securing the future of the profession. To meet the future oral health needs of the public, dental schools must retain their research mission and prepare students for evidence-based practice. To accomplish this, both the curricular content and the environment and approach to dental education must change. Besides the knowledge and abilities needed to care for a more diverse and aging population, future practitioners must possess tools needed to thrive in the world of small business and have the ethical foundation to conduct themselves as responsible professionals. Ensuring the future of the profession is a leadership challenge to be shared by both dental educators and practitioners.

  15. Methamphetamine Users Have Increased Dental Disease: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shetty, V; Harrell, L; Clague, J; Murphy, D A; Dye, B A; Belin, T R

    2016-07-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) users are assumed to have a high burden of tooth decay. Less clear is how the distribution and severity of dental caries in MA users differ from the general population. Using a covariate-balancing propensity score strategy, we investigated the differential effects of MA use on dental caries by comparing the patterns of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in a community sample of 571 MA users with a subset of 2,755 demographically similar control individuals selected from a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohort. Recruited over a 2-y period with a stratified sampling protocol, the MA users underwent comprehensive dental examinations by 3 trained and calibrated dentists using NHANES protocols. Propensity scores were estimated with logistic regression based on background characteristics, and a subset of closely matched subjects was stratified into quintiles for comparisons. MA users were twice as likely to have untreated caries (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.55 to 2.78) and 4 times more likely to have caries experience (OR = 4.06; 95% CI: 2.24 to 7.34) than the control group of NHANES participants. Additionally, MA users were twice as likely to have 2 more decayed, missing, or filled teeth (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.29 to 2.79) than the NHANES participants. The differential involvement of the teeth surfaces in MA users was quite distinctive, with carious surface involvement being highest for the maxillary central incisors, followed by maxillary posterior premolars and molars. Users injecting MA had significantly higher rates of tooth decay compared with noninjectors (P = 0.04). Although MA users experienced decayed and missing dental surfaces more frequently than NHANES participants, NHANES participants had more restored surfaces, especially on molars. The high rates and distinctive patterns of dental caries observed could be used 1) to alert dentists to covert MA use in their patients and 2) as

  16. Differences in dental experiences, practices, and beliefs of inner-city and suburban adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Cipes, M H; Kegeles, S S; Lund, A K; Otradovec, C L

    1983-01-01

    Inner-city and suburban students' dental experiences, current practices, beliefs, and compliance with two school-based preventive programs were examined. Striking differences were found in the students' dental experiences, practices, and beliefs, but few in their compliance. These findings challenge the notion that inner-city students are poor compliers and suggest ways in which practitioners and public health officials might utilize the differing practices of these populations to plan preventive programs for adolescents. PMID:6625038

  17. 75 FR 16511 - Pentron Clinical Technologies, a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary of Kerr Dental/Sybron Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... such as dental prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental... prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental materials to Mexicali... the Federal Register on February 16, 2010 (75 FR 7037). At the request of the State Agency,...

  18. Rural–urban differences in dental service use among children enrolled in a private dental insurance plan in Wisconsin: analysis of administrative data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on rural–urban differences in dental care have primarily focused on differences in utilization rates and preventive dental services. Little is known about rural–urban differences in the use of wider range of dental procedures. This study examined patterns of preventive, restorative, endodontic, and extraction procedures provided to children enrolled in Delta Dental of Wisconsin (DDWI). Methods We analyzed DDWI enrollment and claims data for children aged 0-18 years from 2002 to 2008. We modified and used a rural and urban classification based on ZIP codes developed by the Wisconsin Area Health Education Center (AHEC). We categorized the ZIP codes into 6 AHEC categories (3 rural and 3 urban). Descriptive and multivariable analysis using generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to examine the patterns of dental procedures provided to children. Tukey-Kramer adjustment was used to control for multiple comparisons. Results Approximately, 50%, 67% and 68 % of enrollees in inner-city Milwaukee, Rural 1 (less than 2500 people), and suburban-Milwaukee had at least one annual dental visit, respectively. Children in inner city-Milwaukee had the lowest utilization rates for all procedures examined, except for endodontic procedures. Compared to children from inner-city Milwaukee, children in other locations had significantly more preventive procedures. Children in Rural 1-ZIP codes had more restorative, endodontic and extraction procedures, compared to children from all other regions. Conclusions We found significant geographic variation in dental procedures received by children enrolled in DDWI. PMID:23259637

  19. Dental behaviour management problems among children and adolescents--a matter of understanding? Studies on dental fear, personal characteristics and psychosocial concomitants.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Annika

    2010-01-01

    contributed to the prediction of DBMP, but differently for different subgroups and at different levels of dental fear. A non-attending behaviour within the DBMP group was predicted by family factors and a temperamental profile indicating an out-going and somewhat impulsive personal profile. The results indicate further need to establish and validate age and gender differentiated cut-off scores and that self-rating on the CFSS-DS should complement parental ratings, since DF was the single best predictor of DBMP at clearly lower scores than commonly used. Avoidance may be seen as the extreme of DBMP, varying from irregular dental attendance to dropping out entirely from dental treatment. Therefore deeper knowledge and understanding of DBMP, will help the dental staff to meet and treat children and adolescents according to their individual need and act for the prevention of DBMP and irregular dental attendance. PMID:20225478

  20. Axions from wall decay

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S; Hagmann, C; Sikivie, P

    2001-01-08

    The authors discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is {approx_equal} 7m{sub a} for v{sub a}/m{sub a} {approx_equal} 500. is found to increase approximately linearly with ln(v{sub a}/m{sub a}). Extrapolation of this behavior yields {approx_equal} 60 m{sub a} in axion models of interest.

  1. Modulated curvaton decay

    SciTech Connect

    Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk

    2013-03-01

    We study primordial density perturbations generated by the late decay of a curvaton field whose decay rate may be modulated by the local value of another isocurvature field, analogous to models of modulated reheating at the end of inflation. We calculate the primordial density perturbation and its local-type non-Gaussianity using the sudden-decay approximation for the curvaton field, recovering standard curvaton and modulated reheating results as limiting cases. We verify the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality between bispectrum and trispectrum parameters for the primordial density field generated by multiple field fluctuations, and find conditions for the bound to be saturated.

  2. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly. PMID:25802916

  3. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  4. The impact of dietary and tooth-brushing habits to dental caries of special school children with disability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Chun-Chih; Hu, Wen-Chia; Tang, Ru-Ching; Chen, Cheng-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te

    2010-01-01

    The daily oral activities may severely influence oral health of children with disabilities. In this survey, we analyzed the impact of dietary and tooth-brushing habits to dental caries in special school children with disabilities. This cross-sectional survey investigated 535 special school children with disabilities aged 6-12 years, 60.93% males, 39.07% females from 10 special schools in Taiwan. Oral examinations were carried out by dentists with a Kappa score of their inter-examiner agreement exceeding 0.8. Data on demographics, diet, and tooth-brushing habits of children with disabilities were collected using a standardized questionnaire completed by parents/caregivers. More than three quarters of the participants were combined with severe or profound disability. Children with profound severity in disability had a higher percentage (67.37%) in teeth-brushing by parents/caregivers compared to those children with mild/moderate severity in disability which had a higher percentage (81.60%) in teeth-brushing by themselves. Children whose teeth were brushed by parents/caregivers had a better dental health, and lower caries prevalence. The main risk factors related to decayed teeth of children with disabilities are frequency of sweets intake, ability to brush teeth and with plaque or not. The dental health education, prevention program and periodical oral check-up to children with disabilities and their parents/caregivers should be reinforced. Brushing skill should be taught to children according to their type, severity and individual characteristics of disability.

  5. Effect of antiasthmatic medication on dental disease: dental caries and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Shashikiran, N D; Reddy, V V S; Raju, P Krishnam

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has been increasing since the 1980s. Asthma and tooth decay are the two major causes of school absenteeism. There are few studies present in the literature. The objectives of the present study were to know the severity of dental caries and periodontal problems in children before and after taking antiasthmatic medication. The present study was conducted on 105, six- to fourteen-year-old asthmatic children to determine the condition of their dental caries and their periodontal status before and after taking antiasthmatic medication, for a period of 1 year and these were matched with their controls. The results showed that salbutamol inhaler shows increased caries rate with high significance over other groups, which was followed by salbutamol tablets and beclamethasone inhaler respectively. It has been concluded that antiasthmatic medication has its effects on dental caries and periodontal disease and asthmatic patients are recommended to adopt more precautionary oral hygiene practices and keep their caries activity and periodontal health under constant check.

  6. Smoking Policies of U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, H. Gordon

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of a study on the preventive health activity concerning smoking at dental schools were to determine the smoking policies and what actions were taken to reduce health hazards of smoke to personnel in institutions. The majority of schools surveyed (N=46) restricted smoking to certain areas in their facility. (MLW)

  7. Dental amalgam and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Mackert, J.R. Jr. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper looks at the issues of the current amalgam controversy: the daily dose of mercury from amalgam, hypersensitivity to mercury, claims of adverse effects from amalgam mercury and alleged overnight 'cures.' In addition, the toxicity and allergenicity of the proposed alternative materials are examined with the same kind of scrutiny applied by the anti-amalgam group to dental amalgam. 100 references.

  8. FATIGUE OF DENTAL CERAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Sailer, Irena; Lawn, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Clinical data on survival rates reveal that all-ceramic dental prostheses are susceptible to fracture from repetitive occlusal loading. The objective of this review is to examine the underlying mechanisms of fatigue in current and future dental ceramics. Data/sources The nature of various fatigue modes is elucidated using fracture test data on ceramic layer specimens from the dental and biomechanics literature. Conclusions Failure modes can change over a lifetime, depending on restoration geometry, loading conditions and material properties. Modes that operate in single-cycle loading may be dominated by alternative modes in multi-cycle loading. While post-mortem examination of failed prostheses can determine the sources of certain fractures, the evolution of these fractures en route to failure remains poorly understood. Whereas it is commonly held that loss of load-bearing capacity of dental ceramics in repetitive loading is attributable to chemically-assisted 'slow crack growth' in the presence of water, we demonstrate the existence of more deleterious fatigue mechanisms, mechanical rather than chemical in nature. Neglecting to account for mechanical fatigue can lead to gross overestimates in predicted survival rates. Clinical significance Strategies for prolonging the clinical lifetimes of ceramic restorations are proposed based on a crack-containment philosophy. PMID:24135295

  9. Dental Issues & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... dental school, has extra training in caring for patients with disabilities. The Special Care Dentistry Association is a resource to find a dentist ... for children who grind their teeth, because the risk of the child choking on the mouthguard if it breaks ... Academy of Pediatric Dentistry www.aapd.org Find a dentist at www. ...

  10. Dental Health in TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... to occur in nearly 100% of the TSC population. Not all dental pits are cavities; they are just areas where enamel did not form, but can be an area where food can build up and start a cavity. Gums The gums may have small areas of growth called gingival fibromas , which are mostly harmless and ...

  11. Skylab Dental Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Skylab 2 Commander Charles Conrad is seen undergoing a dental examination by the Medical Officer, Joseph Kerwin in the Skylab Medical Facility. In the absence of an examination chair, Conrad simply rotated his body to an upside down position to facilitate the procedure.

  12. Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Ho, Yi-Ching; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Tsai, Jui-che; Lin, Kun-Feng; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This review paper describes the applications of dental optical coherence tomography (OCT) in oral tissue images, caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer. The background of OCT, including basic theory, system setup, light sources, spatial resolution and system limitations, is provided. The comparisons between OCT and other clinical oral diagnostic methods are also discussed. PMID:23857261

  13. Ethics of dental health screening.

    PubMed

    Janakiram, Chandrashekar; Taha, Farheen

    2016-01-01

    Screening is the detection of disease at a point in its natural history when it is not yet symptomatic. In the natural history of dental caries, for example, the incipient lesions are at a reversible stage, which is a pre-symptomatic or an unrecognised symptomatic disease. Ideally, this is the stage during which screening should identify the risk of dental caries; however, presently, the so-called dental screening employed identifies the clinical cavitation of the tooth, which is very obvious to the individual. The individual already knows that he/she has dental caries and needs treatment, which the screening personnel (dental doctor) explains again during the screening procedure. Is it ethical to call such an event screening? The mushrooming of dental teaching hospitals has promoted regular screening of dental diseases among the communities and schoolchildren through their community dentistry-related activities. More often, it is a dental "check-up" that is carried out on the pretext of screening for dental diseases. Though the basic intention of this activity is to promote awareness of dental diseases and promote good health, there is also a hidden agenda to it. An artificial demand for dental care is created that is easily capitalised on by the dental teaching institutions to enhance its clinical activity. Dental screening is doing more harm than good as patients are made aware of the diseases for which they may not be able to afford treatment. This narrative review gives an account of the scientific evidence on screening for oral diseases, the current practices in screening and the ethical dilemmas of dental screening programmes. PMID:27474698

  14. Common dental infections in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc Huu; Martin, James T

    2008-03-15

    Family physicians commonly encounter patients with dental infections, such as dental caries and periodontal disease. Dental caries is caused by bacteria that destroy the enamel and dentin; it can be detected by an oral examination that shows stained pits or fissures on the tooth surface. Use of fluoride is the most effective prevention measure for dental caries. Untreated caries may progress to pulpitis and, eventually, to necrosis of the pulp. In irreversible pulpitis, the tooth dies and the patient may have a localized abscess that can spread to surrounding tissue. Periodontal infections are caused by bacteria in the subgingival dental plaque. In gingivitis, the inflamed gums bleed easily with brushing or flossing; the condition can be controlled with good oral hygiene. Periodontitis is characterized by a loss of supportive bone structure caused by chronic gingivitis; it is also associated with some systemic diseases. Localized periodontitis is treated with mechanical debridement and good oral hygiene, whereas generalized periodontitis requires adjunct antibiotic therapy. Pericoronitis results when food particles become trapped under the gum of an impacted tooth. This condition can be controlled by removal of food debris and good oral hygiene. For patients in whom dental infections are disseminated and have invaded the deeper oral spaces, antibiotic treatment should be initiated at the time of referral.

  15. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Health Workers, Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Phethuayluk, Piriyalux; Maneelok, Supandee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4%) did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics.

  16. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Health Workers, Southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Decharat, Somsiri; Phethuayluk, Piriyalux; Maneelok, Supandee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4%) did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics. PMID:27597901

  17. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Health Workers, Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Phethuayluk, Piriyalux; Maneelok, Supandee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4%) did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics. PMID:27597901

  18. Oral Health Status and Behaviour of Mauritians Visiting Private Dental Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated…

  19. RARE KAON DECAYS.

    SciTech Connect

    LITTENBERG, L.

    2005-07-19

    Lepton flavor violation (LFV) experiments have probed sensitivities corresponding to mass scales of well over 100 TeV, making life difficult for models predicting accessible LFV in kaon decay and discouraging new dedicated experiments of this type.

  20. Radiative B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Bard, D.; /Imperial Coll., London

    2011-11-23

    I discuss recent results in radiative B decays from the Belle and BaBar collaborations. I report new measurements of the decay rate and CP asymmetries in b {yields} s{gamma} and b {yields} d{gamma} decays, and measurements of the photon spectrum in b {yields} s{gamma}. Radiative penguin decays are flavour changing neutral currents which do not occur at tree level in the standard model (SM), but must proceed via one loop or higher order diagrams. These transitions are therefore suppressed in the SM, but offer access to poorlyknown SM parameters and are also a sensitive probe of new physics. In the SM, the rate is dominated by the top quark contribution to the loop, but non-SM particles could also contribute with a size comparable to leading SM contributions. The new physics effects are potentially large which makes them theoretically very interesting, but due to their small branching fractions they are typically experimentally challenging.