Science.gov

Sample records for prevention critical reflections

  1. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Teaching Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-standing commitment to the notion of critical reflection across the healthcare professions it is unusual for critical theory and practice to be taught as explicit subjects in healthcare higher education. There is evidence to show that reflective techniques such as critical portfolios and reflective diaries can help students to…

  3. Teaching Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-standing commitment to the notion of critical reflection across the healthcare professions it is unusual for critical theory and practice to be taught as explicit subjects in healthcare higher education. There is evidence to show that reflective techniques such as critical portfolios and reflective diaries can help students to…

  4. Reflections on Critical Incidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on the reporting of critical incidents as a tool for self-reflection in a program to train English-as-a-Second-language (ESL) secondary school teachers in Malaysia. Case studies of critical incidents highlight the potential value of encouraging ESL trainee teachers to record, analyze, and reflect on significant personal events in their…

  5. [Life satisfaction--a dimension of psychotherapeutical prevention. Critical reflections and results of empirical research].

    PubMed

    Leitner, Anton; Schuch, Hans Waldemar

    2004-12-01

    Psychotherapy has historically been developed on ill people and is applied in the system treating the sick. A healthy person who has no complaints is only in exceptional cases the subject of psychotherapeutic inquiries as to his/her experiences and behaviour. In this article, the pathologising basic attitude is abandoned and the appreciation of one's own life over one's lifetime and the accompanying complex possibilities of prevention are given. The empirical findings provided cover areas of life which show impairment and in which psychotherapy can cause positive changes. Assessments of life contentment are shown by means of various psychotherapeutic methods. The conclusion is that psychotherapy aims at a "productive therapeutic" change with immediate consequences of application.

  6. Critical Reflection as Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter considers how doctoral education, particularly in applied settings such as education, social work, counseling, and health care, could be reimagined if it was organized around the idea and process of critical reflection: of helping students to better understand how power operates in educational environments and how students' sense of…

  7. Critical Reflection as Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter considers how doctoral education, particularly in applied settings such as education, social work, counseling, and health care, could be reimagined if it was organized around the idea and process of critical reflection: of helping students to better understand how power operates in educational environments and how students' sense of…

  8. Teaching Critical Reflection to Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gavan Peter Longley; Kenny, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Critical reflection is a highly valued and widely applied learning approach in higher education. There are many benefits associated with engaging in critical reflection, and it is often integrated into the design of graduate level courses on university teaching as a life-long learning strategy to help ensure that learners build their capacity as…

  9. Teaching Critical Reflection through Narrative Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Nancy P.

    2004-01-01

    Anthropological concepts and methods provide an important framework for organizing community service learning. Critical reflection is central to both anthropology and community service learning. However, an anthropological approach to reflection stimulates the learner to consider their own cultural background. Little is understood about how to…

  10. Promoting Cognitive, Critical, and Narrative Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks-Langer, Georgea Mohlman; And Others

    The paper reviews literature on three orientations to teachers' reflective thinking (cognitive, critical, and narrative). The cognitive approach includes studies of teachers' information processing and decision making, emphasizing how teachers make decisions. The critical approach has its roots in problem framing and ethical and moral reasoning.…

  11. Reflecting on Reflection as a Critical Component in Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the popularity of service learning, it is sometimes criticized for its lack of academic rigor. This piece provides a counterpoint to that argument by describing a LIS service-learning course from the student's perspective. I focus particularly on the role of reflection, a key component in service-learning courses that helps to…

  12. Reflecting on Reflection as a Critical Component in Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the popularity of service learning, it is sometimes criticized for its lack of academic rigor. This piece provides a counterpoint to that argument by describing a LIS service-learning course from the student's perspective. I focus particularly on the role of reflection, a key component in service-learning courses that helps to…

  13. Critical Reflective Work Behaviour: A Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Woerkom, Marianne; Nijhof, Wim J.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    After a review of the literature, critical reflective work behavior (CRWB) was defined as: a set of connected, individual activities aimed at analyzing, optimizing, or innovating work practices on the individual, team, or organizational level. The combination of literature review and analysis of case studies led to the operationalization of CRWB…

  14. Critical Reflective Working Behaviour: A Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Woerkom, Marianne; Nijhof, Wim J.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2002-01-01

    Survey responses from 742 of 1,670 Dutch workers validated the following dimensions of critically reflective work behavior: learning from mistakes, vision sharing, challenging group-think, asking for feedback, experimentation, knowledge sharing, and awareness of employability. Individual self-efficacy had more impact than job/organizational…

  15. Creating Critical Viewers: A Personal Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherow-O'Leary, Renee

    2014-01-01

    This essay is a personal reflection on the implementation of "Creating Critical Viewers," a national media literacy program sponsored by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (NATAS), an industry association, in 1995. The television industry's decision to develop a media literacy curriculum in the 1990s was a powerful…

  16. Critical Reflective Working Behaviour: A Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Woerkom, Marianne; Nijhof, Wim J.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2002-01-01

    Survey responses from 742 of 1,670 Dutch workers validated the following dimensions of critically reflective work behavior: learning from mistakes, vision sharing, challenging group-think, asking for feedback, experimentation, knowledge sharing, and awareness of employability. Individual self-efficacy had more impact than job/organizational…

  17. Written Case Analyses and Critical Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Helen L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The study investigated the use of case-based pedagogy to develop critical reflection in prospective teachers. Analysis of students written analyses of dilemma-based cases found patterns showing evidence of students open-mindedness, sense of professional responsibility, and wholeheartedness in approach to teaching. (DB)

  18. Evidence for practice, epistemology, and critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Avis, Mark; Freshwater, Dawn

    2006-10-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) has become a critical concept for ethical, accountable professional nursing practice. However, critical analysis of the concept suggests that EBP overemphasizes the value of scientific evidence while underplaying the role of clinical judgement and individual nursing expertise. This paper explores the empiricist position that valid evidence is the basis for all knowledge claims. We argue against the positivist idea that science should be regarded as the only credible means for generating evidence on which to base knowledge claims. We propose that the process of critically reflecting on evidence is a fundamental feature of empirical epistemology. We suggest that critical reflection on evidence derived from science, arts and humanities and, in particular, nursing practice experience can provide a sound basis for knowledge claims. While we do not attempt to define what counts as evidence, it is argued that there is much to be gained by making the processes of critical reflection explicit, and that it can make a valid contribution to expert nursing practice, without recourse to irreducible concepts such as intuition.

  19. Teaching Critical Reflection in Social Work Field Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Jacqui; Gardner, Fiona; Long, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the process and outcomes of teaching critical reflection to social work students in an Australian university, based on our experience with teaching critical reflection. The application by students of a particular model of critical reflection to their learning experiences during field education placements is described and…

  20. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Ingredients for Critical Teacher Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Tyrone C.

    2003-01-01

    Offers critical reflection as a prelude to creating culturally relevant teaching strategies, outlining theoretical and practical considerations for critical reflection and culturally relevant teaching for teacher education and asserting that the development of culturally relevant teaching strategies is contingent upon critical reflection about…

  1. Teaching Critical Reflection. Myths and Realities No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David

    Critical reflection blends learning through experience with theoretical and technical learning to form new knowledge constructions and new behaviors or insights. Through the process of critical reflection, adults come to interpret and create new knowledge and actions from their experiences. It is generally agreed that critical reflection consists…

  2. Critical Reflectivity and the Development of New Culturally Relevant Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, Tonia R.; Truscott, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Three case studies present how preservice teachers use reflections while learning to teach. Interviews and document analysis reveal that critical reflections evidence greater understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy and offer a platform for critical consciousness. Using critical reflectivity to develop teachers' understandings of culturally…

  3. Critical Reflectivity and the Development of New Culturally Relevant Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, Tonia R.; Truscott, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Three case studies present how preservice teachers use reflections while learning to teach. Interviews and document analysis reveal that critical reflections evidence greater understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy and offer a platform for critical consciousness. Using critical reflectivity to develop teachers' understandings of culturally…

  4. Requirements for reflection in the critical care environment.

    PubMed

    Filmalter, Celia J; Heyns, Tanya

    2015-03-09

    Reflection is recognised as an important method for practice development. The importance of reflection is well documented in the literature, but the requirements for reflection remain unclear. To explore and describe the requirements for reflection in the critical care environment as viewed by educators of qualified critical care nurses. A focus group interview was conducted to explore and describe the views of educators of qualified critical care nurses regarding requirements for reflection in the critical care environment. The themes that emerged from the focus group were buy-in from stakeholders -management, facilitators and critical care nurses, and the need to create an environment where reflection can occur. Critical care nurses should be allowed time to reflect on their practice and be supported by peers as well as a facilitator in a non-intimidating way to promote emancipatory practice development.

  5. INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Congress passed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. Pollution prevention is clearly a concept that will be of increasing importance to U.S. companies and to the public agencies that are responsible for regulating those companies. In this critical review the aut...

  6. Remyelination strategies in multiple sclerosis: a critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Remyelination is the natural repair mechanism of demyelination and can be a highly efficient process in multiple sclerosis. However, in the majority of lesions, this regenerative approach is incomplete or fails. It is believed that remyelination protects against progressive axonal damage and thus long-term disability in patients with multiple sclerosis. For this reason, therapeutic promotion of remyelination represents an attractive option for preventing disease progression. In this editorial we casts a critical eye over the most frequently used experimental settings which aim to uncover potential remyelination promoting drugs. This article reflects upon the personal opinion of the author who currently used animal models allow to assess the potency of pharmacological interventions to accelerate, but not to induce myelin repair. Furthermore, it is discussed how remyelination and neuroprotection might well be two separate entities. Thus, induction of remyelination does not necessarily prevent disease progression in multiple sclerosis patients.

  7. Critical Action Learning--Rituals and Reflective Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneberry, Pamela; Turner, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    This paper is written to outline our ideas on rituals and reflective places and how this thinking has emerged through our writing, facilitation and reflections around critical action learning and critical leadership. We attempt to show the conceptual framework that underpins our vision of Critical Leadership and how out of this work we have begun…

  8. Critical Action Learning--Rituals and Reflective Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneberry, Pamela; Turner, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    This paper is written to outline our ideas on rituals and reflective places and how this thinking has emerged through our writing, facilitation and reflections around critical action learning and critical leadership. We attempt to show the conceptual framework that underpins our vision of Critical Leadership and how out of this work we have begun…

  9. Enriching Preservice Teachers' Critical Reflection through an International Videoconference Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, J. Spencer; Brown, James Scott; Jandildinov, Medet

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of reflection and reflective practice have become the core of many teacher education programmes, with critical reflection as the goal for many teacher educators. This study examined the use of a videoconference discussion in an instructional methodology course as a means to enrich the process of reflection and encourage critical…

  10. Enriching Preservice Teachers' Critical Reflection through an International Videoconference Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, J. Spencer; Brown, James Scott; Jandildinov, Medet

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of reflection and reflective practice have become the core of many teacher education programmes, with critical reflection as the goal for many teacher educators. This study examined the use of a videoconference discussion in an instructional methodology course as a means to enrich the process of reflection and encourage critical…

  11. Critical Thinking: Helping Students Learn Reflectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, S. Samuel

    Based upon the idea that the only hope for substantial curricular reform and for adoption of reflective inquiry in American schools is for teachers to redefine the basic pedagogical concepts that they have inherited, this book discusses how to teach students to reflect upon what they learn in school. The three major sections of the book discuss:…

  12. Critical Reflections: Making Sense of Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Suzette

    2006-01-01

    In this article the five career narratives of three siblings and two unemployed men are drawn upon to critically examine the use of contemporary career discourse as a means to negotiate changes to work since the 1980s and to the present time. A critical analysis enables contemporary career discourse and workplace change to be located within the…

  13. Reflection: A Key Component to Thinking Critically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Binta M.; Bilics, Andrea R.; Lerch, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to think critically is an important trait of all members of society. With today's multinational, multicultural, complex issues, citizens must be able to sift through large amounts of various data to make intelligent decisions. Thinking critically must be a focus of higher education in order to provide the intellectual training for its…

  14. Critically Reflective Dialogues in Learning Communities of Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; Endedijk, Maaike D.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Simons, P. Robert-Jan; van Beukelen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Communities in which professionals share and create knowledge potentially support their continued learning. To realise this potential more fully, members are required to reflect critically. For learning at work such behaviour has been described as critically reflective work behaviour, consisting of six aspects: challenging groupthink, critical…

  15. Critically Reflective Dialogues in Learning Communities of Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; Endedijk, Maaike D.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Simons, P. Robert-Jan; van Beukelen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Communities in which professionals share and create knowledge potentially support their continued learning. To realise this potential more fully, members are required to reflect critically. For learning at work such behaviour has been described as critically reflective work behaviour, consisting of six aspects: challenging groupthink, critical…

  16. Connecting University Supervision and Critical Reflection: Mentoring and Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Alisa J.; Ramirez, Laurie; Drits, Dina

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the experiences of supervisors in a university teacher preparation program regarding their critical reflection on their practice. This has an impact on the learning opportunities available for their student teachers. Findings include: (a) an understanding of critical reflection is something that builds over time for student…

  17. Exploring Dimensions of Critical Reflection in Activist-Facilitator Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how 14 diverse, Canadian activist-facilitators working in international development experience and understand "critical reflection" as a component of participatory methodologies in facilitation practices. The findings, based on my doctoral study, demonstrate that although critical reflection is often discussed as…

  18. Developing Critical Reflection in Professional Focused Doctorates: A Facilitator's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambrook, Sally; Stewart, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the challenges and opportunities for expediting critical reflection in management education and development to highlight particularly how critical reflection has been facilitated within the context of a professionally focused doctoral programme. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on empirical research…

  19. Exploring Dimensions of Critical Reflection in Activist-Facilitator Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how 14 diverse, Canadian activist-facilitators working in international development experience and understand "critical reflection" as a component of participatory methodologies in facilitation practices. The findings, based on my doctoral study, demonstrate that although critical reflection is often discussed as…

  20. Algorithms of wave reflective critical angle on interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, YongGang; Zhang, JianXue; Jiao, Lin; Li, Qinghong

    2017-02-01

    This article is in connection with calculating of reflection critical angle on interface, author has found that reflective wave have a quarter wavelength effects and deduced both absolute and relative reflection critical Angle calculation formulas. The two formulas can easy solve the question of reflection critical angle on interface of one side of the air where it is not calculated by Snell's law. Snell's law only reveals that rate of the wave velocity projected to the interface, the methods of this paper reveal the normal component of wave velocity on the interface relationship. The methods will be widely used in various fields such as light, electromagnetic waves, sound waves and water waves etc.

  1. Honesty in Critically Reflective Essays: An Analysis of Student Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Stephen; Tai, Joanna Hong-Meng; Lo, Kristin; Molloy, Elizabeth; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    In health professional education, reflective practice is seen as a potential means for self-improvement from everyday clinical encounters. This study aims to examine the level of student honesty in critical reflection, and barriers and facilitators for students engaging in honest reflection. Third year physiotherapy students, completing summative…

  2. Honesty in Critically Reflective Essays: An Analysis of Student Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Stephen; Tai, Joanna Hong-Meng; Lo, Kristin; Molloy, Elizabeth; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    In health professional education, reflective practice is seen as a potential means for self-improvement from everyday clinical encounters. This study aims to examine the level of student honesty in critical reflection, and barriers and facilitators for students engaging in honest reflection. Third year physiotherapy students, completing summative…

  3. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  4. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  5. Workplace Bullying Prevention: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSON, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To analyze the discourses of workplace bullying prevention of hospital nursing unit managers and in the official documents of the organizations where they worked. Background Workplace bullying can be a self-perpetuating problem in nursing units. As such, efforts to prevent this behavior may be more effective than efforts to stop the behavior. There is limited research on how healthcare organizations characterize their efforts to prevent workplace bullying. Design This was a qualitative study. Method Critical discourse analysis and Foucault’s writings on governmentality and discipline were used to analyze data from interviews with hospital nursing unit managers (n=15) and organizational documents (n=22). Data were collected in 2012. Findings The discourse of workplace bullying prevention centered around three themes: prevention of workplace bullying through managerial presence, normalizing behaviors and controlling behaviors. All three are individual level discourses of workplace bullying prevention. Conclusion Current research indicates that workplace bullying is a complex issue with antecedents at the individual, departmental and organizational level. However, the discourse of the participants in this study only focused on prevention of bullying by moulding the behaviors of individuals. The effective prevention of workplace bullying will require departmental and organizational initiatives. Leaders in all types of organizations can use the results of this study to examine their organizations’ discourses of workplace bullying prevention to determine where change is needed. PMID:26010268

  6. Workplace bullying prevention: a critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the discourses of workplace bullying prevention of hospital nursing unit managers and in the official documents of the organizations where they worked. Workplace bullying can be a self-perpetuating problem in nursing units. As such, efforts to prevent this behaviour may be more effective than efforts to stop ongoing bullying. There is limited research on how healthcare organizations characterize their efforts to prevent workplace bullying. This was a qualitative study. Critical discourse analysis and Foucault's writings on governmentality and discipline were used to analyse data from interviews with hospital nursing unit managers (n = 15) and organizational documents (n = 22). Data were collected in 2012. The discourse of workplace bullying prevention centred around three themes: prevention of workplace bullying through managerial presence, normalizing behaviours and controlling behaviours. All three are individual level discourses of workplace bullying prevention. Current research indicates that workplace bullying is a complex issue with antecedents at the individual, departmental and organizational level. However, the discourse of the participants in this study only focused on prevention of bullying by moulding the behaviours of individuals. The effective prevention of workplace bullying will require departmental and organizational initiatives. Leaders in all types of organizations can use the results of this study to examine their organizations' discourses of workplace bullying prevention to determine where change is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fostering Critical and Reflective Thinking in an Authentic Learning Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Elizabeth; Orange, Amy; Kirkwood, Donna

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a research study in which 10 early childhood education students participated in facilitated critical reflection experiences during a 7-week practicum. Students' critical thinking skills were quantitatively assessed using the Cornell Critical Thinking Test and qualitatively documented through analysis of daily, weekly, and…

  8. Honesty in critically reflective essays: an analysis of student practice.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Stephen; Tai, Joanna Hong-Meng; Lo, Kristin; Molloy, Elizabeth; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-10-01

    In health professional education, reflective practice is seen as a potential means for self-improvement from everyday clinical encounters. This study aims to examine the level of student honesty in critical reflection, and barriers and facilitators for students engaging in honest reflection. Third year physiotherapy students, completing summative reflective essays on clinical encounters using the modified Gibbs cycle, were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Student knowledge and beliefs about reflective practice, and disclosure of the truthfulness of their reflections, were assessed using a mixed method approach. A total of 34 students, from a maximum possible of 48 (71 %), participated in the study activities. A total of 68 % stated that they were at least 80 % truthful about their experiences. There was general student consensus that reflective practice was important for their growth as a clinician. Students questioned the belief that the reflection needed to be based on a factual experience. Reflective practice can be a valuable addition to the clinical education of health care professionals, although this value can be diminished through dishonest reflections if it is not carefully implemented. Student influences on honest reflection include; (1) the design of any assessment criteria, and (2) student knowledge and competency in applying critical reflection.

  9. Teaching for Liberation: Critical Reflections in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author shares a critical reflection of his work as a teacher educator over the last five years teaching in both public and private universities in the U.S. Midwest. The author reflects on his work in a class called "Diversity in Education" over the course of two semesters as a way to trace the genealogy of a course…

  10. Approaching Reflexivity through Reflection: Issues for Critical Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual article seeks to develop insights for teaching reflexivity in undergraduate management classes through developing processes of critical reflection. Theoretical inferences to support this aim are developed and organized in relation to four principles. They are as follows: first, preparing and making space for reflection in the…

  11. A Physical Educators Use of Freirian Praxis for Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada-Phillips, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Reflection is a vital component of quality teaching. It is supported and practiced in teacher preparation programs and furthered by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, whereas critical reflection with particular emphasis on the internal schema of the practitioner has not been focused on much and training within teacher…

  12. Teaching for Liberation: Critical Reflections in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author shares a critical reflection of his work as a teacher educator over the last five years teaching in both public and private universities in the U.S. Midwest. The author reflects on his work in a class called "Diversity in Education" over the course of two semesters as a way to trace the genealogy of a course…

  13. Development of Critically Reflective Dialogues in Communities of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; Endedijk, Maaike; Jaarsma, Debbie; van Beukelen, Peter; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Critically reflective dialogues (CRD) are important for knowledge sharing and creating meaning in communities. CRD includes different aspects: being open about mistakes, critical opinion sharing, asking for and giving feedback, experimentation, challenging groupthink and research utilisation. In this article we explore whether CRD aspects change…

  14. Transforming Violent Selves through Reflection in Critical Communicative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecha, Ainhoa; Pulido, Cristina; Christou, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Currently, teenagers are being socialized into a world of violent realities, not only through social interaction but also through interaction via the media, especially via the Internet. Research conducted using the critical communicative methodology has shown that this methodology helps young people to reflect critically about their violent…

  15. Development of Critically Reflective Dialogues in Communities of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; Endedijk, Maaike; Jaarsma, Debbie; van Beukelen, Peter; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Critically reflective dialogues (CRD) are important for knowledge sharing and creating meaning in communities. CRD includes different aspects: being open about mistakes, critical opinion sharing, asking for and giving feedback, experimentation, challenging groupthink and research utilisation. In this article we explore whether CRD aspects change…

  16. Transforming Violent Selves through Reflection in Critical Communicative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecha, Ainhoa; Pulido, Cristina; Christou, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Currently, teenagers are being socialized into a world of violent realities, not only through social interaction but also through interaction via the media, especially via the Internet. Research conducted using the critical communicative methodology has shown that this methodology helps young people to reflect critically about their violent…

  17. Critical Incident Analysis through Narrative Reflective Practice: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers can reflect on their practices by articulating and exploring incidents they consider critical to themselves or others. By talking about these critical incidents, teachers can make better sense of seemingly random experiences that occur in their teaching because they hold the real inside knowledge, especially personal intuitive knowledge,…

  18. About the Reflective Thought Also Known as the Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    León, Federico R.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the concept of reflective thought or critical thinking from its initial formulation as an intellectual attitude to its current articulation as a third level of cognitive processing. Issues dealt with include critical thinking as a goal, as a cognitive process, as a part of dual cognitive processes, as a measurable…

  19. Critical Reflection on Cultural Difference in the Computer Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegahn, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Adult educators have a strong interest in designing courses that stimulate learning toward critical, more inclusive cultural perspectives. Critical reflection is a key component of both intercultural learning and a growing medium of instruction, the asynchronous computer conference (CC). This study combined qualitative methodology with a framework…

  20. Raising the Bar on Criticality: Students' Critical Reflection in an Internship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Lyn; Fisher, Kath

    2006-01-01

    Critical reflection promotes the questioning of assumptions, the rendering visible of the otherwise invisible. This article describes and analyzes the teaching and learning of critical reflection in the context of an internship program at the University of Sydney within the framework of completing a reflexive report for assessment. The authors…

  1. The Importance of Critical Reflection in College Teaching: Two Reviews of Stephen Brookfield's Book, Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Rosalyn M.; Hibbison, Eric P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Stephen Brookfield's book, Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. Presents three categories of assumptions he believes teachers must make about their teaching: paradigmatic, prescriptive, and causal. States that Brookfield encourages engaging in critical conversation with peers in order to improve teaching methods. Provides strategies…

  2. The Importance of Critical Reflection in College Teaching: Two Reviews of Stephen Brookfield's Book, Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Rosalyn M.; Hibbison, Eric P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Stephen Brookfield's book, Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. Presents three categories of assumptions he believes teachers must make about their teaching: paradigmatic, prescriptive, and causal. States that Brookfield encourages engaging in critical conversation with peers in order to improve teaching methods. Provides strategies…

  3. Peer group reflection helps clinical teachers to critically reflect on their teaching.

    PubMed

    Boerboom, Tobias B B; Jaarsma, Debbie; Dolmans, Diana H J M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Mastenbroek, Nicole J J M; Van Beukelen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Student evaluations can help clinical teachers to reflect on their teaching skills and find ways to improve their teaching. Studies have shown that the mere presentation of student evaluations is not a sufficient incentive for teachers to critically reflect on their teaching. We evaluated and compared the effectiveness of two feedback facilitation strategies that were identical except for a peer reflection meeting. In this study, 54 clinical teachers were randomly assigned to two feedback strategies. In one strategy, a peer reflection was added as an additional step. All teachers completed a questionnaire evaluating the strategy that they had experienced. We analysed the reflection reports and the evaluation questionnaire. Both strategies stimulated teachers to reflect on feedback and formulate alternative actions for their teaching practice. The teachers who had participated in the peer reflection meeting showed deeper critical reflection and more concrete plans to change their teaching. All feedback strategies were considered effective by the majority of the teachers. Strategies with student feedback and self-assessment stimulated reflection on teaching and helped clinical teachers to formulate plans for improvement. A peer reflection meeting seemed to enhance reflection quality. Further research should establish whether it can have lasting effects on teaching quality.

  4. Factors confounding the assessment of reflection: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reflection on experience is an increasingly critical part of professional development and lifelong learning. There is, however, continuing uncertainty about how best to put principle into practice, particularly as regards assessment. This article explores those uncertainties in order to find practical ways of assessing reflection. Discussion We critically review four problems: 1. Inconsistent definitions of reflection; 2. Lack of standards to determine (in)adequate reflection; 3. Factors that complicate assessment; 4. Internal and external contextual factors affecting the assessment of reflection. Summary To address the problem of inconsistency, we identified processes that were common to a number of widely quoted theories and synthesised a model, which yielded six indicators that could be used in assessment instruments. We arrived at the conclusion that, until further progress has been made in defining standards, assessment must depend on developing and communicating local consensus between stakeholders (students, practitioners, teachers, supervisors, curriculum developers) about what is expected in exercises and formal tests. Major factors that complicate assessment are the subjective nature of reflection's content and the dependency on descriptions by persons being assessed about their reflection process, without any objective means of verification. To counter these validity threats, we suggest that assessment should focus on generic process skills rather than the subjective content of reflection and where possible to consider objective information about the triggering situation to verify described reflections. Finally, internal and external contextual factors such as motivation, instruction, character of assessment (formative or summative) and the ability of individual learning environments to stimulate reflection should be considered. PMID:22204704

  5. Teaching Research Methods Courses in Human Geography: Critical Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Valorie A.; Castleden, Heather; Tromp-van Meerveld, Ilja

    2010-01-01

    The authors reflect critically on their experiences of teaching research methods/methodology/techniques (MMT) courses in human geography for the first time. Through a highly reflexive process involving journaling, they engage with the broader scholarship of teaching and learning approach. Three themes characterize commonalities in their…

  6. Critically Reflective Work Behaviour within Autonomous Professionals' Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; van den Berg, B. A. M.; Endedijk, M. D.; van Beukelen, P.; Simons, P. R. J.

    2011-01-01

    Informal learning communities in which participants show critically reflective work behaviour (CRWB) have the potential to support lifelong learning. In practice this behaviour does not always occur in groups of autonomous professionals. This study explores design principles (DPs) that could act as social affordances for CRWB, within the context…

  7. Critically Reflective Work Behavior of Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; Jaarsma, Debbie; Endedijk, Maaike; Mainhard, Tim; Lam, Ineke; Simons, Robert-Jan; van Beukelen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Better understanding of critically reflective work behavior (CRWB), an approach for work-related informal learning, is important in order to gain more profound insight in the continuing development of health care professionals. Methods: A survey, developed to measure CRWB and its predictors, was distributed to veterinary…

  8. Qualitative Outcomes of a Homestay Immersion with Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Barden, Sejal; Mobley, A. Keith

    2015-01-01

    The authors explore the impact of a 3-week homestay cultural immersion on 10 counselor trainees by analyzing their 210 structured journals using consensual qualitative research. Findings suggest that establishing meaningful relationships and engaging in critical reflection are central to increasing multicultural awareness. Implications for…

  9. The Ideological Myth of Education: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, P.

    2008-01-01

    When reflecting critically on issues of education in society it is necessary to consider the following question: in what scientific paradigm should educational theory and practice be located in order to address issues of education in society in an educationally responsible manner? In this essay, I argue that for education theory and practice to…

  10. Dialogue and Self: Co-Constructing Critical Reflective Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Stacey L.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on a hybrid form of David Bohm's (1996) conception of dialogue and how it is practiced as a complex communicative process. The research question considered if shared meaning is occurring, as expected with this critically reflective approach to communication. The qualitative research design emphasizes the use of Critical…

  11. Critically Reflective Work Behavior of Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; Jaarsma, Debbie; Endedijk, Maaike; Mainhard, Tim; Lam, Ineke; Simons, Robert-Jan; van Beukelen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Better understanding of critically reflective work behavior (CRWB), an approach for work-related informal learning, is important in order to gain more profound insight in the continuing development of health care professionals. Methods: A survey, developed to measure CRWB and its predictors, was distributed to veterinary…

  12. Critical Reflections: How Groups Can Learn from Success and Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Chris; Martin, Andre

    2006-01-01

    When people work together over time, certain key events stand out as having the potential to teach lasting lessons for the future. Leaders can use the Critical Reflections process to help their groups learn these lessons, whether the key event was a great success or a wretched failure. The goal is to affect future outcomes in similar situations:…

  13. Critical Reflections: Interpretation and Analysis of Japanese Women's Settlement Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss how I came to call into question the way in which I interpreted interview data in my dissertation, which investigated the migration and settlement experience of Japanese women who are married to Australian men and reside in Australia. Through critical reflections, I realized the way in which the positionality of…

  14. Critically Reflective Work Behaviour within Autonomous Professionals' Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; van den Berg, B. A. M.; Endedijk, M. D.; van Beukelen, P.; Simons, P. R. J.

    2011-01-01

    Informal learning communities in which participants show critically reflective work behaviour (CRWB) have the potential to support lifelong learning. In practice this behaviour does not always occur in groups of autonomous professionals. This study explores design principles (DPs) that could act as social affordances for CRWB, within the context…

  15. The Quest for World Class Universities in China: Critical Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngok, Kinglun; Guo, Weiqing

    2008-01-01

    Building world-class universities has become a national policy priority in China since then-President Jiang Zemin announced in May 1998 that China must have several world-class universities of international advanced level. This article aims to offer critical reflections on the policy in relation to building world-class universities in China. It…

  16. Qualitative Outcomes of a Homestay Immersion with Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Barden, Sejal; Mobley, A. Keith

    2015-01-01

    The authors explore the impact of a 3-week homestay cultural immersion on 10 counselor trainees by analyzing their 210 structured journals using consensual qualitative research. Findings suggest that establishing meaningful relationships and engaging in critical reflection are central to increasing multicultural awareness. Implications for…

  17. The Impact of Critically Reflective Teaching: A Continuum of Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbank, Mary D.; Ramirez, Laurie A.; Bates, Alisa J.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored teaching approaches designed to develop critically reflective thinking (CRT) for preservice teachers in an urban, secondary teacher preparation program. Despite concerted use of CRT within course lessons, online discussions, and case studies, participants demonstrated varying degrees in their understanding of…

  18. Becoming Symbol-Wise: Kenneth Burke's Pedagogy of Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoch, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    In this essay, I analyze Kenneth Burke's Cold War pedagogy and explore the ways it connects to (and complicates) Paulo Freire's conception of praxis. I argue that Burke's theory and practice adds a rhetorical nuance to critical reflection and then envision how his 1955 educational concerns gain significance for teachers and scholars today who,…

  19. Teaching Research Methods Courses in Human Geography: Critical Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Valorie A.; Castleden, Heather; Tromp-van Meerveld, Ilja

    2010-01-01

    The authors reflect critically on their experiences of teaching research methods/methodology/techniques (MMT) courses in human geography for the first time. Through a highly reflexive process involving journaling, they engage with the broader scholarship of teaching and learning approach. Three themes characterize commonalities in their…

  20. The Impact of Critically Reflective Teaching: A Continuum of Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbank, Mary D.; Ramirez, Laurie A.; Bates, Alisa J.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored teaching approaches designed to develop critically reflective thinking (CRT) for preservice teachers in an urban, secondary teacher preparation program. Despite concerted use of CRT within course lessons, online discussions, and case studies, participants demonstrated varying degrees in their understanding of…

  1. Synergies in Critical Reflective Practice and Science: Science as Reflection and Reflection as Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieson, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The conceptions of reflective practice in education have their roots at least partly in the work of Dewey, who describes reflection as "the active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it tends" (Dewey 1933, p.9).…

  2. How reflective practice improves nurses' critical thinking ability.

    PubMed

    Cirocco, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Purposeful reflection is consistent with adult learning theory. It is known to lead to a deeper understanding of issues and to develop judgment and skill. Required by law to ensure members' competence in their professional practice, the College of Nurses of Ontario recommends and has developed a tool for evaluating reflective practice. The tool focuses on key attributes said to be demonstrated by competent practitioners, including critical thinking (CT) and job knowledge. This study aimed to determine whether nurses engage in reflective practice and whether they perceive that it enhances their CT ability. Surveys were sent to 60 gastroenterology nurses at a large teaching hospital; 34 surveys were anonymously returned. All respondents engaged in reflective practice, and 24 reported using the college's tool. Nineteen respondents strongly agreed that their nursing practice had improved as a result. Critical thinking is difficult to assess because of a lack of clear-cut performance criteria. Improvement of CT was difficult to evaluate from the responses, even though all respondents participated in reflective practice. Both CT and reflective practice need to be better defined in order to examine and explain their relationship.

  3. Critical thinking evaluation in reflective writing: Development and testing of Carter Assessment of Critical Thinking in Midwifery (Reflection).

    PubMed

    Carter, Amanda G; Creedy, Debra K; Sidebotham, Mary

    2017-11-01

    develop and test a tool designed for use by academics to evaluate pre-registration midwifery students' critical thinking skills in reflective writing. a descriptive cohort design was used. a random sample (n = 100) of archived student reflective writings based on a clinical event or experience during 2014 and 2015. a staged model for tool development was used to develop a fifteen item scale involving item generation; mapping of draft items to critical thinking concepts and expert review to test content validity; inter-rater reliability testing; pilot testing of the tool on 100 reflective writings; and psychometric testing. Item scores were analysed for mean, range and standard deviation. Internal reliability, content and construct validity were assessed. expert review of the tool revealed a high content validity index score of 0.98. Using two independent raters to establish inter-rater reliability, good absolute agreement of 72% was achieved with a Kappa coefficient K = 0.43 (p<0.0001). Construct validity via exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors: analyses context, reasoned inquiry, and self-evaluation. The mean total score for the tool was 50.48 (SD = 12.86). Total and subscale scores correlated significantly. The scale achieved good internal reliability with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .93. this study establishedthe reliability and validity of the CACTiM (reflection) for use by academics to evaluate midwifery students' critical thinking in reflective writing. Validation with large diverse samples is warranted. reflective practice is a key learning and teaching strategy in undergraduate Bachelor of Midwifery programmes and essential for safe, competent practice. There is the potential to enhance critical thinking development by assessingreflective writing with the CACTiM (reflection) tool to provide formative and summative feedback to students and inform teaching strategies. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reconsidering nutrition science: critical reflection with a cultural lens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background European culture gave birth to modern science as a means to investigate and explain the natural world. The biomedical disciplines that have since emerged, including nutrition, presuppose a web of basic presuppositions, background assumptions and implicit cultural values that are often overlooked and escape peer review. These "hidden subjectivities" are widely taken-for-granted while exerting a powerful hold on the scope, direction and patterns of disciplinary thought. Nutrition science currently has no accepted means of collectively attending to hidden subjectivities embedded within its methods and practice. Here I propose that directing inquiry into these dimensions holds potential to advance our discipline. Methods This critically reflective approach emerged from critical theory and the practice of cross-cultural engagement (CCE). CCE deliberately seeks out and critically engages food and health understandings of non-European cultures. Its protocol includes cognitive frameshifting, a practice of temporarily stepping outside of habitual thought patterns and into a non-biomedical framework of background assumptions. A cultural lens metaphor derives from CCE practice and is forwarded here as a viable means for restoring critically reflective attention to hidden subjectivities while also inviting further CCE practice within the discipline. Results Critical reflection with a cultural lens allows cognitive attachments to materialism, reductionism, mechanistic thought, naïve realism, control over nature and pervasive subject-object dichotomies between mind and matter, scientist and nature, experience and reality, among many others to become more available for critical consideration. Culturally diverse food and health understandings otherwise dismissed as "unscientific" or held in abeyance gain value as alternative assumptive frameworks and cognitive models that can be temporarily inhabited for further intercultural reflection and insight. Conclusion Critical

  5. Developing Deep Group Reflection within a Critical Reflection Action Learning Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This account of practice describes how a manufacturing company in the North of England transformed their approach to problem-solving and action through the use of a Critical Reflection Action Learning (CRAL) methodology. The company, who had been in business for over 25 years, experienced problems due to a diminishing customer base and substantial…

  6. Developing Deep Group Reflection within a Critical Reflection Action Learning Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This account of practice describes how a manufacturing company in the North of England transformed their approach to problem-solving and action through the use of a Critical Reflection Action Learning (CRAL) methodology. The company, who had been in business for over 25 years, experienced problems due to a diminishing customer base and substantial…

  7. [Interventional Patient Hygiene Model. A critical reflection on basic nursing care in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Bambi, Stefano; Lucchini, Alberto; Solaro, Massimo; Lumini, Enrico; Rasero, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Interventional Patient Hygiene Model. A critical reflection on basic nursing care in intensive care units. Over the past 15 years, the model of medical and nursing care changed from being exclusively oriented to the diagnosis and treatment of acute illness, to the achievement of outcomes by preventing iatrogenic complications (Hospital Acquired Conditions). Nursing Sensitive Outcomes show as nursing is directly involved in the development and prevention of these complications. Many of these complications, including falls from the bed, use of restraints, urinary catheter associated urinary infections and intravascular catheter related sepsis, are related to basic nursing care. Ten years ago in critical care, a school of thought called get back to the basics, was started for the prevention of errors and risks associated with nursing. Most of these nursing practices involve hygiene and mobilization. On the basis of these reflections, Kathleen Vollman developed a model of nursing care in critical care area, defined Interventional Patient Hygiene (IPH). The IPH model provides a proactive plan of nursing interventions to strengthen the patients' through the Evidence-Based Nursing Care. The components of the model include interventions of oral hygiene, mobilization, dressing changes, urinary catheter care, management of incontinence and bed bath, hand hygiene and skin antisepsis. The implementation of IPH model follows the steps of Deming cycle, and requires a deep reflection on the priorities of nursing care in ICU, as well as the effective teaching of the importance of the basic nursing to new generations of nurses.

  8. Benchmarking of Graphite Reflected Critical Assemblies of UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2011-11-01

    A series of experiments were carried out in 1963 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for use in space reactor research programs. A core containing 93.2% enriched UO2 fuel rods was used in these experiments. The first part of the experimental series consisted of 253 tightly-packed fuel rods (1.27 cm triangular pitch) with graphite reflectors [1], the second part used 253 graphite-reflected fuel rods organized in a 1.506 cm triangular pitch [2], and the final part of the experimental series consisted of 253 beryllium-reflected fuel rods with a 1.506 cm triangular pitch. [3] Fission rate distribution and cadmium ratio measurements were taken for all three parts of the experimental series. Reactivity coefficient measurements were taken for various materials placed in the beryllium reflected core. The first part of this experimental series has been evaluated for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [4] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbooks, [5] and is discussed below. These experiments are of interest as benchmarks because they support the validation of compact reactor designs with similar characteristics to the design parameters for a space nuclear fission surface power systems. [6

  9. Violence education in nursing: critical reflection on victims' stories.

    PubMed

    Amar, Angela Frederick

    2008-01-01

    Violence against women is a major public health concern. This paper describes an educational strategy to increase nursing students' understanding of the experience of violence and to foster recognition and intervention with victims of violence. Students in an elective course were asked to critically reflect on the personal stories of victims/survivors of violence. The assignment provided four learning opportunities that include examination of societal myths on sexual victimization, understanding the lived experience of the victim, exploration of personal beliefs and values, and the relationship of the individual's experience to theoretical content of the course. Students gave permission for the use of quotes from papers to illustrate the learning opportunities.

  10. Reflection and critical thinking of humanistic care in medical education.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Shu-Jen; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to stress the importance and learning issues of humanistic care in medical education. This article will elaborate on the following issues: (1) introduction; (2) reflection and critical thinking; (3) humanistic care; (4) core values and teaching strategies in medical education; and (5) learning of life cultivation. Focusing on a specific approach used in humanistic care, it does so for the purpose of allowing the health professional to understand and apply the concepts of humanistic value in their services.

  11. Development of critically reflective dialogues in communities of health professionals.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Esther; Endedijk, Maaike; Jaarsma, Debbie; van Beukelen, Peter; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2013-10-01

    Critically reflective dialogues (CRD) are important for knowledge sharing and creating meaning in communities. CRD includes different aspects: being open about mistakes, critical opinion sharing, asking for and giving feedback, experimentation, challenging groupthink and research utilisation. In this article we explore whether CRD aspects change over time, through a study of two dialogues each from six different communities of veterinary health professionals. Change was studied from the perspective of observations, through analysing transcripts of dialogues, and from the perspective of community members' perceptions, through an evaluative discussion with members. The results showed that some communities became more open about mistakes, a finding that is related to an increase in trust. Other observed aspects of CRD seemed to be fairly stable over time. Community members perceived research utilisation and asking for and giving feedback to have been increased. From an analysis of perceptions of the community members it emerged that limited interaction could be associated with the epistemological conceptions of community members.

  12. A transactional perspective on occupation: a critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Lee Bunting, Katie

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of a transactional perspective on occupation, informed primarily by John Dewey's work, has gained increasing popularity in occupational science and occupational therapy. The aim of this paper is to offer a critical reflection on a transactional perspective on occupation and to advance the dialogue on a transactional perspective on occupation. A framework for critical reflection of theory was applied to a transactional perspective on occupation, exploring five domains of theory usefulness: clarity, simplicity, generality, accessibility, and importance. A transactional perspective on occupation presents with clear strengths including its ability to capture complex relationships, its generality, and its importance to occupational research. However, there is a need to address issues in clarity and accessibility by establishing consistent definitions of constructs, further developing the construct of occupation within the perspective, and applying methods well suited to understand its relational perspective. A transactional perspective on occupation has more recently emerged as a promising perspective through which to understand occupation. It holds promise in understanding cultural conceptualizations of occupation and the relationship between occupations and the natural environment. Future work should address possible dissonance between its pragmatic underpinnings and harmful occupations, and develop contextual elements beyond the social.

  13. Criticality Benchmark Analysis of Water-Reflected Uranium Oxyfluoride Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2009-11-01

    A series of twelve experiments were conducted in the mid 1950's at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine the critical conditions of a semi-infinite water-reflected slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). A different slab thickness was used for each experiment. Results from the twelve experiment recorded in the laboratory notebook were published in Reference 1. Seven of the twelve experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments for the inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. This evaluation will not only be available to handbook users for the validation of computer codes and integral cross-section data, but also for the reevaluation of experimental data used in the ANSI/ANS-8.1 standard. This evaluation is important as part of the technical basis of the subcritical slab limits in ANSI/ANS-8.1. The original publication of the experimental results was used for the determination of bias and bias uncertainties for subcritical slab limits, as documented by Hugh Clark's paper 'Subcritical Limits for Uranium-235 Systems'.

  14. A critical care network pressure ulcer prevention quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    McBride, Joanna; Richardson, Annette

    2015-03-30

    Pressure ulcer prevention is an important safety issue, often underrated and an extremely painful event harming patients. Critically ill patients are one of the highest risk groups in hospital. The impact of pressure ulcers are wide ranging, and they can result in increased critical care and the hospital length of stay, significant interference with functional recovery and rehabilitation and increase cost. This quality improvement project had four aims: (1) to establish a critical care network pressure ulcer prevention group; (2) to establish baseline pressure ulcer prevention practices; (3) to measure, compare and monitor pressure ulcers prevalence; (4) to develop network pressure ulcer prevention standards. The approach used to improve quality included strong critical care nursing leadership to develop a cross-organisational pressure ulcer prevention group and a benchmarking exercise of current practices across a well-established critical care Network in the North of England. The National Safety Thermometer tool was used to measure pressure ulcer prevalence in 23 critical care units, and best available evidence, local consensus and another Critical Care Networks' bundle of interventions were used to develop a local pressure ulcer prevention standards document. The aims of the quality improvement project were achieved. This project was driven by successful leadership and had an agreed common goal. The National Safety Thermometer tool was an innovative approach to measure and compare pressure ulcer prevalence rates at a regional level. A limitation was the exclusion of moisture lesions. The project showed excellent engagement and collaborate working in the quest to prevent pressure ulcers from many critical care nurses with the North of England Critical Care Network. A concise set of Network standards was developed for use in conjunction with local guidelines to enhance pressure ulcer prevention. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  15. A missing ethical competency? A review of critical reflection in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Tretheway, Rebecca; Taylor, Jane; O'Hara, Lily; Percival, Nikki

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing emphasis in the health promotion literature on the ethical imperative for the profession to move towards critical practice. A key challenge for health promotion is that critical practice appears both under-developed and under-practiced. This is evident in the omission of critical reflection from Australian and international competencies for health promotion practitioners. A narrative literature review was undertaken to explore the current use of critical reflection in health promotion. Critical reflection models relevant to health promotion were identified and critiqued. There was a dearth of literature on critical reflection within health promotion, despite recognition of its potential to support critical practice. The discipline of critical social work provided literature on the use, effect and outcome of critical reflection in practice. The interdisciplinary critical reflection model was identified as the model most applicable to health promotion. Underpinned by critical theory, this model emphasises both critical and ethical practice. Critical reflection is a core competency for health promotion practitioners to address the ethical imperative to move towards critical practice. There is a need to explore the application of a critical reflection model in health promotion to determine how it may support critical and ethical practice. So what? If health promotion is to meet its ethical responsibilities, then critical reflection needs to be articulated as a core health promotion competency and a model for its application in health promotion developed.

  16. Researching "race" in lesbian space: a critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Held, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Feminist researchers have acknowledged that racial differences between researcher and researched impact on the research process; however, there has been little concern with how "race" is actually made in/through the research process. If we think "race" as performative and as always in the process of being made then this theoretical claim has crucial implications for research encounters. In this article the author draws on her own research, which focuses on processes of racialization. This ethnographic study was conducted in two lesbian bars in the North West of England. The article illustrates different ways of how "race," in particular Whiteness, operated during the research process. The author critically reflects on her role in "race making" during this process and highlights the importance of acknowledging that researchers are also complicit in this making when doing research where "race" is not the central focus.

  17. Counterfactual Mutation of Critical Classroom Incidents: Implications for Reflective Practice in Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarr, Oliver; McCormack, Orla

    2016-01-01

    This study explores reflective practice through the lens of counterfactual thinking and examines its role in encouraging student teachers to reflect on negative "critical incidents". The study posits that reflections on critical incidents are often not "critical" in nature. They more frequently result in counterfactual thinking…

  18. Reflective particle technology for identification of critical components

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, K M

    1992-01-01

    Reflective Particle Tags were developed for uniquely identifying individual strategic weapons that would be counted in order to verify arms control treaties. These tags were designed to be secure from copying and transfer even after being lift under the control of a very determined adversary for a number of years. This paper discusses how this technology can be applied in other applications requiring confidence that a piece of equipment, such as a seal or a component of a secure, has not been replaced with a similar item. The hardware and software needed to implement this technology is discussed, and guidelines for the sign of systems that rely on these or similar randomly formed features for security applications are presented. Substitution of identical components is one of the easiest ways to defeat security seals, secure containers, verification instrumentation, and similar equipment. This technology, when properly applied, provides a method to counter this defeat scenario. This paper presents a method for uniquely identifying critical security related equipment. Guidelines for implementing identification systems based on reflective particles or similar random features without compromising their intrinsic security are discussed.

  19. Enhancing communication in oncology outpatient consultations: critical reflections from doctors

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Roger; Cox, Karen; Steward, William

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The experiences of patients diagnosed with advanced incurable cancer and the doctors who conducted their medical consultations were studied in order to improve the understanding of what happens in consultations, when bad news is disclosed. The major objective of the study was to critically reflect upon doctor-patient communication, in such situations, with a view to considering future strategies for doctors’ continuing professional development. Methods Sixteen patients and sixteen Oncologists, from a cancer centre in the UK were recruited into this ethnographic study. One hundred and fifteen episodes of data were collected from audio recorded consultations; interviews with doctors and patients and their relatives and observations of consultations. These data were analysed using a constant comparison method. Results Interactions between doctors and patients are complex and consultations can be challenging for both of them. Some doctors spoke openly about their need for additional support to enhance their communication related competencies within Oncology consultations. These doctors wanted to observe their peers conducting consultations. They also wanted to receive feedback about their own clinical practices. These doctors stated that they wanted an open culture whereby they could talk freely about difficult and emotionally challenging consultations without fear of being considered incompetent by their Consultants, who act in a clinical supervisory role. Conclusions To help practitioners consolidate their practice in such settings it is necessary to develop better collaborations among practitioners within clinical practice. Providing individual supervisory sessions or group workshops can facilitate reflective learning and provide an open and supportive learning culture.

  20. [Prevention in sexology--some critical issues].

    PubMed

    Kjellberg, Göran

    2010-03-24

    The high number of divorces could partly be attributed to a lack of sexual desire in the couples linked to the prevailing sexual hyperstimulation in society. Sexual harassment on the internet and the exposition of abuse incidents in the mass media contribute to the increased numbers of child sexual abuse. Enhanced awareness among adults about the potential dangers of television and the internet, as well as psychotherapeutic treatment of abusers and their victims would be of preventative importance. Psychotherapeutic treatment of adolescents in situations of developmental "break-down" could result in a more mature sexuality contributing to fewer cases of sexual abuse and to the stabilisation of future couples on the long-term.

  1. Exploring problems encountered among experienced nurses using critical reflective inquiry: implications for nursing professional development.

    PubMed

    Asselin, Marilyn E; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This study explored problems encountered by nurses using critical reflective inquiry to examine clinical situations and the impact of group discussion on the reflective process. Secondary qualitative analysis of 19 reflective situations, rom a reflection continuing education program, revealed that nurses had problematic pauses in reflection and were stuck in cyclical self-questioning. Peer group discussion prompted deeper reflection. Experienced nurses may need assistance to enhance the comprehensiveness, depth, and scope of reflection on practice situations.

  2. Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    This book is a practical guide for teachers at the postsecondary level to improve their teaching by utilizing the principles of adult learning and becoming critically reflective teachers. Chapter 1 lays out the concept of reflection in general terms and then focuses on explaining what is distinctive about critical reflection. Chapter 2 explains…

  3. Working with Uncertainty to Support the Teaching of Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Margaret; Tymon, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the cumulative reflections of lecturers examining their tacit assumptions of teaching practice. Despite extensive literature on the educational value of reflection, there is less visible research on teachers assessing their own reflective thinking. This longitudinal interpretive study uses Larrivee's assessment framework with a…

  4. Connecting Critical Reflection and Group Development in Online Adult Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Barnett, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative multi-case study explored the space where critical reflection and group development met within the online environment for the adult learner. Using critical reflection with adult learners through their responses to Stephen Brookfield's (1995) Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ) in the online environment precipitated instructional…

  5. Historical Consciousness and Critical Thinking: Reflections on an Indigenous Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    1999-01-01

    Approaches critical thinking as a socially constructed orientation embedded in collective histories, asking how social conditions and cultural representations may foster critical thinking. Examines the work of Vygotsky and Gramsci, suggesting that concepts forged in literate or academic traditions are the basis for critical thinkings. Also…

  6. Historical Consciousness and Critical Thinking: Reflections on an Indigenous Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    1999-01-01

    Approaches critical thinking as a socially constructed orientation embedded in collective histories, asking how social conditions and cultural representations may foster critical thinking. Examines the work of Vygotsky and Gramsci, suggesting that concepts forged in literate or academic traditions are the basis for critical thinkings. Also…

  7. Teaching Critical Thinking Using Reflective Journaling in a Nursing Fellowship Program.

    PubMed

    Zori, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is considered to be foundational for the development of RN clinical reasoning. Reflective journaling has been used as an educational strategy to support the development of CT. This project's purpose was to explore how using reflective journaling about CT dispositions with RNs in a fellowship program might influence RN's use of CT dispositions. This descriptive, qualitative study used content analysis as the method to analyze journal entries focused on seven CT dispositions: inquisitiveness, systematicity, open mindedness, analyticity, truth seeking, CT maturity, and CT confidence written by RNs in the first 7 weeks of their fellowship program. Based on the content analysis of journal entries, two major descriptive themes emerged: Development of Critical Thinking Is a Process That Develops During a Period of Time, and Purposefully Engaging Critical Thinking Dispositions May Help Prevent Negative Patient Outcomes. The purposeful use of CT dispositions as described in the journal entries also helped to guide the RN's individual learning. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(7):321-329.

  8. How Critical Reflection Benefits Faculty as They Implement Learner-Centered Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    Critical reflection assists faculty as they transition to using learner-centered approaches. When this reflection occurs within the context of social media, they can obtain reinforcing feedback and support.

  9. How Critical Reflection Benefits Faculty as They Implement Learner-Centered Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    Critical reflection assists faculty as they transition to using learner-centered approaches. When this reflection occurs within the context of social media, they can obtain reinforcing feedback and support.

  10. Through the Looking Glass: Some Criticisms of Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kompf, Michael; Bond, W. Richard

    This paper examines several questions about reflective thinking and its application in education as a way of extending the applications of the concept. An early section offers background on reflection from dictionary definitions and from philosophers such as John Locke and John Dewey. The next section examines educational practice and reflective…

  11. Critical Reflective Thinking as a Means of Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Paul Myrick; Rinehart, James S.

    A model for fostering educational administration students' reflective thinking skills is presented in this paper. Based on a cognitive psychological framework, the reflection model is applied to a doctoral program in educational administration. Methodology involved analysis of 10 doctoral students' journals, which were year-long records of…

  12. Developing Reflective Practice in Student Teachers: Collaboration and Critical Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Margaret; Stephenson, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers ways in which trainee teachers can be helped to develop their ability to engage in reflection on their practice. The context for the research is a Block School Experience developed by tutors in the School of Education and Lifelong Learning at the University of Sunderland. An exploration of the nature of reflective practice…

  13. Using Video Records to Mediate Teaching Interns' Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sarah E.; Kucan, Linda; Correnti, Richard; Miller, Leigh A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated how the use of video records in a literacy methods course supports the development of reflective practitioners when video is a core element of the course design. Specifically, we detail how interns' video-based reflections provide evidence that the use of video records of teaching interns' promotes the development of…

  14. Using Video Records to Mediate Teaching Interns' Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sarah E.; Kucan, Linda; Correnti, Richard; Miller, Leigh A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated how the use of video records in a literacy methods course supports the development of reflective practitioners when video is a core element of the course design. Specifically, we detail how interns' video-based reflections provide evidence that the use of video records of teaching interns' promotes the development of…

  15. Promoting Critical Reflection in Teacher Education through Popular Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Patrick A.; Townsend, Jane S.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the possible influences of media narratives upon self-concepts, teacher educators have used films and television programs about teachers to promote preservice teachers' reflections on their professional identities and instructional practices. Theoretical models of reflection, in conjunction with media analysis, have the potential to…

  16. Reclaiming a theoretical orientation to reflection in medical education research: a critical narrative review.

    PubMed

    Ng, Stella L; Kinsella, Elizabeth A; Friesen, Farah; Hodges, Brian

    2015-05-01

    Reflection and reflective practice have become popular topics of scholarly dialogue in medical education. This popularity has given rise to checklists, portfolios and other tools to inspire and document reflection. We argue that some of the common ways in which reflection has been applied are influenced by broader discourses of assessment and evidence, and divorced from original theories of reflection and reflective practice. This paper was developed using a critical narrative approach. First we present two theoretical lenses provided by theories of reflection. Next we present a summary of relevant literature, indexed in PubMed from 2004 to 2014, relating to the application of reflection or reflective practice to undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. We categorise these articles broadly by trends and problematise the trends relative to the two theoretical lenses of reflection. Two relevant theoretical orientations of reflection for medical education are: (i) reflection as epistemology of practice, and (ii) reflection as critical social inquiry. Three prevalent trends in the application of reflection to medical education are: (i) utilitarian applications of reflection; (ii) a focus on the self as the object of reflection, and (iii) reflection and assessment. These trends align with dominant epistemological positions in medicine, but not with those that underpin reflection. We argue for continued theorising of and theoretically informed applications of reflection, drawing upon epistemologies of practice and critical reflection as critical social inquiry. These directions offer medical education research broad and deep potential in theories of reflection, particularly in relation to knowledge creation within uncertain and complex situations, and challenging of dominant discourses and structures. Future work could explore how dominant epistemological positions and discourses in medicine influence theories from other disciplines when these theories are

  17. Measurements of Reflected and Transmitted Energies Near the Critical Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, D. E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes the theoretical principles and experimental arrangement in determining the transmission and reflection coefficients for polarizations which are parallel and perpendicular to the plane of incidence. Indicates an error of the order of five percent in the results obtained. (CC)

  18. Using the Lenses of Critically Reflective Teaching in the Community College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the idea of critically reflective teaching in general, and in particular, teacher decision-making and classroom assessment. Asserts that in community college settings-the ultimate in diverse, open-entry, mixed-ability classrooms-critical reflection on core assumptions can ground teachers in a moral, intellectual, and political vision of…

  19. Critical Reflection of an Iranian EFL Classroom: Effective Ploys in Narrative Paragraph Writing Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jafari, Fatemeh Mohammad; Ameri, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that investigated critical reflection in the hope that effective learning is objectified. It is the fruit of rumination on how critical reflection approach would affect learners' performance in narrative writing. The idea for this paper arose when the researchers consistently utilized ploys effective for…

  20. Critical Reflection as a Learning Tool for Nurse Supervisors: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbas-Llewellyn, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Critical reflection as a learning tool for nursing supervisors is a complex and multifaceted process not completely understood by healthcare leadership, specifically nurse supervisors. Despite a multitude of research studies on critical reflection, there remains a gap in the literature regarding the perceptions of the individual, the support…

  1. Critical Reflection as a Learning Tool for Nurse Supervisors: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbas-Llewellyn, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Critical reflection as a learning tool for nursing supervisors is a complex and multifaceted process not completely understood by healthcare leadership, specifically nurse supervisors. Despite a multitude of research studies on critical reflection, there remains a gap in the literature regarding the perceptions of the individual, the support…

  2. The Effect of Specific Feedback on Critical Reflection of Physical Therapy Students during Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Deanna; Scott, Karen Wilson; Ostrom, Lee; Devine, Nancy; Leight, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    An essential component of expert professional practice is a practitioner's ability to critically reflect on one's performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of specific electronic feedback provided by the coordinator of clinical education on students' critical reflection ability displayed in weekly journal writings during…

  3. Gifts Differing: Critical Reflection, Technology and the Creation of a Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael H.

    Critical reflection refers to an adaptation of civic literacy theory by educators seeking to promote the development of learning communities, taking an analytical approach to educational institutions. Critical reflection is being combined with the praxis approach, which stresses investigating issues, acting based on findings, subjecting outcomes…

  4. Moving from technical to critical reflection in journalling: an investigation of students' ability to incorporate three levels of reflective writing.

    PubMed

    Usher, K; Tollefson, J; Francis, D

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a research project aimed at changing the levels of reflection of preregistration nursing students in a tertiary institution. Whilst reflection is widely espoused now in nursing, few studies have been found that identify whether the level of reflective writing can be identified or developed by students. Anecdotal and research evidence (Powell 1989; van Manen 1977) however indicates that most student reflective writing occurs at the technical level. A descriptive exploratory study using both qualitative and quantitative techniques was undertaken to apply van Manen's (1977) levels in a structured way in an attempt to facilitate the student's understanding and use of the levels in their reflective writing. The findings of the study indicate that student self evaluation and identification of the levels in their own writing can lead to change in the levels of critical reflective writing achieved by undergraduate students.

  5. Reflections on the criticality of special actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1987-04-01

    During recent years, the list of nuclides known to be capable of supporting a chain reaction has substantially increased. Since the criticality aspects for some of these nuclides differ in important respects from those of the most common fissile nuclides, /sup 235//sub 92/U, and /sup 239//sub 94/Pu, a new term, ''fissible'' was recently proposed in nuclear engineering to help distinguish differences. Activation energies for fission have been calculated for 41 of the actinide isotopes which are grouped according to four types of nuclides, those with even-Z, even-N, odd-Z, odd-N, odd-Z, even-N, and even-Z, odd-N. With the possible exception of /sup 237//sub 92/U, all fissible isotopes listed have even N. The activation energy for fission is less in the case of the even-Z, even-N isotopes, but almost without eception it is the odd-N isotopes that undergo fission with thermal neutrons and which constitute the principal criticality problem. This paper reviews the criticality and fissionability aspects of the fissile and fissible actinide isotopes. The criticality of aqueous mixtures of fissile and fissible isotopes also is briefly discussed, including limits for criticality control.

  6. Critical Reflection as a Framework for Transformative Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for critical reflection that teacher educators can employ to analyze prospective teachers' reflection and support their transformative learning. The author argues that teacher educators should not only pay attention to the cognitive processes of prospective teachers (how they reflect), but also the content of their…

  7. A Critical Reflection on Knowledge Hierarchies, Language and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langthaler, Margarita; Witjes, Nina; Slezak, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion about the developmental value of knowledge by reflecting on the "knowledge for development" (K4D) paradigm. In particular, it draws attention to the interaction between linguistic and communicative processes and the areas of power, knowledge and education. This is…

  8. Interwoven Conversations: Learning and Teaching through Critical Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Judith M.

    This volume examines learning, teaching, and reflective practice. It is a personal account of a summer institute held in 1989 during which 21 teachers engaged in an exploration of writing and reading. Among metaphors discussed at the institute, one of the most powerful was the notion of teaching/learning being created from a fabric of interwoven…

  9. Enhancing skills of critical reflection to evidence learning in professional practice.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Colin; Chapman, Judith

    2013-08-01

    Professional organisations and regulatory bodies are making critical reflection a mandatory component of professional practice. Reflection is a vital part of learning from experience and is central to developing and maintaining competency across a practitioner's lifetime. This paper will discuss key educational theories to illustrate why reflection is important. Kolb's and Gibbs' reflective cycles are used to structure the process of critical reflection. Elements of the educational tradition of Bildung are discussed and integrated to enrich the understanding of self and to facilitate the reader's ability to enhance their professional practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Beryllium reflected cavity reactor for UF6 critical experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvis, G. A.; Bernard, W.; Helmick, H. H.; White, R.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical studies are being conducted for NASA on critical assemblies with one-meter diam by one-meter long low-density cores surrounded by a thick beryllium reflector. These assemblies make extensive use of existing nuclear propulsion reactor components, facilities, and instrumentation. Due to excessive porosity in the reflector, the initial critical mass was 19 kg U(93.2). Addition of a 17-cm-thick by 89-cm-diam beryllium flux trap in the cavity reduced the critical mass to 7 kg when all the uranium was in the zone just outside the flux trap. A mockup aluminum UF6 container was placed inside the flux trap and fueled with uranium-graphite elements. Fission distributions and reactivity worths of fuel and structural materials are available. These results will be used to guide the design of a prototype plasma core reactor which will test energy removal by optical radiation.

  11. The Call for an African University: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte; Higgs, Philip

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on philosophy (particularly African philosophy) to analyse the call for an African university. The call for an African university may be viewed as a call that insists that all critical and transformative educators in Africa embrace an indigenous African worldview and root their nation's educational paradigms in an indigenous…

  12. Combining Critical Reflection and Design Thinking to Develop Integrative Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, M. Ann; Dehler, Gordon E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we argue for advancing grounded curricula, which explicitly link theory and pedagogy, and executing them in authentic and multidisciplinary settings as a means to facilitate student growth into integrative learners. We describe the development of a student-centered learning experience that combines elements of critical management…

  13. Critical Thinking in Reflective Sessions and in Online Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celani, Maria Antonieta Alba; Collins, Heloisa

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on online educational sessions of a continuing teacher education programme. The aim of this programme is to give a contribution to the continuing education of teachers of English as critical professionals, aware of discursive classroom practices, able to analyze them in the light of objectives to be reached and knowledge to be…

  14. Ideology and Critical Self-Reflection in Information Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critten, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Information literacy instruction traditionally focuses on evaluating a source for bias, relevance, and timeliness, and rightfully so; this critical perspective is vital to a well-formed research process. However, this process is incomplete without a similar focus on the potential biases that the student brings to his or her interactions with…

  15. Where Poems Hide: Finding Reflective, Critical Spaces inside Writing Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Amy Seely; Laman, Tasha Tropp

    2012-01-01

    Research and teaching resources are replete with ideas for creating a more culturally responsive and critical curricula (Allen, 2010; Bomer & Bomer, 2001; Lewison, Leland, & Harste, 2008). Many have suggested that by offering a curriculum that is authentic and meaningful to children, real differences will be made in teaching and learning.…

  16. Reading Poetry for Critical Reflection on Consumer Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scimone, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Like many other dimensions of everyday life, people's need to satisfy themselves with stuff derives from deep impulses and responds to both obvious and subtle images. Ultimately, it isn't the commodities people buy so much as the behaviors they exhibit that are worth critical examination. What better way, then, to understand this phenomenon than…

  17. Writing a Critical Review: Reflections on Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teramoto, Hiromi; Mickan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the first author's experiences in writing a critical review at the beginning of postgraduate study in Australia. Utilising the first author's position as both a researcher and the researched, the paper provides a narrative account of her stage-by-stage progress in writing a review, followed by an interpretive analysis from a…

  18. Combining Critical Reflection and Design Thinking to Develop Integrative Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, M. Ann; Dehler, Gordon E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we argue for advancing grounded curricula, which explicitly link theory and pedagogy, and executing them in authentic and multidisciplinary settings as a means to facilitate student growth into integrative learners. We describe the development of a student-centered learning experience that combines elements of critical management…

  19. Where Poems Hide: Finding Reflective, Critical Spaces inside Writing Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Amy Seely; Laman, Tasha Tropp

    2012-01-01

    Research and teaching resources are replete with ideas for creating a more culturally responsive and critical curricula (Allen, 2010; Bomer & Bomer, 2001; Lewison, Leland, & Harste, 2008). Many have suggested that by offering a curriculum that is authentic and meaningful to children, real differences will be made in teaching and learning.…

  20. Improving Critical Thinking Skills through Reflective Clinical Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Donna

    This report describes a program designed to increase critical thinking skills in order to improve the transfer of material from the classroom to the clinic. The targeted population consisted of second year community college radiography students in a growing, middle class community in the Midwest. Evidence for the existence of the problem included…

  1. Reading Poetry for Critical Reflection on Consumer Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scimone, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Like many other dimensions of everyday life, people's need to satisfy themselves with stuff derives from deep impulses and responds to both obvious and subtle images. Ultimately, it isn't the commodities people buy so much as the behaviors they exhibit that are worth critical examination. What better way, then, to understand this phenomenon than…

  2. Preventing deadly conflict: the critical role of leadership.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, D A; George, A; Ballentine, K

    1999-11-01

    This article emerged from the work of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, Washington, DC. The commission addressed several fundamental questions: (1) What are the problems posed by deadly conflict, and why is outside help often necessary to deal with these problems? (2) How can disputes be resolved peaceably? (3) Which strategies work best? (4) Who can do what to implement these preventive strategies? Borrowing from the model of preventive medicine, the commission detailed a repertoire of the most promising political, economic, military, and social tools and strategies that can be mobilized by the international community to assist vulnerable societies in the development of sustainable and equitable arrangements for managing diversity and resolving disputes peacefully. From a comparative examination of intransigent and destructive intergroup conflicts, the commission found that the failure to prevent conflict is most often not a failure of foreknowledge or capacity but of political will. Effective political leadership is often the critical variable for successful prevention. This article seeks to illustrate how the social and behavioral sciences may be usefully applied to the problems encountered by leaders when confronted by the challenges of preventing deadly conflict.

  3. Paying for prevention: a critical opportunity for public health.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Jean C; Gutelius, Bruce J; Girard, Karen E; Drum Hastings, Danna; Longoria, Luci; Kohn, Melvin A

    2013-03-01

    Despite spending an increasing amount on health care and more than every other industrialized country, the U.S. ranks 37th in health outcomes. The implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) promises to ensure better access to health care for many Americans through expanded public and private insurance coverage, including basic preventive health care. Public health must seize this critical opportunity by taking steps to ensure that prevention, especially primary prevention, is embedded in our health system. This manuscript outlines four areas where public health officials across the U.S. can immediately capitalize on opportunities created by the ACA to ensure that prevention is a key component of health reform: (1) leading the way on community health assessments; (2) linking clinical and community prevention; (3) supporting the development of alternative payment methodologies to pay for prevention; and (4) serving as a community resource for the coordination of care and building the non-traditional health workforce. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  4. Critical reflections on the currently leading definition of sustainable employability.

    PubMed

    Fleuren, Bram Bi; de Grip, Andries; Jansen, Nicole Wh; Kant, Imjert; Zijlstra, Fred Rh

    2016-06-01

    the labor market to maintain economic welfare (1). Moreover, as a consequence of population aging (2-6), longevity, rapid changes in technology (7, 8) and changes in the nature of work (1), both the need to promote sustainable employability of individuals in society and the complexity to succeed in doing so increase even further. Only recently, van der Klink et al provided the first definition of the concept in the international scientific literature (1, p74): "Sustainable employability means that throughout their working lives, workers can achieve tangible opportunities in the form of a set of capabilities. They also enjoy the necessary conditions that allow them to make a valuable contribution through their work, now and in the future, while safeguarding their health and welfare. This requires, on the one hand, a work context that facilitates this for them and, on the other, the attitude and motivation to exploit these opportunities." This definition is accompanied by an equally recent operationalization of SE as a set of capabilities (9). Moreover, the definition itself also appeared in an earlier Dutch publication (10), which other international publications about SE most commonly refer to [ie, in comparison with other definitions in the non-international (eg, Dutch) literature] (11-13). As mentioned, the present paper provides a critical reflection on van der Klink et al's aforementioned definition of SE (1). Merits Van der Klink et al's definition of SE (1) has three important merits. First, SE is seen as a multidimensional construct. It is presented as consisting of a broad set of opportunities for employees to create value for themselves and for their employer that cover various aspects of working. Moreover, the individual's health and well-being as well as attitudinal and motivational aspects are included in the definition as well. This acknowledgement of the multidimensionality of SE is favorable, as it illustrates the complexity of the construct and of what

  5. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  6. Reflections on the Use of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aucott, Clare; Soni, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Providing support to schools following a critical incident has become an established part of service delivery for many Educational Psychology Services (EPSs) in the UK. This article offers reflections on the use of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) in schools. A review of the literature on critical incidents, trauma, resilience and…

  7. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  8. Reflections on the Use of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aucott, Clare; Soni, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Providing support to schools following a critical incident has become an established part of service delivery for many Educational Psychology Services (EPSs) in the UK. This article offers reflections on the use of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) in schools. A review of the literature on critical incidents, trauma, resilience and…

  9. Reflective practice: a critical analysis of data-based studies and implications for nursing education.

    PubMed

    Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A

    2003-11-01

    Reflective practice has become part of the discourse of nursing education classrooms, conferences, and journals, and are popular features of nursing continuing education programs. Yet, the idea of reflective practice has become increasingly more disparate. This critical analysis examines data-based studies and provides an overview of reflective practice, discusses common themes that emerged from the studies, and identifies implications for reflective practice in the field of nursing education.

  10. Infantile amnesia reflects a developmental critical period for hippocampal learning.

    PubMed

    Travaglia, Alessio; Bisaz, Reto; Sweet, Eric S; Blitzer, Robert D; Alberini, Cristina M

    2016-09-01

    Episodic memories formed during the first postnatal period are rapidly forgotten, a phenomenon known as 'infantile amnesia'. In spite of this memory loss, early experiences influence adult behavior, raising the question of which mechanisms underlie infantile memories and amnesia. Here we show that in rats an experience learned during the infantile amnesia period is stored as a latent memory trace for a long time; indeed, a later reminder reinstates a robust, context-specific and long-lasting memory. The formation and storage of this latent memory requires the hippocampus, follows a sharp temporal boundary and occurs through mechanisms typical of developmental critical periods, including the expression switch of the NMDA receptor subunits from 2B to 2A, which is dependent on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Activating BDNF or mGluR5 after training rescues the infantile amnesia. Thus, early episodic memories are not lost but remain stored long term. These data suggest that the hippocampus undergoes a developmental critical period to become functionally competent.

  11. Infantile amnesia reflects a developmental critical period for hippocampal learning

    PubMed Central

    Travaglia, Alessio; Bisaz, Reto; Sweet, Eric S.; Blitzer, Robert D.; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memories formed during the first postnatal period are rapidly forgotten, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. In spite of this memory loss, early experiences influence adult behavior, raising the question of which mechanisms underlie infantile memories and amnesia. Here we show that in rats an experience learned during the infantile amnesia period is stored as a latent memory trace for a long time; indeed, a later reminder reinstates a robust, context-specific and long-lasting memory. The formation and storage of this latent memory requires the hippocampus, follows a sharp temporal boundary, and occurs through mechanisms typical of developmental critical periods, including brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor (BDNF)- and metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5 (mGluR5)-dependent expression switch of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits 2B-2A. BDNF or mGlur5 activation after training rescues the infantile amnesia. Thus, early episodic memories are not lost, but remain stored long-term. These data suggest that the hippocampus undergoes a developmental critical period to become functionally competent. PMID:27428652

  12. Critical reflections on the principle of beneficence in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Munyaradzi, Mawere

    2012-01-01

    Medical ethics as a scholarly discipline and a system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, anthropology and sociology. As such there are a number of values in medical ethics such as autonomy, non-maleficence, confidentiality, dignity, honesty, justice and beneficence, among others. These values act as guidelines for professionals in the medical fraternity and are therefore used to judge different cases in the fraternity. For purposes of this work, this paper examines the principle of beneficence in biomedicine. Using both hypothetical cases and others in real life situations, the paper reflects on the implications of beneficence in biomedicine. It argues that the principle of beneficence is a prima facie obligation that should "always be acted upon unless it conflicts on a particular occasion with an equal or stronger principle".

  13. Global AIDS: critical issues for prevention in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Mann, J M

    1991-01-01

    A review of the first decade of global experience with the struggle against HIV/AIDS suggests that prevention will require both full application of existing approaches and fundamental changes in concepts and values. The critical deeper issues can be grouped under three headings: behavior, societal action, and globalism. Behavior, individual and collective, will be increasingly recognized as the major challenge for public health. However, for purposes of HIV prevention (and other issues) a sufficient understanding of behavior has not yet been developed. At the societal level, the activism of community organizations has shifted the balance of initiative in public health toward the community. The long-term implications of this evolution for roles and responsibilities at the community, national, and international levels must be explored. Finally, an understanding of global solidarity, based on respect for human rights and on the objective conditions of the modern world, will be critical for the future capability to deal effectively with HIV/AIDS. In summary, the future of HIV/AIDS prevention and control cannot be separated from the major public health and social issues of our time.

  14. Reflective Journaling for Critical Thinking Development in Advanced Practice Registered Nurse Students.

    PubMed

    Raterink, Ginger

    2016-02-01

    Critical thinking, clinical decision making, and critical reflection have been identified as skills required of nurses in every clinical situation. The Educating Nurses: A Call for Radical Transformation report suggested that critical reflection is a key to improving the educational process. Reflective journaling is a tool that helps develop such skills. This article presents the tool of reflective journaling and the use of this process by educators working with students. It describes the use of reflective journaling in graduate nursing education, as well as a scoring process to evaluate the reflection and provide feedback. Students and faculty found the journaling to be helpful for reflection of a clinical situation focused on critical thinking skill development. The rubric scoring tool provided faculty with a method for feedback. Reflective journaling is a tool that faculty and students can use to develop critical thinking skills for the role of the advanced practice RN. A rubric scoring system offers a consistent format for feedback. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Thermoacoustic wave propagation and reflection near the liquid-gas critical point.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Shen, B

    2009-06-01

    We study the thermoacoustic wave propagation and reflection near the liquid-gas critical point. Specifically, we perform a numerical investigation of the acoustic responses in a near-critical fluid to thermal perturbations based on the same setup of a recent ultrasensitive interferometry measurement in CO2 [Y. Miura, Phys. Rev. E 74, 010101(R) (2006)]. The numerical results agree well with the experimental data. Different features regarding the reflection pattern of thermoacoustic waves near the critical point under pulse perturbations are revealed by the proper inclusion of the critically diverging bulk viscosity.

  16. Reflective blogs in clinical education to promote critical thinking in dental hygiene students.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Ann O'Kelley; Boyd, Linda D; Bowen, Denise M; Pattillo, Robin E

    2010-12-01

    One challenge facing dental hygiene, as well as dental, education is to identify clinical teaching strategies promoting critical thinking and clinical reasoning. These skills are crucial elements in the practice of dental hygiene. A two-group design (intervention, n=28, and control, n=30) assessed first-year dental hygiene students using pre-and post-Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) scores to evaluate the effect of reflective blogging on critical thinking skills. A reflective blog rubric, based on Mezirow's levels of reflection, determined if reflective blogging increased the level of reflection for dental hygiene students. The results suggest within this nonprobability sample that reflective blogging did not produce a significant change in students' HSRT scores (p>0.05). However, analyses of reflective blog rubric scores demonstrated statistically significant improvements (p<0.05) in students' levels of reflection. Furthermore, data analysis revealed a correlation (p<0.05) between HSRT subscale scores and the element of reflection scores for the intervention group. This study addressed needs of the dental and dental hygiene education community by examining the use of blogs, an emerging technology, as a tool for reflecting on clinical experiences and, in turn, for promoting critical thinking.

  17. Criticality experiments and analysis of molybdenum reflected cylindrical uranyl fluoride water solution reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fieno, D.; Fox, T.; Mueller, R.

    1972-01-01

    Clean criticality data were obtained from molybdenum-reflected cylindrical uranyl-fluoride-water solution reactors. Using ENDF/B molybdenum cross sections, a nine energy group two-dimensional transport calculation of a reflected reactor configuration predicted criticality to within 7 cents of the experimental value. For these reactors, it was necessary to compute the reflector resonance integral by a detailed transport calculation at the core-reflector interface volume in the energy region of the two dominant resonances of natural molybdenum.

  18. Experiences of a critical reflection program for mid-career nurses.

    PubMed

    Oyamada, Kyoko

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the experiences of Japanese nurses who participated in a critical reflection program for mid-career nurses. Critical reflection is one method that is appropriate for the professional development of mid-career nurses. However, its implementation is difficult because of the need for educational resources. Of the numerous reports on critical reflection outcomes, few delineate the underlying process and none relates to Japanese nurses. A program was developed, based on Mezirow's transformation theory, to facilitate nurses' critical reflection. The program was implemented at three hospitals in Japan with 14 mid-career nurses. The data-collection period was from 2006 to 2007. The grounded theory approach was used to describe the results. Two participants experienced a transformation in their frame of reference after undergoing critical reflection during the program. One participant's viewpoint began to change and the other's "habit of mind" (social norms and personality characteristics that provide one with a general orientation) changed. Both participants met the conditions that were necessary for transformation, such as having an open attitude toward change, and compared to the other participants, their critical reflection progressed markedly on the worksheets that were designed to promote critical reflection. The process of change in the frame of reference that was experienced by the two participants followed eight of the ten phases of Mezirow's transformation theory. The characteristics of the experiences of the two participants who underwent changes in their frame of reference were described and discussed. The conditions for such transformation and the effects of critical reflection on the participants were consistent with those reported by previous studies. © 2011 The Author. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2011 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  19. Reflection on Teaching and Epistemological Structure: Reflective and Critically Reflective Processes in "Pure/Soft" and "Pure/Hard" Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreber, Carolin; Castleden, Heather

    2009-01-01

    We empirically explored whether academics from pure/soft and pure/hard fields engage in reflective practice on teaching differently and, if so, whether these differences could be partially explained by the epistemological structure of their discipline. Interview data from academics in pure/hard (N = 30) and pure/soft fields (N = 10) were…

  20. Radical Questioning on the Long Walk to Freedom: Nelson Mandela and the Practice of Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Nelson Mandela's autobiography "The Long Walk to Freedom" describes how an iconic political activist and freedom fighter reflected on, and sometimes modified, four core assumptions at the heart of his struggle to overturn the White supremacist, minority hegemony and create a free South Africa. Critical reflection's focus is on…

  1. Teaching Research Methodology Using a Project-Based Three Course Sequence Critical Reflections on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braguglia, Kay H.; Jackson, Kanata A.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a reflective analysis of teaching research methodology through a three course sequence using a project-based approach. The authors reflect critically on their experiences in teaching research methods courses in an undergraduate business management program. The introduction of a range of specific techniques including student…

  2. Validation of a Method for Measuring Medical Students' Critical Reflections on Professionalism in Gross Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Drake, Richard L.; Szostek, Jason H.; Reed, Darcy A.; Lachman, Nirusha; McBride, Jennifer M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Improving professional attitudes and behaviors requires critical self reflection. Research on reflection is necessary to understand professionalism among medical students. The aims of this prospective validation study at the Mayo Medical School and Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine were: (1) to develop and validate a new instrument for…

  3. Becoming Critical Thinkers: The Impact of Treatments on Student Reflective Practice in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depinet, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of instructional treatments on reflective practice and critical thinking in the college classroom at Bowling Green State University in the College of Business. The study employed a quasi-experimental pretest posttest control group design to examine student reflective practice among three…

  4. Validation of a Method for Measuring Medical Students' Critical Reflections on Professionalism in Gross Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Drake, Richard L.; Szostek, Jason H.; Reed, Darcy A.; Lachman, Nirusha; McBride, Jennifer M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Improving professional attitudes and behaviors requires critical self reflection. Research on reflection is necessary to understand professionalism among medical students. The aims of this prospective validation study at the Mayo Medical School and Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine were: (1) to develop and validate a new instrument for…

  5. The Rise and Fall of a Social Problem: Critical Reflections on Educational Policy and Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franberg, Gun-Marie; Wrethander, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a growing and distressing social phenomenon, namely, bullying, the historical development, social dimensions, and political impact of which are taken into account and subjected to reflection and critical consideration. It describes both the progress of and problems with the concept of bullying. It also reflects on the…

  6. The Rise and Fall of a Social Problem: Critical Reflections on Educational Policy and Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franberg, Gun-Marie; Wrethander, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a growing and distressing social phenomenon, namely, bullying, the historical development, social dimensions, and political impact of which are taken into account and subjected to reflection and critical consideration. It describes both the progress of and problems with the concept of bullying. It also reflects on the…

  7. Pedagogy for Fostering Criticality, Reflectivity and Praxis in a Course on Teaching for Lecturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Lynn; Vorster, Jo-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Using the concepts of criticality, reflectivity and praxis, the paper presents an analysis of our reflections on participants' responses to the assessment requirements for a course for lecturers on teaching. The context in which the course is being taught has changed considerably in the last few years in terms of the mode of delivery, as well as…

  8. Using Online Learning Platforms to Enhance Students' Reflective and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    A working paper on how to use common E-Learning platforms to incorporate critical thinking and reflection into traditional and hybrid formatted curriculums. Definitions and conceptual framework of both constructs are discussed and their benefits towards cognitions and reflection are highlighted. Best practices, including examples of previous…

  9. Radical Questioning on the Long Walk to Freedom: Nelson Mandela and the Practice of Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Nelson Mandela's autobiography "The Long Walk to Freedom" describes how an iconic political activist and freedom fighter reflected on, and sometimes modified, four core assumptions at the heart of his struggle to overturn the White supremacist, minority hegemony and create a free South Africa. Critical reflection's focus is on…

  10. A critical assessment of vector control for dengue prevention.

    PubMed

    Achee, Nicole L; Gould, Fred; Perkins, T Alex; Reiner, Robert C; Morrison, Amy C; Ritchie, Scott A; Gubler, Duane J; Teyssou, Remy; Scott, Thomas W

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the Vaccines to Vaccinate (v2V) initiative was reconfigured into the Partnership for Dengue Control (PDC), a multi-sponsored and independent initiative. This redirection is consistent with the growing consensus among the dengue-prevention community that no single intervention will be sufficient to control dengue disease. The PDC's expectation is that when an effective dengue virus (DENV) vaccine is commercially available, the public health community will continue to rely on vector control because the two strategies complement and enhance one another. Although the concept of integrated intervention for dengue prevention is gaining increasingly broader acceptance, to date, no consensus has been reached regarding the details of how and what combination of approaches can be most effectively implemented to manage disease. To fill that gap, the PDC proposed a three step process: (1) a critical assessment of current vector control tools and those under development, (2) outlining a research agenda for determining, in a definitive way, what existing tools work best, and (3) determining how to combine the best vector control options, which have systematically been defined in this process, with DENV vaccines. To address the first step, the PDC convened a meeting of international experts during November 2013 in Washington, DC, to critically assess existing vector control interventions and tools under development. This report summarizes those deliberations.

  11. [Cardiovascular prevention according to CEIPC: a critical appraisal].

    PubMed

    Miguel-García, Félix; Merino-Senovilla, Alejandro; Montero-Alonso, María José; García-Ortiz, Alejandra; Sanz-Cantalapiedra, Ruperto; Maderuelo-Fernández, José Angel

    2010-01-01

    We present a critical appraisal of the adaptation to the 4th European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice carried out by The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention (CEIPC), which is based on: 1) the removal, by the CEIPC, of important restrictions on the start of drug therapy that are contained in the European guide 2) the existence of internal contradictions and differing recommendations regarding the goals of LDL in the several publications of the CEIP adaptation; and 3) and the almost total lack of necessary discussion about risk tables in Spain. Therefore, it makes a critical appraisal of some of the most important clinical recommendations shared by the CEIPC and the European guide that are not supported by clinical evidence, like the implicit proposal of using the estimated cardiovascular risk as a target for treatment, the criteria to begin the antihypertensive drug therapy and therapeutic goals for blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol and HbA1c. The public health administration and also the scientific society must ensure transparency and independence in the drafting of documents endorsed by them, including the management and declaration of potential conflicts of interest among editors and group members. The public health administration and also the scientific society must guarantee a framework of honesty and transparency in the documents endorsed by them, with a complete declaration of the authors conflict of interests.

  12. A Critical Assessment of Vector Control for Dengue Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Achee, Nicole L.; Gould, Fred; Perkins, T. Alex; Reiner, Robert C.; Morrison, Amy C.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Gubler, Duane J.; Teyssou, Remy; Scott, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the Vaccines to Vaccinate (v2V) initiative was reconfigured into the Partnership for Dengue Control (PDC), a multi-sponsored and independent initiative. This redirection is consistent with the growing consensus among the dengue-prevention community that no single intervention will be sufficient to control dengue disease. The PDC's expectation is that when an effective dengue virus (DENV) vaccine is commercially available, the public health community will continue to rely on vector control because the two strategies complement and enhance one another. Although the concept of integrated intervention for dengue prevention is gaining increasingly broader acceptance, to date, no consensus has been reached regarding the details of how and what combination of approaches can be most effectively implemented to manage disease. To fill that gap, the PDC proposed a three step process: (1) a critical assessment of current vector control tools and those under development, (2) outlining a research agenda for determining, in a definitive way, what existing tools work best, and (3) determining how to combine the best vector control options, which have systematically been defined in this process, with DENV vaccines. To address the first step, the PDC convened a meeting of international experts during November 2013 in Washington, DC, to critically assess existing vector control interventions and tools under development. This report summarizes those deliberations. PMID:25951103

  13. Validation of a method for measuring medical students' critical reflections on professionalism in gross anatomy.

    PubMed

    Wittich, Christopher M; Pawlina, Wojciech; Drake, Richard L; Szostek, Jason H; Reed, Darcy A; Lachman, Nirusha; McBride, Jennifer M; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Beckman, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Improving professional attitudes and behaviors requires critical self reflection. Research on reflection is necessary to understand professionalism among medical students. The aims of this prospective validation study at the Mayo Medical School and Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine were: (1) to develop and validate a new instrument for measuring reflection on professionalism, and (2) determine whether learner variables are associated with reflection on the gross anatomy experience. An instrument for assessing reflections on gross anatomy, which was comprised of 12 items structured on five-point scales, was developed. Factor analysis revealed a three-dimensional model including low reflection (four items), moderate reflection (five items), and high reflection (three items). Item mean scores ranged from 3.05 to 4.50. The overall mean for all 12 items was 3.91 (SD = 0.52). Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α) was satisfactory for individual factors and overall (Factor 1 α = 0.78; Factor 2 α = 0.69; Factor 3 α = 0.70; Overall α = 0.75). Simple linear regression analysis indicated that reflection scores were negatively associated with teamwork peer scores (P = 0.018). The authors report the first validated measurement of medical student reflection on professionalism in gross anatomy. Critical reflection is a recognized component of professionalism and may be important for behavior change. This instrument may be used in future research on professionalism among medical students. © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Autonomy, Critical Thinking and the Wittgensteinian Legacy: Reflections on Christopher Winch, "Education, Autonomy and Critical Thinking"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Harvey

    2008-01-01

    In this review of Christopher Winch's new book, "Education, Autonomy and Critical Thinking" (2006), I discuss its main theses, supporting some and criticising others. In particular, I take issue with several of Winch's claims and arguments concerning critical thinking and rationality, and deplore his reliance on what I suggest are problematic…

  15. Autonomy, Critical Thinking and the Wittgensteinian Legacy: Reflections on Christopher Winch, "Education, Autonomy and Critical Thinking"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Harvey

    2008-01-01

    In this review of Christopher Winch's new book, "Education, Autonomy and Critical Thinking" (2006), I discuss its main theses, supporting some and criticising others. In particular, I take issue with several of Winch's claims and arguments concerning critical thinking and rationality, and deplore his reliance on what I suggest are problematic…

  16. Cultivating Critical Reflection: Educators Making Sense and Meaning of Professional Identity and Relational Dynamics in Complex Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Critical reflection underpins socially just and inclusive practices that are distinguishing features of democratic learning communities. Critical reflection supports educators' interrogation of the underlying assumptions, intentions, values and beliefs that shape their worldview and sociocultural standpoint. Dominant sociocultural norms…

  17. Cultivating Critical Reflection: Educators Making Sense and Meaning of Professional Identity and Relational Dynamics in Complex Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Critical reflection underpins socially just and inclusive practices that are distinguishing features of democratic learning communities. Critical reflection supports educators' interrogation of the underlying assumptions, intentions, values and beliefs that shape their worldview and sociocultural standpoint. Dominant sociocultural norms…

  18. Reflective Thinking and Teaching Practices: A Precursor for Incorporating Critical Thinking into the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, S. Chee; Oo, Pou San

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to…

  19. Reflections on Critical Incidents of EFL Teachers during Career Entry in Central Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengeling, M. Martha; Mora Pablo, Irasema

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the reflections of critical incidents of eight beginning English as a foreign language teachers and one of their trainers in Mexico. Based upon narrative inquiry and through the use of journals, critical incidents and how they have impacted beginning teachers in their thinking were specifically looked at. From the data we…

  20. "My Story of Sal": A Critical Self-Reflective Autoethnography Revealing Whiteness in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Craig Anthony

    2017-01-01

    My purpose for conducting the critical self-reflective research described in this article was a desire to improve my effectiveness as a teacher in the field of First Peoples' education. The impetus for undertaking this research was a critical incident in my teaching career that I refer to as "My Story of Sal." Writing…

  1. A Natural Perspective: Reflections on the Critical Legacy of Northrop Frye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to understand and relate only a part of the theory of Northrop Frye in "Anatomy of Criticism" and its implications for critical reading. Suggests that if theory is used as a practical basis for literature education then educators must not abuse the privilege and simply use the theory without reflection. (SG)

  2. The evaluation of students' reflective writing for evidence of critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Kennison, Monica Metrick

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish interrater reliability of the Critical Thinking Scale (CTS), a teacher-accessible tool designed to measure the critical thinking of baccalaureate nursing students as evidenced in their reflective writing about their practice experiences.The study is an extension of an earlier pilot test of the CTS. Graduating students from a nursing program at a small liberal arts college were asked to write about a significant practice experience encountered during their last clinical course. Three teachers used the CTS to independently evaluate the students' writing. California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) scores provided a standard measure of critical thinking. Results indicated statistically significant positive relationships between the CCTST total critical thinking score and mean teacher ratings using the CTS. Meaningfully significant interrater reliability ratings for the CTS were also found. With further development, the CTS has promise as an appropriate tool to evaluate students' reflective writing for evidence of critical thinking.

  3. Narrative thematic analysis of baccalaureate nursing students' reflections: critical thinking in the clinical education context.

    PubMed

    Naber, Jessica L; Hall, Joanne; Schadler, Craig Matthew

    2014-09-01

    This study sought to identify characteristics of clinically situated critical thinking in nursing students' reflections, originally part of a study guided by Richard Paul's model of critical thinking. Nurses are expected to apply critical thinking in all practice situations to improve health outcomes, including patient safety and satisfaction. In a previous study, Paul's model of critical thinking was used to develop questions for reflective writing assignments. Within that study, 30 nursing students completed six open-ended narratives of nurse-patient clinical encounters during an 8-week period. Improvements were seen in critical thinking scores after the intervention. This article reports the qualitative analysis of the content of six open-ended narratives. Six overarching themes were identified and combined into a tentative conceptual model. Faculty's understanding of the characteristics of critical thinking in the context of clinical education will help them to teach and evaluate students' progress and competencies for future practice.

  4. Teaching critical reflection skills for advanced mental health nursing practice: a deconstructive-reconstructive approach.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Marie T; O'Malley, Jane

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents a literature review conducted to establish what was already known about critical reflection in the nursing literature and what work had been done on using a critical social theory framework as the basis for critical reflection. Critical thinking emerged as a significant aspect of nursing education and practice in the late 1980s. It has been promoted as a means by which issues in clinical practice can be examined through a systematic process of exploration and reasoning. Traditionally, critical thinking has commonly involved an attempt to link practice with theory using a scenario or exemplar from practice to illustrate a practice dilemma. This process is often constructed as a retrospective narrative of events. This paper provides a deconstructive-reconstructive approach that differs from some traditional approaches by taking a critical social theory perspective with an emphasis on improving practice. The nursing literature reviewed was accessed through Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). The search was restricted to English language and published between 1995 and 2005. Based on these findings, we developed a postgraduate advanced mental health nursing programme. There were 490 articles related to 'nursing' and 'critical thinking'; 34 articles related to 'nursing' and 'critical reflection'; 23 articles related to 'nursing' and 'critical social theory'; 15 articles related to 'mental health nursing' and 'critical thinking'; and two articles related to 'mental health nursing' and 'critical reflection'. In the programme we developed based on these findings, students were facilitated to deconstruct concepts and knowledge integral to their own practice. In the reconstructive phase, students implement a change project in clinical practice, supported by a mentor. The deconstructive-reconstructive approach to the development of critical thinking skills provides advanced practitioner with the opportunity to integrate

  5. Using a critical reflection process to create an effective learning community in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachel; Cooke, Marie; Henderson, Amanda; Creedy, Debra K

    2013-05-01

    Learning circles are an enabling process to critically examine and reflect on practices with the purpose of promoting individual and organizational growth and change. The authors adapted and developed a learning circle strategy to facilitate open discourse between registered nurses, clinical leaders, clinical facilitators and students, to critically reflect on practice experiences to promote a positive learning environment. This paper reports on an analysis of field notes taken during a critical reflection process used to create an effective learning community in the workplace. A total of 19 learning circles were conducted during in-service periods (that is, the time allocated for professional education between morning and afternoon shifts) over a 3 month period with 56 nurses, 33 students and 1 university-employed clinical supervisor. Participation rates ranged from 3 to 12 individuals per discussion. Ten themes emerged from content analysis of the clinical learning issues identified through the four-step model of critical reflection used in learning circle discussions. The four-step model of critical reflection allowed participants to reflect on clinical learning issues, and raise them in a safe environment that enabled topics to be challenged and explored in a shared and cooperative manner.

  6. Critical Reflection in Cultural Competence Development: A Framework for Undergraduate Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Blanchet Garneau, Amélie

    2016-03-01

    Nursing faculties are urged to adopt a curriculum that supports culturally competent care and to mentor students to provide care that promotes social justice, particularly for the marginalized members of society. This article describes the development of a framework for critical reflection in cultural competence development among undergraduate nursing students. Following the Medical Research Council guidelines for developing complex interventions, empirical and theoretical literature was reviewed to define the framework rationale and its components. The resulting framework is grounded in Blanchet Garneau's constructivist model of cultural competence development and Mezirow's transformative learning theory. It clarifies the desired outcomes, the main steps to foster critical reflection among students, and the contextual conditions and prerequisites for teachers and learners. Education oriented toward critical reflective practice promotes a full reflection about Western social and clinical practices and points out the role of nurses in reducing health inequities. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. An Examination of the Construct of Critical Reflection: Implications for Teacher Education Programming in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Deborah S.; Sentner, Sally M.; Forlenza-Bailey, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Provides a rationale and framework for promoting critical reflection in teacher preparation, focusing on what critical reflection is, whether and how reflective practice can be taught, constructivist methods, dialogue as a form of teaching, action research to nurture reflective practice, and writing as a tool to encourage connections between…

  8. Quality and safety: reflection on the implications for critical care nursing education.

    PubMed

    Baid, Heather; Hargreaves, Jessica

    2015-07-01

    Safe and high quality health care is underpinned by health care professionals possessing the knowledge, skills and professional attributes which are necessary for their specific clinical speciality and area of practice. Education is crucial as it enables clinicians to learn and put into practice their specialist knowledge, skills and attributes. These elements will be based on clinical standards, which set the agenda for quality and safety in health care. The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon how a post-registration, degree-level critical care nursing course provided by an English university facilitates nurses to deliver high quality, safe nursing care for critically ill patients and their families. As a reflective analysis, the process of reflection will be guided and structured according to Rolfe's framework for reflective practice. The reflection is based upon the personal observations and teaching experiences of two university lecturers involved in the delivery of the critical care course. Critical care nursing education can incorporate informed practice, simulation and non-technical skills into post-registration critical-care nursing courses as a way of promoting high-quality, safe clinical practice in the critical care setting. This article provides examples from one course's experience with doing this and ends with specific recommendations for how critical care nursing courses can enhance further the promotion of quality and safety. Educators, mentors and students of post-registration critical care nursing courses are encouraged to explore the relevance of nursing education in promoting safe and high-quality clinical practice. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  9. Reflection: a critical proficiency essential to the effective development of a high competence in communication.

    PubMed

    Adams, Cindy L; Nestel, Debra; Wolf, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Reflection, or the ability to step back from an experience and consider it critically, in an analytical, non-subjective manner, is an essential aspect of problem solving and decision making, and also of effective communication with clients and colleagues. Reflective practice has been described as the essence of professionalism and is therefore a core professional skill; rarely, however, has it been explicitly taught in veterinary curricula, and it has only a recent history in undergraduate human medical curricula. We describe here two preliminary case studies, one in a veterinary medical education context and the other within a human medical education framework, as examples of approaches to assessing a student's ability for ''reflection.'' The case studies also illustrate some of the key principles. Both of the case studies described had as their end goal the enhancement of communication skills through critical reflection. At Monash University, Australia, the majority of students were assessed as being at a level of ''reflection in development.'' The students in the Ontario Veterinary College case study showed moderately good use of self-awareness and critical reflection as a basis for modifying and integrating communication skills into practice. While both preliminary case studies point to the fact that students recognize the importance of communication and value the opportunity to practice it, few students in either case study identified the importance of reflection for lifelong learning and professional competence. Opportunities to complete critical reflection exercises in other parts of curricula and outside of communication would likely reinforce its importance as a generic skill. Ongoing scholarly approaches to teaching, learning, and evaluating reflection and self-awareness are needed.

  10. Using Edward de Bono's six hats game to aid critical thinking and reflection in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Lesley J

    2003-03-01

    This article describes the use of a creative thinking game to stimulate critical thinking and reflection with qualified health professionals undertaking palliative care education. The importance of reflective practice in nursing is well documented and numerous models are available. However, the author as a nurse teacher has found that many of these models are either too simple or too complex to be valuable in practice. The six hats game, devised by Edward de Bono, is a method that stimulates a variety of types of thinking and when used as a means of reflection helps students to become more critical about their practice. Using this game with a palliative care case study the author demonstrates how thinking more creatively about the patients' perceived needs and problems can assist in developing reflective skills. The article concludes with a discussion on some of the challenges of using this method and suggestions for future practical uses.

  11. Focusing hard x rays beyond the critical angle of total reflection by adiabatically focusing lenses

    DOE PAGES

    Patommel, Jens; Klare, Susanne; Hoppe, Robert; ...

    2017-03-06

    In response to the conjecture that the numerical aperture of x-ray optics is fundamentally limited by the critical angle of total reflection, the concept of adiabatically focusing refractive lenses was proposed to overcome this limit. Here, we present an experimental realization of these optics made of silicon and demonstrate that they indeed focus 20 keV x rays to a 18.4 nm focus with a numerical aperture of 1.73(9) × 10–3 that clearly exceeds the critical angle of total reflection of 1.55 mrad.

  12. A study of critical reflection in health professional education: 'learning where others are coming from'.

    PubMed

    Delany, Clare; Watkin, Deborah

    2009-08-01

    A dominant focus of clinical education for health professional students is experiential learning through an apprentice model where students are exposed to a range of clinical scenarios and conditions through observation initially, and then through supervised clinical practice. However experiential learning may not be enough to meet the need for health professionals to be flexible, self-aware and understanding of alternative perspectives or 'where other people are coming from.' Critical reflection skills are recognised as a way of thinking and a process for analysing practice, that enables learning from, and redeveloping professional practice in an ongoing way. This paper describes and examines the effect of a three hour per week, six week critical reflection program, grounded in knowledge paradigms of postmodernism, reflexivity and critical theory, on third year undergraduate physiotherapy students' experience of their first clinical placements. The theoretical basis of the program provides a potential bridge with which to link and broaden the established framework of clinical reasoning theories. Within the program, students' critical reflection discourse focused on notions of power, hierarchies, connecting with others and relationships. Their feedback about the effects of the program highlighted themes of validation and sharing; a break in clinical performance and a broadening of their spheres of knowledge. These themes resonated with students' overall experiences of learning in clinical placements and provide some evidence for the inclusion of critical reflection as a valid and worthwhile component of early clinical education.

  13. X-ray specular reflectivity study of a critical binary fluid mixture.

    PubMed

    Marschand, L W; Brown, M; Lurio, L B; Law, B M; Uran, S; Kuzmenko, I; Gog, T

    2005-07-01

    We have used direct inversion of x-ray reflectivity data to extract the liquid-vapor interface composition profile and the related critical scaling function of a binary mixture of dodecane and tetrabromoethane. The mixture was in the one-phase region above its critical point. The results indicate the formation of a monolayer of the lower surface tension component followed by an abrupt change to a mixed composition which gradually relaxes to the bulk composition deep within the fluid.

  14. Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anup R; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric; Anderson, Michael L; Olson, David; Jones, Benjamin S; Seidensticker, John; Lumpkin, Susan; Hansen, Matthew C; Sizer, Nigel C; Davis, Crystal L; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hahn, Nathan R

    2016-04-01

    The global population of wild tigers remains dangerously low at fewer than 3500 individuals. Habitat loss, along with poaching, can undermine the international target recovery of doubling the number of wild tigers by 2022. Using a new satellite-based monitoring system, we analyzed 14 years of forest loss data within the 76 landscapes (ranging from 278 to 269,983 km(2)) that have been prioritized for conservation of wild tigers. Our analysis provides an update of the status of tiger habitat and describes new applications of technology to detect precisely where forest loss is occurring in order to curb future habitat loss. Across the 76 landscapes, forest loss was far less than anticipated (79,597 ± 22,629 km(2), 7.7% of remaining habitat) over the 14-year study period (2001-2014). Habitat loss was unevenly distributed within a subset of 29 landscapes deemed most critical for doubling wild tiger populations: 19 showed little change (1.5%), whereas 10 accounted for more than 98% (57,392 ± 16,316 km(2)) of habitat loss. Habitat loss in source population sites within 76 landscapes ranged from no loss to 435 ± 124 km(2) ([Formula: see text], SD = 89, total = 1676 ± 476 km(2)). Doubling the tiger population by 2022 requires moving beyond tracking annual changes in habitat. We highlight near-real-time forest monitoring technologies that provide alerts of forest loss at relevant spatial and temporal scales to prevent further erosion.

  15. Preeclampsia: Reflections on How to Counsel About Preventing Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Laura

    2015-10-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most challenging diseases of pregnancy, with unclear etiology, no specific marker for prediction, and no precise treatment besides delivery of the placenta. Many risk factors have been identified, and diagnostic and management tools have improved in recent years. However, this disease remains one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in under-resourced settings. A history of previous preeclampsia is a known risk factor for a new event in a future pregnancy, with recurrence rates varying from less than 10% to 65%, depending on the population or methodology considered. A recent review that performed an individual participant data meta-analysis on the recurrence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in over 99 000 women showed an overall recurrence rate of 20.7%; when specifically considering preeclampsia, it was 13.8%, with milder disease upon recurrence. Prevention of recurrent preeclampsia has been attempted by changes in lifestyle, dietary supplementation, antihypertensive drugs, antithrombotic agents, and others, with much uncertainty about benefit. It is always challenging to treat and counsel a woman with a previous history of preeclampsia; this review will be based on hypothetical clinical cases, using common scenarios in obstetrical practice to consider the available evidence on how to counsel each woman during pre-conception and prenatal consultations.

  16. Childhood Obesity Prevention: Fathers' Reflections with Healthcare Providers

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Berry, Diane; Vu, Maihan B.; Pullen Davis, Lisa; Cai, Jianwen; Tzeng, Janice P.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background To prevent childhood obesity, parents and their children's healthcare providers need to engage in effective dialogue. We know much about mothers' experiences, but very little about fathers' experiences. Methods We explored African-American, Caucasian, and Latino fathers' perceptions and experiences communicating with their children's provider during clinic visits regarding weight, diet, and physical activity. Focus groups (n=3), grouped by race/ethnicity, including a total of 24 fathers, were conducted. The men were asked open-ended questions; responses were recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Results Findings revealed that these fathers were involved in their children's healthcare and found providers to be helpful partners in keeping their children healthy, yet they generally felt “left out” during clinic appointments. The quality of the relationship with their children's provider influenced how receptive fathers were to discussing their children's weight, diet, and physical activity behaviors. Fathers made suggestions to help improve communication between providers and fathers, such as personalizing the discussion. Conclusions These fathers expressed strong feelings about the provider–parent relationship when discussing weight, diet, and physical activity. PMID:23472966

  17. Using a Meta-Analysis Activity to Make Critical Reflection Explicit in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, M.; Lawson, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how the development of critical reflection in student teachers has been made an explicit part of a teacher education programme. Using a rubric presented by Ward and McCotter, (2004) and supported by an online discussion forum, the rubric was used in a meta-analysis activity where students identified the quality of critical…

  18. Interferences with an Plane Parallel Plate Near the Critical Angel of Total Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidner, K.; Mayer, G.; Schuster, R.

    1985-07-01

    The fringes of equal inclination with a plane parallel plate surrounded by an optically denser medium start at an angle of incidence less than the critical angle of total reflection. Despite its practical importance this effect was disregarded in optics up to now.

  19. Critical and Creative Reflective Inquiry: Surfacing Narratives to Enable Learning and Inform Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardiff, Shaun

    2012-01-01

    Narratives are being increasingly used in nursing and action research. In this participatory action research study, nurse leaders of an acute care of the older person unit collectively, critically and creatively reflected on lived experiences in order to explore the concept of person-centred leadership within their own practice. This paper…

  20. "The Whole ME Presented Itself. KABOOM!": Expressive Arts and Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Morgan

    2011-01-01

    The importance of critical reflection in higher education highlights the importance of creating rich learning opportunities for students. Expressive arts (e.g., poetry, drama) ignites such opportunity drawing from more than students' logical-cognitive understandings to include students' creative, multi-modal and experiential capacities. This paper…

  1. Producing Neoliberal Citizens: Critical Reflections on Human Rights Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoja-Moolji, Shenila

    2014-01-01

    This paper challenges the celebratory uptake of human rights education (HRE) in postcolonial contexts by making visible the ideological and political entanglements of the discourse with neoliberal assumptions of citizenship. I draw evidence from, and critically reflect on, a specific HRE programme--a series of summer camps for girls entitled,…

  2. Renaming Teaching Practice through Teacher Reflection Using Critical Incidents on a Virtual Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia, Antoni; Becerril, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    This study approaches teacher learning from a dialogical viewpoint where lecturers' voices used in a training course context reflect how lecturers generated new professional discourse. The design of the training course considered the analysis of several critical incidents (CIs) in online teaching. An analytical framework based on lecturers'…

  3. Establishing Open and Critical Discourses in the Science Classroom: Reflecting on Initial Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille M.; Taylor, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a reflective account of a science teacher's endeavors to use the referent of critical constructivism to transform her pedagogical practices. The context of the action research is a Year 10 bioethics unit taught at an independent girls' school. Contains 44 references. (DDR)

  4. Critical Reflections on the Ethical and Professional Considerations in Writing about Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    From the standpoint of a journal editor and researcher, this commentary critically reflects on some of the primary notions addressed in the 4 featured articles of the special section, discussing areas of agreement and divergence. As a way of further exploring these ethical and professional concerns, the contentious issue of using school children…

  5. Enhancing Critical Reflection and Writing Skills in the HBSE Classroom and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    Human Behavior in the Social Environment (HBSE) is an ideal location in which graduate social work students can enhance their critical reflection and writing skills while integrating social work theories with practice, research, and policy. A writing-intensive, learner-centered model using specific strategies is described via a framework of…

  6. Critical Reflective Teaching: A Constructivist Approach to Professional Development in Student Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Yvonne E.; Sjostrom, Barbara R.; Alvarez, Idalis

    This paper compares the professional beliefs and teaching behaviors of traditional and nontraditional/adult teacher candidates during their student teaching experience. Data for the study came from 45 elementary student teachers' structured, weekly autobiographical critical reflections written during their student teaching. Participants were…

  7. Using Critical Reflection to Improve Urban Teacher Preparation: A Collaborative Inquiry of Three Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berghoff, Beth; Blackwell, Sue; Wisehart, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This collaborative inquiry examines the ways new teachers are being prepared as critical reflective practitioners in three urban teacher education programs. Researching individually and collectively, the research team analyzes and compares pedagogical methods and program features for preparing new teachers for urban schools. Their findings detail…

  8. Two Configurations for Accessing Classroom Computers: Differential Impact on Students' Critical Reflections and Their Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhaug, T.

    2009-01-01

    The context of this article is the new technological environment and the struggle to use meaningful teaching practices in Norwegian schools. Students' critical reflections in two different technological learning environments in six upper secondary schools are compared. Three of these schools offer Internet-connected computers in special computer…

  9. Establishing Open and Critical Discourses in the Science Classroom: Reflecting on Initial Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille M.; Taylor, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a reflective account of a science teacher's endeavors to use the referent of critical constructivism to transform her pedagogical practices. The context of the action research is a Year 10 bioethics unit taught at an independent girls' school. Contains 44 references. (DDR)

  10. The Possibilities and Constraints of Multimedia as a Basis for Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Liz; McNamara, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    The use of video evidence as a vehicle for promoting discussion and critical reflection is well established in educational literature in the field of professional development and is gradually becoming more accepted as a research method. There is general agreement also that in relation to image-based research the combination of video evidence of…

  11. Reflective Learning and Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Mathematical Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junsay, Merle L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental study that explored the effects of reflective learning on prospective teachers' conceptual understanding, critical thinking, problem solving, and mathematical communication skills and the relationship of these variables. It involved 60 prospective teachers from two basic mathematics classes of an institution of higher…

  12. "The Whole ME Presented Itself. KABOOM!": Expressive Arts and Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Morgan

    2011-01-01

    The importance of critical reflection in higher education highlights the importance of creating rich learning opportunities for students. Expressive arts (e.g., poetry, drama) ignites such opportunity drawing from more than students' logical-cognitive understandings to include students' creative, multi-modal and experiential capacities. This paper…

  13. The Experience of Critical Self-Reflection by Life Coaches: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Deanna Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of critical self-reflection by life coaches. Life coaching is expanding within many disciplines including education, health care, business, social work, and wellness. Life coaching involves a coach working with an individual or groups aimed at effecting change for professional and personal…

  14. Guiding Preservice Teachers to Critically Reflect: Towards a Renewed Sense about English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markos, Amy Michele

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this practitioner inquiry was to explore the use of Guided Critical Reflection (GCR) in preparing preservice teachers for English learners (ELs). As a teacher researcher, I documented, analyzed, and discussed the ways in which students in my course used the process of GCR to transform their passively held understandings about ELs.…

  15. Evaluation of Critical Thinking and Reflective Thinking Skills among Science Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and determine the critical thinking and reflective thinking skills of science teacher candidates. The study was performed with the participation of 30 teacher candidates enrolled in the science teaching department of a university in Turkey. Scales administered during the study included the California Critical…

  16. The Interplay between Reflective Thinking, Critical Thinking, Self-Monitoring, and Academic Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the associations among higher-order thinking skills (reflective thinking, critical thinking) and self-monitoring that contribute to academic achievement among university students. The sample consisted of 196 Iranian university students (mean age = 22.05, SD = 3.06; 112 females; 75 males) who were administered three…

  17. Producing Neoliberal Citizens: Critical Reflections on Human Rights Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoja-Moolji, Shenila

    2014-01-01

    This paper challenges the celebratory uptake of human rights education (HRE) in postcolonial contexts by making visible the ideological and political entanglements of the discourse with neoliberal assumptions of citizenship. I draw evidence from, and critically reflect on, a specific HRE programme--a series of summer camps for girls entitled,…

  18. Renaming Teaching Practice through Teacher Reflection Using Critical Incidents on a Virtual Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia, Antoni; Becerril, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    This study approaches teacher learning from a dialogical viewpoint where lecturers' voices used in a training course context reflect how lecturers generated new professional discourse. The design of the training course considered the analysis of several critical incidents (CIs) in online teaching. An analytical framework based on lecturers'…

  19. Enhancing Critical Reflection and Writing Skills in the HBSE Classroom and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    Human Behavior in the Social Environment (HBSE) is an ideal location in which graduate social work students can enhance their critical reflection and writing skills while integrating social work theories with practice, research, and policy. A writing-intensive, learner-centered model using specific strategies is described via a framework of…

  20. The Culture of Teaching, Critical Reflection and Change: Possibilities and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparkes, Andrew C.

    1991-01-01

    The teacher's "tool kit" of symbols, stories, rituals and world views all too frequently perpetuates the "sacred norms" of school culture. The notion of critical reflection as a means of cultural interruption has a built-in potential to interrogate, challenge, and change the structures that constrain teachers. (92 references)…

  1. From idealistic helper to enterprising learner: critical reflections on personal development through experiences from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Wickford, Jenny; Rosberg, Susanne

    2012-05-01

    There is little written about the cultural, social, and ethical challenges encountered by physiotherapists engaging in development work. This article takes a critical perspective on what it means to engage in development work as an expatriate physiotherapist, through a self-critical reflection on experiences from Afghanistan. The field notes from an ethnographic study of a development project conducted in Afghanistan were analysed to explore the transformative process of personal and professional development of the development worker. The critical reflective process entailed a change in meaning perspective, described as a shift from the position of an Idealistic Helper to an Enterprising Learner. Of importance in this process were "disorienting dilemmas" that challenged personal perceptions. Critical reflection over such dilemmas led to deeper understanding facilitating the process of change. The essential lesson learned is that the baseline for understanding others is an understanding of one's own meaning perspectives and manner of participation in relation to others and their context. The insights gained have implications for physiotherapists working in development contexts, for other development workers, and for physiotherapists working with patients in clinical practice in a nondevelopment context. Exploring how to collaborate in development contexts could be done using reflective groups with expatriate and local physiotherapists and/or patients. This could lead to greater understanding of oneself, each other, and the local context.

  2. A Critical Reflection on My Learning and Its Integration into My Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This paper, "A critical reflection on my learning and its integration into my professional practice," was successfully submitted for a Master's programme at the University of Bath (UK) in 2010, whilst Sally was working full-time as a teacher in a large secondary school in an English town 10 miles from the city of Bath. Sally died of a…

  3. Let's Not Get Too Personal: Critical Reflection, Reflexivity and the Confessional Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ask how we can think about critical reflection as a pedagogical practice given the "confessional turn." By the "confessional turn," the author refers to the idea that "subjective, autobiographical and confessional modes of expression" have expanded exponentially across a wide range of social spheres,…

  4. Two Configurations for Accessing Classroom Computers: Differential Impact on Students' Critical Reflections and Their Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhaug, T.

    2009-01-01

    The context of this article is the new technological environment and the struggle to use meaningful teaching practices in Norwegian schools. Students' critical reflections in two different technological learning environments in six upper secondary schools are compared. Three of these schools offer Internet-connected computers in special computer…

  5. The Experience of Critical Self-Reflection by Life Coaches: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Deanna Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of critical self-reflection by life coaches. Life coaching is expanding within many disciplines including education, health care, business, social work, and wellness. Life coaching involves a coach working with an individual or groups aimed at effecting change for professional and personal…

  6. Critical Reflections of Action Research Used for Professional Development in a Middle Eastern Gulf State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Alyson

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and critically reflects on an action research project used for professional development purposes in a Middle Eastern Gulf State. The aim of the project was to improve professional development experiences for a group of in-service teacher educators, who were English as Second Language advisers. The initial discussion…

  7. Ethics Leadership in Research, Healthcare and Organizational Systems: Commentary and Critical Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriele, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades there has arisen a greater awareness of the ever present need for critical academic reflection on the nature of ethics leadership and committees in research, healthcare, and organizational systems. Yet what is meant by ethics itself? How is ethics understood as a historical phenomenon? What challenges must ethics leaders face…

  8. A framework guiding critical thinking through reflective journal documentation: a Middle Eastern experience.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elaine; Courtney, Mary

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a framework to guide critical thinking through reflective journaling, and describe how a group of 20 Middle Eastern nurses used reflective journaling to enhance their practice. Journal documentation was used during clinical practicum to foster the development of critical thinking in order to assist nurses when analysing and evaluating their clinical experiences. The findings from this study demonstrated that nurses accepted the framework for journal documentation because it provided structure for reflection, speculation, synthesis and metacognition of events experienced during clinical practice. Journaling gave nurses the opportunity to transfer thoughts onto paper and write down subjective and objective data, and created dialogue between the nurse educators and nurses. They were engaged in productive and positive activity to enhance their nursing practice. Nurses also commented that writing helped to develop their confidence in writing English.

  9. Effectiveness of past and current critical incident analysis on reflective learning and practice change.

    PubMed

    Vachon, Brigitte; LeBlanc, Jeannette

    2011-09-01

    Critical incident analysis (CIA) is one of the strategies frequently used to facilitate reflective learning. It involves the thorough description and analysis of an authentic and experienced event within its specific context. However, CIA has also been described as having the potential to expose vulnerabilities, threaten learners' coping mechanisms and increase rather than reduce their anxiety levels. The aim of this study was to compare the analysis of current critical incidents with that of past critical incidents, and to further explore why and how the former is more conducive to reflective learning and practice change than the latter. A collaborative research study was conducted. Eight occupational therapists were recruited to participate in a reflective learning group that convened for 12 meetings held over a 15-month period. The group facilitator planned and adapted the learning strategies to be used to promote reflective learning and guided the group process. Critical incident analysis represented the main activity carried out in the group discussions. The data collected were analysed using the grounded theory method. Three phenomena were found to differentiate between the learning contexts created by the analysis of, respectively, past and current critical incidents: attitudinal disposition; legitimacy of purpose, and the availability of opportunities for experimentation. Analysis of current clinical events was found to improve participants' motivation to self-evaluate, to increase their self-efficacy, and to help them transfer learning into action and to progressively self-regulate. The results of this collaborative research study suggest that the analysis of current clinical events in order to promote reflection offers a safer and more constructive learning environment than does the analysis of incidents that have occurred in the past. This learning strategy is directly grounded in health professional practice. The remaining challenge for continuing

  10. Self-assessment, reflection on practice and critical thinking in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Siles-González, José; Solano-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-10-01

    In accordance with the principles of the European Higher Education Area, the aim of this study was to contribute to the implementation of self-assessment through the application of reflection on learning and critical thinking. The theoretical framework employed was Habermas's critical theory and emancipatory interest as a preliminary step to generate educational transformations. The methodological contribution is the design a student self-assessment document that promotes reflection on action and critical thinking. The development of assessment through peer evaluation and other intermediate solutions until achieving self-assessment entails a shift in the educational and scientific paradigm, but also involves the implementation in practice of democratic and ethical principles, values and premises in society. Self-assessment is a novel concept for students, and obliges them to reinterpret their role. Due to the diversity of students' principles, values, motivations, interests and aspirations, this reinterpretation of their role can have a positive outcome, stimulating an active and critical attitude towards group work and self-assessment; or, on the contrary, can generate a stance characterised by disinterest, passivity and lack of critical thinking. The forms of assessment adopted in a given educational system reflect ways of thinking related to ideologies, values, ethical principles and educational paradigms: in order to render implementation of effective self-assessment feasible, it is necessary to undertake structural and regulatory reforms. Students have little experience of reflection on practice or critical thinking. Massification and cultural and structural factors determine the form of assessment. In this context, it would seem advisable to move towards self-assessment gradually and cautiously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fragmentation of Patient Safety Research: A Critical Reflection of Current Human Factors Approaches to Patient Handover

    PubMed Central

    Manser, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The integration of human factors science in research and interventions aimed at increased patient safety has led to considerable improvements. However, some challenges to patient safety persist and may require human factors experts to critically reflect upon their predominant approaches to research and improvement. This paper is a call to start a discussion of these issues in the area of patient handover. Briefly reviewing recent handover research shows that while these studies have provided valuable insights into the communication practices for a range of handover situations, the predominant research strategy of studying isolated handover episodes replicates the very problem of fragmentation of care that the studies aim to overcome. Thus, there seems to be a need for a patient-centred approach to handover research that aims to investigate the interdependencies of handover episodes during a series of transitions occurring along the care path. Such an approach may contribute to novel insights and help to increase the effectiveness and sustainability of interventions to improve handover. Significance for public health While much of public health research has a preventive focus, health services research is generally concerned with the ways in which care is provided to those requiring treatment. This paper calls for a patient-centred approach to research on patient handover; a significant contributor to adverse events in healthcare. It is argued that this approach has the potential to improve our understanding of handover processes along the continuum of care. Thus, it can provide a scientific foundation for effective improvements in handover that are likely to reduce patient harm and help to maintain patient safety. PMID:25170504

  12. Definition and means of maintaining the criticality prevention design features portion of the PFP safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Bergquist, G.G., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-05

    This document summarizes existing criticality safety evaluations and identifies design features that are considered to be one of the two contingencies required to prevent exceeding the criticality limit of 0.95 k eff in the Plutonium Finishing Plant.

  13. Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anup R.; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric; Anderson, Michael L.; Olson, David; Jones, Benjamin S.; Seidensticker, John; Lumpkin, Susan; Hansen, Matthew C.; Sizer, Nigel C.; Davis, Crystal L.; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hahn, Nathan R.

    2016-01-01

    The global population of wild tigers remains dangerously low at fewer than 3500 individuals. Habitat loss, along with poaching, can undermine the international target recovery of doubling the number of wild tigers by 2022. Using a new satellite-based monitoring system, we analyzed 14 years of forest loss data within the 76 landscapes (ranging from 278 to 269,983 km2) that have been prioritized for conservation of wild tigers. Our analysis provides an update of the status of tiger habitat and describes new applications of technology to detect precisely where forest loss is occurring in order to curb future habitat loss. Across the 76 landscapes, forest loss was far less than anticipated (79,597 ± 22,629 km2, 7.7% of remaining habitat) over the 14-year study period (2001–2014). Habitat loss was unevenly distributed within a subset of 29 landscapes deemed most critical for doubling wild tiger populations: 19 showed little change (1.5%), whereas 10 accounted for more than 98% (57,392 ± 16,316 km2) of habitat loss. Habitat loss in source population sites within 76 landscapes ranged from no loss to 435 ± 124 km2 (x¯=24km2, SD = 89, total = 1676 ± 476 km2). Doubling the tiger population by 2022 requires moving beyond tracking annual changes in habitat. We highlight near–real-time forest monitoring technologies that provide alerts of forest loss at relevant spatial and temporal scales to prevent further erosion. PMID:27051881

  14. A reflective lens: applying critical systems thinking and visual methods to ecohealth research.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Deborah; Wyborn, Carina

    2010-12-01

    Critical systems methodology has been advocated as an effective and ethical way to engage with the uncertainty and conflicting values common to ecohealth problems. We use two contrasting case studies, coral reef management in the Philippines and national park management in Australia, to illustrate the value of critical systems approaches in exploring how people respond to environmental threats to their physical and spiritual well-being. In both cases, we used visual methods--participatory modeling and rich picturing, respectively. The critical systems methodology, with its emphasis on reflection, guided an appraisal of the research process. A discussion of these two case studies suggests that visual methods can be usefully applied within a critical systems framework to offer new insights into ecohealth issues across a diverse range of socio-political contexts. With this article, we hope to open up a conversation with other practitioners to expand the use of visual methods in integrated research.

  15. A transcultural, preventive ethics approach to critical-care medicine: restoring the critical care physician's power and authority.

    PubMed

    McCullough, L B

    1998-12-01

    This article comments on the treatment of critical-care ethics in four preceding articles about critical-care medicine and its ethical challenges in mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, and the Philippines. These articles show how cultural values can be in both synchrony and conflict in generating these ethical challenges and in the constraints that they place on the response of critical-care ethics to them. To prevent ethical conflict in critical care the author proposes a two-step approach to the ethical justification of critical-care management: (1) the decision to resuscitate and initiate critical-care management, which is based on the obligation to prevent imminent mortality without permanent loss of consciousness; and (2) the decision to continue critical-care management, which is based on the obligation both to prevent imminent death without permanent loss of consciousness and to avoid unnecessary, significant iatrogenic costs to the patient and psychosocial costs to the family when the reduction of mortality risk is marginal. Physicians and hospitals should restore the critical-care physician's authority and power -- against prevailing cultural values, if necessary -- to control when critical-care intervention is offered, when it is recommended to continue, and when it is recommended to be discontinued and the patient allowed to die.

  16. Reflective writing: a strategy to foster critical inquiry in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Usher, K; Francis, D; Owens, J; Tollefson, J

    1999-01-01

    Whilst nursing has recognised the importance of reflective practitioners, few strategies designed to achieve this outcome are currently apparent in nursing education literature. Writing, forwarded as one way to enhance the development of critical thinking and reflection in undergraduate nursing students, is the focus of this article. The article describes a project undertaken to explore the ways writing could be incorporated into an undergraduate curriculum as a strategy to enhance and extend personal and professional meaning-making. It examines a number of strategies utilised in the project and offers some insightful understandings developed by the team.

  17. Frustrated total internal reflection and critical coupling in a thick plasmonic grating with narrow slits

    SciTech Connect

    Mattiucci, N.; D'Aguanno, G. E-mail: giuseppe.daguanno@us.army.mil; Bloemer, M. J.; Alù, A.

    2014-06-02

    We demonstrate the possibility of critical coupling through frustrated total internal reflection in a thick plasmonic grating below the first diffraction order. Differently from conventional approaches relying on the excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons, here we exploit the light coupling with the leaky modes supported by the grating. This mechanism entails a wide-angle coupling and effectively access spectral bands that would otherwise be difficult to probe using conventional plasmonic critical coupling techniques, such as the Otto configuration. Our finding may pave the way to efficient plasmonic bio-sensor devices.

  18. Aerosol single-scattering albedo retrieval over North Africa using critical reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Kelley C.

    The sign and magnitude of the aerosol radiative forcing over bright surfaces is highly dependent on the absorbing properties of the aerosol. Thus, the determination of aerosol forcing over desert regions requires accurate information about the aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA). However, the brightness of desert surfaces complicates the retrieval of aerosol optical properties using passive space-based measurements. The aerosol critical reflectance is one parameter that can be used to relate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance changes over land to the aerosol absorption properties, without knowledge of the underlying surface properties or aerosol loading. Physically, the parameter represents the TOA reflectance at which increased aerosol scattering due to increased aerosol loading is balanced by increased absorption of the surface contribution to the TOA reflectance. It can be derived by comparing two satellite images with different aerosol loading, assuming that the surface reflectance and background aerosol are similar between the two days. In this work, we explore the utility of the critical reflectance method for routine monitoring of spectral aerosol absorption from space over North Africa, a region that is predominantly impacted by absorbing dust and biomass burning aerosol. We derive the critical reflectance from Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 1B reflectances in the vicinity of two Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations: Tamanrasset, a site in the Algerian Sahara, and Banizoumbou, a Sahelian site in Niger. We examine the sensitivity of the critical reflectance parameter to aerosol physical and optical properties, as well as solar and viewing geometry, using the Santa Barbara DISORT Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model, and apply our findings to retrieve SSA from the MODIS critical reflectance values. We compare our results to AERONET-retrieved estimates, as well as to measurements of the TOA albedo and surface fluxes from the

  19. Critical Reflections on Participatory Action Research in a Prison Setting: Toward Occupational Justice.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, Jeffrey L; Wall, Jarrod M; Ohm, David

    2016-09-19

    There is little information about prison-related occupational deprivation, and about doing research in prison. To document an occupational therapist and two prisoners' critical reflections on an informal occupational therapy education program using participatory action research (PAR), we reflect on our combined experiences of evaluating an occupational therapy program. The reflections include articulation of power differentials and examples of occupational deprivation and injustice at every stage of the program evaluation process. We found that the PAR process allowed all collaborators to engage of co-occupation and gain a keener understanding of occupational justice. With co-occupation came personal growth and an appreciation for each other's humanity despite our diverse backgrounds. Recognizing that research in prison can be challenging, the results suggest it can also be rewarding. We offer insights and practical suggestions for doing research in prison. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Biomass Burning Aerosol Absorption Measurements with MODIS Using the Critical Reflectance Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Li; Martins, Vanderlei J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2010-01-01

    This research uses the critical reflectance technique, a space-based remote sensing method, to measure the spatial distribution of aerosol absorption properties over land. Choosing two regions dominated by biomass burning aerosols, a series of sensitivity studies were undertaken to analyze the potential limitations of this method for the type of aerosol to be encountered in the selected study areas, and to show that the retrieved results are relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the assumptions used in the retrieval of smoke aerosol. The critical reflectance technique is then applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to retrieve the spectral aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) in South African and South American 35 biomass burning events. The retrieved results were validated with collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals. One standard deviation of mean MODIS retrievals match AERONET products to within 0.03, the magnitude of the AERONET uncertainty. The overlap of the two retrievals increases to 88%, allowing for measurement variance in the MODIS retrievals as well. The ensemble average of MODIS-derived SSA for the Amazon forest station is 0.92 at 670 nm, and 0.84-0.89 for the southern African savanna stations. The critical reflectance technique allows evaluation of the spatial variability of SSA, and shows that SSA in South America exhibits higher spatial variation than in South Africa. The accuracy of the retrieved aerosol SSA from MODIS data indicates that this product can help to better understand 44 how aerosols affect the regional and global climate.

  1. Promoting Critical Reflection: An Evaluation of the Longer-Term Impact of a Substantial Faculty Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Susanna; Harris, Muveddet

    2017-01-01

    For many faculty, critical reflection on teaching and learning requires space and time that is not readily available. For fifteen years, we have run a substantial year-long faculty development program designed to help participants: (1) reflect critically on their teaching and their students' learning; and (2) develop a project related to their…

  2. Establishing open and critical discourses in the science classroom: Reflecting on initial difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille M.; Taylor, Peter C.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a reflective account of a science teacher’s endeavours to use the referent of critical constructivism to transform her pedagogical practices. The context of her action research was a Year 10 Bioethics unit taught at an independent girls’ school in Perth, Western Australia. Students were provided with opportunities to engage in open and critical discourses; many did, but a few were unwilling to participate in accordance with the teacher’s intentions. We illustrate the disruptive influence of these “dissident” students and explore the reasons for their unwillingness to suspend their disbelief in a new way of knowing (and of being) that involves a radical change in the role of language in the classroom. We conclude with recommendations for epistemological pluralism and the careful use of critical discourse for re-negotiating teaching and learning roles and creating conditions for open discourse to flourish.

  3. A Critical Analysis of Approaches To Targeted PTSD Prevention: Current Status and Theoretically Derived Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldner, Matthew T.; Monson, Candice M.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2007-01-01

    Although efforts to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have met with relatively limited success, theoretically driven preventive approaches with promising efficacy are emerging. The current article critically reviews investigations of PTSD prevention programs that target persons at risk for being exposed to a traumatic event or who have…

  4. Interviewing Sub-Saharan migrants in Switzerland about HIV/AIDS: critical reflections on the interview process.

    PubMed

    Bischofberger, Iren; Vischer, Lilo Roost

    2010-01-01

    Although research underpinnings for the interview process are often discussed in the scholarly community, reports of explicit experiences about this step are often insufficient or lacking in research publications on migrant health and in the context of HIV/AIDS. The authors highlight the challenges they encountered in conducting qualitative interviews in a multilingual, transcultural setting with Sub-Saharan migrants on HIV prevention and care. The authors discuss challenges and solutions during the conduct of interviews. They particularly highlight strategies on interview conduct, participant focus, and interviewer's behavior, which supported good quality in their research interviews. The main aim of the article is to critically reflect experiences and to suggest successful methods during interview phases with regard to the migrant setting and the sensitivity of the research topic.

  5. Measuring third year undergraduate nursing students' reflective thinking skills and critical reflection self-efficacy following high fidelity simulation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tutticci, Naomi; Lewis, Peter A; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Critical reflection underpins critical thinking, a highly desirable generic nursing graduate capability. To improve the likelihood of critical thinking transferring to clinical practice, reflective thinking needs to be measured within the learning space of simulation. This study was divided into two phases to address the reliability and validity measures of previously untested surveys. Phase One data was collected from individuals (n = 6) using a 'think aloud' approach and an expert panel to review content validity, and verbatim comment analysis was undertaken. The Reflective Thinking Instrument and Critical Reflection Self-Efficacy Visual Analogue Scale items were contextualised to simulation. The expert review confirmed these instruments exhibited content validity. Phase Two data was collected through an online survey (n = 58). Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency and was demonstrated by all subscales and the Instrument as a whole (.849). There was a small to medium positive correlation between critical reflection self-efficacy and general self-efficacy (r = .324, n = 56, p = .048). Participant responses were positive regarding the simulation experience. The research findings demonstrated that the Reflective Thinking and Simulation Satisfaction survey is reliable. Further development of this survey to establish validity is recommended to make it viable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly {sup 2139}Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase {sup 239}Pu containing 5.9 wt-% {sup 240}Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal.

  7. The education of health practitioners supporting breastfeeding women: time for critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Fiona

    2006-10-01

    The protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding has now become a major international priority as emphasized in the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. Health practitioners, such as midwives, nurses and doctors, have a key role to play in providing support to breastfeeding women. This paper provides a critical discussion of educational requirements of health practitioners to equip them for their supportive role. The effective integration of embodied, vicarious, practice-based and theoretical knowledge requires opportunities for deep critical reflection. This approach should facilitate personal reflection and critical engagement with broader socio-political issues, thus allowing for collective understandings and change. Practitioners also need to understand breastfeeding as a biopsychosocial process that is dynamic, relational and changes over time. Recommendations are outlined with regards to multidisciplinary undergraduate education; mentorship schemes with knowledgeable role models supporting student practitioners; involvement of voluntary and peer supporters; post-registration education; setting of national standards for breastfeeding education; tailored education for specific groups; designated funding; and involvement of breastfeeding specialists.

  8. Teachers Make the Critical Difference in Dropout Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucci, John A.; Reitzammer, Ann F.

    1992-01-01

    Teachers' daily interaction is a powerful influence on at-risk students. Effective dropout prevention components include positive instructional environment, enhancement of self-esteem, alternative education, absence monitoring, mentoring, parent involvement, social and health services, teen parent programs, and transition strategies. (SK)

  9. Prevention of Placement: Critical Factors in Program Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, William J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined placement prevention programs intended to help troubled families stay together. Contrasted programs which terminated with continuance of family care with programs that ended in placement of children. Found that in the placed cases, problems were worse and more numerous, and family attitudes toward therapists and agencies were less…

  10. Critical analysis of soft point contact Andreev reflection spectra between superconducting films and pressed In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parab, Pradnya; Chauhan, Prashant; Muthurajan, H.; Bose, Sangita

    2017-04-01

    We present a critical analysis of an alternative technique of point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) spectroscopy used to extract energy resolved information of superconductors which is based on making ‘soft-contacts’ between superconductors and indium. This technique is not sensitive to mechanical vibrations and hence can be used in a cryogen free platform increasing its accessibility to users having no access to cryogenic liquids. Through our experiments on large number of superconducting films we show that the PCAR spectra below the T c of In show sub-harmonic gap structures consistent with the theory of multiple Andreev reflection (MAR) and a zero bias conductance (ZBC) anomaly associated with the Josephson supercurrent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that large contact resistance with low transparency ballistic contacts in the PCAR regime are required to obtain reliable spectroscopic data. One limitation of the technique arises for low contact resistance junctions where the superconducting proximity effect (SPE) reduces the value of the superconducting energy gap.

  11. Critical analysis of soft point contact Andreev reflection spectra between superconducting films and pressed In.

    PubMed

    Parab, Pradnya; Chauhan, Prashant; Muthurajan, H; Bose, Sangita

    2017-04-05

    We present a critical analysis of an alternative technique of point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) spectroscopy used to extract energy resolved information of superconductors which is based on making 'soft-contacts' between superconductors and indium. This technique is not sensitive to mechanical vibrations and hence can be used in a cryogen free platform increasing its accessibility to users having no access to cryogenic liquids. Through our experiments on large number of superconducting films we show that the PCAR spectra below the T c of In show sub-harmonic gap structures consistent with the theory of multiple Andreev reflection (MAR) and a zero bias conductance (ZBC) anomaly associated with the Josephson supercurrent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that large contact resistance with low transparency ballistic contacts in the PCAR regime are required to obtain reliable spectroscopic data. One limitation of the technique arises for low contact resistance junctions where the superconducting proximity effect (SPE) reduces the value of the superconducting energy gap.

  12. Validation of FSP Reactor Design with Sensitivity Studies of Beryllium-Reflected Critical Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall

    2013-02-01

    The baseline design for space nuclear power is a fission surface power (FSP) system: sodium-potassium (NaK) cooled, fast spectrum reactor with highly-enriched-uranium (HEU)-O2 fuel, stainless steel (SS) cladding, and beryllium reflectors with B4C control drums. Previous studies were performed to evaluate modeling capabilities and quantify uncertainties and biases associated with analysis methods and nuclear data. Comparison of Zero Power Plutonium Reactor (ZPPR)-20 benchmark experiments with the FSP design indicated that further reduction of the total design model uncertainty requires the reduction in uncertainties pertaining to beryllium and uranium cross-section data. Further comparison with three beryllium-reflected HEU-metal benchmark experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) concluded the requirement that experimental validation data have similar cross section sensitivities to those found in the FSP design. A series of critical experiments was performed at ORCEF in the 1960s to support the Medium Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) space reactor design. The small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were graphite- or beryllium-reflected assemblies of SS-clad, HEU-O2 fuel on a vertical lift machine. All five configurations were evaluated as benchmarks. Two of the five configurations were beryllium reflected, and further evaluated using the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis capabilities of SCALE 6.1. Validation of the example FSP design model was successful in reducing the primary uncertainty constituent, the Be(n,n) reaction, from 0.28 %dk/k to 0.0004 %dk/k. Further assessment of additional reactor physics measurements performed on the SCCA experiments may serve to further validate FSP design and operation.

  13. Critics denounce Bush's proposed budget for HIV prevention and care.

    PubMed

    2002-04-01

    AIDS Drug Assistance Programs in several states already have to put HIV-infected people on waiting lists to receive life-saving antiretroviral drugs because of budget shortfalls, and AIDS advocates say this problem will continue through 2002 and 2003 unless Congress provides a financial boost to HIV programs. Activists also say the United States will never achieve its goal of reducing new HIV infection rates by 50% within the next few years unless prevention spending is increased.

  14. Benchmarking of HEU mental annuli critical assemblies with internally reflected graphite cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaobo, Liu; Bess, John D.; Marshall, Margaret A.

    2017-09-01

    Three experimental configurations of critical assemblies, performed in 1963 at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiment Facility, which are assembled using three different diameter HEU annuli (15-9 inches, 15-7 inches and 13-7 inches) metal annuli with internally reflected graphite cylinder are evaluated and benchmarked. The experimental uncertainties which are 0.00057, 0.00058 and 0.00057 respectively, and biases to the benchmark models which are - 0.00286, - 0.00242 and - 0.00168 respectively, were determined, and the experimental benchmark keff results were obtained for both detailed and simplified models. The calculation results for both detailed and simplified models using MCNP6-1.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 agree well to the benchmark experimental results within difference less than 0.2%. The benchmarking results were accepted for the inclusion of ICSBEP Handbook.

  15. Benchmarking of HEU Mental Annuli Critical Assemblies with Internally Reflected Graphite Cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaobo, Liu; Bess, John D.; Marshall, Margaret A.

    2016-09-01

    Three experimental configurations of critical assemblies, performed in 1963 at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiment Facility, which are assembled using three different diameter HEU annuli (15-9 inches, 15-7 inches and 13-7 inches) metal annuli with internally reflected graphite cylinder are evaluated and benchmarked. The experimental uncertainties which are 0.00055, 0.00055 and 0.00055 respectively, and biases to the detailed benchmark models which are -0.00179, -0.00189 and -0.00114 respectively, were determined, and the experimental benchmark keff results were obtained for both detailed and simplified model. The calculation results for both detailed and simplified models using MCNP6-1.0 and ENDF VII.1 agree well to the benchmark experimental results with a difference of less than 0.2%. These are acceptable benchmark experiments for inclusion in the ICSBEP Handbook.

  16. Experimental physics characteristics of a heavy-metal-reflected fast-spectrum critical assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heneveld, W. H.; Paschall, R. K.; Springer, T. H.; Swanson, V. A.; Thiele, A. W.; Tuttle, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    A zero-power critical assembly was designed, constructed, and operated for the purpose of conducting a series of benchmark experiments dealing with the physics characteristics of a UN-fueled, Li-7 cooled, Mo-reflected, drum-controlled compact fast reactor for use with a space-power electric conversion system. The experimental program consisted basically of measuring the differential neutron spectra and the changes in critical mass that accompanied the stepwise addition of (Li-7)3N, Hf, Ta, and W to a basic core fueled with U metal in a pin-type Ta honeycomb structure. In addition, experimental results were obtained on power distributions, control characteristics, neutron lifetime, and reactivity worths of numerous absorber, structural, and scattering materials.

  17. Why the Neighborhood Social Environment Is Critical in Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Suglia, Shakira F; Shelton, Rachel C; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y Claire; Rundle, Andrew; Link, Bruce G

    2016-02-01

    The continuing obesity epidemic in the USA calls for the examination of antecedents to the well-known risk factors of physical activity and diet. The neighborhood built environment has been extensively studied in relation to obesity noting an increased risk of development and prevalence of obesity in relation to numerous built environment characteristics (lack of green spaces, higher number of fast food restaurants, low walkability indices). The neighborhood social environment, however, has been less extensively studied but is perhaps an equally important component of the neighborhood environment. The neighborhood social environment, particularly constructs of social capital, collective efficacy, and crime, is associated with obesity among both adults and children. Several studies have identified physical activity as a potential pathway of the neighborhood social environment and obesity association. Further work on social networks and norms and residential segregation, as well as the examination of dietary behaviors and mental health as potential mediating pathways, is necessary. Given the existing evidence, intervening on the neighborhood social environment may prove to be an effective target for the prevention on obesity. Intervention studies that promote healthy behaviors and prevent obesity while addressing aspects of the neighborhood social environment are necessary to better identify targets for obesity prevention.

  18. Pressure ulcers: critical considerations in prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, O M

    1991-01-01

    Pressure ulcer development is a serious problem occurring predominately among elderly persons, who are confined to bed or chair. Factors associated with pressure ulcer development include: cerebrovascular accident, impaired nutritional intake, fecal incontinence, lymphocytopenia and a high comorbidity score. Implementation of preventative measures, such as: in-depth assessment for mobility, a pressure relieving device combined with adequate repositioning, thorough evaluation for nutritional status and urinary incontinence, significantly reduce pressure ulcer incidence. If the pressure ulcer is a partial thickness (Stage II) wound, the causative factors are probably friction and/or moisture. If the ulcer is full thickness (Stage III, IV) it is secondary to pressure and/or shearing forces. The development of wound infection is the most common complication. Osteomyelitis is not an uncommon occurrence and must be initially ruled out in all full thickness pressure ulcers. Surgical debridement of necrotic tissue is necessary prior to further treatment and /or assessments. Cultures and antibiotic therapy are indicated only upon evidence of infection (erythema, edema, cellulitis, osteomyelitis, leukocytosis, bandemia or fever). Topical pharmacologic agents may be used to prevent or treat infection but must be carefully controlled to avoid such adverse effects as toxicity to the wound, allergic reaction and development of resistant pathogens. Proper use of occlusive dressings increase patient comfort, enhance healing, decrease the possibility of infection, save time and reduce costs. A patient presenting an ulcer which fails to improve, or due to its size will take a great deal of time to heal, should be evaluated for surgical closure.

  19. Use of Reflection-in-Action and Self-Assessment to Promote Critical Thinking Among Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Paul AM; Chiu, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine whether self-assessment and reflection-in-action improves critical thinking among pharmacy students. Methods A 24-item standardized test of critical thinking was developed utilizing previously-validated questions. Participants were divided into 2 groups (conditions). Those in condition 1 completed the test with no interference; those in condition 2 completed the test but were prompted at specific points during the test to reflect and self-assess. Results A total of 94 undergraduate (BScPhm) pharmacy students participated in this study. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between those who completed the test under condition 1 and condition 2, suggesting reflection and self-assessment may contribute positively to improvement in critical thinking. Conclusions Structured opportunities to reflect-in-action and self-assess may be associated with improvements among pharmacy students in performance of tasks related to critical thinking. PMID:18698383

  20. Reflection and critical incident analysis: ethical and moral implications of their use within nursing and midwifery education.

    PubMed

    Rich, A; Parker, D L

    1995-12-01

    Despite the dearth of rigorous empirical investigation, reflection and reflective practice have become buzz words in nursing and midwifery education. Reflection and critical incident analysis may be tools which can facilitate the integration of theory and practice. It is proposed that in the absence of explicit and thorough preparation of lecturers and students, together with very careful curriculum planning, these activities may be counter-productive or even harmful. In the absence of structure, reflection and associated critical incident analysis may lead to student disaffection or, worse, the potential for actual psychological disturbance. Empirical studies on the use of identified models of reflection and critical incident analysis are urgently needed to assist nursing and midwifery lecturers and students to achieve predictable learning outcomes for this potentially valuable activity.

  1. Prevention of Iatrogenic Anemia in Critical and Neonatal Care.

    PubMed

    Jakacka, Natalia; Snarski, Emilian; Mekuria, Selamawit

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic anemia caused by diagnostic blood sampling is a common problem in the intensive care unit, where continuous monitoring of blood parameters is very often required. Cumulative blood loss associated with phlebotomy along with other factors render this group of patients particularly susceptible to anemia. As it has been proven that anemia in this group of patients leads to inferior outcomes, packed red blood cell transfusions are used to alleviate possible threats associated with low hemoglobin concentration. However, the use of blood components is a procedure conferring a set of risks to the patients despite improvements in safety. Iatrogenic blood loss has also gained particular attention in neonatal care, where cumulative blood loss due to samples taken during the first week of life could easily equal or exceed circulating blood volume. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the causes of iatrogenic anemia and discusses the most common preventive measures taken to reduce diagnostic blood loss and the requirement for blood component transfusions in the aforementioned clinical situations.

  2. Critical Social Theory and Transformative Learning: Evidence in Pre-Service Teachers' Service-Learning Reflection Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Suzanne; Selva, Gitta

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the opportunities for transformational learning experienced by a group of pre-service teachers who were engaged in service-learning as a pedagogical process with a focus on reflection. Critical social theory informed the design of the reflection process as it enabled a move away from knowledge transmission toward knowledge…

  3. Critical Social Theory and Transformative Learning: Evidence in Pre-Service Teachers' Service-Learning Reflection Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Suzanne; Selva, Gitta

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the opportunities for transformational learning experienced by a group of pre-service teachers who were engaged in service-learning as a pedagogical process with a focus on reflection. Critical social theory informed the design of the reflection process as it enabled a move away from knowledge transmission toward knowledge…

  4. Broadening cultural sensitivity at the end of life: an interprofessional education program incorporating critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Halm, Margo A; Evans, Rhonda; Wittenberg, Amie; Wilgus, Edward

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PROBLEM: End-of-life beliefs and practices are as varied as one's culture. Little is known about what interventions are effective in developing clinician's skills to deliver culturally sensitive end-of-life care. Using a pre-post design, this pilot study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 2-stage educational program on enhancing clinician's knowledge and comfort in addressing and honoring diverse end-of-life care beliefs, as well as developing higher levels of cultural competence. Twenty-four interprofessional team members practicing on a combined medical-surgical oncology unit attended an in-service session on the end-of-life care beliefs, practices, and preferences of the Latino, Russian, and Micronesian cultures and then participated in critical reflection sessions where culturally specific end-of-life care cases were discussed using a structured dialogue guide. Outcomes measured were cultural competence using the Intercultural Development Inventory, Frommelt Attitudes Toward Caring of the Dying, knowledge of cultural beliefs/traditions, and self-perceived comfort in providing culturally sensitive end-of-life care. Collectively, the Intercultural Development Inventory showed that the team's perceived cultural competence was at the level of "acceptance" whereas team's developmental orientation was "minimization," meaning that the team overestimated its cultural competence. The t tests showed no significant differences between pre-post attitude and knowledge scores (P > .05). Despite these findings, staffs' perceived level of understanding of end-of-life care beliefs, preferences, and practices of the Latino, Russian, and Micronesian cultures, as well as comfort and effectiveness in providing culturally sensitive end-of-life care, were higher after the in-service and critical reflection sessions (P < .05). This 2-stage educational program did not significantly advance the team along the intercultural development continuum, nor did it significantly change

  5. Critically evaluating best management practices for preventing freshwater turtle extinctions.

    PubMed

    Spencer, R J; Van Dyke, J U; Thompson, Michael B

    2017-03-20

    Ex situ conservation tools, such as captive breeding for reintroduction, are considered last resort to help recover threatened or endangered species. However, they may also provide alternative strategies where reducing threats directly is difficult or ineffective. Headstarting, or captive rearing of eggs or neonate animals and subsequent release into the wild, has been controversial for decades. A major criticism is that headstarting is a symptomatic treatment of conservation problems (halfway technology), however, it may provide a mechanism to address multiple threats, particularly in close proximity of population centres. Here we conduct Population Viability Analyses (PVA) to assess the risk of extinction of Australia's most widespread freshwater turtle, Chelodina longicollis, to increasing adult road mortality and reduced recruitment through nest predation from introduced foxes. We also model a range of management scenarios to test the effectiveness of headstarting, fox management, and measures that reduce adult road mortality. We show that headstarting should be a primary tool for managing freshwater turtles under threats that affect multiple life history stages. Headstarting from harvest populations were the only scenarios that eliminated all risks of extinction, while also maintaining population growth. Small increments in adult mortality have greatest effect on population growth and extinction risk, however, where threats simultaneously affect other life history stages (e.g.. recruitment), eliminating harvest pressures on adult females alone will not eliminate the risk of population extinction. In our models, one harvest population could supply enough hatchlings to supplement 25 other similar sized populations at an annual rate to maintain population growth and eliminate the risk of population extinction. We advocate the creation of harvest populations for managing freshwater turtles facing significant threats to multiple life history stages. This article is

  6. Experimental physics characteristics of a heavy-metal-reflected fast-spectrum critical assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heneveld, W. H.; Paschall, R. K.; Springer, T. H.; Swanson, V. A.; Thiele, A. W.; Tuttle, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A zero-power critical assembly was designed, constructed, and operated for the purpose of conducting a series of benchmark experiments dealing with the physics characteristics of a UN-fueled, Li-cooled, Mo-reflected, drum-controlled compact fast reactor for use with a space-power electric conversion system. The range of the previous experimental investigations has been expanded to include the reactivity effects of:(1) surrounding the reactor with 15.24 cm (6 in.) of polyethylene, (2) reducing the heights of a portion of the upper and lower axial reflectors by factors of 2 and 4, (3) adding 45 kg of W to the core uniformly in two steps, (4) adding 9.54 kg of Ta to the core uniformly, and (5) inserting 2.3 kg of polyethylene into the core proper and determining the effect of a Ta addition on the polyethylene worth.

  7. A critical reflection on the personal impact of managerial hegemony within nurse education.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N S; Wimpenny, P

    1996-03-01

    This paper, written by two male nurse teachers, describes and analyses their experience of working in a nurse education culture permeated by the philosophy of business management. The introduction of business management practices to nurse education is discussed as a reflection of the current political hegemony of market forces and individualism. The authors discuss the implications for nurse teachers of being continually exposed to these politically motivated forces which increasingly provide the paradigm for service developments within the United Kingdom health services. In discussing the impact of this exposure it is argued that at the personal level individual teachers are experiencing a degree of apathy and personal dissonance which undermines their professional value system, resulting in emotional distress and a crisis of identity. It provides a critical reflection on the way organizational dynamics and power relations influence the subjective sense-making of individuals. The authors use a multiplicity of perspectives, including those provided by individual psychology, power relations, feminism and personhood, to argue for the need to develop an alternative paradigm which is characterized by the valuing of individual persons, empathic sensitivity and the fostering of creativity.

  8. The application of heterogeneous cluster grouping to reflective writing for medical humanities literature study to enhance students' empathy, critical thinking, and reflective writing.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-09-02

    To facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration and to make connections between patients' diseases and their social/cultural contexts, the study examined whether the use of heterogeneous cluster grouping in reflective writing for medical humanities literature acquisition could have positive effects on medical university students in terms of empathy, critical thinking, and reflective writing. A 15-week quasi-experimental design was conducted to investigate the learning outcomes. After conducting cluster algorithms, heterogeneous learning clusters (experimental group; n = 43) and non-heterogeneous learning clusters (control group; n = 43) were derived for a medical humanities literature study. Before and after the intervention, an Empathy Scale in Patient Care (ES-PC), a critical thinking disposition assessment (CTDA-R), and a reflective writing test were administered to both groups. The findings showed that on the empathy scale, significant differences in the "behavioral empathy," "affective empathy," and overall sections existed between the post-test mean scores of the experimental group and those of the control group, but such differences did not exist in "intelligent empathy." Regarding critical thinking, there were significant differences in "systematicity and analyticity," "skepticism and well-informed," "maturity and skepticism," and overall sections. As for reflective writing, significant differences existed in "ideas," "voice and point of view," "critical thinking and representation," "depth of reflection on personal growth," and overall sections, but not in "focus and context structure" and "language and conventions." This study outlined an alternative for using heterogeneous cluster grouping in reflective writing about medical humanities literature to facilitate interdisciplinary cooperation to provide more humanizing medical care.

  9. Critical Reflectance Derived from MODIS: Application for the Retrieval of Aerosol Absorption over Desert Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Kelley C.; Martins, J. Vanderlei; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2012-01-01

    Aerosols are tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere that scatter and absorb sunlight. Smoke particles are aerosols, as are sea salt, particulate pollution and airborne dust. When you look down at the earth from space sometimes you can see vast palls of whitish smoke or brownish dust being transported by winds. The reason that you can see these aerosols is because they are reflecting incoming sunlight back to the view in space. The reason for the difference in color between the different types of aerosol is that the particles arc also absorbing sunlight at different wavelengths. Dust appears brownish or reddish because it absorbs light in the blue wavelengths and scatters more reddish light to space, Knowing how much light is scattered versus how much is absorbed, and knowin that as a function of wavelength is essential to being able to quantify the role aerosols play in the energy balance of the earth and in climate change. It is not easy measuring the absorption properties of aerosols when they are suspended in the atmosphere. People have been doing this one substance at a time in the laboratory, but substances mix when they are in the atmosphere and the net absorption effect of all the particles in a column of air is a goal of remote sensing that has not yet been completely successful. In this paper we use a technique based on observing the point at which aerosols change from brightening the surface beneath to darkening it. If aerosols brighten a surface. they must scatter more light to space. If they darken the surface. they must be absorbing more. That cross over point is called the critical reflectance and in this paper we show that critical reflectance is a monotonic function of the intrinsic absorption properties of the particles. This parameter we call the single scattering albedo. We apply the technique to MODIS imagery over the Sahara and Sahel regions to retrieve the single scattering albedo in seven wavelengths, compare these retrievals to ground

  10. Going beyond "ABC" to include "GEM": critical reflections on progress in the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Shari L; Ehrhardt, Anke A

    2007-01-01

    A considerable number of studies have sought to identify what factors accounted for substantial reductions in HIV seroprevalence after several countries deployed "ABC" (abstinence, be faithful, condom use) strategies. After much public discourse and research on ABC success stories, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 2004 epidemic report indicated that nearly 50% of infected people worldwide were women, up from 35% in 1985. In light of the feminization of HIV/AIDS, we critically assess the limitations of ABC strategies. We provide 3 additional prevention strategies that focus on gender relations, economics, and migration (GEM) and can speak to the new face of the epidemic. Pressing beyond ABC, GEM strategies provide the basis for a stronger central platform from which national efforts against HIV/AIDS can proceed to reduce transmission risks.

  11. Capturing the Central Line Bundle Infection Prevention Interventions: Comparison of Reflective and Composite Modeling Methods

    PubMed Central

    Gilmartin, Heather M.; Sousa, Karen H.; Battaglia, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background The central line (CL) bundle interventions are important for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), but a modeling method for testing the CL bundle interventions within a health systems framework is lacking. Objectives Guided by the Quality Health Outcomes Model (QHOM), this study tested the CL bundle interventions in reflective and composite, latent, variable measurement models to assess the impact of the modeling approaches on an investigation of the relationships between adherence to the CL bundle interventions, organizational context, and CLABSIs. Methods A secondary data analysis study was conducted using data from 614 U.S. hospitals that participated in the Prevention of Nosocomial Infection and Cost-Effectiveness-Refined study. The sample was randomly split into exploration and validation subsets. Results The two CL bundle modeling approaches resulted in adequate fitting structural models (RMSEA = .04; CFI = .94) and supported similar relationships within the QHOM. Adherence to the CL bundle had a direct effect on organizational context (reflective = .23; composite = .20; p = .01), and CLABSIs (reflective = −.28; composite = −.25; p =.01). The relationship between context and CLABSIs was not significant. Both modeling methods resulted in partial support of the QHOM. Discussion There were little statistical, but large, conceptual differences between the reflective and composite modeling approaches. The empirical impact of the modeling approaches was inconclusive, for both models resulted in a good fit to the data. Lessons learned are presented. The comparison of modeling approaches is recommended when initially modeling variables that have never been modeled, or with directional ambiguity, to increase transparency and bring confidence to study findings. PMID:27579507

  12. Capturing the Central Line Bundle Infection Prevention Interventions: Comparison of Reflective and Composite Modeling Methods.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Heather M; Sousa, Karen H; Battaglia, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The central line (CL) bundle interventions are important for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), but a modeling method for testing the CL bundle interventions within a health systems framework is lacking. Guided by the Quality Health Outcomes Model (QHOM), this study tested the CL bundle interventions in reflective and composite, latent, variable measurement models to assess the impact of the modeling approaches on an investigation of the relationships between adherence to the CL bundle interventions, organizational context, and CLABSIs. A secondary data analysis study was conducted using data from 614 U.S. hospitals that participated in the Prevention of Nosocomial Infection and Cost-Effectiveness Refined study. The sample was randomly split into exploration and validation subsets. The two CL bundle modeling approaches resulted in adequate fitting structural models (RMSEA = .04; CFI = .94) and supported similar relationships within the QHOM. Adherence to the CL bundle had a direct effect on organizational context (reflective = .23; composite = .20; p = .01) and CLABSIs (reflective = -.28; composite = -.25; p = .01). The relationship between context and CLABSIs was not significant. Both modeling methods resulted in partial support of the QHOM. There were little statistical, but large, conceptual differences between the reflective and composite modeling approaches. The empirical impact of the modeling approaches was inconclusive, for both models resulted in a good fit to the data. Lessons learned are presented. The comparison of modeling approaches is recommended when initially modeling variables that have never been modeled or with directional ambiguity to increase transparency and bring confidence to study findings.

  13. Teacher development: a patchwork-text approach to enhancing critical reflection in veterinary and para-veterinary educators.

    PubMed

    Silva-Fletcher, Ayona; May, Hilary; Magnier, Kirsty M; May, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Reflection is an essential component of teacher-development programs, and reliable, valid methods to teach, assess, and evaluate reflection are critical. However, it is important that appropriate methods are created for and evaluated across multiple disciplinary backgrounds, as the participants' backgrounds are a major factor in the development of critical reflection. The patchwork-text approach is a narrative process that is predominantly focused on the personal development of the individual. The current study used the patchwork-text approach for the development of reflection in participants with a science background who had not used a reflective approach for personal development before. Twenty summative essays and 103 formative essays from 21 participants who underwent a 1-year higher-education teacher-development program were analyzed to assess whether the quality and quantity of reflective writing was enhanced through a regular, iterative process of reflective writing with feedback. The analysis of the essays involved the use of a predefined set of criteria for identifying the different reflective levels from 1 to 4 and the calculation of a reflective score to evaluate the overall development. The results show a clear improvement of higher-level critical thinking as the participants progressed through their course. Higher levels of reflection were achieved particularly where a unit focused on a familiar area for the participant as opposed to one in which the participant had less experience. The analysis provides evidence that the patchwork text is a useful method for development and evaluation of reflection in participants with a veterinary/animal-science base.

  14. Enteral nutrition in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in adult critical care patients.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jill; Rasmussen, Louisa

    2014-12-01

    Prevention and healing of pressure ulcers in critically ill patients can be especially challenging because of the patients' burden of illness and degree of physiological compromise. Providing adequate nutrition may help halt the development or worsening of pressure ulcers. Optimization of nutrition can be considered an essential ingredient in prevention and healing of pressure ulcers. Understanding malnutrition in critical care patients, the effect of nutrition on wound healing, and the application of evidence-based nutritional guidelines are important aspects for patients at high risk for pressure ulcers. Appropriate screenings for nutritional status and risk for pressure ulcers, early collaboration with a registered dietician, and administration of appropriate feeding formulations and micronutrient and macronutrient supplementation to promote wound healing are practical solutions to improve the nutritional status of critical care patients. Use of nutritional management and enteral feeding protocols may provide vital elements to augment nutrition and ultimately result in improved clinical outcomes. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  15. Development of Information Security-Focused Incident Prevention Measures for Critical Information Infrastructure in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Takahito; Nagayasu, Yukinobu

    In recent years, the dilemma of cyber attacks by malicious third parties targeting security vulnerabilities in information and communication systems has emerged, resulting in security incidents. This situation suggests that the establishment of proactive efforts and recurrence prevention measures are becoming imperative, especially in critical infrastructure sectors.This paper provides an analysis of 58 security incident cases, which occurred in critical infrastructures worldwide and were published in media. The purpose of the analysis is to conclude to a valid list of recurrence prevention measures that constitute good practices.

  16. Rationale and design of the pediatric critical illness stress-induced immune suppression (CRISIS) prevention trial.

    PubMed

    Carcillo, Joseph; Holubkov, Richard; Dean, J Michael; Berger, John; Meert, Kathleen L; Anand, K J S; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J L; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F; Nicholson, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Despite implementation of CDC recommendations and bundled interventions for preventing catheter-associated blood stream infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, or urinary catheter-associated infections, nosocomial infections and sepsis remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill children. Recent studies suggest that acquired critical illness stress-induced immune suppression (CRISIS) plays a role in the development of nosocomial infection and sepsis. This condition can be related to inadequate zinc, selenium, and glutamine levels, as well as hypoprolactinemia, leading to stress-induced lymphopenia, a predominant T(H)2 monocyte/macrophage state, and subsequent immune suppression. Prolonged immune dysfunction increases the likelihood of nosocomial infections associated with invasive devices. Although strategies to prevent common complications of critical illness are routinely employed (eg, prophylaxis for gastrointestinal bleeding, thrombophlebitis), no prophylactic strategy is used to prevent stress-induced immune suppression. This is the authors' rationale for the pediatric CRISIS prevention trial (NCT00395161), designed as a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical investigation to determine if daily enteral supplementation with zinc, selenium, and glutamine as well as parenteral metoclopramide (a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist that reverses hypoprolactinemia) prolongs the time until onset of nosocomial infection or sepsis in critically ill children compared to enteral supplementation with whey protein. If effective, this combined nutritional and pharmacologic approach may lessen the excess morbidity and mortality as well as resource utilization associated with nosocomial infections and sepsis in this population. The authors present the design and analytic plan for the CRISIS prevention trial.

  17. Rationale and Design of the Pediatric Critical Illness Stress-Induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Carcillo, Joseph; Holubkov, Richard; Dean, J. Michael; Berger, John; Meert, Kathleen L.; Anand, K. J. S.; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F.; Nicholson, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Despite implementation of CDC recommendations and bundled interventions for preventing catheter-associated blood stream infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, or urinary catheter–associated infections, nosocomial infections and sepsis remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill children. Recent studies suggest that acquired critical illness stress-induced immune suppression (CRISIS) plays a role in the development of nosocomial infection and sepsis. This condition can be related to inadequate zinc, selenium, and glutamine levels, as well as hypoprolactinemia, leading to stress-induced lymphopenia, a predominant TH2 monocyte/macrophage state, and subsequent immune suppression. Prolonged immune dysfunction increases the likelihood of nosocomial infections associated with invasive devices. Although strategies to prevent common complications of critical illness are routinely employed (eg, prophylaxis for gastrointestinal bleeding, thrombophlebitis), no prophylactic strategy is used to prevent stress-induced immune suppression. This is the authors’ rationale for the pediatric CRISIS prevention trial (NCT00395161), designed as a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical investigation to determine if daily enteral supplementation with zinc, selenium, and glutamine as well as parenteral metoclopramide (a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist that reverses hypoprolactinemia) prolongs the time until onset of nosocomial infection or sepsis in critically ill children compared to enteral supplementation with whey protein. If effective, this combined nutritional and pharmacologic approach may lessen the excess morbidity and mortality as well as resource utilization associated with nosocomial infections and sepsis in this population. The authors present the design and analytic plan for the CRISIS prevention trial. PMID:19380753

  18. Health Behavior Theory for Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Root-Cause Analysis Project in Critical Care Nursing.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kristen R; Ragnoni, Jennifer A; Bickmann, Jonathan D; Saarinen, Hannah A; Gosselin, Ann K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use a behavioral theory to examine pressure ulcer prevention by nurses in a critical care setting. A root-cause analysis approach was used, including an integrative literature review, operationalization of behavioral constructs into a survey, and root-cause analysis application in a cardiovascular intensive care unit. This article highlights an innovative approach to quality improvement in critical care.

  19. A study of the relationship between reflective writing and critical thinking in seventh grade integrated science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowicki, Mark Adam

    This study examined the role of reflective journal writing on the development of critical thinking in seventh grade integrated science students. The students participating in this study were part of four science classes taught by the same instructor, using the same curriculum and methods employed during this study. The larger working group consisted of 69 seventh grade students who were allowed to participate in this study by virtue of a signed consent form. The 12 students who comprised the smaller writing group were selected from the larger working group. The smaller, criterion-based writing group was selected from the working group based on their level of critical thinking as indicated on the pre-test instrument. The study utilized several methods of data collection. Data were collected through analyses of student journal entries, class discussions, and a pre and posttest instrument to measure a student's level of critical thinking. All participants were given code names to mask their identity. The findings of this study indicate that a majority of the students' ability to think critically appeared to improve after 18 weeks of reflective journal writing. However, no relationship was found between a student's level of critical thinking and his or her ability to write reflectively. Although many participants did improve their level of reflective writing and critical thinking, there was no direct relationship found between the two skills. This study provided some evidence that reflective journal writing is beneficial for students although some benefits may be intangible. The attitudes of many students toward writing improved, and there was a noticeable increase in students' willingness to share their thoughts and respond to questions in class. Practice in reflective writing also contributed to improved writing skills by the participants. Additionally, there are five recommendations for further research derived from this study.

  20. CRITICAL IMPERMEABILITY PRESSU RE OF LEAK PREVENTED SEAL BY BLOCKING EFFECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaga, Munehiko

    We have carried out the research on the impermeability of segment joint of shield tunnel used in a new water-expansion rubber material of injected ty pe. As the result, we found a new mechanism of impermeability by blocking effect. As next step, we investigated the impermeability function of a hard rubber leak prevented seal. It can be estimated that the critical imperm eability pressure rapidly increases if the hard rubber leak prevented seal has a cut-off performance by blockage effect. Consequently, we clarified that the hard rubber leak prevented seal has impermeability function by blocking effect. This result can be utilized for the development of impermeability method.

  1. Work engagement, moral distress, education level, and critical reflective practice in intensive care nurses.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Lisa A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how nurses' moral distress, education level, and critical reflective practice (CRP) related to their work engagement. The study is relevant to nursing, given registered nurse (RN) documented experiences of job-related distress and work dissatisfaction, and the nursing shortage crisis. A better understanding of factors that may enhance RN work engagement is needed. A non-experimental, descriptive, correlational design was used to examine the relationships among four variables: moral distress, education level, CRP, and work engagement. The sample included 28 intensive care unit RNs from three separate ICUs in a 355-bed Southwest magnet-designated hospital. There was a positive direct relationship between CRP and work engagement, a negative direct relationship between moral distress and work engagement, and CRP and moral distress, together, explained 47% of the variance in work engagement. Additionally, in the neonatal intensive care unit, a positive direct relationship between increased educational level and CRP was identified, with a suggested negative relationship between increased education level and moral distress. Strategies to promote CRP and reduce moral distress are recommended, to promote RN work engagement. Additionally, further study on the role of education in nurses' work engagement is recommended. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Critical care outreach 2: uncovering the underpinning philosophy and knowledge through collaborative reflection.

    PubMed

    Durham, Lesley; Hancock, Helen C

    2006-01-01

    Critical care outreach (Outreach) was introduced as part of a government strategy to address increasing demands on limited intensive care (level 3) and high-dependency (level 2) resources. The discipline of Outreach developed rapidly and, as a result, the fundamental philosophical theories and sources of knowledge that underpin its practice remain, at least to some extent, unexplored, and their contribution to practice overlooked. It is important that we understand these philosophical theories and sources of knowledge so that we are able to provide sound rationale and guidance for practice and address the increasing pressure to demonstrate effectiveness. The authors argue that the complex situations encountered and managed by Outreach are not entirely amenable to traditional forms of measurement, and that its impact on patient care is, therefore, not readily acknowledged. In applying a model of collaborative reflection, this study analyses the management of a clinical case by a nurse consultant in Outreach. In doing so, it explores the realities of practice by deconstructing the complexity of a particular situation and highlights the variety of knowledge that contributes to effective Outreach practice.

  3. The effect of reflective writing interventions on the critical thinking skills and dispositions of baccalaureate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Naber, Jessica; Wyatt, Tami H

    2014-01-01

    The importance of critical thinking is well-documented by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and the National League for Nursing. Reflective writing is often used to increase understanding and analytical ability. The lack of empirical evidence about the effect of reflective writing interventions on critical thinking supports the examination of this concept. Study objectives were: This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest design. The setting was two schools of nursing at universities in the southern United States. The convenience sample included 70 fourth-semester students in baccalaureate nursing programs. Randomly assigned control and experimental groups completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory Test (CCTDI). The experimental group completed six reflective writing assignments. Both groups completed the two tests again. Results showed that the experimental group had a significant increase (p=0.03) on the truthseeking subscale of the CCTDI when compared to the control group. The experimental group's scores increased on four CCTST subscales and were higher than the control group's on three CCTST subscales. The results of this study make it imperative for nursing schools to consider including reflective writing-especially assignments based on Paul's (1993) model-in nursing courses. If future studies, testing over longer periods of time, show significant increases in critical thinking, those interventions could be incorporated into nursing curriculum and change the way nurse educators evaluate students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Not Just Another Single Issue: Teen Pregnancy Prevention's Link to Other Critical Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses critical social issues linked to teen pregnancy, explaining that teen pregnancy prevention should be viewed as working to improve these social issues. After providing general background on teen pregnancy, the report offers five fact sheets: (1) "Teen Pregnancy, Welfare Dependency, and Poverty" (continuing to reduce…

  5. [Prevention of preeclampsia with low-dose acetyl salicylic acid: critical assessment].

    PubMed

    Verrotti, C; Fieni, S; Gualdi, M; Cavatorta, E

    1999-01-01

    The Authors present a critical review of the published literature about the effect of low dose of acido acetilsalicilico on prevention and treatment of preeclampic. Beginning from the effects of low daily dose of acido acetilsalicilico on the pregnancy, the Authors present the published datas from 1970 until today, and suggest the present directions for use of acido acetilsalicilico in pregnancy.

  6. A critical reflective analysis of issues surrounding the admission of a patient to ITU.

    PubMed

    Hall, L

    1998-01-01

    John's (1995) Model of Structured Reflection was used to explore and develop personal and professional knowledge The situation explored acknowledges the complexities surrounding nursing judgements and decisions Benefits of reflection are highlighted

  7. A Critical Evaluation of the Usefulness of a Coding Scheme to Categorise Levels of Reflective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Amani; Kelton, Jill; McDonagh, Nadia; Mladenovic, Rosina; Morrison, Kellie

    2011-01-01

    The use of reflective learning journals to encourage higher order learning outcomes is a growing area in higher education research and practice. However, without a unified and clear definition of reflection, identifying and assessing reflection is problematic for educators. In an attempt to address this issue, in 1999 Kember and colleagues devised…

  8. A Critical Evaluation of the Usefulness of a Coding Scheme to Categorise Levels of Reflective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Amani; Kelton, Jill; McDonagh, Nadia; Mladenovic, Rosina; Morrison, Kellie

    2011-01-01

    The use of reflective learning journals to encourage higher order learning outcomes is a growing area in higher education research and practice. However, without a unified and clear definition of reflection, identifying and assessing reflection is problematic for educators. In an attempt to address this issue, in 1999 Kember and colleagues devised…

  9. Where There Is a WIL There Is a Way: Using a Critical Reflective Approach to Enhance Work Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingrove, Dallas; Turner, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Creating authentic learning experiences that prepare students for their future work in an ever-changing workforce represents a key challenge in higher education. One key way to enable the integration of learning and work is to foster students' capacity for critical reflection and reflexive thinking. This paper seeks to contribute to knowledge of…

  10. Understanding Critical Reflection as Informal Learning: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Analysis of Factory Workers in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyoung Hwa

    2011-01-01

    This study started from the question "how does learning occur in human life". In particular, I am interested in learning that takes place continuously anywhere at any time rather than learning that is occurred by being taught by others. This study interpreted critical reflection as learning that continuously occur in anywhere at any time…

  11. Developing a Capacity to Engage in Critical Reflection: Students' "Ways of Knowing" within an Undergraduate Business and Accounting Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Ursula; Tan, Phaik Leng

    2013-01-01

    The development of a capacity to engage in critical reflection is central to higher education. However, students vary in this capacity and its development requires students to move from an absolute towards a contextual way of knowing. Using 32 semi-structured interviews, this study identifies the ways of knowing of 17 business and accounting…

  12. The Miseducation of a Beginning Teacher: One Educator's Critical Reflections on the Functions and Power of Deficit Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Terry M.

    2012-01-01

    Everyday "storied" teacher talk about students and families can reveal and reinforce deficit thinking about racial/cultural "others." Through personal narrative and critical reflection, the author draws on results from a previous investigation into the nature and content of informal teacher discourse to discuss the miseducative potential of…

  13. Understanding Critical Reflection as Informal Learning: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Analysis of Factory Workers in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyoung Hwa

    2011-01-01

    This study started from the question "how does learning occur in human life". In particular, I am interested in learning that takes place continuously anywhere at any time rather than learning that is occurred by being taught by others. This study interpreted critical reflection as learning that continuously occur in anywhere at any time…

  14. How a Small Family Run Business Adopted Critical Reflection Action Learning Using Hand Drawn Images to Initiate Organisational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In this account of practice I would like to share my experiences of facilitating a Critical Reflection Action Learning (CRAL) set with a small family run business, struggling to make change and expand their services due to the problems they encountered in separating their business lives from their family lives. The account I present here is based…

  15. A Critical Reflection on the Multiple Roles Required to Facilitate Mutual Learning during Service-Learning in Creative Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Merna; Wood, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I critically reflect on my own learning during a community-based, service-learning pilot project, highlighting the multiple roles that were required of me as facilitator. I provided opportunity for student teachers in a Creative Arts module to engage with youth from a local township community. The purpose of the participatory…

  16. Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills in First Year Environmental Management Students: A Tale of Curriculum Design, Application and Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiley, Dona; Witt, Bradd; Colvin, R. M.; Sapiains Arrue, Rodolfo; Kotir, Julius

    2017-01-01

    This paper chronicles the experience of academic staff in developing a course to enhance the critical thinking skills of environmental management undergraduates. We outline our considerations and process for course development, discuss insights from course evaluations, and reflect on the challenges encountered. We believe these perspectives will…

  17. How a Small Family Run Business Adopted Critical Reflection Action Learning Using Hand Drawn Images to Initiate Organisational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In this account of practice I would like to share my experiences of facilitating a Critical Reflection Action Learning (CRAL) set with a small family run business, struggling to make change and expand their services due to the problems they encountered in separating their business lives from their family lives. The account I present here is based…

  18. Critically Reflective Thinking in Urban Teacher Education: A Comparative Case Study of Two Participants' Experiences as Content Area Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbank, Mary; Ramirez, Laurie; Bates, Alisa

    2012-01-01

    As teacher educators, we explored the impact of a range of teaching approaches to encourage the development of critically reflective thinking (CRT) in teacher candidates. Our study, the second in a series of three investigations, examined differences in two preservice secondary teachers' responses to CRT as part of a teacher licensure program. We…

  19. Critical Reflections on Realist Review: Insights from Customizing the Methodology to the Needs of Participatory Research Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagosh, Justin; Pluye, Pierre; Wong, Geoff; Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon; Bush, Paula L.; Herbert, Carol P.; Green, Lawrence W.; Greenhalgh, Trish; Macaulay, Ann C.

    2014-01-01

    Realist review has increased in popularity as a methodology for complex intervention assessment. Our experience suggests that the process of designing a realist review requires its customization to areas under investigation. To elaborate on this idea, we first describe the logic underpinning realist review and then present critical reflections on…

  20. A Critical Reflection on the Multiple Roles Required to Facilitate Mutual Learning during Service-Learning in Creative Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Merna; Wood, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I critically reflect on my own learning during a community-based, service-learning pilot project, highlighting the multiple roles that were required of me as facilitator. I provided opportunity for student teachers in a Creative Arts module to engage with youth from a local township community. The purpose of the participatory…

  1. The extent to which the public health 'war on obesity' reflects the ethical values and principles of critical health promotion: a multimedia critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret

    2015-12-01

    The discipline of health promotion is responsible for implementing strategies within weight-related public health initiatives (WR-PHI). It is imperative that such initiatives be subjected to critical analysis through a health promotion ethics lens to help ensure ethical health promotion practice. Multimedia critical discourse analysis was used to examine the claims, values, assumptions, power relationships and ideologies within Australian WR-PHI. The Health Promotion Values and Principles Continuum was used as a heuristic to evaluate the extent to which the WR-PHI reflected the ethical values of critical health promotion: active participation of people in the initiative; respect for personal autonomy; beneficence; non-maleficence; and strong evidential and theoretical basis for practice. Ten initiatives were analysed. There was some discourse about the need for participation of people in the WR-PHI, but people were routinely labelled as 'target groups' requiring 'intervention'. Strong evidence of a coercive and paternalistic discourse about choice was identified, with minimal attention to respect for personal autonomy. There was significant emphasis on the beneficiaries of the WR-PHI but minimal attention to the health benefits, and nothing about the potential for harm. Discourse about the evidence of need was objectivist, and there was no discussion about the theoretical foundations of the WR-PHI. The WR-PHI were not reflective of the ethical values and principles of critical health promotion. So what? Health promotion researchers and practitioners engaged in WR-PHI should critically reflect on the extent to which they are consistent with the ethical aspects of critical health promotion practice.

  2. Study of neutron noise from reflected, metal assemblies with criticality safety applications in mind

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, C.S.

    1985-08-20

    The author studied the statistics of detected neutrons that leaked from four subcritical reflected, enriched-uranium assemblies, to explore the feasibility of developing a criticality warning system based on neutron noise analysis. The calculated multiplication factors of the assemblies are 0.59, 0.74, 0.82, and 0.92. The author studied three possible discriminators, i.e., three signatures that might be used to discriminate among assemblies of various multiplications. They are: (1) variance-to-mean ratio of the counts in a time bin (V/M); (2) covariance-to-mean ratio of the counts in a common time bin from two different detectors (C/M); and (3) covariance-to-mean ratio of the counts from a single detector in two adjacent time bins of equal length, which the author calls the serial-covariance-to-mean ratio (SC/M). The performances of the three discriminators were not greatly different, but a hierarchy did emerge: SC/M greater than or equal to V/M greater than or equal to C/M. An example of some results: in the neighborhood of k = 0.6 the ..delta..k required for satisfactory discrimination varies from about 3% to 7% as detector solid angle varies from 19% to 5%. In the neighborhood of k = 0.8 the corresponding ..delta..ks are 1% and 2%. The noise analysis techniques studied performed well enough in deeply subcritical situations to deserve testing in an applications environment. They have a good chance of detecting changes in reactivity that are potentially dangerous. One can expect sharpest results when doing comparisons, i.e., when comparing two records, one taken in the past under circumstances known to be normal and one taken now to search for change.

  3. Beyond Socks, Signs, and Alarms: A Reflective Accountability Model for Fall Prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Linda M; Guarracino, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Despite standard fall precautions, including nonskid socks, signs, alarms, and patient instructions, our 48-bed cardiac intermediate care unit (CICU) had a 41% increase in the rate of falls (from 2.2 to 3.1 per 1,000 patient days) and a 65% increase in the rate of falls with injury (from 0.75 to 1.24 per 1,000 patient days) between fiscal years (FY) 2012 and 2013. An evaluation of the falls data conducted by a cohort of four clinical nurses found that the majority of falls occurred when patients were unassisted by nurses, most often during toileting. Supported by the leadership team, the clinical nurses developed an accountability care program that required nurses to use reflective practice to evaluate each fall, including sending an e-mail to all staff members with both the nurse's and the patient's perspective on the fall, as well as the nurse's reflection on what could have been done to prevent the fall. Other program components were a postfall huddle and guidelines for assisting and remaining with fall risk patients for the duration of their toileting. Placing the accountability for falls with the nurse resulted in decreases in the unit's rates of falls and falls with injury of 55% (from 3.1 to 1.39 per 1,000 patient days) and 72% (from 1.24 to 0.35 per 1,000 patient days), respectively, between FY2013 and FY2014. Prompt call bell response (less than 60 seconds) also contributed to the goal of fall prevention.

  4. Simulation With Debriefing and Guided Reflective Journaling to Stimulate Critical Thinking in Prelicensure Baccalaureate Degree Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Padden-Denmead, Mary L; Scaffidi, Rose M; Kerley, Regina M; Farside, Amy Lee

    2016-11-01

    Simulation and guided reflective journaling have been identified as effective teaching and learning methods to develop critical thinking (CT) and clinical reasoning skills in nursing students. A descriptive correlational design was used to determine the relationship between CT and level of reflection using the Holistic Critical Thinking Skills Rubric (HCTSR) and the level of reflection on action assessment (LORAA), respectively, to evaluate 23 baccalaureate student-guided reflective journal entries after a simulation exercise with guided debriefing and after two subsequent clinical experiences. A statistically significant positive relationship (p < .01) was found between mean HCTSR and LORAA scores on all three journal entries, but no relationship to CT during simulation or on standardized test scores. The results also indicated support for use of the guided reflection after significant learning experiences. The LORAA and the HCTSR are effective measures of level of reflection and CT to evaluate learning from simulation and clinical experiences. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(11):645-650.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. QCD diffraction: a critical phenomenon reflecting both confinement and chiral-symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.R.

    1982-07-01

    Arguments are presented for studying soft diffractive physics at anti p-p colliders in terms of Critical Pomeron Reggeon Field Theory. It is emphasized that both confinement and chiral-symmetry breaking play a vital role in the occurrence of the Critical Pomeron in QCD. SU(3) is the unique strong-interaction gauge group giving the Critical Pomeron and the maximum number of quarks allowed by asymptotic freedom is required for criticality.

  6. Empowering adolescent girls in Sub-Saharan Africa to prevent unintended pregnancy and HIV: A critical research gap.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Sharon J; Mbizvo, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    The need to prevent early pregnancy and HIV among adolescent girls in Sub-Saharan Africa has been recognized increasingly over recent years. Although extensive work has been done to determine appropriate interventions for girls in high-income countries, very little evidence is available to guide programmatic interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa. The available evidence has been equivocal regarding improved outcomes. While knowledge and self-reported behaviors frequently change with interventions, including those performed at the community level, educational programs, and direct contraceptive provision, downstream outcomes rarely reflect a significant effect of the interventions; however, provision of financial or other interventions to incentivize continued school enrollment are a promising development. We suggest directions for future research to fill this critical gap in the literature. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Practicing Critical Thinking in an Educational Psychology Classroom: Reflections from a Cultural-Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyutykh, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Present standards include creative and critical thinking among dispositions essential for the teaching profession. While teaching introductory courses in educational psychology, I have noticed that even though students can easily describe critical thinking in the abstract, they rarely and reluctantly engage in thinking critically about their own…

  8. Practicing Critical Thinking in an Educational Psychology Classroom: Reflections from a Cultural-Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyutykh, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Present standards include creative and critical thinking among dispositions essential for the teaching profession. While teaching introductory courses in educational psychology, I have noticed that even though students can easily describe critical thinking in the abstract, they rarely and reluctantly engage in thinking critically about their own…

  9. Definition and Means of Maintaining the Criticality Prevention Design Features Portion of the PFP Safety Envelope

    SciTech Connect

    RAMBLE, A.L.

    2000-07-28

    The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Operational Safety Requirements described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Final (PFP) Operational Safety Requirements, WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. Rev. 0-N , Section 3.1.1, ''Criticality Prevention System.'' This document, with its appendices, provides the following: (1) The results of a review of Criticality Safety Analysis Reports (CSAR), later called Criticality Safety Evaluation Reports (CSER), and Criticality Prevention Specifications (CPS) to determine which equipment or components analyzed in the CSER or CPS are considered as one of the two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes before a criticality accident is possible. (2) Evaluations of equipment or components to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4). (3) A list of essential drawings that show the safety system or component (Appendix A). (4) A list of the safety envelope (SE) equipment (Appendix B). (5) Functional requirements for the individual safety envelope equipment (Sections 3 and 4). (6) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to maintain the system equipment within the safety envelope (Section 5).

  10. Relationship between critical reflection and quality improvement proposal scores in resident doctors.

    PubMed

    Wittich, Christopher M; Reed, Darcy A; Drefahl, Monica M; West, Colin P; McDonald, Furman S; Thomas, Kris G; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Beckman, Thomas J

    2011-02-01

    transformative learning theory supports the idea that reflection on quality improvement (QI) opportunities and the ability to develop successful QI projects may be fundamentally linked. We used validated methods to explore associations between resident doctors' reflections on QI opportunities and the quality of their QI project proposals. eighty-six residents completed written reflections on practice improvement opportunities and developed QI proposals. Two faculty members assessed residents' reflections using the 18-item Mayo Evaluation of Reflection on Improvement Tool (MERIT), and assessed residents' QI proposals using the seven-item Quality Improvement Project Assessment Tool (QIPAT-7). Both instruments have been validated in previous work. Associations between MERIT and QIPAT-7 scores were determined. Internal consistency reliabilities of QIPAT-7 and MERIT scores were calculated. there were no significant associations between MERIT overall and domain scores, and QIPAT-7 overall and item scores. The internal consistency of MERIT and QIPAT-7 item groups were acceptable (Cronbach's α 0.76-0.94). the lack of association between MERIT and QIPAT-7 scores indicates a distinction between resident doctors' skills at reflection on QI opportunities and their abilities to develop QI projects. These findings suggest that practice-based reflection and QI project development are separate constructs, and that skilful reflection may not predict the ability to design meaningful QI initiatives. Future QI curricula should consider teaching and assessing QI reflection and project development as distinct components.

  11. A New Holistic Security Approach for Government Critical Systems: Flooding Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhabeeb, Mohammed; Almuhaideb, Abdullah; Le, Phu Dung; Srinivasan, Bala

    Flooding attack is a threat to services in the Internet. They can cause significant financial losses. This paper presents a new holistic security approach which prevents flooding in the government critical systems. A new corporation with local service providers has been suggested to finding the real source of the flooding attacks. In addition, a new concept of a dynamic-multi-communicationpoint is included to make the prevention of flooding attacks easier. Also the dynamic key encryption technique is adapted as a part of the proposed approach to enhance its functionality.

  12. [Prevention and care of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Hu, Shu-Chin; Lee, Ru-Ping

    2012-08-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a hospital-acquired pneumonia that occurs in patients usually 48 hours or more after mechanical ventilator intubation. VAP is the most common nosocomial infection in critically ill patients. Mechanical ventilators are critical oxygenation and ventilation systems for patients. However, there is a close relationship among self-use efficacy, system settings, and VAP infection rate. VAP not only results in higher mortality, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs, but also negatively affects patient outcomes and medical care quality. The purpose of this article was to provide reference information on VAP risk factors and prevention measures.

  13. The mature minor: some critical psychological reflections on the empirical bases.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Brian C

    2013-06-01

    Moral and legal notions engaged in clinical ethics should not only possess analytic clarity but a sound basis in empirical findings. The latter condition brings into question the expansion of the mature minor exception. The mature minor exception in the healthcare law of the United States has served to enable those under the legal age to consent to medical treatment. Although originally developed primarily for minors in emergency or quasi-emergency need for health care, it was expanded especially from the 1970s in order to cover unemancipated minors older than 14 years. This expansion initially appeared plausible, given psychological data that showed the intellectual capacity of minors over 14 to recognize the causal connection between their choices and the consequences of their choices. However, subsequent psychological studies have shown that minors generally fail to have realistic affective and evaluative appreciations of the consequences of their decisions, because they tend to over-emphasize short-term benefits and underestimate long-term risks. Also, unlike most decisionmakers over 21, the decisions of minors are more often marked by the lack of adequate impulse control, all of which is reflected in the far higher involvement of adolescents in acts of violence, intentional injury, and serious automobile accidents. These effects are more evident in circumstances that elicit elevated affective responses. The advent of brain imaging has allowed the actual visualization of qualitative differences between how minors versus persons over the age of 21 generally assess risks and benefits and make decisions. In the case of most under the age of 21, subcortical systems fail adequately to be checked by the prefrontal systems that are involved in adult executive decisions. The neuroanatomical and psychological model developed by Casey, Jones, and Summerville offers an empirical insight into the qualitative differences in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases

  14. Exploring the Impact of Critical Reflection through the Use of Service-Learning and Digital Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Kisha

    2013-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to address the needs of 21st century teachers, a service-learning project was designed which coupled structured reflection and technology. The reflective practitioner model through the use of traditional methods coursework has long been viewed as the most appropriate model for the development of teachers (Hall, 2012). However,…

  15. Experience based learning (EBL): Exploring professional teaching through critical reflection and reflexivity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Fiona; Timmins, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Utilising Rolfe's [Rolfe, G., 1998. Expanding Nursing Knowledge: Understanding and Researching Your Own Practice. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford] reflexive action research, one novice nurse educator explored current teaching practice. The data were collected from a reflective journal and colleague feedback. Through this data collection and applying Rolfe's (1998) understanding-action-evaluation (UAE) cycle an insight was gained within the community of practice regarding teaching methods. Didactic lecture methods were found to be the preferred option, arising from lack of confidence. Through personal reflection and sharing with colleagues overall teaching practice improved. It is suggested that models of reflective practice that focus on work based learning, rather than the individual are utilised within nurse education settings to develop localised theory and support novice teachers. Models of reflection and action research may be used within these frameworks to extrapolate in depth reflections as a basis for theory development.

  16. Wave Equation Datuming applied to seismic data in shallow water environment: an example of post-critical water bottom reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Cordero, I. D. L. C., Sr.; Giustiniani, M.; Tinivella, U.

    2016-12-01

    In the last years, several methods have been developed to attenuate seafloor multiple in seismic data and a wide literature is available. In the case of very shallow water environment, challenge for multiple attenuation is when primary water-bottom reflection is not recorded because the reflection is post-critical. In order to avoid the sea-bottom reflection prediction and related approximations, we propose to use the wave equation datuming (WED) to attenuate multiple in seismic data acquired in very shallow water, also when the water bottom reflection is post-critical. WED is a powerful method that can be used to increase the signal/noise ratio and the resolution of marine (i.e. ocean bottom seismometer data) and land (in both cases of high resolution and crustal data) seismic data. In essential, the WED is based on Kirchhoff integral solution to the scalar wave equation (using both near-field and far-field terms). As example of application of WED in the case of shallow water, we used the seismic data acquired in the continental shelf of the South Chile, where the average water depth is about 20 m. The near offset is equal to 150 m and, consequently, the data are post-critical. The WED is applied first in the common-source domain (moving the receivers to the datum plane, in our case 50 m above the sea level) and, successively, in the common-receiver domain (moving the shots to the datum plane, i.e., 50 m above the sea level) by using the velocity model obtained previously, performing a detailed velocity analysis. Seismic Unix package and home codes were used to perform WED. Our analysis confirms that WED is a very flexible and useful tool to increase the signal/noise ratio and, consequently, improve the seismic imaging in many contexts of geophysics, including shallow water environment where multiples dominate the record and the water-bottom reflection is post-critical.

  17. Thinking and meddling with boundaries: Critical reflections on Matthew Weinstein's narrative of street medics, red-zones and glop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, Steve

    2015-03-01

    In pursuit of more mindful notions of hybridity, this review essay provides a series of reflections on Mathew Weinstein's representations of Street Medics and `sciences for the red zones of neoliberalism'. My analysis draws on three popular ways of thinking with boundaries to offer a critical reading of the boundary-work that the essay performs with respect to three dialectics: (1) technical and political; (2) disciplinarily and multidisciplinarities; and (3) structures and agencies. I conclude with reflections on my boundary labour as a researcher, writer and pedagogue and how such cultural work might learn to live better with difference, ambiguities, hybrids and cross-hybrid learning.

  18. Validation of Safety-Critical Systems for Aircraft Loss-of-Control Prevention and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Validation of technologies developed for loss of control (LOC) prevention and recovery poses significant challenges. Aircraft LOC can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination, which cannot be fully replicated during evaluation. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of hazardous and uncertain conditions, and the validation framework must provide some measure of assurance that the new vehicle safety technologies do no harm (i.e., that they themselves do not introduce new safety risks). This paper summarizes a proposed validation framework for safety-critical systems, provides an overview of validation methods and tools developed by NASA to date within the Vehicle Systems Safety Project, and develops a preliminary set of test scenarios for the validation of technologies for LOC prevention and recovery

  19. Challenging Texts: Engaging with Critical Literacy--Reflections on Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leigh A.; Piazza, Susan V.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores various ways of teaching literary theory to high school and middle school students. The authors argue that incorporating a critical literacy approach in English education is important but challenging. Although the authors work to implement a critical literacy practice within their university classes, they don't always know…

  20. Does the use of reflective models restrict critical thinking and therefore learning in nurse education? What have we done?

    PubMed

    Coward, Melaine

    2011-11-01

    This article will explore relevant publications relating to practices involving the use of reflective models in UK nurse education. This will then be critically analysed in terms of my personal experiences as a nurse educator. SchÖn's seminal work (1987) on reflection never intended for the process of reflection to become so structured that it actually restricted thinking. Sadly however, it is my personal belief that this is the case within some aspects of nurse education, primarily due to the introduction and overuse of structured models of reflection. A large part of written assessment in nurse education utilises reflective writing, this may not be helpful in terms of learning and exploration of practice experiences. Indeed these models are now being seen by both students and some nurse educators as compulsory. The number of these models available to students within nurse education is phenomenal (Rolfe et al., 2001) and they appear to be a requirement for educators to support their learners in constructing ways of thinking. Further consideration needs to be given by nurses educators to the underpinning philosophy and concepts relating to reflection.

  1. Critical reflections on the role of CBPR within an RCT community health worker prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, E Lee; Balcazar, Hector G; De Heer, Hendrik D; Wise, Sherrie; Flores, Leticia; Aguirre, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Coalescence of culturally relevant and community-based research with traditional scientific inquiry is necessary for the translation of science into practice. One methodology that has been identified as an important missing link in achieving the goal of combining science and community practice is the community-based participatory research approach, or CBPR. To demonstrate how CBPR has been successfully blended with randomized control trial (RCT) methodology, we showcase a randomized community trial that has shown efficacy in reducing cardiovascular risk factors integrating community health workers. The purpose of this article is 2-fold. First, it describes the process of merging the CBPR approach within an RCT framework and, second, it describes lessons learned in conducting CBPR-RCT research initiatives.

  2. Chronic caffeine treatment prevents stress-induced LTP impairment: the critical role of phosphorylated CaMKII and BDNF.

    PubMed

    Alzoubi, K H; Srivareerat, M; Aleisa, A M; Alkadhi, K A

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine has been reported to enhance cognition in animal and humans. Additionally, caffeine alleviates cognitive impairment associated with a number of disorders including Alzheimer's disease. The lipophilic nature of caffeine allows for rapid absorption into the bloodstream where it freely crosses the blood-brain barrier. Caffeine promotes dendritic spine growth in cultured hippocampal neurons, which suggests a neuroprotective effect. We examined the effect of chronic caffeine treatment on stress-induced suppression of long-term potentiation (LTP) and impairment of molecules of its signaling cascade. Rats were subjected to daily stress using the psychosocial stress paradigm (intruder model), in vivo recordings from area CA1 of the hippocampus of adult rat, and immunoblot analysis of essential signaling molecules. Caffeine prevented stress-induced LTP impairment. Western blot analysis showed reduction of the basal levels of the phosphorylated calcium calmodulin kinase II (P-CAMKII), total CaMKII, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in area CA1 of stressed rats. These reductions were prevented by chronic caffeine treatment (0.33 mg/L in drinking water). In addition, caffeine prevented the upregulation of calcineurin levels in stressed rats. High-frequency stimulation (HFS) normally increased P-CaMKII, total CaMKII, and calcineurin levels in control as well as in caffeine-treated stressed rats. However, in stressed rats, the same HFS induced increases in the levels of total CaMKII and calcineurin, but not those of P-CaMKII. The levels of signaling molecules may not reflect activities of these molecules. It appears that the neuroprotective effect of caffeine involves preservation of the levels of essential kinases and phosphatases in stressed rats. This may include preservation of basal levels of BDNF by chronic caffeine treatment in stressed animals. These findings highlight the critical role of P-CaMKII and BDNF in caffeine-induced prevention of stress

  3. Perspective: Transformative learning: a framework using critical reflection to link the improvement competencies in graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Wittich, Christopher M; Reed, Darcy A; McDonald, Furman S; Varkey, Prathibha; Beckman, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    Quality improvement (QI) in health care involves activities ranging from enhancing personal practice to reforming the larger health care system. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education recognizes this broad definition of QI in its requirement that physicians-in-training demonstrate competence in practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI) and systems-based practice (SBP). Creative metaphors have been used to teach the PBLI and SBP competencies, but conceptual frameworks describing the relationship between these competencies are needed. Transformative learning is an adult education theory that states individuals must critically reflect on life events in order to change their beliefs or behaviors. The authors propose that critical reflection during transformative learning can conceptually link PBLI and SBP. Reflection on personal experience with suboptimal patient care leads to recognizing personal or system limitations. Addressing personal limitations improves individual practice (PBLI), whereas applying QI methodologies leads to large-scale improvements (SBP). Educators who adopt the transformative learning framework should be able to design meaningful QI curricula that encourage residents to be reflective and empower them with QI skills.

  4. Representing the Margins: Multimodal Performance as a Tool for Critical Reflection and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvin, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses how drama as a multimodal performance can be a powerful means to represent marginalized identities and to stimulate critical thought among teachers and learners about material conditions of existence and social inequalities.

  5. Representing the Margins: Multimodal Performance as a Tool for Critical Reflection and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvin, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses how drama as a multimodal performance can be a powerful means to represent marginalized identities and to stimulate critical thought among teachers and learners about material conditions of existence and social inequalities.

  6. Electrical muscle stimulation prevents critical illness polyneuromyopathy: a randomized parallel intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM) is a common complication of critical illness presenting with muscle weakness and is associated with increased duration of mechanical ventilation and weaning period. No preventive tool and no specific treatment have been proposed so far for CIPNM. Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) has been shown to be beneficial in patients with severe chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of EMS in preventing CIPNM in critically ill patients. Methods One hundred and forty consecutive critically ill patients with an APACHE II score ≥ 13 were randomly assigned after stratification to the EMS group (n = 68) (age:61 ± 19 years) (APACHE II:18 ± 4, SOFA:9 ± 3) or to the control group (n = 72) (age:58 ± 18 years) (APACHE II:18 ± 5, SOFA:9 ± 3). Patients of the EMS group received daily EMS sessions. CIPNM was diagnosed clinically with the medical research council (MRC) scale for muscle strength (maximum score 60, <48/60 cut off for diagnosis) by two unblinded independent investigators. Duration of weaning from mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) stay were recorded. Results Fifty two patients could be finally evaluated with MRC; 24 in the EMS group and 28 in the control group. CIPNM was diagnosed in 3 patients in the EMS group as compared to 11 patients in the control group (OR = 0.22; CI: 0.05 to 0.92, P = 0.04). The MRC score was significantly higher in patients of the EMS group as compared to the control group [58 (33 to 60) vs. 52 (2 to 60) respectively, median (range), P = 0.04). The weaning period was statistically significantly shorter in patients of the EMS group vs. the control group [1 (0 to 10) days vs. 3 (0 to 44) days, respectively, median (range), P = 0.003]. Conclusions This study suggests that daily EMS sessions prevent the development of CIPNM in critically ill patients and also result in shorter duration of weaning

  7. Preventive HIV/AIDS education through physical education: reflections from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Njelesani, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Governments, UN agencies and international and local NGOs have mounted a concerted effort to remobilise sport as a vehicle for broad, sustainable social development. This resonates with the call for sport to be a key component in national and international development objectives. Missing in these efforts is an explicit focus on physical education within state schools, which still enroll most children in the global South. This article focuses on research into one of the few instances where physical education within the national curriculum is being revitalised as part of the growing interest in leveraging the appeal of sport and play as means to address social development challenges such as HIV/AIDS. It examines the response to the Zambian government's 2006 Declaration of Mandatory Physical Education (with a preventive education focus on HIV/AIDS) by personnel charged with its implementation and illustrates weaknesses within the education sector. The use of policy instruments such as decrees/mandates helps ensure the mainstreaming of physical education in development. However, the urgency required to respond to new mandates, particularly those sanctioned by the highest levels of government, can result in critical pieces of the puzzle being ignored, thereby undermining the potential of physical education (and sport) within development.

  8. Eradicating hepatitis B virus: The critical role of preventing perinatal transmission.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Cladd E; Toy, Pearl; Kamili, Saleem; Taylor, Patricia E; Tong, Myron J; Xia, Guo-Liang; Vyas, Girish N

    2017-09-01

    Prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission from infected mothers to their newborns is critical to HBV control and eventual eradication. Mother-to-child perinatal transmission causes the highest chronic carrier rate (>85%) with a high rate of subsequent chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. This risk is reduced by 90% with HBV vaccine given along with hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) starting at birth. New analyses of our data from US trials of HBIG and HBV vaccine in high-risk infants revealed better efficacy with yeast-recombinant vaccine than plasma-derived vaccine, especially in preventing late onset infections, with evidence that vaccine prevented transmission of maternal HBV infection with the glycine to arginine mutation in surface antigen codon 145 (sG145R). Most late infections with sG145R were in vaccine non-responders, suggesting escape from HBIG rather than from vaccine-induced antibody. Our findings also help explain survey results from Taiwan following universal childhood immunization implemented in the mid-1980s. We conclude that current vaccines will remain effective against surface antigen mutants. Anti-viral drugs in high-risk pregnant women, in combination with newborn HBIG and vaccine, show promise for eliminating residual breakthrough neonatal infections, critical to meeting WHO 2030 goals and for eradicating HBV. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyclonal intravenous immune globulin for prevention and treatment of infections in critically ill patients.

    PubMed Central

    Cometta, A; Baumgartner, J D; Glauser, M P

    1994-01-01

    Infections remain the leading cause of death among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU). Infections due to Gram-negative bacteria are both frequent and difficult to treat. The poor outcome of such infections has been attributed to the endotoxin. The high mortality rate related to Gram-negative sepsis has prompted the testing of new, adjunctive therapies to prevent and treat infections in critically ill patients. Immunotherapy or immunoprophylaxis have long been investigated in this context. Passive immunotherapy consists of the administration of immune plasma or serum, or standard or hyperimmune purified immune globulins. Several clinical studies using such preparations to treat critically ill patients are reviewed in this article. While two studies using hyperimmune plasma or serum appeared to be successful, two studies using hyperimmune globulin failed to show a beneficial effect in the treatment or the prevention of Gram-negative septic shock. Regarding the infusion of standard intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) two studies have demonstrated a substantial benefit in the prevention of severe infections; the reduction of nosocomial pneumonia recorded in both trials and the shortness of stay in ICU may also afford savings in hospital costs. The cost effectiveness of such prophylactic administration of IVIG is worthy of further investigation. PMID:8033438

  10. Role Reversal: Educators in an Enabling Program Embark on a Journey of Critical Self-Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Jenny; Davis, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    While much has been written about the transformative potential of adult education from the student perspective, little research has been done into the experiences of those who teach in such contexts. This paper draws on the reflections of three academics who work in an enabling program in regional Australia. We embarked on a process of critical…

  11. A Corpus-Based Investigation of Critical Reflective Practice and Context in Early Career Teacher Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Bróna

    2015-01-01

    Reflective practice is at the core of teacher education programmes and is highly regarded as an essential component in the education of new and experienced teachers. Given the recent interest in language use and the role of discourse in articulating knowledge of one's practice, this paper focuses on how two groups of early career teachers from…

  12. Marland and Pastoral Care: Critical Reflections, Change and an "Ability to Swim against the Tide"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stan

    2015-01-01

    This reflective piece was written in response to Best's article, published in Pastoral in Education in September 2014, on Michael Marland's seminal text "Pastoral Care." It uses examples from previously published work carried out by the author, to explore some of the key concepts and ideas explored within the book and their…

  13. A Critical Reflection on Integrating Informational Technology into EFL Curriculum: An EFL Teacher's Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jin-Shan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the reflective practices of integrating informational technology into English curriculum of an EFL (English as a foreign language) teacher in Taiwan over a decade. The teaching experiences have been reconstructed and represented through first person narrative inquiry, highlighting the conflicts the teacher encountered, the…

  14. Teaching Research Method Using a Student-Centred Approach? Critical Reflections on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barraket, Jo

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a reflective case study analysis of an attempt to enhance student learning through the introduction of student-centred teaching methods in a masters-level social research methods subject. The introduction of a range of specific techniques, including case study teaching, problem based learning, groupwork, role-play and…

  15. Progressing Knowledge in Alternative and Local Food Networks: Critical Reflections and a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tregear, Angela

    2011-01-01

    In the now extensive literature on alternative food networks (AFNs) (e.g. farmers' markets, community supported agriculture, box schemes), a body of work has pointed to socio-economic problems with such systems, which run counter to headline claims in the literature. This paper argues that rather than being a reflection of inherent complexities in…

  16. Preparing Teachers for Diverse Contexts: A Collective Case Study of Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Laurie A.

    2009-01-01

    This collective case study focused on 4 novice teachers' reflections on diversity in their classrooms and schools. The 4 participants were followed throughout their final year of an undergraduate, secondary teacher education program and into their 1st year of teaching in public secondary schools. This research was an effort to engage…

  17. From "Borrowing" to "Learning" in International Comparative Study: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wet, Corene; Wolhuter, Charl

    2007-01-01

    The state of public education debate, which to a great extent only reflects policies and practices ab road, is examined. The process of learning from others should replace the process of borrowing (of usually inappropriate policies/practices) from others. Two examples of the issues involved in the debate on public education, namely, Outcomes-Based…

  18. Progressing Knowledge in Alternative and Local Food Networks: Critical Reflections and a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tregear, Angela

    2011-01-01

    In the now extensive literature on alternative food networks (AFNs) (e.g. farmers' markets, community supported agriculture, box schemes), a body of work has pointed to socio-economic problems with such systems, which run counter to headline claims in the literature. This paper argues that rather than being a reflection of inherent complexities in…

  19. Journeys in Peace Education: Critical Reflection and Personal Witness. Peace Education Reports No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber, Robert, Ed.

    These essays attempt to chronicle the work of six authors in peace education as they reflect on the processes and important persons leading them to commit to peace education. They also examine those obstacles, successes and failures encountered trying to make these commitments concrete and substantial. The essays in this volume include: (1)…

  20. Preparing Teachers for Diverse Contexts: A Collective Case Study of Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Laurie A.

    2009-01-01

    This collective case study focused on 4 novice teachers' reflections on diversity in their classrooms and schools. The 4 participants were followed throughout their final year of an undergraduate, secondary teacher education program and into their 1st year of teaching in public secondary schools. This research was an effort to engage…

  1. Marland and Pastoral Care: Critical Reflections, Change and an "Ability to Swim against the Tide"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stan

    2015-01-01

    This reflective piece was written in response to Best's article, published in Pastoral in Education in September 2014, on Michael Marland's seminal text "Pastoral Care." It uses examples from previously published work carried out by the author, to explore some of the key concepts and ideas explored within the book and their…

  2. Fostering Critical Reflection: Moving From a Service to a Social Justice Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Owen, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    This chapter explores how community engagement creates opportunities to facilitate meaningful discussions about issues including: the nature and sources of power; who benefits and who is silenced by service and leadership efforts; which community actions result in change rather than charity; and how to developmentally sequence reflective practice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  3. Walking the Walk? Critical Reflections from an Afro-Irish Emancipatory Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adshead, Maura; Dubula, Vuyiseka

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors, who are both collaborators in this project, reflect on the challenges faced in developing and sustaining an emancipatory research framework approach to our research network in the context of radically shifting ideals and objectives for higher education in all partner institutions. The article is focused around…

  4. Transforming Undergraduate and Graduate Candidate Social Perceptions about Diverse Learners through Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Tonnie; Penner-Williams, Janet; Herrera, Socorro; Rodriguez, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Each preservice or inservice teacher who faces the prospect of student diversity in clinical experiences or practice settings does so with an individual set of assumptions about cultures and languages that differ from his or her own. Mezirow (1991) maintained that reflections on such assumptions and presuppositions about oneself and others can…

  5. Evaluating chemical effects on mammary gland development: A critical need in disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Gwendolyn; Rudel, Ruthann; Schwarzman, Megan

    2015-07-01

    Although understanding the environmental factors that contribute to breast cancer could improve disease prevention, standard chemical testing protocols do not adequately evaluate chemicals' effects on breast development. Evidence suggests: (1) mammary gland (MG) development is a complex process that extends from gestation through fetal and neonatal growth, puberty, and pregnancy; (2) altered MG development can increase the risk of breast cancer and other adverse outcomes; and (3) chemical exposures during susceptible windows of development may alter the MG in ways that increase risk for later disease. Together, these highlight the need to better understand the complex relationship between exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and the alterations in MG morphology and gene expression that ultimately increase disease risk. Changing guideline toxicity testing studies to incorporate perinatal exposures and MG whole mounts would generate critical knowledge about the effects of EDCs on the MG and could ultimately inform disease prevention.

  6. Activation of dopamine neurons is critical for aversive conditioning and prevention of generalized anxiety.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Larry S; Fadok, Jonathan P; Argilli, Emmanuela; Garelick, Michael G; Jones, Graham L; Dickerson, Tavis M K; Allen, James M; Mizumori, Sheri J Y; Bonci, Antonello; Palmiter, Richard D

    2011-05-01

    Generalized anxiety is thought to result, in part, from impairments in contingency awareness during conditioning to cues that predict aversive or fearful outcomes. Dopamine neurons of the ventral midbrain exhibit heterogeneous responses to aversive stimuli that are thought to provide a critical modulatory signal to facilitate orientation to environmental changes and assignment of motivational value to unexpected events. Here we describe a mouse model in which activation of dopamine neurons in response to an aversive stimulus is attenuated by conditional genetic inactivation of functional NMDA receptors on dopamine neurons. We discovered that altering the magnitude of excitatory responses by dopamine neurons in response to an aversive stimulus was associated with impaired conditioning to a cue that predicts an aversive outcome. Impaired conditioning by these mice was associated with the development of a persistent, generalized anxiety-like phenotype. These data are consistent with a role for dopamine in facilitating contingency awareness that is critical for the prevention of generalized anxiety.

  7. Controlling and prevention of surface wrinkling via size-dependent critical wrinkling strain.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Yanping; Lu, Conghua

    2015-06-14

    Surface wrinkling may occur in a film-substrate system when the applied strain exceeds the critical value. However, the practically required strain for the onset of surface wrinkling can be different from the theoretically predicted value. Here we investigate the film size effect-dependent critical strain for the mechanical strain-induced surface wrinkling via a combination of experiments and theoretical analysis. In the poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based system fabricated by the smart combination of mechanical straining and selective O2 plasma (OP) exposure through Cu grids, the film size effect on the critical wrinkling strain is systematically studied by considering OP exposure duration, the mesh number and geometry of Cu grids. Meanwhile, a simple analytical solution revealing the film size effect is well established, which shows good consistency with the experimental results. This study provides an experimental and theoretical basis for finely tuning the critical wrinkling strain in a simple and quantitative manner, which can find a wide range of applications in such fields as microelectronic circuits and optical devices, where controlling and/or prevention of surface wrinkling are of great importance.

  8. Critical Issues in K-12 Service-Learning: Case Studies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulati-Partee, Gita, Ed.; Finger, William R., Ed.

    This compilation includes practical and transferable principles that can be used by service-learning practitioners. The 39 case studies and personal essays in the compilation are organized around critical issues in strengthening long-term institutional and community support for K-12 service-learning programs. Each article describes how the issue…

  9. Fostering Critical Thinking and Reflection through Blog-Mediated Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novakovich, J.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of digital literacy practices has created a tension in academia, with many academics challenging the view that critical thinking can be fostered on social networks. A quasi-experimental study was conducted on two sections of university-level writing classrooms to determine if there were meaningful differences in the quality of…

  10. On the "Art and Science" of Personal Transformation: Some Critical Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Raya A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes a critical look at the applicability of the Jungian view on individuation and imagination. While Jungian ideas can bring something fresh and necessary into educational practice, personal enthusiasm might blind us to a dissonance between educational goals and the therapeutic goal of analytical psychology. The case is made with…

  11. What Can You Learn in Three Minutes? Critical Reflection on an Assessment Task that Embeds Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Natalie Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to critically examine an assessment task, undertaken by pre-service science teachers, that integrates the use of technology (in this case digital video-recorders and video-editing software) whilst scaffolding skill development. The embedding of technology into the assessment task is purposeful, aiming to…

  12. Reflection in Action: Using Inquiry Groups to Explore Critical Digital Literacy with Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnes Watulak, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of preparing teachers and their eventual students to be successful, full participants in today's digital society is one that faces all teacher preparation programs. However, in the United States our current system of technology instruction in pre-service education focuses primarily on functional technology skills, and critical and…

  13. Reconceptualizing Self and Other through Critical Media Engagement. Experiences and Reflections of English Learners and Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shin-ying

    2015-01-01

    This research explores how critical media literacy transforms ways of engaging with media texts and expands the understanding and practice of literacy. In this qualitative teacher inquiry, even though the teacher researcher had envisioned for the students an identity as academic-language learners who engage with competing ideologies of masculinity…

  14. Into the Unknown: A Critical Reflection on a Truly Global Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Katharina; Archer, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, industry relevance and connectedness have evolved into a key requirement for students and their parents, who increasingly perceive employability upon graduation as a critical factor in the degree selection process. Simultaneously, professional bodies emphasise the need for high levels of industry engagement as a condition for…

  15. Government, Public Relations, and Lobby Groups: Stimulating Critical Reflections on Information Providers in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Suzette

    2003-01-01

    In a management class role-playing activity, students adopt the roles of parents, government representatives, and health providers in a scenario about child immunization. The objective is to develop critical understanding of the creation, management, and dissemination of information on decision making. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  16. Reflecting on Social Emotional Learning: A Critical Perspective on Trends in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    This critical cultural analysis of trends in the field of social emotional learning (SEL) in the United States considers how ideas concerning emotional skills and competencies have informed programmatic discourse. While currently stressing links between SEL and academic achievement, program literature also places emphasis on ideals of caring,…

  17. Tumultuous Times of Education Reform: A Critical Reflection on Caring in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mary G.; Tucker, Janice L.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines "caring" in the context of radical education reform in one Canadian province and school district. Historical provincial policy documents set the context for the district analysis. Drawing on our experiences both as participants and researchers, we use theories of care, critical policy, and the tools of critical…

  18. Metaphors of Nature and Development: Reflection on Critical Course of Sustainable Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopnina, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of metaphors of nature, sustainable development, and neoliberalism in business education. The research underpinning this article focused on a shift in the language business students used in response to a critical course on the neoliberal economic model. Results of the examination of metaphors before and after this…

  19. Toward a "Modest Pedagogy": Reflections on the Problematics of Critical Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinning, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Discusses difficulties in "doing" critical pedagogy with postmodern students, considering the advantages of working toward a "modest pedagogy" (modeled after Law's modest sociology), which takes seriously the problematic issue of knowledge and schooling, yet avoids some of the pitfalls of Enlightenment thinking and the neglect…

  20. What Can You Learn in Three Minutes? Critical Reflection on an Assessment Task that Embeds Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Natalie Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to critically examine an assessment task, undertaken by pre-service science teachers, that integrates the use of technology (in this case digital video-recorders and video-editing software) whilst scaffolding skill development. The embedding of technology into the assessment task is purposeful, aiming to…

  1. Teachers' Reflections on the Perceptions of Oppression and Liberation in Neo-Marxist Critical Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaakoby, Tova

    2013-01-01

    Critical pedagogy speaks of teachers as liberating and transformative intellectuals. Yet their voice is absent from its discourse.The emancipatory action research, described in this article, created a dialogue between teachers and the ideas concerning oppression and liberation found in Neo-Marxist pedagogies. It strongly suggests that teachers can…

  2. Critical Issues in K-12 Service-Learning: Case Studies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulati-Partee, Gita, Ed.; Finger, William R., Ed.

    This compilation includes practical and transferable principles that can be used by service-learning practitioners. The 39 case studies and personal essays in the compilation are organized around critical issues in strengthening long-term institutional and community support for K-12 service-learning programs. Each article describes how the issue…

  3. On the "Art and Science" of Personal Transformation: Some Critical Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Raya A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes a critical look at the applicability of the Jungian view on individuation and imagination. While Jungian ideas can bring something fresh and necessary into educational practice, personal enthusiasm might blind us to a dissonance between educational goals and the therapeutic goal of analytical psychology. The case is made with…

  4. Reconceptualizing Self and Other through Critical Media Engagement. Experiences and Reflections of English Learners and Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shin-ying

    2015-01-01

    This research explores how critical media literacy transforms ways of engaging with media texts and expands the understanding and practice of literacy. In this qualitative teacher inquiry, even though the teacher researcher had envisioned for the students an identity as academic-language learners who engage with competing ideologies of masculinity…

  5. Metaphors of Nature and Development: Reflection on Critical Course of Sustainable Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopnina, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of metaphors of nature, sustainable development, and neoliberalism in business education. The research underpinning this article focused on a shift in the language business students used in response to a critical course on the neoliberal economic model. Results of the examination of metaphors before and after this…

  6. Using Critical Incident Reflections: A Self-Study as a Mathematics Teacher Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodell, Joanne E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I report the results of a 4-year study into how my students learn to become mathematics teachers during the combined 15-week methods and field placement course I teach. At the start of most weekly methods class meetings, groups of three or four students reported their critical incidents to each other, and then chose one incident to…

  7. Fostering Critical Thinking and Reflection through Blog-Mediated Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novakovich, J.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of digital literacy practices has created a tension in academia, with many academics challenging the view that critical thinking can be fostered on social networks. A quasi-experimental study was conducted on two sections of university-level writing classrooms to determine if there were meaningful differences in the quality of…

  8. The Race for Class: Reflections on a Critical Raceclass Theory of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Zeus

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to appraise the insights gained from Critical Race Theory (CRT) in Education. It is particularly interested in CRT's relationship with Marxist discourse, which falls under two questions. One, how does CRT understand Marxist concepts, such as "capital," which show up in the way CRT appropriates them? The article argues that…

  9. Critical Incidents and Reflection: Turning Points that Challenge the Researcher and Create Opportunities for Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halquist, Don; Musanti, Sandra I.

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research makes it possible to reveal the often invisible but no less real complexities of social structures and opens venues for knowing human and social life more fully. Drawing on data from two qualitative research studies that used critical incidents as a device for investigating the nuances of human interaction within two…

  10. Tumultuous Times of Education Reform: A Critical Reflection on Caring in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mary G.; Tucker, Janice L.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines "caring" in the context of radical education reform in one Canadian province and school district. Historical provincial policy documents set the context for the district analysis. Drawing on our experiences both as participants and researchers, we use theories of care, critical policy, and the tools of critical…

  11. Reflection in Action: Using Inquiry Groups to Explore Critical Digital Literacy with Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnes Watulak, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of preparing teachers and their eventual students to be successful, full participants in today's digital society is one that faces all teacher preparation programs. However, in the United States our current system of technology instruction in pre-service education focuses primarily on functional technology skills, and critical and…

  12. Teachers' Reflections on the Perceptions of Oppression and Liberation in Neo-Marxist Critical Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaakoby, Tova

    2013-01-01

    Critical pedagogy speaks of teachers as liberating and transformative intellectuals. Yet their voice is absent from its discourse.The emancipatory action research, described in this article, created a dialogue between teachers and the ideas concerning oppression and liberation found in Neo-Marxist pedagogies. It strongly suggests that teachers can…

  13. Critical Thinking, Epistemic Virtue, and the Significance of Inclusion: Reflections on Harvey Siegel's Theory of Rationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilby, R. Jay

    2004-01-01

    Among proponents of critical thinking, Harvey Siegel stands out in his attempt to address fundamental epistemological issues. Siegel argues that discursive inclusion of diverse groups should not be confused with rational justification of the outcome of inquiry. He maintains that epistemic virtues such as inclusion are neither necessary nor…

  14. It's time to put the C.A.R.T. before the H.O.R.S.E. or putting critical, analytical, and reflective thinking before

    Treesearch

    David L. Jewell

    2002-01-01

    Higher education is the target of criticism for, among other things, the failure to teach students how to think - critically, analytically, and reflectively - and for placing too much emphasis on career preparation or professional education. While a number of external factors have, perhaps, led to such criticism being warranted, faculty - including those in Recreation...

  15. Theory before practice: implicit assumptions about clinical nursing education in Australia as revealed through a shared critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Grealish, Laurie; Smale, Lacey Anne

    2011-08-01

    The transfer of nursing education into the higher education sector occurred over a 10-year period in Australia (1985-1994). Australian nurse leaders settled on a single outcome measure to be applied for all nursing graduates in the form of national competency standards. While this move enabled diversity, the lack of consistency in curriculum design has subsequently led to increasing confusion for clinicians who support students' learning in clinical placements. Using a shared critical reflection method, the authors reviewed (1) the evaluation comments from nurses in one nursing unit of a hospital in one Australian jurisdiction and (2) an historical review of nursing literature at the time of the transfer of nursing education into the higher education sector. The reflection suggests that the aim of the transfer, to create critical thinking graduates, has been undermined by the implicit clinical education practices that have since emerged. In order to address the contemporary challenges for clinical staff working with students from multiple universities, as well as increased student numbers to address the nursing shortage, we recommend a new approach to curriculum design: a national clinical curriculum drawn from social, as well as cognitive, learning theory that at once informs clinicians of students' potential abilities and provides the scope to accommodate the increasingly difficult and critical learning requirements of tertiary-based nursing students.

  16. (De)colonizing culture in community psychology: reflections from critical social science.

    PubMed

    Reyes Cruz, Mariolga; Sonn, Christopher C

    2011-03-01

    Since its inception, community psychology has been interested in cultural matters relating to issues of diversity and marginalization. However, the field has tended to understand culture as static social markers or as the background for understanding group differences. In this article the authors contend that culture is inseparable from who we are and what we do as social beings. Moreover, culture is continually shaped by socio-historical and political processes intertwined within the globalized history of power. The authors propose a decolonizing standpoint grounded in critical social science to disrupt understandings of cultural matters that marginalize others. This standpoint would move the field toward deeper critical thinking, reflexivity and emancipatory action. The authors present their work to illustrate how they integrate a decolonizing standpoint to community psychology research and teaching. They conclude that community psychology must aim towards intercultural work engaging its political nature from a place of ontological/epistemological/methodological parity.

  17. Writing context-dependent item sets that reflect critical thinking learning outcomes.

    PubMed

    Su, Whei Ming

    2007-01-01

    Faculty in a medical-surgical nursing course developed learning outcomes to foster critical thinking skills involved in clinical reasoning. To facilitate students' abilities to make effective clinical judgments, direct teaching of thinking skills was incorporated into nursing content instruction. This instructional design challenged faculty to develop test items that would permit direct observation of students' thought processes. The author describes how context-dependent item sets were developed to meet this evaluation need.

  18. Hormones, vitamins, and growth factors in cancer treatment and prevention. A critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Lupulescu, A P

    1996-12-01

    Hormones, hormone agonists, hormone antagonists, vitamins and their synthetic analogues, and growth factors are currently the most widely used anticancer drugs. Although in many cases they provide dramatic results, in other cases their effects are conflicting. A critical appraisal of the effects of these drugs is needed. To evaluate the potential therapeutic and preventive roles of these drugs as well as their areas of controversy, data published in the literature in the last two decades are reviewed in this article, and the author's personal findings are also reviewed. Hormones, hormone agonists, hormone antagonists, vitamins and their synthetic analogues, growth factors, and cytokines are replacing conventional cancer therapies (chemotherapy, surgical therapy, and radiation therapy) for many purposes, and recently became the "fourth arm" of cancer treatment. However, their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated. This article critically reviews the mechanisms of their action on cancer cells (specifically, DNA, RNA, oncogenes, and antioncogenes); their role in cancer cell division, cell cycle, apoptosis, and angiogenesis; and their relation to human cancers. Since hormones, vitamins, growth factors (GFs), and GF receptors play a cardinal role in multistage carcinogenesis, using monoclonal antibodies to develop novel hormone antagonists, vitamin synthetic analogues, and GF inhibitors will be of paramount significance for neoadjuvant systemic therapy and cancer prevention. It is hoped that the data presented in this review regarding the role of hormones, hormone agonists, hormone antagonists, vitamins, growth factors, and growth factor inhibitors will provide a rationale for designing effective new cancer chemoprevention strategies and clinical trials.

  19. Critical coupling of surface plasmons in graphene attenuated total reflection geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    We study the optical response of an attenuated total reflection (ATR) structure in Otto configuration with graphene sheet, paying especial attention to the occurrence of total absorption. Our results show that due to excitation of surface plasmons on the graphene sheet, two different conditions of total absorption may occur. At these conditions, the energy loss of the surface plasmon by radiation is equal to its energy loss by absorption into the graphene sheet. We give necessary conditions on ATR parameters for the existence of total absorption.

  20. Critical moments in time: reflections on the development of orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sheil, Margaret M

    2012-08-01

    This paper reflects on the historical development of orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight analyzers that have been used routinely for high sensitivity analyses of biological molecules for more than a decade. In particular, the role of the late Michael Guilhaus from the University of New South Wales in Australia is highlighted. This account shows that like most advances in science, successful commercialization of new technology is not straightforward and is often the result of critical contributions of different people and organizations at different points in time.

  1. The process of consultation to a health visiting team based on the Solihull Approach: a critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, Virginia; Sarankin, Mandy

    2014-10-01

    This paper aims to provide a critical reflection of the process of consultation offered by a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) to a health visiting team. The consultation process followed two days of training in the Solihull Approach and took place over five 90-minute sessions at six-weekly intervals. In this paper, the Solihull Approach is used as a framework for understanding the consultation process, and the concepts of containment and reciprocity are explored within this context. The challenges and successes of the process are shared and the importance of providing a containing space for frontline practitioners is highlighted.

  2. The benefits of a critical stance: a reflection on past papers on the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Manstead, Antony S R

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, I reflect on past papers published in the British Journal of Social Psychology (BJSP) that have played a role in the development of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). I focus on seven papers that fall into five categories: (1) those that critique the TRA/TPB for taking insufficient account of social factors; (2) those that critique the models on the grounds that many social behaviours are 'habitual'; (3) those that critically examine the construct of perceived behavioural control; (4) those that argue for the importance of affective factors, which appear to be overlooked in the TRA/TPB; and (5) those that argue for the importance of studying the role of moderating factors and interaction effects in the TRA/TPB. I conclude that BJSP's traditional focus on criticism and theory development is one that benefits the journal and the field.

  3. From protective intelligence to threat assessment: Strategies critical to preventing targeted violence and the active shooter.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Matthew

    Acts of targeted violence - including active shooter incidents - are typically over within 15 minutes, often before the first law enforcement personnel can respond to the scene. More than a third of active shooter incidents in the USA, for example, last less than five minutes. While this stark fact is often used, with unimpeachable validity, as the cornerstone of employee security awareness training and the need for each employee to make a quick decision on whether to run, hide or fight, it also underscores the importance of another critical priority: prevention. This paper focuses on several of the most effective strategies and tactics - increasingly used across the USA, but applicable all over the world - in preventing an act of targeted violence or active shooter event. It starts with a brief discussion of the common roadblocks to prevention within enterprises today as well as the warning signs that can reveal an individual's path toward an act of violence. Next, it defines targeted violence and summarises patterns that research has helped uncover with respect to attackers' backgrounds, motives and target selection. This paper also outlines the crucial role played by protective intelligence and threat assessment protocols and provides several case studies to illustrate key concepts in real-world applications. Finally, this discussion points to several emerging trends in the USA and Europe, among other regions - such as radicalisation within the workforce - that are likely to continue to mature in 2016 and the years ahead.

  4. The elephant in the room: critical reflections on militarism, war, and their health contingencies.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Sharon; Boyle, Joyceen

    2008-01-01

    This philosophical analysis critically explores an archeology of militarism as an underpinning to multiple forms of violence, especially war. Deconstructing militarism and its discourses reveal it as a pervasive geographical, cultural, political, and psychological presence. New war technologies, related health and environmental problems, injuries, social suffering, and disproportionality in military spending as a threat to health are uncovered. Continuing the dialogue in formal nursing associations, critiquing media complicity in securing consent for war, and reconstructing a nonviolent, healthier world through nonviolent resistance are advocated.

  5. Rethinking critical reflection on care: late modern uncertainty and the implications for care ethics.

    PubMed

    Vosman, Frans; Niemeijer, Alistair

    2017-03-22

    Care ethics as initiated by Gilligan, Held, Tronto and others (in the nineteen eighties and nineties) has from its onset been critical towards ethical concepts established in modernity, like 'autonomy', alternatively proposing to think from within relationships and to pay attention to power. In this article the question is raised whether renewal in this same critical vein is necessary and possible as late modern circumstances require rethinking the care ethical inquiry. Two late modern realities that invite to rethink care ethics are complexity and precariousness. Late modern organizations, like the general hospital, codetermined by various (control-, information-, safety-, accountability-) systems are characterized by complexity and the need for complexity reduction, both permeating care practices. By means of a heuristic use of the concept of precariousness, taken as the installment of uncertainty, it is shown that relations and power in late modern care organizations have changed, precluding the use of a straightforward domination idea of power. In the final section a proposition is made how to rethink the care ethical inquiry in order to take late modern circumstances into account: inquiry should always be related to the concerns of people and practitioners from within care practices.

  6. The application of critical psychology to facilitate reflective clinical practice in orthotics/prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Grobler, Ilzé; Van Schalkwyk, Gertina J; Wagner, Claire

    2006-12-01

    The co-construction of a psychology module for a postgraduate training course in orthotics/prosthetics is socially constructed for the first time in Southern African history. This paper elucidates the integration of theory and practice in a model for the development of a professional identity as orthotist/prosthetist. In creating a context where trainees can learn to develop their practice while also enabling them to deconstruct notions of 'expert knowledge', orthotist/prosthetists move from a position of scientist-practitioner to negotiating an alternative position of reflective practitioner. In the process of co-constructing knowledge, an alternative story of teaching and learning evolves. The result is a celebration of life as it is really lived by health professionals.

  7. Which medicine? Whose standard? Critical reflections on medical integration in China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ruiping; Holliday, Ian

    2007-01-01

    There is a prevailing conviction that if traditional medicine (TRM) or complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are integrated into healthcare systems, modern scientific medicine (MSM) should retain its principal status. This paper contends that this position is misguided in medical contexts where TRM is established and remains vibrant. By reflecting on the Chinese policy on three entrenched forms of TRM (Tibetan, Mongolian and Uighur medicines) in western regions of China, the paper challenges the ideology of science that lies behind the demand that all traditional forms of medicine be evaluated and reformed according to MSM standards. Tibetan medicine is used as a case study to indicate the falsity of a major premise of the scientific ideology. The conclusion is that the proper integrative system for TRM and MSM is a dual standard based system in which both TRM and MSM are free to operate according to their own medical standards. PMID:17664302

  8. Critical Reexamination of Resonant Soft X-Ray Bragg Forbidden Reflections in Magnetite

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, S.B.; Di Matteo, S.; Beale, T.A.W.; Joly, Y.; Mazzoli, C.; Hatton, P.D.; Bencok, P.; Yakhou, F.; Brabers, V.A.M.

    2009-05-01

    Magnetite, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, displays a highly complex low-temperature crystal structure that may be charge and orbitally ordered. Many of the recent experimental claims of such ordering rely on resonant soft x-ray diffraction at the oxygen K and iron L edges. We have reexamined this system and undertaken soft x-ray diffraction experiments on a high-quality single crystal. Contrary to previous claims in the literature, we show that the intensity observed at the Bragg forbidden (001/2){sub c} reflection can be explained purely in terms of the low-temperature structural displacements around the resonant atoms. This does not necessarily mean that magnetite is not charge or orbitally ordered but rather that the present sensitivity of resonant soft x-ray experiments does not allow conclusive demonstration of such ordering.

  9. Instilling and distilling a reputation for institutional excellence: a critical reflection on organising practice.

    PubMed

    Beil-Hildebrand, Margitta B

    2005-01-01

    This ethnographic investigation of a general hospital aims to critically analyse a much lauded corporate culture. Rather than accepting the managerial and academic claims concerning the mobilisation of corporate culture at face value, this study builds upon a labour process analysis and takes a close look at how it actually seems to work. The paper explores and describes how executive managers seek to design and impose corporate culture change and how it affects the nursing employees of this organisation. This was achieved by means of a six month field study of day-to-day life in the hospital's nursing division. The results lend little support to the official claims that, if managerial objectives are realised, they are achieved through some combination of shared values and employee participation. The evidence lends more support to the critical view in labour process writing that modern cultural strategies lead to increased corporate control, greater employee subjection and extensive effort intensification. The contradiction this brings into the working lives of the employees leads to the conclusion that the rhetoric of corporate culture change does not affect the pre-existing attitudes and value orientations of nursing employees. However, there were considerable variations in how employees received the managerial message and thus, by their degree of misbehaviour and adaptation, affected the organisation itself as well as using the cultural rhetoric against the management for their own ends. The paper concludes that an extended labour process analysis is necessary to challenge the way in which corporate culture change is explored and described by management academics and practitioners.

  10. Critical reflections on realist review: insights from customizing the methodology to the needs of participatory research assessment.

    PubMed

    Jagosh, Justin; Pluye, Pierre; Wong, Geoff; Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon; Bush, Paula L; Herbert, Carol P; Green, Lawrence W; Greenhalgh, Trish; Macaulay, Ann C

    2014-06-01

    Realist review has increased in popularity as a methodology for complex intervention assessment. Our experience suggests that the process of designing a realist review requires its customization to areas under investigation. To elaborate on this idea, we first describe the logic underpinning realist review and then present critical reflections on our application experience, organized in seven areas. These are the following: (1) the challenge of identifying middle range theory; (2) addressing heterogeneity and lack of conceptual clarity; (3) the challenge of appraising the quality of complex evidence; (4) the relevance of capturing unintended outcomes; (5) understanding the process of context, mechanism, and outcome (CMO) configuring; (6) incorporating middle-range theory in the CMO configuration process; and (7) using middle range theory to advance the conceptualization of outcomes - both visible and seemingly 'hidden'. One conclusion from our experience is that the degree of heterogeneity of the evidence base will determine whether theory can drive the development of review protocols from the outset, or will follow only after an intense period of data immersion. We hope that presenting a critical reflection on customizing realist review will convey how the methodology can be tailored to the often complex and idiosyncratic features of health research, leading to innovative evidence syntheses.

  11. Making space for belonging: critical reflections on the implementation of personalised adult social care under the veil of meaningful inclusion.

    PubMed

    Power, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    This paper critically reflects on the way in which recent adult social care reform has been evolving beneath the alleged policy goal of prioritising the cultivation of meaningful inclusion and 'belonging' in the community. With this goal, there has been a focus away from 'services' for persons with intellectual disabilities, to supporting natural connections within the community. This paper draws on a grounded theory study of the perspectives of those responsible for overseeing community living arrangements for persons with disabilities, drawing on interviews and focus groups with service providers and relevant government officials. It examines the socio-spatial implications of the gradual shift towards 'belonging' as a disability policy goal, as it has evolved in two discrete settings - British Columbia, Canada and Ireland. The findings identify the complexities involved in facilitating active community connection for persons with intellectual disabilities and reveal important cautionary lessons for other jurisdictions where community living policy has arguably been moving away from communal services towards self-managed supports in 'real' communities through personal budgets in an effort to remove barriers to participation. The paper thus critically reflects on the rapid pursuit for transformation in personalised adult social care in government policy, arguing that the process of fostering meaningful community inclusion will and should take time.

  12. Understanding the Nature of Science Through a Critical and Reflective Analysis of the Controversy Between Pasteur and Liebig on Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Carmona, Antonio; Acevedo-Díaz, José Antonio

    2017-03-01

    This article presents a qualitative study, descriptive-interpretive in profile, of the effectiveness in learning about the nature of science (NOS) of an activity relating to the historical controversy between Pasteur and Liebig on fermentation. The activity was implemented during a course for pre-service secondary science teachers (PSSTs) specializing in physics and chemistry. The approach was explicit and reflective. Three research questions were posed: (1) What conceptions of NOS do the PSSTs show after a first reflective reading of the historical controversy?, (2) What role is played by the PSSTs' whole class critical discussion of their first reflections on the aspects of NOS dealt with in the controversy?, and (3) What changes are there in the PSSTs' conceptions of NOS after concluding the activity? The data for analysis was extracted from the PSSTs' group reports submitted at the end of the activity and the audio-recorded information from the whole class discussion. A rubric was prepared to assess this data by a process of inter-rater analysis. The results showed overall improvement in understanding the aspects of NOS involved, with there being a significant evolution in some cases (e.g., conception of scientific theory) and moderate in others (e.g., differences in scientific interpretations of the same phenomenon). This reveals that the activity has an educational utility for the education of PSSTs in NOS issues. The article concludes with an indication of some educational implications of the experience.

  13. Understanding the Nature of Science Through a Critical and Reflective Analysis of the Controversy Between Pasteur and Liebig on Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Carmona, Antonio; Acevedo-Díaz, José Antonio

    2017-02-01

    This article presents a qualitative study, descriptive-interpretive in profile, of the effectiveness in learning about the nature of science (NOS) of an activity relating to the historical controversy between Pasteur and Liebig on fermentation. The activity was implemented during a course for pre-service secondary science teachers (PSSTs) specializing in physics and chemistry. The approach was explicit and reflective. Three research questions were posed: (1) What conceptions of NOS do the PSSTs show after a first reflective reading of the historical controversy?, (2) What role is played by the PSSTs' whole class critical discussion of their first reflections on the aspects of NOS dealt with in the controversy?, and (3) What changes are there in the PSSTs' conceptions of NOS after concluding the activity? The data for analysis was extracted from the PSSTs' group reports submitted at the end of the activity and the audio-recorded information from the whole class discussion. A rubric was prepared to assess this data by a process of inter-rater analysis. The results showed overall improvement in understanding the aspects of NOS involved, with there being a significant evolution in some cases (e.g., conception of scientific theory) and moderate in others (e.g., differences in scientific interpretations of the same phenomenon). This reveals that the activity has an educational utility for the education of PSSTs in NOS issues. The article concludes with an indication of some educational implications of the experience.

  14. Recognition, reflection, and role models: critical elements in education about care in medicine.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Anna L; Macleod, Roderick D; Walker, Simon T

    2008-12-01

    Medical education can be described as a socialization process that has a tendency to produce doctors who struggle to convey to patients that they care. Yet, for people who are suffering, to enjoy the quality of life they are entitled to, it is important that they feel cared for as people, rather than simply attended to as patients. This article addresses how we teach medical students the art of caring for the person rather than simply treating the disease--a question particularly relevant to end-of-life care where, in addition to the physical needs, attention to the psychosocial, emotional, and spiritual needs of the patient is paramount. Following an overview of what it is to care and why it is important that patients feel cared for, we investigate how we learn to care and develop caring human relationships, describing the development and display of empathy in adulthood and the developmental impact of human interaction. We outline evidence of situational barriers to effective education about care in medicine including role models, ward culture, and the socialization process. We then propose a model for medical education based on patient contact, reflection, self-care, role model development, and feedback that will see students learn the art of human care as well as the science of disease management.

  15. A critical reappraisal of the ATLS classification of hypovolaemic shock: does it really reflect clinical reality?

    PubMed

    Mutschler, M; Nienaber, U; Brockamp, T; Wafaisade, A; Wyen, H; Peiniger, S; Paffrath, T; Bouillon, B; Maegele, M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the classification of hypovolaemic shock given by the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS). Patients derived from the TraumaRegister DGU(®) database between 2002 and 2010 were analyzed. First, patients were allocated into the four classes of hypovolaemic shock by matching the combination of heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) according to ATLS. Second, patients were classified by only one parameter (HR, SBP or GCS) according to the ATLS classification and the corresponding changes of the remaining two parameters were assessed within these four groups. Analyses of demographic, injury and therapy characteristics were performed as well. 36,504 patients were identified for further analysis. Only 3411 patients (9.3%) could be adequately classified according to ATLS, whereas 33,093 did not match the combination of all three criteria given by ATLS. When patients were grouped by HR, there was only a slight reduction of SBP associated with tachycardia. The median GCS declined from 12 to 3. When grouped by SBP, GCS dropped from 13 to 3 while there was no relevant tachycardia observed in any group. Patients with a GCS=15 presented normotensive and with a HR of 88/min, whereas patients with a GCS<12 showed a slight reduced SBP of 117mmHg and HR was unaltered. This study indicates that the ATLS classification of hypovolaemic shock does not seem to reflect clinical reality accurately. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The journey of positioning self as both mental health nurse and qualitative researcher: a critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Brunero, S J; Jeon, Y H; Foster, K

    2015-09-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mental health nurse clinician to a mental health nurse researcher. Understanding the theoretical and professional drives that shape mental health nurses clinical practice and how that links to becoming a researcher is discussed. Mental health nurses who conduct research have to often move between their clinical roles and that of the researcher, doing this safely using a reflective supervision approach enables the nurse to conduct the research from a stronger professional and ethical standpoint. The intention of the paper is to encourage mental health nurses to engage in research and development. Shifting between the positions of a mental health nurse clinician and a qualitative researcher has some parallels to the processes in the nurse-service user relationship. This paper addresses this development from practitioner to researcher in one mental health nurse's journey through a PhD study using constructivist grounded theory. The paper examines theoretical and professional drives that have shaped my clinical practice and the role of the researcher in constructivist grounded theory, the notion of the researcher shifting between insider and outsider status, and the importance of reflexivity in conducting research. These influences will be discussed in the context of the development of a constructivist grounded theory study of the delivery of health care to service users with a mental illness in general hospital wards.

  17. Estimation of the critical effect level for pollution prevention based on oyster embryonic development toxicity test: the search for reliability.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, A C S; Couto, B C; Nascimento, I A; Pereira, S A; Leite, M B N L; Bertoletti, E; Zagatto, P

    2007-05-01

    In spite of the consideration that toxicity testing is a reduced approach to measure the effects of pollutants on ecosystems, the early-life-stage (ELS) tests have evident ecological relevance because they reflect the possible reproductive impairment of the natural populations. The procedure and validation of Crassostrea rhizophorae embryonic development test have shown that it meets the same precision as other U.S. EPA tests, where EC(50) is generally used as a toxicological endpoint. However, the recognition that EC(50) is not the best endpoint to assess contaminant effects led U.S. EPA to recently suggest EC(25) as an alternative to estimate xenobiotic effects for pollution prevention. To provide reliability to the toxicological test results on C. rhizophorae embryos, the present work aimed to establish the critical effect level for this test organism, based on its reaction to reference toxicants, by using the statistical method proposed by Norberg-King (Inhibition Concentration, version 2.0). Oyster embryos were exposed to graded series of reference toxicants (ZnSO(4) x 7H(2)O; AgNO(3); KCl; CdCl(2)H(2)O; phenol, 4-chlorophenol and dodecyl sodium sulphate). Based on the obtained results, the critical value for C. rhizophorae embryonic development test was estimated as EC(15). The present research enhances the emerging consensus that ELS tests data would be adequate for estimating the chronic safe concentrations of pollutants in the receiving waters. Based on recommended criteria and on the results of the present research, zinc sulphate and 4-chlorophenol have been pointed out, among the inorganic and organic compounds tested, as the best reference toxicants for C. rhizophorae ELS-test.

  18. Complications during intrahospital transport of critically ill patients: Focus on risk identification and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Patrick H; Maheshwari, Neelabh; Hussain, Jafar; Scholl, Michael; Hughes, Michael; Papadimos, Thomas J; Guo, Weidun Alan; Cipolla, James; Stawicki, Stanislaw P; Latchana, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Intrahospital transportation of critically ill patients is associated with significant complications. In order to reduce overall risk to the patient, such transports should well organized, efficient, and accompanied by the proper monitoring, equipment, and personnel. Protocols and guidelines for patient transfers should be utilized universally across all healthcare facilities. Care delivered during transport and at the site of diagnostic testing or procedure should be equivalent to the level of care provided in the originating environment. Here we review the most common problems encountered during transport in the hospital setting, including various associated adverse outcomes. Our objective is to make medical practitioners, nurses, and ancillary health care personnel more aware of the potential for various complications that may occur during patient movement from the intensive care unit to other locations within a healthcare facility, focusing on risk reduction and preventive strategies. PMID:26807395

  19. Disease prevention and health promotion in medical education: reflections from an academic health center.

    PubMed

    Litaker, David; Cebul, Randall D; Masters, Sophia; Nosek, Thomas; Haynie, Robert; Smith, C Kent

    2004-07-01

    It is unclear whether academic health centers are successfully addressing societal needs and expectations by preparing students with knowledge and skills in disease prevention and health promotion. The authors assessed whether students were exposed to key content in these areas and whether they felt this exposure was adequate. All components of the first three years of the Case Western Reserve University (Case) curriculum were examined in 2001 to create a curricular map, using competencies in disease prevention and health promotion identified by the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine (ATPM) as a template to assess the scope of instruction. Case students' United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 2 subscores in preventive medicine and health maintenance from 1994 to 2000 and graduating seniors' assessment of the adequacy of their training were compared to national data from the Association of American Medical Colleges' 2000 Graduation Questionnaire (GQ). Most content areas identified by ATPM were present in the Case curriculum and were offered frequently in a variety of educational venues over the first three years. USMLE scores increased nationally and at Case from 1994 to 2000 and Case students' perception of training adequacy in preventive medicine and health promotion was comparable to national ratings from the 2000 GQ. Broad and frequent exposure to disease prevention and health promotion core competencies has value, but may not sufficiently prepare students to deliver health-promoting services confidently. Creative curricula highlighting prevention's relevance throughout clinical practice and incorporating formal opportunities to apply knowledge and build experience may result in greater success.

  20. Screening and prevention of venous thromboembolism in critically ill patients: a decision analysis and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sud, Sachin; Mittmann, Nicole; Cook, Deborah J; Geerts, William; Chan, Brian; Dodek, Peter; Gould, Michael K; Guyatt, Gordon; Arabi, Yaseen; Fowler, Robert A

    2011-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism is difficult to diagnose in critically ill patients and may increase morbidity and mortality. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of strategies to reduce morbidity from venous thromboembolism in critically ill patients. A Markov decision analytic model to compare weekly compression ultrasound screening (screening) plus investigation for clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (case finding) versus case finding alone; and a hypothetical program to increase adherence to DVT prevention. Probabilities were derived from a systematic review of venous thromboembolism in medical-surgical intensive care unit patients. Costs (in 2010 $US) were obtained from hospitals in Canada, Australia, and the United States, and the medical literature. Analyses were conducted from a societal perspective over a lifetime horizon. Outcomes included costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. In the base case, the rate of proximal DVT was 85 per 1,000 patients. Screening resulted in three fewer pulmonary emboli than case-finding alone but also two additional bleeding episodes, and cost $223,801 per QALY gained. In sensitivity analyses, screening cost less than $50,000 per QALY only if the probability of proximal DVT increased from a baseline of 8.5-16%. By comparison, increasing adherence to appropriate pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis by 10% resulted in 16 fewer DVTs, one fewer pulmonary emboli, and one additional heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and bleeding event, and cost $27,953 per QALY gained. Programs achieving increased adherence to best-practice venous thromboembolism prevention were cost-effective over a wide range of program costs and were robust in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Appropriate prophylaxis provides better value in terms of costs and health gains than routine screening for DVT. Resources should be targeted at optimizing thromboprophylaxis.

  1. Towards Eco-reflexive Science Education. A Critical Reflection About Educational Implications of Green Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöström, Jesper; Eilks, Ingo; Zuin, Vânia G.

    2016-05-01

    The modern world can be described as a globalized risk society. It is characterized by increasing complexity, unpredictable consequences of techno-scientific innovations and production, and its environmental consequences. Therefore, chemistry, just like many other knowledge areas, is in an ongoing process of environmentalization. For example, green chemistry has emerged as a new chemical metadiscipline and movement. The philosophy of green chemistry was originally based on a suggestion of twelve principles for environment-friendly chemistry research and production. The present article problematizes limitations in green chemistry when it comes to education. It argues that the philosophy of green chemistry in the context of education needs to be extended with socio-critical perspectives to form educated professionals and citizens who are able to understand the complexity of the world, to make value-based decisions, and to become able to engage more thoroughly in democratic decision-making on sustainability issues. Different versions of sustainability-oriented science/chemistry education are discussed to sharpen a focus on the most complex type, which is Bildung-oriented, focusing emancipation and leading to eco-reflexive education. The term eco- reflexive is used for a problematizing stance towards the modern risk society, an understanding of the complexity of life and society and their interactions, and a responsibility for individual and collective actions towards socio-ecojustice and global sustainability. The philosophical foundation and characteristics of eco-reflexive science education are sketched on in the article.

  2. An intersectionality-based policy analysis framework: critical reflections on a methodology for advancing equity.

    PubMed

    Hankivsky, Olena; Grace, Daniel; Hunting, Gemma; Giesbrecht, Melissa; Fridkin, Alycia; Rudrum, Sarah; Ferlatte, Olivier; Clark, Natalie

    2014-12-10

    In the field of health, numerous frameworks have emerged that advance understandings of the differential impacts of health policies to produce inclusive and socially just health outcomes. In this paper, we present the development of an important contribution to these efforts - an Intersectionality-Based Policy Analysis (IBPA) Framework. Developed over the course of two years in consultation with key stakeholders and drawing on best and promising practices of other equity-informed approaches, this participatory and iterative IBPA Framework provides guidance and direction for researchers, civil society, public health professionals and policy actors seeking to address the challenges of health inequities across diverse populations. Importantly, we present the application of the IBPA Framework in seven priority health-related policy case studies. The analysis of each case study is focused on explaining how IBPA: 1) provides an innovative structure for critical policy analysis; 2) captures the different dimensions of policy contexts including history, politics, everyday lived experiences, diverse knowledges and intersecting social locations; and 3) generates transformative insights, knowledge, policy solutions and actions that cannot be gleaned from other equity-focused policy frameworks. The aim of this paper is to inspire a range of policy actors to recognize the potential of IBPA to foreground the complex contexts of health and social problems, and ultimately to transform how policy analysis is undertaken.

  3. Autistic expertise: a critical reflection on the production of knowledge in autism studies.

    PubMed

    Milton, Damian Em

    2014-10-01

    The field of autism studies is a highly disputed territory within which competing contradictory discourses abound. In this field, it is the voices and claims of autistic people regarding their own expertise in knowledge production concerning autism that is most recent in the debate, and traditionally the least attended to. In this article, I utilise the theories of Harry Collins and colleagues in order to reflect upon and conceptualise the various claims to knowledge production and expertise within the field of autism studies, from the perspective of an author who has been diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum. The notion that autistic people lack sociality is problematised, with the suggestion that autistic people are not well described by notions such as the 'social brain', or as possessing 'zero degrees of cognitive empathy'. I then argue, however, that there is a qualitative difference in autistic sociality, and question to what extent such differences are of a biological or cultural nature, and to what extent interactional expertise can be gained by both parties in interactions between autistic and non-autistic people. In conclusion, I argue that autistic people have often become distrustful of researchers and their aims, and are frequently frozen out of the processes of knowledge production. Such a context results in a negative feedback spiral with further damage to the growth of interactional expertise between researchers and autistic people, and a breakdown in trust and communication leading to an increase in tension between stakeholder groups. The involvement of autistic scholars in research and improvements in participatory methods can thus be seen as a requirement, if social research in the field of autism is to claim ethical and epistemological integrity.

  4. Conceptualizing learning for sustainability through environmental assessment: critical reflections on 15 years of research

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, A. John Diduck, Alan Fitzpatrick, Patricia

    2008-10-15

    Numerous scholars are now directing their attention to the education and learning implications of participatory resource and environmental governance because of the potential implications of these for generating the social mobilization necessary to achieve sustainability trajectories. Our work, and that of other researchers, establishes that public participation in environmental assessment (EA) provides fertile ground for considering the intricacies of governance as they relate to participation, and for examining the education and learning implications of participation. Since EA law requires in many cases that public voices be part of the decision process, it has resulted in the creation of fascinating, state-sanctioned, deliberative spaces for civic interactions. Our purpose here is to share, and build upon, a framework that conceptualizes the relationships among participation, education, learning and sustainability in an EA context. We do so by considering findings from studies we have undertaken on participation in EA in Canada since the early 90's. Our approach was interactive and collaborative. We each considered in detail the key results of our earlier work as they relate to education, learning and EA process design. The findings illuminate aspects of the conceptual framework for which there is considerable empirical evidence, such as the link between meaningful participation and critical education and the diversity of individual learning outcomes associated with public participation in EA. The findings also highlight those parts of the framework for which the empirical evidence is relatively sparse, such as the range of possible social learning outcomes, their congruence with sustainability criteria, and the roles of monitoring and cumulative and strategic assessments in shaping EA into an adaptive, learning system.

  5. A critical reflection of a decade of urbanization and global environmental change research and science coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Urbanization and Global Environmental Change (UGEC) Project was established in 2005 when attention to the bidirectional interactions of urbanization and GEC issues and the associated system responses was very new and the community of UGEC researchers very small. Much of the urban scholarship used specific disciplinary lenses through which to understand the city, e.g., in terms of demographics and population growth, ecology of cities or economics of cities. Over the last decade new analytical lenses have revealed much more about how cities function, the underlying socio-economic and ecological processes that drive urbanization, their dynamic and teleconnected nature, and other bio-physical interactions within the Earth system. Furthermore, it is within the cities that the impacts of current and projected urbanization and environmental changes are felt, but also where action is taken and where great potential for intervention of urbanization trajectories exists towards creating more livable urban futures. A former IHDP core project, now Future Earth project, UGEC is in its sunset/synthesis phase and exploring future directions. This presentation will: Give an brief overview of UGEC evolution over the course of the last decade not only in terms of the science, but also the institution Present preliminary results from a critical analysis of UGEC's ten year role as a GEC research coordination project including its impact, strengths and weaknesses Make the case for greater interdisciplinarity (particularly across the physical sciences and humanities) and involvement of other stakeholders (private sector and decisionmakers) in future urbanization and environmental research, as 'urban' is a crosscutting issue that has both global to local scale implications Present work that UGEC is leading, which is to advance an urban agenda within the new Future Earth initiative as part of the recently awarded Cluster Activity 'Livable Urban Futures', as an example of research

  6. Prevention of infections in an ART laboratory: a reflection on simplistic methods.

    PubMed

    Huyser, C

    2014-01-01

    Preventative measures combined with reactive remedial actions are generic management tools to optimize and protect an entity's core businesses. Differences between assisted reproduction technology (ART) laboratories in developing versus developed countries include restricted access to, or availability of resources, and the prevalence of pathological conditions that are endemic or common in non-industrialized regions. The aim of this paper is to discuss the prevention of infections in an ART laboratory in a low to middle-income country, with reference to simplistic risk reduction applications to avoid the introduction and transmission of pathogens. Diagnostic and procedural phases will be examined, i.e. (i) screening for microbes during patient evaluation, and (ii-iii) prevention of environmental and procedural contamination. Preventative action is enabled by knowledge of threats and the degree of risk involved. Awareness and understanding of the vulnerabilities in an ART system, wherein laboratory personnel operate, are invaluable assets when unforeseen equipment failure occurs or instant decisions have to be made to safeguard procedures. An inter-connective team approach to patient treatment, biosafety training and utilization of practical procedures such as semen decontamination, are fundamental tools in a laboratory's risk-reduction armoury to prevent and eliminate infectious elements.

  7. "A Moving Target": A Critical Race Analysis of Latina/o Faculty Experiences, Perspectives, and Reflections on the Tenure and Promotion Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urrieta, Luis, Jr.; Méndez, Lina; Rodríguez, Esmeralda

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how Latina/o professors perceive, experience, and reflect on the tenure and promotion process. Findings for this longitudinal study are drawn from a purposive sample of nine female and seven male, Latina/o tenure-track faculty participants. Using a Critical Race Theory, Latino Critical (LatCrit) Race Theory, and Chicana…

  8. An Ecological Model of E-Learning in a Chinese Context: Critical Reflections of Five Years' Practice of E-Learning Management in the BIOE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Yueguo

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents critical reflections of five years' hands-on experiences of setting up and managing an e-learning institute, the Beiwai Institute of Online Education (BIOE). It first spells out the Chinese educational context towards the end of the 20th century. This is followed by a critical review of the national ICT initiatives taken by the…

  9. "A Moving Target": A Critical Race Analysis of Latina/o Faculty Experiences, Perspectives, and Reflections on the Tenure and Promotion Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urrieta, Luis, Jr.; Méndez, Lina; Rodríguez, Esmeralda

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how Latina/o professors perceive, experience, and reflect on the tenure and promotion process. Findings for this longitudinal study are drawn from a purposive sample of nine female and seven male, Latina/o tenure-track faculty participants. Using a Critical Race Theory, Latino Critical (LatCrit) Race Theory, and Chicana…

  10. The "Critical Friend" Role in Fostering Reflective Practices and Developing Staff Cohesion: A Case Study in a New Secondary School, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Noeline; Adam, Amina

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory case study, arising from a longitudinal project into the establishment of a new secondary school in New Zealand, examines reflective practice through critical friend roles among staff. The paper describes, through the lens of Bourdieu's logic of practice, the implementation of a critical friendship approach linked to the school…

  11. The "Critical Friend" Role in Fostering Reflective Practices and Developing Staff Cohesion: A Case Study in a New Secondary School, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Noeline; Adam, Amina

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory case study, arising from a longitudinal project into the establishment of a new secondary school in New Zealand, examines reflective practice through critical friend roles among staff. The paper describes, through the lens of Bourdieu's logic of practice, the implementation of a critical friendship approach linked to the school…

  12. Prevention and diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in critically ill patients: a Canadian survey

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Deborah; McMullin, Joseph; Hodder, Richard; Heule, Mark; Pinilla, Jaime; Dodek, Peter; Stewart, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) confers considerable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, although few studies have focused on the critically ill population. The objective of this study was to understand current approaches to the prevention and diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) among patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Design Mailed self-administered survey of ICU Directors in Canadian university affiliated hospitals. Results Of 29 ICU Directors approached, 29 (100%) participated, representing 44 ICUs and 681 ICU beds across Canada. VTE prophylaxis is primarily determined by individual ICU clinicians (20/29, 69.0%) or with a hematology consultation for challenging patients (9/29, 31.0%). Decisions are usually made on a case-by-case basis (18/29, 62.1%) rather than by preprinted orders (5/29, 17.2%), institutional policies (6/29, 20.7%) or formal practice guidelines (2/29, 6.9%). Unfractionated heparin is the predominant VTE prophylactic strategy (29/29, 100.0%) whereas low molecular weight heparin is used less often, primarily for trauma and orthopedic patients. Use of pneumatic compression devices and thromboembolic stockings is variable. Systematic screening for DVT with lower limb ultrasound once or twice weekly was reported by some ICU Directors (7/29, 24.1%) for specific populations. Ultrasound is the most common diagnostic test for DVT; the reference standard of venography is rarely used. Spiral computed tomography chest scans and ventilation–perfusion scans are used more often than pulmonary angiograms for the diagnosis of PE. ICU Directors recommend further studies in the critically ill population to determine the test properties and risk:benefit ratio of VTE investigations, and the most cost-effective methods of prophylaxis in medical–surgical ICU patients. Interpretation Unfractionated subcutaneous heparin is the predominant VTE prophylaxis strategy for critically ill patients, although

  13. Towards critical digital health studies: Reflections on two decades of research in health and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Lupton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I provide some reflections on critical digital health research in the context of Health's 20th anniversary. I begin by outlining the various iterations of digital technologies that have occurred since the early 1990s--from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 to Web 3.0. I then review the research that has been published on the topic of digital health in this journal over the past two decades and make some suggestions for the types of directions and theoretical perspectives that further sociocultural and political research could tackle. My concluding comments identify four main areas for further research: (1) devices and software, (2) data materialisations, (3) data practices and (4) data mobilities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Building critical reflection skills for lifelong learning in the emergent landscape of a national registration and accreditation scheme.

    PubMed

    McKauge, Leigh; Stupans, Ieva; Owen, Susanne M; Ryan, Greg; Woulfe, Jim

    2011-04-01

    In 2010 many of the health disciplines in Australia will be involved in national registration and accreditation, to ensure a more sustainable and flexible health workforce for the future. To this end, in each of the health professions, there is an increasing emphasis on reflective practice and lifelong learning to maintain practice competency. This research focuses on academic teaching and learning in the Pharmacy undergraduate curriculum to develop an indicator tool of graduate practice skills before the student enters the practice internship year. The Graduated Descriptors Competency Tool was developed by means of state, territory, and national stakeholder collaboration. The aim of the project was to assist the scaffolding processes around undergraduate practice teaching and learning. Students on experiential placements have used the tool to demonstrate their current practice skills and the learning required to attain competency during their internship year. Students are guided to develop critical reflection skills for deep understanding and insight into the continued learning and professional development required to maintain long-term health care expertise.

  15. Teenage Pregnancy from a Black Perspective: Some Reflections on Its Prevention. Occasional Paper No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.; Montgomery, Teresa A.

    This paper focuses on the causes, consequences and prevention of the alarming number of pregnancies among black teenagers. Teenage pregnancy is a symptom of the failure to have one's basic spiritual, intellectual/emotional, and physical needs met. Unmet infantile needs cause adolescents to search for romantic relationships in which they can…

  16. Dropout Prevention and the Model-Minority Stereotype: Reflections from an Asian American High School Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Jade; Pyle, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    A recent review of the research by the U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences has resulted in the recommendation of six promising practices to ensure that all students are actively engaged in school and on a path to post-secondary success (Dynarski et al. in Dropout prevention: A practice guide (NCEE 2008-4025)). The purpose…

  17. Reflections on Implementation of the PREPaRE Crisis Prevention and Intervention Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Melissa A.; Brock, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    After a nationwide search, the NASP PREPaRE Workgroup recently invited Brian Lazzaro, Christina Conolly-Wilson, and Melinda Susan to join the workgroup. This was done in an attempt to meet the ever-increasing demand and associated duties that accompany the dissemination of the PREPaRE Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum. In this…

  18. Dropout Prevention and the Model-Minority Stereotype: Reflections from an Asian American High School Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Jade; Pyle, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    A recent review of the research by the U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences has resulted in the recommendation of six promising practices to ensure that all students are actively engaged in school and on a path to post-secondary success (Dynarski et al. in Dropout prevention: A practice guide (NCEE 2008-4025)). The purpose…

  19. "Can we talk?" Using critical self-reflection and dialogue to build diversity and change organizational culture in nursing schools.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Carol Parker

    2006-01-01

    Nursing is often cited as a homogenous profession composed of a predominance of white females. It is sometimes posited that this homogeneity might be a contributor to the disparity of nursing care available to minority populations (Blakeney, 2002; Leininger, 1991). Today's nursing students do not mirror the nation's population as only 12.3% of RNs represent racial or ethnic minority groups (AACN, 2001). The absence of sufficiently diverse students in nursing schools, may have led to a dearth of qualified providers in underrepresented neighborhoods. Building diversity in nursing schools prepared specifically to reduce health disparities is, and will continue to be a challenge. While, some schools are beginning to yield successful returns, many are still searching for answers. The answer is not as simple as "increasing the numbers" or sending people to training seminars or conferences. This article focuses on what the author believes to be a preliminary and critical step to begin an effective and successful diversity initiative--critical self-reflection and dialogue. This involves the examination and deconstruction of old paradigms, assumptions, and prejudices, individually and collectively held and the construction of space, respect, and humility to discuss self in relation to "other."

  20. Critical analysis of the factors associated with enteral feeding in preventing VAP: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Chih

    2009-04-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common cause of morbidity in critically ill patients. Appropriate enteral feeding is the most important factor associated with the prevention of VAP. However, the standardization of enteral feeding methods needs clarification. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the factors associated with enteral feeding in order to prevent VAP and to describe the characteristics of these factors. A comprehensive search was undertaken involving all major databases from their inception to September 2008 using medical subject heading terms associated with enteral feeding in relation to VAP. The overall reference list of identified studies was audited, and eligible studies included randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after (pre-post) studies and meta-analyses. To generate the characteristics of the factors associated with VAP, the reported components of these trials were pinpointed and categorized. A total of 14 papers were found that had investigated the factors linking enteral feeding and VAP. For these, 11 were randomized controlled trials, 1 was a meta-analysis and 2 were case-controlled analyses. Twelve of these 14 studies were conducted at a single institute and 2 were conducted at multiple institutes. The sample sizes varied from 10 to 2,528 subjects. Three major issues were identified based on the purpose of study interventions, and these were the effects of feeding method (continuous vs. intermittent), feeding site on aspiration (gastric vs. small bowel), and the timing of enteral feeding (early vs. late). The evidence suggests that a correct choice of enteral feeding method can effectively reduce complications due to aspiration. Furthermore, intermittent enteral feeding and with a small residual volume feed can reduce gastroesophageal reflux, and increased total intake volume and early feeding can reduce ICU mortality. Nonetheless, the effects of these choices on preventing VAP still need further

  1. [Tobacco: knowledge, reasoning and opinion of high school students in Doubs. Reflections on prevention].

    PubMed

    Michaud, C; Saraiva, I; Henry, Y; Dodane, M

    2003-03-01

    The prevalence of smoking has increased among young people aged 14 to 18 between 1993 and 1999, and most notably among girls within the same period. These observations illustrate the necessity for significant changes in mass media campaigns and education programmes related to the prevention of smoking among youth. The objective of this survey, initiated by the city of Besançon and the French National Mutual Insurance of Doubs, was to describe and analyse the knowledge and rationale of high school students on tobacco and their opinions in terms of prevention. Twelve public and private high schools in Besançon and Morteau (Doubs-France) participated in the survey; the group also represented a mix of general and professional schools. The questionnaire was filled out by 970 students selected at random. 96% of the students indicated cancer as being the main illness linked to tobacco and 94% stated that second-hand smoke constitutes a health risk. 61% admitted to seeking out the psychoactive effects of smoking. The students responses confirm that the types of messages relayed in a smoking prevention campaign which have an impact on them are: evoking fear of death (74%) and the use of humor (16%). One-third of high school students find that it is unacceptable to forbid smoking on school premises. The knowledge of the dangers related to smoking is not sufficient to keep young people from smoking and confirms that an educational approach based solely on knowledge and facts will not be sufficient to decrease their tobacco consumption. It is important to take into account the image that young people have of tobacco as a means to combat stress in future prevention strategies and campaigns.

  2. Intravascular catheter-related infections: a preventable challenge in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Chatzinikolaou, I; Raad, I I

    2000-12-01

    In modem medicine, central venous catheters (CVCs) have a pivotal role in the management of critically ill patients. The most serious complication of effective CVC placement is catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). Microbial colonization and CRBSI are the byproducts of the interaction of 4 factors: (1) microbial factors (hydrophobicity and exopolysaccharide production), (2) host factors (such protein adhesins as fibrin and fibronectin that attach to the catheter surface), (3) catheter material (hydrophobicity, surface charges, thrombogenicity), and (4) iatrogenic factors (total parenteral nutrition, interleukin-2). The organisms most frequently associated with CRBSI are Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida spp. CRBSIs were traditionally diagnosed through semiquantitative or quantitative cultures of the catheter tip. However, the diagnosis can be achieved without catheter removal through cultures of blood specimens collected simultaneously though the CVC and a peripheral vein. Currently, the most effective method of preventing a CRBSI is the use of a CVC coated with antimicrobial agents. Intravenous administration of vancomycin for 7 days is adequate for an uncomplicated CRBSI caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, and at least 10 days of therapy with beta-lactams is required for an uncomplicated infection caused by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. CRBSI caused by Candida albicans or Candida parapsilosis can be treated with at least 14 days of therapy with fluconazole or amphotericin B. In the case of Candida krusei, only amphotericin B is effective.

  3. [[The prevention of food wastage by restoring the value to food: reflections of an agroeconomist].

    PubMed

    Segré, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Each year, about one trillion USD worth of food sales is lost or wasted. In addition to its economic impacts, food wastage has significant societal costs that are born indirectly by taxpayers. Should damage costs associated with food wastage be accounted for, this global wastage appears much higher. In fact, the monetization of environmental costs such as the impact of greenhouse gases, land erosion, water use and pollinators loss amnounts to another trillion USD. Furthermore, a valuation of social costs, such as health effects of pesticides, loss of livelihoods and conflicts over natural resources adds another trillion USD. Noteworthy is the fact that not all food wastage reduction strategies are equal in terms of environmental efficiency and reducing food wastage must be a priority over energy recovery fromn food wastage. As a case study, the Italian National Plan for Food Waste Prevention (PINPAS) aims at reducing food wastage upstream the food chain, will be considered. PINPAS also seeks to improve recovery measures of unsold food. As indicated in the Guidelines on the preparation of food waste prevention programmes by the European Commission, PINPAS engages all stakeholders of the agri-food chain, from policy makers to civil groups aid producers. The first action will be the reintroduction of food education at school.

  4. Bankruptcy Prevention: New Effort to Reflect on Legal and Social Changes.

    PubMed

    Kliestik, Tomas; Misankova, Maria; Valaskova, Katarina; Svabova, Lucia

    2017-04-10

    Every corporation has an economic and moral responsibility to its stockholders to perform well financially. However, the number of bankruptcies in Slovakia has been growing for several years without an apparent macroeconomic cause. To prevent a rapid denigration and to prevent the outflow of foreign capital, various efforts are being zealously implemented. Robust analysis using conventional bankruptcy prediction tools revealed that the existing models are adaptable to local conditions, particularly local legislation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that most of these outdated tools have sufficient capability to warn of impending financial problems several years in advance. A novel bankruptcy prediction tool that outperforms the conventional models was developed. However, it is increasingly challenging to predict bankruptcy risk as corporations have become more global and more complex and as they have developed sophisticated schemes to hide their actual situations under the guise of "optimization" for tax authorities. Nevertheless, scepticism remains because economic engineers have established bankruptcy as a strategy to limit the liability resulting from court-imposed penalties.

  5. Searching and synthesising 'grey literature' and 'grey information' in public health: critical reflections on three case studies.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean; Hillier-Brown, Frances C; Moore, Helen J; Lake, Amelia A; Araujo-Soares, Vera; White, Martin; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2016-09-29

    Grey literature includes a range of documents not controlled by commercial publishing organisations. This means that grey literature can be difficult to search and retrieve for evidence synthesis. Much knowledge and evidence in public health, and other fields, accumulates from innovation in practice. This knowledge may not even be of sufficient formality to meet the definition of grey literature. We term this knowledge 'grey information'. Grey information may be even harder to search for and retrieve than grey literature. On three previous occasions, we have attempted to systematically search for and synthesise public health grey literature and information-both to summarise the extent and nature of particular classes of interventions and to synthesise results of evaluations. Here, we briefly describe these three 'case studies' but focus on our post hoc critical reflections on searching for and synthesising grey literature and information garnered from our experiences of these case studies. We believe these reflections will be useful to future researchers working in this area. Issues discussed include search methods, searching efficiency, replicability of searches, data management, data extraction, assessing study 'quality', data synthesis, time and resources, and differentiating evidence synthesis from primary research. Information on applied public health research questions relating to the nature and range of public health interventions, as well as many evaluations of these interventions, may be predominantly, or only, held in grey literature and grey information. Evidence syntheses on these topics need, therefore, to embrace grey literature and information. Many typical systematic review methods for searching, appraising, managing, and synthesising the evidence base can be adapted for use with grey literature and information. Evidence synthesisers should carefully consider the opportunities and problems offered by including grey literature and information

  6. Improving access to mental health care in an Orthodox Jewish community: a critical reflection upon the accommodation of otherness.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Phil; Williamson, Tracey; Kada, Raphael; Frazer, Debra; Dhliwayo, Chardworth; Gask, Linda

    2017-08-14

    The English National Health Service (NHS) has significantly extended the supply of evidence based psychological interventions in primary care for people experiencing common mental health problems. Yet despite the extra resources, the accessibility of services for 'under-served' ethnic and religious minority groups, is considerably short of the levels of access that may be necessary to offset the health inequalities created by their different exposure to services, resulting in negative health outcomes. This paper offers a critical reflection upon an initiative that sought to improve access to an NHS funded primary care mental health service to one 'under-served' population, an Orthodox Jewish community in the North West of England. A combination of qualitative and quantitative data were drawn upon including naturally occurring data, observational notes, e-mail correspondence, routinely collected demographic data and clinical outcomes measures, as well as written feedback and recorded discussions with 12 key informants. Improvements in access to mental health care for some people from the Orthodox Jewish community were achieved through the collaborative efforts of a distributed leadership team. The members of this leadership team were a self-selecting group of stakeholders which had a combination of local knowledge, cultural understanding, power to negotiate on behalf of their respective constituencies and expertise in mental health care. Through a process of dialogic engagement the team was able to work with the community to develop a bespoke service that accommodated its wish to maintain a distinct sense of cultural otherness. This critical reflection illustrates how dialogic engagement can further the mechanisms of candidacy, concordance and recursivity that are associated with improvements in access to care in under-served sections of the population, whilst simultaneously recognising the limits of constructive dialogue. Dialogue can change the dynamic of

  7. Circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations reflect changes in insulin sensitivity over time in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Walford, Geoffrey A; Ma, Yong; Christophi, Costas A; Goldberg, Ronald B; Jarolim, Petr; Horton, Edward; Mather, Kieren J; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Davis, Jaclyn; Florez, Jose C; Wang, Thomas J

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to study the relationship between measures of adiposity, insulin sensitivity and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). The DPP is a completed clinical trial. Using stored samples from this resource, we measured BMI, waist circumference (WC), an insulin sensitivity index (ISI; [1/HOMA-IR]) and NT-proBNP at baseline and at 2 years of follow-up in participants randomised to placebo (n = 692), intensive lifestyle intervention (n = 832) or metformin (n = 887). At baseline, log NT-proBNP did not differ between treatment arms and was correlated with baseline log ISI (p < 0.0001) and WC (p = 0.0003) but not with BMI (p = 0.39). After 2 years of treatment, BMI decreased in the lifestyle and metformin groups (both p < 0.0001); WC decreased in all three groups (p < 0.05 for all); and log ISI increased in the lifestyle and metformin groups (both p < 0.001). The change in log NT-proBNP did not differ in the lifestyle or metformin group vs the placebo group (p > 0.05 for both). In regression models, the change in log NT-proBNP was positively associated with the change in log ISI (p < 0.005) in all three study groups after adjusting for changes in BMI and WC, but was not associated with the change in BMI or WC after adjusting for changes in log ISI. Circulating NT-proBNP was associated with a measure of insulin sensitivity before and during preventive interventions for type 2 diabetes in the DPP. This relationship persisted after adjustment for measures of adiposity and was consistent regardless of whether a participant was treated with placebo, intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin.

  8. Circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations reflect changes in insulin sensitivity over time in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Walford, Geoffrey A.; Ma, Yong; Christophi, Costas A.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Jarolim, Petr; Horton, Edward; Mather, Kieren J.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Davis, Jaclyn; Florez, Jose C.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We aimed to study the relationship between measures of adiposity, insulin sensitivity and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Methods The DPP is a completed clinical trial. Using stored samples from this resource, we measured BMI, waist circumference (WC), an insulin sensitivity index (ISI; [1/HOMA-IR]) and NT-proBNP at baseline and at 2 years of follow-up in participants randomised to placebo (n=692), intensive lifestyle intervention (n=832) or metformin (n=887). Results At baseline, log NT-proBNP did not differ between treatment arms and was correlated with baseline log ISI (p<0.0001) and WC (p=0.0003) but not with BMI (p=0.39). After 2 years of treatment, BMI decreased in the lifestyle and metformin groups (both p<0.0001); WC decreased in all three groups (p<0.05 for all); and log ISI increased in the lifestyle and metformin groups (both p<0.001). The change in log NT-proBNP did not differ in the lifestyle or metformin group vs the placebo group (p>0.05 for both). In regression models, the change in log NT-proBNP was positively associated with the change in log ISI (p<0.005) in all three study groups after adjusting for changes in BMI and WC, but was not associated with the change in BMI or WC after adjusting for changes in log ISI. Conclusion/interpretation Circulating NT-proBNP was associated with a measure of insulin sensitivity before and during preventive interventions for type 2 diabetes in the DPP. This relationship persisted after adjustment for measures of adiposity and was consistent regardless of whether a participant was treated with placebo, intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin. PMID:24554005

  9. Preventive dental visiting: a critical interpretive synthesis of theory explaining how inequalities arise.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca V; Pennington, Andrew; Whitehead, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    In many countries, those with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by poor oral health. This can be attributed, at least in part, to differences in preventive dental visiting. While several theories have been applied to the area, they generally fail to capture the recursive nature of dental visiting behaviour, and fall short of informing the design of complex interventions to tackle inequalities. To undertake a systematic review and synthesis of theory in order to provide an overview of the pathways which bring about socioeconomic inequalities in early dental visiting, and identify possible intervention points. Electronic searching identified 8947 titles and abstracts. Paper screening and citation snowballing left 77 included papers. Drawing on the tenets of Critical Interpretive Synthesis, data extraction involved capturing concepts and relationships and translating these sometimes into synthetic constructs. We theorize that at the individual (micro-level), dental visiting behaviour is influenced by: the 'Importance of obtaining care', 'Emotional response' and 'Perceived control', which feed into a balancing of 'Competing Demands' against 'Internal resources' (coping, self-identity), although attendance is tempered by the effective 'Affordability and Availability of services'. Positive Care experiences are theorized to lower the demands and increase internal resources associated with dental visiting. We also outline meso-level factors 'Social norms and sanctions', 'Obligations, expectations and trust', 'Information channels', 'Social structures' and theorize how these can exert an overwhelming influence in deprived areas. Socioeconomic inequalities in early dental visiting emerge from several stages in the care-seeking process. Dental visiting behaviour should be viewed not just as a one-off event, but extending over time and social space. Since there is recursivity in peoples' most recent dental experience any future visits we identify that

  10. [A reflection about prevention of violence based on a study on human aggressiveness].

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Elaine Vasconcelos; Bezerra, Benilton

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to offer a tool to enlighten the comprehension of aggressive behavior and violent situations often found in educational institutions. The words 'violence' and 'aggressiveness' are not used in an unequivocal way, and the establishment of a map showing this fact allows designating places and ways of treatment specific for the phenomena. Following the theoretical model of the psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott, we will discuss the differences between aggressiveness and violence, illustrating them through the presentation of a case experienced by our health team in a public school in the state of Rio de Janeiro. In face of the difficulties found and the questions raised, we sought to show that the denaturalization of violence and the depathologization of aggressiveness offer us the possibility to propose actions which are not restricted to the control and correction of such manifestations, but can be more efficient in preventing the irruption and reproduction of violent situations for considering the social context in which they emerge and the subjective experiences involved.

  11. Reflections from an Undergraduate Student Peer Facilitator in the Team Up for Healthy Living School-Based Obesity Prevention Project

    PubMed Central

    Crenshaw, Caroline E.; Mozen, Diana M.; Dalton, William T.; Slawson, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Team Up for Healthy Living was a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate a cross-peer school-based obesity prevention program in Southern Appalachia. Undergraduate students from the disciplines of Kinesiology, Nutrition, and Public Health were trained as peer facilitators to deliver an 8-week curriculum in high school Lifetime Wellness classes. The focus of the curriculum was on improving diet and physical activity with an additional emphasis on enhancing leadership and communication skills. Control group participants received their regularly scheduled Lifetime Wellness curriculum. The current article is about the experiences of an undergraduate kinesiology student participating as a peer-facilitator in the Team-Up for Healthy Living trial. A brief overview of the program and peer facilitator training is followed by this students reflections on both personal development and student outcomes. PMID:26636111

  12. An exploratory study of the potential learning benefits for medical students in collaborative drawing: creativity, reflection and 'critical looking'.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Philippa; Letschka, Patrick; Ainsworth, Tom; Haq, Inam

    2013-06-17

    Building on a series of higher educational arts/medicine initiatives, an interdisciplinary drawing module themed on the human body was developed for both year 3 Craft students and year 3 Medicine degree students. This became the subject of a research project exploring how the collaborative approach to drawing adopted on this module impacted on the students' learning. In this article, emphasis is given to issues thought to have most potential relevance to medical education. Using an ethnographic research design, the methods adopted were: direct observation of all aspects of the module sessions, audio and video recordings and photographs of the sessions, the incorporation of a semi-structured discussion at the end of each session, and anonymous student questionnaires. A number of key themes emerged. The complex, phased and multi-sensory nature of the 'critical looking' skills developed through the drawing exercises was seen as of potential value in medical education, being proposed as analogous to processes involved in clinical examination and diagnosis. The experience of interdisciplinary collaborative drawing was significant to the students as a creative, participatory and responsive form of learning. The emphasis on the physical experience of drawing and the thematic use of the human body as drawing subject led to reflective discussions about bodily knowledge and understanding. There were indications that students had a meta-cognitive awareness of the learning shifts that had occurred and the sessions provoked constructive self-reflective explorations of pre-professional identity. This preliminary study suggests, through the themes identified, that there may be potential learning outcomes for medical students in this model of interdisciplinary collaborative drawing of the human body. Further research is needed to explore their applicability and value to medical education. There is a need to explore in more depth the beliefs, motivations and learning styles of

  13. Problem Solving and Critical Inquiry in the Written and Oral Reflections of Middle School Preservice Teachers' Classroom Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann Marie; Lennon, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to investigate undergraduate preservice student-teachers' interpretations of written reflections and how these written reflections impacted their thoughts about teaching practices. A second question was to investigate how preservice teachers talked about their processes of reflection beyond the…

  14. Critical research gaps and translational priorities for the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice. Methods More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals collaborated to address nine thematic areas: genetics, epigenetics and epidemiology; molecular pathology and cell biology; hormonal influences and endocrine therapy; imaging, detection and screening; current/novel therapies and biomarkers; drug resistance; metastasis, angiogenesis, circulating tumour cells, cancer ‘stem’ cells; risk and prevention; living with and managing breast cancer and its treatment. The groups developed summary papers through an iterative process which, following further appraisal from experts and patients, were melded into this summary account. Results The 10 major gaps identified were: (1) understanding the functions and contextual interactions of genetic and epigenetic changes in normal breast development and during malignant transformation; (2) how to implement sustainable lifestyle changes (diet, exercise and weight) and chemopreventive strategies; (3) the need for tailored screening approaches including clinically actionable tests; (4) enhancing knowledge of molecular drivers behind breast cancer subtypes, progression and metastasis; (5) understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumour heterogeneity, dormancy, de novo or acquired resistance and how to target key nodes in these dynamic processes; (6) developing validated markers for chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity; (7) understanding the optimal duration, sequencing and rational combinations of treatment for improved personalised therapy; (8) validating multimodality imaging biomarkers for minimally invasive diagnosis and monitoring of responses in primary and metastatic disease

  15. Use of Methadone for Prevention of Opioid Withdrawal in Critically Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Sonia A; McGloin, Rumi; Pitfield, Alexander F; Carr, Roxane R

    2012-01-01

    Background Opioids are commonly administered to critically ill children for analgesia and sedation, but many patients experience opioid withdrawal upon discontinuation. The authors’ institution developed a protocol for using methadone to prevent opioid withdrawal in children who have received morphine by continuous IV infusion for 5 days or longer in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Objectives The primary objectives were to determine if opioids were tapered according to the protocol and to determine the conversion ratio for IV morphine to oral methadone that was used. Secondary objectives were to describe the methadone dosage used and the clinical outcomes, to evaluate adjustments to methadone dosing, and to report the incidence of adverse effects. Methods A retrospective analysis of charts was conducted for pediatric patients who had received morphine by continuous IV infusion for 5 days or longer followed by methadone in the PICU between May 2008 and August 2009. Validated scoring systems (the Withdrawal Assessment Tool and the State Behavioral Scale) were used to assess symptoms of withdrawal and degree of sedation, respectively. Results Forty-three patients were included in the study, with median age of 8 months (range 0.25–201 months). For 31 patients (72%), the protocol was not used, and there were no patients for whom the protocol was followed to completion. The median duration of weaning was 10 days (range 0–91 days). The conversion ratio for IV morphine to oral methadone was 1:0.78 for anticipated 5-day weaning and 1:0.98 for anticipated 10-day weaning. During the first 10 days of weaning, 18 patients (42%) experienced withdrawal symptoms. The methadone dose was increased for 11 (26%) of the 43 patients. Patients were sedated for a median of 1 day (range 0–9 days), were comfortable for a median of 6.5 days (range 1–64 days), and were agitated for a median of 2.5 days (range 0–23 days). Naloxone was required for 2 patients. Conclusions

  16. A Value-Critical Choice Analysis of a Policy to Prevent Suicide in Veterans and Service Members.

    PubMed

    Schuman, Donna L; Schuman, Donald L

    2016-10-01

    A few years after the advent of the Global War on Terror, veteran and service member suicide emerged on the national forefront as a public health issue of significant concern. This social policy analysis applies a value-critical choice model to the military suicide prevention provisions mandated by Section 2 of Exec. Order No. 13625 (2012): Improving Access to Mental Health Services for Veterans, Service Members, and Military Families. Results reveal that the suicide prevention provisions mandated by the order have not been fully and effectively implemented and the goal of reducing military suicide remains elusive.

  17. Thinking and Meddling with Boundaries: Critical Reflections on Matthew Weinstein's Narrative of Street Medics, Red-Zones and Glop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In pursuit of more mindful notions of hybridity, this review essay provides a series of reflections on Mathew Weinstein's representations of Street Medics and "sciences for the red zones of neoliberalism". My analysis draws on three popular ways of thinking with boundaries to offer a critical reading of the boundary-work that the…

  18. "Math Is All around Us and … We Can Use It to Help Us": Teacher Agency in Mathematics Education through Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Mathew D.; Koestler, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    As social-justice mathematics teacher educators, we have always engaged and supported the prospective and practicing teachers in our classes in critical reflection about mathematics and the teaching and learning of mathematics (Felton, 2010, 2012; Felton & Koestler, 2012; Koestler, 2012). Although there are different notions, purposes, and…

  19. A Qualitative Study of Managerial Coaching: How Critical Reflection and Experiential Learning Are Facilitated within a Multi-National Pharmaceutical Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Tony Isaac

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study was designed to explore whether and how a sample of domestic and international managers use two key adult education concepts--critical reflection and experiential learning--to influence changes in individual employees whom they coach. The study is based on the primary assumption that although managers do not…

  20. Evidence, Policy and Guidance for Practice: A Critical Reflection on the Case of Social Housing Landlords and Antisocial Behaviour in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Isobel

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the role of guidance for practitioners in the evidence-policy-practice relationship through a critical reflection of the process of developing evidence-informed guidance for housing practitioners working in the area of antisocial behaviour in Scotland. The paper applies theoretical models for the use of evidence in policy and…

  1. A Qualitative Study of Managerial Coaching: How Critical Reflection and Experiential Learning Are Facilitated within a Multi-National Pharmaceutical Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Tony Isaac

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study was designed to explore whether and how a sample of domestic and international managers use two key adult education concepts--critical reflection and experiential learning--to influence changes in individual employees whom they coach. The study is based on the primary assumption that although managers do not…

  2. Examining the Practice of Critical Reflection for Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Multicultural Competencies: Findings from a Study Abroad Program in Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Suniti; Phillion, JoAnn; Malewski, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In response to a critical need in teacher preparation, study abroad programs aimed at developing multicultural competencies in pre-service teachers have proliferated across the United States. Multicultural competencies constitute the ability to challenge misconceptions that lead to discrimination based on cultural difference, reflect on one's…

  3. Thinking and Meddling with Boundaries: Critical Reflections on Matthew Weinstein's Narrative of Street Medics, Red-Zones and Glop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In pursuit of more mindful notions of hybridity, this review essay provides a series of reflections on Mathew Weinstein's representations of Street Medics and "sciences for the red zones of neoliberalism". My analysis draws on three popular ways of thinking with boundaries to offer a critical reading of the boundary-work that the…

  4. Measuring the health systems impact of disease control programmes: a critical reflection on the WHO building blocks framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The WHO health systems Building Blocks framework has become ubiquitous in health systems research. However, it was not developed as a research instrument, but rather to facilitate investments of resources in health systems. In this paper, we reflect on the advantages and limitations of using the framework in applied research, as experienced in three empirical vaccine studies we have undertaken. Discussion We argue that while the Building Blocks framework is valuable because of its simplicity and ability to provide a common language for researchers, it is not suitable for analysing dynamic, complex and inter-linked systems impacts. In our three studies, we found that the mechanical segmentation of effects by the WHO building blocks, without recognition of their interactions, hindered the understanding of impacts on systems as a whole. Other important limitations were the artificial equal weight given to each building block and the challenge in capturing longer term effects and opportunity costs. Another criticism is not of the framework per se, but rather how it is typically used, with a focus on the six building blocks to the neglect of the dynamic process and outcome aspects of health systems. We believe the framework would be improved by making three amendments: integrating the missing “demand” component; incorporating an overarching, holistic health systems viewpoint and including scope for interactions between components. If researchers choose to use the Building Blocks framework, we recommend that it be adapted to the specific study question and context, with formative research and piloting conducted in order to inform this adaptation. Summary As with frameworks in general, the WHO Building Blocks framework is valuable because it creates a common language and shared understanding. However, for applied research, it falls short of what is needed to holistically evaluate the impact of specific interventions on health systems. We propose that if

  5. Reflection and Transmission of Oblique Acoustic Waves by a Sub-Critical Elastic Barrier with Discontinuities Using Analytical Numerical Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Mauricio

    This work focuses on developing models for the coupled structural-acoustic vibration of boundaries that reflect and transmit sound. First, the case of a infinitely long, fluid-loaded, sub-critical membrane that is periodically fixed and forced by oblique incident acoustic waves is considered. The method of Analytical Numerical Matching (ANM) is applied and extended to deal with the resulting phase-shifted periodic forcing. The high resolution content of the solution near the constraints is analytically treated with a polynomial known as the Local Solution. The remaining, rapidly converging, part of the solution is treated modally and is known as the Global Solution.The Composite ANM Solution is then determined for the motion of the structure, and the far-field acoustic fields can be described. It is shown that the use of ANM effectively addresses the sensitivity of the acoustic fields and structure motion to the accuracy of which the local region near the structural discontinuities is resolved. The use of ANM is extended to demonstrate a method to deal with the mathematical difficulty of acoustic coincidence.The second part of this thesis presents ongoing work on the development of a model for a finite membrane in an infinite baffle. Corrections to the in-vacuo structural wavenumber are developed to model the additional inertance and dissipative effects of the surrounding fluid mediums. The resulting dissipated energy as a function of frequency of the modified finite membrane is compared to energy radiated of the infinite, periodically fixed, fluid loaded membrane to motivate further refinements of the finite model.

  6. Measuring the health systems impact of disease control programmes: a critical reflection on the WHO building blocks framework.

    PubMed

    Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Griffiths, Ulla K; Closser, Svea; Burchett, Helen; Marchal, Bruno

    2014-03-25

    The WHO health systems Building Blocks framework has become ubiquitous in health systems research. However, it was not developed as a research instrument, but rather to facilitate investments of resources in health systems. In this paper, we reflect on the advantages and limitations of using the framework in applied research, as experienced in three empirical vaccine studies we have undertaken. We argue that while the Building Blocks framework is valuable because of its simplicity and ability to provide a common language for researchers, it is not suitable for analysing dynamic, complex and inter-linked systems impacts. In our three studies, we found that the mechanical segmentation of effects by the WHO building blocks, without recognition of their interactions, hindered the understanding of impacts on systems as a whole. Other important limitations were the artificial equal weight given to each building block and the challenge in capturing longer term effects and opportunity costs. Another criticism is not of the framework per se, but rather how it is typically used, with a focus on the six building blocks to the neglect of the dynamic process and outcome aspects of health systems.We believe the framework would be improved by making three amendments: integrating the missing "demand" component; incorporating an overarching, holistic health systems viewpoint and including scope for interactions between components. If researchers choose to use the Building Blocks framework, we recommend that it be adapted to the specific study question and context, with formative research and piloting conducted in order to inform this adaptation. As with frameworks in general, the WHO Building Blocks framework is valuable because it creates a common language and shared understanding. However, for applied research, it falls short of what is needed to holistically evaluate the impact of specific interventions on health systems. We propose that if researchers use the framework, it

  7. Sexual Assault Prevention for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Critical Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…

  8. Sexual Assault Prevention for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Critical Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…

  9. Prevention of Critical Care Complications in the Coronary Intensive Care Unit: Protocols, Bundles, and Insights From Intensive Care Studies.

    PubMed

    van Diepen, Sean; Sligl, Wendy I; Washam, Jeffrey B; Gilchrist, Ian C; Arora, Rakesh C; Katz, Jason N

    2017-01-01

    Over the past half century, coronary care units have expanded from specialized ischemia arrhythmia monitoring units into intensive care units (ICUs) for acutely ill and medically complex patients with a primary cardiac diagnosis. Patients admitted to contemporary coronary intensive care units (CICUs) are at risk for common and preventable critical care complications, yet many CICUs have not adopted standard-of-care prevention protocols and practices from general ICUs. In this article, we (1) review evidence-based interventions and care bundles that reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, excess sedation during mechanical ventilation, central line infections, stress ulcers, malnutrition, delirium, and medication errors and (2) recommend pragmatic adaptations for common conditions in critically ill patients with cardiac disease, and (3) provide example order sets and practical CICU protocol implementation strategies.

  10. Role of Transitional Care Measures in the Prevention of Readmission After Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jessica S

    2017-02-01

    Transitioning from the critical care unit to the medical-surgical care area is vital to patients' recovery and resolution of critical illness. Such transitions are necessary to optimize use of available hospital resources to meet patient care needs. One in 10 patients discharged from the intensive care unit are readmitted to the unit during their hospitalization. Critical care readmission is associated with significant increases in illness acuity, overall length of stay, and health care costs as well as a potential 4-fold increased risk of mortality. Patients with complex illness, multiple comorbid conditions, and a prolonged initial stay in the critical care unit are at an increased risk of being readmitted to the critical care unit and experiencing poor outcomes. Implementing nurse-driven measures that support continuity of care and consistent communication practices such as critical care outreach services, transitional communication tools, discharge planning, and transitional care units improves transitions of patients from the critical care environment and reduces readmission rates. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  11. A Critical Review of the Characteristics of Theater-Based HIV Prevention Interventions for Adolescents in School Settings

    PubMed Central

    Taboada, Arianna; Taggart, Tamara; Holloway, Ian; Houpt, Amanda; Gordon, Robert; Gere, David; Milburn, Norweeta; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.

    2016-01-01

    Theater-based interventions are a viable prevention strategy for changing sexual health knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV prevention. However, few studies have explored interventions in English-speaking, high-income countries such as the United States, Canada, or the United Kingdom. This article critically reviews the literature to identify key characteristics of theater-based HIV prevention strategies used for adolescents in school-settings in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Specifically, we identify the theatrical approach used in HIV prevention interventions, the behavioral theories that inform such interventions, and the study design and results of existing evaluation studies conducted in school settings. In the 10 articles reviewed, we found limited grounding in theory and the use of nonrigorous study design. To strengthen the evidence and practical application of theater-based HIV prevention interventions, we highlight three specific recommendations for practitioners and researchers: (1) define and operationalize the theater approach and techniques used, (2) ensure theater-based interventions are grounded in theory, and (3) conduct rigorous evaluation of theater-based interventions. These recommendations are key to strengthening future research on and implementation of theater-based interventions for HIV prevention. PMID:27095037

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of critical illness: creation of a conceptual model addressing identification, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Long, Ann C; Kross, Erin K; Davydow, Dimitry S; Curtis, J Randall

    2014-06-01

    Quality of life is frequently impaired among survivors of critical illness, and psychiatric morbidity is an important element contributing to poor quality of life in these patients. Among potential manifestations of psychiatric morbidity following critical illness, symptoms of posttraumatic stress are prevalent and intricately linked to the significant stressors present in the intensive care unit (ICU). As our understanding of the epidemiology of post-ICU posttraumatic stress disorder improves, so must our ability to identify those at highest risk for symptoms in the period of time following critical illness and our ability to implement strategies to prevent symptom development. In addition, a focus on strategies to address clinically apparent psychiatric morbidity will be essential. Much remains to be understood about the identification, prevention, and management of this significant public health problem. This article addresses the importance of uniformity in future epidemiologic studies, proposes framing of risk factors into those likely to be modifiable versus non-modifiable, and provides an assessment of modifiable risk factors in the context of a novel conceptual model that offers insight into potential strategies to attenuate symptoms of posttraumatic stress among survivors of critical illness.

  13. A Critical Inquiry-Oriented Pedagogy: An Insider's Reflections on an In-Service Teacher Education Project in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessema, Kedir Assefa

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an insider's reflection on an innovative on-the-job teacher education course offered from 2003 to 2005 in Ethiopia combining distance and face-to-face modes. The text adopts a descriptive-analytic approach in reporting the insider's reflections. To analyze the course, the author used his colleagues' and his own documentations…

  14. An Exploration for a Critical Practicum Pedagogy: Dialogical Relationships and Reflections among a Group of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessema, Kedir Assefa

    2008-01-01

    Student teachers' potential to change and reflect on their activities can be positively influenced by the opportunities created in teacher education programs. This paper explores an educative opportunity with the researcher and his practicum advisees by facilitating a continuum of reflective school-based activities through a dialogical…

  15. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically ill patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) therapy may be useful in early musculoskeletal rehabilitation during acute critical illness. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of NMES for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically ill patients, in comparison with usual care. Methods We searched PubMed, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PEDro to identify randomized controlled trials exploring the effect of NMES in critically ill patients, which had a well-defined NMES protocol, provided outcomes related to skeletal-muscle strength and/or mass, and for which full text was available. Two independent reviewers extracted data on muscle-related outcomes (strength and mass), and participant and intervention characteristics, and assessed the methodological quality of the studies. Owing to the lack of means and standard deviations (SDs) in some studies, as well as the lack of baseline measurements in two studies, it was impossible to conduct a full meta-analysis. When means and SDs were provided, the effect sizes of individual outcomes were calculated, and otherwise, a qualitative analysis was performed. Results The search yielded 8 eligible studies involving 172 patients. The methodological quality of the studies was moderate to high. Five studies reported an increase in strength or better preservation of strength with NMES, with one study having a large effect size. Two studies found better preservation of muscle mass with NMES, with small to moderate effect sizes, while no significant benefits were found in two other studies. Conclusions NMES added to usual care proved to be more effective than usual care alone for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness in critically ill patients. However, there is inconclusive evidence for its benefit in prevention of muscle wasting. PMID:23701811

  16. Health prevention in the era of biosocieties: a critical analysis of the 'Seek-and-Treat' paradigm in HIV/AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Foth, Thomas; O'Byrne, Patrick; Holmes, Dave

    2016-06-01

    On 18 November 2014, the United Nations launched an urgent new campaign to end AIDS as a global health threat by 2030. With its proposed strategy, the UN follows leading scientists who had declared the failure of former prevention strategies and now were promoting a 'Seek and Treat for Optimal Prevention' (STOP) approach as the most cost-effective response to the pandemic to meet the goal of 'an AIDS-free generation'. STOP combines antiretroviral therapy and routine HIV screening to find persons unaware that they are HIV-positive, because research has shown that people consistently change their behaviour (i.e. increase condom use, have fewer partners) after an HIV diagnosis. AIDS activists have broadly criticized this strategy on different levels. In this article, we go beyond these criticisms and try to analyse the political rationalities behind this 'new' strategy. We believe that it is necessary to put the rationale underpinning the STOP programme into the context of broader societal transformations that can best be captured as the development of advanced liberal societies and the new emphasis on self-controlling or self-responsibility rather than on disciplining behaviour.

  17. Prevention-enhancing interactions: a Critical Interpretive Synthesis of the evidence about children who sexually abuse other children.

    PubMed

    McKibbin, Gemma; Humphreys, Cathy; Hamilton, Bridget

    2016-11-01

    There is a growing interest in English-speaking jurisdictions, including Australia, North America, Canada, the United Kingdom and New Zealand, about the prevention of sexual abuse perpetrated by children against other children. The aim of this review was to identify opportunities for research, policy and practice which could enhance the prevention agenda relating to the perpetration of sexual abuse by children through conducting a Critical Interpretive Synthesis. Eleven electronic databases were searched in the period from 22 April to 23 May 2013 and included: SocINDEX, Social Services Abstracts, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Family and Society Studies Worldwide, Project Muse, PsychINFO, Family and Society Plus, Jstor, Expanded Academic ASAP, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Key individual journals were also searched, including Child Abuse and Neglect and the Journal of Interpersonal Violence, as well as the grey literature. The search was guided by the research question: How could the prevention agenda relating to sexual abuse perpetrated by children be enhanced? The systematic literature search yielded 3323 titles, and 34 of these papers were included in the final synthesis. The authors identified five domains operating in the evidence base: characteristics, causes, communications, interventions and treatments. A synthesising construct emerged from the review: prevention-enhancing interactions. This construct referred to the potential for enhancing the prevention agenda which exists as the evidence domains interact with one another, and with the public health model of prevention. The authors consider this review to be a timely contribution to the current agenda pertaining to sexual abuse perpetrated by children. It provides researchers, policy makers and practitioners in the field with an evidence-informed conceptualisation of opportunities for enhancing prevention work.

  18. Critical issues in implementing a national integrated all-vaccine preventable disease surveillance system☆

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Terri B.; Andrus, Jon K.; Dietz, Vance J.; Andrus, Jon K.; Hyde, Terri B.; Lee, Carla E.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Verani, Jennifer R.; Friedman, Cindy; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Lopez, Adriana S.; Jumaan, Aisha; Dietz, Vance J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization published the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance (GFIMS) outlining measures to enhance national surveillance for vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). The GFIMS emphasized that VPD surveillance should be integrated and placed in a ‘unified framework’ building upon the strengths of existing surveillance systems to prevent duplication of activities common to all surveillance systems and to minimize human resource and supply expenditures. Unfortunately, there was little experience in actually developing integrated VPD surveillance. We describe the process of developing operational guidance for ministries of health to implement such an integrated surveillance system for multiple VPDs. PMID:23777699

  19. Identifying opportunities for sexually transmitted infection prevention: analysis of critical points in the care pathways of patients with gonorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Abu-Rajab, K; Scoular, A; Church, S; Connell, J; Winter, A; Hart, G

    2009-03-01

    We applied the principles of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to systematically analyse the care pathway of patients diagnosed with gonorrhoea to identify potential intervention opportunities for preventive action. Data were collected on individuals with culture-positive gonococcal infection during 27 February 2003 to 08 January 2004. Qualitative data were gathered within individual semi-structured interviews. Two hundred and twenty-three gonorrhoea patient episodes were evaluated. The median interval between presentation and treatment was significantly longer in females and men having sex with men (MSM), compared with heterosexual men (P = 0.002). Females were significantly more likely to be in regular relationships at the timepoint of perceived infection acquisition than heterosexuals or MSM (P < 0.0001). Four major themes emerged from the interviews: life-stage and infection risk, determinants of risk perception around sexual encounters, attitudes to preventing re-infection and condom use. These informed three potential 'critical control points': health-related attitudes/behaviours preceding infection; access to appropriate care and optimizing health promotion to prevent further infection.

  20. A Comparativist's Predicaments of Writing about "Other" Education: A Self-Reflective, Critical Review of Studies of Japanese Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2011-01-01

    This self-reflexive essay teases out the predicaments that I have encountered through my past publishing experience, while situating them in a critical review of the existing English-language studies of Japanese education. Drawing on postcolonial theoretical insights and recent critical sociology of academic knowledge production, I use my personal…

  1. A Comparativist's Predicaments of Writing about "Other" Education: A Self-Reflective, Critical Review of Studies of Japanese Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2011-01-01

    This self-reflexive essay teases out the predicaments that I have encountered through my past publishing experience, while situating them in a critical review of the existing English-language studies of Japanese education. Drawing on postcolonial theoretical insights and recent critical sociology of academic knowledge production, I use my personal…

  2. Preventing the Shut-Down: Embodied Critical Care in a Teacher Educator's Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Muffet; Basford, Letitia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the practice of one teacher educator to understand how she mitigates student resistance to prevent what we call "the shut-down" when teaching mostly White students about systemic forms of oppression. Engaging students in conversations about oppression does not in itself disrupt systems of power and privilege in…

  3. Preventing the Shut-Down: Embodied Critical Care in a Teacher Educator's Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Muffet; Basford, Letitia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the practice of one teacher educator to understand how she mitigates student resistance to prevent what we call "the shut-down" when teaching mostly White students about systemic forms of oppression. Engaging students in conversations about oppression does not in itself disrupt systems of power and privilege in…

  4. Prevention of Juvenile Violence: A Critical Review of Current Scientific Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, C. Ray

    1998-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and social-developmental approaches for prevention of juvenile violence are explored. Twenty-one recent works are reviewed and their approaches compared. At issue are early identification of juvenile delinquents who go on to careers of serious violence, and interdisciplinary application of modern scientific knowledge to the…

  5. Promoting Mental Health Literacy among Educators: Critical in School-Based Prevention and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…

  6. Promoting Mental Health Literacy among Educators: Critical in School-Based Prevention and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…

  7. Critical Evaluation of Bacteriophage to Prevent and Treat Colibacillosis in Poultry.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteriophage are viruses that infect and kill bacteria. Bacteriophage do not infect animal and plant cells making them a potentially safe alternative to antibiotics. We have conducted research on the efficacy of bacteriophage to both prevent and treat colibacillosis in poultry. Bacteriophage lyt...

  8. Extrapolated experimental critical parameters of unreflected and steel-reflected massive enriched uranium metal spherical and hemispherical assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-12-01

    Sixty-nine critical configurations of up to 186 kg of uranium are reported from very early experiments (1960s) performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory near Denver, Colorado. Enriched (93%) uranium metal spherical and hemispherical configurations were studied. All were thick-walled shells except for two solid hemispheres. Experiments were essentially unreflected; or they included central and/or external regions of mild steel. No liquids were involved. Critical parameters are derived from extrapolations beyond subcritical data. Extrapolations, rather than more precise interpolations between slightly supercritical and slightly subcritical configurations, were necessary because experiments involved manually assembled configurations. Many extrapolations were quite long; but the general lack of curvature in the subcritical region lends credibility to their validity. In addition to delayed critical parameters, a procedure is offered which might permit the determination of prompt critical parameters as well for the same cases. This conjectured procedure is not based on any strong physical arguments.

  9. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  10. Critical thinking and reflection exercises in a biochemistry course to improve prospective health professions students' attitudes toward physician-pharmacist collaboration.

    PubMed

    Van Winkle, Lon J; Cornell, Susan; Fjortoft, Nancy; Bjork, Bryan C; Chandar, Nalini; Green, Jacalyn M; La Salle, Sophie; Viselli, Susan M; Burdick, Paulette; Lynch, Sean M

    2013-10-14

    To determine the impact of performing critical-thinking and reflection assignments within interdisciplinary learning teams in a biochemistry course on pharmacy students' and prospective health professions students' collaboration scores. Pharmacy students and prospective medical, dental, and other health professions students enrolled in a sequence of 2 required biochemistry courses. They were randomly assigned to interdisciplinary learning teams in which they were required to complete case assignments, thinking and reflection exercises, and a team service-learning project. Students were asked to complete the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration prior to the first course, following the first course, and following the second course. The physician-pharmacist collaboration scores of prospective health professions students increased significantly (p<0.001). Having prospective health professions students work in teams with pharmacy students to think and reflect in and outside the classroom improves their attitudes toward physician-pharmacist collaboration.

  11. Critical Thinking and Reflection Exercises in a Biochemistry Course to Improve Prospective Health Professions Students’ Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Cornell, Susan; Fjortoft, Nancy; Bjork, Bryan C.; Chandar, Nalini; Green, Jacalyn M.; La Salle, Sophie; Viselli, Susan M.; Burdick, Paulette; Lynch, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the impact of performing critical-thinking and reflection assignments within interdisciplinary learning teams in a biochemistry course on pharmacy students’ and prospective health professions students’ collaboration scores. Design. Pharmacy students and prospective medical, dental, and other health professions students enrolled in a sequence of 2 required biochemistry courses. They were randomly assigned to interdisciplinary learning teams in which they were required to complete case assignments, thinking and reflection exercises, and a team service-learning project. Assessment. Students were asked to complete the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration prior to the first course, following the first course, and following the second course. The physician-pharmacist collaboration scores of prospective health professions students increased significantly (p<0.001). Conclusions. Having prospective health professions students work in teams with pharmacy students to think and reflect in and outside the classroom improves their attitudes toward physician-pharmacist collaboration. PMID:24159210

  12. Life skills, mathematical reasoning and critical thinking: a curriculum for the prevention of problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel E; Macdonald, John; Somerset, Matthew

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that youth are two to three times more likely than adults to report gambling related problems. This paper reports on the development and pilot evaluation of a school-based problem gambling prevention curriculum. The prevention program focused on problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring skills, coping skills, and knowledge of the nature of random events. The results of a controlled experiment evaluating the students learning from the program are reported. We found significant improvement in the students' knowledge of random events, knowledge of problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring, and knowledge of coping skills. The results suggest that knowledge based material on random events, problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring skills, and coping skills can be taught. Future development of the curriculum will focus on content to expand the students' coping skill options.

  13. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Lisa M.; Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area. PMID:27429186

  14. Hazard report. Shift checks and semiannual preventive maintenance are important in detecting critical failures in Zoll M series defibrillators.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    The manufacturer-recommended shift check for Zoll M Series defibrillators cannot detect some critical failures that could inhibit defibrillation or pacing. To improve detection of these failures and to limit their impact on patient care, hospitals should perform not only the routine perform not only the routine shift check, but also the twice-annual preventive maintenance procedure recommended by Zoll. Additionally, units exhibiting an error code--even one that appears to resolve itself--should be immediately removed from service and evaluated by the clinical engineering department.

  15. Combinations of obesity prevention strategies in US elementary schools: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Kaleena; Rutfield, Rachel; Hall, Nathanael; Fedor, Nicholas; McCaughey, Virginia K; Zajac, Kristyn

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children has roughly tripled in the past 30 years. Given the numerous health risks associated with obesity, elementary schools have implemented a variety of prevention programs targeting this problem. This review examines recent studies of combinations of obesity prevention programs in US elementary schools and offers recommendations about effective strategies. We found 12 studies that met selection criteria and reviewed their findings related to obesity-related outcomes. Among the single intervention strategies, neither physical activity nor education alone demonstrated efficacy in reducing objective measures of obesity. Most studies of programs with two or three components (i.e., physical activity plus nutrition, physical activity plus both education and nutrition) reported statistically significant improvements in objective obesity-related outcomes. Studies evaluating programs with community and parental involvement suggest that these components may increase effectiveness. However, studies assessing outcomes following the cessation of the program showed a reversal of positive effects, suggesting that long-term implementation of programs is important for sustained gains. Results suggest that combinations of obesity prevention programs sustained over time are most likely to be effective.

  16. Respiratory health of elite athletes – preventing airway injury: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Kippelen, Pascale; Fitch, Kenneth D; Anderson, Sandra Doreen; Bougault, Valerie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Rundell, Kenneth William; Sue-Chu, Malcolm; McKenzie, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    Elite athletes, particularly those engaged in endurance sports and those exposed chronically to airborne pollutants/irritants or allergens, are at increased risk for upper and lower airway dysfunction. Airway epithelial injury may be caused by dehydration and physical stress applied to the airways during severe exercise hyperpnoea and/or by inhalation of noxious agents. This is thought to initiate an inflammatory cascade/repair process that, ultimately, could lead to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and asthma in susceptible athletes. The authors review the evidence relating to prevention or reduction of the risk of AHR/asthma development. Appropriate measures should be implemented when athletes exercise strenuously in an attempt to attenuate the dehydration stress and reduce the exposure to noxious airborne agents. Environmental interventions are the most important. Non-pharmacological strategies can assist, but currently, pharmacological measures have not been demonstrated to be effective. Whether early prevention of airway injury in elite athletes can prevent or reduce progression to AHR/asthma remains to be established. PMID:22522585

  17. Respiratory health of elite athletes - preventing airway injury: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kippelen, Pascale; Fitch, Kenneth D; Anderson, Sandra Doreen; Bougault, Valerie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Rundell, Kenneth William; Sue-Chu, Malcolm; McKenzie, Donald C

    2012-06-01

    Elite athletes, particularly those engaged in endurance sports and those exposed chronically to airborne pollutants/irritants or allergens, are at increased risk for upper and lower airway dysfunction. Airway epithelial injury may be caused by dehydration and physical stress applied to the airways during severe exercise hyperpnoea and/or by inhalation of noxious agents. This is thought to initiate an inflammatory cascade/repair process that, ultimately, could lead to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and asthma in susceptible athletes. The authors review the evidence relating to prevention or reduction of the risk of AHR/asthma development. Appropriate measures should be implemented when athletes exercise strenuously in an attempt to attenuate the dehydration stress and reduce the exposure to noxious airborne agents. Environmental interventions are the most important. Non-pharmacological strategies can assist, but currently, pharmacological measures have not been demonstrated to be effective. Whether early prevention of airway injury in elite athletes can prevent or reduce progression to AHR/asthma remains to be established.

  18. Supplemental Parenteral Nutrition Is the Key to Prevent Energy Deficits in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Taku; Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Pichard, Claude

    2016-08-01

    This review emphasizes the role of a timely supplemental parenteral nutrition (PN) for critically ill patients. It contradicts the recommendations of current guidelines to avoid the use of PN, as it is associated with risk. Critical illness results in severe metabolic stress. During the early phase, inflammatory cytokines and mediators induce catabolism to meet the increased body energy demands by endogenous sources. This response is not suppressed by exogenous energy administration, and the early use of PN to reach the energy target leads to overfeeding. On the other hand, early and progressive enteral nutrition (EN) is less likely to cause overfeeding because of variable gastrointestinal tolerance, a factor frequently associated with significant energy deficit. Recent studies demonstrate that adequate feeding is beneficial during and after the intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Supplemental PN allows for timely adequate feeding, if sufficient precautions are taken to avoid overfeeding. Indirect calorimetry can precisely define the adequate energy prescription. Our pragmatic approach is to start early EN to progressively test the gut tolerance and add supplemental PN on day 3 or 4 after ICU admission, only if EN does not meet the measured energy target. We believe that supplemental PN plays a pivotal role in the achievement of adequate feeding in critically ill patients with intolerance to EN and does not cause harm if overfeeding is avoided by careful prescription, ideally based on energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry.

  19. Improvement of Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval over Hong Kong from a Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Using Critical Reflectance with Background Optical Depth Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Wong, Man Sing; Yoon, Jongmin; Lee, Jaehwa; Wu, Dong L.; Chan, P.W.; Nichol, Janet E.; Chung, Chu-Yong; Ou, Mi-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Despite continuous efforts to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) using a conventional 5-channelmeteorological imager in geostationary orbit, the accuracy in urban areas has been poorer than other areas primarily due to complex urban surface properties and mixed aerosol types from different emission sources. The two largest error sources in aerosol retrieval have been aerosol type selection and surface reflectance. In selecting the aerosol type from a single visible channel, the season-dependent aerosol optical properties were adopted from longterm measurements of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-photometers. With the aerosol optical properties obtained fromthe AERONET inversion data, look-up tableswere calculated by using a radiative transfer code: the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S). Surface reflectance was estimated using the clear sky composite method, awidely used technique for geostationary retrievals. Over East Asia, the AOD retrieved from the Meteorological Imager showed good agreement, although the values were affected by cloud contamination errors. However, the conventional retrieval of the AOD over Hong Kong was largely underestimated due to the lack of information on the aerosol type and surface properties. To detect spatial and temporal variation of aerosol type over the area, the critical reflectance method, a technique to retrieve single scattering albedo (SSA), was applied. Additionally, the background aerosol effect was corrected to improve the accuracy of the surface reflectance over Hong Kong. The AOD retrieved froma modified algorithmwas compared to the collocated data measured by AERONET in Hong Kong. The comparison showed that the new aerosol type selection using the critical reflectance and the corrected surface reflectance significantly improved the accuracy of AODs in Hong Kong areas,with a correlation coefficient increase from0.65 to 0.76 and a regression line change from tMI [basic algorithm] = 0

  20. Critical reflection of the advanced rehabilitation of an elite rugby league player sustaining a posterior Bankart lesion.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Andrew; Funk, Lennard

    2013-02-01

    The following is a critical description and discussion of the successful assessment and rehabilitation of a right shoulder posterior Bankart repair in an elite rugby league player. The rehabilitation follows accelerated, goal based guidelines, widely adopted in current sports practice but not well documented in the literature (Funk & Snow, 2007; Park, Lin, Yokota, & McFarland, 2004). The study serves to be the first critical discussion of such a regime.

  1. The "Messy" Business of Academic Developers Leading Other Academic Developers: Critical Reflection on a Curriculum Realignment Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sharon; Cordiner, Moira

    2014-01-01

    Little has been written about academic developers (ADs) working in teams leading other ADs. This paper chronicles the experience of a group of ADs in one Australian university working on a curriculum realignment exercise. Unexpectedly the dominant theme in participants' reflections was group dynamics, not the process. We were confronted by…

  2. The Ethical Foundation of Critical Pedagogy in Contemporary Academia: (Self)-Reflection and Complicity in the Process of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabikowska, Marta

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an ethical approach to educational methodology is discussed in relation to the philosophies of Emanuel Levinas and Robert Cox. Cox's anti-essentialist understanding of historical materialism and Levinas' metaphysical idealism are applied to an analysis of the (self)-reflective methods required today in Higher Education in the UK,…

  3. Impact of Guided-Inquiry-Based Instruction with a Writing and Reflection Emphasis on Chemistry Students' Critical Thinking Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Tanya; Burke, K. A.; Mehta, Akash; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) laboratory instruction approach has been used successfully over a decade to engage students in laboratory activities. SWH-based instruction emphasizes knowledge construction through individual writing and reflection, and collaborative learning as a group. In the SWH approach, writing is a core component of…

  4. The Reliability of Evidence Contained in the National Qualifications Framework Impact Study: A Critical Reflection--Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Philip; Keevy, James

    2007-01-01

    This article reflects on the reliability of the evidence contained in the National Qualifications Framework Impact Study, a longitudinal comparative study conducted by the South African Qualifications Authority since 2002. In so doing, the veracity of evidence-based research in determining the impact of the South African Qualifications Framework…

  5. Difference as a Creative and Critical Force in Teacher Education: Reflective Partners Teaching in and out of the Wheelchair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Østern, Tone Pernille; Øyen, Elen

    2014-01-01

    This study reflects on a research and development project between two dance practitioners, one of them a wheelchair user, working together to develop pedagogical design within teacher education at a university in Norway. The aim of the authors is to encourage student teachers toward becoming inclusive and brave teachers who define diversity among…

  6. The "Messy" Business of Academic Developers Leading Other Academic Developers: Critical Reflection on a Curriculum Realignment Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sharon; Cordiner, Moira

    2014-01-01

    Little has been written about academic developers (ADs) working in teams leading other ADs. This paper chronicles the experience of a group of ADs in one Australian university working on a curriculum realignment exercise. Unexpectedly the dominant theme in participants' reflections was group dynamics, not the process. We were confronted by…

  7. "Where Does the Circle End?": Representation as a Critical Aspect of Reflection in Teaching Social and Behavioral Sciences in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Michael J; Richards, Boyd F; Cunningham, Hetty; Desai, Urmi; Lewis, Owen; Mutnick, Andrew; Nidiry, Mary Anne J; Saha, Prantik; Charon, Rita

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a reflective learning program within a larger curriculum on behavioral and social science that makes use of close reading, written representation of experience, discussion, and textual response. This response may in turn lead to further reflection, representation, and response in a circular pattern. A unique feature of this program is that it pays attention to the representation itself as the pivotal activity within reflective learning. Using the narrative methods that are the hallmark of this program, faculty writings were analyzed to characterize the essential benefits that derive from these practices. In the context of a faculty development seminar on the teaching of behavioral and social sciences in medical curricula, a group of 15 faculty members wrote brief narratives of reflective learning experiences in which they had made use of the methods described above. Their responses were submitted to iterative close reading and discussion, and potential themes were identified. Four themes emerged: writing as attention to self, writing as attention to other, writing as reader/writer contract, and writing as discovery. In each instance, writing provides a new or deepened perspective, and in each case, the dividends for the writer are amplified by the narrative skills of those who read, listen, and respond. The narrative pedagogy described and modeled herein provides a potentially promising approach to teaching the social, cultural, behavioral, and interpersonal aspects of medical education and practice. Future research will deepen our understanding of the benefits and limitations of this pedagogy and expand our appreciation of its applications.

  8. The Ethical Foundation of Critical Pedagogy in Contemporary Academia: (Self)-Reflection and Complicity in the Process of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabikowska, Marta

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an ethical approach to educational methodology is discussed in relation to the philosophies of Emanuel Levinas and Robert Cox. Cox's anti-essentialist understanding of historical materialism and Levinas' metaphysical idealism are applied to an analysis of the (self)-reflective methods required today in Higher Education in the UK,…

  9. Difference as a Creative and Critical Force in Teacher Education: Reflective Partners Teaching in and out of the Wheelchair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Østern, Tone Pernille; Øyen, Elen

    2014-01-01

    This study reflects on a research and development project between two dance practitioners, one of them a wheelchair user, working together to develop pedagogical design within teacher education at a university in Norway. The aim of the authors is to encourage student teachers toward becoming inclusive and brave teachers who define diversity among…

  10. Impact of Guided-Inquiry-Based Instruction with a Writing and Reflection Emphasis on Chemistry Students' Critical Thinking Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Tanya; Burke, K. A.; Mehta, Akash; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) laboratory instruction approach has been used successfully over a decade to engage students in laboratory activities. SWH-based instruction emphasizes knowledge construction through individual writing and reflection, and collaborative learning as a group. In the SWH approach, writing is a core component of…

  11. International Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Confidence in Critical Reflective Thinking and Writing through an Intercultural Patches Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangen, Donna; Mercer, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes part of an action research study that was designed to explore the outcomes of an ongoing program in which the participants, a group of domestic and international pre-service teachers and lecturers, worked together in reflective writing workshops. While the primary long-term goal of the program was to develop the intercultural…

  12. International Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Confidence in Critical Reflective Thinking and Writing through an Intercultural Patches Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangen, Donna; Mercer, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes part of an action research study that was designed to explore the outcomes of an ongoing program in which the participants, a group of domestic and international pre-service teachers and lecturers, worked together in reflective writing workshops. While the primary long-term goal of the program was to develop the intercultural…

  13. [Prevention of surgical site infection in abdominal surgery. A critical review of the evidence].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Tovar, Jaime; Badia, Josep M

    2014-04-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is associated with prolonged hospital stay, increased morbidity, mortality and sanitary costs, and reduced patients quality of life. Many hospitals have adopted guidelines of scientifically-validated processes for prevention of surgical site and central-line catheter infections and sepsis. Most of these guidelines have resulted in an improvement in postoperative results. A review of the best available evidence on these measures in abdominal surgery is presented. The best measures are: avoidance of hair removal from the surgical field, skin decontamination with alcoholic antiseptic, correct use of antibiotic prophylaxis (administration within 30-60 min before incision, use of 1(st) or 2(nd) generation cephalosporins, single preoperative dosis, dosage adjustments based on body weight and renal function, intraoperative re-dosing if the duration of the procedure exceeds 2 half-lives of the drug or there is excessive blood loss), prevention of hypothermia, control of perioperative glucose levels, avoid blood transfusion and restrict intraoperative liquid infusion. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. [Prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents : Critical appraisal of the evidence base].

    PubMed

    Pigeot, Iris; Baranowski, Tom; Lytle, Leslie; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Despite careful planning and implementation, overweight/obesity prevention interventions in children and adolescents typically show no, inconsistent or merely weak effects. Such programs usually aim at behavior changes, rarely also at environmental changes, that draw upon conventional wisdom regarding the commonly accepted determinants of childhood overweight/obesity. This paper evaluates the evidence base of the apparently overweight-/obesity-related determinants diet, physical activity and stress. The results of international intervention studies are discussed against this background. Based on the mediating-moderating variable model, we investigate the effect of theory specified mediating variables and how potential moderating variables may impact these relationships. Contrary to common beliefs, recent research has revealed inconsistent evidence regarding associations between potentially obesogenic behaviors and overweight/obesity in youth. Moreover, the evidence for strong and causal relationships between mediating variables and targeted behaviors seems to be inconsistent. In addition, inadequate attention is paid to moderating effects. The etiology of overweight/obesity in youth is likely the result of a complex interplay of multi-causal influences. Future prevention interventions would benefit from a more thorough understanding of the complex relationships that have been hypothesized and of the mechanisms of suspected behaviors for affecting overweight/obesity. Only if substantial change can be demonstrated in mediators with reasonable effort under real world circumstances, it will make sense to progress to community behavior change trials.

  15. Lycopene and Its Antioxidant Role in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases-A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lars; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Lowe, Gordon; Böhm, Volker

    2016-08-17

    The present review is based mainly on papers published between 2000 and 2011 and gives information about the properties of the carotenoid lycopene in chemical and biological systems and its possible role in preventing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The main aim of this report is to highlight its role as an antioxidant, also reported are bioactive properties that may influence the development of foam cells and protection against endothelial cell damage. The paper will also examine recent observations that lycopene may improve blood flow and reduce inflammatory responses. Lycopene possesses antioxidant properties in vitro, and some epidemiological studies have reported protective effects against the progression of CVD. The oxidation of human low density lipoproteins (LDL) is a fundamental mechanism in the initiation of atherosclerosis. A beneficial role of lycopene as antioxidant in the prevention of CVD is suggested but the data are still controversial. Lycopene is believed to be the most potent carotenoid antioxidant in vitro. Tissue culture experiments and animal studies support potential cardioprotective effects for lycopene and other carotenoids in the blood. Most studies showed beneficial effects of lycopene to individuals who are antioxidant-deficient like elderly patients, or humans exposed to higher levels of oxidative stress like smokers, diabetics, hemodialysis patients and acute myocardial infarction patients. By defining the right population and combining antioxidant potentials of lycopene with vitamins and other bioactive plant compounds, the beneficial role of lycopene in CVD can be clarified in future studies.

  16. No such thing as mental illness? Critical reflections on the major ideas and legacy of Thomas Szasz

    PubMed Central

    Benning, Tony B.

    2016-01-01

    Enfant terrible of psychiatry and widely known as one of its most indefatigable as well as iconoclastic critics, Thomas Szasz (1961–2012) had a prolific writing career that extended some 51 years beyond the publication of his first book, The Myth of Mental Illness, in 1961. This editorial identifies and critically discusses three major themes in Szasz's writings: his contention that there is no such thing as mental illness, his contention that individual responsibility is never compromised in those suffering from what is generally considered as mental illness, and his perennial interest in calling attention to the political nature of psychiatric diagnosis.

  17. Prevention and intervention strategies to alleviate preoperative anxiety in children: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kristi D; Stewart, Sherry H; Finley, G Allen; Buffett-Jerrott, Susan E

    2007-01-01

    Preoperative anxiety (anxiety regarding impending surgical experience) in children is a common phenomenon that has been associated with a number of negative behaviors during the surgery experience (e.g., agitation, crying, spontaneous urination, and the need for physical restraint during anesthetic induction). Preoperative anxiety has also been associated with the display of a number of maladaptive behaviors postsurgery, including postoperative pain, sleeping disturbances, parent-child conflict, and separation anxiety. For these reasons, researchers have sought out interventions to treat or prevent childhood preoperative anxiety and possibly decrease the development of negative behaviors postsurgery. Such interventions include sedative premedication, parental presence during anesthetic induction, behavioral preparation programs, music therapy, and acupuncture. The present article reviews the existing research on the various modes of intervention for preoperative anxiety in children. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  18. Delirium prevention in critically ill adults through an automated reorientation intervention - A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Munro, Cindy L; Cairns, Paula; Ji, Ming; Calero, Karel; Anderson, W McDowell; Liang, Zhan

    Explore the effect of an automated reorientation intervention on ICU delirium in a prospective randomized controlled trial. Delirium is common in ICU patients, and negatively affects outcomes. Few prevention strategies have been tested. Thirty ICU patients were randomized to 3 groups. Ten received hourly recorded messages in a family member's voice during waking hours over 3 ICU days, 10 received the same messages in a non-family voice, and 10 (control) did not receive any automated reorientation messages. The primary outcome was delirium free days during the intervention period (evaluated by CAM-ICU). Groups were compared by Fisher's Exact Test. The family voice group had more delirium free days than the non-family voice group, and significantly more delirium free days (p = 0.0437) than the control group. Reorientation through automated, scripted messages reduced incidence of delirium. Using identical scripted messages, family voice was more effective than non-family voice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A critical review of the SAFE strategy for the prevention of blinding trachoma.

    PubMed

    Kuper, Hannah; Solomon, Anthony W; Buchan, John; Zondervan, Marcia; Foster, Allen; Mabey, David

    2003-06-01

    Trachoma is an ocular disease caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. It is the leading cause of infectious blindness globally, responsible for 5.9 million cases of blindness. Although trachomatous blindness is untreatable, it is eminently possible to prevent and the World Health Organization promotes the use of the SAFE strategy (surgery to treat end-stage disease, antibiotics to reduce the reservoir of infection, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement to reduce transmission of C trachomatis) for this purpose. In this review we have assessed the evidence base supporting the elements of the SAFE strategy. We find strong support for the efficacy of the surgery and antibiotics components, although the optimal antibiotic regimens have not yet been established. The evidence for an effect of health education and environmental improvement is weaker, and depends mostly on cross-sectional observational studies.

  20. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Williams, David

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds.