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Sample records for prevention media campaign

  1. Media Campaigns and Crime Prevention: An Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Harold; O'Keefe, Garrett J.

    This summary report highlights the results of a study that examined the effects of the first phase of a nationwide, multimedia, crime prevention campaign featuring a trench-coated, animated dog named McGruff. Following an introduction explaining the purpose of the two surveys that comprised the study, the eight remaining sections of the report…

  2. Best Practices for Suicide Prevention Messaging and Evaluating California's "Know the Signs" Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Joie; Ramchand, Rajeev; Becker, Amariah

    2017-02-23

    Although communication is a key component of US strategies to prevent suicide and there are a number of marketing campaigns promoting messages that suicide is a preventable public health problem, there has been little evaluation of these campaigns. The study describes the development of a checklist of best practices for suicide prevention communication campaigns and the use of the checklist to evaluate California's investment in "Know the Signs" (KTS-M), a suicide prevention mass media campaign. We conducted a literature review and solicited expert feedback to identify best practices and then used the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method to assess whether KTS-M was consistent with the identified best practices. Overall, experts agreed that KTS-M adhered to most of the 46 checklist items and suggested that the campaign was among the best suicide prevention media campaigns they had observed. The checklist was developed through expert input and literature review and focuses only on media campaigns. Given the nascent state of the evidence about what makes an effective suicide prevention message and the growing number of campaigns, the checklist of best practices reflects one way of promoting quality in this evolving field. The consistency between the experts' comments and their ratings of KTS-M suggests that the checklist may provide important guidance to inform the development of future campaigns and the evaluation of ongoing campaigns.

  3. A Media Campaign Prevention Program for Child Sexual Abuse: Community Members' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants'…

  4. Prevention of child sexual abuse: evaluation of a community media campaign.

    PubMed

    Rheingold, Alyssa A; Campbell, Carole; Self-Brown, Shannon; de Arellano, Michael; Resnick, Heidi; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2007-11-01

    Given that mass media techniques have been an effective tool within the public health field for affecting behavioral change, these strategies may prove successful for the primary prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study was an independent evaluation of a CSA media campaign. Two hundred parents were recruited from eight sites across the United States. Results indicated that the combined mass media campaign affected knowledge about CSA at the time of intervention compared to no intervention. No significant differences were found in regards to CSA attitudes. A significant positive impact on primary prevention response behaviors assessed using hypothetical vignettes was found; however, no significant findings were noted for several other behavioral responses. Knowledge and behavioral gains were not maintained at the one-month follow-up. Small sample size at follow-up may have affected findings. Results of this study imply that media campaigns alone may not significantly affect primary prevention of CSA.

  5. The evaluation of a mass media campaign aimed at weight gain prevention among young Dutch adults.

    PubMed

    Wammes, Birgitte; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

    2007-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate a 3-year nationwide mass media campaign aimed at preventing weight gain. The campaign was aimed primarily at raising awareness of the importance of weight-gain prevention and bringing these issues to the attention of the Dutch public. Eleven serial, independent, cross-sectional, population-based telephone surveys were used to assess campaign awareness and impact (N ranged between 483 and 493 for each of the 11 surveys). The surveys were conducted before and after six campaign waves. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to test for trends over time and for differences among the surveys for campaign awareness, message recall, perceived body weight status, overweight-related risk perceptions, attitudes, perceived social support, self-efficacy expectations, and motivations for preventing weight gain. Campaign awareness ranged from 61% after the 1st campaign wave to 88.4% after the final wave. The campaign's television broadcasting activities were an important source of campaign awareness, from both the campaign's television commercials and television-based free publicity. Message recall ranged from 41.9% to 68.1%. Small positive differences were found in attitudes, perceived social support, and intentions for preventing weight gain. Additionally, the results suggest mixed effects on self-efficacy expectations and a negative effect on risk perception. The campaign resulted in high campaign awareness, especially as a result of television commercials and free publicity on television. The results suggest that the campaign was able to create more positive attitudes and motivation but lower risk perceptions and efficacy for preventing weight gain.

  6. The Evaluation of North Carolina's State-Sponsored Youth Tobacco Prevention Media Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandra, K. L.; McCullough, A.; Summerlin-Long, S.; Agans, R.; Ranney, L.; Goldstein, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the state of North Carolina (NC) implemented a multi-component initiative focused on teenage tobacco use prevention and cessation. One component of this initiative is "Tobacco.Reality.Unfiltered." ("TRU"), a tobacco prevention media campaign, aimed at NC youth aged 11-17 years. This research evaluates the first 5 years…

  7. The Evaluation of North Carolina's State-Sponsored Youth Tobacco Prevention Media Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandra, K. L.; McCullough, A.; Summerlin-Long, S.; Agans, R.; Ranney, L.; Goldstein, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the state of North Carolina (NC) implemented a multi-component initiative focused on teenage tobacco use prevention and cessation. One component of this initiative is "Tobacco.Reality.Unfiltered." ("TRU"), a tobacco prevention media campaign, aimed at NC youth aged 11-17 years. This research evaluates the first 5 years…

  8. A media campaign prevention program for child sexual abuse: community members' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants' attitudes and opinions regarding the campaign and the unique effects of ethnic or cultural norms on participants' acceptance of the media materials. Six groups, established based on participant ethnicity (i.e., three Caucasian groups, two African American groups, one Hispanic group), met at two sites in the Charleston, South Carolina, area. Quantitative data suggest that participants reported increased CSA knowledge and low levels of discomfort or anxiety related to exposure to the materials. Focus group results suggest that study participants, regardless of ethnic background, agreed that the media campaign can have a positive impact on public knowledge of CSA. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  9. HIV/AIDS prevention and media campaigns: limited information?

    PubMed

    Coppola, Vincent; Camus, Odile

    2014-01-01

    This piece begins with a brief literature review that focuses upon how media attempt to make sense of news events and construct meaning about HIV/AIDS. We then focus specifically on a linguistic process identified in French dailies in articles about the prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS, namely, the presence of certain adverbs. The impact of this linguistic process is also investigated in an experimental study. The results indicated that participants who were exposed to a message within which epidemiological data were marked by such adverbs compared to those who processed a message without such an adverbial marking expressed a higher level of perceived risk and declared a stronger intention to use a condom and to practice a screening test. They also judged the epidemiological situation as more serious and were more supportive of a coercive management of the epidemic. These effects also appeared when the message referred to a sexually transmitted infection with which the subjects were not familiar.

  10. Smoking Prevention in China: A Content Analysis of an Anti-Smoking Social Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaohai; Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2016-07-01

    The China Tobacco Control Media Campaign on Sina Weibo is novel in the context of smoking prevention and cessation in China and has not to date been evaluated. This study draws on health behavior theories and dialogic theory in public relations to analyze microblog campaign postings and their relationships with the outcome of online audience engagement. Microblog postings from May 2011 to January 2015 were content analyzed, showing that the most common persuasive content characteristic was perceived risk, followed by subjective norms and self-efficacy. Perceived risk and self-efficacy postings positively influenced online audience engagement, whereas subjective norm postings was a nonsignificant predictor. Postings were more likely to share information than aim to interact with audience members. However, both information sharing and audience interaction postings were positive predictors of online audience engagement. There was also evidence of main and interactive effects of message originality on online audience engagement. The current study has, to the best of our knowledge, broken new ground in 2 regards: (a) using health behavior theories as a basis for analyzing the content of an anti-smoking social media campaign and (b) examining the content of an anti-smoking media campaign of any type in China.

  11. An exploratory review of HIV prevention mass media campaigns targeting men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    with information to help prevent transmission of HIV and to address increasing motivation and changing norms towards precautionary behaviours. However, the limitations of mass media in imparting skills in effecting behaviour change should be recognised, and campaigns supplemented by additional components may be better-suited to achieving these goals. PMID:24939013

  12. Awareness Effects of a Youth Suicide Prevention Media Campaign in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenner, Eric; Jenner, Lynne Woodward; Matthews-Sterling, Maya; Butts, Jessica K.; Williams, Trina Evans

    2010-01-01

    Research on the efficacy of mediated suicide awareness campaigns is limited. The impacts of a state-wide media campaign on call volumes to a national hotline were analyzed to determine if the advertisements have raised awareness of the hotline. We use a quasi-experimental design to compare call volumes from ZIP codes where and when the campaign is…

  13. Process evaluation and participatory methods in an obesity-prevention media campaign for Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Reininger, Belinda M; Barroso, Cristina S; Mitchell-Bennett, Lisa; Cantu, Ethel; Fernandez, Maria E; Gonzalez, Dora Alicia; Chavez, Marge; Freeberg, Diamantina; McAlister, Alfred

    2010-05-01

    To address obesity and related morbidities, community-based participatory research (CBPR) strategies were employed to design and evaluate a Spanish-language media campaign promoting physical activity and healthful food choices among Mexican Americans. Process evaluation including content analyses on types and focus of media messages was conducted. Focus groups assessed appeal and trustworthiness of messages. All media campaign products featured role models and experts. Campaign messages primarily (91%) appeared in TV morning show segments. Newsletters presented individual and family role model stories. A majority of newsletters (68%) were distributed through churches and "promotora" outreach efforts. CBPR lends itself to the selection and tailoring of evidence-based media campaigns. Moreover, CBPR guidance resulted in media messages that were credible and appealing to audience. Process evaluation strategies that gather information from the community provide solid evidence for how to modify the campaign to best meet audience expectations.

  14. An evidence-based method for targeting an abusive head trauma prevention media campaign and its evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Gilliland, Jason; Parry, Neil G; Fraser, Douglas D

    2015-11-01

    A triple-dose abusive head trauma (AHT) prevention program (Period of PURPLE Crying) was implemented. The third dose consisted of an education media campaign. The study objectives were to describe the qualitative and spatial methods developed to target AHT prevention and to evaluate this campaign. A questionnaire on the level of importance of factors, rated on a 7-point Likert scale, was distributed to a panel of experts to determine the best advertising locations. Ranked factors were used to create weights for statistical modeling and mapping within a Geographic Information Systems to determine optimal ad locations. The media campaign was evaluated via a telephone survey of randomly selected households. The survey found locations of new families, high population density, and high percentage of lone parents to be the most important factors for selecting billboard sites. Spatial analysis revealed six areas that ranked highest in our factors. Five billboards, four media posters, and six transit shelters were selected for our advertisements. A population-based telephone survey revealed that 23% of respondents knew the campaign. Nearly half (42%) heard the radio public service announcements, and 9% saw billboards. Extending primary prevention efforts to the public helps to create a cultural change in the way inconsolable crying, the trigger for AHT, is viewed. With the use of ranked factors and Geographic Information Systems, geographic locations with high visibility and specific risk factors for AHT were identified for targeting the campaign, facilitating the likelihood that our message was reaching the population in greatest need.

  15. "What matters to someone who matters to me": using media campaigns with young people to prevent interpersonal violence and abuse.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Nicky; Ellis, Jane; Farrelly, Nicola; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Bailey, Sue; Downe, Soo

    2017-08-01

    While media campaigns are increasingly advocated as a strategy for preventing interpersonal violence and abuse, there is little evidence available regarding their effectiveness. Consultation with experts and young people was used as part of a UK scoping review to capture current thinking and practice on the use of media campaigns to address interpersonal violence and abuse among young people. Three focus groups and 16 interviews were undertaken with UK and international experts, and three focus groups were held with young people. Participants argued that, although campaigns initially needed to target whole populations of young people, subsequently, messages should be "granulated" for subgroups including young people already exposed to interpersonal violence and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender young people. It was suggested that boys, as the most likely perpetrators of interpersonal violence and abuse, should be the primary target for campaigns. Young people and experts emphasized that drama and narrative could be used to evoke an emotional response that assisted learning. Authenticity emerged as important for young people and could be achieved by delivering messages through familiar characters and relevant stories. Involving young people themselves in creating and delivering campaigns strengthened authenticity. Practice is developing rapidly, and robust research is required to identify the key conditions for effective campaigns in this field. The emotional impact of campaigns in this field appears to be as important as the transmission of learning. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Peeling Lead Paint Turns into Poisonous Dust. Guess Where It Ends Up? A Media Campaign to Prevent Childhood Lead Poisoning in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P.; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to…

  17. Peeling Lead Paint Turns into Poisonous Dust. Guess Where It Ends Up? A Media Campaign to Prevent Childhood Lead Poisoning in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P.; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to…

  18. Youth Audience Segmentation Strategies for Smoking-Prevention Mass Media Campaigns Based on Message Appeal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L.; Connolly, Scott W.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-01-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American,…

  19. Youth Audience Segmentation Strategies for Smoking-Prevention Mass Media Campaigns Based on Message Appeal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L.; Connolly, Scott W.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-01-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American,…

  20. Increasing Youths' Exposure to a Tobacco Prevention Media Campaign in Rural and Low-Population-Density Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vallone, Donna M.; Allen, Jane A.; Cullen, Jennifer; Mowery, Paul D.; Xiao, Haijun; Dorrler, Nicole; Asche, Eric T.; Healton, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effectiveness of a program to increase exposure to national “truth” tobacco countermarketing messages among youths in rural and low-population-density communities. Methods. A longitudinal survey of 2618 youths aged 12 to 17 years was conducted over 5 months in 8 media markets receiving supplemental advertising and 8 comparison markets receiving less than the national average of “truth” messages. Results. Confirmed awareness of “truth” increased from 40% to 71% among youths in treatment markets while remaining stable in comparison markets. Over 35% of all youths who were unaware of the campaign at baseline became aware of it as a direct result of the increased advertising. Youths living in rural and low-population-density communities were receptive to the campaign's messages. Conclusions. Through purchase of airtime in local broadcast media, the reach of a national tobacco countermarketing campaign was expanded among youths living in rural and low-population-density areas. This strategy of augmenting delivery of nationally broadcast antitobacco ads can serve as a model for leveraging limited tobacco control resources to increase the impact of evidence-based tobacco prevention campaigns. PMID:19833994

  1. No drama: key elements to the success of an HIV/STI-prevention mass-media campaign.

    PubMed

    Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E; Higgs, Peter; Asselin, Jason; Batrouney, Colin; Stoovè, Mark

    2014-05-01

    We qualitatively examined gay men's reactions to the national "Drama Downunder" HIV/STI social marketing campaign targeting gay men in Australia to identify key campaign elements that underpinned the demonstrated effectiveness of the campaign. We present findings from six qualitative focus groups held with 49 participants as part of the evaluation of the sexual-health-promotion campaign over 2008-2009. Participants identified attention-grabbing images, a humorous approach, positive and simple tailored messaging, and the use of mainstream media as campaign features crucial in normalizing sexual health testing, driving campaign engagement, and ensuring high message exposure. Our results suggest that designers of future campaigns should strive to balance positive and negative campaign images and messages, and find new ways to engage men with sexual health topics, particularly younger gay men. We discuss the implications of our findings about campaign effectiveness for future health-promotion campaigns and message design.

  2. Community-Based Participatory Research in an Obesity Prevention Media Campaign for Mexican Americans: Tu Salud ¡Si Cuenta!

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Belinda M.; Barroso, Cristina S.; Mitchell-Bennett, Lisa; Cantu, Ethel; Fernandez, Maria E.; Gonzalez, Dora Alicia; Chavez, Marge; Freeberg, Diamantina; McAlister, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Background and Methods To address obesity and related morbidities, community-based participatory research (CBPR) strategies were employed to design / evaluate a Spanish language media campaign promoting physical activity and healthful food choices among Mexican Americans. Qualitative evaluation strategies including content analyses on types and focus of media messages were conducted. Focus groups assessed appeal and trustworthiness of messages. Results All media campaign products feature role models and experts. Campaign messages primarily (98%) appear in TV morning show segments. Newsletters present individual and family role model stories. Majority of newsletters (68%) are distributed through churches and “promotora” outreach efforts. Conclusions CBPR lends itself to the selection and tailoring of evidence-based media campaigns. Moreover, CBPR guidance resulted in media messages that are credible and appealing to audience. Process evaluation strategies that gather information from the community provide solid evidence for how to modify the campaign to best meet audience expectations. PMID:19131541

  3. Are mass-media campaigns effective in preventing drug use? A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Allara, Elias; Ferri, Marica; Bo, Alessandra; Gasparrini, Antonio; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is evidence that mass-media campaigns can be effective in reducing illicit drug consumption and the intent to consume. Design Systematic review of randomised and non-randomised studies. Methods We searched four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I and CENTRAL) and further explored seven additional resources to obtain both published and unpublished materials. We appraised the quality of included studies using standardised tools. We carried out meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and a pooled analysis of interrupted time-series and controlled before-and-after studies. Results We identified 19 studies comprising 184 811 participants. Pooled analyses and narrative synthesis provided mixed evidence of effectiveness. Eight interventions evaluated with randomised controlled trials leaned towards no evidence of an effect, both on drug use (standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.02; 95% CI −0.15 to 0.12) and the intention to use drugs (SMD −0.07; 95% CI −0.19 to 0.04). Four campaigns provided some evidence of beneficial effects in preventing drug use and two interventions provided evidence of iatrogenic effects. Conclusions Studies were considerably heterogeneous in type of mass-media intervention, outcome measures, underlying theory, comparison groups and design. Such factors can contribute to explaining the observed variability in results. Owing to the risk of adverse effects, caution is needed in disseminating mass-media campaigns tackling drug use. Large studies conducted with appropriate methodology are warranted to consolidate the evidence base. PMID:26338836

  4. Peeling lead paint turns into poisonous dust. Guess where it ends up? A media campaign to prevent childhood lead poisoning in New York City.

    PubMed

    Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to increase parents' awareness of childhood lead poisoning, ways to protect their children, and property owners' legal responsibility to fix peeling lead paint safely, and increase awareness of regulatory changes and encourage enforcement of New York City's Local Law 1 of 2004. Campaign materials were focus group tested and the campaign was refined annually. The campaign ran city-wide and in targeted high-risk neighborhoods. Neighborhoods and media venue (bus, train, kiosk, and store) changed annually, based on population risk factors and venue availability. Exposure to the campaign, campaign-related knowledge, and behavior were assessed using pre- and postcampaign street intercept surveys. Results showed that campaign reached the targeted population, and had an impact on knowledge of lead poisoning prevention measures as evidenced by increased knowledge of lead paint exposures sources in one year and increased knowledge of preventive behaviors in another year; these improvements were observed for both genders and most ethnic, primary language, educational attainment, and age groups in each year. Lessons learned indicate that well-targeted media campaigns, designed with audience participation, can reach parents through various venues, and improve key knowledge areas. Evaluation challenges faced include high levels of knowledge at baseline, competing media messages, and balancing between program needs and evaluation design.

  5. Youth tobacco prevention mass media campaigns: past, present, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, M C; Niederdeppe, J; Yarsevich, J

    2003-06-01

    This paper focuses on countermarketing efforts aimed at curbing youth smoking. We review the literature on the effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing campaigns, characterise current state and national campaign approaches, present findings from qualitative approaches and laboratory experiments that explore a variety of messages (for example, health consequences, industry manipulation), and discuss newer, non-traditional approaches to countermarketing. In conclusion, we outline research needed to fill gaps in our existing knowledge and discuss future directions in tobacco countermarketing aimed at youth.

  6. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project.

    PubMed

    Keating, Joseph; Meekers, Dominique; Adewuyi, Alfred

    2006-05-03

    In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo) Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1) discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2) awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3) condom use at last intercourse. Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01-2.16) times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49-3.25) as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce

  7. Exposure to the 'Dark Side of Tanning' skin cancer prevention mass media campaign and its association with tanning attitudes in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M; Cust, Anne E; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The 'Dark Side of Tanning' (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of 13- to 44-year-olds living in New South Wales in the summer months of 2007-2010 (n = 7490). Regression models were used to determine predictors of recall of DSOT and to investigate associations between exposure to the campaign and tanning attitudes. The campaign achieved consistently high recall (unprompted recall 42-53% during campaign periods; prompted recall 76-84%). Those who recalled DSOT advertisements had a higher likelihood of reporting negative tanning attitudes compared with those who reported no recall, after adjusting for other factors (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.27 for unprompted recall; OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.36 for prompted recall). Being interviewed in later campaign years was also a significant predictor of negative tanning attitudes (e.g. fourth year of campaign versus first year: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). These results suggest that mass media campaigns have potential to influence tanning-related attitudes and could play an important role in skin cancer prevention.

  8. [Health campaign for atherosclerosis prevention].

    PubMed

    Schoberberger, Rudolf; Modes, Michaela

    2005-07-01

    The goal of the campaign "plus leben", a project designed to run for at least 5 years, is to heighten the awareness of patients at risk of heart disease and to provide them with an appropriate prevention program. During the first two years of the campaign 20,000 visitors were registered on the homepage, 400,000 tests for risk of heart disease were distributed, and more than 3,000 health information brochures were requested. Thus, a survey of patients was designed to provide information on the extent to which preventive measures are effective. The survey, which was carried out by mail, had a response rate of 28%, or 230 participants. In the random sample, consisting of about 60% men and 40% women, only 16% are younger than 50 years of age. Thus the survey provides a representative picture of the affected target group. The test for risk of cardiac disease provided by "plus leben" led to an increase in awareness of preventive measures in more than two thirds of the respondents, and 60% also completed the test. Although only a fourth of the patients are regularly informed by their physician about preventive measures, the campaign has led about 90% of the respondents to make fundamental or at least partial changes in their lifestyle. In connection with the study it was shown that the media play an important role in providing information on preventive measures. Communication in the doctor's office as an important building block in raising consciousness about atherosclerosis prevention could be further improved.

  9. Social marketing campaigns and children's media use.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Media-related commercial marketing aimed at promoting the purchase of products and services by children, and by adults for children, is ubiquitous and has been associated with negative health consequences such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity. But, as Douglas Evans points out, not all marketing in the electronic media is confined to the sale of products. Increasingly savvy social marketers have begun to make extensive use of the same techniques and strategies used by commercial marketers to promote healthful behaviors and to counter some of the negative effects of conventional media marketing to children and adolescents. Evans points out that social marketing campaigns have been effective in helping to prevent and control tobacco use, increase physical activity, improve nutrition, and promote condom use, as well as other positive health behaviors. He reviews the evidence from a number of major recent campaigns and programming in the United States and overseas and describes the evaluation and research methods used to determine their effectiveness. He begins his review of the field of social marketing by describing how it uses many of the strategies practiced so successfully in commercial marketing. He notes the recent development of public health brands and the use of branding as a health promotion strategy. He then goes on to show how social marketing can promote healthful behavior, how it can counter media messages about unhealthful behavior, and how it can encourage discussions between parents and children. Evans concludes by noting some potential future applications to promote healthful media use by children and adolescents and to mitigate the effects of exposure to commercial marketing. These include adapting lessons learned from previous successful campaigns, such as delivering branded messages that promote healthful alternative behaviors. Evans also outlines a message strategy to promote "smart media use" to parents, children, and adolescents and

  10. Helping Youth Navigate the Media Age: A New Approach to Drug Prevention. Findings of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign Media Literacy Summit White House Conference Center, June 01, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This report highlights the findings of the 2001 National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign Summit. Because the campaigns entire strategy acknowledges the power and influence of the media on Americas youth, it is important and appropriate for the initiative to help young people develop their critical thinking skills by further investigating media…

  11. Exposure to the "Dark Side of Tanning" Skin Cancer Prevention Mass Media Campaign and Its Association with Tanning Attitudes in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M.; Cust, Anne E.; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C.; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The "Dark Side of Tanning" (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of…

  12. Brief report on a systematic review of youth violence prevention through media campaigns: Does the limited yield of strong evidence imply methodological challenges or absence of effect?

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Tali; Bowman, Brett; McGrath, Chloe; Matzopoulos, Richard

    2016-10-01

    We present a brief report on a systematic review which identified, assessed and synthesized the existing evidence of the effectiveness of media campaigns in reducing youth violence. Search strategies made use of terms for youth, violence and a range of terms relating to the intervention. An array of academic databases and websites were searched. Although media campaigns to reduce violence are widespread, only six studies met the inclusion criteria. There is little strong evidence to support a direct link between media campaigns and a reduction in youth violence. Several studies measure proxies for violence such as empathy or opinions related to violence, but the link between these measures and violence perpetration is unclear. Nonetheless, some evidence suggests that a targeted and context-specific campaign, especially when combined with other measures, can reduce violence. However, such campaigns are less cost-effective to replicate over large populations than generalised campaigns. It is unclear whether the paucity of evidence represents a null effect or methodological challenges with evaluating media campaigns. Future studies need to be carefully planned to accommodate for methodological difficulties as well as to identify the specific elements of campaigns that work, especially in lower and middle income countries. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exposure to the "Dark Side of Tanning" Skin Cancer Prevention Mass Media Campaign and Its Association with Tanning Attitudes in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M.; Cust, Anne E.; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C.; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The "Dark Side of Tanning" (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of…

  14. Media Agenda-Building and Election Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning-Miller, Carmen L.

    To examine factors which influenced the media's agenda-building process during a primary election period in Mississippi, a study explored candidates' personal attributes, campaign resourcefulness, and media connectedness as important agenda-building variables. Candidates for Mississippi's United States House of Representatives seats in 1982 and…

  15. Media Agenda-Building and Election Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning-Miller, Carmen L.

    To examine factors which influenced the media's agenda-building process during a primary election period in Mississippi, a study explored candidates' personal attributes, campaign resourcefulness, and media connectedness as important agenda-building variables. Candidates for Mississippi's United States House of Representatives seats in 1982 and…

  16. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Loken, Barbara; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-10-09

    Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages.

  17. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A.; Loken, Barbara; Hornik, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages. PMID:20933263

  18. Media Construction of Presidential Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Chris; Sperry, Sox

    2007-01-01

    The next American president will likely be the candidate who crafts the best "impression" in the media. It is the job of social studies teachers to help students separate impressions from substance and to understand the role that media play in crafting people's meaning making and shaping their decision making. Social studies teachers can help…

  19. The National Diabetes, Influenza, and Pneumococcal Campaign: an evaluation of campaign relevancy, partnerships, and media relations.

    PubMed

    Jack, Leonard; Sokler, Lynn A; Squiers, Linda; Mitchell, Patricia

    2003-11-01

    The Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, collaborated with its 59 Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs (DPCPs) to implement in 1998-1999 the National Diabetes Influenza and Pneumococcal Campaign. Postcampaign evaluation examined DPCPs' perceptions of the relevancy of the campaign in reaching the target population (adults aged 25-64 years with diabetes), establishing successful partnerships, and engaging the media. Most DPCPs stated the campaign reached their target population. DPCPs most commonly partnered with existing networks such as public health organizations or government agencies and direct health care providers. A majority of DPCPs did not find partnerships with direct health care providers to be effective in this campaign, but public health organizations, peer review organizations, and coalitions were described as successful partners. States in which DPCPs conducted follow-up calls to television stations regarding the airing of public service announcements generally had more announcements aired than states in which such calls were not made. Postcampaign evaluation findings also indicate that DPCPs who attempted to engage nontraditional partners (e.g., media outlets) achieved greater campaign success than those who did not. Future campaign efforts will likely benefit from relationships established with nontraditional partners, such as retailers, media outlets, local pharmacies, and faith-based organizations.

  20. It's Never Just HIV: Exposure to an HIV Prevention Media Campaign and Behavior Change Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Participating in the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in New York City.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Kathleen H; Neaigus, Alan; Shepard, Colin W; Cutler, Blayne H; Sweeney, Monica M; Rucinski, Katherine B; Jenness, Samuel M; Wendel, Travis; Marshall, David M; Hagan, Holly

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to and impact of the It's Never Just HIV mass media campaign aimed at HIV negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City. Questions about the campaign were included in the local questionnaire of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-sponsored National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) study of MSM in NYC conducted in 2011. Participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited using venue-based sampling. Among 447 NYC National HIV Behavioral Surveillance study participants who self-reported HIV negative or unknown status and answered questions about the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's It's Never Just HIV campaign, more than one-third (n = 173, 38.7%) reported having seen the campaign. Latinos (34.8%) and blacks (34.4%) were less likely to report seeing the campaign compared to whites (47.7%). Most of those who reported seeing the campaign saw it on the subway (80.1%). Only 9.4% of those who saw the campaign reported having changed their sexual or health behaviors in response to the campaign. These data suggest that thousands of HIV-uninfected MSM in NYC have been reached by the campaign and recalled its message.

  1. Media Campaigns Promote Driver Safety for Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieshop, James I.; Grajales-Hall, Myriam; Ortiz, Lupe

    1998-01-01

    A Spanish-language program was developed to educate California migrant farmworker families about motor vehicle safety using a bingo-like game similar to one popular in Mexico. The game disseminated safe-driving information in weekly bilingual newspapers and on Spanish radio and television. Assessments suggest that the media campaigns favorably…

  2. The Rise and Fall of Tobacco Control Media Campaigns, 1967–2006

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated that public education through media campaigns is an effective means to reduce smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. Aggressive media campaigns that confront the tobacco industry’s deceptive practices are most effective and are therefore a prime target for attack. The tobacco industry has attacked public tobacco control media campaigns since 1967, when the first public tobacco control media advertisements ran. Through studying tobacco control media campaigns in Arizona, California, Florida, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Oregon, and of the American Legacy Foundation, we identified industry strategies to prevent a campaign’s creation, limit the target audience and the content of the messages, limit or eliminate the campaign’s funding, and pursue litigation against the campaigns. Tobacco control advocates must learn from the past and continue to confront the tobacco industry and its third-party allies to defend antitobacco media campaigns or, despite evidence of their effectiveness, they will be eliminated. PMID:17600257

  3. Influence of a Counteradvertising Media Campaign on Initiation of Smoking: The Florida "Truth" Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sly, David F.; Hopkins, Richard S.; Trapido, Edward; Ray, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the short-term effects of a television counteradvertising media campaign, the Florida "truth" campaign, on rates of adolescents' smoking initiation. Followup surveys of adolescents interviewed during the first 6 months of the advertising campaign indicated that exposure to the "truth" campaign lowered the risk of youth…

  4. Influence of a Counteradvertising Media Campaign on Initiation of Smoking: The Florida "Truth" Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sly, David F.; Hopkins, Richard S.; Trapido, Edward; Ray, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the short-term effects of a television counteradvertising media campaign, the Florida "truth" campaign, on rates of adolescents' smoking initiation. Followup surveys of adolescents interviewed during the first 6 months of the advertising campaign indicated that exposure to the "truth" campaign lowered the risk of youth…

  5. Tragedy prompts depression awareness, suicide prevention campaigns.

    PubMed

    Rees, T

    1998-01-01

    The tragic suicide of Robert C. Goltz prompted associates at the integrated marketing and communications company he founded in Green Bay, Wis., to develop two multimedia campaigns, one focusing on depression awareness and the other on suicide prevention.

  6. Using media to promote suicide prevention hotlines to Veteran households.

    PubMed

    Karras, Elizabeth; Stephens, Brady; Kemp, Janet E; Bossarte, Robert M

    2014-02-01

    This article presents preliminary evidence that media campaigns are valuable in promoting suicide prevention hotlines to Veteran households by reporting data from 2526 telephone surveys. Findings from this study underscore the need for further investigation of the use of media campaigns to support suicide prevention initiatives aimed at Veteran populations.

  7. Exposure to MTV's Global HIV Prevention Campaign in Kathmandu, Nepal; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 MTV aired a global media campaign, "Staying Alive," to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds. Skeptics believed that a global MTV campaign would reach only a small group of elite young people. MTV increased access to its campaign, however, by making all materials "rights free" to third-party (non-MTV)…

  8. Exposure to MTV's Global HIV Prevention Campaign in Kathmandu, Nepal; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 MTV aired a global media campaign, "Staying Alive," to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds. Skeptics believed that a global MTV campaign would reach only a small group of elite young people. MTV increased access to its campaign, however, by making all materials "rights free" to third-party (non-MTV)…

  9. Tobacco industry litigation strategies to oppose tobacco control media campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406

  10. Brief Report: Preliminary Results of a Suicide Awareness Mass Media Campaign in Cuyahoga County, Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Richard J.; Spilsbury, James C.; Osiecki, Scott S.; Denihan, William M.; Zureick, Joel L.; Friedman, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Little information is currently available concerning the effects of suicide awareness and prevention campaigns. This brief report provides preliminary information about the influence of such a media campaign on the number of suicide-related telephone calls to an emergency mental health service in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Examination of the pattern…

  11. Evaluating the effects of a youth health media campaign.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Thorson, Esther

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a socially oriented public health media campaign that aims to influence social indicators among adults as a means to advances in youth health outcomes. Hierarchical regression analyses are conducted on telephone survey data from 18 weekly telephone surveys of adults in Kansas. Media campaign exposure was positively associated with two outcome measures: beliefs about youth development and behaviors toward youth development. In addition, these two outcome measures increased significantly over time, with the dissemination of the campaign's television and newspaper advertisements. Furthermore, these over-time increases were present only among respondents who were exposed to the media campaign. These findings offer support for the campaign's influence on the two social indicators, which would, per other research, be expected to influence improvements in youth health. Findings are discussed in reference to previous research in the areas of public health and mass communication, with implications made for practitioners and researchers.

  12. Influence of a counteradvertising media campaign on initiation of smoking: the Florida "truth" campaign.

    PubMed

    Sly, D F; Hopkins, R S; Trapido, E; Ray, S

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the short-term effects of television advertisements from the Florida "truth" campaign on rates of smoking initiation. A follow-up survey of young people aged 12 to 17 years (n = 1820) interviewed during the first 6 months of the advertising campaign was conducted. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the independent effects of the campaign on smoking initiation while other factors were controlled for. Youths scoring at intermediate and high levels on a media effect index were less likely to initiate smoking than youths who could not confirm awareness of television advertisements. Adjusted odds ratios between the media index and measures of initiation were similar within categories of age, sex, susceptibility, and whether a parent smoked. Exposure to the "truth" media campaign lowered the risk of youth smoking initiation. However, the analysis did not demonstrate that all such media programs will be effective.

  13. A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…

  14. A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…

  15. Low back pain media campaign: no effect on sickness behaviour.

    PubMed

    Werner, Erik L; Ihlebaek, Camilla; Laerum, Even; Wormgoor, Marjon E A; Indahl, Aage

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of a media campaign on popular beliefs about LBP, and eventual changes in sick leave, imaging examinations, and surgery. Quasi-experimental telephone survey of 1500 randomly chosen people before, during, and after a media campaign in two Norwegian counties, with residents of an adjacent county as the control group. Data on sickness absence, surgery rates for disc herniation and imaging examinations on LBP in the area were collected at the same intervals. The campaign led to a small but statistically significant shift in beliefs about LBP in the general public. In particular, beliefs about the use of X-rays, and the importance of remaining active and at work, seemed to have changed in response to the campaign messages. However, this change in attitude and understanding of the condition did not lead to any corresponding change in sickness behaviour. Although the media campaign seemed to somewhat improve beliefs about LBP in the general public, the magnitude of this was too small to produce any significant change in behaviour. A media campaign on LBP should not be limited to small areas and low-budget. A much larger investment is needed for a media campaign to have sufficient impact on public's beliefs on LBP to lead to altered sickness behaviour.

  16. Mass media antismoking campaigns: a powerful tool for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Siegel, M

    1998-07-15

    Cigarette advertising and promotion have been shown to influence smoking in young persons, but the powerful effect of the mass media on behavior can also be used to promote health. Several states have earmarked a portion of their cigarette excise tax revenues to fund mass media antismoking campaigns, which have been effective in reducing cigarette consumption and in helping persons quit smoking. Despite their successes, the campaigns have been hindered by tobacco industry-supported attempts to cut their funding or restrict their scope. The most aggressive campaigns, which attack the tobacco industry and challenge social norms about tobacco use and promotion, are the most controversial but also the most effective. Mass media antismoking campaigns are a promising tool for health promotion, but only if sustained funding can be guaranteed and the development of the advertisements can be protected from intrusion by political forces.

  17. A Practical Method for Collecting Social Media Campaign Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharis, Laurie W.; Hightower, Mary F.

    2017-01-01

    Today's Extension professionals are tasked with more work and fewer resources. Integrating social media campaigns into outreach efforts can be an efficient way to meet work demands. If resources go toward social media, a practical method for collecting metrics is needed. Collecting metrics adds one more task to the workloads of Extension…

  18. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  19. The Status of Mass Media Coverage of Campaign '80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.

    Some of the similarities and differences in the news media coverage of the United States presidential campaign of 1980 are discussed in this paper. Among the differences related are the loss of the symbolic power of tbe primary elections, which forced the media to look for significant trends elsewhere; the mixture of politics with the…

  20. Getting Gifts Together: Alumni Media Experts Boost Capital Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Donald R.

    1981-01-01

    Alumni media experts were asked to donate their time and talents to the Wittenberg fund raising campaign. A Communications Advisory Committee was formed and a comprehensive public relations plan was proposed to penetrate media in selected areas. Some committee suggestions included faculty interviews, editorial support, public service time. (MLW)

  1. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  2. Inferring Social Influence of Anti-Tobacco Mass Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Qianyi; Zhang, Jiawei; Yu, Philip S; Emery, Sherry; Xie, Junyuan

    2017-07-01

    Anti-tobacco mass media campaigns are designed to influence tobacco users. It has been proved that campaigns will produce users' changes in awareness, knowledge, and attitudes, and also produce meaningful behavior change of audience. Anti-smoking television advertising is the most important part in the campaign. Meanwhile, nowadays, successful online social networks are creating new media environment, however, little is known about the relation between social conversations and anti-tobacco campaigns. This paper aims to infer social influence of these campaigns, and the problem is formally referred to as the Social Influence inference of anti-Tobacco mass mEdia campaigns (Site) problem. To address the Site problem, a novel influence inference framework, TV advertising social influence estimation (Asie), is proposed based on our analysis of two real anti-tobacco campaigns. Asie divides audience attitudes toward TV ads into three distinct stages: 1) cognitive; 2) affective; and 3) conative. Audience online reactions at each of these three stages are depicted by Asie with specific probabilistic models based on the synergistic influences from both online social friends and offline TV ads. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of Asie.

  3. Evaluation of a Canadian back pain mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Gross, Douglas P; Russell, Anthony S; Ferrari, Robert; Battié, Michele C; Schopflocher, Donald; Hu, Richard; Waddell, Gordon; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2010-04-15

    Quasi-experimental before-and-after design with control group. We evaluated a back pain mass media campaign's impact on population back pain beliefs, work disability, and health utilization outcomes. Building on previous campaigns in Australia and Scotland, a back pain mass media campaign (Don't Take it Lying Down) was implemented in Alberta, Canada. A variety of media formats were used with radio ads predominating because of budget constraints. Changes in back pain beliefs were studied using telephone surveys of random samples from intervention and control provinces before campaign onset and afterward. The Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) was used along with specific questions about the importance of staying active. For evaluating behaviors, we extracted data from governmental and workers' compensation databases between January 1999 and July 2008. Outcomes included indicators of number of visits to health care providers, use of diagnostic imaging, and compensation claim incidence and duration. Analysis included time series analysis and ANOVA testing of the interaction between province and time. Belief surveys were conducted with a total of 8566 subjects over the 4-year period. Changes on BBQ scores were not statistically significant, however, the proportion of subjects agreeing with the statement, "If you have back pain you should try to stay active" increased in Alberta from 56% to 63% (P = 0.008) with no change in the control group (consistently approximately 60%). No meaningful or statistically significant effects were seen on the behavioral outcomes. A Canadian media campaign appears to have had a small impact on public beliefs specifically related to campaign messaging to stay active, but no impact was observed on health utilization or work disability outcomes. Results are likely because of the modest level of awareness achieved by the campaign and future campaigns will likely require more extensive media coverage.

  4. Social Marketing Campaigns and Children's Media Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, W. Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Media-related commercial marketing aimed at promoting the purchase of products and services by children, and by adults for children, is ubiquitous and has been associated with negative health consequences such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity. But, as Douglas Evans points out, not all marketing in the electronic media is confined to the…

  5. Evaluation of a mass media campaign on smoking and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Campion, P; Owen, L; McNeill, A; McGuire, C

    1994-10-01

    Two surveys were conducted among pregnant women throughout England, before (n = 625) and after (n = 607) a mass media campaign on smoking and pregnancy targeted at women aged 15-24 years, in the social grade C2DE. The majority of the post-campaign sample recalled having seen at least one of the campaign's series of press advertisements. There was a significant increase among this sample in those considering smoking to be very dangerous to the unborn child, in those understanding the term passive smoking and in those considering passive smoking to be very dangerous. During the campaign there was a 14% increase in the number of calls to a cessation helpline from pregnant women. Over the campaign there were no significant changes in smoking prevalence and consumption among pregnant women or partners or in the numbers of partners offering suggestions to pregnant women about their smoking behaviour.

  6. Social Media Campaign Effects: Moderating Role of Social Capital in an Anti-Smoking Campaign.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Kang; Nah, Seungahn; Van Stee, Stephanie K; Record, Rachael A

    2017-01-06

    This study examined the effects of an anti-smoking campaign that employs a crowdsourcing method with a social networking service. Drawing upon social capital scholarship and the expression effect research paradigm in eHealth systems, the study also investigated the roles of social trust and community life satisfaction in the social media campaign that has a specific geographical boundary. To that end, we conducted an experiment using a two-group pretest-posttest design. We randomly assigned 201 participants to two conditions: "campaign message reception only" as a control group and "message reception and expression" as a treatment group in which participants fully engaged in the campaign process by sharing their own campaign ideas with other participants. Findings revealed that social trust and community life satisfaction interacted with the treatment condition to positively affect persuasive intentions, but in distinct ways. Social trust moderated the effect of the message reception and interaction condition on participants' willingness to encourage community members to stop smoking. In contrast, community life satisfaction moderated the effect of the treatment condition on encouraging others to comply with the community's anti-smoking policy. These results provide theoretical and practical implications related to the roles of social capital in geographically defined social media campaigns.

  7. Media and community campaign effects on adult tobacco use in Texas.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Alfred; Morrison, Theodore C; Hu, Shaohua; Meshack, Angela F; Ramirez, Amelie; Gallion, Kipling; Rabius, Vance; Huang, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The present study reports on the effects on adult tobacco cessation of a comprehensive tobacco-use prevention and cessation program in the state of Texas. Differences in cessation rates across treatment conditions were measured by following a panel of 622 daily smokers, recruited from the original cross-sectional sample, from baseline to follow-up. The adult media campaign combined television, radio, newspaper and billboard advertisements featuring messages and outreach programs to help adults avoid or quit using tobacco products. The ads also promoted quitting assistance programs from the American Cancer Society Smokers' Quitline, a telephone counseling service. The cessation component of the intervention focused on increasing availability of and access to cessation counseling services and pharmacological therapy to reduce nicotine dependence. Both clinical and community-based cessation programs were offered. Treatment areas which combined cessation activities with high level media campaigns had a rate of smoking reduction that almost tripled rates in areas which received no services, and almost doubled rates in areas with media campaigns alone. Analyses of the dose of exposure to media messages about smoking cessation show greater exposure to television and radio messages in the areas where high level media was combined with community cessation activities than in the other areas. Results also show that exposure to media messages was related to processes of change in smoking cessation and that those processes were related to the quitting that was observed in the group receiving the most intensive campaigns.

  8. The Mass Media Role in Terrorist Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tim; Clavier, David E.

    Terrorists seek recognition for their cause by using violence to create public fear which will force the government into repressive counter-measures. The mass media play a vital role in this strategy. News reports of terrorism may magnify the climate of fear, thereby augmenting the public's overreaction. Moreover, broadcast of terrorist acts may…

  9. The Mass Media Role in Terrorist Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tim; Clavier, David E.

    Terrorists seek recognition for their cause by using violence to create public fear which will force the government into repressive counter-measures. The mass media play a vital role in this strategy. News reports of terrorism may magnify the climate of fear, thereby augmenting the public's overreaction. Moreover, broadcast of terrorist acts may…

  10. Media campaign influences parents' opinions about their children and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Carver, Vivien; Reinert, Bonita; Range, Lillian M; Campbell, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    The study assessed the effectiveness of a media campaign in convincing parents that children are targeted by the tobacco industry and that children should be banned from tobacco use. An 800-parent sample survey was conducted prior to a statewide anti-tobacco campaign, and another survey sample of 790 parents was conducted afterward. Though parents who smoked in high school and those who did not agreed that children are targeted and should be banned from tobacco use, parents who did not smoke in high school believed it more strongly. Parents who had a history of smoking changed more on the issue of banning, perhaps because they had more room to change. The study concluded that media campaigns can change parents' attitudes.

  11. Impact of a Rural Domestic Violence Prevention Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadomski, Anne M.; Tripp, Maria; Wolff, Debra A.; Lewis, Carol; Jenkins, Paul

    2001-01-01

    A 7-month public health information campaign used radio advertising, mass media articles, mailings, and posters to address attitudes and behavioral intentions toward domestic violence in a rural county. The campaign raised public awareness, particularly among men; increased stated intentions to intervene in a neighbor's domestic violence; and…

  12. Impact of a Rural Domestic Violence Prevention Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadomski, Anne M.; Tripp, Maria; Wolff, Debra A.; Lewis, Carol; Jenkins, Paul

    2001-01-01

    A 7-month public health information campaign used radio advertising, mass media articles, mailings, and posters to address attitudes and behavioral intentions toward domestic violence in a rural county. The campaign raised public awareness, particularly among men; increased stated intentions to intervene in a neighbor's domestic violence; and…

  13. The Effect of Health Beliefs, Media Perceptions, and Communicative Behaviors on Health Behavioral Intention: An Integrated Health Campaign Model on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sun-Wook; Kim, Jarim; Lee, Yeunjae

    2016-11-18

    Social media have recently gained attention as a potential health campaign tool. This study examines this line of expectation concerning the role social media may play in health campaigns by testing an integrated health campaign model that combines insights from research on social media-specific perceptions and communicative behaviors in order to predict health behaviors. Specifically, this study aims to (a) develop a more holistic social media campaign model for predicting health behaviors in the social media context, (b) investigate how social media channel-related perceptions affect preventive health behaviors, and (c) investigate how communicative behaviors mediate perceptions and behavioral intention. The study conducted an online survey of 498 females who followed the Purple Ribbon Twitter campaign (@pprb), a cervical cancer prevention campaign. The results indicated that information acquisition mediated perceived risk's effect on intention. Information acquisition also mediated the relationships between intention and information selection and information transmission. On the other hand, social media-related perceptions indirectly impacted behavioral intention through communicative behaviors. The findings' theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  14. Award-winning mass media campaign hits home with Dominican youth.

    PubMed

    Black, B

    1997-06-01

    Four television advertisements produced for an AIDS prevention campaign by the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project in the Dominican Republic depict young, attractive individuals with multiple partners, and one youth with AIDS. The spots target adolescents and their parents with the message to remain monogamous and use condoms. They were made by a leading Dominican advertising agency, using high-quality production techniques and attractive young actors to convey well-researched public health messages. Hard-hitting radio announcements, posters, and roadside billboards were also developed as part of a comprehensive national campaign launched in 1993 against HIV/AIDS. The campaign's interactive advertising, coordinated approach, and parental and media involvement are described.

  15. Marketing physical activity: lessons learned from a statewide media campaign.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Michael; Abraham, Avron; Waterfield, Allan

    2005-10-01

    Steps taken to create, implement, and initially assess a statewide physical activity social marketing campaign targeted to 18-to 30-year-olds are presented. Included is a summary demonstration of the application of the associative group analysis in formative market research and message development. Initial postcampaign questionnaire (n = 363) results indicated that 39.1% of respondents had seen the television ad, of which 31.2% indicated they intended to be more active, and 62.5% of respondents had been exposed to either the television or outdoor media ads. Lessons learned through the social marketing process including media channel effectiveness, message development and assessment, and marketing firm relationships are provided.

  16. Evaluation of a drowning prevention campaign in King County, Washington

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, E.; Cummings, P.; Quan, L.; Lewis, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—A three year drowning prevention campaign focused on increasing the use of life vests among children 1–14 years old. An evaluation was conducted to determine campaign awareness, change in ownership and use of life vests by children, and predictors of life vest use. Setting—King County, Washington. Methods—Four telephone surveys were conducted with parents before, during, and after the campaign. Results—The campaign was recalled by 50% of families surveyed. From before to after the campaign, reported life vest use by children on docks, beaches, or at pools increased from 20% to 29% (p<0.01) and life vest ownership for children increased from 69% to 75% (p=0.06). Among parents aware of the campaign, reported child life vest use increased from 20% to 34% (p<0.001) and ownership increased from 69% to 80% (p<0.01). Among families unaware of the campaign, neither life vest use nor ownership changed significantly. Children were more often reported to wear life vests if a parent knew of the campaign, was confident fitting the vest, was younger than 40 years, felt the child could not swim well, and owned a life vest for the child. Conclusions—A community-wide drowning prevention campaign resulted in a significant, although modest, increase in reported life vest use and ownership among children. PMID:10385829

  17. MTV's "Staying Alive" global campaign promoted interpersonal communication about HIV and positive beliefs about HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily; Tucker, Heidi Toms

    2007-02-01

    In 2002 MTV launched a global multicomponent HIV prevention campaign, "Staying Alive," reaching over 166 countries worldwide. An evaluation of this campaign focused on three diverse sites: Kathmandu, Nepal; São Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal. Data were collected before and after campaign implementation through population-based household surveys. Using linear regression techniques, our evaluation examined the effects of campaign exposure on interpersonal communication about HIV and the effects of campaign exposure and interpersonal communication on beliefs about HIV prevention. We found a consistent positive effect of exposure on interpersonal communication across all sites, though there were differences among sites with regard to whom the respondent talked about HIV. We also found a consistent positive effect of exposure on HIV prevention beliefs across sites when interpersonal communication was simultaneously entered into the model. Finally, in two sites we found a relationship between interpersonal communication and HIV prevention beliefs, controlling for exposure, though again, the effects differed by the type of person the communication was with. These similar findings in three diverse sites provide ecological validity of the findings that "Staying Alive" promoted interpersonal communication and influenced young people's beliefs about HIV prevention in a positive way, evidence for the potential of a global media campaign to have an impact on social norms.

  18. Effects of a mass media campaign to increase physical activity among children: year-1 results of the VERB campaign.

    PubMed

    Huhman, Marian; Potter, Lance D; Wong, Faye L; Banspach, Stephen W; Duke, Jennifer C; Heitzler, Carrie D

    2005-08-01

    To determine the effects of a mass media campaign on the levels of physical activity among children 9 to 13 years of age. A prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental design was used. A baseline survey was conducted in April to June 2002, before the launch of VERB advertising. Random-digit-dialing methods were used to survey a nationally representative sample of children and parents. The follow-up survey was repeated with the same cohort of children and parents in April to June 2003. Propensity scoring was used to determine the campaign's effects on awareness and physical activity behaviors. United States. A total of 3120 parent-child dyads. Intervention. The VERB campaign is a multiethnic campaign that combines paid advertisements with school and community promotions and Internet activities to encourage children 9 to 13 years of age to be physically active every day. Launched in 2002 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, VERB uses commercial marketing methods to advertise being physically active as cool, fun, and a chance to have a good time with friends. Using the VERB brand, paid advertising ran nationally from June 2002 through June 2003, targeting 9- to 13-year-old youths. Children's awareness of the campaign and self-reported estimates of free-time and organized physical activity sessions during nonschool hours in the week before the interview. After 1 year, 74% of children surveyed were aware of the VERB campaign. Levels of reported sessions of free-time physical activity increased for subgroups of children 9 to 13 years of age. A pattern of effects across 2 measures was observed for younger children (9-10 years of age), girls, children whose parents had less than a high school education, children from urban areas that were densely populated, and children who were low active at baseline. These subgroups engaged in more median weekly sessions of free-time physical activity than did children who were unaware of VERB and, as the children's level

  19. Turning negative into positive: public health mass media campaigns and negative advertising.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, D E; Malone, R E

    2009-06-01

    Literature suggests that 'negative advertising' is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation's "truth" campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy's "truth" campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry's own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of 'vilifying' it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the "truth" campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion.

  20. Turning negative into positive: public health mass media campaigns and negative advertising

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, D. E.; Malone, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    Literature suggests that ‘negative advertising’ is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation’s “truth” campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy’s “truth” campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry’s own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of ‘vilifying’ it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the “truth” campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion. PMID:18948569

  1. Evaluation of a Public Awareness Campaign to Prevent High School Dropout.

    PubMed

    Babinski, Leslie M; Corra, Ashley J; Gifford, Elizabeth J

    2016-08-01

    Many advocacy organizations devote time and resources to increasing community awareness and educating the public in an effort to gain support for their issue. One such effort, the Dropout Prevention Campaign by America's Promise Alliance, aimed to increase the visibility of the high school dropout problem and mobilize the community to take action. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the framing of the Dropout Prevention Campaign in television news media. To evaluate this campaign, television news coverage about high school dropout in 12 U.S. communities (N = 982) was examined. A content analysis of news transcripts was conducted and coded to determine the definition of the problem, the reasons for dropout and the possible solutions. Findings indicated that the high school dropout problem was most often framed (30 % of news segments) in terms of the economic and societal implications for the community. Individual student factors as well as broader societal influences were frequently discussed as possible reasons for dropout. The most commonly mentioned solutions were school-based interventions. News segments that mentioned America's Promise Alliance were more likely to frame the issue as a crisis and to use statistics to illustrate that point. Solutions that were more likely to appear in America's Promise segments promoted community and cross-sector involvement, consistent with the messages promoted by the Dropout Prevention Campaign. The findings suggest that a media content analysis can be an effective framework for analyzing a prevention campaign.

  2. Earned media and public engagement with CDC's "Tips from Former Smokers" campaign: an analysis of online news and blog coverage.

    PubMed

    Kornfield, Rachel; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Szczypka, Glen; Vera, Lisa; Emery, Sherry

    2015-01-20

    In March 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the first-ever paid national tobacco education campaign. At a cost of US $54 million, "Tips from Former Smokers" (Tips) ran for 3 months across multiple media, depicting the suffering experienced by smokers and their families in graphic detail. The potential impact and reach of the Tips campaign was not limited to that achieved through paid media placements. It was also potentially extended through "earned media", including news and blog coverage of the campaign. Such coverage can shape public understanding of and facilitate public engagement with key health issues. To better understand the contribution of earned media to the public's engagement with health issues in the current news media environment, we examined the online "earned media" and public engagement generated by one national public health campaign. We constructed a purposive sample of online media coverage of the CDC's 2012 Tips from Former Smokers television campaign, focusing on 14 influential and politically diverse US news outlets and policy-focused blogs. We identified relevant content by combining campaign and website-specific keywords for 4 months around the campaign release. Each story was coded for content, inclusion of multimedia, and measures of audience engagement. The search yielded 36 stories mentioning Tips, of which 27 were focused on the campaign. Story content between pieces was strikingly similar, with most stories highlighting the same points about the campaign's content, cost, and potential impact. We saw notable evidence of audience engagement; stories focused on Tips generated 9547 comments, 8891 Facebook "likes", 1027 tweets, and 505 story URL shares on Facebook. Audience engagement varied by story and site, as did the valence and relevance of associated audience comments. Comments were most oppositional on CNN and most supportive on Yahoo. Comment coding revealed approximately equal levels of

  3. The African American Women and Mass Media campaign: a CDC breast cancer screening project.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ingrid J; Rim, Sun Hee; Johnson-Turbes, C Ashani; Vanderpool, Robin; Kamalu, Ngozi N

    2012-11-01

    For decades, black radio has reached African American communities with relevant, culturally appropriate information, and it continues to be an ideal communication channel to use for contemporary health promotion. In an effort to combat excess breast cancer mortality rates and help eliminate cancer disparities among low-income African American women, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Division of Cancer Prevention and Control designed, implemented, and evaluated the African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) pilot campaign. The AAMM campaign uses black radio, radio stations with broad African American listenership, as a platform for targeted, culturally competent health promotion and outreach to low-income, African American women. The AAMM campaign uses radio advertisements and print materials disseminated in predominantly African American neighborhoods to promote awareness of breast cancer, early detection, and the CDC's National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Evaluation of the AAMM campaign found that the campaign successfully reached its target audience of low-income, African American women and increased women's awareness of breast cancer screening services through the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in Savannah and Macon, Georgia.

  4. Formative research to develop a mass media campaign to increase physical activity and nutrition in a multiethnic state.

    PubMed

    Maddock, Jay E; Silbanuz, Alice; Reger-Nash, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Poor nutrition and physical inactivity are the second leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Mass media campaigns have tremendous promise for reaching large segments of the population to influence these behaviors. There is still insufficient evidence in the literature, however, to recommend mass marketing campaigns for physical activity and nutrition. Successful mass media campaigns should have a formative research base that includes conducting preproduction research with the target audience, using theory as a conceptual foundation of the campaign, segmenting the audience into meaningful subgroups, and using a message approach that is targeted to and likely will be effective with the audience segment. In this study, these formative research steps were addressed to develop a mass media campaign based on the Theory of Planned Behavior to increase physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption in 35-55-year-old adults in the state of Hawaii. For the walking campaign, our results identified time, a control belief, as the major barrier. For fruits and vegetable, the data suggested social norm (if others around me ate them) and control (if they were available). These data then were used to develop a mass media campaign based on these principals.

  5. Understanding the characteristics of effective mass media campaigns for back pain and methodological challenges in evaluating their effects.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Rachelle; Gross, Douglas P; Werner, Erik L; Hayden, Jill A

    2008-01-01

    Workshop at the Low Back Pain Forum VIII: Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain held in Amsterdam in June 2006. The aim of the workshop was to 1) describe and compare characteristics and outcomes of back pain media campaigns that have taken place internationally; 2) examine general theories of health behavior change from the mass media literature to determine whether it is possible to develop a theoretical framework to explain the observed outcomes; 3) describe the outcome of discussion and expert consensus around lessons learned from these campaigns that may inform the planning and evaluation of future campaigns; and 4) identify priorities for future research. Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views about back pain have now been performed in several countries. Although these types of campaigns are an established strategy for delivering preventive health messages, there is limited empirical understanding of the characteristics of effective (or ineffective) health campaigns. We reviewed the content and outcome of back pain mass media campaigns conducted in Australia, Norway, and Canada using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Review Group data collection checklist. We also reviewed models of health behavior change that could be used to guide the design, planning, and evaluation of future campaigns. The draft article was reviewed by a group of international back pain experts before forming the basis for discussion at the workshop. Expert comments and those of workshop participants were synthesized and incorporated into the final manuscript. The outcome of discussion and expert consensus around lessons learned from these campaigns are described. Our article may help to inform the planning and evaluation of future campaigns and identify priorities for future research.

  6. Original: anti-smoking media campaign messages: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elisia L; Shumate, Michelle D; Gold, Abby

    2007-01-01

    This study examined televised anti-smoking advertisements that were designed to discourage adult and teen smoking. A content analysis of 399 television advertisements catalogued in the Media Campaign Resource Center (MCRC) database were evaluated to determine (a) whether the advertising content reflected core health communication theories used in the design of health campaign messages to change behavior and (b) the affective presentation of tobacco-control advertisements aimed to decrease smoking. The results revealed that anti-smoking advertising relied overwhelmingly on appeals to attitudes. Although the benefits of not smoking were mentioned in 61% of advertisements, barriers were mentioned in only 17% of advertisements. Advertisements emphasized the consequences of smoking more than the viewer's self-efficacy. Finally, advertisements were more likely to use informational and humor appeals, rather than sadness, fear, or anger appeals. The research identifies the types of advertisements that are most likely to be utilized and underutilized in national and statewide anti-smoking advertising campaigns catalogued in the MCRC database.

  7. Planning an effective anti-smoking mass media campaign targeting adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pechmann, C; Reibling, E T

    2000-05-01

    This article addresses the following issues: Can an anti-smoking campaign that depends largely on mass media vehicles effectively reduce adolescent tobacco use? Why is an integrated campaign recommended and what are the steps in designing such a campaign? How should the campaign be evaluated? Specific topics include recommended campaign expenditures, target audience identification, selection of persuasive message content, executional (stylistic) considerations, media buying decisions, the use of focus group research and advertising copy-testing research, and outcome evaluations. It is concluded that comprehensive strategic planning and extensive research at all phases of the campaign are essential to success.

  8. A formative evaluation of social media campaign to reduce adolescent dating violence.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Danielle N; Bishop, Lauren E; Guetig, Stephanie; Frew, Paula M

    2014-11-12

    The Emory Jane Fonda Center implemented the Start Strong Atlanta social marketing campaign, "Keep It Strong ATL", in 2007 to promote the development of healthy adolescent relationships and to foster the prevention of adolescent dating abuse among 11-14 year olds. A formative evaluation was conducted to understand whether messages directed at the target audience were relevant to the program's relationship promotion and violence prevention goals, and whether the "Web 2.0" social media channels of communication (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Tumblr, and Pinterest) were reaching the intended audience. Mixed methodologies included qualitative interviews and a key informant focus group, a cross-sectional survey, and web analytics. Qualitative data were analyzed using constant comparative methodology informed by grounded theory. Descriptive statistics were generated from survey data, and web analytics provided user information and traffic patterns. Results indicated that the Keep It Strong ATL social marketing campaign was a valuable community resource that had potential for broader scope and greater reach. The evaluation team learned the importance of reaching adolescents through Web 2.0 platforms, and the need for message dissemination via peers. Survey results indicated that Facebook (ranked 6.5 out of 8) was the highest rated social media outlet overall, and exhibited greatest appeal and most frequent visits, yet analytics revealed that only 3.5% of "likes" were from the target audience. These results indicate that the social media campaign is reaching predominantly women (76.5% of viewership) who are outside of the target age range of 11-14 years. While the social media campaign was successfully launched, the findings indicate the need for a more focused selection of communication channels, timing of media updates to maximize visibility, balancing message tone and delivery, and incorporating differentiated messaging for the target audiences. Collaboration with

  9. On the efficiency of multiple media family planning promotion campaigns.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences.

  10. The African American Women and Mass Media Campaign: A CDC Breast Cancer Screening Project

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ingrid J.; Rim, Sun Hee; Johnson-Turbes, C. Ashani; Vanderpool, Robin; Kamalu, Ngozi N.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, black radio has reached African American communities with relevant, culturally appropriate information, and it continues to be an ideal communication channel to use for contemporary health promotion. In an effort to combat excess breast cancer mortality rates and help eliminate cancer disparities among low-income African American women, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Division of Cancer Prevention and Control designed, implemented, and evaluated the African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) pilot campaign. The AAMM campaign uses black radio, radio stations with broad African American listenership, as a platform for targeted, culturally competent health promotion and outreach to low-income, African American women. The AAMM campaign uses radio advertisements and print materials disseminated in predominantly African American neighborhoods to promote awareness of breast cancer, early detection, and the CDC’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Evaluation of the AAMM campaign found that the campaign successfully reached its target audience of low-income, African American women and increased women’s awareness of breast cancer screening services through the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in Savannah and Macon, Georgia. PMID:23072329

  11. Health Communication and Social Marketing Campaigns for Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention and Control: What Is the Evidence of their Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Allison L; Kachur, Rachel E; Noar, Seth M; McFarlane, Mary

    2016-02-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sex in the media, a culture of silence surrounds sexual health in the United States, serving as a barrier to sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, testing, and treatment. Campaigns can increase STD-related knowledge, communication, and protective behaviors. This review assesses the effectiveness of STD prevention and testing campaigns in the United States to inform the field on their use as a strategy for affecting behavior change. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify original research articles, published between 2000 and 2014, which report on US media campaigns promoting community- or population-level STD testing or prevention behaviors and are evaluated for impact on one or more behavioral outcomes. Titles and abstracts were independently reviewed by 2 researchers. The review yielded 26 articles representing 16 unique STD testing and/or prevention campaigns. Most campaigns were developed using formative research and social marketing or behavioral theory. Most campaigns (68.75%) used posttest-only or pretest-posttest designs without comparison groups for evaluation; only 5 campaigns used control groups, and these proved challenging (i.e., achieving necessary exposure and avoiding contamination). Nearly all campaigns found differences between exposed and unexposed individuals on one or more key behavioral outcomes. Several campaigns found dose-response relationships. Among evaluations with uncontaminated control groups whose campaigns achieved sufficient exposure, sustained campaign effects were observed among targeted populations. Current findings suggest that campaigns can impact targeted STD-related behaviors and add to the evidence that greater exposure is associated with greater behavior change.

  12. The influence of three mass media campaigns on variables related to adolescent cigarette smoking: results of a field experiment.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, K E; LaPrelle, J; Brown, J D; Koch, G G; Padgett, C A

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper reports findings from a field experiment that evaluated mass media campaigns designed to prevent cigarette smoking by adolescents. METHODS: The campaigns featured radio and television messages on expected consequences of smoking and a component to stimulate personal encouragement of peers not to smoke. Six Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the Southeast United States received campaigns and four served as controls. Adolescents and mothers provided pretest and posttest data in their homes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The radio campaign had a modest influence on the expected consequences of smoking and friend approval of smoking, the more expensive campaigns involving television were not more effective than those with radio alone, the peer-involvement component was not effective, and any potential smoking effects could not be detected. PMID:2014859

  13. Strategies of Prevention and Alcohol Opinion Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Room, Robin

    1972-01-01

    The assertation that normal drinking and alcoholic drinking are essentially unrelated to each other has a number of built-in attractions. But as an instrument for the prevention of drinking problems, it is a step in the wrong direction. (Author/JA)

  14. A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child’s developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. PMID:24711483

  15. A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention.

    PubMed

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W; Taylor, Catherine A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child's developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A Formative Evaluation of a Social Media Campaign to Reduce Adolescent Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Danielle N; Bishop, Lauren E; Guetig, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Background The Emory Jane Fonda Center implemented the Start Strong Atlanta social marketing campaign, “Keep It Strong ATL”, in 2007 to promote the development of healthy adolescent relationships and to foster the prevention of adolescent dating abuse among 11-14 year olds. Objective A formative evaluation was conducted to understand whether messages directed at the target audience were relevant to the program’s relationship promotion and violence prevention goals, and whether the “Web 2.0” social media channels of communication (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Tumblr, and Pinterest) were reaching the intended audience. Methods Mixed methodologies included qualitative interviews and a key informant focus group, a cross-sectional survey, and web analytics. Qualitative data were analyzed using constant comparative methodology informed by grounded theory. Descriptive statistics were generated from survey data, and web analytics provided user information and traffic patterns. Results Results indicated that the Keep It Strong ATL social marketing campaign was a valuable community resource that had potential for broader scope and greater reach. The evaluation team learned the importance of reaching adolescents through Web 2.0 platforms, and the need for message dissemination via peers. Survey results indicated that Facebook (ranked 6.5 out of 8) was the highest rated social media outlet overall, and exhibited greatest appeal and most frequent visits, yet analytics revealed that only 3.5% of “likes” were from the target audience. These results indicate that the social media campaign is reaching predominantly women (76.5% of viewership) who are outside of the target age range of 11-14 years. Conclusions While the social media campaign was successfully launched, the findings indicate the need for a more focused selection of communication channels, timing of media updates to maximize visibility, balancing message tone and delivery, and incorporating

  17. The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoruk, Baris K.

    2012-01-01

    Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

  18. Use of Propensity Score Matching to Evaluate a National Smoking Cessation Media Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanti, Andrea C.; Cullen, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained mass media campaigns have been recommended to stem the tobacco epidemic in the United States. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to estimate the effect of awareness of a national smoking cessation media campaign (EX[R]) on quit attempts and cessation-related cognition. Participants were 4,067 smokers and recent quitters aged 18-49…

  19. Use of Propensity Score Matching to Evaluate a National Smoking Cessation Media Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanti, Andrea C.; Cullen, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained mass media campaigns have been recommended to stem the tobacco epidemic in the United States. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to estimate the effect of awareness of a national smoking cessation media campaign (EX[R]) on quit attempts and cessation-related cognition. Participants were 4,067 smokers and recent quitters aged 18-49…

  20. The African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) campaign in Georgia: quantifying community response to a CDC pilot campaign

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Turbes, Ashani; Berkowitz, Zahava; Zavahir, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether a culturally appropriate campaign using “Black radio” and print media increased awareness and utilization of local mammography screening services provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program among African American women. Methods The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design involving data collection during and after campaign implementation in two intervention sites in GA (Savannah with radio and print media and Macon with radio only) and one comparison site (Columbus, GA). We used descriptive statistics to compare mammography uptake for African American women during the initial months of the campaign (8/08–1/09) with the latter months (2/09–8/09) and a post-campaign (9/09–12/09) period in each of the study sites. Comparisons of monthly mammogram uptake between cities were performed with multinomial logistic regression. We assumed a p value <0.05 to be significant. Results We observed an increase of 46 and 20 % in Savannah and Macon, respectively, from the initial period of the campaign to the later period. However, the increase did not persist in the post-campaign period. Analysis comparing monthly mammogram uptake in Savannah and Macon with Columbus showed a significant increase in uptake from the first to the second period in Savannah only (OR 1.269, 95 % CI (1.005–1.602), p = 0.0449). Conclusions Dissemination of health promotion messages via a culturally appropriate, multicomponent campaign using Black radio and print media was effective in increasing mammogram uptake in Savannah among low-income, African American women. Additional research is needed to quantify the relative contribution of campaign radio, print media, and community components to sustain increased mammography uptake. PMID:25732344

  1. Using Theory to Design Evaluations of Communication Campaigns: The Case of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Hornik, Robert C.; Yanovitzky, Itzhak

    2014-01-01

    We present a general theory about how campaigns can have effects and suggest that the evaluation of communication campaigns must be driven by a theory of effects. The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign illustrates both the theory of campaign effects and implications that theory has for the evaluation design. Often models of effect assume that individual exposure affects cognitions that continue to affect behavior over a short term. Contrarily, effects may operate through social or institutional paths as well as through individual learning, require substantial levels of exposure achieved through multiple channels over time, take time to accumulate detectable change, and affect some members of the audience but not others. Responsive evaluations will choose appropriate units of analysis and comparison groups, data collection schedules sensitive to lagged effects, samples able to detect subgroup effects, and analytic strategies consistent with the theory of effects that guides the campaign. PMID:25525317

  2. Using Theory to Design Evaluations of Communication Campaigns: The Case of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Hornik, Robert C; Yanovitzky, Itzhak

    2003-05-01

    We present a general theory about how campaigns can have effects and suggest that the evaluation of communication campaigns must be driven by a theory of effects. The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign illustrates both the theory of campaign effects and implications that theory has for the evaluation design. Often models of effect assume that individual exposure affects cognitions that continue to affect behavior over a short term. Contrarily, effects may operate through social or institutional paths as well as through individual learning, require substantial levels of exposure achieved through multiple channels over time, take time to accumulate detectable change, and affect some members of the audience but not others. Responsive evaluations will choose appropriate units of analysis and comparison groups, data collection schedules sensitive to lagged effects, samples able to detect subgroup effects, and analytic strategies consistent with the theory of effects that guides the campaign.

  3. Changing social norms: a mass media campaign for youth ages 12-18.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eileen; Kiss, Susan Mide; Lokanc-Diluzio, Wendi

    2009-01-01

    To create a mass media campaign that endeavours to a) denormalize tobacco use among youth aged 12-18, b) empower youth to stay tobacco product free, and c) increase awareness of the dangers of tobacco use, while using positive messaging. Target age group was youth between the ages of 12 and 18 years. The mass media campaign was developed, implemented, and evaluated within the city of Calgary. The mass media campaign consisted of posters for schools and other venues frequented by youth (e.g., community centres, libraries, fitness centres, restaurants, movie theatres), posters for transit (e.g., bus shelters, LRT shelters, back of bus) print advertisements, television/radio public service announcements, an interactive community website for youth, a media launch event, promotional items, and organizational efforts to cross-promote the campaign. The creative concept was based on intercept interviews, focus group testing, and other research conducted by the campaign's creative team and youth volunteers in order to identify the key elements of this campaign. A total of 149 students completed both a baseline and follow-up survey to evaluate the marketing activities of the campaign. A total of 27 youth participated in prototype testing to compare this positive-messaging campaign with negative-toned tobacco reduction campaigns. Six stakeholders/partners participated in stakeholder interviews to assess their thoughts and learnings regarding the campaign process. The evaluation respondents viewed the campaign positively and showed strong recall of the messaging.

  4. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    PubMed Central

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns. PMID:25157305

  5. The impact of exposure to mass media campaigns and social support on levels and trends of HIV-related stigma and discrimination in Nigeria: tools for enhancing effective HIV prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Fakolade, R; Adebayo, S B; Anyanti, J; Ankomah, A

    2010-05-01

    People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs) often face stigma and discrimination, especially in developing countries. HIV-related stigma is expressed through social ostracism, personal rejection, direct and indirect discrimination, and denial from families and friends. Consequently, it is associated with reduced adoption of preventive and care behaviours, including condom use, seeking for HIV test and care-seeking behaviour subsequent to diagnosis. Ignorance about the epidemiology of the disease on modes of transmission and prevention aggravates HIV-related stigma in Nigeria. Behaviour change communication activities through mass media have been shown to be an effective approach in improving people's knowledge about the disease. This paper monitors trends in the level of accepting attitudes towards PLWHAs in Nigeria between 2003 and 2007. It also evaluates the impact of exposure to mass media and social support on the levels of accepting attitudes towards PLWHAs. A significant and positive trend was evident between 2003 and 2007 (p<0.0001). Furthermore, exposure to mass media communications on HIV and AIDS issues and social support were significantly related to the reduced stigma and discrimination against PLWHAs (p<0.0001).

  6. The association between HIV media campaigns and number of patients coming forward for HIV antibody testing.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J D; Scott, G R

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To assess the relationship between national and local media campaigns with respect to the number of patients requesting HIV antibody tests as a surrogate marker of the effectiveness of different campaign strategies. METHODS--Analysis by month of the numbers of HIV tests performed in the regional genitourinary (GUM) clinic for Lothian over a 5 year period and in the whole of Lothian Region, Scotland over a 3 year period. Changes in testing rates were monitored with respect to media campaigns over the same time period. RESULTS--Television based media campaigns produced the greatest increase in testing rates (average 46% increase over 2 months) compared with newspapers and poster campaigns (average 6% increase over 2 months). Regional HIV testing rates correlated significantly with GUM clinic testing rates. No increase in positive HIV tests was seen following media campaigns. CONCLUSIONS--Using HIV testing rates as a surrogate marker, television based media campaigns appear to be the most effective way of increasing awareness of HIV. The effect of media campaigns is short-lived indicating a need for constant reminder of the dangers of HIV infection. The increase in HIV testing occurs largely in the "worried well" with few additional HIV positive patients being identified. PMID:8335311

  7. Effects of messages from a media campaign to increase public awareness of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E; McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2014-02-01

    To examine how video messages from a recent media campaign affected public attitudes about obesity prevention and weight-based stigma toward obese children. A survey-embedded experiment in May-June 2012 with nationally representative sample (N = 1,677) was conducted. Participants were randomized to view one of three messages of children recounting struggles with obesity, or to a control group. It was examined whether message exposure affected attitudes about: (1) the seriousness of childhood obesity and its consequences; (2) responsibility for addressing obesity; (3) support for prevention policies, and (4) stigma toward obese children. Participants viewing the messages attributed greater responsibility for addressing childhood obesity to the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government, compared to those in the control group. Overweight and female respondents viewing the messages reported lower weight-based stigma compared with overweight and female respondents in the control group, but messages had no effect on healthy weight and male respondents. Messages did not affect attitudes about the seriousness of childhood obesity, its consequences, or support for obesity prevention policies. It will be critical to assess on an ongoing basis how communication campaigns addressing childhood obesity shape public attitudes about obesity prevention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. Mass media campaigns and organ donation: managing conflicting messages and interests.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2012-05-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely and successfully used to change health decisions and behaviors for better or for worse in society. In the United States, media campaigns have been launched at local offices of the states' department of motor vehicles to promote citizens' willingness to organ donation and donor registration. We analyze interventional studies of multimedia communication campaigns to encourage organ-donor registration at local offices of states' department of motor vehicles. The media campaigns include the use of multifaceted communication tools and provide training to desk clerks in the use of scripted messages for the purpose of optimizing enrollment in organ-donor registries. Scripted messages are communicated to customers through mass audiovisual entertainment media, print materials and interpersonal interaction at the offices of departments of motor vehicles. These campaigns give rise to three serious concerns: (1) bias in communicating information with scripted messages without verification of the scientific accuracy of information, (2) the provision of misinformation to future donors that may result in them suffering unintended consequences from consenting to medical procedures before death (e.g, organ preservation and suitability for transplantation), and (3) the unmanaged conflict of interests for organizations charged with implementing these campaigns, (i.e, dual advocacy for transplant recipients and donors). We conclude the following: (1) media campaigns about healthcare should communicate accurate information to the general public and disclose factual materials with the least amount of bias; (2) conflicting interests in media campaigns should be managed with full public transparency; (3) media campaigns should disclose the practical implications of procurement as well as acknowledge the medical, legal, and religious controversies of determining death in organ donation; (4) organ-donor registration must satisfy the criteria of informed

  9. Physical Activity Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…

  10. Physical Activity Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…

  11. [Evaluation of a community-based health education program for salt reduction through media campaigns].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kimiko; Harada, Mitiko; Wakabayashi, Yoko; Inagawa, Mieko; Oshima, Miyuki; Toriumi, Sawako; Hirose, Kumiko; Shiina, Yumi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Renshe, Cui; Ikeda, Ai; Yao, Masayuki; Noda, Hiroyuki; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Sayoko; Kurokawa, Michinori; Imano, Hironori; Kiyama, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiko; Sato, Shinichi; Shimamoto, Takashi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2006-08-01

    To provide the strategies, achievement and evaluation of a community health education program for salt reduction with media campaigns. The intervention community was Kyowa town (A district of Chikusei city, census population in 1985 = 16,792) where we have systematically conducted a community-based blood pressure control program since 1981, and health education on reduction of salt intake since 1983 for primary prevention of hypertension. The education program was performed through media campaigns including use of banners, signboards, posters, and calendars with health catchphrases. We also used catchphrase-labeled envelopes when sending documents from the municipal health center to individuals. Health festivals were held annually to enhance health consciousnesses and to improve health behavior. Some of the posters and calligraphy were painted or drawn by elementary schoolchildren as part of their education. The program was evaluated by repeated questionnaires and examination of salt concentrations of miso soup and dietary salt intake. Between 1983 and 1988, the prevalence of persons who were aware that health consultation including blood pressure measurements were available at the town office increased from 65% to 84%. The prevalence of those who knew the salt intake goal (10 g or less/day) increased from 47% to 63% and that of those who reported to reduce salt intake also increased from 38% to 58%. As for salt concentrations of miso soup, the proportion with less than 1.1% increased from 47% to 66% between 1985 and 2004. Age-adjusted mean salt intake for persons aged 40-69 years declined from 14 g to 11 g in men and from 12 g to 10 g in women between 1982-1986 and 2000-2004. A long-term systemic education program through media campaigns proved feasible with the cooperation of community leaders, schools and food associations.

  12. Countrywide campaign to prevent soccer injuries in Swiss amateur players.

    PubMed

    Junge, Astrid; Lamprecht, Markus; Stamm, Hanspeter; Hasler, Hansruedi; Bizzini, Mario; Tschopp, Markus; Reuter, Harald; Wyss, Heinz; Chilvers, Chris; Dvorak, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    In Switzerland, the national accident insurance company registered a total of 42 262 soccer injuries, resulting in costs of approximately 145 million Swiss francs (~US$130 million) in 2003. Research on injury prevention has shown that exercise-based programs can reduce the incidence of soccer injuries. This study was conducted to assess the implementation and effects of a countrywide campaign to reduce the incidence of soccer injuries in Swiss amateur players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All coaches of the Schweizerischer Fussballverband (SFV) received information material and were instructed to implement the injury prevention program "The 11" in their training of amateur players. After the instruction, the coaches were asked to rate the quality and the feasibility of "The 11." Before the start of the intervention and 4 years later, a representative sample of about 1000 Swiss soccer coaches were interviewed about the frequency and characteristics of injuries in their teams. Teams that did or did not practice "The 11" were compared with respect to the incidence of soccer injuries. A total of 5549 coaches for amateur players were instructed to perform "The 11" in the training with their teams. The ratings of the teaching session and the prevention program were overall very positive. In 2008, 80% of all SFV coaches knew the prevention campaign "The 11" and 57% performed the program or most parts of it. Teams performing "The 11" had an 11.5% lower incidence of match injuries and a 25.3% lower incidence of training injuries than other teams; noncontact injuries in particular were prevented by the program. "The 11" was successfully implemented in a countrywide campaign and proved effective in reducing soccer injuries in amateur players. An effect of the prevention program was also observed in the population-based insurance data and health-care costs.

  13. The cost-effectiveness of 1% or less media campaigns promoting low-fat milk consumption.

    PubMed

    Wootan, Margo G; Reger-Nash, Bill; Booth-Butterfield, Steve; Cooper, Linda

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of four strategies using components of 1% Or Less to promote population-based behavior change. 1% Or Less is a mass-media campaign that encourages switching from high-fat (whole or 2%) to low-fat (1% or skim) milk. Using a quasi-experimental design, campaigns were previously conducted in four West Virginia communities using different combinations of 1) paid advertising, 2) media relations, and 3) community-based educational activities. Telephone surveys and supermarket milk sales data were used to measure the campaigns' effectiveness. Using data from the previously completed studies, we analyzed the cost of each campaign. We then calculated the cost per person exposed to the campaign and cost per person who switched from high- to low-fat milk. The combination of paid advertising and media relations was the most cost-effective campaign, with a cost of 0.57 dollars per person to elicit a switch from high- to low-fat milk, and the combination of media relations and community-based educational activities was the least cost-effective campaign, with a cost of 11.85 dollars per person to elicit a switch. Population-based campaigns using a combination of paid advertising and media relations strategies can be a cost-effective way to promote a behavior change in a community.

  14. Development of a media campaign on fetal alcohol spectrum disorders for Northern Plains American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; Winberg, Austin; Elliott, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol-exposed pregnancies are especially of concern for American Indians. The Indian Health Service reported that 47% to 56% of pregnant patients admitted to drinking alcohol during their pregnancy. In addition, rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome are estimated to be as high as 3.9 to 9.0 per 1,000 live births among American Indians in the Northern Plains, making prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies an important public health effort for this population. The goal of this article is to add to the literature on universal prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorders by describing the development, dissemination, and evaluation of a media campaign on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders that was created by and for American Indian communities in the Northern Plains.

  15. Long-term evaluation of a Canadian back pain mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Suman, Arnela; Bostick, Geoffrey P; Schopflocher, Donald; Russell, Anthony S; Ferrari, Robert; Battié, Michele C; Hu, Richard; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Gross, Douglas P

    2017-08-03

    This paper evaluates the long-term impact of a Canadian mass media campaign on general public beliefs about staying active when experiencing low back pain (LBP). Changes in beliefs about staying active during an episode of LBP were studied using telephone and web-based surveys. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate changes in beliefs over time and the effect of exposure to campaign messaging. The percentage of survey respondents agreeing that they should stay active through LBP increased annually from 58.9 to ~72.0%. Respondents reporting exposure to campaign messaging were statistically significantly more likely to agree with staying active than respondents who did not report exposure to campaign messaging (adjusted OR, 95% CI = 1.96, 1.73-2.21). The mass media campaign had continued impact on public LBP beliefs over the course of 7 years. Improvements over time were associated with exposure to campaign messaging.

  16. Investing in Our Nation's Youth. National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign: Phase II (Final Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This publication presents the findings from an evaluation of Phase II of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. The number one goal of the campaign was to educate youth to reject illegal drugs. This report evaluates Phase II and focuses on the effect of paid television advertising on awareness of anti-drug messages among youth, teens, and…

  17. Promoting Tobacco-Free School Policies through a Statewide Media Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerlin-Long, Shelley K.; Goldstein, Adam O.; Davis, James; Shah, Vandana

    2009-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive, enforced tobacco-free school (TFS) policies lead to significant reductions in youth tobacco use. North Carolina is the first state in the United States to develop a statewide mass media campaign to promote the adoption of and compliance with TFS policies. Methods: In order to guide campaign development, researchers…

  18. Mammography screening participation: effects of a media campaign targeting Italian-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Page, Andrew; Morrell, Stephen; Tewson, Richard; Taylor, Richard; Brassil, Ann

    2005-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of a radio and newspaper campaign encouraging Italian-speaking women aged 50-69 years to attend a population-based mammography screening program. A series of radio scripts and newspaper advertisements ran weekly in the Italian-language media over two, four-week periods. Monthly mammography screens were analysed to determine if numbers of Italian-speaking women in the program increased during the two campaign periods, using interrupted time series regression analysis. A survey of Italian-speaking women attending BreastScreen NSW during the campaign period (n=240) investigated whether individuals had heard or seen the advertisements. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of initial or subsequent mammograms in Italian-speaking women between the campaign periods and the period prior to (or after) the campaign. Twenty per cent of respondents cited the Italian media campaign as a prompt to attend. Fifty per cent had heard the radio ad and 30% had seen the newspaper ad encouraging Italian-speaking women to attend BSNSW. The most common prompt to attend was the BSNSW invitation letter, followed by information or recommendation from a GP. Radio and newspaper advertisements developed for the Italian community did not significantly increase attendance to BSNSW. Measures of program effectiveness based on self-report may not correspond to aggregate screening behaviour. The development of the media campaign in conjunction with the Italian community, and the provision of appropriate levels of resourcing, did not ensure the media campaign's success.

  19. Population-Based Evaluation of the "Livelighter" Healthy Weight and Lifestyle Mass Media Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) "LiveLighter" (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ("why" change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier…

  20. Issue Conflict and Mass Media Agenda-Setting during Bayh-Lugar Senatorial Campaign of 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auh, Taik Sup

    A longitudinal study was conducted to test whether the degree of campaign issue conflict portrayed in newspapers is linked to frequency of issue coverage in setting the agendas of prospective voters regarding important campaign issues. The research replicated and expanded agenda setting models of media effects, using 487 Indiana University…

  1. Population-Based Evaluation of the "Livelighter" Healthy Weight and Lifestyle Mass Media Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) "LiveLighter" (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ("why" change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier…

  2. Promoting Tobacco-Free School Policies through a Statewide Media Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerlin-Long, Shelley K.; Goldstein, Adam O.; Davis, James; Shah, Vandana

    2009-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive, enforced tobacco-free school (TFS) policies lead to significant reductions in youth tobacco use. North Carolina is the first state in the United States to develop a statewide mass media campaign to promote the adoption of and compliance with TFS policies. Methods: In order to guide campaign development, researchers…

  3. Differences in the perception of a mass media information campaign on drug and alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The two-month mass media campaign in Belgium on drug and alcohol consumption "Alcohol and other drugs. The facts and fictions" initiated in January 2008 has been evaluated shortly after by a phone survey. This article reports some indicators on the public awareness of the campaign, and the differences in the perception according to age groups and education levels. About 1,000 respondents (n = 1,002) accepted to participate in the campaign evaluation. Response rate is 37.1%. Global perception of the campaign - measured by the capacity to identify the campaign adequately - is 18.8%. This perception varies between age groups and education levels: 30% of the youngest age group (14-35 yrs) have seen the campaign, 13% of people aged 56 and over (p<0.001). The lower the education level, the lower the probability to have seen the campaign (11% in the lowest group, 25% in the highest one, p<0.001). Among the respondents who have seen the campaign, newspapers are the most often cited media for the oldest age groups. Inversely, young people have mainly identified the campaign on street boards or on post cards. The privileged type of media is also function of the education level. People belonging to the lowest educational level report more often to have seen the campaign on TV (85% vs 51% in the highest group, p<0.01), while the reverse is true for seeing the campaign via the newspapers or the street boards. The results indicate that there are socio-economic variations in the perception of the campaign. In health promotion, reaching lower socio-economic groups still remains a real challenge. Channels for such campaigns have to be carefully chosen to reach their target groups and ask to be complemented with community based interventions.

  4. Association Between Media Dose, Ad Tagging, and Changes in Web Traffic for a National Tobacco Education Campaign: A Market-Level Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kevin C; Patel, Deesha; Rodes, Robert; Beistle, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched Tips From Former Smokers (Tips), the first federally funded national tobacco education campaign. In 2013, a follow-up Tips campaign aired on national cable television networks, radio, and other channels, with supporting digital advertising to drive traffic to the Tips campaign website. Objective The objective of this study was to use geographic and temporal variability in 2013 Tips campaign television media doses and ad tagging to evaluate changes in traffic to the campaign website in response to specific doses of campaign media. Methods Linear regression models were used to estimate the dose-response relationship between weekly market-level television gross rating points (GRPs) and weekly Web traffic to the Tips campaign website. This relationship was measured using unique visitors, total visits, and page views as outcomes. Ad GRP effects were estimated separately for ads tagged with the Tips campaign website URL and 1-800-QUIT-NOW. Results In the average media market, an increase of 100 television GRPs per week for ads tagged with the Tips campaign website URL was associated with an increase of 650 unique visitors (P<.001), 769 total visits (P<.001), and 1255 total page views (P<.001) per week. The associations between GRPs for ads tagged with 1-800-QUIT-NOW and each Web traffic measure were also statistically significant (P<.001), but smaller in magnitude. Conclusions Based on these findings, we estimate that the 16-week 2013 Tips television campaign generated approximately 660,000 unique visitors, 900,000 total visits, and 1,390,000 page views for the Tips campaign website. These findings can help campaign planners forecast the likely impact of targeted advertising efforts on consumers’ use of campaign-specific websites. PMID:26887959

  5. Association Between Media Dose, Ad Tagging, and Changes in Web Traffic for a National Tobacco Education Campaign: A Market-Level Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Paul R; Davis, Kevin C; Patel, Deesha; Rodes, Robert; Beistle, Diane

    2016-02-17

    In 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched Tips From Former Smokers (Tips), the first federally funded national tobacco education campaign. In 2013, a follow-up Tips campaign aired on national cable television networks, radio, and other channels, with supporting digital advertising to drive traffic to the Tips campaign website. The objective of this study was to use geographic and temporal variability in 2013 Tips campaign television media doses and ad tagging to evaluate changes in traffic to the campaign website in response to specific doses of campaign media. Linear regression models were used to estimate the dose-response relationship between weekly market-level television gross rating points (GRPs) and weekly Web traffic to the Tips campaign website. This relationship was measured using unique visitors, total visits, and page views as outcomes. Ad GRP effects were estimated separately for ads tagged with the Tips campaign website URL and 1-800-QUIT-NOW. In the average media market, an increase of 100 television GRPs per week for ads tagged with the Tips campaign website URL was associated with an increase of 650 unique visitors (P<.001), 769 total visits (P<.001), and 1255 total page views (P<.001) per week. The associations between GRPs for ads tagged with 1-800-QUIT-NOW and each Web traffic measure were also statistically significant (P<.001), but smaller in magnitude. Based on these findings, we estimate that the 16-week 2013 Tips television campaign generated approximately 660,000 unique visitors, 900,000 total visits, and 1,390,000 page views for the Tips campaign website. These findings can help campaign planners forecast the likely impact of targeted advertising efforts on consumers' use of campaign-specific websites.

  6. A suicide prevention campaign for firearm dealers in New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Vriniotis, Mary; Barber, Catherine; Frank, Elaine; Demicco, Ralph

    2015-04-01

    A spate of suicides involving a just-purchased firearm led a statewide coalition of firearm dealers, firearm rights advocates, and suicide prevention professionals to discuss the role of gun shops in preventing suicide. The group developed and mailed materials for (1) firearm retailers on avoiding sales to suicidal customers and (2) their customers on suicide and firearm safety. All storefront retailers were identified (n = 65), visited unannounced 6 months after receiving materials, and asked to complete a survey. Nearly half (48%) had at least one campaign product on display. Belief that reducing a suicidal person's access to firearms might save a life was associated with displaying materials (69% vs. 41%, p = .06). Public health and gun groups can successfully collaborate on suicide prevention activities. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  7. Tobacco control advocates must demand high-quality media campaigns: the California experience

    PubMed Central

    Balbach, E.; Glantz, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To document efforts on the part of public officials in California to soften the media campaign's attack on the tobacco industry and to analyse strategies to counter those efforts on the part of tobacco control advocates.
METHODS—Data were gathered from interviews with programme participants, direct observation, written materials, and media stories. In addition, internal documents were released by the state's Department of Health Services in response to requests made under the California Public Records Act by Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights. Finally, a draft of the paper was circulated to 11 key players for their comments.
RESULTS—In 1988 California voters enacted Proposition 99, an initiative that raised the tobacco tax by $0.25 and allocated 20% of the revenues to anti-tobacco education. A media campaign, which was part of the education programme, directly attacked the tobacco industry, exposing the media campaign to politically based efforts to shut it down or soften it. Through use of outsider strategies such as advertising, press conferences, and public meetings, programme advocates were able to counter the efforts to soften the campaign.
CONCLUSION—Anti-tobacco media campaigns that expose industry manipulation are a key component of an effective tobacco control programme. The effectiveness of these campaigns, however, makes them a target for elimination by the tobacco industry. The experience from California demonstrates the need for continuing, aggressive intervention by non-governmental organisations in order to maintain the quality of anti-tobacco media campaigns.


Keywords: media campaigns; anti-tobacco advocacy; California PMID:10093175

  8. Engaging Minority Youth in Diabetes Prevention Efforts Through a Participatory, Spoken-Word Social Marketing Campaign.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Elizabeth A; Fine, Sarah C; Handley, Margaret A; Davis, Hodari B; Kass, James; Schillinger, Dean

    2016-01-05

    Purpose . To examine the reach, efficacy, and adoption of The Bigger Picture, a type 2 diabetes (T2DM) social marketing campaign that uses spoken-word public service announcements (PSAs) to teach youth about socioenvironmental conditions influencing T2DM risk. Design . A nonexperimental pilot dissemination evaluation through high school assemblies and a Web-based platform were used. Setting . The study took place in San Francisco Bay Area high schools during 2013. Subjects . In the study, 885 students were sampled from 13 high schools. Intervention . A 1-hour assembly provided data, poet performances, video PSAs, and Web-based platform information. A Web-based platform featured the campaign Web site and social media. Measures . Student surveys preassembly and postassembly (knowledge, attitudes), assembly observations, school demographics, counts of Web-based utilization, and adoption were measured. Analysis . Descriptive statistics, McNemar's χ(2) test, and mixed modeling accounting for clustering were used to analyze data. Results . The campaign included 23 youth poet-created PSAs. It reached >2400 students (93% self-identified non-white) through school assemblies and has garnered >1,000,000 views of Web-based video PSAs. School participants demonstrated increased short-term knowledge of T2DM as preventable, with risk driven by socioenvironmental factors (34% preassembly identified environmental causes as influencing T2DM risk compared to 83% postassembly), and perceived greater personal salience of T2DM risk reduction (p < .001 for all). The campaign has been adopted by regional public health departments. Conclusion . The Bigger Picture campaign showed its potential for reaching and engaging diverse youth. Campaign messaging is being adopted by stakeholders.

  9. Media and interpersonal persuasions in the polio eradication campaign in northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ozohu-Suleiman, Yakubu

    2010-01-01

    This study is premised on the increasing global concerns over the widespread resistance to polio eradication campaign in northern Nigeria. It aims to determine the level of campaign acceptance and compare the influences of mass media and interpersonal communication sources in Zaria local government area, being one of the high-risk (WPV-endemic) areas in northern Nigeria, where campaign resistance is known to be high. By way of quantitative survey, the study utilized 10% sample of the populations of eight out of the thirteen Wards in Zaria local government area, with a response rate of 78.6%. Findings reveal close ranks between campaign acceptance and resistance in the local government area, thus further confirming the difficulties still faced in polio eradication campaign in the region. This study also indicates higher performance of Interpersonal than Mass Media sources in influencing campaign acceptance and resistance in the local communities. Contact with friends and relations was rated the most influential interpersonal sources in the acceptance and resistance decision of individuals, while newspapers and magazines were rated most influential media sources that influenced campaign resistance in the local communities. The study concludes that a polio eradication campaign, backed with competent and sufficient communication expertise that utilizes knowledge-based indigenous interpersonal communication strategies will likely result in greater community acceptance in northern Nigeria.

  10. Media and interpersonal persuasions in the polio eradication campaign in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ozohu-Suleiman, Yakubu

    2010-09-01

    This study is premised on the increasing global concerns over the widespread resistance to polio eradication campaign in northern Nigeria. It aims to determine the level of campaign acceptance and compare the influences of mass media and interpersonal communication sources in Zaria local government area, being one of the high-risk (WPV-endemic) areas in northern Nigeria, where campaign resistance is known to be high. By way of quantitative survey, the study utilized 10% sample of the populations of eight out of the thirteen Wards in Zaria local government area, with a response rate of 78.6%. Findings reveal close ranks between campaign acceptance and resistance in the local government area, thus further confirming the difficulties still faced in polio eradication campaign in the region. This study also indicates higher performance of Interpersonal than Mass Media sources in influencing campaign acceptance and resistance in the local communities. Contact with friends and relations was rated the most influential interpersonal sources in the acceptance and resistance decision of individuals, while newspapers and magazines were rated most influential media sources that influenced campaign resistance in the local communities. The study concludes that a polio eradication campaign, backed with competent and sufficient communication expertise that utilizes knowledge-based indigenous interpersonal communication strategies will likely result in greater community acceptance in northern Nigeria.

  11. Popular Culture, Media Propaganda, and the 1972 "CREEP" Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Real, Michael R.

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the majority of the voting public is only vaguely aware of the vast resources and professional expertise marshalled to persuade voters, and presents the 1972 Presidential campaign as an example. See CS 702 316 for availability information. (RB)

  12. Mass Media and Language Planning: Singapore's "Speak Mandarin" Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Eddie C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    This case study examines how the press, radio, and television were mobilized to promote, evaluate, and teach in a government campaign to replace Chinese dialects with Mandarin among the Chinese population. (PD)

  13. Cost-effectiveness of a smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India.

    PubMed

    Murukutla, Nandita; Yan, Hongjin; Wang, Shuo; Negi, Nalin Singh; Kotov, Alexey; Mullin, Sandra; Goodchild, Mark

    2017-08-10

    Tobacco control mass media campaigns are cost-effective in reducing tobacco consumption in high-income countries, but similar evidence from low-income countries is limited. An evaluation of a 2009 smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India provided an opportunity to test its cost-effectiveness. Campaign evaluation data from a nationally representative household survey of 2898 smokeless tobacco users were compared with campaign costs in a standard cost-effectiveness methodology. Costs and effects of the Surgeon campaign were compared with the status quo to calculate the cost per campaign-attributable benefit, including quit attempts, permanent quits and tobacco-related deaths averted. Sensitivity analyses at varied CIs and tobacco-related mortality risk were conducted. The Surgeon campaign was found to be highly cost-effective. It successfully generated 17 259 148 additional quit attempts, 431 479 permanent quits and 120 814 deaths averted. The cost per benefit was US$0.06 per quit attempt, US$2.6 per permanent quit and US$9.2 per death averted. The campaign continued to be cost-effective in sensitivity analyses. This study suggests that tobacco control mass media campaigns can be cost-effective and economically justified in low-income and middle-income countries. It holds significant policy implications, calling for sustained investment in evidence-based mass media campaigns as part of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. A Social Media Campaign to Promote Breastfeeding among Saudi Women: A Web-based Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Bahkali, Salwa; Alkharjy, Nora; Alowairdy, Maryam; Househ, Mowafa; Da'ar, Omar; Alsurimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged breastfeeding can prevent or limit the severity of a variety of diseases and conditions. Although evidence clearly shows that there are health benefits for breastfeeding, adherence to breastfeeding remains a key challenge facing maternal health providers in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of a social media platform (Twitter) to promote breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. Between February 10 and March 25, 2015, a web-based questionnaire was administered to evaluate the impacts of a Twitter based educational campaign on the awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior for women in Saudi Arabia. The overall response rate among mothers with a newborn child was 83% (n=484). The results showed an increase in the knowledge and awareness of breastfeeding practices and adherence among Twitter followers. The initiation rate of breastfeeding had slightly increased among women who never had previously breastfed. More women reported their willingness to continue exclusive breastfeeding and to stop bottle-feeding. Results also show that an integration of professional breastfeeding support, public health education programs through social media could be an effective tool in promoting breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on designing and implementing a social media based educational outreach program to increase women's awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior in Saudi Arabia.

  15. Do mass media campaigns improve physical activity? a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass media campaigns are frequently used to influence the health behaviors of various populations. There are currently no quantitative meta-analyses of the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. Methods We searched six electronic databases from their inception to August 2012 and selected prospective studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. We excluded studies that did not have a proper control group or did not report the uncertainties of the effect estimates. Two reviewers independently screened the title/abstracts and full articles. We used random-effects models to pool effect estimates across studies for 3 selected outcomes. Results Nine prospective cohorts and before-after studies that followed-up 27,601 people over 8 weeks to 3 years met the inclusion criteria. Based on the pooled results from these studies, mass media campaigns had a significant effect on promoting moderate intensity walking (pooled relative risk (RR) from 3 studies=1.53, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.25 to 1.87), but did not help participants achieve sufficient levels of physical activity [4 studies pooled RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.14)]. The apparent effect of media campaigns on reducing sedentary behavior (pooled RR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.30) was lost when a relatively low-quality study with large effects was excluded in a sensitivity analysis. In subgroup analyses, campaigns that promoted physical activity as a ‘social norm’ seemed to be more effective in reducing sedentary behavior. Conclusion Mass media campaigns may promote walking but may not reduce sedentary behavior or lead to achieving recommended levels of overall physical activity. Further research is warranted on different campaign types and in low- and middle- income countries. PMID:23915170

  16. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  17. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  18. Participatory and social media to engage youth: from the Obama campaign to public health practice.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jordi; Wennerstrom, Ashley; Springgate, Benjamin F

    2011-01-01

    Barack Obama's successful campaign for the presidency has been widely attributed to the use of social networking sites, mobile devices, and interactive websites to engage previously hard-to-reach populations in political activity. Campaign communication strategies may be applicable for youth health promotion efforts, particularly for the highly stigmatized issue of mental health. In this article, we examine elements of the 2008 Obama presidential campaign's use of social media technologies and content designed to foster effective political participation among youth. We outline how the same social media technologies may be applied to public health efforts focused on reaching and providing services to the 20% of young people who have a diagnosable mental disorder. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the application of these media to date, and raise questions about the future use of these media for engaging hard-to-reach populations in addressing stigmatized public health issues.

  19. Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people.

    PubMed

    Carson, Kristin V; Ameer, Faisal; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Hnin, Khin; van Agteren, Joseph Em; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Brinn, Malcolm P; Esterman, Adrian J; Chang, Anne B; Smith, Brian J

    2017-06-02

    Mass media interventions can be used as a way of delivering preventive health messages. They have the potential to reach and modify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a large proportion of the community. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on preventing smoking in young people, and whether it can reduce smoking uptake among youth (under 25 years), improve smoking attitudes, intentions and knowledge, improve self-efficacy/self-esteem, and improve perceptions about smoking, including the choice to follow positive role models. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE and Embase in June 2016. This is an update of a review first published in 1998. Randomized trials, controlled trials without randomization and interrupted time-series studies that assessed the effect of mass media campaigns (defined as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, social media, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact) in influencing the smoking behaviour (either objective or self-reported) of young people under the age of 25 years. We define smoking behaviour as the presence or absence of tobacco smoking or other tobacco use, or both, and the frequency of tobacco use. Eligible comparators included education or no intervention. Two review authors independently extracted information relating to the characteristics and the content of media interventions, participants, outcomes, methods of the study and risks of bias. We combined studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. We assessed the risks of bias for each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, alongside additional domains to account for the nature of the intervention. We assessed the quality of evidence contributing to outcomes using GRADE. We identified eight eligible studies reporting information about mass media smoking

  20. Changes in self-reported energy balance behaviours and body mass index during a mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Verheijden, Marieke W; van Dommelen, Paula; van Empelen, Pepijn; Crone, Mathilde R; Werkman, Andrea M; van Kesteren, Nicole M C

    2012-04-01

    Prevention of (serious) overweight can be achieved by means of small behaviour changes in physical activity and/or diet. To evaluate a mass media campaign promoting energy balance behaviours in a Dutch population. Effects were examined for body mass index (BMI) and five energy balance behaviours. A representative cohort study of 1200 Dutch adults was employed. Data were collected at four moments. Two campaign waves were launched, following T1 (targeting the general adult population) and T2 [targeting low socio-economic status (SES) men], respectively. Regression analyses were performed to estimate the short-term and long-term effects of campaign exposure. In total, data of 1030 participants (86%) were available. Time trends showed unfavourable changes in most but not all energy balances behaviour for the total sample. No differences were found for BMI. No differences in the outcome measures were found as a result of exposure to the first campaign (19%). A short-term effect of exposure to the second campaign (29% exposure) was found (T2-T3), but only for low SES respondents, with increases in the attention being paid towards food choice (P = 0.02). At long term, BMI was less likely to increase among exposed people with a non-Dutch ethnicity (P = 0.01, T2-T4). Exposure to the campaign was low. The first campaign wave had no effects on BMI and energy balance behaviours. Small but favourable changes in attention towards food choice and BMI for at-risk populations were observed among those exposed to the second campaign wave.

  1. Evidence for truth®: the young adult response to a youth-focused anti-smoking media campaign.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Amanda Kalaydjian; Green, Molly; Xiao, Haijun; Sokol, Natasha; Vallone, Donna

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure to truth® and similar countermarketing campaigns is associated with an increase in anti-smoking attitudes and beliefs in those aged 12-17 years and a decrease in youth smoking. However, it is unclear how such campaigns influence young adults aged 18-24 years. To examine levels of awareness and the effect of the national truth campaign on smoking-related attitudes, beliefs, and intentions in young adults. Data on respondents, aged 18-24 years, from the Legacy Media Tracking Surveys-eight cross-sectional nationally representative telephone surveys administered from 2000 to 2004-were combined and analyzed in 2009. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between confirmed awareness of the truth campaign and smoking-related attitudes, beliefs, and intentions. A second set of models was used to examine the association of attitudes and beliefs targeted by the campaign with smoking intentions. A majority of young adults showed confirmed awareness of the truth campaign. Awareness was associated with roughly half of the anti-smoking attitudes and beliefs, and it was associated marginally with the intention to quit among smokers (p=0.06). Several of the attitudes and beliefs targeted by the campaign were associated with the intention to not smoke (among nonsmokers) and to quit (among smokers). Messages contained in youth-focused anti-smoking campaigns may promote attitudinal and behavioral change in young adults. Young adults are at risk for both initiation and establishment of smoking, while also being targeted specifically by the tobacco industry, so it is critical to consider this audience when developing and implementing anti-smoking interventions. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of a social marketing media campaign to reduce oral cancer racial disparities.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jennifer M; Tomar, Scott L; Dodd, Virginia; Logan, Henrietta L; Choi, Youjin

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic evaluation of a theory-driven oral cancer awareness media campaign. We surveyed a cohort of residents in an intervention city (250) and a control city (250) immediately prior to and after the media campaign. Participants (125 black/African American and 125 white) in each city completed surveys at baseline and follow-up. Oral cancer campaign awareness was assessed in both cities, along with 4 hypothetical health campaigns. Oral cancer awareness, oral cancer exam awareness, intent to receive an oral cancer exam, interest in exam, and receipt of exam were also assessed in both cities, both at baseline and follow-up. Intervention city residents showed a significant increase in recognition of the campaign, awareness of the oral cancer exam, and interest in getting an exam, while no significant changes in those topics were found for the control city. Blacks/African Americans in the intervention city were significantly more likely than whites to demonstrate increases in awareness of the campaign, oral cancer awareness, and interest in receiving an oral cancer exam. A theory-driven media campaign was successful in increasing awareness of the oral cancer exam and interest in the exam among blacks/African Americans.

  3. Working to make an image: an analysis of three Philip Morris corporate image media campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Szczypka, Glen; Wakefield, Melanie A; Emery, Sherry; Terry‐McElrath, Yvonne M; Flay, Brian R; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the nature and timing of, and population exposure to, Philip Morris USA's three explicit corporate image television advertising campaigns and explore the motivations behind each campaign. Methods : Analysis of television ratings from the largest 75 media markets in the United States, which measure the reach and frequency of population exposure to advertising; copies of all televised commercials produced by Philip Morris; and tobacco industry documents, which provide insights into the specific goals of each campaign. Findings Household exposure to the “Working to Make a Difference: the People of Philip Morris” averaged 5.37 ads/month for 27 months from 1999–2001; the “Tobacco Settlement” campaign averaged 10.05 ads/month for three months in 2000; and “PMUSA” averaged 3.11 ads/month for the last six months in 2003. The percentage of advertising exposure that was purchased in news programming in order to reach opinion leaders increased over the three campaigns from 20%, 39% and 60%, respectively. These public relations campaigns were designed to counter negative images, increase brand recognition, and improve the financial viability of the company. Conclusions Only one early media campaign focused on issues other than tobacco, whereas subsequent campaigns have been specifically concerned with tobacco issues, and more targeted to opinion leaders. The size and timing of the advertising buys appeared to be strategically crafted to maximise advertising exposure for these population subgroups during critical threats to Philip Morris's public image. PMID:17897994

  4. Mass media campaign improves cervical screening across all socio-economic groups.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jenny O; Mullins, Robyn M; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-10-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data were obtained from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry for each Pap test registered during 2005 and categorized into SES quintiles using the Index of Socio-Economic Advantage/Disadvantage. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the impact of the campaign on the weekly number of Pap tests and whether the media campaign had a differential effect by SES, after adjusting for the number of workdays per week, age group and time since previous test. Cervical screening increased 27% during the campaign period and was equally effective in encouraging screening across all SES groups, including low-SES women. Mass media campaigns can prompt increased rates of cervical screening among all women, not just those from more advantaged areas. Combining media with additional strategies targeted at low-SES women may help lessen the underlying differences in screening rates across SES.

  5. Prevention of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in Bavaria - evaluation of a prevention campaign.

    PubMed

    Nennstiel-Ratzel, U; Hölscher, Gabriele; Ehrensperger-Reeh, P; von Kries, R; Wildner, M

    2010-01-01

    With simple prevention measures SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) incidence rates can be reduced. A cross-sectional survey in Bavaria in 2005 showed that maternity units fall short in acting as role models and informing parents regarding SIDS prevention and that parents did not sufficiently apply prevention measures. An information campaign in Bavaria was initialized and evaluated after 18 months. Flyers and posters for SIDS prevention using consistent information were developed for dissemination by the relevant occupational groups. The campaign impact was assessed in repeating the cross-sectional survey. A response rate of 99% for the maternity units and 60% for the parent questionnaires could be achieved. Significant improvements (p<0.05) in the maternity units regarded a higher proportion of parents informed about SIDS prevention measures (97 vs. 92%) and an increased use of sleeping bags (37 vs. 12%), whereas the proportion of children placed in supine position to sleep was not increased. More parents reported to have obtained advice for SIDS prevention (83 vs. 73%) and to have used sleeping bags (66 vs. 56%). A subgroup analysis revealed poorer information and implementation of the recommendations in families with three or more children and less educated families. After initiation of the information campaign reported knowledge about SIDS prevention measures increased. Continuing shortfalls exist regarding maternity units acting as role models and implementation of the recommendations by the parents. Future interventions should focus in particular on the role model function of maternity units and target groups. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  6. Clarifications on mass media campaigns promoting organ donation: a response to Rady, McGregor, & Verheijde (2012).

    PubMed

    Morgan, Susan E; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2013-11-01

    The current paper provides readers some clarifications on the nature and goals of mass media campaigns designed to promote organ donation. These clarifications were necessitated by an earlier essay by Rady et al. (Med Health Care Philos 15:229-241, 2012) who present erroneous claims that media promotion campaigns in this health context represent propaganda that seek to misrepresent the transplantation process. Information is also provided on the nature and relative power of media campaigns in organ donation promotion.

  7. Characterizing tobacco control mass media campaigns in England

    PubMed Central

    Langley, Tessa; Lewis, Sarah; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Anna; Szatkowski, Lisa; West, Robert; Sims, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize publically funded tobacco control campaigns in England between 2004 and 2010 and to explore if they were in line with recommendations from the literature in terms of their content and intensity. International evidence suggests that campaigns which warn of the negative consequences of smoking and feature testimonials from real-life smokers are most effective, and that four exposures per head per month are required to reduce smoking prevalence. Design Characterization of tobacco control advertisements using a theoretically based framework designed to describe advertisement themes, informational and emotional content and style. Study of the intensity of advertising and exposure to different types of advertisement using data on population-level exposure to advertisements shown during the study period. Setting England. Measurements Television Ratings (TVRs), a standard measure of advertising exposure, were used to calculate exposure to each different campaign type. Findings A total of 89% of advertising was for smoking cessation; half of this advertising warned of the negative consequences of smoking, while half contained how-to-quit messages. Acted scenes featured in 72% of advertising, while only 17% featured real-life testimonials. Only 39% of months had at least four exposures to tobacco control campaigns per head. Conclusions A theory-driven approach enabled a systematic characterization of tobacco control advertisements in England. Between 2004 and 2010 only a small proportion of tobacco control advertisements utilized the most effective strategies—negative health effects messages and testimonials from real-life smokers. The intensity of campaigns was lower than international recommendations. PMID:23834209

  8. MTV's "Staying Alive" Global Campaign Promoted Interpersonal Communication about HIV and Positive Beliefs about HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke; Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane; Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily; Tucker, Heidi Toms

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 MTV launched a global multicomponent HIV prevention campaign, "Staying Alive," reaching over 166 countries worldwide. An evaluation of this campaign focused on three diverse sites: Kathmandu, Nepal; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal. Data were collected before and after campaign implementation through population-based…

  9. MTV's "Staying Alive" Global Campaign Promoted Interpersonal Communication about HIV and Positive Beliefs about HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke; Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane; Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily; Tucker, Heidi Toms

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 MTV launched a global multicomponent HIV prevention campaign, "Staying Alive," reaching over 166 countries worldwide. An evaluation of this campaign focused on three diverse sites: Kathmandu, Nepal; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal. Data were collected before and after campaign implementation through population-based…

  10. Disease prevention and anti-vector campaigns: insects.

    PubMed

    Esterhuizen, J

    2015-04-01

    Control of insect vector populations is an integral part of disease management but has many challenges. Area-wide campaigns, mainly based on insecticide administration, are most effective for control of insect populations, whereas disease prevention is more localised and protects a smaller number of animals against insect vector contact. Various control and prevention techniques are available for use against most insectvectors and are illustrated here by focusing on two important insect groups: biting midges and tsetse flies. Biting midges (Culicoides) present a major threat and challenge to disease and vector control because of limited large-scale control options and the huge population sizes and wide distribution of these insects. Localised disease prevention forms the basis for control, and there is a need for better understanding of the ecology and biology of these insects in order to develop large-scale control techniques. The necessary techniques to effectively control tsetse flies (Glossina) and trypanosomosis exist for both localised and area-wide control. The development of a new, cost-efficient device has had a significant impact in the control of both human and animal trypanosomosis. This is especially relevant in Uganda, where the movement of livestock for trading purposes is implicated in disease distribution and poses an immediate health threat where the two forms of the disease overlap. Although many successes have been achieved, continued research and development is needed to keep abreast of the multitude of challenges in insect vector control.

  11. Using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use: a review.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jane Appleyard; Duke, Jennifer C; Davis, Kevin C; Kim, Annice E; Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    This review synthesizes the published literature on using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use, with particular focus on effects within population subgroups and the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO conducted in March of 2014 yielded 397 studies with 34 suitable for inclusion. Included were quantitative studies that evaluate an antitobacco media campaign intended to influence youth cognitions or behavior or explore the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics among youth. An automated search and assessment of suitability for inclusion was done. Study outcomes were compared and synthesized. Antitobacco media campaigns can be effective across racial/ethnic populations, although the size of the campaign effect may differ by race/ethnicity. Evidence is insufficient to determine whether campaign outcomes differ by socioeconomic status (SES) and population density. Youth are more likely to recall and think about advertising that includes personal testimonials; a surprising narrative; and intense images, sound, and editing. Evidence in support of using a health consequences message theme is mixed; an industry manipulation theme may be effective in combination with a health consequences message. Research is insufficient to determine whether advertising with a secondhand smoke or social norms theme influences youth tobacco use. Our recommendation is to develop antitobacco campaigns designed to reach all at-risk youth, which can be effective across racial/ethnic populations. Research priorities include assessing campaign influence among lower SES and rural youth, disentangling the effects of message characteristics, and assessing the degree to which this body of evidence may have changed as a result of changes in youth culture and communication technology.

  12. Promoting tobacco-free school policies through a statewide media campaign.

    PubMed

    Summerlin-Long, Shelley K; Goldstein, Adam O; Davis, James; Shah, Vandana

    2009-04-01

    Comprehensive, enforced tobacco-free school (TFS) policies lead to significant reductions in youth tobacco use. North Carolina is the first state in the United States to develop a statewide mass media campaign to promote the adoption of and compliance with TFS policies. In order to guide campaign development, researchers conducted a literature review as well as interviews with 45 TFS-policy experts, stakeholders, and North Carolina legislators. The experts included state and national TFS researchers and advocates, and the majority of stakeholders were North Carolina school administrators and personnel selected because of their personal knowledge of and experience with TFS policy. Interviewees provided information on messages they believed would be most salient to highlight in the media campaign and the best type of people to appear in ads. Recommended themes included (1) a positive message about TFS becoming the norm in the state, (2) experiences of school districts that had successfully passed TFS policies, (3) the importance of adult role modeling, and (4) personal stories from youth about the importance of TFS policy. Recommended people to appear in ads included youth and adults with a personal connection to and experience with TFS policy. Using these recommended themes and people, the TFS media campaign began in the fall of 2006. In the 8 months following the campaign launch, 9 additional school districts adopted TFS policies, increasing the total from 78 to 87 (out of 115) by June 2007. In July 2007, the North Carolina legislature passed legislation mandating that all school districts adopt TFS policies by August 2008. Media campaigns can serve as part of a comprehensive strategy to advance TFS policies. Other states should consider these results in designing and evaluating a media campaign to promote adoption of and compliance with TFS policies.

  13. Population-based evaluation of the 'LiveLighter' healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Morley, B; Niven, P; Dixon, H; Swanson, M; Szybiak, M; Shilton, T; Pratt, I S; Slevin, T; Hill, D; Wakefield, M

    2016-04-01

    The Western Australian (WA) 'LiveLighter' (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ('why' change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier ('how' to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25-49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N= 2012) and following the two media waves (N= 2005 and N= 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The 'why' message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than 'how' messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P < 0.05) and physical activity intentions (P < 0.05). Endorsement of stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour.

  14. Assessment of a media campaign and related crisis help line following Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of a media campaign targeting stress and depression following Hurricane Katrina. We specifically examined public response to the campaign's recommendation that people could contact a telephone help line for further assistance if needed. Call data from Via Link allowed us to track trends in 800-number Crisis Line call volume (n = 29,659), which is the number recommended in the media campaign, and 2-1-1 Information and Referral Line call volume (n = 8,035), which is employed in a control-like manner. With data from April 1, 2006, through November 30, 2006, multivariate analysis was used to assess trends and differences among and within pre-intervention, intervention, and post-intervention. Information and Referral Line call volume, which was unrelated to the campaign, did not change over time. In contrast, Crisis Line call volume, which was related to the campaign, increased significantly from pre-intervention to intervention, but not from intervention to post-intervention. Furthermore, the daily rate of Crisis Line call volume was constant during pre-intervention, increased during intervention, but decreased during post-intervention. There is support for the media campaign's influence on public behavior to contact Via Link in regard to stress and depression following Hurricane Katrina. Analysis helps undermine alternative explanations, including general trends in help line call volume and those specific to Crisis Line call volume.

  15. Promoting healthy eating and physical activity short-term effects of a mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Fernandez, Carolyn; Wall, Jerry L; Farley, Thomas A

    2007-03-01

    Soaring obesity levels present a severe health risk in the United States, especially in low-income minority populations. High-frequency paid television and radio advertising, as well as bus and streetcar signage. A mass media campaign in New Orleans to promote walking and fruit and vegetable consumption in a low-income, predominantly African-American urban population. Messages tailored with consideration of the African-American majority. Random-digit-dial telephone surveys using cross-sectional representative samples at baseline in 2004 and following the onset of the campaign in 2005. Survey items on campaign message recall; attitudes toward walking, snack food avoidance, and fruit and vegetable consumption; and behaviors related to fruit and vegetable consumption, snack food consumption, and utilitarian and leisure walking. From baseline, there were significant increases in message recall measures, positive attitudes toward fruit and vegetable consumption, and positive attitudes toward walking. Behaviors did not change significantly. In 2005, message recall measures were associated with positive levels of each of the outcome variables. Over 5 months, the media campaign appeared to have stimulated improvements in attitudes toward healthy diet and walking behaviors addressed by the campaign. These findings encourage the continuation of the media campaign, with future evaluation to consider whether the behavioral measures change.

  16. Using a Media Campaign to Increase Engagement With a Mobile-Based Youth Smoking Cessation Program.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Amy; Robinson, Cendrine; Taylor, Shani C; Post, Samantha D; Goldfarb, Jeffrey; Shi, Rui; Hunt, Yvonne M; Augustson, Erik M

    2017-01-01

    To describe the impact of the National Cancer Institute's promotion of its youth smoking cessation program, Smokefree Teen (SFT). We provide a description of campaign strategies and outcomes as a means to engage a teen audience in cessation resources using a cost-effective approach. The campaign occurred nationally, using traditional (TV and radio), online, and social media outreach. Ads targeted adolescent smokers (aged 14-17). The baseline population was 42 586 and increased to 464 357 during the campaign. Metrics used to assess outcomes include (1) visits to SFT website from traditional and online ads, (2) cost to get an online ad clicked (cost-per-click), and (3) SmokefreeTXT program enrollments during the 8-week campaign period. We conducted a quantitative performance review of all tactics. The SFT campaign achieved an online ad click-through rate of 0.33%, exceeding industry averages of 0.15%. Overall, web traffic to teen.smokefree.gov increased by 980%, and the online cost-per-click for ads, including social media actions, was approximately $1 as compared with $107 for traditional ads. Additionally, the campaign increased the SmokefreeTXT program teen sign-ups by 1334%. The campaign increased engagement with evidence-informed cessation resources for teen smokers. Results show the potential of using multiple, online channels to help increase engagement with core resources.

  17. Exposure to MTV's global HIV prevention campaign in Kathmandu, Nepal; São Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily

    2007-02-01

    In 2002 MTV aired a global media campaign, "Staying Alive," to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds. Skeptics believed that a global MTV campaign would reach only a small group of elite young people. MTV increased access to its campaign, however, by making all materials "rights free" to third-party (non-MTV) broadcasters. Over 789 million households in over 166 countries had access to some or all of the campaign. To understand the level of actual exposure and the types of young people exposed, data were analyzed from population-based household surveys in three diverse urban areas where a campaign evaluation was conducted: Kathmandu, Nepal; São Paulo, Brazil and Dakar, Senegal. Exposure rates ranged from 12% in Kathmandu, 23% in São Paulo, and 82% in Dakar, reaching an estimated 32,000, 400,000, 220,000 16- to 25-year-olds in each city, respectively. A number of personal, social and economic characteristics found to predict campaign exposure were identified in each site; in general, these were related to economic status and use of "new" media technologies. Though this skew toward more exposure by those with greater resources existed, we found that the campaign audience was in no way composed only of "elite" young people. (For example, although more of those exposed to the campaign had used the Internet compared with those not exposed, this was not the majority of those exposed in most countries.) The possibility of reaching millions of young people through global networks with minimal marginal costs after production, creates a new paradigm for reaching an important segment of young people.

  18. Formative research to develop theory-based messages for a Western Australian child drowning prevention television campaign: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Denehy, Mel; Crawford, Gemma; Leavy, Justine; Nimmo, Lauren; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory will be used to explore participants' perspectives regarding proposed mass media messaging. This paper describes a qualitative protocol to undertake formative research to develop theory-based messages for a child drowning prevention campaign. Methods and analysis The primary data source will be focus group interviews with parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age in metropolitan and regional Western Australia. Qualitative content analysis will be used to analyse the data. Ethics and dissemination This study will contribute to the drowning prevention literature to inform the development of future child drowning prevention mass media campaigns. Findings from the study will be disseminated to practitioners, policymakers and researchers via international conferences, peer and non-peer-reviewed journals and evidence summaries. The study was submitted and approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. PMID:27207621

  19. Formative research to develop theory-based messages for a Western Australian child drowning prevention television campaign: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Denehy, Mel; Crawford, Gemma; Leavy, Justine; Nimmo, Lauren; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-05-20

    Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory will be used to explore participants' perspectives regarding proposed mass media messaging. This paper describes a qualitative protocol to undertake formative research to develop theory-based messages for a child drowning prevention campaign. The primary data source will be focus group interviews with parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age in metropolitan and regional Western Australia. Qualitative content analysis will be used to analyse the data. This study will contribute to the drowning prevention literature to inform the development of future child drowning prevention mass media campaigns. Findings from the study will be disseminated to practitioners, policymakers and researchers via international conferences, peer and non-peer-reviewed journals and evidence summaries. The study was submitted and approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. The case for recycling and adapting anti-tobacco mass media campaigns.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Trish; Perez, Donna; Dunlop, Sally; Hung, Wai Tak; Dessaix, Anita; Bishop, James F

    2010-12-01

    Effective mass media campaigns are hard to come by. A delicate blend of art and science is required to ensure content is technically accurate as well as being creatively engaging for the target audience. However, the most expensive component of a media campaign is not its development but its placement at levels that allow smokers to see, engage and respond to its content. This paper uses two examples to illustrate the process of adapting existing effective material to maximise the expenditure of precious resources on the placement of material.

  1. The Highway Safety Mass Media Youth Project: A Media Campaign Aimed at Drunk Driving and Seat Belt Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Betsy J.; And Others

    To address the issues of drunk driving and failure to use car restraints among teens and young adults, a 21-month-long media campaign has been developed especially for the 15- to 24-year-old audience to compare the effectiveness of paid advertisements and public service announcements. A formative research approach to message design will be used to…

  2. The Highway Safety Mass Media Youth Project: A Media Campaign Aimed at Drunk Driving and Seat Belt Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Betsy J.; And Others

    To address the issues of drunk driving and failure to use car restraints among teens and young adults, a 21-month-long media campaign has been developed especially for the 15- to 24-year-old audience to compare the effectiveness of paid advertisements and public service announcements. A formative research approach to message design will be used to…

  3. Effectiveness of social norms media marketing in reducing drinking and driving: A statewide campaign.

    PubMed

    Perkins, H Wesley; Linkenbach, Jeffrey W; Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton

    2010-10-01

    This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region. Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of social norms media marketing in reducing drinking and driving: A statewide campaign

    PubMed Central

    Linkenbach, Jeffrey W.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region. Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health. PMID:20619177

  5. Accounting for Sitting and Moving: An Analysis of Sedentary Behavior in Mass Media Campaigns.

    PubMed

    Knox, Emily; Biddle, Stuart; Esliger, Dale W; Piggin, Joe; Sherar, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Mass media campaigns are an important tool for promoting health-related physical activity. The relevance of sedentary behavior to public health has propelled it to feature prominently in health campaigns across the world. This study explored the use of messages regarding sedentary behavior in health campaigns within the context of current debates surrounding the association between sedentary behavior and health, and messaging strategies to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A web-based search of major campaigns in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and Australia was performed to identify the main campaign from each country. A directed content analysis was then conducted to analyze the inclusion of messages regarding sedentary behavior in health campaigns and to elucidate key themes. Important areas for future research were illustrated. Four key themes from the campaigns emerged: clinging to sedentary behavior guidelines, advocating reducing sedentary behavior as a first step on the activity continuum and the importance of light activity, confusing the promotion of MVPA, and the demonization of sedentary behavior. Strategies for managing sedentary behavior as an additional complicating factor in health promotion are urgently required. Lessons learned from previous health communication campaigns should stimulate research to inform future messaging strategies.

  6. Effectiveness of a mass media campaign in promoting HIV testing information seeking among African American women.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kevin C; Uhrig, Jennifer; Rupert, Douglas; Fraze, Jami; Goetz, Joshua; Slater, Michael

    2011-10-01

    "Take Charge. Take the Test." (TCTT), a media campaign promoting HIV testing among African American women, was piloted in Cleveland and Philadelphia from October 2006 to October 2007. This study assesses TCTT's effectiveness in promoting HIV testing information seeking among target audiences in each pilot city. The authors analyzed data on telephone hotlines promoted by the campaign and the www.hivtest.org Web site to examine trends in hotline calls and testing location searches before, during, and after the campaign. Cleveland hotline data were available from October 1, 2005, through February 28, 2008, for a total of 29 months (N = 126 weeks). Philadelphia hotline data were available from May 1, 2006, through February 28, 2008, for a total of 22 months (N = 96 weeks). The authors assessed the relation between market-level measures of the campaign's advertising activities and trends in hotline call volume and testing location searches. They found a significant relation between measures of TCTT advertising and hotline calls. Specifically, they found that increases in advertising gross ratings points were associated with increases in call volume, controlling for caller demographics and geographic location. The campaign had similar effects on HIV testing location searches. Overall, it appears the campaign generated significant increases in HIV information seeking. Results are consistent with other studies that have evaluated the effects of media campaigns on similar forms of information seeking. This study illustrates useful methods for evaluating campaign effects on information seeking with data on media implementation, hotline calls, and zip code-based searches for testing locations.

  7. Analysis of a parent-initiated social media campaign for Hirschsprung's disease.

    PubMed

    Wittmeier, Kristy; Holland, Cindy; Hobbs-Murison, Kendall; Crawford, Elizabeth; Beauchamp, Chad; Milne, Brodie; Morris, Melanie; Keijzer, Richard

    2014-12-11

    Social media can be particularly useful for patients or families affected by rare conditions by allowing individuals to form online communities across the world. Our aim in this study was to conduct a descriptive and quantitative analysis of the use of a social media community for Hirschsprung's Disease (HD). In July 2011, a mother of a child with HD launched the "Shit Happens" campaign. The campaign uses social media (blogs, Twitter, and Facebook) to engage other families affected by HD. Internet analytics including Google Analytics and Facebook Insights were used to evaluate the reach and responsiveness of this campaign. On the day the HD campaign was launched, 387 people viewed the blog "Roo's Journey". Blog views have now exceeded 5400 views from 37 countries. The Facebook page extends to 46 countries, has an average post reach of 298 users, 1414 "likes", and an overall reach of 131,032 users. The campaign has 135 Twitter followers and 344 tweets at the time of writing. The most common question posted on the Facebook page is related to treatment for extreme diaper rash. Responsiveness assessment demonstrated that within 2 hours of posting, a question could receive 143 views and 20 responses, increasing to 30 responses after 5 hours. Social media networks are well suited to discussion, support, and advocacy for health-related conditions and can be especially important in connecting families affected by rare conditions. The HD campaign demonstrates the reach and responsiveness of a community that primarily relies on social media to connect families affected by HD. Although responsive, this community is currently lacking consistent access to evidence-based guidance for their common concerns. We will explore innovative consumer-researcher partnerships to offer a solution in future research.

  8. Analysis of a Parent-Initiated Social Media Campaign for Hirschsprung’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wittmeier, Kristy; Holland, Cindy; Hobbs-Murison, Kendall; Crawford, Elizabeth; Beauchamp, Chad; Milne, Brodie; Morris, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media can be particularly useful for patients or families affected by rare conditions by allowing individuals to form online communities across the world. Objective Our aim in this study was to conduct a descriptive and quantitative analysis of the use of a social media community for Hirschsprung’s Disease (HD). Methods In July 2011, a mother of a child with HD launched the “Shit Happens” campaign. The campaign uses social media (blogs, Twitter, and Facebook) to engage other families affected by HD. Internet analytics including Google Analytics and Facebook Insights were used to evaluate the reach and responsiveness of this campaign. Results On the day the HD campaign was launched, 387 people viewed the blog “Roo’s Journey”. Blog views have now exceeded 5400 views from 37 countries. The Facebook page extends to 46 countries, has an average post reach of 298 users, 1414 “likes”, and an overall reach of 131,032 users. The campaign has 135 Twitter followers and 344 tweets at the time of writing. The most common question posted on the Facebook page is related to treatment for extreme diaper rash. Responsiveness assessment demonstrated that within 2 hours of posting, a question could receive 143 views and 20 responses, increasing to 30 responses after 5 hours. Conclusions Social media networks are well suited to discussion, support, and advocacy for health-related conditions and can be especially important in connecting families affected by rare conditions. The HD campaign demonstrates the reach and responsiveness of a community that primarily relies on social media to connect families affected by HD. Although responsive, this community is currently lacking consistent access to evidence-based guidance for their common concerns. We will explore innovative consumer-researcher partnerships to offer a solution in future research. PMID:25499427

  9. Participatory and Social Media to Engage Youth: From the Obama Campaign to Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Jordi; Wennerstrom, Ashley; Springgate, Benjamin F.

    2013-01-01

    Barack Obama’s successful campaign for the presidency has been widely attributed to the use of social networking sites, mobile devices, and interactive websites to engage previously hard-to-reach populations in political activity. Campaign communication strategies may be applicable for youth health promotion efforts, particularly for the highly stigmatized issue of mental health. In this article, we examine elements of the 2008 Obama presidential campaign’s use of social media technologies and content designed to foster effective political participation among youth. We outline how the same social media technologies may be applied to public health efforts focused on reaching and providing services to the 20% of young people who have a diagnosable mental disorder. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the application of these media to date, and raise questions about the future use of these media for engaging hard-to-reach populations in addressing stigmatized public health issues. PMID:22352086

  10. The impact of a mass media campaign on personal risk perception, perceived self-efficacy and on other behavioural predictors.

    PubMed

    Agha, S

    2003-12-01

    To determine whether an AIDS prevention mass media campaign influenced risk perception, self-efficacy and other behavioural predictors. We used household survey data collected from 2,213 sexually experienced male and female Kenyans aged 15-39. Respondents were administered a questionnaire asking them about their exposure to branded and generic mass media messages concerning HIV/AIDS and condom use. They were asked questions concerning their personal risk perception, self-efficacy, condom effectiveness, condom availability, and their embarrassment in obtaining condoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the impact of exposure to mass media messages on these predictors of behaviour change. Those exposed to branded advertising messages were significantly more likely to consider themselves at higher risk of acquiring HIV and to believe in the severity of AIDS. Exposure to branded messages was also associated with a higher level of personal self-efficacy, a greater belief in the efficacy of condoms, a lower level of perceived difficulty in obtaining condoms and reduced embarrassment in purchasing condoms. Moreover, there was a dose-response relationship: a higher intensity of exposure to advertising was associated with more positive outcomes. Exposure to generic advertising messages was less frequently associated with positive health beliefs and these relationships were also weaker. Branded mass media campaigns that promote condom use as an attractive lifestyle choice are likely to contribute to the development of perceptions that are conducive to the adoption of condom use.

  11. Local news media framing of obesity in the context of a sugar-sweetened beverage reduction media campaign.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Michelle; Gilmore, Joelle Sano; Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This study examined local news media's framing of obesity preceding and surrounding the Philadelphia sugar-sweetened beverage reduction media campaign. Using key search terms pertaining to obesity and sugary beverages, the authors searched the LexisNexis database and gathered local news stories (n = 167) that were aired or published between October, 2010 and March, 2011. They conducted a content analysis, coding for framing-related outcome measures (underlying factors, action steps, and contextual agents). Overall, the news media employed individual-level framing in the majority of stories when discussing obesity, both before and after the campaign launch. After the campaign launched, however, stories were significantly more likely to mention systemic-level contextual agents such as food companies (P = .008), beverage companies (P = .03), and champions or advocates (P = .001). The researchers observed a shift in the local news media discourse toward more thematic framing of obesity, and suggest that public health officials consider the potential impact of news media frames on garnering public support for future policy implementations. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thinking about "Think Again" in Canada: assessing a social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Anthony P; Léger, Yves A

    2007-06-01

    The Canadian "Think Again" social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign, adapted from an American effort, encourages gay men to rethink their assumptions about their partners' HIV statuses and the risks of unsafe sex with them. To improve future efforts, existing HIV/AIDS prevention initiatives require critical reflection. While a formal evaluation of this campaign has been carried out elsewhere, here we use the campaign as a social marketing case study to illustrate its strengths and weaknesses, as a learning tool for other campaigns. After describing the campaign and its key results, we assess how it utilized central tenets of the social marketing process, such as formative research and the marketing mix. We then speak to the importance of theoretical influence in campaign design and the need to account for social-contextual factors in safer sex decision making. We conclude with a summary of the lessons learned from the assessment of this campaign.

  13. Media Agenda-Setting in a State Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Leonard; And Others

    A focal point of recent mass communication research has been the influence on public accessibility to political information, the "agenda setting" function of the media. This function was tested during the Kentucky gubernatorial election and the Lexington, Kentucky, mayoral election in November 1971. The specific hypothesis postulated…

  14. Feasibility and Efficacy of a Urologic Profession Campaign on Cryptorchidism Using Internet and Social Media.

    PubMed

    Borgmann, Hendrik; Kliesch, Sabine; Roth, Stephan; Roth, Mael; Degener, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    We performed a professional campaign in Germany intending to establish the urologic profession as a competent and helpful point of contact for patients with cryptorchidism. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of this campaign and to quantify the efficacy of using Internet vs. social media. The strategic design of the campaign comprised a strategy meeting, creation of a landing page, and targeted advertisements on Google in the form of Adwords and on Facebook in the form of sidebar ads and sponsored posts. Outcome measurements were number of impressions, homepage sessions, and downloads of an information brochure. The campaign generated 2,511,923 impressions, 7,369 homepage sessions and 1,086 downloads of information brochures using a total investment budget of 7,500€. Use of Google Adwords was more efficient on outcome measurements than Facebook. A subanalysis of Facebook advertisements showed that sidebar ads and sponsored posts were equally efficient. New media are an effective platform for a profession campaign. Google Adwords is a more effective and cost-efficient platform than Facebook for a targeted campaign. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Developing antitobacco mass media campaign messages in a low-resource setting: experience from the Kingdom of Tonga.

    PubMed

    Sugden, C; Phongsavan, P; Gloede, S; Filiai, S; Tongamana, V O

    2016-03-11

    Tobacco use has become the leading cause of preventable death in Tonga, a small island nation in the South Pacific. One pragmatic and economical strategy to address this worrying trend is to adapt effective antitobacco mass media materials developed in high-income countries for local audiences. Using Tonga as an example, this paper shares the practical steps involved in adapting antitobacco campaign materials for local audiences with minimal resources, a limited budget and without the need for an external production team. The Tongan experience underscores the importance of an adaptation process that draws from evidence-based best-practice models and engages local and regional stakeholders to ensure that campaign materials are tailored to the local context and are embedded within a mix of antitobacco strategies.

  16. Developing antitobacco mass media campaign messages in a low-resource setting: experience from the Kingdom of Tonga

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, C; Phongsavan, P; Gloede, S; Filiai, S; Tongamana, V O

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use has become the leading cause of preventable death in Tonga, a small island nation in the South Pacific. One pragmatic and economical strategy to address this worrying trend is to adapt effective antitobacco mass media materials developed in high-income countries for local audiences. Using Tonga as an example, this paper shares the practical steps involved in adapting antitobacco campaign materials for local audiences with minimal resources, a limited budget and without the need for an external production team. The Tongan experience underscores the importance of an adaptation process that draws from evidence-based best-practice models and engages local and regional stakeholders to ensure that campaign materials are tailored to the local context and are embedded within a mix of antitobacco strategies. PMID:26969171

  17. Mass Media Campaigns in a Hostile Environment: Advertising as Anti-Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallack, Lawrence M.

    1983-01-01

    Charges that mass media campaigns have not been effective in dealing with such public health problems as drinking, smoking, and drugs. Reasons for this lack of effectiveness are discussed in terms of a hostile environment of antihealth advertising. Three conditions for success (monopolization, canalization, and supplementation) are discussed. (JAC)

  18. Public Reactions to Celebrity Cancer Disclosures via Social Media: Implications for Campaign Message Design and Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavelko, Rachelle L.; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Verghese, Roshni S.; Hester, Joe Bob

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse social media users' reactions to a celebrity's cancer announcement in order to inform future cancer-related campaigns. Design: A content analysis of Facebook users' written responses to the actor Hugh Jackman's 2013 post announcing his skin cancer diagnosis. Setting: Facebook's application…

  19. Happy trails: the effect of a media campaign on urban trail use in southern Nevada.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sheila; Bungum, Tim J; Meacham, Mindy; Coker, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Many Americans do not meet recommendations for physical activity (PA). Communities are building trail networks to encourage PA, but the relationship between trails and PA is not well understood. We monitored usage of urban trails (N = 10) in Las Vegas, NV, before and after a promotional marketing campaign (October 2011 and April 2012). The media campaign featured print, online, and radio ads, as well as billboards and signage on gas pumps. Data were collected with infrared monitors that were placed on the trails for periods of 7 days. We compared preintervention and postintervention usage rates. Mean usage increased (P < .001) from 3.91 to 5.95 users per hour (52.17%) after the promotional campaign. We observed significant increases at 7 individual trails, significant declines at 2 trails, and no change at 1 trail. Promotional campaigns may be an effective way to increase trail usage and encourage PA.

  20. Promoting youth health by social empowerment: a media campaign targeting social capital.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Thorson, Esther; Hong, Traci

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a public health campaign that aims to promote social ties and social trust as a means to improve the health of youths. Analyses on data from telephone survey interviews at baseline, Year 1, and Year 2 consider the trends and predictor patterns of 2 traditional social capital measures-civic perceptions and civic participation. Civic perceptions increased over the course of the focal media campaign, whereas civic participation remained constant. Civic participation was positively associated with TV and newspaper campaign recall at Year 1, whereas both civic participation and civic perceptions were positively associated with TV and newspaper campaign recall at Year 2. In addition, newspaper and TV news use play positive roles in predicting the 2 social capital measures at Year 1 and Year 2. The findings are discussed in terms of literature in the areas of public health and mass communication.

  1. A community-wide media campaign to promote walking in a Missouri town.

    PubMed

    Wray, Ricardo J; Jupka, Keri; Ludwig-Bell, Cathy

    2005-10-01

    Engaging in moderate physical activity for 30 minutes five or more times per week substantially reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, colon cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity, and walking is an easy and accessible way to achieve this goal. A theory-based mass media campaign promoted walking and local community-sponsored wellness initiatives through four types of media (billboard, newspaper, radio, and poster advertisements) in St Joseph, Mo, over 5 months during the summer of 2003. The Walk Missouri campaign was conducted in four phases: 1) formative research, 2) program design and pretesting, 3) implementation, and 4) impact assessment. Using a postcampaign-only, cross-sectional design, a telephone survey (N = 297) was conducted in St Joseph to assess campaign impact. Study outcomes were pro-walking beliefs and behaviors. One in three survey respondents reported seeing or hearing campaign messages on one or more types of media. Reported exposure to the campaign was significantly associated with two of four pro-walking belief scales (social and pleasure benefits) and with one of three community-sponsored activities (participation in a community-sponsored walk) controlling for demographic, health status, and environmental factors. Exposure was also significantly associated with one of three general walking behaviors (number of days per week walking) when controlling for age and health status but not when beliefs were introduced into the model, consistent with an a priori theoretical mechanism: the mediating effect of pro-walking beliefs on the exposure-walking association. These results suggest that a media campaign can enhance the success of community-based efforts to promote pro-walking beliefs and behaviors.

  2. Mass Media, Youth, and the Prevention of Substance Abuse: Towards an Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallack, Lawrence

    1985-01-01

    Presents a series of principles which foster an integrated approach to prevention, and places the role of mass communications in that framework. Television programming, advertising, and mass media campaigns can all be used in an effort to change the message environment in which individuals behave. (Author)

  3. Impact of a U.S. antismoking national media campaign on beliefs, cognitions and quit intentions

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Jennifer C.; Davis, Kevin C.; Alexander, Robert L.; MacMonegle, Anna J.; Fraze, Jami L.; Rodes, Robert M.; Beistle, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched a national tobacco education campaign, Tips From Former Smokers, that consisted of graphic, emotionally evocative, testimonial-style advertisements. This longitudinal study examines changes in beliefs, tobacco-related cognitions and intentions to quit smoking among U.S. adult smokers after a 12-week airing of the campaign (n=4040 adult smokers pre- and post-campaign). Exposure to the campaign was associated with greater odds of intending to quit within the next 30 days [odds ratio (OR)=1.28, P < 0.01] and within the next 6 months (OR=1.12, P < 0.05), and quit intentions were stronger among respondents with greater campaign exposure (OR=1.12, P < 0.01). Campaign exposure was also associated with significant changes in beliefs about smoking-related risks (ORs=1.15–2.40) and increased worries about health (b=0.30, P < 0.001). Based on study change rates applied to U.S. census data, an estimated 566 000 additional U.S. smokers reported their intention to quit smoking within the next 6 months as a result of viewing campaign advertisements. Campaign effects were consistent with the theory of reasoned action and an expanding body of research demonstrating that graphic, emotional advertisements are highly effective for prompting positive cessation-related cognitions and behavioral intentions. PMID:25976009

  4. Impact of a U.S. antismoking national media campaign on beliefs, cognitions and quit intentions.

    PubMed

    Duke, Jennifer C; Davis, Kevin C; Alexander, Robert L; MacMonegle, Anna J; Fraze, Jami L; Rodes, Robert M; Beistle, Diane M

    2015-06-01

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched a national tobacco education campaign, Tips From Former Smokers, that consisted of graphic, emotionally evocative, testimonial-style advertisements. This longitudinal study examines changes in beliefs, tobacco-related cognitions and intentions to quit smoking among U.S. adult smokers after a 12-week airing of the campaign (n = 4040 adult smokers pre- and post-campaign). Exposure to the campaign was associated with greater odds of intending to quit within the next 30 days [odds ratio (OR) = 1.28, P < 0.01] and within the next 6 months (OR = 1.12, P < 0.05), and quit intentions were stronger among respondents with greater campaign exposure (OR = 1.12, P < 0.01). Campaign exposure was also associated with significant changes in beliefs about smoking-related risks (ORs = 1.15-2.40) and increased worries about health (b = 0.30, P < 0.001). Based on study change rates applied to U.S. census data, an estimated 566 000 additional U.S. smokers reported their intention to quit smoking within the next 6 months as a result of viewing campaign advertisements. Campaign effects were consistent with the theory of reasoned action and an expanding body of research demonstrating that graphic, emotional advertisements are highly effective for prompting positive cessation-related cognitions and behavioral intentions.

  5. Prevention is still the best medicine. Condom social marketing campaign changes attitudes and actions in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Hess, L L

    1993-09-01

    In Guinea, jingles promoting Prudence condoms are heard on radio and television in 4 different national languages 5 times a day. This has produced an attitudinal change through an intense national media campaign orchestrated by the USAID-financed Social Marketing of Contraceptives Project carried out by Population Services International (PSI), which provides family planning information, products and services through public and private outlets for 500,000 sexually active couples. PSI's paid media campaign has sponsored call-in talk shows on women and AIDS and religion and AIDS at the rural radio station in Labe. Billboards placed in key locations remind people that using condoms helps prevent AIDS. PSI organized a team of 10 Prudence condom marketing agents in March 1992 to establish 400 nontraditional retail and 50 traditional retail and wholesale outlets for condoms. Outlets include pharmacies, restaurants, hotels, grocery stores, and nightclubs. The distributors sell the condoms at a profit. In the first 6 months, PSI distributed 2.3 million condoms. Young women want to space their children and limit the number of children, said the chief midwife for the Guinean Association for Family Well Being clinic in Conakry. Guinea's population growth rate is 2.8%, which will result in a doubling of the population in 25 years. In May 1992, Guinea's government ratified a national population policy supporting family planning. One of the primary goals is to increase contraceptive use to 25% of all couples. PSI works with the Ministry of Health and the Guinean Association for Family Well Being to integrate family planning and sexually transmitted disease prevention activities into 32 primary health care centers in Guinea's Forest Region. To combat the spread of HIV infection, PSI provides technical assistance to the National AIDS Committee to carry out AIDS information activities throughout the country, targeting the military, police, truck drivers, and students.

  6. Can mass media campaigns change antimicrobial prescribing? A regional evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Lambert, M F; Masters, G A; Brent, S L

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance is a significant cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality. Inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials is acknowledged as a key determinant of this phenomenon. Many approaches are advocated for reducing this inappropriate prescribing, including regulatory, professional and educational interventions. Mass media campaigns are often suggested as a useful tool in managing public expectations, but the evidence to support this is weak, as no controlled studies of such campaigns exist. Evaluating such campaigns is problematic, and uncontrolled observations are misleading. We report here the first controlled study of such an intervention in the use of antimicrobials. Two sequential mass media campaigns, providing information on the appropriate use of antimicrobials, were conducted during early 2004 and 2005 in the North East of England. These messages were articulated in the campaign by the cartoon character 'Moxy Malone'. The campaigns were supported by printed materials, and in parts of this area, with professional education and prescribing support. A retrospective controlled before-after study was conducted, examining the effects on observed prescribing of antimicrobials for the populations covered by these two cycles of mass media campaigns. These populations were controlled with matched populations in the North of England. The primary outcome examined was prescribing rates (items) for all microbial agents for these populations, corrected for population structure (STAR-PU). A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyse factors that had a possible effect on the prescribing of antibacterial drugs. This was supported by a survey of primary care organizations (PCOs) of all interventions undertaken around antimicrobial use in the intervention and comparison populations. In this retrospective study, there was incomplete reporting of adjuvant interventions undertaken by the PCOs intervention and comparison areas, so

  7. Choking prevention: shortcomings of traditional public education campaigns, prompting the development of web-based interactive teaching tools for preteens, teenagers, and adults.

    PubMed

    Thamboo, Andrew; Nguyen, Tram; Ludemann, Jeffrey P

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the BC Children's Hospital (BCCH) Safe Start Choking Prevention campaign, which began in 2002 and used newspaper, magazine, radio, and television interviews of parents, injury prevention experts, and physicians to educate the public about choking risks, prevention, and treatment (CRPT); to compare our campaign with other campaigns; and to determine if a new strategy is needed to educate the public about CRPT. A retrospective analysis of the number of cases of laryngeal, bronchial, and esophageal foreign bodies (LBEFBs) that required rigid endoscopy under general anesthesia at BCCH and/or admission to BCCH was conducted. Data from January 1997 to December 2002 to January 2003 to December 2006 were compared. The world literature on choking prevention and analysis of barriers to CRPT public education was reviewed. The data demonstrate the ineffectiveness of our traditional media campaign. The number of total operating room visits at BCCH for LBEFBs increased marginally after our choking prevention campaign began. Published reports from Israel and Crete indicate that educational campaigns that included direct teaching of CRPT by otolaryngologists and other health educators to parents and their children are effective; however, such campaigns would be difficult to replicate within larger populations. A new strategy for CPRT public education is required. We are creating an animated video and a comprehensive, interactive website to teach CRPT to preteens, teenagers, and adults (with prospective validation of knowledge transfer and long-term outcome measurement).

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of an Australian obesity mass-media campaign: how did the 'Measure-Up' campaign measure up in New South Wales?

    PubMed

    King, E L; Grunseit, A C; O'Hara, B J; Bauman, A E

    2013-12-01

    In 2008, the Australian Government launched a mass-media campaign 'Measure-Up' to reduce lifestyle-related chronic disease risk. Innovative campaign messages linked waist circumference and chronic disease risk. Communication channels for the campaign included television, press, radio and outdoor advertising and local community activities. This analysis examines the impact of the campaign in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional telephone surveys (n = 1006 adults pre- and post-campaign) covered self-reported diet and physical activity, campaign awareness, knowledge about waist circumference, personal relevance of the message, perceived confidence to make lifestyle changes and waist-measuring behaviours. The campaign achieved high unprompted (38%) and prompted (89%) awareness. From pre- to post-campaign, knowledge and personal relevance of the link between waist circumference and chronic disease and waist measuring behaviour increased, although there were no significant changes in reported fruit and vegetable intake nor in physical activity. Knowledge of the correct waist measurement threshold for chronic disease risk increased over 5-fold, adjusted for demographic characteristics. 'Measure-Up' was successful at communicating the new campaign messages. Continued long-term investment in campaigns such as 'Measure-Up', supplemented with community-based health promotion, may contribute to population risk factor understanding and behaviour change to reduce chronic disease.

  9. The social image of drinking - mass media campaigns may inadvertently increase binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Kohlmann, Karoline; Monter, Anne; Ameis, Nina

    2016-11-23

    Mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are rarely tested for their usefulness in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. Existing campaigns that appeal to responsible drinking while simultaneously displaying young people in social drinking situations may even have paradoxical effects. To examine such possible effects, we drew on a real-world media campaign, which we systematically modified on the basis of recent prototype research. We pilot tested questionnaires (using n = 41 participants), developed two different sets of posters in the style of an existing campaign (n = 39) and investigated their effectiveness (n = 102). In the main study, young men were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: sociable or unsociable binge drinker prototype condition or a control group. Outcome variables were intention, behavioural willingness, attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, prototype evaluation and prototype similarity with respect to binge drinking. Binge drinking as a habit was included to control for the fact that habitual drinking in social situations is hard to overcome and poses a particular challenge to interventions. The manipulation check showed that the experimental variation (sociable vs. unsociable drinker prototype condition) was successful. Results of the main study showed that the sociable drinker prototype condition resulted in a higher willingness and - for those with less of a habit - a higher intention to binge drink the next weekend. The unsociable drinker prototype condition had no effects. The results imply that the social components of mass media campaigns might inadvertently exacerbate binge drinking in young men. We therefore advocate against campaigns including aspects of alcohol consumption that might be positively associated with drinker prototype perception. Finally, we provide suggestions for future research.

  10. Impact of a social marketing media campaign on public awareness of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Petrella, Robert J; Speechley, Mark; Kleinstiver, Peter W; Ruddy, Terry

    2005-02-01

    Barriers to high blood pressure (BP) awareness and control are exacerbated by poor knowledge of the consequences and uncertainty regarding how to and who should direct care. We developed a social marketing hypertension awareness program to determine baseline awareness, knowledge, and treatment behavior, and then studied the impact of a targeted, media intervention among randomly surveyed adults at risk in a representative urban community compared to a control community immediately and 6 months after the intervention. The program consisted of three random-digit telephone surveys conducted in two mid-sized Ontario cities to determine high BP awareness, knowledge, and treatment behavior. Using baseline knowledge and attitudes toward high BP in both communities, a social marketing awareness strategy and mass media intervention campaign incorporating television, radio, print, direct to patient, and interactive techniques was developed and implemented in the test city only. Both test and control cities were resurveyed immediately after and at 6 months post-media intervention to detect change and decay. A sample of 6873 men and women more than 35 years old who were aware of their high BP demonstrated a high prevalence of high BP in the general population ( approximately 34% in both communities). At baseline this population had poor knowledge of their own BP numbers and poor understanding of the diseases related to high BP. Although few considered high BP a health concern, they had good understanding of lifestyle interventions for high BP prevention and control. The number of the respondents who claimed to have high BP increased immediately after intervention in the test city (38%; P < .02), whereas the number of respondents who were treated and uncontrolled decreased (P < .05) compared to control. There was a significant increase in patients' knowledge of consequences and in their perception that they were most responsible for high BP control in the test city (P < .005

  11. National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... State Data Polling & Survey Data My Sexual Health Birth Control Methods Find a ... for the past ten years by Charity Navigator as a Four Star Charity. Privacy Policy Terms ©2017 The National Campaign ...

  12. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Taguri, Masataka; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs. Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500), conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control) based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status). To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model. Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls) after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, "I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it" suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.23). Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action. This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health communication strategies and further research is needed.

  13. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Taguri, Masataka; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Background The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs. Methods Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500), conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control) based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status). To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model. Results Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls) after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, “I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it” suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02–0.23). Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action. Conclusions This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health

  14. Promoting public awareness of randomised clinical trials using the media: the 'Get Randomised' campaign.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Isla S; Wei, Li; Rutherford, Daniel; Findlay, Evelyn A; Saywood, Wendy; Campbell, Marion K; Macdonald, Thomas M

    2010-02-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT * Recruitment is key to the success of clinical trials. * Many clinical trials fail to achieve adequate recruitment. * Public understanding and engagement in clinical research could be improved. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS * 'Get Randomised' is the first campaign of its kind in the UK. * It is possible to improve public awareness of clinical research using the media. * Further work is needed to determine whether improved public awareness leads to increased participation in clinical research in the future. AIM To increase public awareness and understanding of clinical research in Scotland. METHODS A generic media campaign to raise public awareness of clinical research was launched in 2008. The 'Get Randomised' campaign was a Scotland-wide initiative led by the University of Dundee in collaboration with other Scottish universities. Television, radio and newspaper advertising showed leading clinical researchers, general practitioners and patients informing the public about the importance of randomised clinical trials (RCTs). 'Get Randomised' was the central message and interested individuals were directed to the http://www.getrandomised.org website for more information. To assess the impact of the campaign, cross-sectional surveys were conducted in representative samples of 1040 adults in Scotland prior to campaign launch and again 6 months later. RESULTS There was an improvement in public awareness of clinical trials following the campaign; 56.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 51.8, 61.6] of the sample recalled seeing or hearing advertising about RCTs following the campaign compared with 14.8% (10.8, 18.9) prior to the campaign launch (difference = 41.4%; 95% CI for difference 35.6, 48.3; P < 0.01). Of those who recalled the advertising, 49% felt that the main message was that people should take part more in medical research. However, on whether they would personally take part in a clinical trial if asked, there was little difference

  15. The Mosque Campaign: a cardiovascular prevention program for female Turkish immigrants.

    PubMed

    Bader, Angelika; Musshauser, Doris; Sahin, Filiz; Bezirkan, Hayriye; Hochleitner, Margarethe

    2006-05-01

    The Women's Health Office of the State of Tyrol, Austria, provides cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs for women. However, local Turkish women have not participated in our programs. The aim of the so-called Mosque Campaign was to conduct a Turkish-language, culture-sensitive CVD prevention program tailored to the needs of Turkish women to improve their knowledge of CVD risk factors and to minimize ethnic differences in participation rates for preventive programs. The pilot program was conducted in all 28 mosques in Tyrol during the years 1999/00, 2000/01 and 2001/02. A Turkish educational lecture and the opportunity for a private medical consultation were provided, and 2,446 Turkish women completed a questionnaire on their personal knowledge of CVD. In addition a total of 1,992 blood pressure readings were taken. Most of the women belonged to the first generation of female immigrants and reported not using German-language media. About one-third of the women considered themselves to be obese. More than 13 % had raised systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure. We observed a significant decrease in unawareness of the main CVD risk factors from 1999/00 to 2001/02: unawareness of cholesterol level decreased from 57.4 % to 32.4 % (p < 0.001), of blood pressure from 41.3 % to 29.6 % (p < 0.001) and of blood glucose from 49.7 % to 25.2 % (p < 0.001). Even though Austria provides free access to healthcare services, a large number of Turkish women were not aware of their CVD risk factors. The Mosque Campaign reached female Turkish migrants and was effective in reducing their level of unawareness about CVD. Language-adapted and culture-sensitive programs are necessary to ensure greater equality for ethnic minority groups.

  16. Rethinking anti-smoking media campaigns: two generations of research and issues for the next.

    PubMed

    Logan, R A; Longo, D R

    1999-01-01

    This article provides a variety of alternative theoretical issues and new research directions for smoking media campaign research. The first two generations of smoking media campaign research are reviewed and new ideas about public resistance and resolving complex issues are explored. The authors critique the limits of current campaign theory and their premise that how the public resolves issues such as smoking cessation needs to be seen in a broader context. The consciousness raising, working through, and resolution stages each present a series of different research challenges and issues for investigators. These are: (1) an assessment of the perceived credibility by the target audience toward mass media, news media, health care providers, tobacco firms, area health care agencies, the health care delivery system, and different classes of providers, (2) how smokers and nonsmokers differ on the linkage among biomedical, epidemiological, and toxicological controversies, (3) how smoking issues are managed within arenas, (4) how arenas potentially undermine popular participation in public policy formation, and (5) how in the creation of dialogue there should be dual emphases on the viability of the concept and tactics.

  17. Assessing the relationship between ad volume and awareness of a tobacco education media campaign

    PubMed Central

    Modayil, Mary V; Stevens, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Background The relation between aided ad recall and level of television ad placement in a public health setting is not well established. We examine this association by looking back at 8 years of the California's Tobacco Control Program's (CTCP) media campaign. Methods Starting in July 2001, California's campaign was continuously monitored using five telephone series of surveys and six web-based series of surveys immediately following a media flight. We used population-based statewide surveys to measure aided recall for advertisements that were placed in each of these media flights. Targeted rating points (TRPs) were used to measure ad placement intensity throughout the state. Results Cumulative TRPs exhibited a stronger relation with aided ad recall than flight TRPs or TRP density. This association increased after log-transforming cumulative TRP values. We found that a one-unit increase in log-cumulative TRPs led to a 13.6% increase in aided ad recall using web-based survey data, compared to a 5.3% increase in aided ad recall using telephone survey data. Conclusions In California, the relation between aided ad recall and cumulative TRPs showed a diminishing return after a large volume of ad placements These findings may be useful in planning future ad placement for CTCP's media campaign. PMID:20382649

  18. Transparency and accountability in mass media campaigns about organ donation: a response to Morgan and Feeley.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2013-11-01

    We respond to Morgan and Feeley's critique on our article "Mass Media in Organ Donation: Managing Conflicting Messages and Interests." We noted that Morgan and Feeley agree with the position that the primary aims of media campaigns are: "to educate the general public about organ donation process" and "help individuals make informed decisions" about organ donation. For those reasons, the educational messages in media campaigns should not be restricted to "information from pilot work or focus groups" but should include evidence-based facts resulting from a comprehensive literature research. We consider the controversial aspects about organ donation to be relevant, if not necessary, educational materials that must be disclosed in media campaigns to comply with the legal and moral requirements of informed consent. With that perspective in mind, we address the validity of Morgan and Feeley's claim that media campaigns have no need for informing the public about the controversial nature of death determination in organ donation. Scientific evidence has proven that the criteria for death determination are inconsistent with the Uniform Determination of Death Act and therefore potentially harmful to donors. The decision by campaign designers to use the statutory definition of death without disclosing the current controversies surrounding that definition does not contribute to improved informed decision making. We argue that if Morgan and Feeley accept the important role of media campaigns to enhance informed decision making, then critical controversies should be disclosed. In support of that premise, we will outline: (1) the wide-spread scientific challenges to brain death as a concept of death; (2) the influence of the donor registry and team-huddling on the medical care of potential donors; (3) the use of authorization rather than informed consent for donor registration; (4) the contemporary religious controversy; and (5) the effects of training desk clerks as organ

  19. [Development of an evidence-based media campaign to promote walking among physically inactive women and increased physical activity among adults].

    PubMed

    Escalon, Hélène; Serry, Anne-Juliette; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt; Vuillemin, Anne; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Verlhiac, Jean-Francois; Salanave, Benoît; Simon, Chantal; Tausan, Simona; Dailly, Olivier; Arwidson, Pierre

    2016-06-08

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of developing a multimodal media campaign-based intervention to promote physical activity using theory, evidence and media campaign construction expertise. An evaluation of this media campaign and its various components is the next stage of this work..

  20. The impact of media campaigns on smoking cessation activity: a structural vector autoregression analysis.

    PubMed

    Langley, Tessa E; McNeill, Ann; Lewis, Sarah; Szatkowski, Lisa; Quinn, Casey

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco control media campaigns and pharmaceutical company-funded advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on smoking cessation activity. Multiple time series analysis using structural vector autoregression, January 2002-May 2010. England and Wales. Tobacco control campaign data from the Central Office of Information; commercial NRT campaign data; data on calls to the National Health Service (NHS) stop smoking helpline from the Department of Health; point-of-sale data on over-the-counter (OTC) sales of NRT; and prescribing data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a database of UK primary care records. Monthly calls to the NHS stop smoking helpline and monthly rates of OTC sales and prescribing of NRT. A 1% increase in tobacco control television ratings (TVRs), a standard measure of advertising exposure, was associated with a statistically significant 0.085% increase in calls in the same month (P = 0.007), and no statistically significant effect in subsequent months. Tobacco control TVRs were not associated with OTC NRT sales or prescribed NRT. NRT advertising TVRs had a significant effect on NRT sales which became non-significant in the seasonally adjusted model, and no significant effect on prescribing or calls. Tobacco control campaigns appear to be more effective at triggering quitting behaviour than pharmaceutical company NRT campaigns. Any effect of such campaigns on quitting behaviour seems to be restricted to the month of the campaign, suggesting that such campaigns need to be sustained over time. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Walking campaign: a model for developing participation in physical activity? Experiences from three campaign periods of the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP).

    PubMed

    Bjärås, G; Härberg, L K; Sydhoff, J; Ostenson, C G

    2001-01-01

    The Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP) is implementing a model for community-based intervention of type 2 diabetes in three municipalities, of which one has focused on increasing physical activity among the inhabitants. The purpose was to emphasize the integration of walking into daily routines. The campaign was promoted throughout residential areas, organizations and local media. Leaders for organized walking were recruited as volunteers by advertising in local media. After a short education in leadership, practice, and first aid, the 27 volunteers ran organized walking groups in several residential areas. During three of seven walking campaigns the participants were followed and evaluated. The study showed that those individuals who participated one to three times a week were predominantly married women with a good health and regular physical activity. Nevertheless, more important was that one third of the participants had never been exercising regularly before. Most remarkable was to find the voluntary leaders so easily recruited and their great interest to remain as leaders for walking tours.

  2. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  3. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a statewide media campaign to promote adolescent physical activity.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Michael; Chandlee, Margaret; Abraham, Avron

    2008-10-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis of a statewide social marketing campaign was performed using a statewide surveillance survey distributed to 6th through 12th graders, media production and placement costs, and 2000 census data. Exposure to all three advertisements had the highest impact on both intent and behavior with 65.6% of the respondents considering becoming more active and 58.3% reporting becoming more active. Average cost of the entire campaign was $4.01 per person to see an ad, $7.35 per person to consider being more active, and $8.87 per person to actually become more active, with billboards yielding the most positive cost-effectiveness. Findings highlight market research as an essential part of social marketing campaigns and the importance of using multiple marketing modalities to enhance cost-effectiveness and impact.

  5. Zinc supplements for preventing otitis media.

    PubMed

    Gulani, Anjana; Sachdev, Harshpal S

    2014-06-29

    Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear and is usually caused by infection. It affects people of all ages but is particularly common in young children. Around 164 million people worldwide have long-term hearing loss caused by this condition, 90% of them in low-income countries. As zinc supplements prevent pneumonia in disadvantaged children, we wanted to investigate whether zinc supplements could also prevent otitis media. To evaluate whether zinc supplements prevent otitis media in adults and children of different ages. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to February week 4, 2014) and EMBASE (1974 to March 2014). Randomised, placebo-controlled trials of zinc supplements given at least once a week for at least a month for preventing otitis media. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of the included trials and extracted and analysed data. We summarised results using risk ratios (RRs) or rate ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data. We combined trial results where appropriate. No new trials were identified for inclusion in this update. We identified 12 trials for inclusion, 10 of which contributed outcomes data. There were a total of 6820 participants. In trials of healthy children living in low-income communities, two trials did not demonstrate a significant difference between the zinc-supplemented and placebo groups in the numbers of participants experiencing an episode of definite otitis media during follow-up (3191 participants); another trial showed a significantly lower incidence rate of otitis media in the zinc group (rate ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 0.79, n = 1621). A small trial of 39 infants undergoing treatment for severe malnutrition suggested a benefit of zinc for the mean number of episodes of otitis media (mean difference (MD) -1.12 episodes, 95% CI -2.21 to -0.03). Zinc supplements did not seem to cause any serious adverse

  6. Multivariate causal attribution and cost-effectiveness of a national mass media campaign in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, D Lawrence; Do, Mai Phuong

    2006-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is based on a simple formula. A dollar estimate of the total cost to conduct a program is divided by the number of people estimated to have been affected by it in terms of some intended outcome. The direct, total costs of most communication campaigns are usually available. Estimating the amount of effect that can be attributed to the communication alone, however is problematical in full-coverage, mass media campaigns where the randomized control group design is not feasible. Single-equation, multiple regression analysis controls for confounding variables but does not adequately address the issue of causal attribution. In this article, multivariate causal attribution (MCA) methods are applied to data from a sample survey of 1,516 married women in the Philippines to obtain a valid measure of the number of new adopters of modern contraceptives that can be causally attributed to a national mass media campaign and to calculate its cost-effectiveness. The MCA analysis uses structural equation modeling to test the causal pathways and to test for endogeneity, biprobit analysis to test for direct effects of the campaign and endogeneity, and propensity score matching to create a statistically equivalent, matched control group that approximates the results that would have been obtained from a randomized control group design. The MCA results support the conclusion that the observed, 6.4 percentage point increase in modern contraceptive use can be attributed to the national mass media campaign and to its indirect effects on attitudes toward contraceptives. This net increase represented 348,695 new adopters in the population of married women at a cost of U.S. $1.57 per new adopter.

  7. The Framing of Calvin Klein: A Frame Analysis of Media Discourse about the August 1995 Calvin Klein Jeans Advertising Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Lauren R.

    1998-01-01

    Deconstructs the "kiddie porn" media frame used by the industry and mainstream media to characterize Klein's ad campaign. Extends scholarship on the construction of youth in the media, showing how the kiddie-porn frame produces and reproduces common-sense beliefs about the nature of youth. Suggests a metadiscourse encompassing the…

  8. The Framing of Calvin Klein: A Frame Analysis of Media Discourse about the August 1995 Calvin Klein Jeans Advertising Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Lauren R.

    1998-01-01

    Deconstructs the "kiddie porn" media frame used by the industry and mainstream media to characterize Klein's ad campaign. Extends scholarship on the construction of youth in the media, showing how the kiddie-porn frame produces and reproduces common-sense beliefs about the nature of youth. Suggests a metadiscourse encompassing the…

  9. Promoting responsible drinking? A mass media campaign affects implicit but not explicit alcohol-related cognitions and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Klapproth, Florian; Müller, Barbara C N

    2015-09-01

    Rigorous tests are not usually applied to determine whether mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are useful, that is whether they lead to responsible drinking or not. In two experiments, we investigated the effectiveness of a mass media campaign that runs in Germany since 2009. This campaign used posters, which emphasized negative alcohol-related outcome expectancies and challenged the positive expectancies. Based on models of alcohol use, we investigated the influence of the campaign on alcohol-related outcome expectancies, implicit and explicit attitudes, and drinking intentions. In Experiment 1, we investigated alcohol-related outcome expectancies via ratings and response latencies among 81 young adult light drinkers. Employing an affective priming task, Experiment 2 was designed to assess implicit attitudes before and after mass media campaign exposure among 83 young adult light drinkers. In both experiments, the effects of the posters were investigated before and after poster exposure as well as compared to a control group. Experiment 1 revealed that the campaign affected only the implicit associations of young adult drinkers, whereas explicit outcome expectancies remained unaffected. Experiment 2 showed that implicit attitudes towards alcohol were turned into more negative ones, but explicit attitudes as well as drinking intentions were not influenced. The mass media campaign was deemed effective even though its influence occurred on an implicit level. This research highlights the need for experimental investigations of mass media campaigns. Reasons that the findings were obtained on an implicit but not on an explicit level are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  10. The different psychological profiles of subjects attending melanoma screening campaigns and those delaying diagnosis: an aid for designing preventive campaigns?

    PubMed

    Forghieri, Matilde; Longo, Caterina; Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Rigatelli, Marco; Seidenari, Stefania; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Patient delay in seeking medical attention for melanoma (MM) constitutes one of the main challenges in designing prevention campaigns. No conclusive studies exploring psychological aspects of those patients, using standardized psychometric instruments, are currently available. We hypothesized that the attitude toward illness of subjects attending the melanoma screening day (EMD) would differ from patients diagnosed with MM following the usual clinical pathways. Five psychometric tests, assessing attitude toward illness, were administered both to EMD and MM groups, this latter further divided into two subgroups (good and bad detectors, GD and BD) considering the histo-clinical characteristics of the lesion. The Mann-Whitney U Test and Pearson Chi Square test were used to compare EMD patients with the other groups and to compare psychometric scores between GD and BD. BD and GD groups showed significant differences. Interestingly, the BD group was characterized by higher scores in Temperament and Character Inventory Fearful subscale, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Powerful Others scale and Illness Behaviour Questionnaire General Hypochondriasis, Affective Disturbance and Irritability subscales. BD patients tend to react in a phobic manner to medical recommendations and they appear to favour external and more assertive help, which would suggest choosing a more direct approach in proposing a prevention campaign. Although this is a pilot study and further studies are needed, it gives new insight to build up more effective prevention campaigns for those patients.

  11. Factors behind change in knowledge after a mass media campaign targeting periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, C; Söderfeldt, B; Andersson, P; Halling, A; Renvert, S

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in knowledge before and after a mass media campaign, in relation to social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. The study was based on a questionnaire in a cohort design, sent out to 900 randomly sampled people aged 50-75 in Sweden. The response rate to the questionnaire before and after the campaign was 70% and 65% respectively. Sixty-four percent answered both questionnaires. Two questions addressed knowledge, while 10 questions aimed to measure social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. Data were analysed for bivariate relations as to change in knowledge and social attributes, care system attributes and oral health aspects. Data were also analysed in multiple regression analysis with knowledge before, knowledge after and knowledge differences as dependent variables. The results showed that there were a number of independent variables with influence on the dependent variables. Of the social attributes, secondary education gave almost 10% (P < 0.001) better knowledge both before and after the campaign. Among care system attributes, high care utilization was related to knowledge both before and after the campaign. The most important factors for knowledge about periodontitis were education, care utilization and perceived importance of oral health. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that mass media might increase knowledge about periodontitis as a health promotion strategy.

  12. Efficacy of child abuse and neglect prevention messages in the Florida Winds of Change campaign.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Falconer, Mary Kay; Khan, Munziba; Ferris, Christie

    2012-01-01

    Public awareness campaigns have been included in universal, communitywide, and programmatic approaches aimed at preventing child abuse and neglect. More evaluation of campaign effects is needed to identify their place on the continuum of evidence-based programs. This article reports on an efficacy study of the Florida Winds of Change campaign using a randomized experimental design. Investigators conducted an online survey of a web-based panel of Florida residents with children 18 years of age or younger living in the home. Six outcomes were measured at baseline and a 30-day follow-up. Three outcomes referred to knowledge of child development, child disciplinary techniques, and community resources for parents. Prevention attitudes or beliefs, motivation, and action were also assessed. Respondents were exposed to three public service announcements and a selection of parent resource material. Logistic regression models revealed that exposure to campaign messages was associated with significant increases in all but one of the campaign outcomes.

  13. In-Depth Investigation of Interpersonal Discussions in Response to a Safer Sex Mass Media Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Helme, Donald W.; Noar, Seth M.; Allard, Suzanne; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Palmgreen, Philip; McClanahan, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    We know from theory and limited research that people talk about campaign messages—and that these conversations may play an important role in campaign reach and possibly even efficacy. We know very little, however, about what individuals talk about and with whom they talk. The current study seeks to fill this gap by reporting qualitative and descriptive quantitative data from interviews conducted with 139 young adults about conversations that took place in the context of a large, televised safer sex mass media campaign. Results indicated that public service announcements (PSAs) were often viewed in the company of friends and significant others, and that it was not uncommon for conversations about the PSAs to take place. Three broad categories of conversations that took place involved discussions about PSA realism, the seriousness of the message, and humor. While in some cases conversations seemed to advance the goal of the campaign (e.g., participants discussed sexually transmitted disease [STD] risk and condom use), in other cases they did not (e.g., participants discussed the lack of realism in a particular PSA). Implications for campaign theory, design, and implementation are discussed. PMID:21409674

  14. Impact of a U.S. Antismoking National Media Campaign on Beliefs, Cognitions and Quit Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Jennifer C.; Davis, Kevin C.; Alexander, Robert L.; MacMonegle, Anna J.; Fraze, Jami L.; Rodes, Robert M.; Beistle, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched a national tobacco education campaign, "Tips From Former Smokers," that consisted of graphic, emotionally evocative, testimonial-style advertisements. This longitudinal study examines changes in beliefs, tobacco-related cognitions and intentions to quit smoking among U.S.…

  15. Impact of a U.S. Antismoking National Media Campaign on Beliefs, Cognitions and Quit Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Jennifer C.; Davis, Kevin C.; Alexander, Robert L.; MacMonegle, Anna J.; Fraze, Jami L.; Rodes, Robert M.; Beistle, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched a national tobacco education campaign, "Tips From Former Smokers," that consisted of graphic, emotionally evocative, testimonial-style advertisements. This longitudinal study examines changes in beliefs, tobacco-related cognitions and intentions to quit smoking among U.S.…

  16. Televised obesity-prevention advertising across US media markets: exposure and content, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Kornfield, Rachel; Szczypka, Glen; Powell, Lisa M; Emery, Sherry L

    2015-04-01

    To examine levels of exposure and content characteristics for recent televised obesity-prevention campaigns sponsored by state and community health departments, federal agencies, non-profit organizations and television stations in the USA. Nielsen television ratings for obesity-prevention advertising were collected for the top seventy-five US media markets and were used to calculate household exposure levels for 2010 and 2011. Governmental advertisements were coded for content. United States. Average household exposure to obesity-prevention campaigns was 2·6 advertisements per month. Exposure increased by 31 % between 2010 and 2011, largely driven by increases in federal advertisements. In 2011, the federal government accounted for 62 % of obesity-prevention exposure, non-profit organizations for 9 %, community departments for 8 %, state departments for 3 %, and television station-sponsored public-service announcements for 17 %. The greatest percentage increase between 2010 and 2011 was in community advertising, reflecting efforts funded by the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) programme. Among thirty-four state and community campaigns, the majority advocated both healthy eating and physical activity (53 %). Campaigns typically had positive or neutral emotional valence (94 %). Obesity or overweight was mentioned in 47 % of campaigns, but only 9 % specifically advocated weight loss. Exposure to televised obesity-prevention advertising increased from 2010 to 2011 and was higher than previously found in 1999-2003, apart from in 2003 during the federal VERB campaign. Nevertheless, exposure remains low relative to advertising for unhealthy foods. New federal campaigns have increased exposure to obesity-prevention advertising nationally, while CPPW grants have increased exposure for targeted areas.

  17. Physical activity mass media campaigns and their evaluation: a systematic review of the literature 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Leavy, Justine E; Bull, Fiona C; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-12-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns, 2003-2010. A focus was on reviewing evaluation designs, theory used, formative evaluation, campaign effects and outcomes. Literature was searched resulting in 18 individual adult mass media campaigns, mostly in high-income regions and two in middle-income regions. Designs included: quasi experimental (n = 5); non experimental (n = 12); a mixed methods design (n = 1). One half used formative research. Awareness levels ranged from 17 to 95%. Seven campaigns reported significant increases in physical activity levels. The review found that beyond awareness raising, changes in other outcomes were measured, assessed but reported in varying ways. It highlighted improvements in evaluation, although limited evidence of campaign effects remain. It provides an update on the evaluation methodologies used in the adult literature. We recommend optimal evaluation design should include: (1) formative research to inform theories/frameworks, campaign content and evaluation design; (2) cohort study design with multiple data collection points; (3) sufficient duration; (4) use of validated measures; (5) sufficient evaluation resources.

  18. The 2005 British Columbia Smoking Cessation Mass Media Campaign and short-term changes in smoking.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Lynda

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the 2005 British Columbia Ministry of Health Smoking Cessation Mass Media Campaign on short-term smoking behavior. National cross-sectional data are used with a quasi-experimental approach to test the impact of the campaign. Findings indicate that prevalence and average number of cigarettes smoked per day deviated upward from trend for the rest of Canada (P = .08; P = .01) but not for British Columbia. They also indicate that British Columbia smokers in lower risk groups reduced their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend (-2.23; P = .10), whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did not, and that British Columbia smokers in high-risk groups did not increase their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend, whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did (2.97; P = .01). The overall poorer performance of high-risk groups is attributed to high exposure to cigarette smoking, which reduces a smoker's chances of successful cessation. In particular, high-risk groups are by definition more likely to be exposed to smoking by peers, but are also less likely to work in workplaces with smoking bans, which are shown to have a substantial impact on prevalence. Results suggest that for mass media campaigns to be more effective with high-risk groups, they need to be combined with other incentives, and that more prolonged interventions should be considered.

  19. Antismoking media campaign and smoking cessation outcomes, New York State, 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kevin C; Farrelly, Matthew C; Duke, Jennifer; Kelly, Lisa; Willett, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The New York Tobacco Control Program (NY TCP) is one of the largest state tobacco control programs in the United States. Little research has been published on the effectiveness of its antismoking media campaign. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposure to NY TCP's statewide antismoking media campaign corresponded to smoking outcomes. We used data from the 2003 through 2009 New York Adult Tobacco Survey to evaluate exposure to NY TCP advertising, cessation intentions, quit attempts, and cigarette consumption among New York adult smokers. We also used data from the 2003 through 2009 New York Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the 2003 through 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to examine smoking prevalence among New York adults compared with US adults. From 2003 through 2009, smokers' exposure to NY TCP advertising increased from 6% to 45%, the prevalence of 30-day intentions to quit increased from 26% to 35%, and the prevalence of quit attempts increased from 46% to 62%. Average cigarettes smoked per day decreased from 15 in 2003 to 11 in 2009. The New York BRFSS and NHIS both showed significant downward trends in adult smoking prevalence. The decline during this period was greater in New York (18%) than in the United States as a whole (5%). NY TCP's campaign generated significant increases in exposure to advertising over time that corresponded with changes in key cessation- and smoking-related outcomes. Findings suggest that NY TCP's sustained implementation of evidence-based cessation advertisements contributed to these changes.

  20. Effects of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign on youths.

    PubMed

    Hornik, Robert; Jacobsohn, Lela; Orwin, Robert; Piesse, Andrea; Kalton, Graham

    2008-12-01

    We examined the cognitive and behavioral effects of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign on youths aged 12.5 to 18 years and report core evaluation results. From September 1999 to June 2004, 3 nationally representative cohorts of US youths aged 9 to 18 years were surveyed at home 4 times. Sample size ranged from 8117 in the first to 5126 in the fourth round (65% first-round response rate, with 86%-93% of still eligible youths interviewed subsequently). Main outcomes were self-reported lifetime, past-year, and past-30-day marijuana use and related cognitions. Most analyses showed no effects from the campaign. At one round, however, more ad exposure predicted less intention to avoid marijuana use (gamma = -0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.13, -0.01) and weaker antidrug social norms (gamma = -0.05; 95% CI = -0.08, -0.02) at the subsequent round. Exposure at round 3 predicted marijuana initiation at round 4 (gamma = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.00, 0.22). Through June 2004, the campaign is unlikely to have had favorable effects on youths and may have had delayed unfavorable effects. The evaluation challenges the usefulness of the campaign.

  1. Parent ads in the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Michael T; Quick, Brian L

    2005-12-01

    The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign aims not only to reduce drug use by teens and preteens, but also to arm parents with knowledge about specific parenting practices known to reduce the risk of teen drug use. Among the documented successes of the campaign to date was a small, but direct effect on some parenting practices, including parent-child discussions about drug use. To reach a deeper understanding about the substance of the parental ads, we content analyzed the message strategies employed in the campaign's parent ads over the inaugural 5 years of the campaign. Each ad was coded for its major theme, minor subtheme, and featured drug. Among seven possible major themes, the parental anti-drug ads largely featured four: enhance the risk of their child's drug use, encourage monitoring practices, promote parent-child discussions about drug use, or advocate positive involvement behaviors. Moreover, most parental messages addressed marijuana use or addressed drug use in general. Marijuana and inhalant ads largely were risk based, while general drug messages focused on monitoring, parent-child discussions or positive involvement practices.

  2. Effects of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign on Youths

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsohn, Lela; Orwin, Robert; Piesse, Andrea; Kalton, Graham

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the cognitive and behavioral effects of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign on youths aged 12.5 to 18 years and report core evaluation results. Methods. From September 1999 to June 2004, 3 nationally representative cohorts of US youths aged 9 to 18 years were surveyed at home 4 times. Sample size ranged from 8117 in the first to 5126 in the fourth round (65% first-round response rate, with 86%–93% of still eligible youths interviewed subsequently). Main outcomes were self-reported lifetime, past-year, and past-30-day marijuana use and related cognitions. Results. Most analyses showed no effects from the campaign. At one round, however, more ad exposure predicted less intention to avoid marijuana use (γ = −0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.13, −0.01) and weaker antidrug social norms (γ = −0.05; 95% CI = −0.08, −0.02) at the subsequent round. Exposure at round 3 predicted marijuana initiation at round 4 (γ = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.00, 0.22). Conclusions. Through June 2004, the campaign is unlikely to have had favorable effects on youths and may have had delayed unfavorable effects. The evaluation challenges the usefulness of the campaign. PMID:18923126

  3. Results of a national mass media campaign in India to warn against the dangers of smokeless tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Murukutla, Nandita; Turk, Tahir; Prasad, C V S; Saradhi, Ranjana; Kaur, Jagdish; Gupta, Shefali; Mullin, Sandra; Ram, Faujdar; Gupta, Prakash C; Wakefield, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco consumption in India is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. In order to educate smokeless tobacco users about the health harms of smokeless tobacco and to denormalise tobacco usage and encourage quitting, a national television and radio mass media campaign targeted at smokeless tobacco users was aired for 6 weeks during November and December 2009. The campaign was evaluated with a nationally representative household survey of smokeless tobacco users (n = 2898). The effect of campaign awareness was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The campaign affected smokeless tobacco users as intended: 63% of smokeless-only users and 72% of dual users (ie, those who consumed both smoking and smokeless forms) recalled the campaign advertisement, primarily through television delivery. The vast majority (over 70%) of those aware of the campaign said that it made them stop and think, was relevant to their lives and provided new information. 75% of smokeless-only users and 77% of dual users said that it made them feel concerned about their habit. Campaign awareness was associated with better knowledge, more negative attitudes towards smokeless tobacco and greater cessation-oriented intentions and behaviours among smokeless tobacco users. Social marketing campaigns that utilise mass media are feasible and efficacious interventions for tobacco control in India. Implications for future mass media tobacco control programming in India are discussed.

  4. A 10-year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M

    2006-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have long been a tool for promoting public health. How effective are such campaigns in changing health-related attitudes and behaviors, however, and how has the literature in this area progressed over the past decade? The purpose of the current article is threefold. First, I discuss the importance of health mass media campaigns and raise the question of whether they are capable of effectively impacting public health. Second, I review the literature and discuss what we have learned about the effectiveness of campaigns over the past 10 years. Finally, I conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for the health campaign literature over the next 10 years. The overriding conclusion is the following: The literature is beginning to amass evidence that targeted, well-executed health mass media campaigns can have small-to-moderate effects not only on health knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, but on behaviors as well, which can translate into major public health impact given the wide reach of mass media. Such impact can only be achieved, however, if principles of effective campaign design are carefully followed.

  5. Ability of a mass media campaign to influence knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about sugary drinks and obesity.

    PubMed

    Boles, Myde; Adams, Adelle; Gredler, Amy; Manhas, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    We examined the impact of a mass media campaign that was designed to educate residents about the amount of added sugars in soda and other sugary drinks, as well as the health impacts of consuming such drinks. The campaign was implemented in Multnomah County (Portland), Oregon in 2011 and included paid and unpaid media on the web, television, billboards, and transit. A telephone survey (n=402) measured campaign awareness, attitudes toward obesity, knowledge about health problems of excessive sugar, and behavioral intentions and behaviors around soda and sugary drink consumption. Nearly 80% of people who were aware of the media campaign intended to reduce the amount of soda or sugary drinks they offered to a child as a result of the campaign ads. Those who were aware of the campaign were more likely to agree that too much sugar causes health problems (97.3% vs. 85.9%). There was no significant change in self-reported soda consumption. Media campaigns about sugary drinks and obesity may be effective for raising awareness about added sugars in beverages, increasing knowledge about health problems associated with excessive sugar consumption, and prompting behavioral intentions to reduce soda and sugary drink consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Enough Abuse Campaign: building the movement to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Schober, Daniel J; Fawcett, Stephen B; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing a state-level infrastructure for child sexual abuse prevention, (b) assessing child sexual abuse perceptions and public opinion, (c) developing local infrastructures in three communities and implementing training programs focused on preventing perpetration of child sexual abuse, (d) facilitating changes in local communities to child-sexual-abuse-related systems, and (e) inviting Massachusetts residents to join an advocacy-based movement to prevent child sexual abuse. This case study concludes with future directions for the campaign and topics for future research related to child sexual abuse.

  7. Earned Media and Public Engagement With CDC’s "Tips From Former Smokers" Campaign: An Analysis of Online News and Blog Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Kornfield, Rachel; Szczypka, Glen; Vera, Lisa; Emery, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Background In March 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the first-ever paid national tobacco education campaign. At a cost of US $54 million, “Tips from Former Smokers” (Tips) ran for 3 months across multiple media, depicting the suffering experienced by smokers and their families in graphic detail. The potential impact and reach of the Tips campaign was not limited to that achieved through paid media placements. It was also potentially extended through “earned media”, including news and blog coverage of the campaign. Such coverage can shape public understanding of and facilitate public engagement with key health issues. Objective To better understand the contribution of earned media to the public’s engagement with health issues in the current news media environment, we examined the online “earned media” and public engagement generated by one national public health campaign. Methods We constructed a purposive sample of online media coverage of the CDC’s 2012 Tips from Former Smokers television campaign, focusing on 14 influential and politically diverse US news outlets and policy-focused blogs. We identified relevant content by combining campaign and website-specific keywords for 4 months around the campaign release. Each story was coded for content, inclusion of multimedia, and measures of audience engagement. Results The search yielded 36 stories mentioning Tips, of which 27 were focused on the campaign. Story content between pieces was strikingly similar, with most stories highlighting the same points about the campaign’s content, cost, and potential impact. We saw notable evidence of audience engagement; stories focused on Tips generated 9547 comments, 8891 Facebook “likes”, 1027 tweets, and 505 story URL shares on Facebook. Audience engagement varied by story and site, as did the valence and relevance of associated audience comments. Comments were most oppositional on CNN and most supportive on Yahoo

  8. One cigarette is one too many: evaluating a light smoker-targeted media campaign.

    PubMed

    Jasek, John P; Johns, Michael; Mbamalu, Ijeoma; Auer, Kari; Kilgore, Elizabeth A; Kansagra, Susan M

    2015-07-01

    Light smokers represent an increasing share of adult smokers in various parts of the world including New York City (NYC). Since 2007, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has aired hard-hitting antitobacco media campaigns paired with time-limited nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) giveaways. We evaluated an original antitobacco media campaign, developed to increase awareness of smoking risks and encourage cessation service use among light smokers in NYC. We compared cessation service request volume during the campaign to historical periods without ads targeting light smokers. We used a cross-sectional online panel survey to assess the ad's perceived effectiveness and its impact on learning something new, quit intentions and concern for smoking-related health risks among non-daily, light daily and heavy daily smokers. The proportion of light smokers among smokers requesting cessation services increased 50% (from 13% to 20%) relative to previous time-limited NRT giveaways. Compared to heavy daily smokers, non-daily (aOR: 1.95, p<0.05) and light daily (aOR: 2.27, p<0.05) smokers were more likely to express increased concern about smoking-related health risks after viewing the ad. Perceived effectiveness of the ad did not differ by smoker type. This study provides evidence that light smokers were receptive to a targeted antitobacco message encouraging use of cessation services. The campaign appears to have been particularly effective in increasing smoking-related health concerns in this group. The lack of difference in perceived ad effectiveness by smoker type suggests the potential to develop such ads without sacrificing broad impact. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. [Impact of mass communication media on an anti-smoking campaign].

    PubMed

    Sansores, Raúl H; Giraldo-Buitrago, Fernanda; Valdelamar-Vázquez, Fabiola; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Sandoval, Ricardo A

    2002-01-01

    To assess the impact of the mass media (MM) on smoking cessation process in Mexico. Between June 1998 and May 1999, the effects of an anti-smoking mass media campaign and alternative strategies were evaluated, by comparing the monthly sales average of all smoking-cessation aid products before and after marketing a new nicotine patch. Student's t paired and unpaired t tests were used to compare sales. Total sales increased from 24,206 +/- 4,558 to 55,604 +/- 8,993 (p < 0.0001). It was estimated that 1,853 smokers tried to quit and 96 per day succeeded with a single product after the campaign. Alternative strategies to get similar results indicate that the programs of a single public sector institution could help 501 persons attempt quitting smoking and six to accomplish it per day. The mass media have a powerful effect on smoking cessation practices; the involvement of more public institutions may accomplish similar results as the private sector.

  10. Compliance of disease awareness campaigns in printed Dutch media with national and international regulatory guidelines.

    PubMed

    Leonardo Alves, Teresa; Martins de Freitas, Auramarina F; van Eijk, Martine E C; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2014-01-01

    The European legislation prohibits prescription-only medicines' advertising but allows pharmaceutical companies to provide information to the public on health and diseases, provided there is no direct or indirect reference to a pharmaceutical product. Various forms of promotion have become increasingly common in Europe including "disease-oriented" campaigns. To explore examples of disease awareness campaigns by pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, by assessing their compliance with the World Health Organization (WHO) Ethical Criteria for medicinal drug promotion and the Dutch guidelines for provision of information by pharmaceutical companies. Materials referring to health/disease and treatments published in the most widely circulated newspapers and magazines were collected from March to May 2012. An evaluation tool was developed based on relevant underlying principles from the WHO ethical criteria and Dutch self-regulation guidelines. Collected disease awareness advertisements were used to pilot the evaluation tool and to explore the consistency of information provided with the WHO and Dutch criteria. Eighty materials met our inclusion criteria; 71 were published in newspapers and 9 in magazines. The large majority were news items but 21 were disease awareness advertisements, of which 5 were duplicates. Fifteen out of the 16 disease awareness campaigns were non-compliant with current guidelines mainly due to lack of balance (n = 12), absence of listed author and/or sponsor (n = 8), use of misleading or incomplete information (n = 5) and use of promotional information (n = 5). None mentioned a pharmaceutical product directly. Disease Awareness Campaigns are present in Dutch printed media. Although no brand names were mentioned, the lack of compliance of disease awareness campaigns with the current regulations is alarming. There were information deficiencies and evidence of information bias. A key concern is that the context in which the information is

  11. Compliance of Disease Awareness Campaigns in Printed Dutch Media with National and International Regulatory Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Leonardo Alves, Teresa; Martins de Freitas, Auramarina F.; van Eijk, Martine E. C.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The European legislation prohibits prescription-only medicines' advertising but allows pharmaceutical companies to provide information to the public on health and diseases, provided there is no direct or indirect reference to a pharmaceutical product. Various forms of promotion have become increasingly common in Europe including “disease-oriented” campaigns. Objectives To explore examples of disease awareness campaigns by pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, by assessing their compliance with the World Health Organization (WHO) Ethical Criteria for medicinal drug promotion and the Dutch guidelines for provision of information by pharmaceutical companies. Methods Materials referring to health/disease and treatments published in the most widely circulated newspapers and magazines were collected from March to May 2012. An evaluation tool was developed based on relevant underlying principles from the WHO ethical criteria and Dutch self-regulation guidelines. Collected disease awareness advertisements were used to pilot the evaluation tool and to explore the consistency of information provided with the WHO and Dutch criteria. Findings Eighty materials met our inclusion criteria; 71 were published in newspapers and 9 in magazines. The large majority were news items but 21 were disease awareness advertisements, of which 5 were duplicates. Fifteen out of the 16 disease awareness campaigns were non-compliant with current guidelines mainly due to lack of balance (n = 12), absence of listed author and/or sponsor (n = 8), use of misleading or incomplete information (n = 5) and use of promotional information (n = 5). None mentioned a pharmaceutical product directly. Conclusion Disease Awareness Campaigns are present in Dutch printed media. Although no brand names were mentioned, the lack of compliance of disease awareness campaigns with the current regulations is alarming. There were information deficiencies and evidence of information

  12. Changing the way people think about health-enhancing physical activity: do mass media campaigns have a role?

    PubMed

    Cavill, Nick; Bauman, Adrian

    2004-08-01

    Mass media campaigns are conducted to influence community norms around health behaviours, including physical activity. Campaigns can reach large populations at relatively low cost, to influence awareness, knowledge and beliefs through to intention and behaviour change. We reviewed 15 campaigns with an explicit focus on physical activity, and explored impacts upon a range of proximal and distal variables. Campaigns achieved high recall, with a median of 70% of the target group aware of the campaign. Increases in knowledge or attitudes to physical activity were found among half the campaigns that reported this measure. Few campaigns reported other proximal variables, such as saliency, beliefs, self-efficacy or behavioural intention. Increases in physical activity were reported among motivated sub-groups of volunteers, but few campaigns reported population increases in activity. Campaigns increase awareness of the issue of physical activity but may not have a population-level effect on behaviour. Campaigns should focus more on influencing proximal variables, such as social norms, to bring about long-term behaviour change. This should be seen as part of a broader strategy, including policy and environmental change. Evaluation designs that measure the full range of variables are preferred to an over-concentration on behaviour alone.

  13. Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey

    PubMed Central

    ROBINSON, Jo; RODRIGUES, Maria; FISHER, Steve; BAILEY, Eleanor; HERRMAN, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention. Social media sites are commonly used for communicating about suicide-related behavior with others, which raises the possibility of using social media to help prevent suicide. However, the use of social media varies widely between different suicide prevention advocates. The role this type of intervention should play in a community’s overall suicide prevention strategy remains a matter of debate. Aim Explore the ways in which stakeholders use social media for suicide prevention and assess their views about the potential utility of social media as a suicide prevention tool. Methods A 12-week stakeholder consultation that involved the online administration and completion of surveys by 10 individuals who conduct research about suicide and social media, 13 organizations that use social media for suicide prevention purposes, and 64 users of social media. Results Social media was seen as a useful means of delivering a range of suicide prevention activities. Respondents reported that the key benefits of social media were the opportunity to obtain emotional support from others, to express one’s feelings, to talk to others with similar problems, and to provide help to others. The social media site believed to hold most potential for delivering suicide prevention activities was Facebook. There were concerns about potential risks of social media, but respondents felt the potential benefits outweighed the risks. Conclusions Social media was recognized by different types of stakeholders as holding potential for delivering suicide prevention activities. More research is required to establish the efficacy and safety of potential social media-based interventions and ethical standards and protocols to ensure that such interventions are delivered safely need to be

  14. Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jo; Rodrigues, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Bailey, Eleanor; Herrman, Helen

    2015-02-25

    Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention. Social media sites are commonly used for communicating about suicide-related behavior with others, which raises the possibility of using social media to help prevent suicide. However, the use of social media varies widely between different suicide prevention advocates. The role this type of intervention should play in a community's overall suicide prevention strategy remains a matter of debate. Explore the ways in which stakeholders use social media for suicide prevention and assess their views about the potential utility of social media as a suicide prevention tool. A 12-week stakeholder consultation that involved the online administration and completion of surveys by 10 individuals who conduct research about suicide and social media, 13 organizations that use social media for suicide prevention purposes, and 64 users of social media. Social media was seen as a useful means of delivering a range of suicide prevention activities. Respondents reported that the key benefits of social media were the opportunity to obtain emotional support from others, to express one's feelings, to talk to others with similar problems, and to provide help to others. The social media site believed to hold most potential for delivering suicide prevention activities was Facebook. There were concerns about potential risks of social media, but respondents felt the potential benefits outweighed the risks. Social media was recognized by different types of stakeholders as holding potential for delivering suicide prevention activities. More research is required to establish the efficacy and safety of potential social media-based interventions and ethical standards and protocols to ensure that such interventions are delivered safely need to be developed and implemented.

  15. Does a TV Public Service Advertisement Campaign for Suicide Prevention Really Work?

    PubMed

    Song, In Han; You, Jung-Won; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Soo; Kwon, Se Won; Park, Jong-Ik

    2017-05-01

    One of the critical measures in suicide prevention is promoting public awareness of crisis hotline numbers so that individuals can more readily seek help in a time of crisis. Although public service advertisements (PSA) may be effective in raising the rates of both awareness and use of a suicide hotline, few investigations have been performed regarding their effectiveness in South Korea, where the suicide rate is the highest among OECD countries. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a television PSA campaign. We analyzed a database of crisis phone calls compiled by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare to track changes in call volume to a crisis hotline that was promoted in a TV campaign. We compared daily call counts for three periods of equal length: before, during, and after the campaign. The number of crisis calls during the campaign was about 1.6 times greater than the number before or after the campaign. Relative to the number of suicide-related calls in the previous year, the number of calls during the campaign period surged, displaying a noticeable increase. The findings confirmed that this campaign had a positive impact on call volume to the suicide hotline.

  16. Media response to colon cancer campaigns in Switzerland 2005-2007: regional newspapers are the most reliable among the printed media

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health campaigns are frequently covered by printed media, but coverage is not homogeneous across different types of newspapers. Switzerland as a multilinguistic country with many newspapers offers a good field for study. A better understanding of how printed media report on national campaigns against colon cancer in the three main linguistic regions may help to improve future public health interventions. Therefore, we analyzed articles published between 2005 and 2007 during the campaigns "Darmkrebs-nie?" and "Self-Care" in the German, French and Italian regions of Switzerland. Findings Some 65% of articles reporting on colon cancer were in German, 23% and 12% were in French and Italian respectively. During the campaign, topics linked to colon cancer were increasingly covered by the media. Regional newspapers (66%) reported significantly more about colon cancer and produced the most detailed articles. Both gain- and loss-framed messages have been used by journalists, whereas the campaigns used merely gain-framed messages. Latin (French and Italian) newspapers mixed gain- and loss-framed messages in the same articles, while German articles mainly used a single frame throughout. Conclusions Swiss-German papers reported more about the topic and the reporting was quantitatively and qualitatively more prominent in regional papers. The press followed the campaigns closely only during the period of campaigning, with high coverage. We propose to consider the regional press as an important vehicle of health information. Moreover, slight differences in framing can be observed between German and Latin articles. PMID:20576089

  17. "Cancer--Educate to Prevent"--high-school teachers, the new promoters of cancer prevention education campaigns.

    PubMed

    Barros, Ana; Moreira, Luís; Santos, Helena; Ribeiro, Nuno; Carvalho, Luís; Santos-Silva, Filipe

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation--questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test) and immediately after (post-test). The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions) and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted targets (students

  18. Public enemy number one: the US Advertising Council's first drug abuse prevention campaign.

    PubMed

    Niesen, Molly

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the Advertising Council's first national drug abuse prevention campaign in the 1970s. Scholarship thus far has demonstrated the ways in which the issue of drug abuse represented a chief political strategy for President Nixon. Evidence from major trade press publications, congressional hearings, and an array of archival sources suggest that this campaign was also part of a public relations crusade on behalf of the advertising industry in response to public criticism of its role in abetting a culture of drug dependence. These institutional and political pressures helped shape drug abuse prevention in the 1970 s and for the decades that followed.

  19. Effect of media campaigns and smoke-free ordinance on public awareness and secondhand smoke exposure in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chung, Chi-Hui; Chuang, Yi-Chia; Hu, Teh-Wei; Yu, Po-Tswen; Chao, Kun-Yu; Hsiao, Mei-Ling

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Taiwan's smoke-free ordinance and media campaigns on public awareness and secondhand smoke exposure. The authors conducted 3 waves of research--in July 2008 (before media campaigns), in December 2008 (during media campaigns), and in March 2009 (3 months after implementation of the smoke-free law). National representative samples of 1074, 1084, and 1094 people, respectively, were interviewed successfully by telephone in the 3 surveys. The results showed that general awareness of smoke-free workplace legislation rose dramatically from 28.5% in July 2008 to 87.6% in December 2008 to 93.6% in March 2009. Exposure to secondhand smoke in the workplace fell from 28.5% in July 2008 to 24.9% in December 2008 to 7.3% in March 2009, and household secondhand smoke exposure decreased from 36.8% to 34.3% to 21.3%, respectively, during the same period. Multivariate analyses results indicated that media campaigns, smoke-free ordinance implementation, having higher education, and having higher income were associated with more awareness of the smoke-free workplace legislation. In addition, smoke-free ordinance implementation, being female, having higher education, and having higher income were associated with less likelihood of reporting secondhand smoke exposure in the workplace. In conclusion, smoke-free ordinance implementation and media campaigns were effective in raising public awareness of the new law and reducing secondhand smoke exposure in workplaces, in public places, and at home.

  20. Social Media Use for Public Health Campaigning in a Low Resource Setting: The Case of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Mohammed; Abass, Jooman; Hariri, Ahmad; Akl, Elie A

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing worldwide despite its documented health effects. A general belief that it is less harmful than cigarettes may be fuelled by the lack of media campaigns highlighting its health effects. We aimed to create and assess the impact of a social media campaign about dangers of waterpipe smoking. The "ShishAware" campaign included three social media (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) and a website. Nine months after launch we collected data to assess use of, and reaction to, our media accounts. Requiring limited maintenance resources, Facebook attracted campaign supporters but YouTube attracted opposers. Twitter enabled the most organisation-based contact but Facebook was the most interactive medium. Facebook users were more likely to "like" weekday than weekend statuses and more likely to comment on "shisha fact" than "current affairs" statuses. Follower subscription increased as our posting rate increased. Our YouTube video gained 19,428 views (from all world continents) and 218 comments (86% from pro-waterpipe smokers). Social media campaigns can be created and maintained relatively easily. They are innovative and have the potential for wide and rapid diffusion, especially towards target audiences. There is a need for more rigorous evaluation of their effects, particularly among the youth.

  1. Social Media Use for Public Health Campaigning in a Low Resource Setting: The Case of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Jawad, Mohammed; Abass, Jooman; Hariri, Ahmad; Akl, Elie A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing worldwide despite its documented health effects. A general belief that it is less harmful than cigarettes may be fuelled by the lack of media campaigns highlighting its health effects. We aimed to create and assess the impact of a social media campaign about dangers of waterpipe smoking. Methods. The “ShishAware” campaign included three social media (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) and a website. Nine months after launch we collected data to assess use of, and reaction to, our media accounts. Results. Requiring limited maintenance resources, Facebook attracted campaign supporters but YouTube attracted opposers. Twitter enabled the most organisation-based contact but Facebook was the most interactive medium. Facebook users were more likely to “like” weekday than weekend statuses and more likely to comment on “shisha fact” than “current affairs” statuses. Follower subscription increased as our posting rate increased. Our YouTube video gained 19,428 views (from all world continents) and 218 comments (86% from pro-waterpipe smokers). Conclusions. Social media campaigns can be created and maintained relatively easily. They are innovative and have the potential for wide and rapid diffusion, especially towards target audiences. There is a need for more rigorous evaluation of their effects, particularly among the youth. PMID:26273631

  2. Impact of Tobacco Control Policies and Mass Media Campaigns on Monthly Adult Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A.; Durkin, Sarah; Spittal, Matthew J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Simpson, Julie A.; Chapman, Simon; White, Victoria; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to assess the impact of several tobacco control policies and televised antismoking advertising on adult smoking prevalence. Methods. We used a population survey in which smoking prevalence was measured each month from 1995 through 2006. Time-series analysis assessed the effect on smoking prevalence of televised antismoking advertising (with gross audience rating points [GRPs] per month), cigarette costliness, monthly sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, and smoke-free restaurant laws. Results. Increases in cigarette costliness and exposure to tobacco control media campaigns significantly reduced smoking prevalence. We found a 0.3-percentage-point reduction in smoking prevalence by either exposing the population to televised antismoking ads an average of almost 4 times per month (390 GRPs) or by increasing the costliness of a pack of cigarettes by 0.03% of gross average weekly earnings. Monthly sales of NRT and bupropion, exposure to NRT advertising, and smoke-free restaurant laws had no detectable impact on smoking prevalence. Conclusions. Increases in the real price of cigarettes and tobacco control mass media campaigns broadcast at sufficient exposure levels and at regular intervals are critical for reducing population smoking prevalence. PMID:18556601

  3. Impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on monthly adult smoking prevalence.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Durkin, Sarah; Spittal, Matthew J; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Simpson, Julie A; Chapman, Simon; White, Victoria; Hill, David

    2008-08-01

    We sought to assess the impact of several tobacco control policies and televised antismoking advertising on adult smoking prevalence. We used a population survey in which smoking prevalence was measured each month from 1995 through 2006. Time-series analysis assessed the effect on smoking prevalence of televised antismoking advertising (with gross audience rating points [GRPs] per month), cigarette costliness, monthly sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, and smoke-free restaurant laws. Increases in cigarette costliness and exposure to tobacco control media campaigns significantly reduced smoking prevalence. We found a 0.3-percentage-point reduction in smoking prevalence by either exposing the population to televised antismoking ads an average of almost 4 times per month (390 GRPs) or by increasing the costliness of a pack of cigarettes by 0.03% of gross average weekly earnings. Monthly sales of NRT and bupropion, exposure to NRT advertising, and smoke-free restaurant laws had no detectable impact on smoking prevalence. Increases in the real price of cigarettes and tobacco control mass media campaigns broadcast at sufficient exposure levels and at regular intervals are critical for reducing population smoking prevalence.

  4. The impact of a targeted radio campaign to prevent STIs and HIV/AIDS in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Karlyn, A S

    2001-10-01

    In 1997 to 1998, Population Services International (PSI) carried out a targeted radio campaign in Mozambique to promote behavior change for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS. To evaluate the coverage and impact of the campaign, PSI designed and implemented a cross-sectional study using a two-stage random sample of "at-risk" individuals; 754 individuals between the ages of 13 and 49 were interviewed. Over half (52.4%) heard the campaign and 45.5% recalled one or more radio messages. However, recall of specific messages in specific risk groups was low. A multivariate model demonstrates that among those exposed to the radio campaign, 97.2% reported intent to change their sexual behavior compared with 62.8% of those not exposed to the campaign (p < .001). Among those who recalled campaign messages, 86.1% attempted to change their behavior compared with 58% of those who had no message recall (p <.001). Success in changing behavior is significantly higher among those with message recall (83.8%) than those without (56.8%, p < .001). This study illustrates the difficulties in using radio to target a specific group with a corresponding behavior change message. Although general recall of campaign messages was high per target group, the campaign did not succeed in ensuring exposure to the intended target group. The strategy of airing all of the spots simultaneously with different but similar messages resulted in one spot "stepping on" another. Despite the limitations in using radio to target, exposure to the radio campaign has contributed to individual intent to change sexual behavior.

  5. The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (October 14, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This hearing focuses on reviewing the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Discussion focuses on the role of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) in the media campaign, the research base of the campaign, an overview of the integrated campaign, the results attained to date by the campaign, and the contributions of ONDCPs principal…

  6. [Questionnaire to assess advertising campaigns impact about HIV/AIDS prevention].

    PubMed

    Bretón-López, Juana; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2006-08-01

    Present work is concerned with a questionnaire aimed to the impact evaluation of a selection of Spanish advertising campaigns about HIV/AIDS prevention. The work objective is to determine reliability and factorial structure of the instrument. It is described the designed questionnaire and its three scales (affective impact scale, cognitive impact scale and behavioural intention impact scale). The sample was composed by 405 high school teenagers to who were projected the advertising campaigns. So, teenagers filled the designed questionnaire. From a theoretical and psychometric point of view, data show the instrument is appropriate about internal consistency and factorial structure. The final goal of the questionnaire is to become useful tool to assess the persuasive effectiveness of the advertising campaigns within the HIV/AIDS network, as an intervention of primary prevention to reduce the expansion of epidemic.

  7. Smoke-free São Paulo: a campaign evaluation and the case for sustained mass media investment.

    PubMed

    Alday, Jorge; Murukutla, Nandita; Cedillo, Claudia; Johns, Paula; Monteiro, Anna; Wakefield, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence from high-income countries suggests that mass media campaigns can increase knowledge of tobacco harms and encourage smoking cessation, there is little evidence of this from developing countries, particularly related to campaigns that seek to increase support for smoke-free places and laws. Two campaigns that ran in São Paulo, Brazil during implementation of a smoke-free law in São Paulo were evaluated to assess their effectiveness in changing attitudes and creating support for the law. The campaigns were evaluated through street-intercept surveys conducted in early July and late August in São Paulo (Ns= 603; 615). Findings reveal that mass communications can generate support for smoke-free laws and underscore the importance of running campaigns that are both well-funded and that use harder-hitting, more graphic messages.

  8. Population-based evaluation of the ‘LiveLighter’ healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign

    PubMed Central

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) ‘LiveLighter’ (LL) mass media campaign ran during June–August and September–October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual (‘why’ change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier (‘how’ to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25–49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N = 2012) and following the two media waves (N = 2005 and N = 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The ‘why’ message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than ‘how’ messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P < 0.05) and physical activity intentions (P < 0.05). Endorsement of stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039

  9. An assessment of issues surrounding implementation of the Campaign to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Healthcare Settings.

    PubMed

    Brinsley, Kristin; Sinkowitz-Cochran, Ronda; Cardo, Denise

    2005-09-01

    The Campaign to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Healthcare Settings was developed through 9 research projects: 1 to determine the name and image, 5 to test the 12-step programs, and 3 to evaluate the Campaign. This report analyzes data from 9 projects and reports key findings. Data from the 9 projects were analyzed by 4 topics: perceptions of the problem of antimicrobial resistance, barriers to preventing antimicrobial resistance, most and least important steps and strategies, and preferences for materials and information sources. Data from 21 in-depth interviews, 19 focus groups, and 3 surveys were analyzed. A total of 695 clinicians participated: 564 (81.2%) were physicians; 98 (14.1%) were nurses; and 33 (4.7%) were other healthcare professionals. Differences by both occupation and medical specialty area were observed. A majority of participants agreed that antimicrobial resistance is a problem nationally, whereas fewer agreed that it is a problem in their institution or practice. Of the Campaign's 4 strategies, "Diagnose and Treat Infection Effectively" and "Use Antimicrobials Wisely" were considered most important, whereas "Prevent Infection" and "Prevent Transmission" were considered least important. Frequently cited preferences for materials included posters and professional resources such as journal articles and presentations at conferences or annual meetings of professional societies. The findings highlight important issues that could influence the success of implementation of the Campaign to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Healthcare Settings. Tailoring the campaign messages and supporting materials to individual institutions or clinician types are encouraged to address or acknowledge these issues and facilitate behavior change.

  10. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Media Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    One of the most effective ways to raise awareness about a problem and generate support for solutions is through the media. This guide describes the basic principles of media relations that can help organizations develop an effective media strategy for underage drinking prevention. The tools that are necessary for this strategy, including news…

  11. Community-based multi-disease prevention campaigns for controlling human immunodeficiency virus-associated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Suthar, A B; Klinkenberg, E; Ramsay, A; Garg, N; Bennett, R; Towle, M; Sitienei, J; Smyth, C; Daniels, C; Baggaley, R; Gunneberg, C; Williams, B; Getahun, H; van Gorkom, J; Granich, R M

    2012-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB) 21-34 fold, and has fuelled the resurgence of TB in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the Three I's for HIV/TB (infection control, intensified case finding [ICF] and isoniazid preventive therapy) and earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy for preventing TB in persons with HIV. Current service delivery frameworks do not identify people early enough to maximally harness the preventive benefits of these interventions. Community-based campaigns were essential components of global efforts to control major public health threats such as polio, measles, guinea worm disease and smallpox. They were also successful in helping to control TB in resource-rich settings. There have been recent community-based efforts to identify persons who have TB and/or HIV. Multi-disease community-based frameworks have been rare. Based on findings from a WHO meta-analysis and a Cochrane review, integrating ICF into the recent multi-disease prevention campaign in Kenya may have had implications in controlling TB. Community-based multi-disease prevention campaigns represent a potentially powerful strategy to deliver prevention interventions, identify people with HIV and/or TB, and link those eligible to care and treatment.

  12. Personal Involvement of Young People in HIV Prevention Campaign Messages: The Role of Message Format, Culture, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly M.; Johnson, Laura; Liku, Jennifer; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Niang, Cheikh

    2008-01-01

    To examine young people's reactions to and understanding of HIV prevention messages developed for MTV's global HIV prevention campaign Staying Alive, videotaped campaign materials were shown to focus group discussion (FGD) participants living in urban areas of Brazil, Kenya, Nepal, and Senegal. Responses related to "personal involvement"…

  13. Contextual Influences and Campaign Awareness Among Young Adults: Evidence from the National truth® Campaign.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Donna M; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have been found to shape the public's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior around tobacco. This study examines the influence of contextual factors with respect to awareness of the national truth® campaign, a mass media, branded tobacco use prevention campaign, among a sample of young adults (n = 2,804) aged 24-34 years old; these respondents were within the age range for both the primary and secondary targets of the campaign during the period (2000-2007) when the campaign was airing television advertising at consistently high levels. Mulitvariable models reveal lower educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity as significant contextual factors predictive of lower campaign awareness, controlling for media use. In contrast, gender, state tobacco control policy, sensation-seeking, current smoking status, and community-level SES variables were not significantly associated with campaign awareness. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms through which public education campaigns operate, particularly among disadvantaged communities.

  14. Increasing the dose of television advertising in a national antismoking media campaign: results from a randomised field trial

    PubMed Central

    McAfee, Tim; Davis, Kevin C; Shafer, Paul; Patel, Deesha; Alexander, Robert; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Background While antismoking media campaigns have demonstrated effectiveness, less is known about the country-level effects of increased media dosing. The 2012 US Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign generated approximately 1.6 million quit attempts overall; however, the specific dose–response from the campaign was only assessed by self-report. Objective Assess the impact of higher ad exposure during the 2013 Tips campaign on quit-related behaviours and intentions, campaign awareness, communication about campaign, and disease knowledge. Methods A 3-month national media buy was supplemented within 67 (of 190) randomly selected local media markets. Higher-dose markets received media buys 3 times that of standard-dose markets. We compared outcomes of interest using data collected via web-based surveys from nationally representative, address-based probability samples of 5733 cigarette smokers and 2843 non-smokers. Results In higher-dose markets, 87.2% of smokers and 83.9% of non-smokers recalled television campaign exposure versus 75.0% of smokers and 73.9% of non-smokers in standard-dose markets. Among smokers overall, the relative quit attempt rate was 11% higher in higher-dose markets (38.8% vs 34.9%; p<0.04). The higher-dose increase was larger in African-Americans (50.9% vs 31.8%; p<0.01). Smokers in higher-dose markets without a mental health condition, with a chronic health condition, or with only some college education made quit attempts at a higher rate than those in standard-dose markets. Non-smokers in higher-dose markets were more likely to talk with family or friends about smoking dangers (43.1% vs 35.7%; p<0.01) and had greater knowledge of smoking-related diseases. Conclusions The US 2013 Tips antismoking media campaign compared standard and higher doses by randomisation of local media markets. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of a higher dose for engaging non-smokers and further increasing quit attempts among smokers, especially African

  15. Increasing the dose of television advertising in a national antismoking media campaign: results from a randomised field trial.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Tim; Davis, Kevin C; Shafer, Paul; Patel, Deesha; Alexander, Robert; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    While antismoking media campaigns have demonstrated effectiveness, less is known about the country-level effects of increased media dosing. The 2012 US Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign generated approximately 1.6 million quit attempts overall; however, the specific dose-response from the campaign was only assessed by self-report. Assess the impact of higher ad exposure during the 2013 Tips campaign on quit-related behaviours and intentions, campaign awareness, communication about campaign, and disease knowledge. A 3-month national media buy was supplemented within 67 (of 190) randomly selected local media markets. Higher-dose markets received media buys 3 times that of standard-dose markets. We compared outcomes of interest using data collected via web-based surveys from nationally representative, address-based probability samples of 5733 cigarette smokers and 2843 non-smokers. In higher-dose markets, 87.2% of smokers and 83.9% of non-smokers recalled television campaign exposure versus 75.0% of smokers and 73.9% of non-smokers in standard-dose markets. Among smokers overall, the relative quit attempt rate was 11% higher in higher-dose markets (38.8% vs 34.9%; p<0.04). The higher-dose increase was larger in African-Americans (50.9% vs 31.8%; p<0.01). Smokers in higher-dose markets without a mental health condition, with a chronic health condition, or with only some college education made quit attempts at a higher rate than those in standard-dose markets. Non-smokers in higher-dose markets were more likely to talk with family or friends about smoking dangers (43.1% vs 35.7%; p<0.01) and had greater knowledge of smoking-related diseases. The US 2013 Tips antismoking media campaign compared standard and higher doses by randomisation of local media markets. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of a higher dose for engaging non-smokers and further increasing quit attempts among smokers, especially African-Americans. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  16. What is 'binge drinking'? Perceptions of Australian adolescents and adults, and implications for mass media campaigns.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra C; Gordon, Chloe S; Andrews, Kelly

    2016-10-01

    While the term 'binge drinking' has no definitive definition, it is commonly used in lay conversation and mass media communication campaigns. It is important to understand how the general population interprets the term, and their positive and negative perceptions of this behaviour. A convenience sample of 549 participants from two Australian towns completed a survey on perceptions of binge drinking; 221 adolescents, 104 parents of adolescents and 224 adult community members. Across all three groups, binge drinking was defined using broad descriptors; few respondents referred to specific consumption levels and those who did varied widely in the quantities specified. The majority of respondents described binge drinking negatively and, in most cases, more negatively for adolescents than adults. However, both adult groups perceived binge drinking to be more enjoyable and pleasant for adolescents than for adults, and more enjoyable and pleasant than adolescents did themselves. There is a need for shared understanding of terms to ensure that educational interventions and communication campaigns are using the same definitions as their target audiences. There is also a need to ensure adults are not providing young people with mixed messages about excessive alcohol consumption. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Getting the Message Across: Outcomes and Risk Profiles by Awareness Levels of the “Measure-Up” Obesity Prevention Campaign in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Grunseit, Anne C.; O’Hara, Blythe J.; Chau, Josephine Y.; Briggs, Megan; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity campaign evaluations have used campaign awareness to assess impact, yet have not compared unprompted campaign recallers, with prompted recallers and those with no campaign recall. Using data from an Australian mass-media obesity prevention campaign linking waist circumference and chronic disease we examined whether those with different degrees of campaign recall are distinct groups demographically and for subsequent campaign effects. Methods A national cross-sectional telephone survey of randomly selected adults aged 18 to 65 years was conducted post- campaign (n = 2812) covering campaign recall, self-reported diet and physical activity (PA) and waist-measuring knowledge, behaviours and intentions to make lifestyle changes. Respondents were divided into three groups indicating campaign recall: Unprompted Recallers (n=1154); Prompted Recallers (n=1284); and No Recallers (n=374) and compared on demographic, knowledge, and behavioural risk factors for obesity/chronic disease. Results Unprompted Recallers were more likely to speak English at home (p<.001), be in the primary campaign target group (25-45 years with children) (p<0.001) than the other two groups and to be university educated and female than the Prompted Recall group only (p=0.001). Unprompted Recallers had better knowledge about recommended waist circumference (p<.001), fruit (p=0.004), vegetable (p<0.001) and PA guidelines (p<0.001) than both the other groups. The No Recall group was less likely than the other two to be overweight/obese (46% vs 55%, p=0.020 and 54%, p=0.037), comparable on meeting fruit consumption and PA guidelines but more likely to meet vegetable intake recommendations (than Unprompted Recallers only). Conclusions Unprompted recallers were more knowledgeable about campaign messages; behaviour change and intentions to change were stronger for the two recall groups compared with the No Recall group but not different between them. The current analysis revealed subtle

  18. Zinc supplements for preventing otitis media.

    PubMed

    Gulani, Anjana; Sachdev, Harshpal S

    2012-04-18

    Otitis media (OM) is inflammation of the middle ear and is usually caused by infection. It affects people of all ages but is particularly common in young children. Around 164 million people worldwide have long-term hearing loss caused by this condition, 90% of them in low-income countries. As zinc supplements prevent pneumonia in disadvantaged children, we wanted to investigate whether zinc supplements could also prevent OM. To evaluate whether zinc supplements prevent OM in adults and children of different ages. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2012, Issue 1) which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Groups' Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1950 to February week 1, 2012) and EMBASE (1974 to February 2012). Randomised, placebo-controlled trials of zinc supplements given at least once a week for at least a month for preventing OM. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of the included trials and extracted and analysed data. We summarised results using risk ratios (RRs) or rate ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data. We combined trial results where appropriate. We identified 12 trials for inclusion, 10 of which contributed outcomes data. There was a total of 6820 participants. In trials of healthy children living in low-income communities, two trials did not demonstrate a significant difference between the zinc supplemented and placebo groups in the numbers of participants experiencing an episode of definite OM during follow-up (3191 participants); another trial showed a significantly lower incidence rate of OM in the zinc group (rate ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 0.79, n = 1621). A small trial of 39 infants undergoing treatment for severe malnutrition suggested a benefit of zinc for the mean number of episodes of OM (mean difference (MD) -1.12 episodes, 95% CI -2.21 to -0.03). Zinc supplements did not seem to cause

  19. [Evaluation of the Activities of Community Pharmacies during the Annual Campaign with Focus on Diabetes Prevention].

    PubMed

    Schmiedel, K; Friedland, K; Schlager, H

    2016-10-01

    With its increasing incidence, diabetes is one of the major challenges of the 21th century. Against this background, the Bavarian State Ministry of Public Health and Care Services (BStMGP) started in 2014 the campaign "Diabetes moves us!". The scientific institute for prevention in health care (WIPIG) supported the activities of Bavarian pharmacies and evaluated the extent to which they might be able to contribute towards prevention. Besides additional training of pharmaceutical staff, WIPIG initiated a diabetes prevention network. Pharmacies that were members of the network had the opportunity to order a campaign package including an evaluation questionnaire and to register their activity in the calendar of events of the campaign. A total of 215 pharmacies signed up for the diabetes prevention network and registered 103 events. The WIPIG received 67 completed evaluation questionnaires. Most often (86.6%) the pharmacies conducted a blood glucose screening; 76.1% carried out screening with the diabetes risk questionnaire FINDRISC of the German Diabetes Foundation and 22.4% gave a information lecture on diabetes. During the screening 2,502 persons had their blood sugar checked and 1,765 persons filled in the FINDRISC questionnaire. Overall, 190 persons were advised to visit their physician because of a very high blood glucose level. On the basis of the FINDRISC, 80.2% were advised to change their lifestyle to prevent type 2 diabetes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Associations between tobacco control mass media campaign expenditure and smoking prevalence and quitting in England: a time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Beard, Emma; West, Robert; Brown, Jamie

    2017-06-30

    It has been established that mass media campaigns can increase smoking cessation rates, but there is little direct evidence estimating associations between government expenditure on tobacco control mass media campaigns and smoking cessation. This study assessed the association over 8 years between mass media expenditure in England and quit attempts, smoking cessation and smoking prevalence. Autoregressive integrated moving average modelling with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) was applied to monthly estimates from the Smoking Toolkit Study between June 2008 and February 2016. We assessed the association between the trends in mass media expenditure and (1) quit attempts in the last two months, (2) quit success among those who attempted to quit and (3) smoking prevalence. Analyses were adjusted for trends in weekly spending on tobacco by smokers, tobacco control policies and the use of established aids to cessation. Monthly spending on mass media campaigns ranged from nothing to £2.4 million, with a mean of £465 054. An increase in mass media expenditure of 10% of the monthly average was associated with a 0.51% increase (of the average) in success rates of quit attempts (95% CI 0.10% to 0.91%, p=0.014). No clear association was detected between changes in mass media expenditure and changes in quit attempt prevalence (β=-0.03, 95% CI -2.05% to 2.00%, p=0.979) or smoking prevalence (β=-0.03, 95% CI -0.09% to 0.03%, p=0.299). Between 2008 and 2016, higher monthly expenditure on tobacco control mass media campaigns in England was associated with higher quit success rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Communication, Reasoning, and Planned Behaviors: Unveiling the Effect of Interactive Communication in an Anti-Smoking Social Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Kang; Nah, Seungahn; Record, Rachael A; Van Stee, Stephanie K

    2017-01-01

    This study examines direct and indirect effects of interactive communication in an antismoking social media campaign. To that end, we pose a multitheoretical framework that integrates communication mediation models and the Theory of Planned Behavior. To test the theorized model, we conducted an experiment using a two-group pretest-posttest design. Participants (N = 201) were randomly assigned into two experimental conditions: "campaign message reception only" as a control group and "message reception and social interaction" as a treatment group, in which the participants contributed to the antismoking campaign by posting their own campaign ideas and information they found through mediated and interpersonal communication. The findings show that interactive communication catalyzes the participants' information searching behaviors through diverse communication channels. In turn, increased media use plays a crucial role in changing their attitudes and perceived social norms about smoking behaviors, and eventually reducing smoking intention. This study affirms that the theory of planned behavior is effective in predicting behavioral intention and demonstrates the usefulness of a multitheoretical approach in interactive campaign research on social media.

  2. Disadvantaged Parents’ Engagement with a National Secondhand Smoke in the Home Mass Media Campaign: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Amos, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 “Right Outside” mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding), motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS)) and opportunities to act (barriers) was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances. PMID:27618085

  3. Disadvantaged Parents' Engagement with a National Secondhand Smoke in the Home Mass Media Campaign: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Amos, Amanda

    2016-09-09

    Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 "Right Outside" mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding), motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS)) and opportunities to act (barriers) was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances.

  4. The freeze on mass media campaigns in England: a natural experiment of the impact of tobacco control campaigns on quitting behaviour.

    PubMed

    Langley, Tessa; Szatkowski, Lisa; Lewis, Sarah; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Anna B; Salway, Ruth; Sims, Michelle

    2014-06-01

    To measure the impact of the suspension of tobacco control mass media campaigns in England in April 2010 on measures of smoking cessation behaviour. Interrupted time series design using routinely collected population-level data. Analysis of use of a range of types of smoking cessation support using segmented negative binomial regression. England. Use of non-intensive support: monthly calls to the National Health Service (NHS) quitline (April 2005-September 2011), text requests for quit support packs (December 2007-10) and web hits on the national smoking cessation website (January 2009-March 2011). Use of intensive cessation support: quarterly data on the number of people setting a quit date and 4-week quitters at the NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) (quarter 1, 2001 and quarter 3, 2011). During the suspension of tobacco control mass media spending, literature requests fell by 98% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 96-99], and quitline calls and web hits fell by 65% (95% CI = 43-79) and 34% (95% CI: 11-50), respectively. The number of people setting a quit date and 4-week quitters at the SSS increased throughout the study period. The suspension of tobacco control mass media campaigns in England in 2012 appeared to markedly reduce the use of smoking cessation literature, quitline calls and hits on the national smoking cessation website, but did not affect attendance at the Stop Smoking Services. Within a comprehensive tobacco control programme, mass media campaigns can play an important role in maximizing quitting activity. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Community Reactions to a Syphilis Prevention Campaign for Gay and Bisexual Men in Los Angeles County

    PubMed Central

    Nanín, José E.; Bimbi, David S.; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    “Stop the Sores” (STS), a humor-based syphilis prevention campaign, was implemented in response to increasing syphilis prevalence among gay and bisexual men in Los Angeles County. In 2004, 564 men completed surveys measuring exposure and reactions to the campaign and syphilis testing. Mean age was 39, and men of color comprised a significant proportion of the sample (46.8%). Most men reported being HIV-negative (79.3%). Overall, 7.8% of the sample reported ever having syphilis; HIV-positive men were six times more likely to report this. Over one half of the sample (58.5%) reported exposure to the campaign. Men reporting any recent unprotected anal sex were twice more likely (than those who did not) to see the campaign. Men of color were twice more likely than White men to report wanting to speak to their friends about it. Finally, 39.1% of men exposed to the campaign reported being tested for syphilis as a result. Factors related to higher likelihood to test for syphilis included HIV seropositive status, any recent unprotected anal insertive sex, recent use of methamphetamine, recent use of “poppers,” and recent use of erectile dysfunction drugs. Although STS was somewhat effective, outreach efforts to particular subgroups may need to increase. PMID:19291502

  6. Navigating the gender minefield: An IPV prevention campaign sheds light on the gender gap.

    PubMed

    Keller, Sarah N; Honea, Joy C

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how differences in male and female views about intimate partner violence (IPV) contributed to divergent responses to a prevention campaign conducted in the western USA. The study examines focus groups (n = 22) and in-depth interview data (n = 13) collected during campaign development to shed light on quantitative results indicating that women (but not men) increased their perceived severity of domestic violence and awareness of services from pre-test to post-test, while male attitudes moved in the opposite direction. Results of the qualitative study provide the basis for the authors' conclusions about why reactions differed: (1) men's unwillingness to view abuse within a gender context limits men's ability to accept the inequity in statistically demonstrated male and female roles as perpetrators and victims; (2) male resentment of existing gender stereotypes contributed to a rejection of campaign messages that utilised gender prevalence statistics to depict images showing men as perpetrators and women as victims; and (3) victim blaming attitudes contributed to resistance to empathy for victims depicted in the campaign. The authors offer suggestions for future campaigns that foster agency among both perpetrators and survivors while confronting the structural barriers to enacting change.

  7. The 2005 British Columbia smoking cessation mass media campaign and short-term changes in smokers attitudes.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Lynda

    2008-03-01

    The effect of the 2005 British Columbia (BC) smoking cessation mass media campaign on a panel (N = 1,341) of 20-30-year-old smokers' attitudes is evaluated. The 5-week campaign consisted of posters, television, and radio ads about the health benefits of cessation. Small impacts on the panel's attitudes toward the adverse impacts of smoking were found, with greater impacts found for those who had no plans to quit smoking at the initial interview. As smokers with no plans to quit increasingly recognized the adverse impacts of smoking, they also increasingly agreed that they use smoking as a coping mechanism. Smokers with plans to quit at the initial interview already were well aware of smoking's adverse impacts. Respondents recalling the campaign poster, which presented a healthy alternative to smoking, decreased their perception of smoking as a coping mechanism and devalued their attachment to smoking. Evidence was found that media ad recall mediates unobserved predictors of attitudes toward smoking.

  8. Challenging the Collegiate Rite of Passage: A Campus-Wide Social Marketing Media Campaign To Reduce Binge Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glider, Peggy; Midyett, Stephen J.; Mills-Novoa, Beverly; Johannessen, Koreen; Collins, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. Two surveys provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors…

  9. Challenging the Collegiate Rite of Passage: A Campus-Wide Social Marketing Media Campaign To Reduce Binge Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glider, Peggy; Midyett, Stephen J.; Mills-Novoa, Beverly; Johannessen, Koreen; Collins, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. Two surveys provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors…

  10. The path to quit: how awareness of a large-scale mass-media smoking cessation campaign promotes quit attempts.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Amanda; Cullen, Jennifer; Mowery, Paul; McCausland, Kristen; Vallone, Donna

    2011-11-01

    Although awareness of mass-media smoking cessation campaigns is hypothesized to affect quit behavior through changes in cessation-related attitudes, intentions, and motivation (cognitions), this has yet to be formally tested. Structural equation modeling was used to examine whether changes in cessation-related cognitions mediate the relationship between awareness of a national mass-media smoking cessation campaign, the EX campaign, and quit attempts in a cohort of 3,571 current smokers drawn from eight U.S. Designated Market Areas and followed over an approximate six-month period. Models were examined in the total sample and within racial/ethnic, gender, age, and educational strata. Data suggest that there are both a direct effect of confirmed awareness of EX on quit attempts as well as an indirect effect mediated by positive changes in cessation-related cognitions. Results are not uniform across subgroups; stratified analyses reveal that awareness of EX is significantly associated with positive changes in cessation-related cognitions and quit attempts only in Blacks, males, and those with less than a high-school education. Those developing health communication mass-media campaigns need to consider how media messages might differentially impact U.S. subpopulations in order to elicit desired behavioral change across target subgroups.

  11. Effectiveness of media awareness campaigns on the proportion of vehicles that give space to ambulances on roads: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shiraz; Baig, Lubna A; Polkowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    The findings of the Health Care in Danger project in Karachi suggests that there is presence of behavioral negligence among vehicle operators on roads in regards to giving way to ambulances. A mass media campaign was conducted to raise people's awareness on the importance of giving way to ambulances. The main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the campaign on increasing the proportion of vehicles that give way to ambulances. This was a quasi-experimental study that was based on before and after design. Three observation surveys were carried out in different areas of the city in Karachi, Pakistan before, during and after the campaign by trained observers who recorded their findings on a checklist. Each observation was carried out at three different times of the day for at least two days on each road. The relationship of the media campaign with regards to a vehicle giving space to an ambulance was calculated by means of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 245 observations were included in the analysis. Traffic congestion and negligence/resistance, by vehicles operators who were in front of the ambulance, were the two main reasons why ambulances were not given way. Other reasons include: sudden stops by minibuses and in the process causing obstruction, ambulances not rushing through to alert vehicle operators to give way and traffic interruption by VIP movement. After adjustment for site, time of day, type of ambulance and number of cars in front of the ambulance, vehicles during (OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.22-3.71, p=0.007) and after the campaign (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.02-2.95, p=0.042) were significantly more likely give space to ambulances. Mass media campaigns can play a significant role in changing the negligent behavior of people, especially when the campaign conveys a humanitarian message such as: giving way to ambulances can save lives.

  12. Cost of Community Integrated Prevention Campaign for Malaria, HIV, and Diarrhea in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Delivery of community-based prevention services for HIV, malaria, and diarrhea is a major priority and challenge in rural Africa. Integrated delivery campaigns may offer a mechanism to achieve high coverage and efficiency. Methods We quantified the resources and costs to implement a large-scale integrated prevention campaign in Lurambi Division, Western Province, Kenya that reached 47,133 individuals (and 83% of eligible adults) in 7 days. The campaign provided HIV testing, condoms, and prevention education materials; a long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net; and a water filter. Data were obtained primarily from logistical and expenditure data maintained by implementing partners. We estimated the projected cost of a Scaled-Up Replication (SUR), assuming reliance on local managers, potential efficiencies of scale, and other adjustments. Results The cost per person served was $41.66 for the initial campaign and was projected at $31.98 for the SUR. The SUR cost included 67% for commodities (mainly water filters and bed nets) and 20% for personnel. The SUR projected unit cost per person served, by disease, was $6.27 for malaria (nets and training), $15.80 for diarrhea (filters and training), and $9.91 for HIV (test kits, counseling, condoms, and CD4 testing at each site). Conclusions A large-scale, rapidly implemented, integrated health campaign provided services to 80% of a rural Kenyan population with relatively low cost. Scaling up this design may provide similar services to larger populations at lower cost per person. PMID:22189090

  13. Cluster-randomised trial to evaluate the ‘Change for Life’ mass media/ social marketing campaign in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social marketing campaigns offer a promising approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Change4Life (C4L) is a national obesity prevention campaign in England. It included mass media coverage aiming to reframe obesity into a health issue relevant to all and provided the opportunity for parents to complete a brief questionnaire (‘How are the Kids’) and receive personalised feedback about their children’s eating and activity. Print and online C4L resources were available with guidance about healthy eating and physical activity. The study aims were to examine the impact of personalised feedback and print material from the C4L campaign on parents’ attitudes and behaviours about their children’s eating and activity in a community-based cluster-randomised controlled trial. Methods Parents of 5–11 year old children were recruited from 40 primary schools across England. Schools were randomised to intervention or control (‘usual care’). Basic demographic data and brief information about their attitudes to their children’s health were collected. Families in intervention schools were mailed the C4L print materials and the ‘How are the Kids’ questionnaire; those returning the questionnaire were sent personalised feedback and others received generic materials. Outcomes included awareness of C4L, attitudes to the behaviours recommended in C4L, parenting behaviours (monitoring and modelling), and child health behaviours (diet, physical activity and television viewing). Follow-up data were collected from parents by postal questionnaire after six months. Qualitative interviews were carried out with a subset of parents (n = 12). Results 3,774 families completed baseline questionnaires and follow-up data were obtained from 1,419 families (37.6%). Awareness was high in both groups at baseline (75%), but increased significantly in the intervention group by follow-up (96% vs. 87%). Few parents (5.2% of the intervention group) returned the

  14. Cluster-randomised trial to evaluate the 'Change for Life' mass media/ social marketing campaign in the UK.

    PubMed

    Croker, Helen; Lucas, Rebecca; Wardle, Jane

    2012-06-06

    Social marketing campaigns offer a promising approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Change4Life (C4L) is a national obesity prevention campaign in England. It included mass media coverage aiming to reframe obesity into a health issue relevant to all and provided the opportunity for parents to complete a brief questionnaire ('How are the Kids') and receive personalised feedback about their children's eating and activity. Print and online C4L resources were available with guidance about healthy eating and physical activity. The study aims were to examine the impact of personalised feedback and print material from the C4L campaign on parents' attitudes and behaviours about their children's eating and activity in a community-based cluster-randomised controlled trial. Parents of 5-11 year old children were recruited from 40 primary schools across England. Schools were randomised to intervention or control ('usual care'). Basic demographic data and brief information about their attitudes to their children's health were collected. Families in intervention schools were mailed the C4L print materials and the 'How are the Kids' questionnaire; those returning the questionnaire were sent personalised feedback and others received generic materials. Outcomes included awareness of C4L, attitudes to the behaviours recommended in C4L, parenting behaviours (monitoring and modelling), and child health behaviours (diet, physical activity and television viewing). Follow-up data were collected from parents by postal questionnaire after six months. Qualitative interviews were carried out with a subset of parents (n = 12). 3,774 families completed baseline questionnaires and follow-up data were obtained from 1,419 families (37.6%). Awareness was high in both groups at baseline (75%), but increased significantly in the intervention group by follow-up (96% vs. 87%). Few parents (5.2% of the intervention group) returned the questionnaire to get personalised feedback. There

  15. Study of Citizen Scientist Motivations and Effectiveness of Social Media Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Gay, P. L.; Bracey, G.; Lehan, C.; Lewis, S.; Moore, J.; Rhea, J.

    2013-01-01

    CosmoQuest is an online citizen science and astronomy education portal that invites users to explore the universe. Since its launch in January 2012, several thousand citizen scientists have participated in mapping and discovery projects involving the Moon, the Kuiper Belt, and asteroid Vesta. Since our goal is to support community building as well as involving users with citizen science tasks, we are interested in what motivates users to join the site, participate in the science, participate in the forums, and come back to the site over a period of time. We would also like to efficiently target our social media interactions towards activities that are more likely to bring new and existing users to the site. With those goals in mind, we analyze site usage statistics and correlate them with specific, targeted social media campaigns to highlight events or projects that CosmoQuest has hosted in its first year. We also survey our users to get a more detailed look at citizen scientist motivations and the efficacy of our community building activities.

  16. Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006–2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010–11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006–2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006–2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:26824695

  17. Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Byrnes, Joshua; Crane, Melanie; Shakeshaft, Anthony P; Searles, Andrew; Perez, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006-2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010-11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006-2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006-2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer.

  18. An evaluation of a mass media campaign to encourage parents of adolescents to talk to their children about sex.

    PubMed

    DuRant, Robert H; Wolfson, Mark; LaFrance, Betty; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Altman, David

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated a mass media campaign in North Carolina that used television (TV) public service announcements (PSAs), radio PSAs, and billboards to encourage parents of adolescents to talk to their children about sex. The primary message of the campaign was "Talk to your kids about sex. Everyone else is." Thirty-two of the 100 counties in North Carolina were chosen to evaluate the mass media campaign. Paid TV PSAs were aired in 22 of these counties, radio PSAs were aired in 21 counties, and billboards were displayed in 6 counties over a period of 9 months. The counties in our sample varied from no exposure to exposure to all 3 types of media. To assess the impact of the campaign, a sample of 1,132 parents of adolescents living in the 32 counties was administered a postexposure survey via a telephone interview. Questions about exposure to the media campaign were embedded among questions concerning media exposure to other health-related messages. The parent survey assessed the frequency the parents reported exposure to each type of media message, correct knowledge of the message, and multiple item scales that assessed how often they had talked to their child about various issues related to sex during the previous 6 months, intentions to talk to their child about these issues during the next month, and attitudes about discussing sexual issues with their child. In bivariate analyses the levels of parental exposure to the 3 types of media messages were associated with both having talked to their children and intentions to talk to their children about sex (p < .0001). When analyzed with multiple regression, female gender, minority ethnicity, frequency of seeing a billboard on teenage pregnancy, frequency of seeing a TV PSA about sex, and frequency of hearing a radio PSA about sex and teenage pregnancy accounted for 12.8% (p < .0001) of the variance in having talked to their child about sex. Female gender, minority ethnicity, and previously talking to their child about sex

  19. Strategies of the Brazilian chronic kidney disease prevention campaign (2003-2009).

    PubMed

    Mastroianni-Kirsztajn, Gianna; Bastos, Marcus G; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, as in the rest of the world, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing. In order to alert the population, health professionals and authorities to this risk, in 2003, the Brazilian Society of Nephrology launched a CKD prevention campaign called 'Previna-se'. In addition, since its onset, Brazil has participated in the World Kidney Day efforts and has developed several prevention strategies. Here, we summarize the main strategies adopted in this campaign (population screening, events and meetings, distribution of educational materials, routine report of estimated glomerular filtration rate) and our initial results, sharing practical experience that could be useful in other developing countries. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Maximizing the Impact of Digital Media Campaigns to Promote Smoking Cessation: A Case Study of the California Tobacco Control Program and the California Smokers' Helpline.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Ok; Momin, Behnoosh; Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Harms, Kristin; McCartney, Amanda; Neri, Antonio; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L

    2014-01-01

    Digital media are often used to encourage smoking cessation by increasing quitline call volume through direct promotion to smokers or indirect promotion to smoker proxies. The documentation of a program's experiences utilizing digital media is necessary to develop both the knowledge base and a set of best practices. This case study highlights the use of digital media in a proxy-targeted campaign to promote the California Smokers' Helpline to health care professionals from October 2009 to September 2012. We describe the iterative development of the campaign's digital media activities and report campaign summaries of web metrics (website visits, webinar registrations, downloads of online materials, online orders for promotional materials) and media buy (gross impressions) tracking data. The campaign generated more than 2.7 million gross impressions from digital media sources over 3 years. Online orders for promotional materials increased almost 40% over the course of the campaign. A clearly defined campaign strategy ensured that there was a systematic approach in developing and implementing campaign activities and ensuring that lessons learned from previous years were incorporated. Discussion includes lessons learned and recommendations for future improvements reported by campaign staff to inform similar efforts using digital media.

  1. Longitudinal study of Thai people media exposure, knowledge, and behavior on dengue fever prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Boonchutima, Smith; Kachentawa, Kirati; Limpavithayakul, Manasanun; Prachansri, Anan

    2017-03-09

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever is transmitted through a bite by a dengue -infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. It was first reported in the mid -20th century in Thailand, and since then its epidemiology has been of great concern and has spread all across the country. The alarming incidence of dengue posed a serious threat to human health in all major cities of Thailand. This study was aimed at identifying the level of awareness of dengue fever in Thai population knowledge for prevention and control, and most importantly contribution of media in educating masses for dengue control measures. It is longitudinal in nature and was conducted in 25 provinces of Thailand during 2013-2015. Approximately 7772 respondents participated in this study, with the selection of provinces based on considerations like population, prevalence and demography. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect information relevant to study participants' demographic profile, pre-existing knowledge about dengue fever and its reinforcement through media, and population attitudes toward prevention and control. Over the period of three years, a positive trend was revealed relevant to the contribution of media in educating and reminding the Thai population of dengue, without any uniformity or powerful campaigns. Based on the results drawn from this study, we conclude that despite the measures undertaken to prevent dengue fever, there is insufficient media exposure. An interdisciplinary approach involving the community participation, media, and government is needed to overcome dengue threat in Thailand.

  2. Effect of a Digital Social Media Campaign on Young Adult Smoking Cessation.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, Neill Bruce; Azagba, Sunday; Norman, Cameron; McKeown, Kyle; Brown, K Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Social media (SM) may extend the reach and impact for smoking cessation among young adult smokers. To-date, little research targeting young adults has been done on the use of SM to promote quitting smoking. We assessed the effect of an innovative multicomponent web-based and SM approach known as Break-it-Off (BIO) on young adult smoking cessation. The study employed a quasi-experimental design with baseline and 3-month follow-up data from 19 to 29-year old smokers exposed to BIO (n = 102 at follow-up) and a comparison group of Smokers' Helpline (SHL) users (n = 136 at follow-up). Logistic regression analysis assessed differences between groups on self-reported 7-day and 30-day point prevalence cessation rates, adjusting for ethnicity, education level, and cigarette use (daily or occasional) at baseline. The campaign reached 37 325 unique visitors with a total of 44 172 visits. BIO users had significantly higher 7-day and 30-day quit rates compared with users of SHL. At 3-month follow-up, BIO participants (32.4%) were more likely than SHL participants (14%) to have quit smoking for 30 days (odds ratio = 2.95, 95% CI = 1.56 to 5.57, P < .001) and BIO participants (91%) were more likely than SHL participants (79%) to have made a quit attempt (odds ratio = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.03 to 6.99, P = .04). The reach of the campaign and findings on quitting success indicate that a digital/SM platform can complement the traditional SHL cessation service for young adult smokers seeking help to quit. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. [Ideology and gender relations: a reception study about AIDS prevention campaigns].

    PubMed

    Roso, A

    2000-01-01

    This article refers to a reception research of seven television prevention campaigns, done in South Brazil - Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, with 38 women, ages 18-51 years old, from low-income class. The sample was divided in two groups: women that don't participate in groups that fight against AIDS/HIV and women that participates in groups that fight against AIDS/HIV. Based in a qualitative framework, the Depth Hermeneutic and the Feminist Theory were employed in order to study the ideology and gender relations underneath the campaigns' messages. The results indicate that for both groups of women television is an important source of AIDS related information, although they believe the campaigns do not stimulate the use of condom. While the first group of women agrees and identifies themselves with the majority of messages and images within the campaigns, the second group perceives that behind the messages the voice of the ideology operates, throughout a variety of strategies, to create and to establish relations of domination.

  4. Youth Receptivity to FDA’s The Real Cost Tobacco Prevention Campaign: Evidence From Message Pretesting

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, XIAOQUAN; ALEXANDER, TESFA N.; HOFFMAN, LEAH; JONES, CHAUNETTA; DELAHANTY, JANINE; WALKER, MATTHEW; BERGER, AMANDA T.; TALBERT, EMILY

    2016-01-01

    In February 2014, the Food and Drug Administration launched The Real Cost, a national youth tobacco prevention campaign. This article examines youth receptivity to potential campaign ads using data from 3 message pretesting studies featuring the same design and consistent instrumentation. A total of 3,258 adolescents ages 13–17 were randomized to either an ad-viewing condition or a no-exposure control condition. Perceived ad effectiveness, smoking-related beliefs, and attitudes were measured as outcome variables. The sample consisted of both experimental smokers (58%) and current nonsmokers at risk for cigarette initiation (42%). A total of 14 ads were tested across the three studies. Participants who viewed the ads generally considered them to be effective (with a mean perceived ad effectiveness score of 3.66 on a scale from 1 to 5). Compared to those in the control condition, participants in the ad-viewing condition reported stronger beliefs about the health risks of smoking (p < .001), a greater likelihood that smoking would lead to loss of control in life (p < .001), and more negative attitudes toward smoking (p < .001). Responses to campaign ads were largely consistent between experimenters and at-risk nonsmokers. Implications of the findings for the campaign are discussed. PMID:27736365

  5. Mass media health communication campaigns combined with health-related product distribution: a community guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Maren N; Tansil, Kristin A; Elder, Randy W; Soler, Robin E; Labre, Magdala P; Mercer, Shawna L; Eroglu, Dogan; Baur, Cynthia; Lyon-Daniel, Katherine; Fridinger, Fred; Sokler, Lynn A; Green, Lawrence W; Miller, Therese; Dearing, James W; Evans, William D; Snyder, Leslie B; Kasisomayajula Viswanath, K; Beistle, Diane M; Chervin, Doryn D; Bernhardt, Jay M; Rimer, Barbara K

    2014-09-01

    Health communication campaigns including mass media and health-related product distribution have been used to reduce mortality and morbidity through behavior change. The intervention is defined as having two core components reflecting two social marketing principles: (1) promoting behavior change through multiple communication channels, one being mass media, and (2) distributing a free or reduced-price product that facilitates adoption and maintenance of healthy behavior change, sustains cessation of harmful behaviors, or protects against behavior-related disease or injury. Using methods previously developed for the Community Guide, a systematic review (search period, January 1980-December 2009) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of health communication campaigns that use multiple channels, including mass media, and distribute health-related products. The primary outcome of interest was use of distributed health-related products. Twenty-two studies that met Community Guide quality criteria were analyzed in 2010. Most studies showed favorable behavior change effects on health-related product use (a median increase of 8.4 percentage points). By product category, median increases in desired behaviors ranged from 4.0 percentage points for condom promotion and distribution campaigns to 10.0 percentage points for smoking-cessation campaigns. Health communication campaigns that combine mass media and other communication channels with distribution of free or reduced-price health-related products are effective in improving healthy behaviors. This intervention is expected to be applicable across U.S. demographic groups, with appropriate population targeting. The ability to draw more specific conclusions about other important social marketing practices is constrained by limited reporting of intervention components and characteristics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Impact of the mass media OBERTAMENT campaign on the levels of stigma among the population of Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Valera, M; Fernández, A; Evans-Lacko, S; Luciano, J V; Thornicroft, G; Aznar-Lou, I; Serrano-Blanco, A

    2016-01-01

    Reducing public stigma could improve patients' access to care, recovery and social integration. The aim of the study was to evaluate a mass media intervention, which aimed to reduce the mental health, related stigma among the general population in Catalonia (Spain). We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey of a representative sample of the Catalan non-institutionalized adult population (n=1019). We assessed campaign awareness, attitudes to people with mental illness (CAMI) and intended behaviour (RIBS). To evaluate the association between campaign awareness and stigma, multivariable regression models were used. Over 20% of respondents recognized the campaign when prompted, and 11% when unprompted. Campaign aware individuals had better attitudes on the benevolence subscale of the CAMI than unaware individuals (P=0.009). No significant differences in authoritarianism and support for community mental health care attitudes subscales were observed. The campaign aware group had better intended behaviour than the unaware group (P<0.01). The OBERTAMENT anti-stigma campaign had a positive impact to improve the attitudes and intended behaviour towards people with mental illness of the Catalan population. The impact on stigma was limited to attitudes related to benevolence. A wider range of anti-stigma messages could produce a stronger impact on attitudes and intended behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Social media and suicide prevention: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jo; Cox, Georgina; Bailey, Eleanor; Hetrick, Sarah; Rodrigues, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Herrman, Helen

    2016-04-01

    Social media platforms are commonly used for the expression of suicidal thoughts and feelings, particularly by young people. Despite this, little is known about the ways in which social media can be used for suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to identify current evidence pertaining to the ways in which social media are currently used as a tool for suicide prevention. Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, CINHAL and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between 1991 and April 2014. English language articles with a focus on suicide-related behaviour and social media were included. No exclusion was placed on study design. Thirty studies were included; 4 described the development of social media sites designed for suicide prevention, 6 examined the potential of social media in terms of its ability to reach or identify people at risk of suicide, 15 examined the ways in which people used social media for suicide prevention-related purposes, and 5 examined the experiences of people who had used social media sites for suicide prevention purposes. No intervention studies were identified. Social media platforms can reach large numbers of otherwise hard-to-engage individuals, may allow others to intervene following an expression of suicidal ideation online, and provide an anonymous, accessible and non-judgmental forum for sharing experiences. Challenges include difficulties controlling user behaviour and accurately assessing risk, issues relating to privacy and confidentiality and the possibility of contagion. Social media appears to hold significant potential for suicide prevention; however, additional research into its safety and efficacy is required. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. [4th Austrian SIDS Consensus-Consultation and the Viennese SIDS prevention campaign "Secure Sleep"].

    PubMed

    Ipsiroglu, O S; Kerbl, R; Urschitz, M; Kurz, R

    2000-03-10

    Despite numerous investigations the pathophysiologic mechanisms of SIDS have not been fully elucidated. In large epidemiologic studies highly variable SIDS mortality rates were noted between different countries and cultures. This presumably is due not only to differences in diagnostics and classification of SIDS but also in lifestyle and newborn care. The common denominator is the identification and prevention of the main risk factors: smoking, sleeping in the prone position, over-heating, wrong "bedding". SIDS prevention campaigns that have focussed upon these risk factors have led to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of SIDS. In preparation for the SIDS prevention campaign of Vienna ("Safe Sleep") the content, strategy and procedure of the Austrian prevention campaigns were analysed. The current focus is to convey a clear and uniform message in personal conversations before and after birth of the child. These conversations with parents are the most important tool to detect SIDS related anxiety and a possibly increased risk of SIDS. In the last 30 years various polysomnographic parameters were published that were associated with an increased risk of SIDS. Today there is international consent that polysomnography is not an efficient screening method to demonstrate increased risk of SIDS. Therefore the use of polysomnography, besides research purposes, has been limited to investigating clinical symptoms of infants and children. Concerning monitoring it is important to note that--in contrast to the undisputed importance of monitoring breathing disorders--the effectiveness in SIDS prevention is unproven. State of the art are instruments that monitor heart and breathing rate and have adequate storage functions. The duration of monitoring should encompass the symptomatic period as well as a safety period of three months. The monitor should not be routinely prescribed for a year. The guiding principle is "As short as possible with stringent indication". Prerequisite

  9. Impact of a media campaign for disaster mental health counseling in post-September 11 New York.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard G; Pindyck, Talia; Donahue, Sheila A; Pease, Elizabeth A; Foster, M Jameson; Felton, Chip J; Essock, Susan M

    2006-09-01

    After the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, the New York State Office of Mental Health (NYOMH) initiated a three-phase multifaceted, multilingual media campaign that advertised the availability of counseling services. This study evaluated the association between patterns of spending within this campaign and the volume of calls received and referred to a counseling program. Spending on television, radio, print, and other advertising was examined, as was the corresponding volume of calls to the NetLife hotline seeking referrals to counseling services. From September 2001 to December 2002, $9.38 million was spent on Project Liberty media campaigns. Call volumes increased during months when total monthly expenditures peaked. Initially, flyers, billboards, and other material items accounted for most monthly expenses. Over time, spending for television and radio advertisements increased, whereas other advertising declined. Temporal patterns show that in periods after an increase in media spending, call volumes increased independently of other sentinel events such as the one-year anniversary of the attacks. Sustained advertising through multiple media outlets appeared to be effective in encouraging individuals to seek mental health services.

  10. Maximizing the Impact of Digital Media Campaigns to Promote Smoking Cessation: A Case Study of the California Tobacco Control Program and the California Smokers’ Helpline

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Ok; Momin, Behnoosh; Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Harms, Kristin; McCartney, Amanda; Neri, Antonio; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L.

    2017-01-01

    Digital media are often used to encourage smoking cessation by increasing quitline call volume through direct promotion to smokers or indirect promotion to smoker proxies. The documentation of a program’s experiences utilizing digital media is necessary to develop both the knowledge base and a set of best practices. This case study highlights the use of digital media in a proxy-targeted campaign to promote the California Smokers’ Helpline to health care professionals from October 2009 to September 2012. We describe the iterative development of the campaign’s digital media activities and report campaign summaries of web metrics (website visits, webinar registrations, downloads of online materials, online orders for promotional materials) and media buy (gross impressions) tracking data. The campaign generated more than 2.7 million gross impressions from digital media sources over 3 years. Online orders for promotional materials increased almost 40% over the course of the campaign. A clearly defined campaign strategy ensured that there was a systematic approach in developing and implementing campaign activities and ensuring that lessons learned from previous years were incorporated. Discussion includes lessons learned and recommendations for future improvements reported by campaign staff to inform similar efforts using digital media. PMID:28239304

  11. Does culture matter?: a cross-national investigation of women's responses to cancer prevention campaigns.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyoo-Hoon; Jo, Samsup

    2012-01-01

    We examined how culture influences the persuasive effects of health campaigns that promote early screening for cancers that occur in women. Two message dimensions were included: individualistic vs. collectivistic appeal and gain vs. loss frame. A total of 955 females from three countries-the United States, South Korea, and Japan-participated in the experiment. From the results, we found that message framing alone did not significantly influence the effectiveness of public campaigns for women's cancer prevention; and this tendency was similar across the three countries. Gain-framed messages are likely to be more persuasive when combined with a collectivistic appeal, however, whereas loss-framed messages tend to be more effective when combined with an individualistic appeal in both the United States and South Korea; but this result was not the case for Japan. Based on the findings, we suggested theoretical and managerial implications as well as several directions for future research.

  12. Preventing falls in residential construction: Effectiveness of engaging partners for a national social marketing campaign.

    PubMed

    Macario, Everly; Hannon, Sandra Wills; Baker, Robin; Branche, Christine M; Trahan, Christina

    2015-08-01

    Falls are the leading cause of fatalities in construction. The Safety Pays, Falls Cost campaign aims to prevent falls in residential construction. A critical component of our social marketing approach was to involve 70 partners in reaching target audiences. We assessed partner engagement April 2012-August 2013 through: (1) baseline partnership quality interviews (eight partners); (2) pre-/post-partner "market" readiness in-depth interviews (three partners); (3) a pre-/post- (29/31 partners) online partner engagement survey; and (4) standardized metrics to measure partner activity. We found a high level of interest and engagement that increased with the addition of prompting to action through regular communication and new resources from organizers and formation of local partnerships that were able to tailor their activities to their own communities or regions. It is feasible to leverage government-labor-management partnerships that enjoy trust among target audiences to widely disseminate campaign materials and messages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. How media campaigns influence children's physical activity: expanding the normative mechanisms of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hyun Jung; Hove, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study explicates mechanisms of media campaign effectiveness in the context of children's physical activity. The authors' model expands the theory of planned behavior by integrating injunctive and descriptive norms into its normative mechanism. Analysis of a 3-wave nationally representative evaluation survey among 1,623 tweens indicates that campaign exposure is significantly related, but only indirectly, to both physical activity intention and physical activity behavior. Instead, campaign exposure seems more strongly related to perceived behavioral control and attitudes toward physical activity. By contrast, perceived behavioral control and descriptive norms are strongly related to behavioral intention. The findings suggest that integrating normative mechanisms with the theory of planned behavior can improve efforts to predict and explain a health behavior.

  14. Social media campaigns that make a difference: what can public health learn from the corporate sector and other social change marketers?

    PubMed

    Freeman, Becky; Potente, Sofia; Rock, Vanessa; McIver, Jacqueline

    2015-03-30

    A great deal of enthusiasm and interest exists in using social media for public health communications, but few research studies have examined its success in promoting and adopting protective health behaviours. To begin to understand how best to develop effective online social marketing campaigns, this paper provides a summary of success factors and key lessons learnt from selected social media campaign case studies. Case study review Methods: A selection of case studies was reviewed for lessons in campaign development, delivery and evaluation from both the corporate and public health sectors. Information about the objective of the campaign, the tactics used and the lessons learnt was extracted from each case study. Lessons learnt from across the case studies were then sorted according to themes. Lessons from the nine case studies selected were categorised into eight themes: planning, use of social media tools, community, content, personal benefits, promotion, costs and challenges. Outcome evaluation data were lacking in the case studies. Overall, the nine case studies show that social media hold promise in changing user behaviours and that social media are highly effective in recruiting participants and motivating them to take small, concrete actions. The case studies also demonstrate that there is room in social media for targeted, inexpensive, small-scale projects, as well as large, well-funded, mass-reach marketing blitzes. Social media campaign process and impact evaluation measures are readily available. Outcome evaluation models and measures are needed to better assess the effectiveness of social media campaigns in changing health behaviours.

  15. Developing Social Media-Based Suicide Prevention Messages in Partnership With Young People: Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jo; Bailey, Eleanor; Hetrick, Sarah; Paix, Steve; O'Donnell, Matt; Cox, Georgina; Ftanou, Maria; Skehan, Jaelea

    2017-10-04

    participants reported that the program made them feel suicidal. Participants in phase 2 generally rated the media messages as safe and acceptable, although some messages were rated more highly than others. This study suggests that young people can be safely engaged in developing suicide prevention messages, which can be disseminated via social media. Engaging young people in this process may improve the traction that such campaigns will have with other young people. The study also suggests that educating young people regarding how to talk safely about suicide online has multiple benefits and is not associated with distress. Overall, these findings pave the way for new approaches to prevent suicide among young people.

  16. Community Involvement in The Development and Feedback about a Colorectal Cancer Screening Media Campaign in Ohio Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.; Reiter, Paul; Fickle, Darla; Heaner, Sarah; Sim, Courtney; Lehman, Amy; Paskett, Electra D.

    2009-01-01

    A community needs assessment focused on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening knowledge, behaviors, and barriers was completed in one Ohio Appalachia county. A CRC screening media campaign was developed based on the findings from the needs assessment and feedback was obtained about the media campaign. The survey was completed by 170 self-reported average-risk adults. In a multivariate model, the CRC screening rate was higher for participants who had received a doctor’s recommendation (OR=6.09), had adequate CRC knowledge (OR=2.88), and was lower among participants employed full-time (OR=0.23). Having health insurance (OR=4.20) and being married (OR=2.58) was associated with having received a doctor’s recommendation for screening. Campaign feedback using a second survey completed by self-reported average-risk adults (n=61) revealed that 69% recognized the campaign image and message, with a billboard being the most cited source. This study highlights the importance of involving community members in the development of CRC screening programs to reduce cancer disparities in Appalachia. PMID:21051324

  17. Estimating Causal Effects With Propensity Score Models: An Evaluation of the Touch Condom Media Campaign in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Chen, Hongliang; Agha, Sohail

    2016-01-01

    Rapid population growth in Pakistan poses major risks, including those pertinent to public health. In the context of family planning in Pakistan, the current study evaluates the Touch condom media campaign and its effects on condom-related awareness, attitudes, behavioral intention, and behavior. This evaluation relies on 3 waves of panel survey data from men married to women ages 15-49 living in urban and rural areas in Pakistan (N = 1,012): Wave 1 was March 15 to April 7, 2009; Wave 2 was August 10 to August 24, 2009; and Wave 3 was May 1 to June 13, 2010. Analysis of variance provided evidence of improvements in 10 of 11 condom-related outcomes from Wave 1 to Wave 2 and Wave 3. In addition, there was no evidence of outcome decay 1 year after the conclusion of campaign advertising dissemination. To help compensate for violating the assumption of random assignment, propensity score modeling offered evidence of the beneficial effects of confirmed Touch ad recall on each of the 11 outcomes in at least 1 of 3 time-lagged scenarios. By using these different time-lagged scenarios (i.e., from Wave 1 to Wave 2, from Wave 1 to Wave 3, and from Wave 2 to Wave 3), propensity score modeling permitted insights into how the campaign had time-variant effects on the different types of condom-related outcomes, including carryover effects of the media campaign.

  18. Community involvement in the development and feedback about a colorectal cancer screening media campaign in Ohio Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mira L; Reiter, Paul; Fickle, Darla; Heaner, Sarah; Sim, Courtney; Lehman, Amy; Paskett, Electra D

    2011-07-01

    A community needs assessment focused on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening knowledge, behaviors, and barriers was completed in one Ohio Appalachia county. A CRC screening media campaign was developed based on the findings from the needs assessment and feedback was obtained about the media campaign. The survey was completed by 170 self-reported average-risk adults. In a multivariate model, the CRC screening rate was higher for participants who had received a doctor's recommendation (OR = 6.09) and had adequate CRC knowledge (OR = 2.88), and it was lower among participants employed full-time (OR = 0.23). Having health insurance (OR = 4.20) and being married (OR = 2.58) was associated with having received a doctor's recommendation for screening. Campaign feedback using a second survey completed by self-reported average-risk adults (n = 61) revealed that 69% recognized the campaign image and message, with a billboard being the most cited source. This study highlights the importance of involving community members in the development of CRC screening programs to reduce cancer disparities in Appalachia.

  19. Effectiveness of media and enforcement campaigns in increasing seat belt usage rates in a state with a secondary seat belt law.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Vinod; Nambisan, Shashi S; Singh, Ashok K; Pearl, Traci

    2009-08-01

    In 2005, in terms of seat belt usage rates, Nevada ranked third nationally and first among states with secondary seat belt use enforcement laws in the United States. An effective combination of a media-based education and enforcement campaign helped in this regard. The objective of this article is to document the effectiveness of enforcement and media-based education and outreach campaigns on the seat belt usage rates in Nevada, a state with a secondary seat belt usage law. Observational data on seat belt usage and passenger fatality data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of enforcement campaigns and media-based education and outreach campaigns. Data based on observations of about 40,000 vehicles in each of the years 2003 to 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analyses show that a significant increase in seat belt usage rates among both drivers and passengers for both genders resulted from the accompanying the media and enforcement campaigns. The results from this study indicate that effective and well-planned media/enforcement campaigns can have a significant impact on seat belt usage rates even in a state where the enforcement of seat belt laws can only be as a secondary violation. They validate and expand on findings from other efforts documented in the literature. These results demonstrate that, if coordinated properly, media and enforcement campaigns work very effectively in increasing seat belt usage rates even in states with secondary seat belt laws.

  20. Challenging the collegiate rite of passage: a campus-wide social marketing media campaign to reduce binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Glider, P; Midyett, S J; Mills-Novoa, B; Johannessen, K; Collins, C

    2001-01-01

    A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, on a large, southwestern university campus has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. The Core Alcohol and Drug Survey and the Health Enhancement Survey provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding alcohol and binge drinking. This study represents the first in-depth research on the impact of a media approach, based on a normative social influence model, to reduce binge drinking on a large university campus and has yielded promising initial results.

  1. Patient satisfaction point-of-care technology makes media waves. Public relations campaign heightens presence for GetWell:)Network.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    GetWell:)Network, a Bethesda, MD-based interactive patient care provider, had the right tool. What it didn't have was the means to get the word out about that tool. So in September 2006, the provider tapped Waltham, MA-based healthcare public relations agency Schwartz Communications to design and execute a national media relations campaign about the PatientLife:)System, GetWell's interactive educational bedside tool.

  2. Development and implementation of mass media campaigns to delay sexual initiation among African American and White youth.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M; Zimmerman, Rick S; Palmgreen, Philip; Cupp, Pamela K; Floyd, Brenikki R; Mehrotra, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    Reducing new HIV/STD infections among at-risk adolescents requires developing and evaluating evidence-based health communication approaches. Research overwhelmingly supports the conclusion that early sexual initiation is associated with STDs and other negative outcomes in later years (e.g., unintended pregnancy). The authors' research group secured funding from the National Institute of Mental Health to develop, implement, and rigorously evaluate televised mass media campaigns to delay initiation of sexual intercourse among African American and White adolescents in two cities in the Southeastern United States. The focus of the present study is on the development and implementation of the campaigns, including (a) rationale and theoretical underpinnings; (b) collection, screening, and assessment of existing public service announcements; (c) development of new public service announcements; (d) study design and campaign airing plan; and (e) message exposure achieved in the campaigns. Health communication campaigns hold much promise in reaching at-risk adolescent populations with targeted, timely, and relevant risk-reduction messages.

  3. Economics of mass media health campaigns with health-related product distribution: a community guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Verughese; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Elder, Randy W; Robinson, Maren N; Tansil, Kristin A; Soler, Robin E; Labre, Magdala P; Mercer, Shawna L

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to determine the costs, benefits, and overall economic value of communication campaigns that included mass media and distribution of specified health-related products at reduced price or free of charge. Economic evaluation studies from a literature search from January 1980 to December 2009 were screened and abstracted following systematic economic review methods developed by The Community Guide. Data were analyzed in 2011. The economic evidence was grouped and assessed by type of product distributed and health risk addressed. A total of 15 evaluation studies were included in the economic review, involving campaigns promoting the use of child car seats or booster seats, pedometers, condoms, recreational safety helmets, and nicotine replacement therapy. Economic merits of the intervention could not be determined for health communication campaigns associated with use of recreational helmets, child car seats, and pedometers, primarily because available economic information and analyses were incomplete. There is some evidence that campaigns with free condom distribution to promote safer sex practices were cost-effective among high-risk populations and the cost per quit achieved in campaigns promoting tobacco cessation with nicotine replacement therapy products may translate to a cost per quality-adjusted life-year less than $50,000. Many interventions were publicly funded trials or programs, and the failure to properly evaluate their economic cost and benefit is a serious gap in the science and practice of public health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The impact of an antismoking media campaign on progression to established smoking: results of a longitudinal youth study.

    PubMed

    Siegel, M; Biener, L

    2000-03-01

    We examined the impact of a statewide antismoking media campaign on progression to established smoking among Massachusetts adolescents. We conducted a 4-year longitudinal survey of 592 Massachusetts youths, aged 12 to 15 years at baseline in 1993. We examined the effect of baseline exposure to television, radio, and outdoor antismoking advertisements on progression to established smoking (defined as having smoked 100 or more cigarettes), using multiple logistic regression and controlling for age; sex; race; baseline smoking status; smoking by parents, friends, and siblings; television viewing; and exposure to antismoking messages not related to the media campaign. Among younger adolescents (aged 12 to 13 years at baseline), those reporting baseline exposure to television antismoking advertisements were significantly less likely to progress to established smoking (odds ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval = 0.26, 0.93). Exposure to television antismoking advertisements had no effect on progression to established smoking among older adolescents (aged 14 to 15 years at baseline), and there were no effects of exposure to radio or outdoor advertisements. These results suggest that the television component of the Massachusetts antismoking media campaign may have reduced the rate of progression to established smoking among young adolescents.

  5. Who Runs Presidential Campaigns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindsvatter, Peter S.

    Presidential campaigns in the last decade have provided evidence of the rising influence of the mass media campaign and of campaign consultants. The media, through their power of access to the people, manipulate the public's recognition of a candidate by the amount of coverage given. Newspaper endorsements and the reporting of media-conducted…

  6. Who Runs Presidential Campaigns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindsvatter, Peter S.

    Presidential campaigns in the last decade have provided evidence of the rising influence of the mass media campaign and of campaign consultants. The media, through their power of access to the people, manipulate the public's recognition of a candidate by the amount of coverage given. Newspaper endorsements and the reporting of media-conducted…

  7. Media literacy education for elementary school substance use prevention: study of media detective.

    PubMed

    Kupersmidt, Janis B; Scull, Tracy M; Austin, Erica Weintraub

    2010-09-01

    Media Detective is a 10-lesson elementary school substance use prevention program developed on the basis of the message interpretation processing model designed to increase children's critical thinking skills about media messages and reduce intent to use tobacco and alcohol products. The purpose of this study was to conduct a short-term, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Media Detective for achieving these goals. Elementary schools were randomly assigned to conditions to either receive the Media Detective program (n=344) or serve in a waiting list control group (n=335). Boys in the Media Detective group reported significantly less interest in alcohol-branded merchandise than boys in the control group. Also, students who were in the Media Detective group and had used alcohol or tobacco in the past reported significantly less intention to use and more self-efficacy to refuse substances than students who were in the control group and had previously used alcohol or tobacco. This evaluation provides evidence that Media Detective can be effective for substance use prevention in elementary school-aged children. Notably, media-related cognitions about alcohol and tobacco products are malleable and relevant to the development and maintenance of substance use behaviors during late childhood. The findings from this study suggest that media literacy-based interventions may serve as both a universal and a targeted prevention program that has potential for assisting elementary school children in making healthier, more informed decisions about use of alcohol and tobacco products.

  8. Identification of cancer risk and associated behaviour: implications for social marketing campaigns for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Kippen, Rebecca; James, Erica; Ward, Bernadette; Buykx, Penny; Shamsullah, Ardel; Watson, Wendy; Chapman, Kathy

    2017-08-17

    Community misconception of what causes cancer is an important consideration when devising communication strategies around cancer prevention, while those initiating social marketing campaigns must decide whether to target the general population or to tailor messages for different audiences. This paper investigates the relationships between demographic characteristics, identification of selected cancer risk factors, and associated protective behaviours, to inform audience segmentation for cancer prevention social marketing. Data for this cross-sectional study (n = 3301) are derived from Cancer Council New South Wales' 2013 Cancer Prevention Survey. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between respondent demographic characteristics and identification of each of seven cancer risk factors; demographic characteristics and practice of the seven 'protective' behaviours associated with the seven cancer risk factors; and identification of cancer risk factors and practising the associated protective behaviours, controlling for demographic characteristics. More than 90% of respondents across demographic groups identified sun exposure and smoking cigarettes as moderate or large cancer risk factors. Around 80% identified passive smoking as a moderate/large risk factor, and 40-60% identified being overweight or obese, drinking alcohol, not eating enough vegetables and not eating enough fruit. Women and older respondents were more likely to identify most cancer risk factors as moderate/large, and to practise associated protective behaviours. Education was correlated with identification of smoking as a moderate/large cancer risk factor, and with four of the seven protective behaviours. Location (metropolitan/regional) and country of birth (Australia/other) were weak predictors of identification and of protective behaviours. Identification of a cancer risk factor as moderate/large was a significant predictor for five out

  9. Effectiveness of media awareness campaigns on the proportion of vehicles that give space to ambulances on roads: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Shiraz; Baig, Lubna A; Polkowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: The findings of the Health Care in Danger project in Karachi suggests that there is presence of behavioral negligence among vehicle operators on roads in regards to giving way to ambulances. A mass media campaign was conducted to raise people’s awareness on the importance of giving way to ambulances. The main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the campaign on increasing the proportion of vehicles that give way to ambulances. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study that was based on before and after design. Three observation surveys were carried out in different areas of the city in Karachi, Pakistan before, during and after the campaign by trained observers who recorded their findings on a checklist. Each observation was carried out at three different times of the day for at least two days on each road. The relationship of the media campaign with regards to a vehicle giving space to an ambulance was calculated by means of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Overall, 245 observations were included in the analysis. Traffic congestion and negligence/resistance, by vehicles operators who were in front of the ambulance, were the two main reasons why ambulances were not given way. Other reasons include: sudden stops by minibuses and in the process causing obstruction, ambulances not rushing through to alert vehicle operators to give way and traffic interruption by VIP movement. After adjustment for site, time of day, type of ambulance and number of cars in front of the ambulance, vehicles during (OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.22-3.71, p=0.007) and after the campaign (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.02-2.95, p=0.042) were significantly more likely give space to ambulances. Conclusion: Mass media campaigns can play a significant role in changing the negligent behavior of people, especially when the campaign conveys a humanitarian message such as: giving way to ambulances can save lives

  10. The Role of Media in Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco control efforts in the early 1990s, such as the ASSIST program, recognized the importance of mass media intervention in the environmental model, along with community organization and mobilization through coalition building and policy advocacy. Since 1998, the Higher Education Center has recommended that colleges and universities embrace an…

  11. Effects of "Find Thirty Every Day [R]": Cross-Sectional Findings from a Western Australian Population-Wide Mass Media Campaign, 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Justine E.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Giles-Corti, Billie; Shilton, Trevor; Maitland, Clover; Barnes, Rosanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Internationally, over the last four decades large-scale mass media campaigns have been delivered to promote physical activity and its associated health benefits. In 2002-2005, the first Western Australian statewide adult physical activity campaign "Find Thirty. It's Not a Big Exercise" was launched. In 2007, a new iteration…

  12. Effects of "Find Thirty Every Day [R]": Cross-Sectional Findings from a Western Australian Population-Wide Mass Media Campaign, 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Justine E.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Giles-Corti, Billie; Shilton, Trevor; Maitland, Clover; Barnes, Rosanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Internationally, over the last four decades large-scale mass media campaigns have been delivered to promote physical activity and its associated health benefits. In 2002-2005, the first Western Australian statewide adult physical activity campaign "Find Thirty. It's Not a Big Exercise" was launched. In 2007, a new iteration…

  13. News Bias in the 1972 Campaign: A Cross-Media Comparison. Journalism Monographs No. 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, C. Richard

    The television networks nightly news coverage of the 1972 Presidential campaign was examined between July 10 and November 6, 1972 to assess the nature and impact of political bias in news coverage. The campaign news coverage of two newspapers and one wire service was also compared with respect to the content and length of each medium's news about…

  14. Biased News in the 1972 Campaign: A Multi-Media Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, C. Richard

    The purpose of this study is to present systematic findings concerning bias in TV news coverage of the 1972 presidential campaign and to describe the kinds of coverage that the candidates and parties received during the campaign. News about the election was analyzed from weekday network evening news programs, AP day and night wire coverage, a…

  15. A profile of skin cancer prevention media coverage in 2009.

    PubMed

    Cokkinides, Vilma; Kirkland, Deborah; Andrews, Kimberly; Sullivan, Kristen; Lichtenfeld, J Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about the coverage of skin cancer prevention messages in news print media. To perform a content analysis of mass-media articles from newspaper and magazines pertaining to skin cancer prevention in 4 specific months (January, May, July, and October) in 2009 and assess the extent of coverage of skin cancer prevention messages. We conducted a content analysis of 144 articles related to skin cancer prevention extracted from strategic media scans of selected months in 2009. We sought to provide the frequency of mass-media content categorized by theme and focus related to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protection and risk-reducing behaviors. The audience for the vast majority (78%) of the articles was the general public. Among the assessed articles, more were published in May (49%) and July (35%) than in the remaining other months. The two most frequent themes focused on 'protection of the skin' (32%) and on 'skin cancer prevention' (23%) via risk reduction behavioral practices. Analysis of message content regarding UVR reduction practices showed that many mentioned 'use of sunscreen' (65% of messages) with the least-often mentioned behaviors being 'seek shade' (6.3%) and 'do not burn' (1.4%). In addition, a quarter of the articles lacked any content mentioning recommended UVR reduction behaviors. This study was limited to the narrow scope of articles published in 2009 and for selected months. This profile of mass-media content regarding skin cancer prevention revealed gaps in coverage of UVR reduction behaviors with possible room for improvement. Strategies for improving and comprehensiveness of coverage of recommended skin cancer prevention behaviors in the media are discussed. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  17. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  18. Media training for diabetes prevention: a participatory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Jeffrey; Jeambey, Zeinab; Starkey, Linda Jacobs

    2007-01-01

    The Media and the Message - Promoting Healthy Eating and Active Living for Diabetes Prevention was a project aimed at raising awareness of diabetes risk factors and enhancing the public's access to credible, up-to-date, healthy eating and active living messages in the media. Cross-country workshops were held to teach media strategies and key diabetes prevention messages to multidisciplinary groups of health professionals. Evaluation was integral to the project; both the process and outcomes were assessed using Health Canada's Population Health Approach. Timeline and budget were tracked. Questionnaires were created to evaluate advisory committee conference calls and to determine participants' perceptions of the 19 workshops and resources. A pre-workshop/post-workshop and three-month follow-up questionnaire format, along with an online media-tracking tool, was used to collect outcome data and to measure changes in confidence and media behaviour. Sixty-three percent of participants (150 of 238) reported that multidisciplinary workshops were very valuable. Three-month follow-up revealed a significant increase in confidence in all media activities taught at the workshops, although this failed to translate into increased media activity. Sixty-eight percent (78 of 115) of responding participants disseminated workshop learning. Detailed evaluation revealed that multidisciplinary workshops are valued and effective in increasing confidence. However, eliciting behaviour change following a workshop remains a challenge.

  19. Smoke-free workplace ballot campaigns: case studies from Missouri and lessons for policy and media advocacy.

    PubMed

    Bach, Laura E; Shelton, Sarah C; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Israel, Kendre

    2013-01-01

    To assess the key components of smoke-free campaigns that may have influenced voting outcomes in three communities. Community case studies with content analysis of tobacco-related newspaper articles. Three semiurban Missouri communities. One hundred eighty-one articles referencing tobacco published during the campaigns and five key informant interviews. Articles were coded for type, community referenced, tobacco control position, source of quotations, use of evidence, and frame. Semistructured interviews with key informants collected additional information. Descriptive statistics were utilized to examine media coverage in each community. Key themes and events for each campaign were identified from qualitative interviews. The only community that failed to pass its initiative had the highest proportion of letters to the editor (81.1%), anti-tobacco control articles (34.2%), use of a rights frame (28.8%), no evidence used (36.9%), no neighboring communities with policies, strong Tea Party presence, and no support from the chamber of commerce. Across all communities, more articles incorporating health frames were pro-tobacco control (70.7%) and more articles with a rights frame were anti-tobacco control (62.0%), compared to other positions. Several factors can influence the policy process. Tobacco control policy advocates facing strong opposition should consider the many factors (demographics, proximity to other adopting localities, politics) driving the debate and use media as an avenue to influence the discussion, connect with the public and policymakers, and mobilize proponents.

  20. Prospects for prevention of otitis media.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Stephen I

    2007-10-01

    Understanding the pathogenesis of acute otitis media provides insight into strategies for immunoprophylaxis. This article evaluates the interactions between pathogen and host defense, and identifies potential bacterial and viral vaccine targets. Discussed in detail are the attributes for a candidate antigen necessary to achieve a greater reduction in the burden of middle ear disease. These include: (1) the need to target a broad spectrum of otopathogens; (2) antigens need to be shared across all (or most) isolates within a bacterial species; (3) antigens need to be surface exposed during middle ear infection; and (4) preferred antigens have an essential function such that nonexpressing bacterial mutants have reduced virulence. A vaccine candidate (Pnc-PD) that encompasses these "attributes" is discussed from the perspective of how it may provide additional protection from middle ear disease if further studies confirm initial data on efficacy.

  1. Impact of a mass media campaign on bed net use in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2011, Cameroon and its health partners distributed over eight million free long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in an effort to reduce the significant morbidity and mortality burden of malaria in the country. A national communications campaign was launched in July 2011 to ensure that as the nets were delivered, they would be used consistently to close a net use gap: only 51.6% of adults and 63.4% of their children in households with at least one net were sleeping under nets before the distribution. Even in households with at least one net for every two people, over 35% of adults were not sleeping under a net. Malaria No More (MNM) adapted its signature NightWatch communications programme to fit within the coordinated “KO Palu” (Knock Out Malaria) national campaign. This study evaluates the impact of KO Palu NightWatch activities (that is, the subset of KO Palu-branded communications that were funded by MNM’s NightWatch program) on bed net use. Methods Using national survey data collected at baseline (in March/April 2011, before the national LLIN distribution and KO Palu NightWatch launch) and post-intervention (March/April 2012), this study evaluates the impact of exposure to KO Palu NightWatch activities on last-night net use by Cameroonian adults and their children under five. First, a plausible case for causality was established by comparing net use in 2011 and 2012 and measuring exposure to KO Palu NightWatch; next, a propensity score matching (PSM) model was used to estimate the impact of exposure on net use by simulating a randomized control trial; finally, the model was tested for sensitivity to unmeasured factors. Results The PSM model estimated that among Cameroonians with at least one net in their household, exposure to KO Palu NightWatch activities was associated with a 6.6 percentage point increase in last-night net use among respondents (65.7% vs 59.1%, p < 0.05) and a 12.0 percentage point increase in last-night net

  2. Impact of a mass media campaign on bed net use in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Hannah L

    2013-01-25

    In 2011, Cameroon and its health partners distributed over eight million free long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in an effort to reduce the significant morbidity and mortality burden of malaria in the country. A national communications campaign was launched in July 2011 to ensure that as the nets were delivered, they would be used consistently to close a net use gap: only 51.6% of adults and 63.4% of their children in households with at least one net were sleeping under nets before the distribution. Even in households with at least one net for every two people, over 35% of adults were not sleeping under a net. Malaria No More (MNM) adapted its signature NightWatch communications programme to fit within the coordinated "KO Palu" (Knock Out Malaria) national campaign. This study evaluates the impact of KO Palu NightWatch activities (that is, the subset of KO Palu-branded communications that were funded by MNM's NightWatch program) on bed net use. Using national survey data collected at baseline (in March/April 2011, before the national LLIN distribution and KO Palu NightWatch launch) and post-intervention (March/April 2012), this study evaluates the impact of exposure to KO Palu NightWatch activities on last-night net use by Cameroonian adults and their children under five. First, a plausible case for causality was established by comparing net use in 2011 and 2012 and measuring exposure to KO Palu NightWatch; next, a propensity score matching (PSM) model was used to estimate the impact of exposure on net use by simulating a randomized control trial; finally, the model was tested for sensitivity to unmeasured factors. The PSM model estimated that among Cameroonians with at least one net in their household, exposure to KO Palu NightWatch activities was associated with a 6.6 percentage point increase in last-night net use among respondents (65.7% vs 59.1%, p < 0.05) and a 12.0 percentage point increase in last-night net use among respondents' children

  3. Media roles in suicide prevention: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current systematic review was to monitor and provide an overview of the research performed about the roles of media in suicide prevention in order to find out possible effects media reporting on suicidal behaviours might have on actual suicidality (completed suicides, attempted suicides, suicidal ideation). The systematic review was performed following the principles of the PRISMA statement and includes 56 articles. Most of the studies support the idea that media reporting and suicidality are associated. However, there is a risk of reporting bias. More research is available about how irresponsible media reports can provoke suicidal behaviours (the 'Werther effect') and less about protective effect media can have (the 'Papageno effect'). Strong modelling effect of media coverage on suicide is based on age and gender. Media reports are not representative of official suicide data and tend to exaggerate sensational suicides, for example dramatic and highly lethal suicide methods, which are rare in real life. Future studies have to encounter the challenges the global medium Internet will offer in terms of research methods, as it is difficult to define the circulation of news in the Internet either spatially or in time. However, online media can provide valuable innovative qualitative research material.

  4. [Hypersensitivity reaction to radio contrast media: diagnosis, prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Mahlab-Guri, Keren; Herskovitz, Pearl; Sthoeger, Zev

    2012-07-01

    More than 70 million radiographic examinations with radio contrast media are performed worldwide each year. The incidence of adverse reactions to radio contrast media is 5-13%. Adverse reactions include hypersensitivity reactions, chemotoxic reactions and renal toxicity. Hypersensitivity reactions to radio contrast media range from mild pruritus to life-threatening emergency. The differential diagnosis between hypersensitivity reaction to radio contrast media and chemotoxic reaction is challenging. The incidence of chemotoxic reactions is mainly affected by the chemical structure of the radio contrast media and the rate of infusion. The incidence of hypersensitivity radio contrast media reaction is affected by age and by the presence of asthma and other atopic diseases. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity reaction to radio contrast media is based on clinical manifestations. The additional value of laboratory tests is limited and questionable. In case of hypersensitivity radio contrast reaction, the infusion should be stopped immediately, airways should be protected and fluids, oxygen and drugs should be given. Prophylactic treatment before its administration may prevent hypersensitivity reactions to radio contrast media.

  5. Media Roles in Suicide Prevention: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current systematic review was to monitor and provide an overview of the research performed about the roles of media in suicide prevention in order to find out possible effects media reporting on suicidal behaviours might have on actual suicidality (completed suicides, attempted suicides, suicidal ideation). The systematic review was performed following the principles of the PRISMA statement and includes 56 articles. Most of the studies support the idea that media reporting and suicidality are associated. However, there is a risk of reporting bias. More research is available about how irresponsible media reports can provoke suicidal behaviours (the ‘Werther effect’) and less about protective effect media can have (the ‘Papageno effect’). Strong modelling effect of media coverage on suicide is based on age and gender. Media reports are not representative of official suicide data and tend to exaggerate sensational suicides, for example dramatic and highly lethal suicide methods, which are rare in real life. Future studies have to encounter the challenges the global medium Internet will offer in terms of research methods, as it is difficult to define the circulation of news in the Internet either spatially or in time. However, online media can provide valuable innovative qualitative research material. PMID:22470283

  6. IknowUshould2: Feasibility of a Youth-Driven Social Media Campaign to Promote STI and HIV Testing Among Adolescents in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Dowshen, Nadia; Lee, Susan; Matty Lehman, B; Castillo, Marné; Mollen, Cynthia

    2015-06-01

    A youth-driven, social media-based campaign aimed at improving knowledge about and increasing testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV among youth 13-17 years old was assessed by: tracking website/social media use throughout the campaign; online survey of knowledge of and attitudes towards STI testing 9 months after campaign launch; and comparing rates of STI testing at affiliated family planning clinics during the 1 year period immediately prior versus 1 year immediately after campaign launch. Over 1,500 youth were reached via social media. Survey results showed 46 % of youth had never been tested, but 70 % intended to test in the next 6 months. While the total number of GC/CT tests conducted and positive results were not significantly different pre- and post-campaign, there was a large increase in the proportion of visits at which Syphilis (5.4 vs. 18.8 %; p < 0.01) and HIV (5.4 vs. 19.0 %; p < 0.01) testing was conducted post-campaign launch. Future campaigns should incorporate lessons learned about engaging younger adolescents, social media strategies, and specific barriers to testing in this age group.

  7. IknowUshould2: Feasibility of a Youth-Driven Social Media Campaign to Promote STI and HIV Testing Among Adolescents in Philadelphia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Susan; Lehman, B. Matty; Castillo, Marné; Mollen, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    A youth-driven, social media-based campaign aimed at improving knowledge about and increasing testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV among youth 13–17 years old was assessed by: tracking website/social media use throughout the campaign; online survey of knowledge of and attitudes towards STI testing 9 months after campaign launch; and comparing rates of STI testing at affiliated family planning clinics during the 1 year period immediately prior versus 1 year immediately after campaign launch. Over 1,500 youth were reached via social media. Survey results showed 46 % of youth had never been tested, but 70 % intended to test in the next 6 months. While the total number of GC/CT tests conducted and positive results were not significantly different pre- and post-campaign, there was a large increase in the proportion of visits at which Syphilis (5.4 vs. 18.8 %; p <0.01) and HIV (5.4 vs. 19.0 %; p <0.01) testing was conducted post-campaign launch. Future campaigns should incorporate lessons learned about engaging younger adolescents, social media strategies, and specific barriers to testing in this age group. PMID:25563502

  8. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  9. Power, empowerment, and critical consciousness in community collaboration: lessons from an advisory panel for an HIV awareness media campaign for women.

    PubMed

    Champeau, Donna A; Shaw, Susan M

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the interplay of power, empowerment, and critical consciousness in the dynamics of a public health community collaboration around an HIV prevention media campaign for women. Methodology included a process evaluation consisting of participant observation, focus groups, and one-on-one interviews with advisory board members. Findings suggest that attention to the dynamics of power should begin at the very earliest levels of planning collaborative health projects for women. Additionally, findings indicate that the invisibility of power and privilege affect women's participation in collaborative projects. It is recommended that intentional educational efforts be implemented to help participants in collaborative health projects for women develop the necessary skills and awareness to create an atmosphere of respect and mutuality rather than one of domination and subordination. Education for critical consciousness is suggested as one means for achieving this goal.

  10. Young people's comparative recognition and recall of an Australian Government Sexual Health Campaign.

    PubMed

    Lim, Megan S C; Gold, Judy; Bowring, Anna L; Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, the Australian Government's National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program launched a multi-million dollar sexual health campaign targeting young people. We assessed campaign recognition among a community sample of young people. Individuals aged 16-29 years self-completed a questionnaire at a music festival. Participants were asked whether they recognised the campaign image and attempted to match the correct campaign message. Recognition of two concurrent campaigns, GlaxoSmithKline's The Facts genital herpes campaign (targeting young women) and the Drama Downunder campaign (targeting gay men) were assessed simultaneously. Among 471 participants, just 29% recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. This compared to 52% recognising The Facts and 27% recognising Drama Downunder. Of 134 who recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign, 27% correctly recalled the campaign messages compared to 61% of those recognising the Facts campaign, and 25% of those recognising the Drama Downunder campaign. There was no difference in National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign recognition by gender or age. Campaign recognition and message recall of the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign was comparatively low. Future mass media sexual health campaigns targeting young people can aim for higher recognition and recall rates than that achieved by the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. Alternative distribution channels and message styles should be considered to increase these rates. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Prevention of otitis media: now a reality?

    PubMed

    Schuerman, Lode; Borys, Dorota; Hoet, Bernard; Forsgren, Arne; Prymula, Roman

    2009-09-25

    Acute otitis media (AOM), one of the most common childhood diseases, is associated with a substantial medical, social and economic burden. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the two main causes of bacterial OM. The 7-valent pneumococcal CRM(197)-conjugate vaccine (7vCRM, Prevnar/Prevenar, Wyeth) demonstrated efficacy against AOM caused by vaccine pneumococcal serotypes. Protection against overall AOM was also observed with an 11-valent pneumococcal protein D-conjugate vaccine (11Pn-PD) in the Pneumococcal Otitis Efficacy Trial (POET). Following POET, an optimized 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H. influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV; Synflorix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) was developed. This vaccine includes serotypes 1, 5, and 7F, in addition to those already included in 7vCRM, and was recently licensed in Europe for active immunization against invasive disease and AOM caused by S. pneumoniae in infants and children from 6 weeks up to 2 years of age. The use of protein D as carrier protein permits avoidance of possible interferences known to occur with some conjugate vaccines, and has the added potential benefit of providing protection against NTHi. This review seeks to highlight the recent advances in the field of OM vaccination, with a focus on data regarding the recently licensed PHiD-CV.

  12. Effects of Tobacco-Related Media Campaigns on Young Adult Smoking: Longitudinal Data from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Emery, Sherry; Wakefield, Melanie A.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Szczypka, Glen; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Young adults in the U.S. have one of the highest smoking prevalence rates of any age group, and young adulthood is a critical time period of targeting by the tobacco industry. We examined relationships between potential exposure to tobacco-related media campaigns from a variety of sponsors and 2-year smoking change measures among a longitudinal sample of U.S. adults aged 20-30 from 2001-2008. Methods Self-report data were collected from a longitudinal sample of 13,076 U.S. young adults from age 20-30. These data were merged with tobacco-related advertising exposure data from Nielsen Media Research. Two-year measures of change in smoking were regressed on advertising exposures. Results Two-year smoking uptake was unrelated to advertising exposure. The odds of quitting among all smokers and reduction among daily smokers in the two years between the prior and current survey were positively related to anti-tobacco advertising, especially potential exposure levels of 104-155 ads over the past 24 months. Tobacco company advertising (including corporate image and anti-smoking) and pharmaceutical industry advertising were unrelated to quitting or reduction. Conclusions Continued support for sustained, public health-based, well-funded anti-tobacco media campaigns may help reduce tobacco use among young adults. PMID:21972061

  13. Skin cancer prevention and detection campaign at golf courses on Spain's Costa del Sol.

    PubMed

    del Boz, J; Fernández-Morano, T; Padilla-España, L; Aguilar-Bernier, M; Rivas-Ruiz, F; de Troya-Martín, M

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer prevention and detection campaigns targeting specific groups are necessary and have proven to be more effective than those aimed at the general population. Interventions in outdoor tourist spots have proven successful, although none have specifically targeted golf courses. The aims of this study were to describe the risk profile of golfers and golf course workers and evaluate the impact of a skin cancer prevention and early detection intervention. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at 6 golf courses. The intervention included a skin examination and completion of a questionnaire about demographic details, risk factors, and sun exposure and sun protection habits. Participants were also given advice on sun protection measures, self-examination, and use of sunscreens, and were asked about their satisfaction with the intervention and their intention to change their current behaviors. The effect was measured in terms of the diagnoses made, satisfaction with the intervention, reported intention to change, and potential effect in terms of existing risk factors. Of the 351 participants (57% golfers and 43% golf course workers), 70.4% had fair skin, 11.7% had a family history of skin cancer, and 8.5% had a personal history of skin cancer. Skin cancer and actinic keratoses were diagnosed in 10.7% and 40% of the golfers, respectively. The session was rated positively by 99.4% of the participants; 93.9% stated that they intended to improve their sun exposure habits and 93.4% said that they planned to examine their skin more frequently. Our findings confirm that golf course workers and, in particular, golfers are an important target for skin cancer prevention campaigns. This is the first intervention to specifically target golf courses, and it proved to be both feasible and useful. Its success appears to be attributable to numerous factors: it was conducted at golf courses, had multiple components, and was preceded by a motivational campaign

  14. Does Digital Ad Exposure Influence Information-Seeking Behavior Online? Evidence From the 2012 Tips From Former Smokers National Tobacco Prevention Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Davis, Kevin; Alexander, Robert; Rowland, Amy; Mitchko, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Measuring the impact of online health campaigns is challenging. Ad click-through rates are traditionally used to measure campaign reach, but few Internet users ever click on ads. Alternatively, self-reported exposure to digital ads would be prone to recall bias. Furthermore, there may be latency effects whereby people do not click on ads when exposed but visit the promoted website or conduct campaign-related searches later. Online panels that unobtrusively collect panelists’ Web behavior data and link ad exposure to website visits and searches can more reliably assess the impact of digital ad exposure. From March to June 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention aired the national Tips From Former Smokers (Tips 2012) media campaign designed to encourage current smokers to quit. Advertisements ran across media channels, and the digital ads directed users to the Tips 2012 campaign website. Objective Our aim was to examine whether exposure to Tips 2012 digital ads influenced information-seeking behaviors online. Methods ComScore mined its panelists’ Web behavior data for unique codes that would indicate exposure to Tips 2012 ads, regardless of whether panelists clicked the ad or not. A total of 15,319 US adults were identified as having been exposed to a Tips 2012 campaign ad. An equal number of unexposed adults (N=15,319) were identified and matched on demographics and Internet use behavior to the exposed group. Panelists’ Web behavior data were mined for up to 4 weeks after initial Tips 2012 ad exposure to determine whether they visited the Tips 2012 campaign website or other cessation-related websites (eg, nicotine replacement therapy site) or conducted searches for campaign-related topics (eg, quit smoking). Results The proportion of exposed adults visiting the Tips 2012 sites increased from 0.4% in Week 1 to 0.9% 4 weeks after ad exposure, and these rates were significantly higher than in the unexposed group (0.1% in Week 1 to 0.4% in

  15. Does Digital Ad Exposure Influence Information-Seeking Behavior Online? Evidence From the 2012 Tips From Former Smokers National Tobacco Prevention Campaign.

    PubMed

    Kim, Annice; Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Davis, Kevin; Alexander, Robert; Rowland, Amy; Mitchko, Jane

    2016-03-16

    Measuring the impact of online health campaigns is challenging. Ad click-through rates are traditionally used to measure campaign reach, but few Internet users ever click on ads. Alternatively, self-reported exposure to digital ads would be prone to recall bias. Furthermore, there may be latency effects whereby people do not click on ads when exposed but visit the promoted website or conduct campaign-related searches later. Online panels that unobtrusively collect panelists' Web behavior data and link ad exposure to website visits and searches can more reliably assess the impact of digital ad exposure. From March to June 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention aired the national Tips From Former Smokers (Tips 2012) media campaign designed to encourage current smokers to quit. Advertisements ran across media channels, and the digital ads directed users to the Tips 2012 campaign website. Our aim was to examine whether exposure to Tips 2012 digital ads influenced information-seeking behaviors online. ComScore mined its panelists' Web behavior data for unique codes that would indicate exposure to Tips 2012 ads, regardless of whether panelists clicked the ad or not. A total of 15,319 US adults were identified as having been exposed to a Tips 2012 campaign ad. An equal number of unexposed adults (N=15,319) were identified and matched on demographics and Internet use behavior to the exposed group. Panelists' Web behavior data were mined for up to 4 weeks after initial Tips 2012 ad exposure to determine whether they visited the Tips 2012 campaign website or other cessation-related websites (eg, nicotine replacement therapy site) or conducted searches for campaign-related topics (eg, quit smoking). The proportion of exposed adults visiting the Tips 2012 sites increased from 0.4% in Week 1 to 0.9% 4 weeks after ad exposure, and these rates were significantly higher than in the unexposed group (0.1% in Week 1 to 0.4% in Week 4, P<.001) across all weeks examined

  16. Assessing the impact of mass media public health campaigns. Be Clear on Cancer 'blood in pee': a case in point.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Browne, Daisy; Mensah, Elsie; Vale, Justin; Mayer, Erik

    2016-04-01

    To assess the impact on suspected cancer referral burden and new cancer diagnosis of Public Health England's recent Be Clear on Cancer 'blood in pee' mass media campaign. A retrospective cohort study design was used. For two distinct time periods, August 2012 to May 2013 and August 2013 to May 2014, all referrals of patients deemed to be at risk of urological cancer by the referring primary healthcare physician to Imperial College NHS Healthcare Trust were screened. Data were collected on age and sex and whether the referral was for visible haematuria, non-visible haematuria or other suspected urological cancer. In addition to referral data, hospital episode data for all new renal cell (RCC) and upper and lower tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), as well as testicular and prostate cancer diagnoses for the same time periods were obtained. Over the campaign period and the subsequent 3 months, the number of haematuria referrals increased by 92% (P = 0.013) when compared with the same period a year earlier. This increase in referrals was not associated with a significant corresponding rise in cancer diagnosis; instead changes of 26.8% (P = 0.56) and -3.3% (P = 0.84) were seen in RCC and TCC, respectively. This study has shown that the Be Clear on Cancer 'blood in pee' mass media campaign significantly increased the number of new suspected cancer referrals, but there was no significant change in the diagnosis of target cancers across a large catchment. Mass media campaigns are expensive, require significant planning and appropriate implementation and, while the findings of this study do not challenge their fundamental objective, more work needs to be done to understand why no significant change in target cancers was observed. Further consideration should also be given to the increased referral burden that results from these campaigns, such that pre-emptive strategies, including educational and process mapping, across primary and secondary care can be implemented

  17. The Use of Evidence in Public Debates in the Media: The Case of Swiss Direct-Democratic Campaigns in the Health Policy Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stucki, Iris

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the reporting of evidence in Swiss direct-democratic campaigns in the health policy sector, assuming that an informed public helps democracy function successfully. A content analysis of the media's news reporting shows that of 5030 media items retrieved, a reference to evidence is found in 6.8%. The voter receives evidence in…

  18. The Use of Evidence in Public Debates in the Media: The Case of Swiss Direct-Democratic Campaigns in the Health Policy Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stucki, Iris

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the reporting of evidence in Swiss direct-democratic campaigns in the health policy sector, assuming that an informed public helps democracy function successfully. A content analysis of the media's news reporting shows that of 5030 media items retrieved, a reference to evidence is found in 6.8%. The voter receives evidence in…

  19. Media Literacy Education for Elementary School Substance Use Prevention: Study of Media Detective

    PubMed Central

    Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Scull, Tracy M.; Austin, Erica Weintraub

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Media Detective is a 10-lesson elementary school substance use prevention program developed on the basis of the message interpretation processing model designed to increase children’s critical thinking skills about media messages and reduce intent to use tobacco and alcohol products. The purpose of this study was to conduct a short-term, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Media Detective for achieving these goals. METHODS Elementary schools were randomly assigned to conditions to either receive the Media Detective program (n = 344) or serve in a waiting list control group (n = 335). RESULTS Boys in the Media Detective group reported significantly less interest in alcohol-branded merchandise than boys in the control group. Also, students who were in the Media Detective group and had used alcohol or tobacco in the past reported significantly less intention to use and more self-efficacy to refuse substances than students who were in the control group and had previously used alcohol or tobacco. CONCLUSIONS This evaluation provides evidence that Media Detective can be effective for substance use prevention in elementary school–aged children. Notably, media-related cognitions about alcohol and tobacco products are malleable and relevant to the development and maintenance of substance use behaviors during late childhood. The findings from this study suggest that media literacy– based interventions may serve as both a universal and a targeted prevention program that has potential for assisting elementary school children in making healthier, more informed decisions about use of alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:20732940

  20. How the Media Effects Schema and the Persuasion Ethics Schema Affect Audience Responses to Antismoking Campaign Messages.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2017-02-03

    This study examines the roles that the media effects and persuasion ethics schemas play in people's responses to an antismoking ad in South Korea. An online experiment was conducted with 347 adults. The media effects schema was manipulated with news stories on an antismoking campaign's effectiveness, while the persuasion ethics schema was measured and median-split. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were performed for issue attitudes (Iatt), attitude toward the ad (Aad), and behavioral intention (BI). Results show significant main effects of the media effects schema on the three dependent variables. People in the weak media effects condition had significantly lower Iatt, Aad, and BI than those in either the strong media effects condition or the control condition. This pattern was more pronounced among smokers. While there was no significant main effect of the persuasion ethics schema on any of the dependent variables, a significant interaction effect for persuasion ethics schema and smoking status was found on behavioral intention (BI). Nonsmokers' BI was significantly higher than smokers' in the low-persuasion ethics schema condition, but it was not significant in the high-persuasion ethics schema condition.

  1. In the shadows of a prevention campaign: sexual risk behavior in the absence of crystal methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Bimbi, David S

    2008-02-01

    Because of its ability to reduce inhibitions and increase sexual drive, an emerging body of research has repeatedly identified crystal methamphetamine as a key variable in explaining new HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM). The implications of which have included the development of HIV prevention policies and public health campaigns centered on curbing methamphetamine use in urban gay centers throughout the United States. Data collected from a diverse sample of gay and bisexual men attending large-scale gay, lesbian, and bisexual community events in New York City (n=738) indicated that 10.2% of men used methamphetamine recently (i.e., <90 days) and that 29.9% of the sample had experienced a recent episode of unprotected anal intercourse. The majority, 81.1%, of those men reporting unsafe sex had not used methamphetamine recently. This analysis identified a bivariate relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual risk, but also highlights other variables that were significantly related to risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression analyses indicated that recent GHB use, temptation for unsafe sex, being younger in age, and identification as a barebacker were better indicators of risky sexual behavior than methamphetamine use. Policies focused on methamphetamine prevention may help to curb risky sexual behavior among select groups of individuals; however, these will not adequately address the sexual health of the many gay and bisexual men who, in the shadows of anti-methamphetamine policies and prevention programs, continue to engage in unsafe sex but are nonusers of methamphetamine.

  2. Marketing a hard-to-swallow message: recommendations for the design of media campaigns to increase awareness about the risks of binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Jack, Susan M; Bouck, L Michelle Sangster; Beynon, Charlene E; Ciliska, Donna K; Mitchell, Martha J Lewis

    2005-01-01

    Binge drinking, commonly defined as having more than five drinks on a single occasion, is a public health issue affecting two thirds of Canadian young adults between the ages of 19-24 years. To educate young adults about alcohol poisoning, a network of 16 Ontario Health Units developed and implemented a mass-media campaign. The focus of this article is to report on post-secondary students' perceptions about key media campaign strategies, elements and messages for future campaigns designed to increase awareness about the risks of binge drinking. As part of a multi-method process evaluation, nine focus groups were facilitated to explore the young adults' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about binge drinking and the campaign messages. Participants were also asked to identify specific marketing messages and techniques that would increase their level of awareness about the risks of binge drinking. Participants recommended that campaigns be targeted towards parents and high school and post-secondary school students. Participants provided recommendations for the types of messages, images, and language they perceived would capture the attention of young adults. Television, posters and the internet were identified as key media channels for disseminating health information about the risks associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The problem of binge drinking is pervasive across Canadian campuses and students are largely unaware of the risks associated with excessive alcohol consumption. To reach this target population, it is important for future media campaign developers to utilize language, definitions, graphics and channels of communication to which this group relates.

  3. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns.

  4. A Review of HIV Prevention Studies that Use Social Networking Sites: Implications for Recruitment, Health Promotion Campaigns, and Efficacy Trials.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jamal; Salazar, Laura F

    2016-11-01

    This review describes the use of social networking sites (SNS) in the context of primary prevention of HIV. A review was conducted to assess the published literature for HIV interventions using SNS. Sixteen articles describing twelve interventions were included. SNS were instrumental in recruiting hard-to-reach populations within a short amount of time; were able to reach wide audiences beyond the targeted population for HIV prevention campaigns; and helped to significantly reduce sexual risk behaviors and increase HIV testing. SNS are a viable option to recruit hidden populations, engage the target audience, and disseminate HIV prevention messages. Researchers should use SNS to generate sampling frames that can be used to select participants. Practitioners should use SNS to post images of preventive behavior within health promotion campaigns. Researchers should use multiple SNS platforms to engage participants. As more studies are published using SNS for HIV prevention, meta-analyses will be needed.

  5. [Electronic media in obesity prevention in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Weihrauch-Blüher, Susann; Koormann, Stefanie; Brauchmann, Jana; Wiegand, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is - amongst other factors - due to changed leisure time habits with decreased physical activity and increased media consumption. However, electronic media such as tablets and smartphones might also provide a novel intervention approach to prevent obesity in childhood and adolescence. A summary of interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity is provided to investigate short term effects as well as long term results of these interventions. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed/Web of Science to identify randomized and/or controlled studies that have investigated the efficacy of electronic media for obesity prevention below the age of 18. A total of 909 studies were identified, and 88 studies were included in the analysis. Active video games did increase physical activity compared to inactive games when applied within a peer group. Interventions via telephone had positive effects on certain lifestyle-relevant behaviours. Interventions via mobile were shown to decrease dropout rates by sending regular SMS messages. To date, interventions via smartphones are scarce for adolescents; however, they might improve cardiorespiratory fitness. The results from internet-based interventions showed a trend towards positive effects on lifestyle-relevant behaviors. The combination of different electronic media did not show superior results compared to interventions with only one medium. Interventions via TV, DVD or video-based interventions may increase physical activity when offered as an incentive, however, effects on weight status were not observed. Children and adolescents currently grow up in a technology- and media-rich society with computers, tablets, smartphones, etc. used daily. Thus, interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity are contemporary. Available studies applying electronic media are however heterogeneous in terms of applied medium and duration

  6. Evaluation of an STD Education Media Campaign: A Control Construct Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, Jack; Baldwin, Kimm

    1990-01-01

    A multimedia sexually transmitted disease (STD) education campaign was evaluated for 8 weeks on a college campus. Subjects who were interviewed included 560 Southern Illinois University students. The program and evaluation covered condom use, moderate alcohol use, and regular exercise. Results indicate increased power for a control construct…

  7. Mass media campaigns designed to support new pictorial health warnings on cigarette packets: evidence of a complementary relationship.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah J; Cotter, Trish; Harper, Todd; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2011-11-01

    In Australia, introduction of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packets was supported by a televised media campaign highlighting illnesses featured in two of the warning labels--gangrene and mouth cancer. Two studies examined whether the warnings and the television advertisements complemented one another. Population telephone surveys of two cross-sections of adult smokers measured changes in top-of-mind awareness of smoking-related health effects from before (2005; n=587) to after the pack warnings were introduced (2006; n=583). A second study assessed cognitive and emotional responses and intentions to quit after smokers watched one of the campaign advertisements, comparing outcomes of those with and without prior pack warning exposure. Between 2005 and 2006, the proportion of smokers aware that gangrene is caused by smoking increased by 11.2 percentage points (OR=23.47, p=0.000), and awareness of the link between smoking and mouth cancer increased by 6.6 percentage points (OR=2.00, p=0.006). In contrast, awareness of throat cancer decreased by 4.3 percentage points, and this illness was mentioned in the pack warnings but not the advertisements. In multivariate analyses, smokers who had prior exposure to the warnings were significantly more likely to report positive responses to the advertisements and stronger post-exposure quitting intentions. Television advertisements and pictorial health warnings on cigarette packets may operate in a complementary manner to positively influence awareness of the health consequences of smoking and motivation to quit. Jurisdictions implementing pictorial warnings should consider the benefits of supportive mass media campaigns to increase the depth, meaning and personal relevance of the warnings.

  8. Effectiveness of a national media campaign to promote parent-child communication about sex.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kevin C; Evans, W Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

    2013-02-01

    Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children's decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) to encourage parent-child communication about sex. Previous experimental studies have found the campaign to be efficacious in increasing parent-child communication. But to date, the actual reach of the campaign and its real-world effectiveness in promoting parent-child communication has not been established. The present study addresses this gap. The authors surveyed 1,804 parents of 10- to14-year-old children from the nationally representative Knowledge Networks online panel. The survey included questions about parents' awareness of PSUNC ads and parent-child communication behaviors. The authors also analyzed market-level data on campaign gross rating points, a measure of market-level intensity of PSUNC advertising in the United States. Multivariate regressions were used to examine the association between PSUNC exposure and a three-item scale for parent-child communication. Overall, 59.4% of parents in the sample reported awareness of PSUNC. The authors found that higher market-level PSUNC gross rating points were associated with increased parent-child communication. Similar relationships were observed between self-reported awareness of PSUNC and increased frequency of communication and recommendations to wait. These associations were particularly strong among mothers. This study provides the first field-based data on the real-world reach and effectiveness of PSUNC among parents. The data support earlier experimental trials of PSUNC, showing that the campaign is associated with greater parent-child communication, primarily among mothers. Further research may be needed to develop additional messages for fathers.

  9. How effective and cost-effective was the national mass media smoking cessation campaign ‘Stoptober’?☆

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jamie; Kotz, Daniel; Michie, Susan; Stapleton, John; Walmsley, Matthew; West, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background A national smoking cessation campaign based on behaviour change theory and operating through both traditional and new media was launched across England during late 2012 (‘Stoptober’). In addition to attempting to start a movement in which smokers would quit at the same time in response to a positive mass quitting trigger, the campaign set smokers the goal of being smoke-free for October and embodied other psychological principles in a range of tools and communications. Methods Data on quit attempts were obtained from 31,566 past-year smokers during nationally representative household surveys conducted monthly between 2007 and 2012. The effectiveness of the campaign was assessed by the increase in national quit attempt rate in October relative to other months in 2012 vs. 2007–2011. Results Relative to other months in the year, more people tried to quit in October in 2012 compared with 2007–2011 (OR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.20–2.68). In 2012 there was an approximately 50% increase in quitting during October compared with other months of the same year (9.6% vs. 6.6%; OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.05–2.15), whereas in 2007–2011 the rate in October was non-significantly less than in other months of the same period (6.4% vs. 7.5%; OR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.70–1.00). Stoptober is estimated to have generated an additional 350,000 quit attempts and saved 10,400 discounted life years (DLY) at less than £415 per DLY in the modal age group. Conclusions Designing a national public health campaign with a clear behavioural target (making a serious quit attempt) using key psychological principles can yield substantial behaviour change and public health impact. PMID:24322004

  10. “Cancer – Educate to Prevent” – High-School Teachers, the New Promoters of Cancer Prevention Education Campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Ana; Moreira, Luís; Santos, Helena; Ribeiro, Nuno; Carvalho, Luís; Santos-Silva, Filipe

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, “Cancer, Educate to Prevent” was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation – questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test) and immediately after (post-test). The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program “Cancer, Educate to Prevent” and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions) and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted targets

  11. Integrated disease prevention campaigns: assessing country opportunity for implementation via an index approach.

    PubMed

    Jiwani, Aliya; Matheson, Alastair; Kahn, James G; Raut, Abhishek; Verguet, Stéphane; Marseille, Elliot; Walson, Judd

    2014-03-19

    To help stakeholders identify and prioritise countries with the best opportunities for implementation of an integrated prevention campaign (IPC) focused on diarrhoea, malaria and HIV prevention. Cross-sectional analysis of country-specific epidemiological data using an index tool developed for this purpose. We calculated the total disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributed to diarrhoea, malaria and HIV for 214 World Bank economies. Criteria for inclusion were: low-income and middle-income countries, and total annual DALY burden in the top tertile (≥87 000 DALYs). 70 countries met inclusion criteria and were included in our opportunity analysis. We synthesised data on 10 indicators related to the potential reduction in burden and new coverage achievable by an IPC. We scored and ranked countries based on three summary opportunity metrics: DALYs per capita across the diseases, a composite score of tertile rankings of burden for each disease, and a score combining burden and intervention opportunity. We estimated the total annual global burden attributable to diarrhoea, malaria and HIV at 135 million DALYs. All of the countries with the highest opportunity for implementation of a diarrhoea, malaria and HIV IPC are in sub-Saharan Africa, regardless of opportunity metric used. Although the overall rank order changes, 16 countries rank among the top 23 highest opportunity countries for all three metrics. Stakeholders can use this objective metric-based approach to prioritise countries for IPC scale-up. Priority countries are largely robust to the opportunity metric chosen.

  12. [Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media: how to prevent them?].

    PubMed

    Berner, Jeanne; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Becker, Christoph D; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2009-10-14

    The incidence of acute iodine contrast media reactions, appearing within the first hour after the procedure, is low but clinically important due to their daily use. Previous adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media, asthma and a history of allergic reaction are the most recognized risk factors, but the identification of patients at risk remains difficult. The efficacy of preventive measures such as corticosteroid and/or antihistaminic administration rests on low-level evidence. Practical recommendations are presented in this article. Rather than relying on the sole administration of a premedication, the importance of other measures must be stressed: assessing the relevance of the indication to the radiologic exam, use of low osmolarity contrast media, and ensuring a proper monitoring of the patient during and after the procedure.

  13. Isosmotic media prevent edema in amphibian larvae without cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Smith, S C

    2000-03-01

    The absence of cardiac and circulatory function causes severe edema in amphibian embryos. Analyzing the roles of embryonic and larval circulation in respiration may thus be confounded by the increased diffusion distance and decreased surface area/volume ratio caused by edema. Similarly, detailed morphological analyses of embryos/larvae with defective circulatory or renal function is difficult or impossible due to the gross morphological anomalies engendered by edematous swelling. To circumvent these problems, two media have been developed which are isosmotic with the plasma of a common experimental amphibian species (Ambystoma mexicanun). These media are remarkably effective in preventing fluid accumulation in embryos and larvae lacking heart function and, when used in slightly lower concentrations, cause no apparent harm to embryos and larvae with normal circulation for periods up to 3 weeks. These media should prove useful for a variety of studies on the developmental physiology of the circulatory system and possibly also when examining the development of renal function and ionoregulation.

  14. The Impact of a State-Sponsored Mass Media Campaign on Use of Telephone Quitline and Web-Based Cessation Services

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Nathan; Davis, Kevin C.; MacMonegle, Anna; Allen, Jane; Porter, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Most US smokers do not use evidence-based interventions as part of their quit attempts. Quitlines and Web-based treatments may contribute to reductions in population-level tobacco use if successfully promoted. Currently, few states implement sustained media campaigns to promote services and increase adult smoking cessation. This study examines the effects of Florida’s tobacco cessation media campaign and a nationally funded media campaign on telephone quitline and Web-based registrations for cessation services from November 2010 through September 2013. Methods We conducted multivariable analyses of weekly media-market–level target rating points (TRPs) and weekly registrations for cessation services through the Florida Quitline (1-877-U-CAN-NOW) or its Web-based cessation service, Web Coach (www.quitnow.net/florida). Results During 35 months, 141,221 tobacco users registered for cessation services through the Florida Quitline, and 53,513 registered through Web Coach. An increase in 100 weekly TRPs was associated with an increase of 7 weekly Florida Quitline registrants (β = 6.8, P < .001) and 2 Web Coach registrants (β = 1.7, P = .003) in an average media market. An increase in TRPs affected registrants from multiple demographic subgroups similarly. When state and national media campaigns aired simultaneously, approximately one-fifth of Florida’s Quitline registrants came from the nationally advertised portal (1-800-QUIT-NOW). Conclusion Sustained, state-sponsored media can increase the number of registrants to telephone quitlines and Web-based cessation services. Federally funded media campaigns can further increase the reach of state-sponsored cessation services. PMID:25539129

  15. Multi-media campaign exposure and interpersonal communication on sexual abstinence among young people in Nigeria: a propensity-matched study.

    PubMed

    Fatusi, Adesegun O; Wang, Wenjuan; Anyanti, Jennifer

    A national multi-media campaign (Zip-Up!) was initiated in Nigeria in 2004 to promote sexual abstinence among young people as part of comprehensive efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infection and unwanted pregnancy. This study assessed the effect of the campaign exposure on interpersonal communication about abstinence among a nationally representative sample of never-married young people (15-24 years). A propensity score matching technique was used to create a comparison group statistically equivalent to the group exposed to the campaign and assess the campaign effect. Of the 3,388 people sampled, 29.1% had been exposed to the campaign. Factors significantly associated with campaign exposure included age (OR = 1.08; 95% C.I. = 1.04-1.12), urban location (OR = 1.31; 95% C.I. = 1.04-1.66), and frequency of media use. Compared to the non-exposed group, campaign exposure was associated with a statistically significant adjusted increase of 10.9% in the proportion of young people who engaged in interpersonal communication about abstinence.

  16. ISIS and Social Media: The Combatant Commander’s Guide to Countering ISIS’s Social Media Campaign

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-07

    headquarters. According to Air Force General Hawk Carlisle, as reported by Mike Hoffman, “some moron” was found to be bragging on social media in front...communication 21 in a way that could be interpreted as a crusade against Islam. Stephen Corman, Director for the Center for Strategic Communication at

  17. An Empirical Assessment of the "Above the Influence" Advertising Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Holtz, Kristen D.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of "Above the Influence" (ATI), a national media-based health persuasion campaign to deter youth drug use. The campaign uses public service anti-drug prevention messages and targets youth between the ages of 14 and 16, a period of heightened susceptibility to peer influences. The evaluation utilized mall…

  18. An Empirical Assessment of the "Above the Influence" Advertising Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Holtz, Kristen D.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of "Above the Influence" (ATI), a national media-based health persuasion campaign to deter youth drug use. The campaign uses public service anti-drug prevention messages and targets youth between the ages of 14 and 16, a period of heightened susceptibility to peer influences. The evaluation utilized mall…

  19. Social Media and Mobile Technology for Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Judith J; Coughlin, Steven S; Lyons, Elizabeth J

    2017-01-01

    Given the number of lives affected by cancer and the great potential for optimizing well-being via lifestyle changes, patients, providers, health care systems, advocacy groups, and entrepreneurs are looking to digital solutions to enhance patient care and broaden prevention efforts. Thousands of health-oriented mobile websites and apps have been developed, with a majority focused upon lifestyle behaviors (e.g., exercise, diet, smoking). In this review, we consider the use and potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and survivorship. We identify key principles in research and practice, summarize prior reviews, and highlight notable case studies and patient resources. Further, with the potential for scaled delivery and broad reach, we consider application of social media and mHealth technologies in low-resource settings. With clear advantages for reach, social media and mHealth technologies offer the ability to scale and engage entire populations at low cost, develop supportive social networks, connect patients and providers, encourage adherence with cancer care, and collect vast quantities of data for advancing cancer research. Development efforts have been rapid and numerous, yet evaluation of intervention effects on behavior change and health outcomes are sorely needed, and regulation around data security issues is notably lacking. Attention to broader audiences is also needed, with targeted development for culturally diverse groups and non-English speakers. Further investment in research to build the evidence base and identify best practices will help delineate and actualize the potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention and treatment.

  20. Tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns: research needs for Articles 11 and 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Wakefield, Melanie; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up.

  1. [Physician-patient relationship: Impact on promotion and prevention campaigns for patients with HIV in Medellin].

    PubMed

    Bermúdez-Román, Viviana; Bran-Piedrahita, Lemy; Palacios-Moya, Lucía; Posada-Zapata, Isabel C

    2016-08-01

    Objective To understand the impact that healthcare professionals have on the perception of health promotion and disease prevention campaigns of individuals with HIV in Medellin, Colombia in 2012. The research was conducted using a qualitative approach, based on the Strauss and Corbin´s Grounded Theory; thirteen people were interviewed during two sequential steps. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed in accordance with the theory mentioned above, by performing an open and axial coding on the data found. Results A total of 1 324 codes were generated in the open coding process (creating six descriptive categories) and axial coding process (identifying four analytical categories; one of them is developed as a result in this paper). The most relevant findings included the importance given by the participants to the role of health professionals when supporting HIV-positive patients in the acquisition of healthy lifestyles to properly manage their condition. Also, the role that those people who already contracted the virus have for the promotion of sexual behaviors to minimize the risk of infection is stated. Conclusion The doctor-patient relationship poses great challenges in terms of health services management for the different actors of the system. Likewise, these challenges must be taken into account when creating future public policies.

  2. Assessing community-wide outcomes of prevention marketing campaigns through telephone surveys.

    PubMed

    Myllyluoma, J; Greenberg, P; Wolters, C; Kaifer, P

    2000-03-01

    This random sample survey assesses the outcomes of the community-wide HIV prevention marketing campaigns for adolescents through telephone surveys, as well as the decisions that were made to address these concerns. The study employed repeated cross-sectional analysis to collect data from 1402 adolescents over a 23-month period. Likewise, a dual sampling strategy combined with Random Digit Dialing with Listed Household samples were used. The study was conducted in a manner that protects the anonymity, privacy, and confidentiality; and at the same time, gathers an adequate response rate. Results of the study confirm that the success of the evaluation program depended on the adequacy of the response rate, which includes the use of advanced letters and toll-free phone line, as well as sensitivity to the needs and concerns of the target population. The success that was achieved is still inadequate since the results confirm the challenge of developing feasible, affordable, tailored techniques for measuring risk behavior change in members of these groups.

  3. Oklahoma "Tobacco Stops with Me" Media Campaign Effects on Attitudes toward Secondhand Smoke.

    PubMed

    White, Ashley H; Brown-Johnson, Gati G; Martinez, Sydney A; Paulson, Sjonna; Beebe, Laura A

    2015-12-01

    Public education campaigns in tobacco control play an important role in changing tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The Oklahoma Tobacco Stops with Me campaign has been effective in changing attitudes overall and across subpopulations towards secondhand smoke risks. Investigate campaign impact on secondhand smoke policy and risk attitudes. Serial cross-sectional data analyzed with univariate and multivariable models. Random-digit dialing surveys conducted in 2007 and 2015 PARTICIPANTS: Oklahomans 18-65 years old Main Outcomes and Measures: (1) Support for smokefree bars; (2) risk assessment of secondhand smoke (very harmful, causes heart disease, causes sudden infant death); and 3) likelihood of protecting yourself from secondhand smoke. With Tobacco Stops with Me exposure, from 2007 to 2015, Oklahomans demonstrated significant increases in: (1) supporting smokefree bars (23.7% to 55%); (2) reporting beliefs that SHS causes heart disease (58.5% to 72.6%), is very harmful (63.8% to 70.6%) and causes sudden infant death (24% to 34%); and 3) reporting they are very likely to ask someone not to smoke nearby (45% to 52%). Controlling for demographics, smokers and males showed reduced attitude change. In uncontrolled comparisons, high-school graduates faired better than non-diploma individuals, who lacked significant attitude changes. Tobacco Stops with Me achieved its mission to more closely align public perception of SHS with well-documented secondhand smoke risks. Efforts to target women were particularly successful. Smokers may be resistant to messaging; closing taglines that reinstate individual choice may help to reduce resistance/reactance (e.g., adding Oklahoma Helpline contact information).

  4. Oklahoma "Tobacco Stops with Me"Media Campaign Effects on Attitudes toward Secondhand Smoke.

    PubMed

    White, Ashley H; Brown-Johnson, Cati G; Martinez, Sydney A; Paulson, Sjonna; Beebe, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    Public education campaigns in tobacco control play an important role in changing tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The Oklahoma Tobacco Stops with Me campaign has been effective in changing attitudes overall and across subpopulations towards secondhand smoke risks. Investigate campaign impact on secondhand smoke policy and risk attitudes. Serial cross-sectional data analyzed with univariate and multivariable models. Random-digit dialing surveys conducted in 2007 and 2015. Oklahomans 18-65 years old. 1) Support for smokefree bars; 2) risk assessment of secondhand smoke (very harmful, causes heart disease, causes sudden infant death); and 3) likelihood of protecting yourself from secondhand smoke. With Tobacco Stops with Me exposure, from 2007 to 2015, Oklahomans demonstrated significant increases in: 1) supporting smokefree bars (23.7% to 55%); 2) reporting beliefs that SHS causes heart disease (58.5% to 72.6%), is very harmful (63.8% to 70.6%) and causes sudden infant death (24% to 34%); and 3) reporting they are very likely to ask someone not to smoke nearby (45% to 52%). Controlling for demographics, smokers and males showed reduced attitude change. In uncontrolled comparisons, high-school graduates faired better than non-diploma individuals, who lacked significant attitude changes. Tobacco Stops with Me achieved its mission to more closely align public perception of SHS with well-documented secondhand smoke risks. Efforts to target women were particularly successful. Smokers may be resistant to messaging; closing taglines that reinstate individual choice may help to reduce resistance/reactance (e.g., adding Oklahoma Helpline contact information).

  5. Oklahoma “Tobacco Stops with Me” Media Campaign Effects on Attitudes toward Secondhand Smoke

    PubMed Central

    White, Ashley; Brown-Johnson, Cati G; Martinez, Sydney; Paulson, Sjonna; Beebe, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Public education campaigns in tobacco control play an important role in changing tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The Oklahoma Tobacco Stops with Me campaign has been effective in changing attitudes overall and across subpopulations towards secondhand smoke risks. Objective Investigate campaign impact on secondhand smoke policy and risk attitudes. Design Serial cross-sectional data analyzed with univariate and multivariable models. Setting Random-digit dialing surveys conducted in 2007 and 2015 Participants Oklahomans 18-65 years old Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) 1) Support for smokefree bars; 2) risk assessment of secondhand smoke (very harmful, causes heart disease, causes sudden infant death); and 3) likelihood of protecting yourself from secondhand smoke Results With Tobacco Stops with Me exposure, from 2007 to 2015, Oklahomans demonstrated significant increases in: 1) supporting smokefree bars (23.7% to 55%); 2) reporting beliefs that SHS causes heart disease (58.5% to 72.6%), is very harmful (63.8% to 70.6%) and causes sudden infant death (24% to 34%); and 3) reporting they are very likely to ask someone not to smoke nearby (45% to 52%). Controlling for demographics, smokers and males showed reduced attitude change. In uncontrolled comparisons, high-school graduates faired better than non-diploma individuals, who lacked significant attitude changes. Conclusions and Relevance Tobacco Stops with Me achieved its mission to more closely align public perception of SHS with well-documented secondhand smoke risks. Efforts to target women were particularly successful. Smokers may be resistant to messaging; closing taglines that reinstate individual choice may help to reduce resistance/reactance (e.g., adding Oklahoma Helpline contact information). PMID:26817061

  6. Integrated disease prevention campaigns: assessing country opportunity for implementation via an index approach

    PubMed Central

    Jiwani, Aliya; Matheson, Alastair; Kahn, James G; Raut, Abhishek; Verguet, Stéphane; Marseille, Elliot; Walson, Judd

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To help stakeholders identify and prioritise countries with the best opportunities for implementation of an integrated prevention campaign (IPC) focused on diarrhoea, malaria and HIV prevention. Design Cross-sectional analysis of country-specific epidemiological data using an index tool developed for this purpose. Setting We calculated the total disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributed to diarrhoea, malaria and HIV for 214 World Bank economies. Criteria for inclusion were: low-income and middle-income countries, and total annual DALY burden in the top tertile (≥87 000 DALYs). 70 countries met inclusion criteria and were included in our opportunity analysis. Outcome measures We synthesised data on 10 indicators related to the potential reduction in burden and new coverage achievable by an IPC. We scored and ranked countries based on three summary opportunity metrics: DALYs per capita across the diseases, a composite score of tertile rankings of burden for each disease, and a score combining burden and intervention opportunity. Results We estimated the total annual global burden attributable to diarrhoea, malaria and HIV at 135 million DALYs. All of the countries with the highest opportunity for implementation of a diarrhoea, malaria and HIV IPC are in sub-Saharan Africa, regardless of opportunity metric used. Although the overall rank order changes, 16 countries rank among the top 23 highest opportunity countries for all three metrics. Conclusions Stakeholders can use this objective metric-based approach to prioritise countries for IPC scale-up. Priority countries are largely robust to the opportunity metric chosen. PMID:24647447

  7. Scaling up integrated prevention campaigns for global health: costs and cost-effectiveness in 70 countries.

    PubMed

    Marseille, Elliot; Jiwani, Aliya; Raut, Abhishek; Verguet, Stéphane; Walson, Judd; Kahn, James G

    2014-06-26

    This study estimated the health impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of an integrated prevention campaign (IPC) focused on diarrhoea, malaria and HIV in 70 countries ranked by per capita disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) burden for the three diseases. We constructed a deterministic cost-effectiveness model portraying an IPC combining counselling and testing, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, referral to treatment and condom distribution for HIV prevention; bed nets for malaria prevention; and provision of household water filters for diarrhoea prevention. We developed a mix of empirical and modelled cost and health impact estimates applied to all 70 countries. One-way, multiway and scenario sensitivity analyses were conducted to document the strength of our findings. We used a healthcare payer's perspective, discounted costs and DALYs at 3% per year and denominated cost in 2012 US dollars. The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness expressed as net cost per DALY averted. Other outcomes included cost of the IPC; net IPC costs adjusted for averted and additional medical costs and DALYs averted. Implementation of the IPC in the 10 most cost-effective countries at 15% population coverage would cost US$583 million over 3 years (adjusted costs of US$398 million), averting 8.0 million DALYs. Extending IPC programmes to all 70 of the identified high-burden countries at 15% coverage would cost an adjusted US$51.3 billion and avert 78.7 million DALYs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ranged from US$49 per DALY averted for the 10 countries with the most favourable cost-effectiveness to US$119, US$181, US$335, US$1692 and US$8340 per DALY averted as each successive group of 10 countries is added ordered by decreasing cost-effectiveness. IPC appears cost-effective in many settings, and has the potential to substantially reduce the burden of disease in resource-poor countries. This study increases confidence that IPC can be an important new approach for enhancing global health

  8. Scaling up integrated prevention campaigns for global health: costs and cost-effectiveness in 70 countries

    PubMed Central

    Marseille, Elliot; Jiwani, Aliya; Raut, Abhishek; Verguet, Stéphane; Walson, Judd; Kahn, James G

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study estimated the health impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of an integrated prevention campaign (IPC) focused on diarrhoea, malaria and HIV in 70 countries ranked by per capita disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) burden for the three diseases. Methods We constructed a deterministic cost-effectiveness model portraying an IPC combining counselling and testing, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, referral to treatment and condom distribution for HIV prevention; bed nets for malaria prevention; and provision of household water filters for diarrhoea prevention. We developed a mix of empirical and modelled cost and health impact estimates applied to all 70 countries. One-way, multiway and scenario sensitivity analyses were conducted to document the strength of our findings. We used a healthcare payer's perspective, discounted costs and DALYs at 3% per year and denominated cost in 2012 US dollars. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness expressed as net cost per DALY averted. Other outcomes included cost of the IPC; net IPC costs adjusted for averted and additional medical costs and DALYs averted. Results Implementation of the IPC in the 10 most cost-effective countries at 15% population coverage would cost US$583 million over 3 years (adjusted costs of US$398 million), averting 8.0 million DALYs. Extending IPC programmes to all 70 of the identified high-burden countries at 15% coverage would cost an adjusted US$51.3 billion and avert 78.7 million DALYs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ranged from US$49 per DALY averted for the 10 countries with the most favourable cost-effectiveness to US$119, US$181, US$335, US$1692 and US$8340 per DALY averted as each successive group of 10 countries is added ordered by decreasing cost-effectiveness. Conclusions IPC appears cost-effective in many settings, and has the potential to substantially reduce the burden of disease in resource-poor countries. This study increases confidence that IPC

  9. Impact of the Swap It, Don't Stop It Australian National Mass Media Campaign on Promoting Small Changes to Lifestyle Behaviors.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Grunseit, Anne; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bellew, William; Briggs, Megan; Bauman, Adrian E

    2016-12-01

    Mass media campaigns aimed at influencing lifestyle risk factors are one way that governments are attempting to address chronic disease risk. In Australia, a national campaign aimed at encouraging Australians to make changes in lifestyle-related behaviors was implemented from 2008 to 2011. The first phase, Measure Up (2008-2009), focused on why lifestyle changes are needed by increasing awareness of the link between waist circumference and chronic disease risk. The second phase, Swap It, Don't Stop It (2011), emphasized how adults can change their behaviors. Cross-sectional telephone surveys (after the campaign) were undertaken in July and November 2011 to evaluate the Swap It, Don't Stop It campaign and included measures of campaign awareness and lifestyle-related behavior change. Survey participants (N = 5,097) were similar across the two survey periods. Prompted campaign awareness was 62% (16% for unprompted awareness); females, younger respondents (18-44 years), those in paid employment, and those who spoke English at home were more likely to report prompted/unprompted campaign awareness. Moreover, 16% of survey respondents reported any swapping behavior in the previous 6 months, with the majority (14%) reporting only one swap; younger respondents and those in paid employment were significantly more likely to report having implemented a swapping behavior. The campaign achieved modest population awareness but demonstrated limited effect in terms of nudging behaviors. This evaluation indicates that encouraging swapping behaviors as a prelude to lifestyle change may not result from a mass media campaign alone; a comprehensive multicomponent population approach may be required.

  10. Acute kidney injury by radiographic contrast media: pathogenesis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Andreucci, Michele; Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Sabbatini, Massimo; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24-72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both.

  11. Acute Kidney Injury by Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24–72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both. PMID:25197639

  12. Interpersonal communication outcomes of a media literacy alcohol prevention curriculum.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Elek, Elvira; Hecht, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Media literacy intervention efficacy literature has focused on media-relevant (e.g., knowledge and realism) and behavior-relevant outcomes (e.g., attitudes and behaviors), without much attention paid to interpersonal communication outcomes. This project examined interpersonal communication after participation in two versions (analysis plus analysis and analysis plus planning) of the Youth Message Development (YMD) intervention, a brief media literacy curriculum targeted at preventing high school student alcohol use. Participants attended a 75-mins media literacy YMD workshop and completed a delayed posttest questionnaire 3 to 4 months later. Overall, 68 % participants replied affirmatively to interpersonal communication about the YMD intervention. Communication about the workshop moderated the effects of the type of workshop (analysis plus analysis or analysis plus planning) on self-efficacy to counter-argue (but not critical thinking). Interpersonal communication moderated the effects of the YMD intervention on self-efficacy to counter-argue, thereby signaling the importance of including interpersonal communication behaviors in intervention evaluation.

  13. The Living the Example Social Media Substance Use Prevention Program: A Pilot Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Elizabeth; Goldmeer, Sandra; Smith, Michelle; Snider, Jeremy; Girardo, Gunilla

    2017-01-01

    Background Adolescent substance use rates in rural areas of the United States, such as upstate New York, have risen substantially in recent years, calling for new intervention approaches in response to this trend. The Mentor Foundation USA conducts the Living the Example (LTE) campaign to engage youth in prevention using an experiential approach. As part of LTE, youth create their own prevention messages following a training curriculum in techniques for effective messaging and then share them via social media. This paper reports on a pilot evaluation of the LTE program. Objective To conduct a pilot test of LTE in two rural high schools in upstate New York. We hypothesized that positive antidrug brand representations could be promoted using social media strategies to complement the Shattering the Myths (STM) in-person, event-based approach (hypothesis 1, H1), and that youth would respond positively and engage with prevention messages disseminated by their peers. We also hypothesized that exposure to the social media prevention messages would be associated with more positive substance use avoidance attitudes and beliefs, reductions in future use intentions, and decreased substance use at posttest (hypothesis 2, H2). Methods We adapted a previously published curriculum created by the authors that focuses on branding, messaging, and social media for prevention. The curriculum consisted of five, one-hour sessions. It was delivered to participating youth in five sequential weeks after school at the two high schools in late October and early November 2016. We designed a pre- and posttest pilot implementation study to evaluate the effects of LTE on student uptake of the intervention and short-term substance use and related outcomes. Working at two high schools in upstate New York, we conducted a pilot feasibility evaluation of LTE with 9th-grade students (ie, freshmen) at these high schools. We administered a 125-item questionnaire online to capture data on media use

  14. The Living the Example Social Media Substance Use Prevention Program: A Pilot Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Evans, William; Andrade, Elizabeth; Goldmeer, Sandra; Smith, Michelle; Snider, Jeremy; Girardo, Gunilla

    2017-06-27

    Adolescent substance use rates in rural areas of the United States, such as upstate New York, have risen substantially in recent years, calling for new intervention approaches in response to this trend. The Mentor Foundation USA conducts the Living the Example (LTE) campaign to engage youth in prevention using an experiential approach. As part of LTE, youth create their own prevention messages following a training curriculum in techniques for effective messaging and then share them via social media. This paper reports on a pilot evaluation of the LTE program. To conduct a pilot test of LTE in two rural high schools in upstate New York. We hypothesized that positive antidrug brand representations could be promoted using social media strategies to complement the Shattering the Myths (STM) in-person, event-based approach (hypothesis 1, H1), and that youth would respond positively and engage with prevention messages disseminated by their peers. We also hypothesized that exposure to the social media prevention messages would be associated with more positive substance use avoidance attitudes and beliefs, reductions in future use intentions, and decreased substance use at posttest (hypothesis 2, H2). We adapted a previously published curriculum created by the authors that focuses on branding, messaging, and social media for prevention. The curriculum consisted of five, one-hour sessions. It was delivered to participating youth in five sequential weeks after school at the two high schools in late October and early November 2016. We designed a pre- and posttest pilot implementation study to evaluate the effects of LTE on student uptake of the intervention and short-term substance use and related outcomes. Working at two high schools in upstate New York, we conducted a pilot feasibility evaluation of LTE with 9th-grade students (ie, freshmen) at these high schools. We administered a 125-item questionnaire online to capture data on media use; attitudes toward social media

  15. Effects of a catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention campaign on infection rate, catheter utilization, and health care workers' perspective at a community safety net hospital.

    PubMed

    Gray, Dorinne; Nussle, Richard; Cruz, Abner; Kane, Gail; Toomey, Michael; Bay, Curtis; Ostovar, Gholamabbas Amin

    2016-01-01

    Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections is in the forefront of health care quality. However, nurse and physician engagement is a common barrier in infection prevention efforts. After implementation of a multidisciplinary catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention campaign, we studied the impact of our campaign and showed its association with reducing the CAUTI rate and catheter utilization and the positive effect on health care workers' engagement and perspectives. CAUTI prevention campaigns can lead to lower infection rates and change health care workers' perspective.

  16. A Smoking Cessation Campaign on Twitter: Understanding the Use of Twitter and Identifying Major Players in a Health Campaign.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Eun

    2016-05-01

    The current study examined the use of online social media for a health campaign. Collecting tweets (N = 1,790) about the recent smoking cessation campaign by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the current study investigated the dissemination of health campaign messages on Twitter and answered questions from the process evaluation of health campaigns: who tweeted about the campaign, who played central roles in disseminating health campaign messages, and how various features of Twitter were used for sharing of campaign messages. Results showed that individuals and nonprofit organizations posted frequently about the campaign: Individuals and nonprofit organizations posted about 40% and 30% of campaign-related tweets, respectively. Although the campaign under investigation was steered by a government agency, nonprofit organizations played a vital role as mediators who disseminated campaign messages. The culture of retweeting demonstrated its particular usefulness for the dissemination of campaign messages. Despite the expectation that the use of social media would expand opportunities for engagement, actual two-way interactions were few or minimal. Drawn from the results, practical suggestions on how to strategize the use of Twitter for future health campaigns are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of the Impact of a Mass Media Campaign on Periodontal Knowledge among Iranian Adults: A Three-Month Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Mahdia; Pakdaman, Afsaneh; Montazeri, Ali; Virtanen, Jorma I

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a national media campaign to promote oral health and periodontal knowledge among adults after a three-month follow-up. We conducted a population-based study of adults aged 18 to 50 years using a stratified multi-stage sampling method in Tehran, Iran in 2011. The campaign included an animation clip about periodontal health and disease telecast on national TV for ten consecutive days. We used an instrument to assess the effect of the campaign at baseline, immediately after the campaign and after a three-month follow-up. A total of 543 participants responded at baseline and immediately after the intervention, and 294 were interviewed at the three-month follow-up assessment (response rate: 54.1%). We assessed each participant's periodontal knowledge score, calculated as a sum of correct answers, and the change in their score following the campaign. We then used a five-item questionnaire to evaluate the participants' opinion of the success of the campaign. We used descriptive statistics and generalised estimating equations (GEE) analysis to conduct the statistical analysis. The mean score for knowledge improvement from baseline to immediate post-intervention evaluation was higher among those who saw the campaign (0.61) than among those who did not (0.29); the corresponding figures from immediate evaluation to three-month follow-up were -0.17 and 0.15, respectively. Adjusting for baseline values, the GEE analysis demonstrated that improvement in the mean score of post-campaign knowledge associated significantly with age, education and seeing the campaign. Significant interaction between the time since seeing the campaign and whether the participant saw it (p < 0.001) revealed that the mean difference in the knowledge score between the groups who did and did not see the campaign was 0.4 at the immediate evaluation and -0.04 at the three-month follow-up. The participants received the campaign well in terms of being appealing (91

  18. Evaluation of the Impact of a Mass Media Campaign on Periodontal Knowledge among Iranian Adults: A Three-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Mahdia; Pakdaman, Afsaneh; Montazeri, Ali; Virtanen, Jorma I.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a national media campaign to promote oral health and periodontal knowledge among adults after a three-month follow-up. Methods We conducted a population-based study of adults aged 18 to 50 years using a stratified multi-stage sampling method in Tehran, Iran in 2011. The campaign included an animation clip about periodontal health and disease telecast on national TV for ten consecutive days. We used an instrument to assess the effect of the campaign at baseline, immediately after the campaign and after a three-month follow-up. A total of 543 participants responded at baseline and immediately after the intervention, and 294 were interviewed at the three-month follow-up assessment (response rate: 54.1%). We assessed each participant’s periodontal knowledge score, calculated as a sum of correct answers, and the change in their score following the campaign. We then used a five-item questionnaire to evaluate the participants’ opinion of the success of the campaign. We used descriptive statistics and generalised estimating equations (GEE) analysis to conduct the statistical analysis. Results The mean score for knowledge improvement from baseline to immediate post-intervention evaluation was higher among those who saw the campaign (0.61) than among those who did not (0.29); the corresponding figures from immediate evaluation to three-month follow-up were -0.17 and 0.15, respectively. Adjusting for baseline values, the GEE analysis demonstrated that improvement in the mean score of post-campaign knowledge associated significantly with age, education and seeing the campaign. Significant interaction between the time since seeing the campaign and whether the participant saw it (p < 0.001) revealed that the mean difference in the knowledge score between the groups who did and did not see the campaign was 0.4 at the immediate evaluation and -0.04 at the three-month follow-up. The participants received the campaign well in

  19. Do You Know What Your Kids Are Drinking? Evaluation of a Media Campaign to Reduce Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy; Mallya, Giridhar; Hennessy, Michael; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates a citywide media campaign that targeted reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption as a strategy for addressing obesity. Rolling cross-sectional survey data, collected before and during the media campaign, with 1367 parents to assess exposure to and effect of a televised public service advertisement (TV PSA) developed using a reasoned action approach. Televised public service advertisement campaign created by the Philadelphia Department of Public Health and disseminated on cable television channels within the Philadelphia market. Philadelphia parents/primary caregivers with a child between the ages of 3 and 16. Linear regression analysis shows that exposure to the TV PSA was significantly associated with intention to substitute nonsugary drinks for SSBs for the parent ( P = .04) and the child ( P = .02). The effect of exposure on intention to reduce child's SSB consumption increased the longer the campaign was in the field. Exposure was also significantly associated with the belief that reducing SSB consumption decreases the risk of diabetes ( P = .04) and was significantly negatively related to the belief that reducing SSB consumption would make mealtimes less enjoyable ( P = .04). These findings suggest that a theory-based mass media campaign can achieve positive changes in intention related to SSB consumption by changing relevant and salient underlying beliefs.

  20. Cost-utility analysis of the National truth campaign to prevent youth smoking.

    PubMed

    Holtgrave, David R; Wunderink, Katherine A; Vallone, Donna M; Healton, Cheryl G

    2009-05-01

    In 2005, the American Journal of Public Health published an article that indicated that 22% of the overall decline in youth smoking that occurred between 1999 and 2002 was directly attributable to the truth social marketing campaign launched in 2000. A remaining key question about the truth campaign is whether the economic investment in the program can be justified by the public health outcomes; that question is examined here. Standard methods of cost and cost-utility analysis were employed in accordance with the U.S. Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine; a societal perspective was employed. During 2000-2002, expenditures totaled just over $324 million to develop, deliver, evaluate, and litigate the truth campaign. The base-case cost-utility analysis result indicates that the campaign was cost saving; it is estimated that the campaign recouped its costs and that just under $1.9 billion in medical costs was averted for society. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the basic determination of cost effectiveness for this campaign is robust to substantial variation in input parameters. This study suggests that the truth campaign not only markedly improved the public's health but did so in an economically efficient manner.

  1. Examining the effects of mass media campaign exposure and interpersonal discussions on youth's drug use: the mediating role of visiting pro-drug websites.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Lee, Chul-Joo

    2013-01-01

    To extend past research on interpersonal communication and campaign effects, we hypothesized that anti-drug mass media campaign message exposure indirectly affects visiting anti- and pro-drug websites through targeted parent-child and friend-to-friend communication against drugs, as well as through having drug-related discussions during organized group activities. Second, we posited that engaging in anti-drug interpersonal communication indirectly affects adolescents' drug use through two intervening variables: visiting anti-drug websites and visiting pro-drug websites. Using self-reported longitudinal data from 2,749 youth, we found that as youth reported higher levels of anti-drug mass media campaign message exposure, they were more likely to talk to friends about the bad consequences of drugs, how to avoid drugs, and anti-drug ads. In turn, however, they were more likely to visit pro-drug websites, and subsequently, to smoke cigarettes.

  2. "Virginia and the President Need Him" vs. "Your Own Senator...His Own Man:" A Case Study of the Use of Media as a Campaign Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, David R.

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role played by the media in the 1972 U.S. Senate election in Virginia during the Scott and Spong campaigns. Its primary interest is the use of television, particularly the intense blitz by the Scott organization, which is viewed as a significant variable in the Scott victory. The case study seeks to…

  3. A modified "cover your cough" campaign prevents exposures of employees to pertussis at a children's hospital.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Archana; Plummer, Sharon; Heybrock, Brenda; Bardon, Tami; Eischen, Kay; Hall, Mel; Lazoritz, Steven

    2007-09-01

    In the 4th quarter of 2004, there was an increase in patients seeking medical care for pertussis symptoms at the Children's Hospital, Omaha, NE. The Hospital Epidemiology service noted a sharp rise in exposures of Children's Hospital employees to these patients, requiring employee testing, prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions, and relief from duty. Initial efforts at employee education failed to prevent the exposures. An exposure-control plan was then initiated by placing "Cover Your Cough" posters (in English and Spanish) describing appropriate cough etiquette at entrances to the emergency room, outpatient clinics, and hospital lobby. In addition, personal protective equipment (PPE) including child- and adult-sized masks, hand sanitizers, and tissues were provided at these stations for patients and their attendants. Prior to the initiation of the above exposure control measures, there were 166 reports of employee exposure to patients and other employees with pertussis symptoms during a 4-week period. Of these, 140 were given prophylactic antibiotics, and 31 underwent diagnostic testing for pertussis and required paid time off from work. The cost of antibiotics and diagnostic testing was $17,407.00. After the introduction of the modified "Cover Your Cough" campaign, the number of employee exposures declined significantly to 37 in the next 4-week period. Notably, the number of patients tested for pertussis during the second 4-week period was 290 compared to 162 in the first 4-week period, indicating continuation of the epidemic. Availability of PPE along with posters regarding cough etiquette at entry points of the hospital interrupted employee exposure to patients/personnel with pertussis symptoms significantly, when an employee educational initiative alone was unable to achieve this outcome.

  4. The Euromelanoma skin cancer prevention campaign in Europe: characteristics and results of 2009 and 2010.

    PubMed

    van der Leest, R J T; de Vries, E; Bulliard, J-L; Paoli, J; Peris, K; Stratigos, A J; Trakatelli, M; Maselis, T J E M L; Situm, M; Pallouras, A C; Hercogova, J; Zafirovik, Z; Reusch, M; Olah, J; Bylaite, M; Dittmar, H C; Scerri, L; Correia, O; Medenica, L; Bartenjev, I; Guillen, C; Cozzio, A; Bogomolets, O V; del Marmol, V

    2011-12-01

    Euromelanoma is a skin cancer education and prevention campaign that started in 1999 in Belgium as 'Melanoma day'. Since 2000, it is active in a large and growing number of European countries under the name Euromelanoma. To evaluate results of Euromelanoma in 2009 and 2010 in 20 countries, describing characteristics of screenees, rates of clinically suspicious lesions for skin cancer and detection rates of melanomas. Euromelanoma questionnaires were used by 20 countries providing their data in a standardized database (Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, FYRO Macedonia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldavia, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine). In total, 59,858 subjects were screened in 20 countries. Most screenees were female (64%), median ages were 43 (female) and 46 (male) and 33% had phototype I or II. The suspicion rates ranged from 1.1% to 19.4% for melanoma (average 2.8%), from 0.0% to 10.7% for basal cell carcinoma (average 3.1%) and from 0.0% to 1.8% for squamous cell carcinoma (average 0.4%). The overall positive predictive value of countries where (estimation of) positive predictive value could be determined was 13.0%, melanoma detection rates varied from 0.1% to 1.9%. Dermoscopy was used in 78% of examinations with clinically suspected melanoma; full body skin examination was performed in 72% of the screenees. Although the population screened during Euromelanoma was relatively young, high rates of clinically suspected melanoma were found. The efficacy of Euromelanoma could be improved by targeting high-risk populations and by better use of dermoscopy and full body skin examination. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. How does the emotive content of televised anti-smoking mass media campaigns influence monthly calls to the NHS Stop Smoking helpline in England?

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Sol; Langley, Tessa; Szatkowski, Lisa; Sims, Michelle; Gilmore, Anna; McNeill, Ann; Lewis, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different types of televised mass media campaign content on calls to the English NHS Stop Smoking helpline. Method We used UK government-funded televised tobacco control campaigns from April 2005 to April 2010, categorised as either “positive” (eliciting happiness, satisfaction or hope) or “negative” (eliciting fear, guilt or disgust). We built negative binomial generalised additive models (GAMs) with linear and smooth terms for monthly per capita exposure to each campaign type (expressed as Gross Ratings Points, or GRPs) to determine their effect on calls in the same month. We adjusted for seasonal trends, inflation-adjusted weighted average cigarette prices and other tobacco control policies. Results We found non-linear associations between exposure to positive and negative emotive campaigns and quitline calls. The rate of calls increased more than 50% as exposure to positive campaigns increased from 0 to 400 GRPs (rate ratio: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.25–2.01). An increase in calls in response to negative emotive campaigns was only apparent after monthly exposure exceeded 400 GRPs. Conclusion While positive campaigns were most effective at increasing quitline calls, those with negative emotive content were also found to impact on call rates but only at higher levels of exposure. PMID:25197004

  6. Linking mass media campaigns to pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages: a cross-sectional study to evaluate effects among Mexican smokers.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Murukutla, Nandita; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Alday, Jorge; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Cedillo, Claudia; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and a linked media campaign in Mexico. Cross-sectional data were collected from a population-based sample of 1756 adult smokers, aged 18-55 years, during the initial implementation of pictorial HWLs, which some smokers had seen on cigarette packages while others had seen only the text-based HWLs. Exposure to the campaign and pictorial HWLs was assessed with aided recall methods, and other questions addressed attention and cognitive impact of HWLs, knowledge related to HWL and campaign content, and quit-related thoughts and behaviours. Logistic and linear regression models were estimated to determine associations between key outcomes and intervention exposure. In bivariate and multivariate adjusted models, recall of pictorial HWLs and of the campaign were positively associated with greater attention to and cognitive impact of HWLs, whereas only pictorial HWL exposure was associated with having refrained from smoking due to HWLs. Both recall of pictorial HWLs and of the campaign were independently associated with greater knowledge of secondhand smoke harms and toxic tobacco constituents. Smokers who recalled only the pictorial HWLs were more likely to try to quit than smokers who recalled neither the pictorial HWLs nor the campaign (17% vs 6%, p<0.001). Consistent with other studies, adult smokers' exposure to new pictorial HWLs in Mexico was associated with psychosocial and behavioural responses related to quit behaviour. Exposure to the complementary media campaign was associated with independent additive effects on campaign-related knowledge, and it enhanced psychosocial responses to pictorial HWLs.

  7. Using an opinion poll to build an obesity-prevention social marketing campaign for low-income Asian and Hispanic immigrants: report of findings.

    PubMed

    Sugerman, Sharon; Backman, Desiree; Foerster, Susan B; Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

    2011-01-01

    To gain opinions from low-income, limited-English-speaking Hispanic and Asian immigrants for formative research in a social marketing campaign. Nineteen questions on obesity prevention-related topics were embedded into a larger random digit-dial survey investigating the effects of language and cultural barriers on health care access. Participants were selected by ethnic encoding from consumer databases. California's northern, southern, and Central Valley regions. Nine hundred and five adult Hispanic, Chinese, Vietnamese, Hmong, and Korean Californians from households < 130% of the Federal Poverty Level interviewed in 2005. Media usage, food stamp participation, health insurance, health problems, access and availability of fruits and vegetables (FVs) and physical activity, beliefs about overweight, and related regulation and policy change. Descriptive statistics and percentages for all questions. Latinos reported receiving most information from television; Hmong from radio. Hispanics, Koreans, and Vietnamese thought diabetes was the greatest health issue in California. Among Hmong, 83% thought FVs were too expensive, and 49% of Vietnamese thought good quality, affordable fresh FVs were too hard to find. Identifying characteristics and opinions that distinguish these ethnic immigrant populations better enables the Network for a Healthy California to develop culturally relevant social marketing campaigns and materials. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of anti-tobacco industry prevention messages in tobacco producing regions: evidence from the US truth® campaign

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, J; Niederdeppe, J; Farrelly, M; Davis, K; Ribisl, K; Haviland, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: Adolescents who live in tobacco producing regions may not respond favourably to anti-industry ads. Objective: To examine whether state level involvement in tobacco production appears to limit the effectiveness of anti-industry ads to prevent tobacco use among adolescents in the USA. Design: Time trend analyses were done using repeated cross sectional data from six waves of the Legacy Media Tracking Survey, which were collected between 1999 and 2003. Setting and participants: 28 307 adolescents, ages 12–17 years, were classified as living in: tobacco producing states (TPS) (n = 1929); non-tobacco producing states (non-TPS) with low tobacco control funding comparable to TPS (n = 5323); non-TPS with relatively high funding (n = 15 076); and non-TPS with established anti-industry ad campaigns (n = 5979). Main outcome measures: Reactions to anti-industry ads; strength of anti-industry attitudes/beliefs; changes in anti-industry attitudes/beliefs over time. Results: Ad reactions did not differ by state type. Multivariate adjusted time trend analyses indicated significant, comparable increases in anti-industry attitudes/beliefs since the onset of the truth® campaign, in both TPS and non-TPS. Mediation analyses indicated that these increases were due, in part, to campaign exposure. Conclusions: Adolescents who live in tobacco producing regions appear to be as responsive to anti-industry ads as their counterparts in non-tobacco producing regions. This study provides further evidence for the effectiveness of such ads. PMID:15333885

  9. A National Study of Social Media, Television, Radio, and Internet Usage of Adults by Sexual Orientation and Smoking Status: Implications for Campaign Design

    PubMed Central

    Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Jo, Catherine L.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Lee, Joseph G. L.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Kim, Yoonsang; Emery, Sherry L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smoking rates among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people significantly exceed that of heterosexuals. Media interventions are an important part of tobacco control efforts, but limited information is available on LGB people’s media use. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 12,900 U.S. adults completed an online questionnaire assessing media use, smoking status, and demographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess relationships between media use with sexual orientation and smoking status. Results: A total of 590 (4.6%) respondents identified as LGB, of which 29% were smokers. Regardless of sexual orientation and smoking status, the Internet was the most popular media channel used, followed by television and radio. LGB respondents had significantly greater odds of having accounts on social media websites, accessing Facebook daily, and being a frequent Internet user, compared to heterosexual respondents. Similar media use was found between smokers and non-smokers, but smokers had greater odds of being frequent television viewers and frequent Internet users, compared to non-smokers. Conclusions: Compared to heterosexuals, LGB respondents reported greater use of the Internet, especially social media. Media campaigns targeting LGB populations can maximize reach by utilizing social media alongside traditional media channels. PMID:28430161

  10. A National Study of Social Media, Television, Radio, and Internet Usage of Adults by Sexual Orientation and Smoking Status: Implications for Campaign Design.

    PubMed

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Jo, Catherine L; Ribisl, Kurt M; Lee, Joseph G L; Buchting, Francisco O; Kim, Yoonsang; Emery, Sherry L

    2017-04-21

    Background: Smoking rates among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people significantly exceed that of heterosexuals. Media interventions are an important part of tobacco control efforts, but limited information is available on LGB people's media use. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 12,900 U.S. adults completed an online questionnaire assessing media use, smoking status, and demographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess relationships between media use with sexual orientation and smoking status. Results: A total of 590 (4.6%) respondents identified as LGB, of which 29% were smokers. Regardless of sexual orientation and smoking status, the Internet was the most popular media channel used, followed by television and radio. LGB respondents had significantly greater odds of having accounts on social media websites, accessing Facebook daily, and being a frequent Internet user, compared to heterosexual respondents. Similar media use was found between smokers and non-smokers, but smokers had greater odds of being frequent television viewers and frequent Internet users, compared to non-smokers. Conclusions: Compared to heterosexuals, LGB respondents reported greater use of the Internet, especially social media. Media campaigns targeting LGB populations can maximize reach by utilizing social media alongside traditional media channels.

  11. Educating women for HIV prevention: does exposure to mass media make them more knowledgeable?

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Chaudhuri, Sanjukta; Abdullah, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Mass media is an important vehicle for health promotion in developing countries. In Bangladesh multiple media campaigns are being carried out to educate people about HIV/AIDS. We examined the extent of HIV/AIDS knowledge and the association of exposure to mass media among women in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) provides data for this article. We found that media exposure (combined index of television, radio, and newspaper) was a highly significant predictor of women's knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Other significant predictors of HIV knowledge include women's education, age, employment, and urban residence.

  12. Was the media campaign that supported Australia’s new pictorial cigarette warning labels and plain packaging policy associated with more attention to and talking about warning labels?

    PubMed Central

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Osman, Amira; Yong, Hua-Hie; Huang, Li-Ling; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-level interventions can possibly enhance each other’s effects when they are implemented simultaneously. When the plain packaging policy was implemented in Australia, pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages were also updated and a national mass media campaign was aired. This study examined whether smokers who recalled the media campaign reported more attention to and talking about HWLs. Methods Longitudinal survey data was obtained among Australian adult smokers, aged 18 years and older, from an online consumer panel. One survey wave was conducted before (September 2012) and two waves were conducted after (January 2013 and May 2013) the interventions. The sample was replenished to maintain a sample size of 1000 participants at each wave. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were performed. Results Compared to wave 1, attention to HWLs increased at wave 2 (b = 0.32, SE = 0.06, p < 0.001), but not at wave 3 (b = 0.10, SE = 0.08, p = 0.198). Talking about HWLs increased over time (IRR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.58–2.09 and IRR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.05–1.47, at wave 2 and wave 3 respectively). Campaign recall was significantly associated with more attention to HWLs (b = 0.29, SE = 0.05, p < 0.001) and with more talking about HWLs (IRR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06–1.29) with similar effects across waves 2 and 3. Conclusions Recall of the campaign was associated with more attention to and talking about HWLs. When adjusting for campaign recall, there was still an increasing trend in attention and talking. This suggests that the media campaign and the new packaging and labeling policies had independent and positive effects on attention to and talking about HWLs. PMID:26050643

  13. Was the media campaign that supported Australia's new pictorial cigarette warning labels and plain packaging policy associated with more attention to and talking about warning labels?

    PubMed

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Osman, Amira; Yong, Hua-Hie; Huang, Li-Ling; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F

    2015-10-01

    Population-level interventions can possibly enhance each other's effects when they are implemented simultaneously. When the plain packaging policy was implemented in Australia, pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages were also updated and a national mass media campaign was aired. This study examined whether smokers who recalled the media campaign reported more attention to and talking about HWLs. Longitudinal survey data was obtained among Australian adult smokers, aged 18 years and older, from an online consumer panel. One survey wave was conducted before (September 2012) and two waves were conducted after (January 2013 and May 2013) the interventions. The sample was replenished to maintain a sample size of 1000 participants at each wave. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were performed. Compared to wave 1, attention to HWLs increased at wave 2 (b=0.32, SE=0.06, p<0.001), but not at wave 3 (b=0.10, SE=0.08, p=0.198). Talking about HWLs increased over time (IRR=1.82, 95% CI=1.58-2.09 and IRR=1.25, 95% CI=1.05-1.47, at wave 2 and wave 3 respectively). Campaign recall was significantly associated with more attention to HWLs (b=0.29, SE=0.05, p<0.001) and with more talking about HWLs (IRR=1.17, 95% CI=1.06-1.29) with similar effects across waves 2 and 3. Recall of the campaign was associated with more attention to and talking about HWLs. When adjusting for campaign recall, there was still an increasing trend in attention and talking. This suggests that the media campaign and the new packaging and labeling policies had independent and positive effects on attention to and talking about HWLs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and early implementation of the bigger picture, a youth-targeted public health literacy campaign to prevent type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Elizabeth A; Fine, Sarah; Handley, Margaret A; Davis, Hodari; Kass, James; Schillinger, Dean

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rapidly rising, especially among minority and low-income youth. There is an unmet need to engage youth in identifying solutions to reverse this trajectory. Social marketing campaigns and entertainment education are effective forms of health communication for engaging populations in health-promoting behaviors. Critical to curbing the epidemic is moving the diabetes conversation away from individual behavior alone and toward a socioecologic perspective using a public health literacy framework. The authors developed an academic-community partnership to develop, implement, and evaluate a type 2 diabetes prevention campaign targeting minority and low-income youth. The Bigger Picture campaign uses hard-hitting, youth-generated spoken-word messages around key environmental and social drivers of the type 2 diabetes epidemic. Campaign goals included promoting health capacity and civic engagement. This article focuses on the development and implementation of the campaign, including (a) rationale and theoretical underpinnings, (b) steps in campaign creation, (c) testing the campaign messaging, and (d) campaign dissemination and evaluation planning. A youth-created health communication campaign using a public health literacy framework with targeted, relevant, and compelling messaging appears to be a promising vehicle for reaching at-risk youth to increase knowledge of and attitudes about preventing type 2 diabetes, change social norms, and motivate participation in health-promoting initiatives.

  15. Social media interventions to prevent HIV: A review of interventions and methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Lai Sze; Tang, Weiming; Li, Haochu; Yan, H. Yanna; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent new HIV infections and risky behaviors underscore the need for enhanced HIV prevention. Social media interventions may promote safe sexual behaviors, increase HIV testing uptake, and promote safe injection behaviors. This review discusses how social media interventions tap into the wisdom of crowds through crowdsourcing, build peer-mentored communities, and deliver interventions through social networks. Social media HIV prevention interventions are constrained by ethical issues, low social media usage among some key populations, and implementation issues. Comprehensive measurement of social media interventions to prevent HIV is necessary, but requires further development of metrics. PMID:26516632

  16. Social media interventions to prevent HIV: A review of interventions and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Tso, Lai Sze; Tang, Weiming; Li, Haochu; Yan, H Yanna; Tucker, Joseph D

    2016-06-01

    Persistent new HIV infections and risky behaviors underscore the need for enhanced HIV prevention. Social media interventions may promote safe sexual behaviors, increase HIV testing uptake, and promote safe injection behaviors. This review discusses how social media interventions tap into the wisdom of crowds through crowdsourcing, build peer-mentored communities, and deliver interventions through social networks. Social media HIV prevention interventions are constrained by ethical issues, low social media usage among some key populations, and implementation issues. Comprehensive measurement of social media interventions to prevent HIV is necessary, but requires further development of metrics.

  17. Social Mediation of Persuasive Media in Adolescent Substance Prevention.

    PubMed

    Crano, William D; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Tan, Cara N; Siegel, Jason T

    2017-03-16

    Social commentary about prevention messages may affect their likelihood of acceptance. To investigate this possibility, student participants (N = 663) viewed 3 antimarijuana advertisements, each followed immediately by videotaped discussions involving 4 adults or 4 adolescents using either extreme or moderate language in their positive commentaries. The commentaries were expected to affect participants' perceptions of the extent to which the ads were designed to control their behavior (perceived control), which was hypothesized to inhibit persuasion. Two indirect effects analyses were conducted. Marijuana attitudes and usage intentions were the outcome variables. Both analyses revealed statistically significant source by language interactions on participants' perceived control (both p < .02). Further analyses revealed significant indirect effects of language extremity on attitudes and intentions through perceived control with adult, but not peer sources (both p < .05). These perceptions were associated with more negative marijuana attitudes and diminished usage intentions when adults used moderate (vs. extreme) language in their favorable ad commentaries (both p < .05). The findings may facilitate development of more effective prevention methods that emphasize the importance of the role of perceived control in persuasion, and the impact of interpersonal communication variations on acceptance of media-transmitted prevention messages. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Longer term impact of the mass media campaign to promote the Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service®: increasing the saliency of a new public health program.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Gebel, Klaus; Banovic, Debbie; Buffett, Kym M; Bauman, Adrian E

    2014-11-01

    The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) was introduced in New South Wales in February 2009. It used mass reach media advertising and direct mail and/or proactive marketing to recruit participants. This article reports on the long-term impact of the campaign on GHS participation from July 2011 to June 2012. A stand-alone population survey collected awareness, knowledge, and behavioral variables before the first advertising phase, (n = 1,544, August-September 2010), during the advertising period (n = 1,500, February-March 2011; n = 1,500, June-July 2011; n = 1,500, February 2012), and after the advertising period (n = 1,500, June-July 2012). GHS usage data (n = 6,095) were collated during July 2011-June 2012. Unprompted and prompted awareness of GHS mass media significantly increased (0% to 8.0%, p < .001; and 14.1% to 43.9%, p < .001, respectively) as well as knowledge and perceived effectiveness of the GHS. Those from the lowest three quintiles of socioeconomic disadvantage and respondents who were overweight or obese were significantly more likely to report prompted campaign awareness. The majority (84.4%) of new GHS calls occurred when television advertising was present. Participants who cited mass media as their referral source were significantly more likely to enroll in the intensive coaching program. Mass media campaigns remain an effective method of promoting a telephone-based statewide lifestyle program. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  19. Hombres Sanos: exposure and response to a social marketing HIV prevention campaign targeting heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Fernández-Cerdeño, Araceli; Sañudo, Fernando; Hovell, Melbourne F; Sipan, Carol L; Engelberg, Moshe; Ji, Ming

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the reach and impact of a social marketing intervention to reduce HIV risk among heterosexually identified (HI) Latino men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Repeated cross-sectional intercept surveys were conducted in selected community venues during and after the campaign with 1,137 HI Latino men. Of them, 6% were classified as HI Latino MSMW. On average, 85.9% of the heterosexual respondents and 86.8% of the HI MSMW subsample reported exposure to the campaign. Responses to the campaign included having made an appointment for a male health exam that included HIV testing and using condoms. Campaign exposure was significantly associated with HIV testing behavior and intentions and with knowledge of where to get tested. The campaign reached its underserved target audience and stimulated preventive behaviors. Social marketing represents a promising approach for HIV prevention among HI Latinos, in general, and HI Latino MSMW, in particular.

  20. Tobacco Packaging and Mass Media Campaigns: Research Needs for Articles 11 and 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). Methods: A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Results: Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. Conclusion: A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up. PMID:23042986

  1. Creating and Executing an Applied Interdisciplinary Campaign for Domestic Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Sarah N.; Otjen, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary, experiential learning project that combined marketing and communications courses at a state university. Two professors from different colleges partnered with a domestic violence center to enable students to create a community-based social marketing campaign. Student assessments indicated success in…

  2. Creating and Executing an Applied Interdisciplinary Campaign for Domestic Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Sarah N.; Otjen, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary, experiential learning project that combined marketing and communications courses at a state university. Two professors from different colleges partnered with a domestic violence center to enable students to create a community-based social marketing campaign. Student assessments indicated success in…

  3. Incorporation of pollution prevention into the engineering command media

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, E.; Hammonds, C.

    1997-10-08

    It has long been recognized that incorporation of pollution prevention (P2) into projects during the design phase yields superior results as compared to modification of facilities after construction. Generation of waste during construction can be minimized, products containing recycled materials can be incorporated into the facility, and the processes or systems can be optimized for P2 from the beginning. However, design engineers must have the proper mindset and training in order to achieve this, since standard engineering practice does not necessarily lead to construction of systems that are optimized for P2. It was determined that incorporation of P2 principles and methods into command media that govern the conduct of design and construction was one way of achieving P2 objectives during design. This would incorporate certain P2 elements into criteria and standard designs so that these elements are automatically incorporated into the designs. The Central Engineering Services (CES) Command Media, which provide direction, methodology, and criteria for performance of engineering design and construction, consist of Engineering Procedures, Master Design Criteria, Technical Specifications, and Engineering Standards. Incorporated in these documents are regulatory requirements, national consensus codes and standards, accepted and proven practices and designs, as well as DOE Orders governing design and construction. The documents were reviewed to identify potential areas into which P2 principles, practices, and methodologies could be incorporated.

  4. Effects of mass media campaign exposure intensity and durability on quit attempts in a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, M. A.; Spittal, M. J.; Yong, H-H.; Durkin, S. J.; Borland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which intensity and timing of televised anti-smoking advertising emphasizing the serious harms of smoking influences quit attempts. Methods: Using advertising gross rating points (GRPs), we estimated exposure to tobacco control and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising in the 3, 4–6, 7–9 and 10–12 months prior to follow-up of a replenished cohort of 3037 Australian smokers during 2002–08. Using generalized estimating equations, we related the intensity and timing of advertising exposure from each source to the likelihood of making a quit attempt in the 3 months prior to follow-up. Results: Tobacco control advertising in the 3-month period prior to follow-up, but not in more distant past periods, was related to a higher likelihood of making a quit attempt. Each 1000 GRP increase per quarter was associated with an 11% increase in making a quit attempt [odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.19, P = 0.009)]. NRT advertising was unrelated to quit attempts. Conclusions: Tobacco control advertising emphasizing the serious harms of smoking is associated with short-term increases in the likelihood of smokers making a quit attempt. Repeated cycles of higher intensity tobacco control media campaigns are needed to sustain high levels of quit attempts. PMID:21730252

  5. Comparing effectiveness of mass media campaigns with price reductions targeting fruit and vegetable intake on US cardiovascular disease mortality and race disparities.

    PubMed

    Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Bandosz, Piotr; Rehm, Colin D; Afshin, Ashkan; Peñalvo, Jose L; Whitsel, Laurie; Danaei, Goodarz; Micha, Renata; Gaziano, Tom; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Capewell, Simon; Mozaffarian, Dariush; O'Flaherty, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Background: A low intake of fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United States. Both mass media campaigns (MMCs) and economic incentives may increase F&V consumption. Few data exist on their comparative effectiveness.Objective: We estimated CVD mortality reductions potentially achievable by price reductions and MMC interventions targeting F&V intake in the US population.Design: We developed a US IMPACT Food Policy Model to compare 3 policies targeting F&V intake across US adults from 2015 to 2030: national MMCs and national F&V price reductions of 10% and 30%. We accounted for differences in baseline diets, CVD rates, MMC coverage, MMC duration, and declining effects over time. Outcomes included cumulative CVD (coronary heart disease and stroke) deaths prevented or postponed and life-years gained (LYGs) over the study period, stratified by age, sex, and race.Results: A 1-y MMC in 2015 would increase the average national F&V consumption by 7% for 1 y and prevent ∼18,600 CVD deaths (95% CI: 17,600, 19,500), gaining ∼280,100 LYGs by 2030. With a 15-y MMC, increased F&V consumption would be sustained, yielding a 3-fold larger reduction (56,100; 95% CI: 52,400, 57,700) in CVD deaths. In comparison, a 10% decrease in F&V prices would increase F&V consumption by ∼14%. This would prevent ∼153,300 deaths (95% CI: 146,400, 159,200), gaining ∼2.51 million LYGs. For a 30% price decrease, resulting in a 42% increase in F&V consumption, corresponding values would be 451,900 CVD deaths prevented or postponed (95% CI: 433,100, 467,500) and 7.3 million LYGs gained. Effects were similar by sex, with a smaller proportional effect and larger absolute effects at older ages. A 1-y MMC would be 35% less effective in preventing CVD deaths in non-Hispanic blacks than in whites. In comparison, price-reduction policies would have equitable proportional effects.Conclusion: Both national MMCs and price-reduction policies could

  6. Mass Media as an HIV-Prevention Strategy: Using Culturally Sensitive Messages to Reduce HIV-Associated Sexual Behavior of At-Risk African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sznitman, Sharon; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Fortune, Thierry; Juzang, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    The evidence base and theoretical frameworks for mass media HIV-prevention campaigns in the United States are not well-developed. We describe an intervention approach using culturally sensitive mass media messages to enhance protective beliefs and behavior of African American adolescents at risk for HIV. This approach exploits the potential that mass media messages have, not only to reach a large segment of the adolescent population and thereby support normative change, but also to engage the most vulnerable segments of this audience to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors. The results from an ongoing HIV-prevention trial implemented in 2 medium-sized cities in the United States illustrate the effectiveness of this intervention approach. PMID:19833995

  7. Mass media as an HIV-prevention strategy: using culturally sensitive messages to reduce HIV-associated sexual behavior of at-risk African American youth.

    PubMed

    Romer, Daniel; Sznitman, Sharon; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K; Valois, Robert F; Stanton, Bonita F; Fortune, Thierry; Juzang, Ivan

    2009-12-01

    The evidence base and theoretical frameworks for mass media HIV-prevention campaigns in the United States are not well-developed. We describe an intervention approach using culturally sensitive mass media messages to enhance protective beliefs and behavior of African American adolescents at risk for HIV. This approach exploits the potential that mass media messages have, not only to reach a large segment of the adolescent population and thereby support normative change, but also to engage the most vulnerable segments of this audience to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors. The results from an ongoing HIV-prevention trial implemented in 2 medium-sized cities in the United States illustrate the effectiveness of this intervention approach.

  8. Using a mass media campaign to raise women's awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer: cross-sectional pre-intervention and post-intervention evaluation surveys.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen G; Pratt, Iain S; Scully, Maree L; Miller, Jessica R; Patterson, Carla; Hood, Rebecca; Slevin, Terry J

    2015-03-11

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a population-based, statewide public health intervention designed to improve women's awareness and knowledge of the link between alcohol and cancer. Cross-sectional tracking surveys conducted pre-intervention and post-intervention (waves I and III of campaign). Western Australia. Cross-sectional samples of Western Australian women aged 25-54 years before the campaign (n=136) and immediately after wave I (n=206) and wave III (n=155) of the campaign. The 'Alcohol and Cancer' mass media campaign ran from May 2010 to May 2011 and consisted of three waves of paid television advertising with supporting print advertisements. Campaign awareness; knowledge of drinking guidelines and the link between alcohol and cancer; intentions towards drinking. Prompted recognition of the campaign increased from 67% following wave I to 81% following wave III (adjusted OR (adj OR)=2.31, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.00, p=0.003). Improvements in women's knowledge that drinking alcohol on a regular basis increases cancer risk were found following wave I (adj OR=2.60, 95% CI 1.57 to 4.30, p<0.001) and wave III (adj OR=4.88, 95% CI 2.55 to 9.36, p<0.001) compared with baseline. Knowledge of the recommended number of standard drinks for low risk in the long term increased between baseline and wave I (adj OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.76, p=0.041), but not baseline and wave III (adj OR=1.42, 95% CI 0.84 to 2.39, p=0.191). Among women who drink alcohol, the proportion expressing intentions to reduce alcohol consumption increased significantly between baseline and wave III (adj OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.11 to 5.12, p=0.026). However, no significant reductions in recent drinking behaviour were found following the campaign. Results indicate a population-based mass media campaign can reach the target audience and raise awareness of links between alcohol and cancer, and knowledge of drinking guidelines. However, a single campaign may be insufficient to measurably curb drinking behaviour

  9. Development and Early Implementation of The Bigger Picture, a Youth-Targeted Public Health Literacy Campaign to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    ROGERS, ELIZABETH; FINE, SARAH; HANDLEY, MARGARET A.; DAVIS, HODARI; KASS, JAMES; SCHILLINGER, DEAN

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes (DM2) is rapidly rising, especially among minority and low-income youth. There is an unmet need to engage youth in identifying solutions to reverse this trajectory. Social marketing campaigns and entertainment education are effective forms of health communication for engaging populations in health-promoting behaviors. Critical to curbing the epidemic is moving the diabetes conversation away from individual behavior alone and toward a socio-ecologic perspective using a public health literacy framework. We developed an academic-community partnership to develop, implement, and evaluate a DM2 prevention campaign targeting minority and low-income youth. The Bigger Picture uses hard-hitting, youth-generated “spoken-word” messages around key environmental and social drivers of the DM2 epidemic. Campaign goals included promoting health capacity and civic engagement. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of the campaign, including (a) rationale and theoretical underpinnings; (b) steps in campaign creation; (c) testing the campaign messaging; and (d) campaign dissemination and evaluation planning. A youth-created health communication campaign using a public health literacy framework with targeted, relevant, and compelling messaging appears to be a promising vehicle for reaching at-risk youth to increase knowledge of and attitudes about preventing DM2, change social norms, and motivate participation in health promotion initiatives. PMID:25315590

  10. [Ketoacidosis at time of diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents: effect of a national prevention campaign].

    PubMed

    Choleau, C; Maitre, J; Elie, C; Barat, P; Bertrand, A M; de Kerdanet, M; Le Tallec, C; Nicolino, M; Tubiana-Rufi, N; Levy-Marchal, C; Cahané, M; Robert, J-J

    2015-04-01

    of an information campaign decreased it. The results have also helped better define the strategy and targets of the continuing prevention campaign, to more efficiently reduce the morbidity and mortality of T1D at diagnosis in children and adolescents in France.

  11. Tobacco tax initiatives to prevent tobacco use: a study of eight statewide campaigns.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, J

    1998-12-15

    This article reviews the history of successful and unsuccessful tobacco tax initiatives in eight states in the U. S. since 1988. It addresses the common origins of these initiatives and proposes several strategies for the success of citizen-based initiative campaigns attempting to raise the tobacco excise tax. It explores the impact of tobacco tax increases on youth and discusses why youth consumption is increasing even in the face of rising tobacco taxes. Only 50% of the states in the U. S. can pass tobacco tax increases using the initiative process; the other states require legislative action. Four states have succeeded in passing citizen-sponsored tobacco tax initiatives, whereas two others have failed at the ballot. Efforts in two other states foundered when insufficient signatures were submitted to gain a spot on the ballot. Surveys in all six states in which initiatives were placed on the ballot revealed similar high levels of voter support, but the clearest factor separating winning from losing campaigns was the availability of sufficient financial resources. Other important campaign elements included strong leadership, broad coalitions, experienced legal and political consultants, access to public opinion research, and advance planning.

  12. 14 CFR 1213.106 - Preventing release of classified information to the media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information to the media. 1213.106 Section 1213.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.106 Preventing release of classified information to the media. (a) Release of classified information in any form (e.g., documents, through...

  13. 14 CFR § 1213.106 - Preventing release of classified information to the media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.106 Preventing release of classified... interviews, audio/visual) to the news media is prohibited. The disclosure of classified information to...,” and its implementing directive at 32 CFR parts 2001 and 2004. (b) Any attempt by news media...

  14. 14 CFR 1213.106 - Preventing release of classified information to the media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.106 Preventing release of classified... interviews, audio/visual) to the news media is prohibited. The disclosure of classified information to...,” and its implementing directive at 32 CFR parts 2001 and 2004. (b) Any attempt by news media...

  15. 14 CFR 1213.106 - Preventing release of classified information to the media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.106 Preventing release of classified... interviews, audio/visual) to the news media is prohibited. The disclosure of classified information to...,” and its implementing directive at 32 CFR parts 2001 and 2004. (b) Any attempt by news media...

  16. Effects of a televised two-city safer sex mass media campaign targeting high-sensation-seeking and impulsive-decision-making young adults.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rick S; Palmgreen, Philip M; Noar, Seth M; Lustria, Mia Liza A; Lu, Hung-Yi; Lee Horosewski, Mary

    2007-10-01

    This study evaluates the ability of a safer sex televised public service announcement (PSA) campaign to increase safer sexual behavior among at-risk young adults. Independent, monthly random samples of 100 individuals were surveyed in each city for 21 months as part of an interrupted-time-series design with a control community. The 3-month high-audience-saturation campaign took place in Lexington, KY, with Knoxville, TN, as a comparison city. Messages were especially designed and selected for the target audience (those above the median on a composite sensation-seeking/impulsive-decision-making scale). Data indicate high campaign exposure among the target audience, with 85%-96% reporting viewing one or more PSAs. Analyses indicate significant 5-month increases in condom use, condom-use self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions among the target group in the campaign city with no changes in the comparison city. The results suggest that a carefully targeted, intensive mass media campaign using televised PSAs can change safer sexual behaviors.

  17. Mass Media Campaigns’ Influence on Prehospital Behavior for Acute Coronary Syndromes: An Evaluation of the Australian Heart Foundation’s Warning Signs Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Janet E; Stub, Dion; Ngu, Philip; Cartledge, Susie; Straney, Lahn; Stewart, Michelle; Keech, Wendy; Patsamanis, Harry; Shaw, James; Finn, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the awareness of a recent mass media campaign, and its influence on knowledge and prehospital times, in a cohort of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients admitted to an Australian hospital. Methods and Results We conducted 199 semistructured interviews with consecutive ACS patients who were aged 35 to 75 years, competent to provide consent, and English speaking. Questions addressed the factors known to predict prehospital delay, awareness of the campaign, and whether it increased knowledge and influenced actions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between campaign awareness and a 1-hour delay in deciding to seek medical attention (patient delay) and a 2-hour delay in presenting to hospital (prehospital delay). The median age was 62 years (IQR=53 to 68 years), and 68% (n=136) were male. Awareness of the campaign was reported by 127 (64%) patients, with most of these patients stating the campaign (1) increased their understanding of what is a heart attack (63%), (2) increased their awareness of the signs and symptoms of heart attack (68%), and (3) influenced their actions in response to symptoms (43%). After adjustment for other predictors, awareness of the campaign was significantly associated with patient delay time of ≤1 hour (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.25, 95% CI: 1.03 to 4.91, P=0.04) and prehospital delay time ≤2 hours (AOR=3.11, 95% CI: 1.36 to 7.08, P=0.007). Conclusions Our study showed reasonably high awareness of the warning signs campaign, which was significantly associated with shorter prehospital decision-making and faster presentation to hospital. PMID:26150478

  18. Targeting educational campaigns for prevention of malaria and dengue fever: an assessment in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Brusich, Macy; Grieco, John; Penney, Naomi; Tisgratog, Rungarun; Ritthison, Wanapa; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Achee, Nicole

    2015-01-23

    The current study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of at-risk populations for malaria and/or dengue fever in relation to mosquito exposure and household mosquito control practices. Specific objectives included comparison of individual and household level health practices between a rural and urban setting in Thailand. Findings are intended to guide Thailand Ministry of Health educational campaigns targeting arthropod-borne disease. A mixed method design was employed using a forced choice and open-ended questionnaire to assess KAP of participants seeking point-of-care treatment for malaria and/or dengue fever at government health-care facilities. Following informed consent, household construction characterization (percent eave gap, floor, wall, and roof material) and mosquito collections both indoors (using aspiration) and outside (using traps) were conducted at a subsample of participant homes. All mosquitoes were identified to genus and anopheline and aedine samples processed for potential pathogen infection. A total of 64 participants were recruited from both study sites; 62 categorized as malaria symptomology and 2 categorized as dengue across all study healthcare facilities. Significant associations between study site and household construction were indicated. Trends also identified household level practices and both occupation and household construction regarding type of mosquito control products purchased and the abundance of mosquitoes in sampled homes. Overall, Ministry of Health information from education campaigns regarding malaria and dengue fever strategies is reaching the intended target populations at the study sites. Participants are aware of the presence of mosquitoes and that they serve as the potential vector for transmitting malaria and dengue fever diseases. However, specific knowledge gaps were also identified in each study site that may influence exposure to infected mosquitoes. Findings from this study are intended to

  19. The Jade Ribbon Campaign: a model program for community outreach and education to prevent liver cancer in Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Chao, Stephanie D; Chang, Ellen T; Le, Phuoc V; Prapong, Wijan; Kiernan, Michaela; So, Samuel K S

    2009-08-01

    The Jade Ribbon Campaign (JRC) is a culturally targeted, community-based outreach program to promote the prevention, early detection, and management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer among Asian Americans. In 2001, 476 Chinese American adults from the San Francisco Bay Area attended an HBV screening clinic and educational seminar. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection was 13%; only 8% of participants showed serologic evidence of protective antibody from prior vaccination. Participants reported low preventive action before the clinic, but after one year, 67% of those with chronic HBV infection had consulted a physician for liver cancer screening, and 78% of all participants had encouraged family members to be tested for HBV. The increase in HBV awareness, screening, and physician follow-up suggests that culturally aligned interventions similar to the JRC may help reduce the disproportionate burden of disease to chronic HBV infection among Asian Americans.

  20. Effectiveness of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (July 11, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This hearing focuses on the evaluation of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Specifically, the subcommittee was interested in measuring whether significant taxpayer investment has been effective in accomplishing the objectives of the campaign-- reaching the target audience, changing young peoples attitudes about drugs, encouraging…

  1. [Workplace campaigns for metabolic syndrome prevention and healthy lifestyles promotion in mechanical engineering industries].

    PubMed

    Vigna, L; Agnelli, G M; Belluigi, V; Calvelli, L; Riboldi, L

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes 2 years outcome on BMI, smoking habits and physical activity of 2 WHP carried in engineering plants. Three important results were achieved: stationarity of body weight despite ageing of examined population; increase of workers that perform regular physical activity and a slight increase of smoking cessation. NSAS questionnaire showed a marked improvement in life styles compared to the data obtained 2 years before. Our findings suggest that an efficacy on life style modification can be achieved by WHP campaigns with little time and cost consuming. The collaboration between occupational physician, employer and employees but also with external professionals is the key of success.

  2. Update on otitis mediaprevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qureishi, Ali; Lee, Yan; Belfield, Katherine; Birchall, John P; Daniel, Matija

    2014-01-01

    Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion are common childhood disorders, a source of significant morbidity, and a leading cause of antibiotic prescription in primary health care. Although effective treatments are available, some shortcomings remain, and thus better treatments would be welcome. Recent discoveries within the field of otitis media research relating to its etiology and pathogenesis have led to further investigation aimed at developing novel treatments. This article provides a review of the latest evidence relating to the understanding of acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion, current treatment strategies, their limitations, new areas of research, and novel strategies for treatment. PMID:24453496

  3. A Tale of Two Countries: Media and Messages of the French and American Presidential Campaigns of 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    This paper analyzes the similarities and differences between the French and American presidential election campaigns of 1988, focusing in particular on the processes of political communication. After discussing the framework of law, tradition, and climate of opinion within which political campaigns take place in these two countries, the paper…

  4. "Heart without smoke" educational campaign - the role of patient education in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Siudak, Zbigniew; Krawczyk-Ożóg, Agata; Twarda, Iwona; Franczak, Iwona; Rajtar-Salwa, Renata; Bartuś, Stanisław; Godlewski, Jacek; Dudek, Dariusz

    2017-08-23

    Nicotine addiction is the strongest factor in the increase of the risk of recurrent ischemic events. The aim of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of smoking cessation educational program in the population of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction within the "Heart without smoke" campaign. In this study, we included 100 consecutive patients, active smokers, hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (STEMI or NSTEMI) at the Center for Invasive Cardiology, Angiology and Electrotherapy in Pińczów, Poland in the period from January to December 2015 (12 months). Patients were participants in the educational campaign about tobacco addiction "Heart without smoke". At one month follow up observation: 61 patients quit smoking and additional 35 decreased the number of cigarettes a day. During 6-month follow-up interview: 51 patients did not smoke cigarettes (13 returned to smoking, 3 additional stopped smoking, 1 person died). There were no statistical significant correlations between smoking cessation and gender (p=0.4; p=0.2), age (p=0.8; p=0.8) and length of prior smoking habit (p=0.8; p=0.5) and daily cigarette consumption before myocardial infarctions (p=0.3; p=0.3) one month and six months after hospital discharge, respectively. Constant education of patients after myocardial infarction was an effective method for smoking cessation in over 50% of smokers 6 months after myocardial infarction.

  5. Are drug detection dogs and mass-media campaigns likely to be effective policy responses to psychostimulant use and related harm? Results from an agent-based simulation model.

    PubMed

    Dray, Anne; Perez, Pascal; Moore, David; Dietze, Paul; Bammer, Gabriele; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Siokou, Christine; Green, Rachael; Hudson, Susan L; Maher, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Agent-based simulation models can be used to explore the impact of policy and practice on drug use and related consequences. In a linked paper (Perez et al., 2011), we described SimAmph, an agent-based simulation model for exploring the use of psychostimulants and related harm amongst young Australians. In this paper, we use the model to simulate the impact of two policy scenarios on engagement in drug use and experience of drug-related harm: (i) the use of passive-alert detection (PAD) dogs by police at public venues and (ii) the introduction of a mass-media drug prevention campaign. The findings of the first simulation suggest that only very high rates of detection by PAD dogs reduce the intensity of drug use, and that this decrease is driven mainly by a four-fold increase in negative health consequences as detection rates rise. In the second simulation, our modelling showed that the mass-media prevention campaign had little effect on the behaviour and experience of heavier drug users. However, it led to reductions in the prevalence of health-related conditions amongst moderate drug users and prevented them from becoming heavier users. Agent-based modelling has great potential as a tool for exploring the reciprocal relationships between environments and individuals, and for highlighting how intended changes in one domain of a system may produce unintended consequences in other domains. The exploration of these linkages is important in an environment as complex as the drug policy and intervention arena. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Find Thirty every day(R): cross-sectional findings from a Western Australian population-wide mass media campaign, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Leavy, Justine E; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian E; Bull, Fiona C; Giles-Corti, Billie; Shilton, Trevor; Maitland, Clover; Barnes, Rosanne

    2013-08-01

    Internationally, over the last four decades large-scale mass media campaigns have been delivered to promote physical activity and its associated health benefits. In 2002-2005, the first Western Australian statewide adult physical activity campaign Find Thirty. It's Not a Big Exercise was launched. In 2007, a new iteration of the campaign was proposed with new objectives, executions, and tag line Find Thirty every day(®). This article reports on the population-level effects of the Find Thirty every day (®) campaign from 2008 to 2010, with a focus on changes in awareness, intention, and physical activity. Evaluation of the campaign involved pre- and posttest serial cross-sectional surveys. Baseline data were collected in May 2008, and subsequent surveys in 2009 and 2010. Samples sizes were as follows: baseline (n = 972), first follow-up (n = 938), and second follow-up (n = 937). Data were derived from self-reported responses to a random-sample computer-assisted telephone interview. Total awareness increased from 30.4% at baseline to 48.5% at second follow-up. Total awareness was higher in women and low socioeconomic status adults. Intention was 21.0%, double that reported at baseline. There were positive significant changes from baseline to first follow-up across all four categories: walking, moderate, vigorous, and total physical activity. There also were positive significant changes for self-reported walking from baseline to second follow-up. Find Thirty every day (®) resulted in an increase in awareness, intention, walking, vigorous intensity, and total level of physical activity in priority target groups. Campaign effects should be further examined by subgroups to identify the most receptive population segments.

  7. Interventions Using Social Media for Cancer Prevention and Management: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Han, Claire Jungyoun; Lee, Young Ji; Demiris, George

    2017-07-27

    Regarding cancer awareness, social media effectively promotes health and supports self-management. Given the diverse study designs, methodologies, and approaches of social media interventions in oncology, it is difficult to determine the effects of social media on cancer prevention and management. We aim to systematically review intervention studies using social media for cancer care. A systematic search, using 7 electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Scopus, EMBASE, and PsycINFO), was conducted to identify surveys and interventions using contemporary social media tools with a focus on cancer. Of the 18 selected studies, 7 were randomized controlled trials. Most studies were conducted for all types of cancer, and some were conducted for breast cancer in the United States, with mostly white female participants. Facebook was the most frequently used platform. Most studies targeted healthy participants providing cancer prevention education. With social media platforms as part of a larger intervention, or the main component of interventions, interventions were overall feasible and showed a significant improvement in cancer prevention and management. Social media tools have the potential to be effective in delivering interventions for cancer prevention and management. However, there was a dearth of studies with rigorous study methodologies to test social media effects on various cancer-related clinical outcomes. Social media use in cancer care will facilitate improved communication and support among patients, caregivers, and clinicians and, ultimately, improved patient care. Clinicians need to carefully harness social media to enhance patient care and clinical outcomes.

  8. Role of print and audiovisual media in cervical cancer prevention in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nessa, Ashrafun; Hussain, Muhammad Anwar; Rashid, Mohammad Harun Ur; Akhter, Nargis; Roy, Joya Shree; Afroz, Romena

    2013-01-01

    Visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid (VIA) is offered at 252 centers in 64 districts of Bangladesh. VIA+ve women are managed at colposcopy clinics of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and 14 Medical College Hospitals (MCHs). This research work has been supported by 'UICC Cancer Prevention Campaign' programme. This study explored the role of print materials and electronic media to improve cervical cancer screening in the present socio-cultural context of Bangladesh. This study was performed from January to August 2011 at two upazilas of Bangladesh (Singair with screening facility and Sonargaon without screening facility). Data were collected by focus group discussion (FGD) with women, husbands and community people before and after intervention. Information on cervical cancer screening and VIA camps was disseminated using advertisement through local cable line of the television, microphone announcement, service providers and leaflet throughout the week prior to a VIA camp. Three-day VIA camps were organized at the upazila health complex (UHC) of both upazilas. Quantitative data was gathered from women at the camps on source of information on VIA and the best method of awareness creation. The population was aware of "cancer" and a notable number knew about cervical cancer. Baseline awareness on prevention and VIA was low and it was negligible where screening services were unavailable. Awareness was increased fourfold in both upazilas after interventions and half of the women and the majority of the community people became aware of screening and available facilities. Cable line advertisement (25.5%), microphone announcement (21.4%), and discussion sessions (20.4%) were effective for awareness creation on VIA. Television was mentioned as the best method (37.4%) of awareness creation. Television should be used for nation-wide awareness creation. For local awareness creation, cable line advertisement, microphone announcements and health education

  9. Stop Bullying Now! A Federal Campaign for Bullying Prevention and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryn, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This commentary describes a national bullying prevention effort, called Stop Bullying Now!, which aims to increase awareness of the problem of bullying and related research findings, and disseminate evidence-based approaches to prevention. Drawing on the special issue's main theme of the social context of bullying, the author describes the process…

  10. Stop Bullying Now! A Federal Campaign for Bullying Prevention and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryn, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This commentary describes a national bullying prevention effort, called Stop Bullying Now!, which aims to increase awareness of the problem of bullying and related research findings, and disseminate evidence-based approaches to prevention. Drawing on the special issue's main theme of the social context of bullying, the author describes the process…

  11. Self-management education en masse: effectiveness of the Back Pain: Don't Take It Lying Down mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2008-11-17

    Despite the availability of a range of Australian self-management support programs targeting the individual patient and/or health professional, three-quarters of Australians have at least one long-term medical condition, suggesting that a more comprehensive public health approach is needed. Use of mass media to deliver community health messages is a well established public health strategy. It may enhance more targeted approaches with its ability to reach large numbers of people simultaneously, including those difficult to identify, high-risk groups and those difficult to reach through traditional medical delivery. By simultaneously influencing large numbers of people, well designed health messages have the potential to promote and maintain behavioural change over time. Back Pain: Don't Take It Lying Down (1997-1999), a mass media campaign of the Victorian WorkCover Authority, can be seen as a prototype of a successful public health strategy designed to enhance people's self-management abilities. One of the main messages of the campaign was that there is a lot you can do to help yourself, which emphasises shifting the responsibility of control onto the individual. The success of the campaign makes a compelling evidence-based case for using a similar strategy to enhance the self-management abilities of the population.

  12. Prevention of viral hepatitis C: assessment of a comic strip-based information campaign targeting adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ingrand, Isabelle; Verneau, Alain; Silvain, Christine; Beauchant, Michel

    2004-06-01

    The risk of exposure to hepatitis C virus increases markedly in adolescence, and students are thus a preferential target for information campaigns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of a hepatitis C information campaign targeting secondary-school students. The study was done in 52 classes of 11 general and vocational secondary schools. Before the information meetings and two months afterwards, the students received an anonymous questionnaire to test their knowledge of hepatitis C. The information session was backed up by a comic strip depicting scenarios involving hepatitis C. The students were aged from 14 to 24 years (mean 15.9 years, SD 0.9 years). Respectively 1509 and 1419 questionnaires were completed before and after the information session. Answers to the first questionnaire showed that the students' knowledge of hepatitis C was poor. Scores improved significantly after the information session, from an overall mean of 6.2 (SD 2.0) to 8.5 (SD 1.7) (p<0.001). The largest score improvement concerned transmission due to illicit drug use, the potential severity of the disease, and lack of a vaccine. The improvement was significantly larger among pupils who said they read the comic strip than among those who did not (p=0.02). General and vocational secondary school students in France have mediocre knowledge of hepatitis C, particularly its modes of transmission and the lack of a vaccine. Knowledge improved significantly when measured two months after an information session, suggesting that subsequent at-risk behaviours might be reduced.

  13. Assessing Media Campaigns Linking Marijuana Non-Use with Autonomy and Aspirations: “Be Under Your Own Influence” and ONDCP’s “Above the Influence”

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kathleen J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Stanley, Linda R.; Comello, Maria Leonora G.

    2011-01-01

    Two media-based interventions designed to reduce adolescent marijuana use ran concurrently from 2005 to 2009. Both interventions used similar message strategies, emphasizing marijuana’s inconsistency with personal aspirations and autonomy. “Be Under Your Own Influence” was a randomized community and school trial replicating and extending a successful earlier intervention of the same name (Slater et al. Health Education Research 21:157–167, 2006). “Above the Influence” is a continuing national television, radio, and print campaign sponsored by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). This study assessed the simultaneous impact of the interventions in the 20 U.S. communities. Results indicate that earlier effects of the “Be Under Your Own Influence” intervention replicated only in part and that the most plausible explanation of the weaker effects is high exposure to the similar but more extensive ONDCP “Above the Influence” national campaign. Self-reported exposure to the ONDCP campaign predicted reduced marijuana use, and analyses partially support indirect effects of the two campaigns via aspirations and autonomy. PMID:21271357

  14. Assessing media campaigns linking marijuana non-use with autonomy and aspirations: "Be Under Your Own Influence" and ONDCP's "Above the Influence".

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Kelly, Kathleen J; Lawrence, Frank R; Stanley, Linda R; Comello, Maria Leonora G

    2011-03-01

    Two media-based interventions designed to reduce adolescent marijuana use ran concurrently from 2005 to 2009. Both interventions used similar message strategies, emphasizing marijuana's inconsistency with personal aspirations and autonomy. "Be Under Your Own Influence" was a randomized community and school trial replicating and extending a successful earlier intervention of the same name (Slater et al. Health Education Research 21:157-167, 2006). "Above the Influence" is a continuing national television, radio, and print campaign sponsored by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). This study assessed the simultaneous impact of the interventions in the 20 U.S. communities. Results indicate that earlier effects of the "Be Under Your Own Influence" intervention replicated only in part and that the most plausible explanation of the weaker effects is high exposure to the similar but more extensive ONDCP "Above the Influence" national campaign. Self-reported exposure to the ONDCP campaign predicted reduced marijuana use, and analyses partially support indirect effects of the two campaigns via aspirations and autonomy.

  15. Leveraging Social Media for Pro-Am Collaborations: Support for C/2012 S1 (ISON) Observing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The interactions of amateur astronomers with professional astronomers have changed significantly in the digital era, from an occasional interaction of exchanging individual images to a sustained collaboration to coordinated global networks of amateur astronomers. Today, amateur astronomers, with sophisticated equipment and software, provide several valuable resources to the professional observers/astronomers: a large source of manpower, or extension of the professional astronomer's group; a vast collection of data that provides both legacy and temporal information and finally, as ambassadors of science, help build bridges between the scientific and public communities. From the professional astronomer/scientist's perspective, given the vast amounts of data acquired through various projects, the natural progression to interactive collaborations between these two communities is tremendously beneficial. The inclusion of the public in this exciting format of interactions between the professional and amateur community is the third component of synergistic science. The concept of Citizen Science, of allowing the public to perform simple visual examination of vast data sets according to a set of guidelines, is now becoming multi-dimensional, corresponding to the experience level of participants in the project. I will highlight a current project that leverages the collaboration between professional and amateur astronomers; and the use of social media to include various components of the public: Comet ISON Observing Campaign (CIOC). From the initial discovery of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) by Russian amateur astronomers in September 2012, to the present day, amateur astronomers provide valuable resources of global coverage, data, and legacy knowledge to the professional community. The Comet ISON Observing Campaign (CIOC) goals (http://www.isoncampaign.org) are: (i) a detailed characterization of a subset of comets (sun grazers) that are usually difficult to identify and study in

  16. Preventing Photochemistry in Culture Media by Long-Pass Light Filters Alters Growth of Cultured Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Stasinopoulos, Triant C.; Hangarter, Roger P.

    1990-01-01

    Exposure of plant tissue culture media to light from fluorescent bulbs changed the growth regulating properties of the media. The light caused nutrient medium-dependent photosensitized degradation of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid and other media components. Photochemical changes in culture media were caused by light from 290 to 450 nanometers and were prevented with a yellow long-pass filter. The use of appropriately filtered light when culturing plant material can eliminate unnecessary variability by stabilizing the culture media composition. PMID:16667626

  17. A large cross-sectional survey investigating the knowledge of cervical cancer risk aetiology and the predictors of the adherence to cervical cancer screening related to mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    De Vito, Corrado; Angeloni, Claudio; De Feo, Emma; Marzuillo, Carolina; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the characteristics of women who got a Pap-test during the mass media campaign, carried out in an Italian region by broadcasts advertising, and two years later and to identify the determinants of knowledge of cervical cancer etiology and of the adherence to the mass media campaign. A cross-sectional survey was carried out through a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 8570 randomly selected women were surveyed, 823 of these had a Pap-test during the mass media campaign period and 7747 two years later. Higher educational level, being not married, and living in urban areas were the main independent characteristics associated with a higher level of knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, although a previous treatment following a Pap smear abnormality was the strongest predictor (OR=2.88; 95% CI: 2.43-3.41). During the campaign period women had the Pap-test more frequently as a consequence of the mass media campaign (OR=8.28; 95% CI; 5.51-12.45). Mass media campaign is a useful tool to foster cervical screening compliance; however, its short-term effect suggests repeating it regularly.

  18. Motivated to walk but nowhere to walk to: Differential effect of a mass media campaign by mix of local destinations

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Rosanne; Bauman, Adrian E.; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Rosenberg, Michael; Leyden, Kevin M.; Abildso, Christiaan G.; Reger-Nash, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Objective Built environment attributes are associated with walking but little is known about how the impact of walking campaigns varies across different environments. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of a campaign on changes in walking between respondents with a high versus low mix of local destinations. Methods Pre- and post-campaign data from a quasi-experimental study were used to compare changes in walking for residents aged 40–65 with high and low destination mix in a West Virginia community campaign (March–May 2005). Results Overall samples consisted of 777 intervention community respondents and 388 comparison community respondents with pre- and post-campaign data. Among insufficiently active intervention respondents, those with high destination mix increased their walking by 0.64 days more than those with low mix (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed among the comparison community. Conclusion The walking response to campaigns in those insufficiently active may be influenced by neighborhood attributes. PMID:26844097

  19. Effects of tobacco-related media campaigns on smoking among 20-30-year-old adults: longitudinal data from the USA.

    PubMed

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Emery, Sherry; Wakefield, Melanie A; O'Malley, Patrick M; Szczypka, Glen; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2013-01-01

    Young adults in the USA have one of the highest smoking prevalence rates of any age group, and young adulthood is a critical time period of targeting by the tobacco industry. The authors examined relationships between potential exposure to tobacco-related media campaigns from a variety of sponsors and 2-year smoking change measures among a longitudinal sample of US adults aged 20-30 years from 2001 to 2008. Self-report data were collected from a longitudinal sample of 12,931 US young adults from age 20 to 30. These data were merged with tobacco-related advertising exposure data from Nielsen Media Research. Two-year measures of change in smoking were regressed on advertising exposures. Two-year smoking uptake was unrelated to advertising exposure. The odds of quitting among all smokers and reduction among daily smokers in the 2 years between the prior and current survey were positively related to anti-tobacco advertising, especially potential exposure levels of 104-155 ads over the past 24 months. Tobacco company advertising (including corporate image and anti-smoking) and pharmaceutical industry advertising were unrelated to quitting or reduction. Continued support for sustained, public health-based well-funded anti-tobacco media campaigns may help reduce tobacco use among young adults.

  20. 14 CFR 1213.106 - Preventing release of classified information to the media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preventing release of classified... ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.106 Preventing release of classified... employee from responsibility for preventing any unauthorized release. See NPR 1600.1, Chapter 5, Section 5...

  1. Initial basal cell carcinomas diagnosed in the National Campaign for Skin Cancer Prevention are smaller than those identified by the conventional medical referral system*

    PubMed Central

    Wakiyama, Thweicyka Pinheiro; França, Maria Laura Marconi; Carvalho, Larissa Pierri; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Basal cell carcinoma is the malignant tumor most often diagnosed in the National Campaign for Skin Cancer Prevention (NCSCP). Little is known about the profile of these lesions compared to the profile of lesions diagnosed by conventional routes of public dermatological care. OBJECTIVE To identify if basal cell carcinomas identified in prevention campaigns and referred to surgery are smaller than those routinely removed in a same medical institution. METHODS Cross-sectional study including tumors routed from 2011-2014 campaigns and 84 anatomopathological reports of outpatients. RESULTS The campaigns identified 223 individuals with suspicious lesions among 2,531 examinations (9%), with 116 basal cell carcinomas removed. Anatomopathological examinations revealed that the primary lesions identified in the national campaigns were smaller than those referred to surgery by the conventional routes of public health care (28 [13-50] x 38 [20-113] mm2, p <0.01). On the other hand, after a mean follow-up of 15.6 ± 10.3 months, 31% of cases identified in campaigns showed new basal cell carcinoma lesions. STUDY LIMITATIONS Retrospective study and inaccuracies in the measurements of the lesions. CONCLUSIONS The NCSCP promotes an earlier treatment of basal cell carcinomas compared to patients referred to surgery by the conventional routes of public health care, which can result in lower morbidity rates and better prognosis. PMID:28225952

  2. In Search of a Voice: Rural HIV Prevention Campaigns Designed for African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Roger

    HIV/AIDS are affecting increasingly complex, more diverse populations, particularly communities of color. Despite National prevention efforts designed to speak to marginal experience, these communities continue to be disproportionately affected, especially in rural areas of the country which are difficult to access with communication about HIV. A…

  3. Effects of a short messaging service-based skin cancer prevention campaign in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hingle, Melanie D; Snyder, Aimee L; McKenzie, Naja E; Thomson, Cynthia A; Logan, Robert A; Ellison, Eden A; Koch, Stephanie M; Harris, Robin B

    2014-11-01

    Skin cancer prevention emphasizes early adoption and practice of sun protection behaviors. Adolescence represents a high-risk period for ultraviolet radiation exposure, presenting an opportunity for intervention. The ubiquity of mobile phones among teens offers an engaging medium through which to communicate prevention messages. To evaluate a skin cancer prevention intervention using short messaging service (SMS, or text messages) to impact sun-related knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors among adolescents. The intervention was conducted in middle school youth (N=113) recruited in April or October 2012. Participants were English speakers, 11-14 years old, routinely carried a mobile phone, and completed a 55-minute sun safety education program. Participants were sent three sun safety-themed SMS messages each week for 12 weeks. Skin and sun protective knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and post-intervention program satisfaction were collected and analyzed at baseline and end of intervention (April/June 2012; October 2012/January 2013). Paired responses were tested for equality using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Ninety-six students (85%) completed the study. At 12 weeks, significant positive changes were reported for sun avoidance during peak ultraviolet radiation, sunscreen application, wearing hats and sunglasses, and knowledge about skin cancer risk. Participants expressed moderately high satisfaction with the program, and 15% shared messages with family or friends. A brief, SMS-based intervention affected youth skin cancer prevention behaviors and knowledge. Future research will determine whether program effects were sustained at 24 weeks and explore how sun safety parenting practices inform these effects. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Using a smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign and other synergistic elements to address social inequalities in India.

    PubMed

    Turk, Tahir; Murukutla, Nandita; Gupta, Shefali; Kaur, Jagdish; Mullin, Sandra; Saradhi, Ranjana; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2012-03-01

    The burden of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in India is substantial, with smokeless tobacco being the predominant form of tobacco use. Use of smokeless tobacco (for example gutkha, paan, khaini, and pan masala) is linked to a host of socioeconomic and cultural factors including gender, regional differences, educational level, and income disparities. Given the scale of the problem, a national social marketing campaign was developed and implemented. The creative approach used testimonials from a surgeon and patients at Tata Memorial Hospital in Mumbai. The communication message approach was designed to reflect the realities of disfiguring, disabling, and fatal cancers caused by smokeless tobacco. Evaluation of the campaign identified significant differences across a range of campaign behavioral predictors by audience segments aware of the campaign versus those who were "campaign unaware". Significant findings were also identified regarding vulnerable groups by gender (female/male) and rural/urban disparities. Findings are discussed in relation to the powerful impact of using graphic, emotive, and testimonial imagery for tobacco control with socially disadvantaged groups.

  5. [The efficiency of mass media utilization in preventive health programs and mental health promotion].

    PubMed

    Devault, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews articles pertaining to mental health prevention and promotion programs that have used mass media as a component of their program. The programs are analyzed according to four roles that media can play in health promotion programs: promotion, education, complementarity, and support. The relationship between the function assigned to the media and the effects of the programs in changing knowledge, attitudes, or behaviour is explored. When mass media are used alone, they seem to be powerful in recruiting people into groups or social services and in enhancing knowledge and changing attitudes. But when it comes to changing behaviour, mass media by themselves have limited impact. This type of change is more likely to occur when media are combined with face-to-face intervention. Finally, some issues involved in improving the use of mass media in mental health are discussed.

  6. Effects of a Short Messaging Service–Based Skin Cancer Prevention Campaign in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hingle, Melanie D.; Snyder, Aimee L.; McKenzie, Naja E.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Logan, Robert A.; Ellison, Eden A.; Koch, Stephanie M.; Harris, Robin B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Skin cancer prevention emphasizes early adoption and practice of sun protection behaviors. Adolescence represents a high-risk period for ultraviolet radiation exposure, presenting an opportunity for intervention. The ubiquity of mobile phones among teens offers an engaging medium through which to communicate prevention messages. Purpose To evaluate a skin cancer prevention intervention using short messaging service (SMS, or text messages) to impact sun-related knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors among adolescents. Methods The intervention was conducted in middle school youth (N=113) recruited in April or October 2012. Participants were English speakers, 11–14 years old, routinely carried a mobile phone, and completed a 55-minute sun safety education program. Participants were sent three sun safety–themed SMS messages each week for 12 weeks. Skin and sun protective knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and post-intervention program satisfaction were collected and analyzed at baseline and end of intervention (April/June 2012; October 2012/January 2013). Paired responses were tested for equality using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Ninety-six students (85%) completed the study. At 12 weeks, significant positive changes were reported for sun avoidance during peak ultraviolet radiation, sunscreen application, wearing hats and sunglasses, and knowledge about skin cancer risk. Participants expressed moderately high satisfaction with the program, and 15% shared messages with family or friends. Conclusions A brief, SMS-based intervention impacted youth skin cancer prevention behaviors and knowledge. Future research will determine whether program effects were sustained at 24 weeks and explore how sun safety parenting practices inform these effects. PMID:25053602

  7. Evaluation of the PSAMAO "Roulez Protégé" mass media campaign in Burkina Faso. Prévention du SIDA sur les Axes Migratoires de l'Afrique de l'Ouest.

    PubMed

    Tambashe, B Oleko; Speizer, Ilene S; Amouzou, Agbessi; Djangone, A M Rachelle

    2003-02-01

    This study assesses the impact of the Prevention du SIDA sur les Axes Migratoires de l'Afrique de l'Ouest Roulez Protege mass media campaign in Burkina Faso on truckers' likelihood of talking with colleagues about HIV/AIDS, using condoms with an occasional sexual partner, and intending to use a condom in the future. A total of 764 and 1,032 truckers were interviewed in 1997 and 2000 along the Ouagadougou-Niangoloko trucking route. Truckers' exposure to the program has been high and the main message promoted has been greatly understood among those exposed. Logistic regression analyses suggest that the campaign did not have direct behavioral impacts. Exposure to radio spots and participation in group discussions were found to be significantly associated with truckers discussing AIDS with peers or reporting intentions to use a condom in the future. Exposure to Roulez Protege messages through television or billboards was not found to be significantly associated with interpersonal discussion or condom use intentions. Programs should seek to sustain and expand the indirect effects of these types of programs in West Africa. Reinforcing interpersonal counseling interventions should, down the road, lead to overall knowledge and behavior changes among the high-risk trucker population.

  8. Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Laura J; Bunn, Janice Y; Flynn, Brian S; Pirie, Phyllis L; Worden, John K; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-08-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory. The authors enrolled 2,030 adolescent smokers into the cohort (n = 987 experimental; n = 1,043 comparison) and assessed them via annual telephone surveys for 3 years. Although the condition by time interaction was not significant, the proportion of adolescents smoking in the past month was significantly lower in the experimental than comparison condition at 3-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline smoking status. The media campaign did not impact targeted mediating variables. A media campaign based on social cognitive constructs produced a modest overall effect on smoking prevalence among adolescents, but the role of theory-based constructs is unclear.

  9. Effect of cigarette tax increase in combination with mass media campaign on smoking behavior in Mauritius: Findings from the ITC Survey

    PubMed Central

    Azagba, Sunday; Burhoo, Premduth; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Background Mauritius has made great strides in adopting evidence-based tobacco control measures, including an increase in its cigarette excise tax and anti-tobacco mass media (Sponge) campaign. The primary objective of this study is to examine the combined effect of these measures on smoking behavior. Methods This study used longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Mauritius Survey, 2009–2011. Waves 1 and 2 were conducted before the tax increase and wave 3 was conducted shortly after the Sponge campaign and six months after the cigarette excise tax increase. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the effects of these two key tobacco control measures on smoking prevalence and the quantity of cigarettes smoked. Results The results showed that the combination of cigarette tax increase and the Sponge campaign had a significant negative effect on the prevalence of smoking in Mauritius and the number of cigarettes smoked among continuing smokers. Specifically, the measures significantly reduced the odds of being a smoker (AOR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81–0.97). For average daily cigarettes smoked, the measures had a significant reduction in cigarettes per day by about 6% (Incidence-rate ratios 0.94, 95% CI 0.89–0.99). Conclusions The combination of policy measures significantly reduced the consumption of cigarettes in Mauritius. While these results are encouraging, these efforts must be part of a sustained effort to further reduce the smoking prevalence in Mauritius. PMID:25701857

  10. Tu Amigo Pepe: Evaluation of a Multi-media Marketing Campaign that Targets Young Latino Immigrant MSM with HIV Testing Messages.

    PubMed

    Solorio, Rosa; Norton-Shelpuk, Pamela; Forehand, Mark; Montaño, Daniel; Stern, Joshua; Aguirre, Joel; Martinez, Marcos

    2016-09-01

    Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and delayed diagnosis in the United States. This paper describes the evaluation of a pilot of the Tu Amigo Pepe, a multimedia HIV testing campaign aimed at Latino MSM in Seattle, WA particularly targeting immigrants who may not identify as gay, ages 18-30 years old. The 16-week campaign included Spanish-language radio public service announcements (PSAs), a Web site, social media outreach, a reminder system using mobile technology, print materials and a toll-free hotline. In developing the PSAs, the Integrated Behavioral Model was used as a framework to reframe negative attitudes, beliefs and norms towards HIV testing with positive ones as well as to promote self-efficacy towards HIV testing. The campaign had a significant and immediate impact on attitudes, beliefs, norms and self-efficacy towards HIV testing as well as on actual behavior, with HIV testing rates increasing over time.

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of yellow fever vaccine among 115 HIV-infected patients after a preventive immunisation campaign in Mali.

    PubMed

    Sidibe, Mariam; Yactayo, Sergio; Kalle, Abdoulaye; Sall, Amadou A; Sow, Samba; Ndoutabe, Modjirom; Perea, William; Avokey, Fenella; Lewis, Rosamund F; Veit, Olivia

    2012-07-01

    The immune response to yellow fever (YF) vaccine and its safety among HIV-infected individuals living in YF endemic areas is not well understood. Following a national YF preventive immunisation campaign in Mali in April 2008, we assessed the immunogenicity and safety of 17D yellow fever vaccine (17DV) among HIV-infected patients in two HIV treatment centres in Bamako, Mali, by testing for neutralising antibodies and identifying serious adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). A YF neutralisation titre (NT) of 1:≥20 was considered to be adequate and protective. A serious AEFI included hospitalisation, any life-threatening condition, or death, occurring within 30 days following 17DV administration. Of 115 HIV-infected patients who reported having received 17DV, 110 (96%) were on combination antiretroviral therapy and 83 patients were tested for neutralising antibodies. Around the time of vaccination, median CD4 cell count was 389 cells/mm(3) (IQR 227-511cells/mm(3)); HIV-RNA was undetectable in 24 of 46 patients tested. Seventy-six (92%) of 83 participants had adequate immune titres 9 months after the immunisation campaign. Previous vaccination or flavivirus exposure could contribute to this finding. No serious AEFI was found in the 115 participants. In this small series, YF vaccine appeared to be immunogenic with a favourable safety profile in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Higher CD4 cell counts and suppressed HIV-RNA were associated with the presence of an adequate immune titre and higher NTs. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Media violence.

    PubMed

    Willis, E; Strasburger, V C

    1998-04-01

    American media are the most violent in the world, and American society is now paying a high price in terms of real life violence. Research has confirmed that mass media violence contributes to aggressive behavior, fear, and desensitization of violence. Television, movies, music videos, computer/video games are pervasive media and represent important influences on children and adolescents. Portraying rewards and punishments and showing the consequences of violence are probably the two most essential contextual factors for viewers as they interpret the meaning of what they are viewing on television. Public health efforts have emphasized public education, media literacy campaign for children and parents, and an increased use of technology to prevent access to certain harmful medial materials.

  13. Factors influencing the return rate in a direct mail campaign to inform minority women about prevention of cervical cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Dignan, M B; Michielutte, R; Jones-Lighty, D D; Bahnson, J

    1994-01-01

    The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project was a 5-year community-based health education program funded by the National Cancer Institute. The program was developed to reduce cervical cancer mortality among black women in Forsyth County, and it was targeted to those ages 18 and older. The program tried to educate the target population through a combination of mass media and direct education. This paper reports on an experiment conducted to investigate sources of influence on the effectiveness of direct mail, a technique used to augment mass media health education. Direct mail has shown promise as a method for reaching target populations that are difficult to reach with other mass media approaches. Using commercially prepared mailing lists sorted by zip code and other characteristics of the resident, health-related materials can be targeted to persons at their homes. A randomized experiment involving 1,000 households was carried out to estimate the influence of type of postage and address (name versus "resident or occupant") on the response rate to direct mail. Results indicated that there was no significant advantage from use of first class over bulk rate postage, but the return was significantly greater when the envelope bore a name rather than "resident or occupant." PMID:8041850

  14. Using an Opinion Poll to Build an Obesity-Prevention Social Marketing Campaign for Low-Income Asian and Hispanic Immigrants: Report of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugerman, Sharon; Backman, Desiree; Foerster, Susan B.; Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To gain opinions from low-income, limited-English-speaking Hispanic and Asian immigrants for formative research in a social marketing campaign. Design: Nineteen questions on obesity prevention-related topics were embedded into a larger random digit-dial survey investigating the effects of language and cultural barriers on health care…

  15. Using an Opinion Poll to Build an Obesity-Prevention Social Marketing Campaign for Low-Income Asian and Hispanic Immigrants: Report of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugerman, Sharon; Backman, Desiree; Foerster, Susan B.; Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To gain opinions from low-income, limited-English-speaking Hispanic and Asian immigrants for formative research in a social marketing campaign. Design: Nineteen questions on obesity prevention-related topics were embedded into a larger random digit-dial survey investigating the effects of language and cultural barriers on health care…

  16. Towards a shared understanding: Perspectives from Toronto's first media forum for suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Sinyor, Mark; Pirkis, Jane; Picard, André; McKeown, David; Vincent, Margaret; Cheung, Christian; Schaffer, Ayal; Fordham, Jan; Mishaiel, Rosie; Heisel, Marnin

    2016-10-20

    Media reporting on suicide may have harmful and/or protective effects on deaths by suicide, depending on the nature of the coverage. Canada's first forum on this important issue was held in Toronto on November 6, 2015. Participating in the forum were public health policy-makers, mental health and suicide prevention experts and senior media representatives. This commentary summarizes the content of the forum and highlights the need for ongoing collaboration between suicide prevention experts and media professionals aimed at safe and respectful reporting that maintains the public's need to be informed.

  17. A Summative Evaluation of a Food Safety Social Marketing Campaign "4-Day Throw-Away" Using Traditional and Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Katie J.; Albrecht, Julie A.; Litchfield, Ruth E.; Weishaar, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses remain a common problem in the United States. Focus group results indicated that lack of knowledge and improper handling of leftovers were common among food preparers in families with young children. The USDA-recommended storage time for leftovers was used to develop and conduct a food safety social marketing campaign, "4…

  18. A Summative Evaluation of a Food Safety Social Marketing Campaign "4-Day Throw-Away" Using Traditional and Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Katie J.; Albrecht, Julie A.; Litchfield, Ruth E.; Weishaar, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses remain a common problem in the United States. Focus group results indicated that lack of knowledge and improper handling of leftovers were common among food preparers in families with young children. The USDA-recommended storage time for leftovers was used to develop and conduct a food safety social marketing campaign, "4…

  19. [Campaign for the detection of minor beta-thalassemia and prevention of major beta-thalassemia in the isle of Menorca. 10-year experience].

    PubMed

    Oliva Berini, E; Cladera Serra, A; Torrent Quetglas, M

    1998-03-21

    The high prevalence of betathalassemia minor and the presence of several cases of thalassemia major in Menorca (Spain) led us, ten years ago, to set up a population based prevention campaign, following the basic schedule of those already taking place in other areas, specially in Italy. The target population was the children in the last year of mandatory school, when they are 13 to 14 years old. The campaign started in the school year 1986-1987 and in the 1995-1996 course we reached the tenth yearly campaign. The campaign was structured in three stages: the first one included all information and educational aspects; the second step corresponded to blood sampling and detection of carriers; finally, results were reported to the individuals and genetic counseling was given. For evaluation purposes, we have monitored participation rates, the proportion of detected carriers which present to haematology visit and the trend in the proportion of carriers which previously knew their status. A total of 8,591 children were screened, accounting for a 83.8% participation rate. The observed prevalence was 26.7/1000 (95% CI, 23.5-29.9/1000). We also detected 9 cases of alfathalassemia and 4 cases of deltabetathalassemia. Our results show that participation rates may be reached through school screening campaigns for thalassemia. After ten years of campaign, the number of not previously known cases has become small, indicating that the campaign screening to relatives of detected carriers and a higher consciousness level in the general population have given the expected effect. In the last 14 years, not a single homozigote case has been born, although we cannot conclude that this has been only due to the campaign.

  20. Doctors and local media: a synergy for public health information?: a controlled trial to evaluate the effects of a multifaceted campaign on antibiotic prescribing (protocol).

    PubMed

    2011-10-19

    Use of information campaigns and educational interventions directed to citizens and supported by physicians, aimed at promoting the appropriate use of medicines, have been evaluated by several studies with conflicting results. These interventions are potentially relevant, favouring the reduction of unnecessary use of medicines and related risks. Several studies have specifically evaluated the promotion of the appropriate use of antibiotics in adults and children, with variable results. A controlled study is proposed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention aimed at reducing antibiotic prescription by increasing awareness on risks of their unnecessary use. Information will be provided to citizens through several media (posters, local TV, radio and newspapers, video terminals, websites of Local Health Authorities). Brochures with information on expected benefits and risks of antibiotics will be also available, either with direct access in waiting rooms and pharmacies or handed out and mediated by doctors. Physicians and pharmacists will get specific data on local antibiotic resistance. A small group of representative doctors have also actively participated in defining the campaign key messages. A sample of general practitioners and paediatricians will be trained in patient counselling strategies.The information campaign will be implemented in two Provinces of Emilia-Romagna during the fall-winter season (November 2011-February 2012). Change in the overall prescribing rate of antibiotics (expressed as DDD per 1000 inhabitants/day) in the intervention area will be compared versus other areas in the same Region. Knowledge and attitudes of the general population will be evaluated through a phone and internet survey on a representative sample. While the campaign messages will be mainly directed to the general population, doctors' prescribing will be assessed. The main rationale for this apparent discrepancy lies in the influence

  1. From gynaecology offices to screening campaigns: a brief history of cervical cancer prevention in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luiz Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the knowledge and medical practices relating to cervical cancer in Brazil. It analyses the growing medical interest in the disease at the beginning of the twentieth century, the development of prevention techniques in the 1940s, and the emergence of screening programs in the 1960s. It argues that the development of knowledge on cervical cancer was related simultaneously to a number of factors: transformations in medical knowledge, the development of the idea that the disease should be treated as a public health problem, the increased concerns with women's health, and major changes to the Brazilian healthcare system. The article concludes by identifying a number of issues that are still proving to be obstacles to control of the disease.

  2. Mosquitoes, flies and dental cavities: Dr. Howard Riley Raper's public campaign to prevent toothache.

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Howard Riley Raper (1886-1978) was an early oral health pioneer and dental roentgenology faculty member of the Indiana Dental College (IDC) who single-handedly introduced key concepts in radiology to dentistry. Due to his efforts, IDC became in 1910-11 the first dental school to have a regular course in dental radiology. Virtually all American dental schools soon added this subject to their regular curriculum. Raper's text, Elementary and Dental Radiography (1913) became the first comprehensive student textbook of dental X-ray diagnosis. In his 1933 Blue Book entitled, The New Aim in the Care of the Teeth, Raper elaborated upon his mission to prevent caries, by comparing the insidious damages of tooth decay with the threat of insect-borne disease.

  3. Evaluation of a Teen Dating Violence Social Marketing Campaign: Lessons Learned when the Null Hypothesis Was Accepted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses a three-month statewide mass media campaign to prevent teen dating violence, "See It and Stop It." The Massachusetts campaign reached out--using television, radio, and print advertising--and also encouraged anti-violence activism in select high schools. The objective was to drive thirteen- to seventeen-year-olds to…

  4. Evaluation of a Teen Dating Violence Social Marketing Campaign: Lessons Learned when the Null Hypothesis Was Accepted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses a three-month statewide mass media campaign to prevent teen dating violence, "See It and Stop It." The Massachusetts campaign reached out--using television, radio, and print advertising--and also encouraged anti-violence activism in select high schools. The objective was to drive thirteen- to seventeen-year-olds to…

  5. Impact of skin cancer screening and secondary prevention campaigns on skin cancer incidence and mortality: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brunssen, Alicia; Waldmann, Annika; Eisemann, Nora; Katalinic, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Benefits of skin cancer screening remain controversial. We sought to update evidence on the impact of skin cancer screening and secondary prevention campaigns on skin cancer incidence, mortality, stage-specific incidence, and interval cancers after negative screening. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies published in English or German between January 1, 2005, and February 4, 2015. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, data extraction, and critical appraisal. Results were described in a narrative synthesis. Of 2066 records identified in databases and 10 records found by manual search, we included 15 articles. Overall, evidence suggests that with implementation of skin cancer screening, incidence of in situ and invasive skin cancer increased; increasing rates of thin and decreasing rates of thick melanoma were observed. After cessation of screening, invasive melanoma incidence decreased. A significant melanoma mortality reduction was shown in a German study; 2 other studies observed fewer deaths than expected. No study on interval cancers was identified. Publication bias cannot be ruled out. Most studies are limited because of their ecological design. Large ecological studies, a cohort study, a case-control study, and a survey indicate benefits of skin cancer screening, but the evidence level is very low. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Formative research and strategic development of a physical activity component to a social marketing campaign for obesity prevention in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Laura; Anderson, Jennifer; Gould, Susan Martin; Auld, Garry

    2008-06-01

    The prevalence of overweight in childhood, including preschoolers, continues to rise. While efforts focusing on school-aged children are encouraging, obesity prevention programs to address nutrition and physical activity in the child care center are lacking. Food Friends is a successfully evaluated nutrition program aimed at enhancing preschoolers' food choices, the addition of a physical activity program would improve the programs overall efforts to establish healthful habits early in life. This study describes the formative research conducted with secondary influencers of preschoolers-teachers and parents-for the development of a physical activity program. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with preschool teachers and parents, respectively, to examine current physical activity practices, as well as attitudes, opinions, and desired wants and needs for physical activity materials. Findings illustrate that teachers provided physical activity; however, most did not use a structured program. Teachers identified time, space and equipment as barriers to providing activity in their classroom. Focus group findings identified activities of preschoolers', parents' perceptions of the adequacy of activity levels, and items to help parents engage their children in more physical activity. Barriers were also identified by parents and included time, safety, inclement weather, and lack of knowledge and self-efficacy. Findings from this formative research were used to develop a marketing strategy to guide the development of a physical activity component, Food Friends Get Movin' with Mighty Moves , as part of a larger social marketing campaign aimed to decrease the risk for obesity in low-income preschoolers.

  7. District heating campaign in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Stalebrant, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    During the fall of 1994 a district heating campaign was conducted in Sweden. The campaign was initiated because the Swedish district heating companies agreed that it was time to increase knowledge and awareness of district heating among the general public, especially among potential customers. The campaign involved many district heating companies and was organized as a special project. Advertising companies, media advisers, consultants and investigators were also engaged. The campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaigns. The national campaign was conducted during two weeks of November 1994 and comprised advertising on commercial TV and in the press.

  8. Impact of the Act FAST stroke campaign delivered by student pharmacists on the primary prevention of stroke.

    PubMed

    Phan Vo, Lucy; Souksavong, JoAnna Han; Tran, Annie; Chang, Janet; Lor, Kajua B

    To evaluate the impact of an Act FAST educational intervention performed by student pharmacists on knowledge of stroke recognition and management. Stroke preparedness and knowledge of primary prevention were assessed with the use of pre- and post-intervention surveys targeting community members at health fairs. The intervention was an Act FAST educational session with blood pressure and blood glucose screenings provided by student pharmacists. Act FAST is a quick tool to help recognize and respond to a stroke. The acronym FAST stands for Face, Arms, Speech, and Time. Community health fairs in Vallejo, CA. Community members 18 years of age and older. Act FAST educational session delivered by student pharmacists. Knowledge of signs, symptoms, management, and risk factors of strokes as defined by the American Heart Association. Following the Act FAST educational intervention, total knowledge of signs, symptoms, and management of stroke significantly increased from moderate to high (n = 112; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.419-2.188; P <0.0001). Total knowledge of risk factors of stroke also significantly increased following the educational intervention (n = 88; 95% CI 0.6496-1.746; P <0.0001). The Act FAST educational intervention delivered by student pharmacists increased knowledge of signs, symptoms, immediate management, and modifiable risk factors of stroke. This suggests that student pharmacists may have a positive impact on community members' preparedness and knowledge of primary prevention of stroke. The Act FAST campaign may be a useful tool for all training health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of TV mass media campaigns on calls to a National Quitline and the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy: a structural vector autoregression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Haghpanahan, Houra; Mackay, Daniel F.; Pell, Jill P.; Bell, David; Langley, Tessa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims To estimate (1) the immediate impact; (2) the cumulative impact; and (3) the duration of impact of Scottish tobacco control TV mass media campaigns (MMCs) on smoking cessation activity, as measured by calls to Smokeline and the volume of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Design Multivariate time–series analysis using secondary data on population level measures of exposure to TV MMCs broadcast and smoking cessation activity between 2003 and 2012. Setting and participants Population of Scotland. Measurements Adult television viewer ratings (TVRs) as a measure of exposure to Scottish mass media campaigns in the adult population; monthly calls to NHS Smokeline; and the monthly volume of prescribed NRT as measured by gross ingredient costs (GIC). Findings Tobacco control TVRs were associated with an increase in calls to Smokeline but not an increase in the volume of prescribed NRT. A 1 standard deviation (SD) increase of 194 tobacco control TVRs led to an immediate and significant increase of 385.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 171.0, 600.7] calls to Smokeline (unadjusted model) within 1 month. When adjusted for seasonality the impact was reduced, but the increase in calls remained significant (226.3 calls, 95% CI = 37.3, 415.3). The cumulative impact on Smokeline calls remained significant for 6 months after broadcast in the unadjusted model and 18 months in the adjusted model. However, an increase in tobacco control TVRs of 194 failed to have a significant impact on the GIC of prescribed NRT in either the unadjusted (£1361.4, 95% CI = –£9138.0, £11860.9) or adjusted (£6297.1, 95% CI = –£2587.8, £15182.1) models. Conclusions Tobacco control television mass media campaigns broadcast in Scotland between 2003 and 2012 were effective in triggering calls to Smokeline, but did not increase significantly the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy by adult smokers. The impact on calls to Smokeline occurred immediately

  10. The impact of TV mass media campaigns on calls to a National Quitline and the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy: a structural vector autoregression analysis.

    PubMed

    Haghpanahan, Houra; Mackay, Daniel F; Pell, Jill P; Bell, David; Langley, Tessa; Haw, Sally

    2017-07-01

    To estimate (1) the immediate impact; (2) the cumulative impact; and (3) the duration of impact of Scottish tobacco control TV mass media campaigns (MMCs) on smoking cessation activity, as measured by calls to Smokeline and the volume of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Multivariate time-series analysis using secondary data on population level measures of exposure to TV MMCs broadcast and smoking cessation activity between 2003 and 2012. Population of Scotland. Adult television viewer ratings (TVRs) as a measure of exposure to Scottish mass media campaigns in the adult population; monthly calls to NHS Smokeline; and the monthly volume of prescribed NRT as measured by gross ingredient costs (GIC). Tobacco control TVRs were associated with an increase in calls to Smokeline but not an increase in the volume of prescribed NRT. A 1 standard deviation (SD) increase of 194 tobacco control TVRs led to an immediate and significant increase of 385.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 171.0, 600.7] calls to Smokeline (unadjusted model) within 1 month. When adjusted for seasonality the impact was reduced, but the increase in calls remained significant (226.3 calls, 95% CI = 37.3, 415.3). The cumulative impact on Smokeline calls remained significant for 6 months after broadcast in the unadjusted model and 18 months in the adjusted model. However, an increase in tobacco control TVRs of 194 failed to have a significant impact on the GIC of prescribed NRT in either the unadjusted (£1361.4, 95% CI = -£9138.0, £11860.9) or adjusted (£6297.1, 95% CI = -£2587.8, £15182.1) models. Tobacco control television mass media campaigns broadcast in Scotland between 2003 and 2012 were effective in triggering calls to Smokeline, but did not increase significantly the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy by adult smokers. The impact on calls to Smokeline occurred immediately within 1 month of broadcast and was sustained for at least 6 months. © 2017 The

  11. Effect of cigarette tax increase in combination with mass media campaign on smoking behaviour in Mauritius: findings from the ITC Mauritius Survey.

    PubMed

    Azagba, Sunday; Burhoo, Premduth; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Mauritius has made great strides in adopting evidence-based tobacco control measures, including an increase in its cigarette excise tax and antitobacco mass media (Sponge) campaign. The primary objective of this study is to examine the combined effect of these measures on smoking behaviour. This study used longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Mauritius Survey, 2009-2011. Waves 1 and 2 were conducted before the tax increase and wave 3 was conducted shortly after the Sponge campaign and 6 months after the cigarette excise tax increase. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine the effects of these two key tobacco control measures on smoking prevalence and the quantity of cigarettes smoked. The results showed that the combination of cigarette tax increase and the Sponge campaign had a significantly negative effect on the prevalence of smoking in Mauritius and the number of cigarettes smoked among continuing smokers. Specifically, the measures significantly reduced the odds of being a smoker (adjusted OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.97). For average daily cigarettes smoked, the measures had a significant reduction in cigarettes per day by about 6% (incidence rate ratios 0.94, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.99). The combination of policy measures significantly reduced the consumption of cigarettes in Mauritius. While these results are encouraging, these efforts must be part of a sustained effort to further reduce the smoking prevalence in Mauritius. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Newspaper media reporting of motor vehicle crashes in Singapore: an opportunity lost for injury prevention education?

    PubMed

    Heng, Kenneth W J; Vasu, Alicia

    2010-06-01

    Newspaper media advocacy can help steer public attention away from motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries as a personal problem to that of a social and public health issue. If used properly, newspaper media is potentially a powerful mass educator on MVC prevention. However, there is often a conflict of interest in which newspapers, in an attempt to boost readership and revenue, may over-emphasize and sensationalize the human-interest aspect of an MVC story. The aim of this study is to examine newspaper articles of MVCs in Singapore to assess how our newspaper media coverage portray MVCs and identify factors that mitigate injury and educate the public on injury prevention measures. Details of the MVC were extracted from 12 months of newspaper coverage in Singapore. Two independent coders were used to establish inter-rater reliability. From 1 January to 31 December 2007, 201 articles about MVCs were published. About 74.1% of articles assigned blame to a particular road user, negligence on either road user was implied in 56.7% of articles, and road safety messages were mentioned in 8% of the articles. The mainstream communication tone used was positive for law enforcement (71.1%) and neutral towards injury prevention or road safety messages (89.1%). Newspaper media reporting of MVCs in Singapore generally does not include injury prevention messages or highlight injury-mitigating measures. This is a lost opportunity for public education. Collaboration between public health practitioners and newspaper media is required to address this issue.

  13. Effects of media campaign messages targeting parents on adolescent sexual beliefs: a randomized controlled trial with a national sample.

    PubMed

    Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber; Gard, Jennifer C; Kan, Marni L; Davis, Kevin C; Evans, W Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled trial, this study evaluated the effects of media messages targeting parents on the sexual beliefs of 404 adolescents. The messages aimed to increase parent-child communication about waiting to initiate sexual activity. Compared with children of unexposed parents, children of parents exposed to media messages were more likely to believe that teen sexual activity is psychologically harmful. However, effects varied by parent and adolescent gender; treatment effects were only significant among adolescents whose opposite-sex parent was exposed. Parent exposure strengthened beliefs that teen sexual activity is physically harmful only among adolescents with at least 1 sexually active friend.

  14. A marketing campaign to promote screening for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amid I; Jedele, Jenefer M; Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol

    2012-09-01

    Organizers of the Detroit Oral Cancer Prevention Project at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, launched a multifaceted media campaign targeted toward a high-risk population to raise awareness about oral cancer, educate the public regarding the importance of early detection and increase screening rates. The authors present data about the effectiveness of the campaign with regard to the screening behaviors of medical and dental providers. Before the start of the campaign and during each of the three years of the campaign, the authors mailed surveys to random samples of physicians and dentists practicing in targeted and non-targeted areas. More dentists than physicians reported screening patients routinely, and dentists reported that they referred more patients for biopsy or further evaluation compared with physicians. A larger proportion of dentists and physicians in the targeted area than in the nontargeted area reported that their patients had seen or heard the advertisements. A larger proportion of dentists in the targeted area than in the nontargeted area reported an increase in patients' questions and requests for screening, even after the authors accounted for demographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio = 2.47). The survey findings show that the media campaign was effective in influencing providers' screening for signs and symptoms of oral cancer. An increase in patients' requests for screening as a result of the implementation of mass media campaigns may promote oral cancer screening and improve patients' chances of survival.

  15. Pilot evaluation of a media literacy program for tobacco prevention targeting early adolescents shows mixed results.

    PubMed

    Kaestle, Christine E; Chen, Yvonnes; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie; Bigby, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the impact of media literacy for tobacco prevention for youth delivered through a community site. A randomized pretest-posttest evaluation design with matched-contact treatment and control conditions. The pilot study was delivered through the YMCA in a lower-income suburban and rural area of Southwest Virginia, a region long tied, both economically and culturally, to the tobacco industry. Children ages 8 to 14 (76% white, 58% female) participated in the study (n = 38). The intervention was an antismoking media literacy program (five 1-hour lessons) compared with a matched-contact creative writing control program. General media literacy, three domains of tobacco-specific media literacy ("authors and audiences," "messages and meanings," and "representation and reality"), tobacco attitudes, and future expectations were assessed. Multiple regression modeling assessed the impact of the intervention, controlling for pretest measures, age, and sex. General media literacy and tobacco-specific "authors and audiences" media literacy improved significantly for treatment compared with control (p < .05); results for other tobacco-specific media literacy measures and for tobacco attitudes were not significant. Future expectations of smoking increased significantly for treatment participants ages 10 and younger (p < .05). Mixed results indicated that improvements in media literacy are accompanied by an increase in future expectations to smoke for younger children.

  16. [Campaigns against AIDS in Mexico: the sounds of silence or a bridge over troubled waters?].

    PubMed

    Rico, B; Bronfman, M; del Río-Chiriboga, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the mass media campaigns developed by the Mexican Council for AIDS Control and Prevention (CONASIDA) from 1987 to 1994. This paper presents the lessons learned, a discussion of obstacles and mistakes, and the different evaluation methods which have been used in CONASIDA'S mass media communication strategies and their results. Knowing the opinion of some clue informants was considered relevant--taking into account that evaluations were made by and at CONASIDA--and seven in-depth interviews were conducted among intellectuals, non-governmental organizations (NGO) leaders and public opinion leaders. The importance of society's involvement in AIDS prevention is stated, and two examples of mass media campaigns developed by civil groups are commented. A section about the importance of research as a requisite to produce preventive messages is included, along with some examples. Finally, some conclusions are presented, useful to us, as well as others, in developing new educational campaigns.

  17. Follow YOUR Heart: development of an evidence-based campaign empowering older women with HIV to participate in a large-scale cardiovascular disease prevention trial.

    P