Science.gov

Sample records for prevention research r01

  1. Grant R01CA185301 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA148817 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA164782 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA187027 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA192124 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA169398 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA166011 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA172627 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01AT006860 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA094076 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA190610 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA196762 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA182969 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA166710 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA128134 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA188038 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA200423 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA184926 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA163293 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA187160 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA132927 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA190092 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA197919 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA124481 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA179949 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA158319 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA160880 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA193522 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA179992 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA159976 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA208711 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA166590 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA180949 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA172444 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA163803 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01AT006885 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA148966 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA105266 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA183296 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA133050 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA200795 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA190710 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA196854 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA203950 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA169175 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA195723 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA210370 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA158668 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA157469 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA087546 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA151304 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA152799 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA161534 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA200977 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA026582 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA172517 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA138800 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01EB019337 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01NS046606 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01NR014068 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01AT007429 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA164574 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA182905 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA194617 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA120933 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA177995 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA174683 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA084233 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA205608 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA196692 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA166557 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA162401 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA196639 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA193885 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA195708 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA182284 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA107408 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01AG041869 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA151494 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01AI093723 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA162139 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA180087 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA190776 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA182076 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA168292 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA202936 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA181242 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA172576 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA204345 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA165309 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01AT008108 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA140605 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA132951 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA098286 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA155301 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA154489 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA134620 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA179511 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01AT005295 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA140561 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA155297 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA163103 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA170549 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA177562 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01AT007003 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA163683 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA196200 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA137178 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA184820 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA184027 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA183869 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA080946 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. 77 FR 46764 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... Products Research Project Grant (R01) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... people in the United States per year. B. Research Objectives The goal of FDA's OPD grant program is to...: Register With Electronic Research Administration (eRA) Commons Steps 1 through 5, in detail, can be...

  14. 75 FR 53701 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Products Research Project Grant (R01); Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Federal Register of August 6, 2010 (75 FR 47602). The document announced the availability of grant funds...-7177, email: vieda.hubbard@fda.hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2010-19354, appearing...

  15. Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and National Institutes of Health R01 Research Awards: Is There Evidence of a Double Bind for Women of Color?

    PubMed Central

    Ginther, Donna K.; Kahn, Shulamit; Schaffer, Walter T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, and the probability of being awarded an R01 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Method The authors used data from the NIH Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination grants management database for the years 2000–2006 to examine gender differences and race/ethnicity-specific gender differences in the probability of receiving an R01 Type 1 award. The authors used descriptive statistics and probit models to determine the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, degree, investigator experience, and R01 award probability, controlling for a large set of observable characteristics. Results White women PhDs and MDs were as likely as white men to receive an R01 award. Compared with white women, Asian and black women PhDs and black women MDs were significantly less likely to receive funding. Women submitted fewer grant applications, and blacks and women who were new investigators were more likely to submit only one application between 2000 and 2006. Conclusions Differences by race/ethnicity explain the NIH funding gap for women of color, as white women have a slight advantage over men in receiving Type 1 awards. Findings of a lower submission rate for women and an increased likelihood that they will submit only one proposal are consistent with research showing that women avoid competition. Policies designed to address the racial and ethnic diversity of the biomedical workforce have the potential to improve funding outcomes for women of color. PMID:27306969

  16. The Prevention Researcher, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of volume 7 of "The Prevention Researcher," a service of Integrated Research Services. Each issue provides information on a specific topic. The topic of Issue Number One is adolescent dating violence. This issue includes articles on adolescents' beliefs about rape and sexual victimization, and contains a report on an…

  17. The Prevention Researcher, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    As a service of Integrated Research Services, a non-profit organization, this newsletter reports on many facets of prevention research. Written in direct, accessible language, each issue provides a "snapshot" update on a specific topic. Some articles are reprinted (often in a briefer format) from other publications; others provide a synthesis of…

  18. The Prevention Researcher, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Volume 6 of" The Prevention Researcher" contains three 12-page issues and one supplement. Issue Number 1 focuses on gambling, and contains the following articles: (1) "Gambling in the Family: The Hidden Addiction" (D. A. Abbott); (2) "Adolescent Gambling and Substance Use: The View from Texas" (L. Wallisch); (3) "Adolescent Gambling in Minnesota"…

  19. 75 FR 19983 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... the following individual research announcements: (1) ] CE 10 001 Preventing Unintentional Childhood... Preventing Violence and Violence- Related Injury (R01) Agenda items are subject to change as...

  20. Prevention Researcher, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The issues of this quarterly publication and year end supplement contain professional articles on topics that concern at risk youth and emphasize preventive measures. Number 1 highlights the challenges facing gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth in schools. Many schools have nothing in their curricula to help provide an understanding of these issues…

  1. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to prevent pollution and reduce risk in communities, homes, workplaces, and ecosystems. This goal must be based in large part on the application of the best available science and technology associat...

  2. [Memorandum prevention research - research areas and methods].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Nöcker, G; Plaumann, M; Linden, S; Pott, E; Koch, U; Pawils, S; Altgeld, T; Dierks, M L; Frahsa, A; Jahn, I; Krauth, C; Pomp, M; Rehaag, R; Robra, B P; Süß, W; Töppich, J; Trojan, A; von Unger, H; Wildner, M; Wright, M

    2012-10-01

    From 2004 to 2012, the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) established its first funding programme for the promotion of prevention research. 60 projects on primary prevention and health promotion and the meta-project entitled "Cooperation for Sustainable Prevention Research" (KNP) received BMBF grants under this programme during this period. The experience and knowledge gained and recommendations arising from the research funded under this programme are compiled in memorandum format. The "Memorandum on Prevention Research - Research Areas and Methods" highlights 5 research areas that are considered to be especially relevant from the perspective of the involved scientists and practice partners.The promotion of structural development and sustainability enhancement in disease prevention and health promotion are central areas that should branch out from existing nuclei of crystallization. Improving the health competence of the population and of specific subpopulations is another major area. Research in these areas should contribute to the development of theoretical concepts and to the empirical testing of these concepts. The transfer of knowledge for effective use of developed disease prevention and health promotion programmes and measures is still a scarcely researched area. Among other things, studies of the transfer of programmes from one context to another, analyses of the coop-eration between politics and science, and the continued theoretical and conceptual development of transfer research are needed. Long-term data on the effects of intervention studies are also needed for proper evaluation of sustainability. The latter dem-onstrates the importance of method development in disease prevention and health promotion research as an area that should receive separate funding and support. This research should include, in particular, studies of the efficacy of complex interventions, health economic analyses, and participative health research. PMID:23165608

  3. Research in fire prevention.

    PubMed

    Pearce, N

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes in broad terms, the fire testing programme we carried out on whole bed assemblies in 1984. It should be clear that the tests were carried out in a thoroughly rigorous scientific manner. As always there is more to be done. The immediate task of finding the so called 'safe' bed assembly is proceeding with the search this year for safer pillows. Softer barrier foams are now being produced and it may be that the NHS could use full depth foam mattresses rather than a barrier foam wrap. On the engineering side I have explained the false alarm problem, and I have reviewed some of the research we are doing to see that new technology is used to give us better systems in future. Life safety sprinkler systems give the possibility of truly active fire protection in patient areas. They will enhance fire safety but at the moment no trade-offs can be offered in other areas of fire protection--either active or passive. My final point is that although I have considered the Department's fire research by looking separately at specific projects, the fire safety of a hospital must always be considered as a total package. To be effective, individual components of fire safety must not be considered in isolation but as part of the overall fire safety system.

  4. Cancer Prevention Research in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Siwang; Yang, Chung S; Li, Junyao; You, Weicheng; Chen, Jianguo; Cao, Ya; Dong, Zigang; Qiao, Youlin

    2015-08-01

    Although cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States and some European countries have started to decrease, those in developing countries are increasing. China, the most populous developing country, is facing a serious challenge from cancer. Cancer incidence has been increasing for decades, and cancer is the leading cause of death in China. In 2012, the cancer incidence was 174.0 per 100,000, and the cancer mortality was 122.2 per 100,000 in China. In addition to the still-prevalent traditional Chinese cancers of the stomach, liver, esophagus, cervix, and nasopharynx, the incidence of "Western" cancers such those of the lung, breast, and colorectum has increased alarmingly in recent years. These increases are likely due to the lifestyle and environmental changes associated with rapid economic development and population aging. More importantly, a large portion of these cancers are preventable. Researchers in China have made important contributions to cancer prevention research, especially in the traditional Chinese cancers. More cancer prevention research and measures, especially on the major emerging cancers, are urgently needed. This review article highlights some of the past achievements and present needs in cancer prevention research in China and suggests important areas for future studies.

  5. HIV prevention transformed: the new prevention research agenda.

    PubMed

    Padian, Nancy S; McCoy, Sandra I; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Hasen, Nina; Kim, Julia; Bartos, Michael; Katabira, Elly; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Schwartländer, Bernhard; Cohen, Myron S

    2011-07-16

    We have entered a new era in HIV prevention whereby priorities have expanded from biomedical discovery to include implementation, effectiveness, and the effect of combination prevention at the population level. However, gaps in knowledge and implementation challenges remain. In this Review we analyse trends in the rapidly changing landscape of HIV prevention, and chart a new path for HIV prevention research that focuses on the implementation of effective and efficient combination prevention strategies to turn the tide on the HIV pandemic. PMID:21763938

  6. HIV prevention transformed: the new prevention research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Padian, Nancy S.; McCoy, Sandra I.; Karim, Salim Abdool; Hasen, Nina; Kim, Julia; Bartos, Michael; Katabira, Elly; Bertozzi, Stefano; Schwartländer, Bernhard; Cohen, Myron S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We have entered a new era in HIV prevention whereby priorities have expanded from biomedical discovery to include implementation, effectiveness, and the effect of combination prevention at the population level. However, gaps in knowledge and implementation challenges remain. In this Review we analyse trends in the rapidly changing landscape of HIV prevention, and chart a new path for HIV prevention research that focuses on the implementation of effective and efficient combination prevention strategies to turn the tide on the HIV pandemic. PMID:21763938

  7. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.  Five Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  8. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  9. The Prevention Researcher, 1994-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Researcher, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the first 10 issues of the newsletter, "Prevention Researcher," published during the 4-year period 1994 through 1997. The 1994 issues (two) focus on dating violence and youth gangs. The 1995 issues (two) focus on Internet resources for prevention professionals and on drunk driving. The 1996 issues (three) focus on models…

  10. Translating research to practice in bullying prevention.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-01-01

    Bullying continues to be a concern in schools and communities across the United States and worldwide, yet there is uncertainty regarding the most effective approaches for preventing it and addressing its impacts on children and youth. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of studies and meta-analyses examining the efficacy of bullying prevention programs. This paper considers some methodological issues encountered when testing the efficacy and effectiveness of bullying prevention and intervention approaches. It also identifies several areas requiring additional research in order to increase the effectiveness of bullying prevention efforts in real-world settings. Drawing upon a public health perspective and findings from the field of prevention science, this paper aims to inform potential future directions for enhancing the adoption, high quality implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based bullying prevention programs. It is concluded that although bullying prevention programs can be effective in reducing bullying and victimization among school-aged youth, there is a great need for more work to increase the acceptability, fidelity, and sustainability of the existing programs in order to improve bullying-related outcomes for youth. The findings from this review are intended to inform both policy and public health practice related to bullying prevention. PMID:25961313

  11. Mediation designs for tobacco prevention research

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Taborga, Marcia P.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research designs and statistical analyses to investigate how tobacco prevention programs achieve their effects on tobacco use. A theoretical approach to program development and evaluation useful for any prevention program guides the analysis. The theoretical approach focuses on action theory for how the program affects mediating variables and on conceptual theory for how mediating variables are related to tobacco use. Information on the mediating mechanisms by which tobacco prevention programs achieve effects is useful for the development of efficient programs and provides a test of the theoretical basis of prevention efforts. Examples of these potential mediating mechanisms are described including mediated effects through attitudes, social norms, beliefs about positive consequences, and accessibility to tobacco. Prior research provides evidence that changes in social norms are a critical mediating mechanism for successful tobacco prevention. Analysis of mediating variables in single group designs with multiple mediators are described as well as multiple group randomized designs which are the most likely to accurately uncover important mediating mechanisms. More complicated dismantling and constructive designs are described and illustrated based on current findings from tobacco research. Mediation analysis for categorical outcomes and more complicated statistical methods are outlined. PMID:12324176

  12. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH WITHIN THE FEDERAL COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the primary ongoing programs for promotion and encouragement of pollution prevention research is a cooperative program between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Federal community at large. EPA’s Waste Reduction Evaluations At Federal Sites (WREAFS) Pro...

  13. Behavioral Research in Cancer Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Klein, William M. P.; Bloch, Michele; Hesse, Bradford W.; McDonald, Paige G.; Nebeling, Linda; O’Connell, Mary E.; Riley, William T.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Tesauro, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Human behavior is central to the etiology and management of cancer outcomes and presents several avenues for targeted and sustained intervention. Psychosocial experiences such as stress and health behaviors including tobacco use, sun exposure, poor diet, and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of some cancers yet are often quite resistant to change. Cancer screening and other health services are misunderstood and over-utilized, and vaccination underutilized, in part because of the avalanche of information about cancer prevention. Coordination of cancer care is suboptimal, and only a small fraction of cancer patients enroll in clinical trials essential to the development of new cancer treatments. A growing population of cancer survivors has necessitated a fresh view of cancer as a chronic rather than acute disease. Fortunately, behavioral research can address a wide variety of key processes and outcomes across the cancer controbiol continuum from prevention to end-of-life care. Here we consider effects at the biobehavioral and psychological, social and organizational, and environmental levels. We challenge the research community to address key behavioral targets across all levels of influence, while taking into account the many new methodological tools that can facilitate this important work. PMID:24512871

  14. DEET Repellents Safe in Pregnancy to Prevent Zika, Researchers Say

    MedlinePlus

    ... html DEET Repellents Safe in Pregnancy to Prevent Zika, Researchers Say Analysis of available evidence on the ... used as instructed to prevent infection with the Zika virus, a new research analysis suggests. Exposure to ...

  15. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  16. Analysis of NIH R01 Application Critiques, Impact and Criteria Scores: Does the Sex of the Principal Investigator Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Kaatz, Anna; Lee, You-Geon; Potvien, Aaron; Magua, Wairimu; Filut, Amarette; Bhattacharya, Anupama; Leatherberry, Renee; Zhu, Xiaojin; Carnes, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior text analysis of R01 critiques suggested that female applicants may be disadvantaged in NIH peer review, particularly for R01 renewals. NIH altered its review format in 2009. The authors examined R01 critiques and scoring in the new format for differences due to principal investigator (PI) sex. Method The authors analyzed 739 critiques—268 from 88 unfunded and 471 from 153 funded applications for grants awarded to 125 PIs (M = 76, 61% F = 49, 39%) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison between 2010 and 2014. The authors used 7 word categories for text analysis: ability, achievement, agentic, negative evaluation, positive evaluation, research, and standout adjectives. The authors used regression models to compare priority and criteria scores, and results from text analysis for differences due to PI sex and whether the application was for a new (Type 1) or renewal (Type 2) R01. Results Approach scores predicted priority scores for all PIs’ applications (P<.001); but scores and critiques differed significantly for male and female PIs’ Type 2 applications. Reviewers assigned significantly worse priority, approach, and significance scores to female than male PIs’ Type 2 applications, despite using standout adjectives (e.g., “outstanding,” “excellent”) and making references to ability in more of their critiques (P<.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions The authors’ analyses suggest that subtle gender bias may continue to operate in the post-2009 NIH review format in ways that could lead reviewers to implicitly hold male and female applicants to different standards of evaluation, particularly for R01 renewals. PMID:27276003

  17. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  18. Does community-level Australian football support injury prevention research?

    PubMed

    Gabbe, B; Finch, C F; Wajswelner, H; Bennell, K

    2003-06-01

    The progress of injury prevention research in Australian football to date has been slow despite its recognition as a public health goal. In particular, field-based studies to identify injury risk factors and evaluate the effectiveness of injury prevention strategies need to be undertaken to ensure safety gains in this sport. For these types of studies to be successful and complied with, considerable support is required from clubs, coaches and players. To date, the actual level of support for injury prevention research at the community-level of football has not been established. A survey of 82 club administrators and coaches from the Victorian Amateur Football Association was undertaken to determine the level of support for injury prevention research, along with incentives for, and barriers towards, participation in such research. The highest priorities for injury prevention research were given as the prevention of knee, hamstring and concussion injuries and investigation into the content of training programs. The most common incentives reported as being necessary for participation in injury prevention research were financial assistance (59.5%), more club staff (57.0%) and further education (36.7%). The most commonly reported barriers to research were the expertise (50.0%) and number of (48.8%) of club medical staff members. Overall community-level football club administrators and coaches rank the importance of injury prevention research highly. The findings of this study are positive for injury prevention researchers and suggest that clubs are keen to participate in such research.

  19. Depression Prevention Research: Design, Implementation, and Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; And Others

    This document contains three papers concerned with prevention intervention research, a new area of depression research which has shown great promise for contributing new knowledge to the understanding of depression. The first paper, "Clinical Trials vs. Prevention Trials: Methodological Issues in Depression Research" (Ricardo F. Munoz), emphasizes…

  20. Are There Implications for Prevention Research from Studies of Resilience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, JoAnn L.

    2000-01-01

    Examines whether prevention research can benefit from resilience research in designing interventions. Suggests that although many areas in the investigative interests of prevention and resilience researchers overlap, Luther, Cicchetti, and Becker may have set the bar too high for defining resilience in the context of varying levels of adversity.…

  1. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR MOLD CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Indoor Environment Management Branch has, since 1995, conducted research into controlling biological contamination in the indoor environment. In this paper four areas of research are discusse...

  2. [Experience of stroke prevention-Enlightenment for cancer research].

    PubMed

    You, Weicheng

    2015-08-01

    Cancer, stroke and heart diseases are most common causes of death. This paper summarized the experience of stroke prevention, which is an enlightenment for cancer research. In addition, this paper also described the progress of cancer epidemiological research, particular the primary and second preventions in China.

  3. [Experience of stroke prevention-Enlightenment for cancer research].

    PubMed

    You, Weicheng

    2015-08-01

    Cancer, stroke and heart diseases are most common causes of death. This paper summarized the experience of stroke prevention, which is an enlightenment for cancer research. In addition, this paper also described the progress of cancer epidemiological research, particular the primary and second preventions in China. PMID:26733022

  4. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods. PMID:12940467

  5. About Supportive and Palliative Care Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The program supports research in three areas: prevention or treatment of acute or chronic symptoms and morbidities related to cancer, its treatment and caregiving (symptom management research); effects on quality of life from cancer, its treatment and caregiving (quality of life research); and end-of-life psychosocial issues, caregiving and treatment strategies (end-of-life research). |

  6. Research shows targeted HIV prevention succeeds.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    Systematic reviews of HIV prevention intervention literature for the target populations of African-Americans, Latinos, youths, and men who have sex with men in the United States shows that targeted interventions work in reducing HIV risk behaviors. Interventions that succeeded were culturally sensitive, of longer duration, and included skills training, according to a project supported by the Surgeon General's Leadership Campaign on AIDS and teh California HealthCare Foundation in Oakland. PMID:12206092

  7. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  8. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the US Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  9. An overview of prevention research: issues, answers, and new agendas.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, J; Taylor, J A; Ganikos, M L; Holder, H D; Godwin, D F; Taylor, E D

    1988-01-01

    Efforts to curtail alcohol abuse and alcoholism can be divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention attempts to stop a problem or illness from occurring in the first place. Secondary prevention identifies persons in the early stages of problematic or illness behavior and refers them for counseling or treatment, which is considered tertiary prevention. Five research areas concerned with primary and secondary prevention are selected for discussion: youth, the mass media, the worksite, blacks and Hispanics, and alcohol-related behavior that increases the risk of AIDS. Several of these themes have been in the forefront of alcohol prevention research; others such as AIDS are emergent areas of injury. The discussion to follow briefly summarizes research approaches, key findings, methodological shortcomings, and suggested issues for future investigation. Although scientifically solid prevention studies have been conducted, more rigorous, more comprehensive, and more innovative research is needed. Given the dynamic sociocultural and economic systems in which prevention occurs, research techniques that can address this complexity are required. A range of appropriate methodologies is described. PMID:3141964

  10. Methodological issues in workplace substance abuse prevention research.

    PubMed

    Hersch, R K; Cook, R F; Deitz, D K; Trudeau, J V

    2000-05-01

    Substance abuse among working adults represents billions of dollars in preventable health care costs and industry financial loss. Therefore, it is imperative to develop and test effective substance abuse prevention programs for the workplace. However, applied workplace substance abuse prevention research is fraught with numerous methodological challenges. This article highlights a number of these challenges, which include (1) reaching a broad audience with prevention messages, (2) handling the concerns of the employer, (3) collecting substance use data in the workplace, (4) accessing and using records-based data, and (5) linking survey and records-based data. Using examples from the authors' ongoing research assessing a workplace health promotion and substance abuse prevention program, funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, the authors address these challenges.

  11. Community-based research initiatives in prevention.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, N; Ferris, J

    1993-01-01

    An overview of community-based action research projects is presented focusing on the community/research agenda interaction, the difficulties and rewards of this approach, and the unique opportunities of these projects. The potential for policy development as a result of these initiatives has not been fully explored, and some suggestions for the implementation of policies based on the results of action research projects are made. The policy implication of several specific interventions are discussed, along with the limitations and benefits of policy components within a project, rather than as spin-offs. The paper concludes with suggestions for planning community action projects to enhance the policy formulation aspect of these projects.

  12. AIDS Exceptionalism: On the Social Psychology of HIV Prevention Research.

    PubMed

    Fisher, William A; Kohut, Taylor; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2009-12-01

    The current analysis considers the HIV prevention research record in the social sciences. We do so with special reference to what has been termed "AIDS Exceptionalism"- departures from standard public health practice and prevention research priorities in favor of alternative approaches to prevention that, it has been argued, emphasize individual rights at the expense of public health protection. In considering this issue, we review the historical context of the HIV epidemic; empirically demonstrate a pattern of prevention research characterized by systematic neglect of prevention interventions for HIV-infected persons; and articulate a rationale for "Prevention for Positives," supportive prevention efforts tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals. We then propose a social psychological conceptualization of processes that appear to have influenced developments in HIV prevention research and directed its focus to particular target populations. Our concluding section considers whether there are social and research policy lessons to be learned from the record of HIV prevention research that might improve our ability to addresses effectively, equitably, and in timely fashion future epidemics that play out, as HIV does, at the junction of biology and behavior. At the first quarter century of the AIDS epidemic, it is important to weigh our accomplishments against our failures in the fight against AIDS…Future historians will conclude that we cannot escape responsibility for our failure to use effective, scientifically proven strategies to control the AIDS epidemic…They will also likely regard as tragic those instances when we allowed scarce resources to be used to support ideologically driven "prevention" that only served a particular political agenda.Editorial: A Quarter Century of AIDS. American Journal of Public Health. (Stall & Mills, 2006, p. 961).

  13. Simulation and Baseline Research in Rape Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Stanley L.; Klemmack, Susan H.

    This paper begins by describing an organizational model for the disciplinary study of rape--the University of Alabama's Rape Research Group. It outlines the structure, function, and some techniques of the study group, including the use of simulations and prototypical situations. In one study, verbal responses of rape victims were classified into…

  14. AIDS Exceptionalism: On the Social Psychology of HIV Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, William A.; Kohut, Taylor; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The current analysis considers the HIV prevention research record in the social sciences. We do so with special reference to what has been termed “AIDS Exceptionalism”— departures from standard public health practice and prevention research priorities in favor of alternative approaches to prevention that, it has been argued, emphasize individual rights at the expense of public health protection. In considering this issue, we review the historical context of the HIV epidemic; empirically demonstrate a pattern of prevention research characterized by systematic neglect of prevention interventions for HIV-infected persons; and articulate a rationale for “Prevention for Positives,” supportive prevention efforts tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals. We then propose a social psychological conceptualization of processes that appear to have influenced developments in HIV prevention research and directed its focus to particular target populations. Our concluding section considers whether there are social and research policy lessons to be learned from the record of HIV prevention research that might improve our ability to addresses effectively, equitably, and in timely fashion future epidemics that play out, as HIV does, at the junction of biology and behavior. At the first quarter century of the AIDS epidemic, it is important to weigh our accomplishments against our failures in the fight against AIDS…Future historians will conclude that we cannot escape responsibility for our failure to use effective, scientifically proven strategies to control the AIDS epidemic…They will also likely regard as tragic those instances when we allowed scarce resources to be used to support ideologically driven “prevention” that only served a particular political agenda. Editorial: A Quarter Century of AIDS. American Journal of Public Health. (Stall & Mills, 2006, p. 961) PMID:23667386

  15. Developmental approach to prevent adolescent suicides: research pathways to effective upstream preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    The 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention expands the current suicide prevention paradigm by including a strategic direction aimed at promoting healthy populations. Childhood and adolescence are key suicide prevention window periods, yet knowledge of suicide prevention pathways through universal interventions is limited (Aspirational Goal 11). Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prevention programs in normative social systems such as schools are needed for broad suicide prevention impact. Prevention trial results show that current universal prevention programs for children and young adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent emotional and behavioral problems that are risk factors for suicidal behavior, and in the case of the Good Behavior Game, suicide attempts. A developmentally sequenced upstream suicide prevention approach is proposed: (1) childhood programs to strengthen a broad set of self-regulation skills through family and school-based programs, followed by (2) adolescent programs that leverage social influences to prevent emerging risk behaviors such as substance abuse and strengthen relationships and skills. Key knowledge breakthroughs needed are evidence linking specific intervention strategies to reduced suicidal behaviors and mortality and their mechanisms of action. Short- and long-term objectives to achieve these breakthroughs include combining evidence from completed prevention trials, increasing motivators for prevention researchers to assess suicide-related outcome, and conducting new trials of upstream interventions in populations using efficient designs acceptable to communities. In conclusion, effective upstream prevention programs have been identified that modify risk and protective factors for adolescent suicide, and key knowledge breakthroughs can jump-start progress in realizing the suicide prevention potential of specific strategies. PMID:25145747

  16. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations.

  17. School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

  18. An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajaram, Shireen S.

    2007-01-01

    This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

  19. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  20. Bullying Prevention: A Research Dialogue with Dorothy Espelage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Researcher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Bullying impacts many of our nation's youth, either as victims, bullies, or bystanders. Over the past two decades, we have seen the research on bullying grow as researchers first defined bullying, and then explored how to effectively intervene and prevent it from happening. We know from listening to our readers and board members that there are…

  1. Research Animal Holding Facility Prevents Space Lab Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Healthy environment for both rodents and human researchers maintained. Research animal holding facility (RAHF) and rodent cage prevent solid particles (feces, food bits, hair), micro-organisms, ammonia, and odors from escaping into outside environment during spaceflight. Rodent cage contains compartments for two animals. Provides each drinking-water dispenser, feeding alcove, and activity-monitoring port. Feeding and waste trays removable.

  2. HIV prevention research ethics: an introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Celia B

    2014-02-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics represents a sampling of projects fostered through the NIDA-funded Fordham University HIV Prevention Research Ethics Institute. The first three articles employ processes of co-learning to give voice to the experiences of individuals recovering from substance abuse and engaged in sex work who have participated in HIV prevention studies in the United States, India, and the Philippines. The fourth article describes a unique community-based approach to the development of research ethics training modules designed to increase participation of American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) tribal members as partners in research on health disparities. The last two articles focus a critical scholarly lens on two underexamined areas confronting IRB review of HIV research: The emerging and continuously changing ethical challenges of using social media sites for recruitment into HIV prevention research, and the handling of research-related complaints from participants involving perceived research harms or research experiences that do not accord with their initial expectations. Together, the articles in this special issue identify key ethical crossroads and provide suggestions for best practices that respect the values and merit the trust of research participants.

  3. Clinical Trial Design for HIV Prevention Research: Determining Standards of Prevention.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Liza; Zwerski, Sheryl

    2015-06-01

    This article seeks to advance ethical dialogue on choosing standards of prevention in clinical trials testing improved biomedical prevention methods for HIV. The stakes in this area of research are high, given the continued high rates of infection in many countries and the budget limitations that have constrained efforts to expand treatment for all who are currently HIV-infected. New prevention methods are still needed; at the same time, some existing prevention and treatment interventions have been proven effective but are not yet widely available in the countries where they most urgently needed. The ethical tensions in this field of clinical research are well known and have been the subject of extensive debate. There is no single clinical trial design that can optimize all the ethically important goals and commitments involved in research. Several recent articles have described the current ethical difficulties in designing HIV prevention trials, especially in resource limited settings; however, there is no consensus on how to handle clinical trial design decisions, and existing international ethical guidelines offer conflicting advice. This article acknowledges these deep ethical dilemmas and moves beyond a simple descriptive approach to advance an organized method for considering what clinical trial designs will be ethically acceptable for HIV prevention trials, balancing the relevant criteria and providing justification for specific design decisions. PMID:25230397

  4. Clinical Trial Design for HIV Prevention Research: Determining Standards of Prevention.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Liza; Zwerski, Sheryl

    2015-06-01

    This article seeks to advance ethical dialogue on choosing standards of prevention in clinical trials testing improved biomedical prevention methods for HIV. The stakes in this area of research are high, given the continued high rates of infection in many countries and the budget limitations that have constrained efforts to expand treatment for all who are currently HIV-infected. New prevention methods are still needed; at the same time, some existing prevention and treatment interventions have been proven effective but are not yet widely available in the countries where they most urgently needed. The ethical tensions in this field of clinical research are well known and have been the subject of extensive debate. There is no single clinical trial design that can optimize all the ethically important goals and commitments involved in research. Several recent articles have described the current ethical difficulties in designing HIV prevention trials, especially in resource limited settings; however, there is no consensus on how to handle clinical trial design decisions, and existing international ethical guidelines offer conflicting advice. This article acknowledges these deep ethical dilemmas and moves beyond a simple descriptive approach to advance an organized method for considering what clinical trial designs will be ethically acceptable for HIV prevention trials, balancing the relevant criteria and providing justification for specific design decisions.

  5. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    PubMed

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters. PMID:8442571

  6. International Collaboration in HIV Prevention Research: Evidence from a Research Seminar in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Batluk, Julia V.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Shaboltas, Alla V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract HIV transmission is a major health concern. Global efforts are necessary to control the spread of infection. International collaborative studies in countries with high rates of new infections are essential for increasing knowledge on the behavioral, social, and biomedical aspects of HIV/AIDS and HIV transmission. Statistics indicate a growing HIV epidemic in Russia. There are alarming proportions of new cases attributed to heterosexual contact, and HIV is increasingly affecting people in the general population who are not part of any traditional high-risk group. Despite recent advances in HIV prevention, data on effective behavioral prevention approaches are limited. There is minimal evidence to suggest which types of prevention will be effective in reducing the risk for HIV transmission among people at risk in the general population. This article presents a review and discussion of an international research seminar, HIV Prevention Research: Evidence-Based Behavioral Approaches. Local and international interdisciplinary researchers gathered for the purposes of exchanging research results and information about ongoing studies, identifying gaps in knowledge, and discussing promising prevention strategies. The overarching goal was to advance HIV prevention research through scientific integration. The seminar provided an excellent platform for building research capacity in interdisciplinary HIV research in Russia and integrating research efforts with the international research community to contribute to HIV prevention research throughout the world. PMID:25430518

  7. Cancer Prevention Health Services Research: An Emerging Field

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Tektiridis, Jennifer H.; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    In October 2009, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center hosted a symposium, “Future Directions in Cancer Prevention and Control: Workforce Implications for Training, Practice, and Policy.” This article summarizes discussions and an Internet and literature review by the symposium's Health Services Infrastructure Working Group. We agree on the need for the recognition of Cancer Prevention Health Services Research (CP-HSR) as a unified research field. With advances in cancer screening and increased emphasis on preventive services under healthcare reform, there is a growing need for investigators with both cancer prevention and HSR expertise to consider the comparative effectiveness of cancer screening methods, the cost-effectiveness of early detection technologies, and the accessibility of preventive care for individuals at risk of cancer. Defining CP-HSR as a field will provide investigators with credibility and will serve to draw more researchers to the field. Increasing funding to train individuals in CP-HSR will be important to help meet the anticipated demand for investigators with this specialized multidisciplinary expertise. PMID:22311693

  8. Fall Prevention Research and Practice: A Total Worker Safety Approach

    PubMed Central

    HSIAO, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Slips, trips, and falls (STF) represent a serious hazard to workers and occupants in many industries, homes, and communities. Often, the cause of a STF incident is multifactorial, encompassing human, environmental, and task risk factors. A STF-related disability can greatly diminish the occupational capability and quality of life of individuals in both the workplace and the home. Countering STF hazards and risks both on and off the job and on all aspects of control measures is a “total worker safety” matter, a challenging yet tangible undertaking. As the federal organization responsible for conducting research for the prevention of work-related injuries in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been conducting research on STF controls for some decades. Many NIOSH research outcomes have been utilized for STF prevention in workplaces, with potential for prevention in homes as well. This paper summarizes the concept of total worker safety for STF control, NIOSH priority research goals, major activities, and accomplishments, and some emerging issues on STF. The strategic planning process for the NIOSH research goals and some identified research focuses are applicable to the development and implementation of global STF research goals. PMID:25345424

  9. Young Children of Substance Abusers. Prevention Research Update No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory; Prendergast, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The stated objectives of this document are: to increase awareness of and clarify the risks facing children of substance abusers (COSAs) through a review of recent empirical research literature; and to examine the prevention and intervention issues involved in providing services to these youth in the schools. The literature review deals mainly with…

  10. Southeast Asian Mental Health: Treatment, Prevention, Services, Training and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owan, Tom Choken, Ed.

    This sourcebook contains 19 papers which discuss the mental health service needs of Southeast Asian refugees in the United States. The volume is divided into five sections: Treatment; Prevention; Services; Training; and Research. The papers (and their authors) are: (1) "Psychiatric Care for Southeast Asians: How Different Is Different?" (Tran Minh…

  11. Active Early Detection Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Participatory Research for Chronic Disease Prevention in Inuit Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Kratzmann, Meredith; Reid, Rhonda; Ogina, Julia; Sharma, Sangita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop a community-based chronic disease prevention program for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. Methods: Stakeholders contributed to intervention development through formative research [in-depth interviews (n = 45), dietary recalls (n = 42)], community workshops, group feedback and implementation training. Results: Key cultural themes…

  13. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - USDA BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed during the spring of 1991 which identified areas for waste reduction at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland. he areas selected for this joint E...

  14. Towards research-tested smartphone applications for preventing breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Thind, Herpreet; Liu, Benyuan; Wilson, Lt Col Candy

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to prevent breast cancer and other chronic illnesses have focused on promoting physical activity, healthy diet and nutrition, and avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption. Smartphone applications (apps) offer a low-cost, effective strategy for breast cancer prevention in women through behavioral change. However, there are currently no research-tested smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention that are suitable for women with varying levels of health literacy and eHealth literacy. In this perspective, we consider modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in women in relation to the development of smartphone apps to promote healthy behaviors associated with breast cancer-risk reduction. First, we provide a summary of breast cancer risk factors that are modifiable through behavioral change including their corresponding relative risk. Second, we discuss scientific issues related to the development of smartphone apps for the primary prevention of breast cancer and offer suggestions for further research. Smartphone apps for preventing breast cancer should be tailored for women at different life stages (e.g., young women, women who are post-menopausal, and older women). Topics such as breastfeeding and oral contraceptives are appropriate for younger women. Weight management, physical activity, avoiding cigarette smoking, and dispelling breast cancer myths are appropriate for women of all ages. As women age, topics such as hormone replacement therapy or comorbid health conditions become more important to address. Apps for breast cancer prevention should be grounded in a behavioral theory or framework and should be suitable for people with varying levels of health literacy. Future developments in smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention should include apps that are tailored for specific cultural, racial, and ethnic groups. PMID:27390745

  15. Community health partnerships for chronic disease prevention among Latinos: the San Diego Prevention Research Center.

    PubMed

    Elder, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Arredondo, Elva M; Talavera, Gregory A; McKenzie, Thomas L; Hoffman, Lisa; Cuestas, Lisa; Molina, Marisa; Patrick, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Over 20 years ago, university-community partnerships (i.e., Prevention Research Centers [PRCs]) across the United States were funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to conduct research and training in order to promote health and prevent disease in underserved populations. In 2004, the San Diego PRC (SDPRC) became the first PRC to focus on obesity prevention and control in a community of mostly Mexican Americans/Mexican immigrants. The SDPRC was also the first PRC to comprise a university-community partnership with a school of public health, a school of medicine, and a federally qualified health center. In conjunction with two additional funded community partners and involvement of a community advisory board, the SDPRC seeks to develop effective intervention strategies that ultimately lead to behavior change. Now in its second cycle of funding, the SDPRC has identified three primary principles that are important for these and similar efforts: (1) developing culturally appropriate interventions requires community engagement; (2) building the evidence in a systematic and rigorous way yields meaningful strategies for translation to practice; and (3) translating evidence-based interventions to practice involves capacity building for both researchers and community partners. This article describes these principles to help others involved in similar intervention efforts identify the best approach for promoting health in their own communities.

  16. Community health partnerships for chronic disease prevention among Latinos: the San Diego Prevention Research Center.

    PubMed

    Elder, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Arredondo, Elva M; Talavera, Gregory A; McKenzie, Thomas L; Hoffman, Lisa; Cuestas, Lisa; Molina, Marisa; Patrick, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Over 20 years ago, university-community partnerships (i.e., Prevention Research Centers [PRCs]) across the United States were funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to conduct research and training in order to promote health and prevent disease in underserved populations. In 2004, the San Diego PRC (SDPRC) became the first PRC to focus on obesity prevention and control in a community of mostly Mexican Americans/Mexican immigrants. The SDPRC was also the first PRC to comprise a university-community partnership with a school of public health, a school of medicine, and a federally qualified health center. In conjunction with two additional funded community partners and involvement of a community advisory board, the SDPRC seeks to develop effective intervention strategies that ultimately lead to behavior change. Now in its second cycle of funding, the SDPRC has identified three primary principles that are important for these and similar efforts: (1) developing culturally appropriate interventions requires community engagement; (2) building the evidence in a systematic and rigorous way yields meaningful strategies for translation to practice; and (3) translating evidence-based interventions to practice involves capacity building for both researchers and community partners. This article describes these principles to help others involved in similar intervention efforts identify the best approach for promoting health in their own communities. PMID:23355255

  17. Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma to improve risk stratification and develop prevention strategies.  | Multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration to enhance understanding of Barrett's esophagus and to prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  18. Educating cancer prevention researchers in emerging biobehavioral models: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Davila, Marivel; Kamrudin, Samira A; Li, Dennis H; Noor, Syed W; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Chang, Shine; Cameron, Carrie

    2011-12-01

    To increase the adoption of transdisciplinary research methods among future cancer prevention investigators, faculty members from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a graduate-level course in biobehavioral methods in cancer prevention research. Two instructors paired by topic and area of expertise offered an hour-long lecture-based seminar every week for 15 weeks during the spring semester of 2010. Students and presenters both evaluated the overall course content and delivery method, as well as each session. A total of 11 students and 22 presenters participated in the course. In each class session, one presenter was from a behavioral science background,and the other was from a biological sciences background. Both presenters and students expressed overall satisfaction with the content and format of the course. The presentation of topics from a transdisciplinary perspective and interaction with presenters from both biological and behavioral sciences are valuable and can help junior researchers prepare to meet the emerging challenges in cancer prevention research. PMID:21720937

  19. Educating cancer prevention researchers in emerging biobehavioral models: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Davila, Marivel; Kamrudin, Samira A; Li, Dennis H; Noor, Syed W; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Chang, Shine; Cameron, Carrie

    2011-12-01

    To increase the adoption of transdisciplinary research methods among future cancer prevention investigators, faculty members from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a graduate-level course in biobehavioral methods in cancer prevention research. Two instructors paired by topic and area of expertise offered an hour-long lecture-based seminar every week for 15 weeks during the spring semester of 2010. Students and presenters both evaluated the overall course content and delivery method, as well as each session. A total of 11 students and 22 presenters participated in the course. In each class session, one presenter was from a behavioral science background,and the other was from a biological sciences background. Both presenters and students expressed overall satisfaction with the content and format of the course. The presentation of topics from a transdisciplinary perspective and interaction with presenters from both biological and behavioral sciences are valuable and can help junior researchers prepare to meet the emerging challenges in cancer prevention research.

  20. Tradeoffs in cardiovascular disease prevention, treatment, and research

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Matthew; Roehrig, Charles

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that the US health care system needs to transition from a culture of reactive treatment of disease to one of proactive prevention. As a tool for understanding the appropriate allocation of spending to prevention versus treatment (including research into improved prevention and treatment), a simple Markov model is used to represent the flow of individuals among states of health, where the transition rates are governed by the magnitude of appropriately-lagged expenditures in each of these categories. The model estimates the discounted cost and discounted effectiveness (measured in quality adjusted life years or QALYs) associated with a given spending mix, and it allows computing the marginal cost-effectiveness associated with additional spending in a category. We apply the model to explore interactions of alternative investments in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to identify an optimal spending mix. Under the assumptions of our model structure, we find that the marginal cost-effectiveness of prevention of CVD varies with changes in spending on treatment (and vice versa), and that the optimal mix of CVD spending (i.e., the spending mix that maximizes the overall QALYs achieved) would, indeed, shift spending from treatment to prevention. PMID:23090664

  1. HIV prevention research: taking stock and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi; Padian, Nancy; McCormack, Sheena; Wasserheit, Judith

    2010-10-01

    Previous papers in this supplement have reviewed the evidence of the effectiveness of alternative HIV prevention methods from randomized controlled trials and other studies. This paper draws together the main conclusions from these reviews. A conceptual framework is presented that maps the proximal and distal determinants of sexual HIV transmission and helps to identify the stages in the causal pathway at which each intervention approach acts. The advances, gaps and challenges emerging from the reviews of individual intervention methods are summarized and cross-cutting themes identified. Approximately 90% of HIV prevention trials have found no effect on HIV incidence and we explore the alternative explanations for the large number of 'flat' trials. We conclude that there is no single explanation for these flat results, which may be due to interventions that are ineffective or inappropriately targeted or implemented, or to factors related to the design or conduct of trials. We examine the lessons from these flat results and provide recommendations on what should be done differently in future trials. HIV prevention remains of critical importance in an era of expanded delivery of antiretroviral therapy. In future HIV prevention research, it is important that resources are used as efficiently as possible to provide rigorous evidence of the effectiveness of a wider array of complementary prevention tools. PMID:21042056

  2. HIV PREVENTION RESEARCH: TAKING STOCK AND THE WAY FORWARD

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi; Padian, Nancy; McCormack, Sheena; Wasserheit, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Previous papers in this supplement have reviewed the evidence of the effectiveness of alternative HIV prevention methods from randomised controlled trials and other studies. This paper draws together the main conclusions from these reviews. A conceptual framework is presented that maps the proximal and distal determinants of sexual HIV transmission and helps to identify the stages in the causal pathway at which each intervention approach acts. The advances, gaps and challenges emerging from the reviews of individual intervention methods are summarised and cross-cutting themes identified. Approximately 90% of HIV prevention trials have found no effect on HIV incidence and we explore the alternative explanations for the large number of “flat” trials. We conclude that there is no single explanation for these flat results which may be due to interventions that are ineffective or inappropriately targeted or implemented, or to factors related to the design or conduct of trials. We examine the lessons from these flat results and provide recommendations on what should be done differently in future trials. HIV prevention remains of critical importance in an era of expanded delivery of antiretroviral therapy. In future HIV prevention research, it is important that resources are used as efficiently as possible to provide rigorous evidence of the effectiveness of a wider array of complementary prevention tools. PMID:21042056

  3. Supportive and Palliative Care Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Supportive and palliative care research includes studies to prevent or treat the acute and chronic symptoms and morbidities related to cancer and its treatment, and to examine the effects of cancer and its treatment on quality of life and psychosocial issues and treatment strategies at the end of life. Active Projects can range from caregiver issues to geriatrics, physical functioning to cognitive dysfunction.  | Examining symptoms and morbidities related to cancer, its treatment, quality of life and end of life.

  4. Interpretation of postmortem forensic toxicology results for injury prevention research.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H; Kennedy, Briohny; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2013-08-01

    Forensic toxicological data provides valuable insight into the potential contribution of alcohol and drugs to external-cause deaths. There is a paucity of material that guides injury researchers on the principles that need to be considered when examining the presence and contribution of alcohol and drugs to these deaths. This paper aims to describe and discuss strengths and limitations of postmortem forensic toxicology sample selection, variations in analytical capabilities and data interpretation for injury prevention research. Issues to be considered by injury researchers include: the circumstances surrounding death (including the medical and drug use history of the deceased person); time and relevant historical factors; postmortem changes (including redistribution and instability); laboratory practices; specimens used; drug concentration; and attribution of contribution to death. This paper describes the range of considerations for testing and interpreting postmortem forensic toxicology, particularly when determining impairment or toxicity as possible causal factors in injury deaths. By describing these considerations, this paper has application to decisions about study design and case inclusion in injury prevention research, and to the interpretation of research findings.

  5. Creating a transatlantic research enterprise for preventing Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Khachaturian, Zaven S.; Camí, Jordi; Andrieu, Sandrine; Avila, Jesús; Rovira, Mercè Boada; Breteler, Monique; Froelich, Lutz; Gauthier, Serge; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Khachaturian, Ara S.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Larson, Eric B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Martinez-Lage, José Manuel; Petersen, Ronald C.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Sunyer, Jordi; Vellas, Bruno; Bain, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    In recognition of the global problem posed by Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, an international think-tank meeting was convened by Biocat, the Pasqual Maragall Foundation, and the Lou Ruvo Brain Institute in February 2009. The meeting initiated the planning of a European Union-North American collaborative research enterprise to expedite the delay and ultimate prevention of dementing disorders. The key aim is to build parallel and complementary research infrastructure that will support international standardization and inter-operability among researchers in both continents. The meeting identified major challenges, opportunities for research resources and support, integration with ongoing efforts, and identification of key domains to influence the design and administration of the enterprise. PMID:19560106

  6. Adolescent Self-Consent for Biomedical HIV Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Amy Lewis; Knopf, Amelia S.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Hosek, Sybil G.; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Adolescent Medicine Trials Network Protocol 113 (ATN113) is an open-label, multi-site demonstration project and phase II safety study of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis with 15-17 year old young men who have sex with men that requires adolescent consent for participation. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to the process by which Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and researchers made decisions regarding whether to approve and implement ATN113, so as to inform future biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. Methods Participants included seventeen researchers at thirteen sites in twelve states considering ATN113 implementation. Qualitative descriptive methods were used. Data sources included interviews and documents generated during the initiation process. Results A common process for initiating ATN113 emerged, and informants described how they identified and addressed practical, ethical and legal challenges that arose. Informants described the process as responding to the protocol, preparing for IRB submission, abstaining from or proceeding with submission, responding to IRB concerns and reacting to the outcomes. A complex array of factors impacting approval and implementation were identified; and ATN113 was ultimately implemented in 7 of 13 sites. Informants also reflected on lessons learned that may help inform future biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. Conclusions The results illustrate factors for consideration in determining whether to implement such trials, demonstrate that such protocols have the potential to be approved, and highlight a need for clearer standards regarding biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. PMID:26095412

  7. Research on Fall Prevention and Protection from Heights in Japan

    PubMed Central

    OHDO, Katsutoshi; HINO, Yasumichi; TAKAHASHI, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency of fall accidents is a serious problem in Japan. Thus, more stringent countermeasures for preventing falls from scaffolds were developed and incorporated into institutional guidelines. These countermeasures aim to decrease deaths caused by falls from scaffolds. Despite the improvements in such measures, however, the rate of accidental fall deaths remains high in Japan’s construction industries. To improve the rigor of the countermeasures, a committee was established in our institute by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. This committee investigated the regulations applied in other countries and evaluated construction industry compliance with existing fall prevention guidelines. After considerable research and discussion, the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations and Guidelines were amended in 2009. The effects of the amended regulations have recently been investigated on the basis of accident reports. This paper describes the investigation and its results. The paper also discusses other research and workplace safety countermeasures for preventing falls and ensuring fall protection from heights. PMID:25098387

  8. 75 FR 47602 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan... program is to support the clinical development of products for use in rare diseases or conditions where no... provides grants for clinical studies on safety and/or effectiveness that will either result in,...

  9. Preventing Suicide: A Neglected Social Work Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Summary Social workers encounter suicidal clients; however, little is known about social work’s empirical knowledge base for suicide assessment and treatment. In the first comprehensive study of social work’s contribution to the suicide literature, the authors conducted systematic electronic and manual searches for suicide research published in peer-reviewed journals by social work investigators for the period 1980–2006, with the purpose of ascertaining the state of clinical knowledge related to suicide risk factors and effective treatments. These findings reveal that despite recent increases to the study of suicide by social work researchers, they have contributed limited evidenced-based knowledge in the last twenty-six years on the treatment or prevention of suicide or suicide-related behaviours. The article outlines the risk factors for suicide and discusses the implications for clinical social work practice and research. PMID:19924271

  10. An Action Research Project to Determine the Utility of Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support for Elementary School Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia

    2014-01-01

    A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…

  11. Risk Factor Research and Prevention for Anxiety Disorders: Introduction to the Special Series on Risk and Prevention of Anxiety Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    In relation to treatment-related research in the United States, there is relatively little systematic effort focused on the combination of risk and prevention for anxiety pathology. This article broadly discusses risk factor research and prevention program development for anxiety psychopathology. The authors also specifically discuss papers in…

  12. Recent advances in addictive disorders. Prevention. Current research and trends.

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, K L; Hopkins, R

    1993-03-01

    The AOD prevention programs of the 1990s should be resiliency-focused and include interventions of sufficient dosage and strength. Although some child behavioral technology exists to tackle successfully changes in resiliency, additional prevention strategies need to be developed and studied. In some way, the prevention field is hampered by the lack of sufficient research in the child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology fields, that includes transactional research in parenting and child rearing for high-risk youth. We simply do not know enough to determine how parents and other adults can best foster resilience in children. Questions that arise include how much to protect children from environmental stressors and how much to push them to confront new life stressors in the form of challenges to develop new skills or talents. There are no simple answers to these questions, but a number of useful guidelines could help parents and teachers to increase resilience in youth. Some of the guidelines currently being stressed include developing in youth an increased sense of responsibility for their own success, helping them to identify their talents, motivating them to dedicate their lives to helping society rather than feeling their only purpose in life is to be consumers, providing realistic appraisals and feedback for youth rather than graciously building up their self-esteem, stressing multicultural competence in an ever-shrinking world, encouraging and valuing education and skills training, increasing cooperative solutions to problems rather than competitive or aggressive solutions, and increasing a sense of responsibility for others and caring for others. Clearly, these are important objectives for creating the type of citizens that can make American strong in the twentieth century. PMID:8456037

  13. Research and dissemination: an ethical way to prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugeri, Francesca; Farabollini, Piero

    2015-04-01

    The Italian landscape is well representative of the dualism risk / resource which, along with its contradictions, characterizes the whole country. In fact, it also poses continuous questions to the further parallel duality defense / management, as we think to those cases where the natural environment is a high source of hazard to the population living in the concerned territory, being at the same time a resource thanks to the beauty expressed by the shapes of the landscape. The knowledge of the environment where we live is an essential process, even for the survival itself; the difficult journey towards science and knowledge, has been characterized, in the various ages, from different approaches, conditioned by the availability of tools and resources, as well as by the particular historical social, political phases. Research on the evolution of phenomena in time and space; their description, representation and analysis; the interaction between mankind and the physical environment, are a priority for geologists. More than 50 years after the tragedy of Vajont, the issues of shared knowledge, awareness, perception of risk, are still pending and the prevention practices are still a dramatically distant goal. It is essential to disseminate scientific heritage, by implementing processes of communication, using new codes and strategies, able to make individuals / communities / society aware of the local context, in order to trigger a consistent and shared virtuous behaviour,. The strategies of participatory democracy are based on this indispensable assumption, aiming at involving the public in policy management, as well as in prevention practices, towards the sustainable development of the territory. A shared ethics, for the world of research as well as for the society, must aim at overcoming the usual and sterile actions of a mere repairing of the damage, in order to reach a shared behaviour, based on a conscious knowledge, which is the essential foundation to start

  14. Research progress of cardioprotective agents for prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Cui, Xiaohai; Yan, Yan; Li, Min; Yang, Ya; Wang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Anthracyclines, including doxorubicin, epirubicin, daunorubicin and aclarubicin, are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of hematologic and solid tumor, including acute leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, soft tissue sarcomas and ovarian cancer. In the cancer treatment, anthracyclines also can be combined with other chemotherapies and molecular-targeted drugs. The combination of anthracyclines with other therapies is usually the first-line treatment. Anthracyclines are effective and potent agents with a broad antitumor spectrum, but may cause adverse reactions, including hair loss, myelotoxicity, as well as cardiotoxicity. We used hematopoietic stimulating factors to control the myelotoxicity, such as G-CSF, EPO and TPO. However, the cardiotoxicity is the most serious side effect of anthracyclines. Clinical research and practical observations indicated that the cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines is commonly progressive and irreversible. Especially to those patients who have the first time use of anthracyclines, the damage is common. Therefore, early detection and prevention of anthracyclines induced cardiotoxicity are particularly important and has already aroused more attention in clinic. By literature review, we reviewed the research progress of cardioprotective agents for prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. PMID:27508008

  15. The importance of neurobiological research to the prevention of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, D

    2000-06-01

    There is both a biological and environmental component to the neural substrates for various forms of psychopathology. Brain dysfunction itself not only constitutes a formidable liability to psychopathology, but also has an impact on environmental and social responses to the individual, compounding the risk for an adverse outcome. Environmental conditions, such as social and physical stimulus deprivation, poverty, traumatic stress, and prenatal drug exposure, can further compromise brain function in the context of existing liabilities. The relationship between genetic and environmental processes is interactive, fluid, and cumulative in their ability to influence an individual's developmental trajectory and alter subsequent behavioral outcomes. Given the codependent relationship between these processes, brain function is now believed to be malleable via manipulations of the environment in ways that may decrease liability for psychopathology. Research that explores these relationships and ways in which interventions can redirect this developmental track may substantially advance both the science and practice of prevention. Studies attempting to isolate the neurobiological effects of socioenvironmental factors are reviewed, implications for intervention strategies are discussed, and a future research agenda is proposed to provide greater insight into specific brain-environment relationships. Armed with this knowledge, prevention scientists may eventually design programs that directly target these effects to reverse or attenuate negative outcomes.

  16. Research progress of cardioprotective agents for prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Cui, Xiaohai; Yan, Yan; Li, Min; Yang, Ya; Wang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Anthracyclines, including doxorubicin, epirubicin, daunorubicin and aclarubicin, are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of hematologic and solid tumor, including acute leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, soft tissue sarcomas and ovarian cancer. In the cancer treatment, anthracyclines also can be combined with other chemotherapies and molecular-targeted drugs. The combination of anthracyclines with other therapies is usually the first-line treatment. Anthracyclines are effective and potent agents with a broad antitumor spectrum, but may cause adverse reactions, including hair loss, myelotoxicity, as well as cardiotoxicity. We used hematopoietic stimulating factors to control the myelotoxicity, such as G-CSF, EPO and TPO. However, the cardiotoxicity is the most serious side effect of anthracyclines. Clinical research and practical observations indicated that the cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines is commonly progressive and irreversible. Especially to those patients who have the first time use of anthracyclines, the damage is common. Therefore, early detection and prevention of anthracyclines induced cardiotoxicity are particularly important and has already aroused more attention in clinic. By literature review, we reviewed the research progress of cardioprotective agents for prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. PMID:27508008

  17. About the Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group conducts and supports prevention and early detection research on colorectal, esophageal, liver, pancreatic, and hematolymphoid cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. |

  18. Qualitative research methods: key features and insights gained from use in infection prevention research.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jane; Creswell, John W; Damschroder, Laura; Kowalski, Christine P; Krein, Sarah L

    2008-12-01

    Infection control professionals and hospital epidemiologists are accustomed to using quantitative research. Although quantitative studies are extremely important in the field of infection control and prevention, often they cannot help us explain why certain factors affect the use of infection control practices and identify the underlying mechanisms through which they do so. Qualitative research methods, which use open-ended techniques, such as interviews, to collect data and nonstatistical techniques to analyze it, provide detailed, diverse insights of individuals, useful quotes that bring a realism to applied research, and information about how different health care settings operate. Qualitative research can illuminate the processes underlying statistical correlations, inform the development of interventions, and show how interventions work to produce observed outcomes. This article describes the key features of qualitative research and the advantages that such features add to existing quantitative research approaches in the study of infection control. We address the goal of qualitative research, the nature of the research process, sampling, data collection and analysis, validity, generalizability of findings, and presentation of findings. Health services researchers are increasingly using qualitative methods to address practical problems by uncovering interacting influences in complex health care environments. Qualitative research methods, applied with expertise and rigor, can contribute important insights to infection prevention efforts.

  19. Preventing Childhood Caries: A Review of Recent Behavioral Research.

    PubMed

    Albino, J; Tiwari, T

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of dental caries reflects a complex interplay of biochemical, microbial, genetic, social and physical environmental, and health-influencing behavioral factors. This review updates the literature on the efficacy of behavioral approaches to caries prevention for children up to 18 y of age. Included were studies of behavioral interventions implemented at individual, family, and community levels that assessed results in terms of reductions in caries increments. Only those reports published since 2011 were considered. Outcomes were variable, although motivational interviewing, which involves individuals in decisions about oral health within the context of their respective life circumstances, proved effective in 3 of 4 reported studies, and more definitive trials are underway. Recommendations for future research include examinations of the cost-effectiveness of interventions, as well as work focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying oral health behavior change and variables that may mediate or moderate responses to interventions. PMID:26438210

  20. The Ninth Annual American Association for Cancer Research International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Wang, Sophia S.; Healey, Megan A.; Faupel-Badger, Jessica M.; Wilken, Jason A.; Battaglia, Tracy; Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Bergan, Raymond C.

    2016-01-01

    The Ninth Annual AACR Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research conference was held in Philadelphia in November 7–10, 2010. Its thematic focus was “Prevention: From Basic Science to Public Health Benefit.” Telomere plasticity, the microenvironment, inflammation, transformation to the metastatic phenotype, and pathways to obesity were highlighted as important elements of carcinogenesis amenable to intervention. The integration of information from novel technologies related to physical biology, molecular and genetic profiles, and imaging along with behavioral and clinical parameters have advanced risk stratification and early detection. Cancer prevention represents a powerful testing ground for the development of individually tailored intervention and for increasing the efficiency of drug discovery. Advances in clinical trials relate to more efficient design strategies, have shown first-in-human targeting capabilities, and have developed powerful strategies to overcome accrual barriers. Tailored intervention strategies now show high efficacy on large cohorts across several cancer types. These successes are expected to increase. PMID:21464034

  1. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  2. On research: new contraceptive gel prevents pregnancy and STDs.

    PubMed

    Venere, E

    1996-09-30

    A contraceptive gel, which prevents pregnancy as well as sexually transmitted diseases, created by scientists at the Johns Hopkins University has been selected for clinical trials by the National Institutes of Health. The gel is a vaginal microbicide that kills both sperm and microbes. It also destroys white blood cells in sperm and cervical mucus that can be infected with HIV. The creators of the gel found out that an effective acidic microbicide should neither harm the cells of the vaginal lining nor kill the beneficial bacteria in the vagina. Thus they created an ¿acidic buffer¿ that would be unable to penetrate the membranes of beneficial cells, rendering the buffer harmless to those cells. Yet, it would maintain the mild acidity which kills sperm and microbes that are sensitive to acid. The scientists are also developing ways to increase the gel's effectiveness by incorporating antibodies and vaccines. Additional research could result in a contraceptive gel lasting for 24 hours or longer. The gel, which they call BufferGel, may be marketed after undergoing extensive tests over the next 2 years. PMID:12295770

  3. HIV prevention and research considerations for women in sub-Saharan Africa: moving toward biobehavioral prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Abigail

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses current and emerging HIV prevention strategies for women in Sub-Saharan Africa, in light of recent trial results and ongoing research. What are the major opportunities and challenges for widespread implementation of new and emerging HIV prevention strategies? The paper discusses the major individual, social and structural factors that underpin women's disproportionate risk for HIV infection, with attention to gender, adolescents as a vulnerable population, and the need to engage men. Also, the influence of these factors on the ultimate success of both behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention technologies for women in sub-Saharan Africa is discussed. Finally, the paper examined how the new and emerging biobehavioral prevention strategies served as tools to empower women to adopt healthy HIV preventive and reproductive health behaviors. PMID:26050373

  4. HIV prevention and research considerations for women in sub-Saharan Africa: moving toward biobehavioral prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Abigail

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses current and emerging HIV prevention strategies for women in Sub-Saharan Africa, in light of recent trial results and ongoing research. What are the major opportunities and challenges for widespread implementation of new and emerging HIV prevention strategies? The paper discusses the major individual, social and structural factors that underpin women's disproportionate risk for HIV infection, with attention to gender, adolescents as a vulnerable population, and the need to engage men. Also, the influence of these factors on the ultimate success of both behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention technologies for women in sub-Saharan Africa is discussed. Finally, the paper examined how the new and emerging biobehavioral prevention strategies served as tools to empower women to adopt healthy HIV preventive and reproductive health behaviors.

  5. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  6. NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER AND THE TIDEWATER INTERAGENCY POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Langley Research Center (LaRC) is an 807-acre research center devoted to aeronautics and space research. aRC has initiated a broad-based pollution prevention program guided by a Pollution Prevention Program Plan and implement...

  7. [Early childhood prevention: implications for applied research and quality management].

    PubMed

    Roos, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    The importance of prevention has received increasing recognition the world over. In Germany, laws are being enacted and initiatives are taken to make prevention a firmly anchored and integral part of public health care. Preventive measures in early childhood encompass a great breadth and variety of resources. However, any specific preventive measure can only be justified to the extent that it has been proven to be efficient and effective. In Germany small collection of studies have shown the efficacy of psychosocial prevention and early intervention programs. Quality standards can only be determined when empirical evidence has demonstrated the prerequisites for ensuring successful treatment. Criteria for success must include life quality or academic success (school achievement). The stability of the family must also be assessed both before and after the intervention. PMID:23367806

  8. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  9. Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescents. NIDA Research Monograph 63. A RAUS Review Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Catherine S., Ed.; Battjes, Robert, Ed.

    Papers from the meeting "Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents" which focused on social skills and social inoculation approaches and also included a contrasting cognitive-developmental approach are presented in this document. These papers are included: (1) "Overview of Drug Abuse Prevention Research," (Catherine…

  10. A Concise History of School-Based Smoking Prevention Research: A Pendulum Effect Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…

  11. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH ONGOING - EPA'S RISK REDUCTION ENGINEERING LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory is to advance the understanding, development and application of engineering solutions for the prevention or reduction of risks from environmental contamination. This mission is accomplished through basic and applied researc...

  12. Promoting a social justice approach to prevention: future directions for training, practice, and research.

    PubMed

    Hage, Sally M; Kenny, Maureen E

    2009-01-01

    The final paper of this special issue devoted to prevention and social justice calls for prevention practitioners and researchers to redirect their energy and resources to creating genuine social change. To begin, the contribution of the American Psychological Association ethical code to social justice-oriented prevention work is explored, and significant ethical issues that need to be further addressed by the current code are briefly outlined. Second, we discuss the implications of a social justice approach to prevention for training, practice and research. Finally, we invite readers to take the lead in putting a social justice prevention approach into practice.

  13. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  14. Research Priorities for Economic Analyses of Prevention: Current Issues & Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, D. Max; Hill, Laura Griner; Kuklinski, Margaret R.; Jones, Damon E.

    2013-01-01

    In response to growing interest in economic analyses of prevention efforts, a diverse group of prevention researchers, economists, and policy analysts convened a scientific panel, on “Research Priorities in Economic Analysis of Prevention” at the 19th annual conference of the Society for Prevention Research. The panel articulated four priorities that, if followed in future research, would make economic analyses of prevention efforts easier to compare and more relevant to policymakers, and community stakeholders. These priorities are: (1) increased standardization of evaluation methods, (2) improved economic valuation of common prevention outcomes, (3) expanded efforts to maximize evaluation generalizability and impact, as well as (4) enhanced transparency and communicability of economic evaluations. In this paper we define three types of economic analyses in prevention, provide context and rationale for these four priorities as well as related sub-priorities, and discuss the challenges inherent in meeting them. PMID:23963624

  15. Screening and Brief Interventions: Research Update. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Developed in 1993 at the University of Washington, Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) is a preventive intervention program to reduce drinking and enhance awareness about alcohol-related issues. BASICS targets college students who are considered at risk because of heavy drinking behaviors. The brief intervention…

  16. Financing prevention: opportunities for economic analysis across the translational research cycle.

    PubMed

    Crowley, D Max; Jones, Damon

    2016-03-01

    Prevention advocates often make the case that preventive intervention not only improves public health and welfare but also can save public resources. Increasingly, evidence-based policy efforts considering prevention are focusing on how programs can save taxpayer resources from reduced burden on health, criminal justice, and social service systems. Evidence of prevention's return has begun to draw substantial investments from the public and private sector. Yet, translating prevention effectiveness into economic impact requires specific economic analyses to be employed across the stages of translational research. This work discusses the role of economic analysis in prevention science and presents key translational research opportunities to meet growing demand for estimates of prevention's economic and fiscal impact.

  17. Financing prevention: opportunities for economic analysis across the translational research cycle.

    PubMed

    Crowley, D Max; Jones, Damon

    2016-03-01

    Prevention advocates often make the case that preventive intervention not only improves public health and welfare but also can save public resources. Increasingly, evidence-based policy efforts considering prevention are focusing on how programs can save taxpayer resources from reduced burden on health, criminal justice, and social service systems. Evidence of prevention's return has begun to draw substantial investments from the public and private sector. Yet, translating prevention effectiveness into economic impact requires specific economic analyses to be employed across the stages of translational research. This work discusses the role of economic analysis in prevention science and presents key translational research opportunities to meet growing demand for estimates of prevention's economic and fiscal impact. PMID:27012262

  18. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.  The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  19. Building and sustaining community-institutional partnerships for prevention research: findings from a national collaborative.

    PubMed

    Seifer, Sarena D

    2006-11-01

    The Examining Community-Institutional Partnerships for Prevention Research Project began in October 2002 with funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Research Center Program Office through a cooperative agreement between the Association of Schools of Public Health and the CDC. The three-year project aimed to synthesize knowledge about community-institutional partnerships for prevention research and to build community and institutional capacity for participatory research. These ten organizations collaborated on the project because they were all involved in community-institutional partnerships for prevention research, had access to research and evaluation data on these partnerships, and believed that the shared learning and action that would result through a collaborative effort could significantly advance collective knowledge about partnerships and lead to substantive capacity-building responses: the Community Health Scholars Program, Community-Based Public Health Caucus of the American Public Health Association, Community-Campus Partnerships for Health, Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center, Harlem Health Promotion Center, National Community Committee of the CDC Prevention Research Centers Program, New York Urban Research Center, Seattle Partners for Healthy Communities, Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center and the Wellesley Institute. This paper reports on the project's findings, including common characteristics of successful partnerships and recommendations for strengthening emerging and established partnerships.

  20. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  1. Standards of Evidence for Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Scale-up Research in Prevention Science: Next Generation.

    PubMed

    Gottfredson, Denise C; Cook, Thomas D; Gardner, Frances E M; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Howe, George W; Sandler, Irwin N; Zafft, Kathryn M

    2015-10-01

    A decade ago, the Society of Prevention Research (SPR) endorsed a set of standards for evidence related to research on prevention interventions. These standards (Flay et al., Prevention Science 6:151-175, 2005) were intended in part to increase consistency in reviews of prevention research that often generated disparate lists of effective interventions due to the application of different standards for what was considered to be necessary to demonstrate effectiveness. In 2013, SPR's Board of Directors decided that the field has progressed sufficiently to warrant a review and, if necessary, publication of "the next generation" of standards of evidence. The Board convened a committee to review and update the standards. This article reports on the results of this committee's deliberations, summarizing changes made to the earlier standards and explaining the rationale for each change. The SPR Board of Directors endorses "The Standards of Evidence for Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Scale-up Research in Prevention Science: Next Generation."

  2. A feminist perspective on risk factor research and on the prevention of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Piran, Niva

    2010-01-01

    This review utilizes a feminist lens to discuss risk factor research and prevention work in the field of eating disorders. The article suggests that feminist informed risk factor research needs to consider gender as it intersects with other social variables as a relevant higher level risk factor and examine its relationship to individual level risk factors such as the internalization of thinness or negative body image. The article also highlights the key elements of participatory approaches and systemic changes to feminist informed prevention work. Prevention work conducted to date suggests the relevance of these elements to achieving behavioral changes in prevention work.

  3. Research Perspectives: The 2013 AAOS/ORS Research Symposium on Bone Quality and Fracture Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Eve; Lane, Joseph M.; Boskey, Adele L.

    2016-01-01

    Bone fracture resistance is determined by the amount of bone present (“bone quantity”) and by a number of other geometric and material factors grouped under the term “bone quality.” In May 2013, a workshop was convened among a group of clinicians and basic science investigators to review the current state of the art in Bone Quality and Fracture Prevention and to make recommendations for future directions for research. The AAOS/ORS/OREF workshop was attended by 64 participants, including two representatives of the National Institutes of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and 13 new investigators whose posters stimulated additional interest. A key outcome of the workshop was a set of recommendations regarding clinically relevant aspects of both bone quality and quantity that clinicians can use to inform decisions about patient care and management. The common theme of these recommendations was the need for more education of clinicians in areas of bone quality and for basic science studies to address specific topics of pathophysiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of altered bone quality. In this report, the organizers with the assistance of the speakers and other attendees highlight the major findings of the meeting that justify the recommendations and needs for this field. PMID:24700449

  4. Divorce Workshops: An Opportunity for Preventive Education & Epidemiological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John; And Others

    This paper describes the program and research related to the "Making It" series of 18 multi-media divorce workshops co-sponsored by a community mental health center (CMHC) and a chapter of Parents without Partners (PWP). An introductory section discusses the rationale for larger scale community intervention and epidemiological research. The…

  5. A dissemination research agenda to strengthen health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J L; Green, L W; Frankish, C J; MacLean, D R; Stachenko, S

    1996-01-01

    The question of how to enhance the dissemination of knowledge and the use of innovations related to disease prevention and health promotion was posed to an international group of experts at an invitational research conference held in Vancouver, British Columbia in March 1995. The Canadian Conference on Dissemination Research Strengthening Health Promotion and Disease Prevention was co-sponsored by 15 voluntary organizations, government agencies and industries. It examined advances and gaps in the study of diffusion and adoption of preventive knowledge and practices among health professionals and the public. It was the first national conference of its kind devoted to dissemination research and dissemination of research specifically in health promotion and disease prevention. This paper summarizes the major issues raised in the papers presented at this conference. Policies and strategies for strengthening dissemination research and the dissemination of health promotion knowledge and practices are suggested.

  6. Clinical and biomechanical perspectives on pressure injury prevention research: The case of prophylactic dressings.

    PubMed

    Gefen, A; Kottner, J; Santamaria, N

    2016-10-01

    In this perspective paper, we discuss clinical and biomechanical viewpoints on pressure injury (or pressure ulcer) prevention research. We have selected to focus on the case of prophylactic dressings for pressure injury prevention, and the background of the historical context of pressure injury research, as an exemplar to illuminate some of the good and not so good in current biomechanical and clinical research in the wound prevention and care arena. Investigators who are conducting medical or clinical research in academia, in medical settings or in industry to determine the efficacy of wound prevention and care products could benefit from applying some basic principles that are detailed in this paper, and that should leverage the research outcomes, thereby contributing to setting higher standards in the field.

  7. Air Force pollution prevention research and development program

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, G.

    1995-12-01

    The prevention surveys pollution prevention R&D in selected technology areas to meet high priority customer needs. Projects are categorized into four areas: Ozone Deleting Compound (ODC) Elimination, HAZMAT Materials and Substitution, HAZMAT Waste Reduction, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Elimination. Each category has specific goals. The ODC Elimination goal was to eliminate the purchases of ODCs by 1 Apr 94. The HAZMAT Materials and Process Replacement goal is to reduce the purchase of EPA 17 materials from 1992 baseline 50% by the end of 1996. The HAZMAT Waste Reduction goal is 25% by the end of 1996, and 50% by the end of 1999. VOC elimination goals are included in the HAZMaT Materials and Substitution and HAZMAT Waste Reduction areas. Each category consists of a portfolio of projects which meet high priority customer technology needs (TNs) and contributes to meeting specific goals. The presentation provides more detailed information for the On-Board Halon Replacement Program, Atomic Oxygen Cleaning process for Oxygen Systems, Non-Chemical Metal Surface Preparation, and LARPS.

  8. Investigators' - Site Coordinators' Opportunity for Research Excellence (I-SCORE) Workshop | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The DCP Organ Systems Research Groups develop, support and oversee clinical cancer prevention trials and promote participation by all populations. The trials are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of promising new preventive agents, the utility of novel biomarkers and the value of innovative technologies to identify premalignant lesions. The Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials program was created to facilitate the efficient implementation of these studies by teams of multidisciplinary investigators. |

  9. Behavioral science research in the prevention of diabetes : status and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Edwin B; Walker, Elizabeth A; Bostrom, Ann; Fischhoff, Baruch; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    2002-03-01

    Recent studies show diabetes can be prevented. Growing knowledge of its biological bases opens further prevention opportunities. This article focuses on behavioral science research that may advance these opportunities. An ecological model guides attention to how prevention research may be pursued at the individual, group, or community levels. Three key areas are reviewed: risk communication, screening, and preventive interventions. Research on diabetes risk communication is limited but suggests that many are relatively unaware of risks and may have misconceptions about the disease. Amid policy debates and research regarding the potential benefits and costs of screening, identification of diabetes may itself be risky in terms of psychological and social consequences. The Diabetes Prevention Program and other studies make clear that diabetes can be prevented, both by the combination of weight loss and physical activity and by medications. Research needs to address promoting these methods to individuals as well as to groups and even whole communities. Fundamental as well as applied research should address how risks of diabetes are understood and may be communicated; how to enhance benefits and minimize psychological and other risks of screening; how to promote healthy eating and weight loss, physical activity, and appropriate use of medications to prevent diabetes; and how to reduce socioeconomic and cultural disparities in all these areas. PMID:11874954

  10. Symptoms, Devices, Prevention, Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... noise levels. NIH Research to Results Teams of scientists, supported by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), are the first to demonstrate, in a variety of animal models, ...

  11. PERVAPORATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to describe research activities with USDPA's NRMRL Prevaporation Team pertaining to industrial waste. The presentation will provide a brief introduction to pervaporation technology theory and applications. Pervaporation is a membrane separ...

  12. About the Cancer Biomarkers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Biomarkers Research Group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. Activities include development and validation of promising cancer biomarkers, collaborative databases and informatics systems, and new technologies or the refinement of existing technologies. NCI DCP News Note Consortium on Imaging and Biomarkers (CIB) Created: Eight Grants Awarded to Improve Accuracy of Cancer Screening, Detection, and Diagnosis |

  13. Retreat from Nuremberg: can we prevent unethical medical research?

    PubMed

    Horner, J S

    1999-09-01

    The prosecution of doctors guilty of appalling human rights abuses at Nuremberg was achieved on the mistaken premise that the research community already had a code of conduct which, if applied, would have made such abuses impossible. In fact, not only was there no such code but when the 'Nuremberg Code' was published after the trial it continued to be ignored by many doctors for some thirty years afterwards. Indeed its central principle of informed consent has itself been eroded by subsequent international agreements on the ethics of medical research. This review shows that the mechanisms for approval of medical research which have now been promulgated in England and Wales, in practice, are applied on a very variable basis. Research in vulnerable groups unable to give fully informed consent such as children, prisoners and the incompetent elderly require the application of more rigorous standards of ethical control than those currently in operation. The use of vulnerable populations in the developing world and the application of international standards to them is also considered. A number of suggestions for improvements in current procedures in all these areas are put forward. The proposals for the United Kingdom would meet the requirements of the European Convention on bioethical research and the recent government consultation paper on medical treatment and research in incompetent adults. PMID:10557112

  14. Translating cancer prevention and control research into the community setting: workforce implications.

    PubMed

    Harrop, J Phil; Nelson, David E; Kuratani, Darrah Goo; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Paskett, Electra D

    2012-05-01

    A gap exists between cancer prevention research and its translation into community practice. Two strategies to reduce this gap are community-based participatory research (CBPR) and dissemination research. CBPR offers an avenue to engage academic and community partners, thereby providing mechanisms for joint learning and application of knowledge. Dissemination research examines the movement of evidence-based public health and clinical innovations to practice settings. While applying these approaches may reduce the gap between research and practice, the cancer prevention workforce may be inadequate in size, insufficiently trained, lack resources and incentives, or face structural barriers to effectively participate in CBPR and disseminate evidence-based research findings into practice. Information on translating cancer prevention information to communities and workforce implications was obtained from a panel of experts and through a review of the literature on CBPR and dissemination research. The expert panel and literature review identified major barriers to successfully conducting CBPR and dissemination research in community settings. Barriers included inadequate policies; insufficient networking and communication infrastructures; unsupportive research cultures, climates, and mindsets; inadequate researcher and practitioner education; and limited CBPR and dissemination research with adequate study designs. No specific estimates of the cancer prevention workforce were found; however, indirect evidence for a shortfall were identified. We recommend expanding CBPR training for academic and community partners; increasing funding for dissemination research and practice; supporting proven partnerships; and providing strategic coordination for government agencies, research institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to foster better dissemination of information and integration of community-based cancer prevention and control programs and practices

  15. Oregon Research Institute's Smoking Prevention Program: Helping Students Resist Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severson, Herbert; And Others

    1981-01-01

    In 1980, Oregon Research Institute implemented Programs to Advance Teen Health (PATH), a smoking prevention program that helps seventh and ninth graders learn to resist social pressures to smoke. This report describes PATH and discusses the reasons behind its smoking prevention strategy. The report first notes the importance of preventing…

  16. Research, Policy, and the Federal Role in Prevention Initiatives for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripple, Carol H.; Zigler, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Reviews five federal policy-based initiatives for children and families (Project Head Start; lead poisoning prevention; Medicaid; Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children; and Earned Income Tax Credit), discussing aspects of federal prevention program design, implementation, policy, and research. (Contains references.) (SM)

  17. 3 CFR - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Prevention of Gun Violence Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 16, 2013 Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence...

  18. Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. The following are some key findings: (1) Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect,…

  19. Abduction Prevention Training: A Review of Findings and Issues for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Olsen, Laurie A.

    1996-01-01

    This study reviewed the research evaluating procedures for teaching abduction prevention skills to children. Examination of types of skills, types of abduction scenarios, training procedures, and assessment strategies indicated that children can learn abduction prevention skills through behavioral skills training procedures, and that individual…

  20. Advances in the prevention of oral disease; the role of the International Association for Dental Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Since its foundation in 1920, prevention of oral disease has been a priority for the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) and the commitment of the organisation to the subject area is clearly expressed in its mission to improve oral health worldwide. The IADR has a current global membership of almost 11,000 people who share an interest in oral and craniofacial research. Contribution of IADR This paper provides an overview of the contribution of IADR to supporting research and associated activities in disease prevention, in disseminating knowledge and in advocating for better oral health for all citizens of the world. It looks back over time and summarises current supports. Two more recent initiatives in disease prevention are described in more detail, the Global Oral Health Inequalities Research Agenda (GOHIRA) and the proceedings at the 2013 World Conference on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD, 2013), a joint initiative between IADR and WHO. Through organisational structure, meetings, publications, scientific groups and networks and external relations, IADR has been at the forefront of advancing research for the prevention of oral diseases. Conclusions IADR is committed to ensuring research advances get disseminated and implemented and at the same time encourages and advocates for basic, clinical and translational research across disciplines so that we may uncover the major breakthrough in prevention of oral disease. PMID:26391001

  1. POLLUTION PREVENTION FOR CLEANER AIR: EPA'S AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribu...

  2. School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention: A Review of Program Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William J.

    1985-01-01

    Classifies school-based prevention activities into the following five educational domains: (1) cognitive; (2) affective/interpersonal; (3) behavioral; (4) environmental; and (5) therapeutic. Discusses research findings for each domain. (Author/LHW)

  3. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  4. Livestock and Agribusiness Pollution Prevention and Waste Utilization Research

    SciTech Connect

    Revey, W.R.

    1999-03-04

    We found that a process could be assembled and implemented consisting of common and existing equipment to effectively utilize materials traditionally seen as waste problems. Some of the additional applied research activities planned at Northwest include the actual implementation and application of such a system on campus to demonstrate and utilize biomass materials available on and around the campus as energy resources.

  5. NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) is a national network of cancer care investigators, providers, academia, and other organizations that care for diverse populations in health systems. View the list of publications from NCORP. | Clinical Trials network of cancer care professionals who care for diverse populations across the U.S.

  6. Ethics of medical care and clinical research: a qualitative study of principal investigators in biomedical HIV prevention research.

    PubMed

    Haire, Bridget G

    2013-04-01

    In clinical research there is a tension between the role of a doctor, who must serve the best interests of the patient, and the role of the researcher, who must produce knowledge that may not have any immediate benefits for the research participant. This tension is exacerbated in HIV research in low and middle income countries, which frequently uncovers comorbidities other than the condition under study. Some bioethicists argue that as the goals of medicine and those of research are distinct, it is a mistake for researchers to assume therapeutic responsibilities while engaging in research. Others propose that there is a duty of care, but disagree as to how this is limited and specified. In this qualitative study, principal investigators from HIV prevention trials discuss their experience of providing medical benefits to participants within the context of conducting research into HIV biomedical prevention technologies. They describe the limitations imposed at times by funders and at times by infrastructure constraints, and canvass the importance of ancillary care provision and capacity building in trial communities. The views of the principal investigators are compatible with the perspective that there is a duty of care, limited by the nature of the research, the depth of the relationship between research and participant, and the capacity of the research site. The therapeutic orientation in HIV prevention trial appears to be indivisible from competent research practise by making concrete and appropriate benefits available to trial participants and their communities that support rather than compete with local infrastructure.

  7. Dr. Worta McCaskill-Stevens Named Recipient of AACR Minorities in Cancer Research Award | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Worta McCaskill-Stevens, MD, MS, Chief of the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group, NCI Division of Cancer Prevention, was named the recipient of the 2016 American Association for Cancer Research Jane Cooke Wright Memorial Lectureship. |

  8. Prevention of lyme disease: promising research or sisyphean task?

    PubMed

    Krupka, Michal; Zachova, Katerina; Weigl, Evzen; Raska, Milan

    2011-08-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetes) is a group of at least 12 closely related species, some of which are responsible for chronic zoonotic infection that may cause Lyme disease. The only experimentally confirmed vector transmitting Borrelia to mammals is the Ixodes ticks. Borrelia is a highly adapted pathogen that can survive in the host organism in spite of the intense immune responses. Some patients have chronic long-lasting complications despite antibiotic therapy, probably due to adverse effects of the immune responses. A preventive vaccine against this bacterium has not been available due to the relatively broad spectrum and antigenic variability of Borrelia-surface lipoproteins and the different epitope recognition by experimental animals and humans. Although a human vaccine was marketed in the USA, it has been already pulled off the market. In addition, this vaccine was effective only in the USA, where the only pathogenic species is B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Recent data indicate that a broadly effective vaccine will to be composed of a mixture of several antigens or multiple epitopes.

  9. The use of theory based semistructured elicitation questionnaires: formative research for CDC's Prevention Marketing Initiative.

    PubMed Central

    Middlestadt, S E; Bhattacharyya, K; Rosenbaum, J; Fishbein, M; Shepherd, M

    1996-01-01

    Through one of its many HIV prevention programs, the Prevention Marketing Initiative, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention promotes a multifaceted strategy for preventing the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among people less than 25 years of age. The Prevention Marketing Initiative is an application of marketing and consumer-oriented technologies that rely heavily on behavioral research and behavior change theories to bring the behavioral and social sciences to bear on practical program planning decisions. One objective of the Prevention Marketing Initiative is to encourage consistent and correct condom use among sexually active young adults. Qualitative formative research is being conducted in several segments of the population of heterosexually active, unmarried young adults between 18 and 25 using a semistructured elicitation procedure to identify and understand underlying behavioral determinants of consistent condom use. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of this type of qualitative research methodology in designing effective theory-based behavior change interventions. Issues of research design and data collection and analysis are discussed. To illustrate the methodology, results of content analyses of selected responses to open-ended questions on consistent condom use are presented by gender (male, female), ethnic group (white, African American), and consistency of condom use (always, sometimes). This type of formative research can be applied immediately to designing programs and is invaluable for valid and relevant larger-scale quantitative research. PMID:8862153

  10. It's Your Game…Keep It Real: can innovative public health prevention research thrive within a comparative effectiveness research framework?

    PubMed

    Shegog, Ross; Markham, Christine M; Peskin, Melissa F; Johnson, Kimberly; Cuccaro, Paula; Tortolero, Susan R

    2013-04-01

    The federal comparative effectiveness research (CER) initiative is designed to evaluate best practices in health care settings where they can be disseminated for immediate benefit to patients. The CER strategic framework comprises four categories (research, human and scientific capital, data infrastructure, and dissemination) with three crosscutting themes (conditions, patient populations, and types of intervention). The challenge for the field of public health has been accommodating the CER framework within prevention research. Applying a medicine-based, research-to-practice CER approach to public health prevention research has raised concerns regarding definitions of acceptable evidence (an evidence challenge), effective intervention dissemination within heterogeneous communities (a dissemination and implementation challenge), and rewards for best practice at the cost of other promising but high-risk approaches (an innovation challenge). Herein, a dynamic operationalization of the CER framework is described that is compatible with the development, evaluation, and dissemination of innovative public health prevention interventions. An effective HIV, STI, and pregnancy prevention program, It's Your Game…Keep It Real, provides a case study of this application, providing support that the CER framework can compatibly coexist with innovative, community-based public health prevention research. PMID:23344633

  11. Introducing students to cancer prevention careers through programmed summer research experiences.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Carrie; Collie, Candice L; Chang, Shine

    2012-06-01

    Training programs in cancer prevention research play an important role in addressing impending shortages in the cancer prevention workforce. Published reports on the effectiveness of these programs, however, often focus on a program's success in recruiting and retaining a demographically diverse trainee population or on academic successes of the trainees, in general. Little has been reported about programs' success in stimulating long-term interest in cancer prevention per se, whether in research or in other choATsen applications. We set out to examine the success of our National Cancer Institute (NCI) R25E American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)-funded summer research experiences program for undergraduates at fostering awareness of and career interest in cancer prevention. Fourteen summer research undergraduates participated in a 12-week structured training program which featured a variety of experiences designed to create awareness of and interest in cancer prevention and cancer prevention research as career tracks. Experiences included career talks by faculty, informational interviewing of role model faculty, career exploration workshops, and structured interactions with graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and junior faculty. Students were surveyed about the effectiveness of the program via SurveyMonkey 8 months after completing the program. This article reports on the results of the survey and analyzes the relative effectiveness of the various types of programming strategies used. Implications for use in training program development are discussed.

  12. Introducing Students to Cancer Prevention Careers through Programmed Summer Research Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Collie, Candice L.; Chang, Shine

    2013-01-01

    Training programs in cancer prevention research play an important role in addressing impending shortages in the cancer prevention workforce. Published reports on the effectiveness of these programs, however, often focus on a program’s success in recruiting and retaining a demographically diverse trainee population or on academic successes of the trainees, in general. Little has been reported about programs’ success in stimulating long-term interest in cancer prevention per se, whether in research or in other choATsen applications. We set out to examine the success of our National Cancer Institute (NCI) R25E American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)-funded summer research experiences program for undergraduates at fostering awareness of and career interest in cancer prevention. Fourteen summer research undergraduates participated in a 12-week structured training program which featured a variety of experiences designed to create awareness of and interest in cancer prevention and cancer prevention research as career tracks. Experiences included career talks by faculty, informational interviewing of role model faculty, career exploration workshops, and structured interactions with graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and junior faculty. Students were surveyed about the effectiveness of the program via SurveyMonkey 8 months after completing the program. This article reports on the results of the survey and analyzes the relative effectiveness of the various types of programming strategies used. Implications for use in training program development are discussed. PMID:22147335

  13. Application of virtual reality methods to obesity prevention and management research.

    PubMed

    Persky, Susan

    2011-03-01

    There is a great need for empirical evidence to inform clinical prevention and management of overweight and obesity. Application of virtual reality (VR) methods to this research agenda could present considerable advantages. Use of VR methods in basic and applied obesity prevention and treatment research is currently extremely limited. However, VR has been employed for social and behavioral research in many other domains where it has demonstrated validity and utility. Advantages of VR technologies as research tools include the ability to situate hypothetical research scenarios in realistic settings, tight experimental control inherent in virtual environments, the ability to manipulate and control any and all scenario elements, and enhanced behavioral measurement opportunities. The means by which each of these features could enhance obesity prevention and management research is discussed and illustrated in the context of an example research study. Challenges associated with the application of VR methods, such as technological limitations and cost, are also considered. By employing experimental VR methods to interrogate clinical encounters and other health-related situations, researchers may be able to elucidate causal relationships, strengthen theoretical models, and identify potential targets for intervention. In so doing, researchers stand to make important contributions to evidence-based practice innovation in weight management and obesity prevention.

  14. A contextual approach to research on AIDS prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wulfert, Edelgard; Biglan, Anthony

    1994-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease that is transmitted almost entirely through behavioral factors. In the absence of a cure or vaccine, the modification of AIDS-risk behavior presents a unique challenge to behavioral scientists and should be taken as a clear imperative by behavior analysts. This paper discusses the currently dominant social-cognitive theories (the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action, and self-efficacy theory) that have been widely used to predict and understand AIDS-risk behavior. Although these theories have generated a voluminous literature on the cognitive, attitudinal, and demographic correlates of AIDS-risk behavior, they have not resulted in specific intervention strategies to influence risky behavior, most likely because they fail to specify manipulable variables. As an alternative to social-cognitive theories, this paper evaluates the usefulness of a behavior-analytic approach to stem the spread of HIV infection. It examines some of the philosophical differences underlying cognitive and behavioral approaches that are embedded in mechanistic versus functional contextualistic principles. It explores the theoretical and practical implications of adopting either predicting and explaining behavior or predicting and influencing behavior as the goals of science. To illustrate the value of adopting the goal of prediction and influence, behavior-analytic research on the social context of risky sexual behavior in adolescents is described. The paper argues that in order to alter the future course of the AIDS epidemic, the behavioral sciences must move beyond describing cognitive and attitudinal correlates of risky behavior and focus on the social context of the behavior of individuals. In addition, population-wide changes in AIDS-risk behavior can be accomplished only if research focuses on how to influence larger social systems, including the media, school systems, and community organizations. PMID:22478197

  15. Can we measure success in preventing child abuse? Issues in policy, programming and research.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, J

    1986-01-01

    Can we measure success in preventing child abuse? As the field of child abuse and neglect prevention matures intellectually and as more and more agencies require evaluative research to substantiate claims of programmatic success, this issue is emerging with ever growing vigor. This paper reviews efforts to set prevention goals in the United States, e.g., by the federal government's Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention and by the National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse. For such goal setting to be defensible and socially productive, it must be linked to a research base. This research base is growing and maturing. The home health visitor concept, in particular, has received clear and powerful support as a preventive strategy. However, many issues remain concerning other strategies. Of equal or greater importance are the many difficulties we face in documenting base rates of maltreatment with which to assess the impact of preventive interventions. Questions remain about the adequacy of infant mortality data, child injury rates, and the validity of officially reported cases of child maltreatment. The paper reviews the data available to clarify and resolve these issues, and outlines a strategy for assessing success of efforts to reduce severity and incidence of child abuse in the United States. These efforts are presented in the context of a series of principles regarding child abuse prevention, e.g., the difference between prevention linked to broad social and economic reforms versus preventive programming targeted at ameliorating the lives of high-risk families in the absence of broad socioeconomic change.

  16. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C; Farrar, John T; Fillingim, Roger B; Gilron, Ian; Markman, John D; Oaklander, Anne Louise; Polydefkis, Michael J; Raja, Srinivasa N; Robinson, James P; Woolf, Clifford J; Ziegler, Dan; Ashburn, Michael A; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; George, Steven Z; Goli, Veeraindar; Graff, Ole X; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Katz, Joel; Kehlet, Henrik; Kitt, Rachel A; Kopecky, Ernest A; Malamut, Richard; McDermott, Michael P; Palmer, Pamela; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Steigerwald, Ilona; Tobias, Jeffrey; Walco, Gary A

    2015-07-01

    Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations for clinical trials investigating the prevention of chronic pain. We present general design considerations for prevention trials in populations that are at relatively high risk for developing chronic pain. Specific design considerations included subject identification, timing and duration of treatment, outcomes, timing of assessment, and adjusting for risk factors in the analyses. We provide a detailed examination of 4 models of chronic pain prevention (ie, chronic postsurgical pain, postherpetic neuralgia, chronic low back pain, and painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy). The issues discussed can, in many instances, be extrapolated to other chronic pain conditions. These examples were selected because they are representative models of primary and secondary prevention, reflect persistent pain resulting from multiple insults (ie, surgery, viral infection, injury, and toxic or noxious element exposure), and are chronically painful conditions that are treated with a range of interventions. Improvements in the design of chronic pain prevention trials could improve assay sensitivity and thus accelerate the identification of efficacious interventions. Such interventions would have the potential to reduce the prevalence of chronic pain in the population. Additionally, standardization of outcomes in prevention clinical trials will facilitate meta-analyses and systematic reviews and improve detection of preventive strategies emerging from clinical trials.

  17. The Begun Center for Violence Prevention Research and Education at Case Western Reserve University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Daniel J.; Singer, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Established in the year 2000, the Begun Center for Violence Prevention Research and Education is a multidisciplinary center located at a school of social work that engages in collaborative, community-based research and evaluation that spans multiple systems and disciplines. The Center currently occupies 4,200 sq. ft. with multiple offices and…

  18. Concerns about Research and Prevention Strategies in Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminson, Mary; Jureidini, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This article examines three motives for research into Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy child abuse, which are to enhance treatment, to understand the psychopathology of perpetrators, and to find interventions to prevent its occurrence. It argues that only the first justification is valid and proposes that research energy be directed toward…

  19. Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

  20. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  1. FDA Researchers Advance Science for Vaccines to Prevent Mumps and Whooping Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Researchers Advance Science for Vaccines to Prevent Mumps and Whooping Cough ... that FDA studies will continue. “We enjoy the science,” says Merkel. “But what’s driving our research is ...

  2. OPPORTUNITIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT THE 33/50 PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document compiles information on existing pollution prevention methods and dentifies research needs. It helps define areas for research to increase application of existing methods and create new approaches for source reduction and recovery/recycling of 17 chemical groups ta...

  3. Putting Research into Practice in School Violence Prevention and Intervention: How Is School Counseling Doing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Charles; Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a national survey of practicing school counselors regarding their knowledge of current research in school violence prevention and intervention. The authors describe four active areas of youth violence research over the past two decades and present findings that suggest that a potentially dangerous gap may exist…

  4. Accelerating Progress in Eating Disorders Prevention: A Call for Policy Translation Research and Training.

    PubMed

    Austin, S Bryn

    2016-01-01

    The public health burden of eating disorders is well documented, and over the past several decades, researchers have made important advances in the prevention of eating disorders and related problems with body image. Despite these advances, however, several critical limitations to the approaches developed to date leave the field far from achieving the large-scale impact that is needed. This commentary provides a brief review of what achievements in prevention have been made and identifies the gaps that limit the potential for greater impact on population health. A plan is then offered with specific action steps to accelerate progress in high-impact prevention, most compellingly by promoting a shift in priorities to policy translation research and training for scholars through the adoption of a triggers-to-action framework. Finally, the commentary provides an example of the application of the triggers-to-action framework as practiced at the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, a program based at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and Boston Children's Hospital. Much has been achieved in the nearly 30 years of research carried out for the prevention of eating disorders and body image problems, but several critical limitations undermine the field's potential for meaningful impact. Through a shift in the field's priorities to policy translation research and training with an emphasis on macro-environmental influences, the pace of progress in prevention can be accelerated and the potential for large-scale impact substantially improved.

  5. Translating Genetic Research into Preventive Intervention: The Baseline Target Moderated Mediator Design

    PubMed Central

    Howe, George W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Brody, Gene H.; Wyman, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach. PMID:26779062

  6. Nursing students apply evidence-based research principles in primary burn prevention projects.

    PubMed

    Lehna, Carlee; Love, Phil; Holt, Stephanie; Stokley, Brittany; Vissman, Anna; Kupiec, Teriea; Starks, Sherri; Chesser, Kasey; Karem, Heather; Probus, Ashley; Dunlap, Kathryn

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this project was for registered nursing students in a baccalaureate nursing program to look at different prevention strategies that could be utilized in the community to impact change in a family's burn prevention knowledge. The prevention strategies and their corresponding interventions were written in a narrative form, and then a poster was created to serve as a supplemental visual aid for the information. Firefighters from a local fire department evaluated posters and their abstracts based on criteria developed by the students. Five posters were revised and submitted to a national burn prevention contest. Students gained valuable experience in developing and revising evidence-based research (EBR) projects to promote community education in primary burn prevention with firefighter collaboration.

  7. HIV prevention research: accomplishments and challenges for the third decade of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, J D; Coates, T J

    2000-01-01

    The past 2 decades have taught us that HIV prevention can work. We now have evidence from places as diverse as Senegal, Thailand, Uganda, and Australia that concerted HIV prevention efforts at the national level have resulted in the maintenance of low seroprevalence rates where they otherwise would have been expected to rise. We are beginning to observe declining rates of HIV prevalence and incidence in places and populations with historically high rates--for example, injection drug users in New York City. This trend points to the long-term impact of prevention efforts in those communities. The best of these efforts have been based on sound scientific research. As we move into the third decade of the AIDS epidemic, it is important to restate principles, acknowledge advances, and identify challenges and future directions in HIV prevention research. PMID:10897177

  8. Research, policy, and the federal role in prevention initiatives for children.

    PubMed

    Ripple, Carol H; Zigler, Edward

    2003-01-01

    With the ability and the funds to implement programs on a national level, federal policy is a potentially potent tool in primary prevention. Despite the U.S. government's history of ambivalence toward intervening in child rearing and limited national support for primary prevention, several initiatives have been implemented for children and families with some measure of success. The successes, however, are mitigated by limitations of the initiatives themselves and by the inconclusive nature of much of the evaluation data. This review of 5 federal policy-based initiatives for children and families provides the backdrop for discussing aspects of federal prevention program design, implementation, policy, and research.

  9. Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment: transforming research findings into consensus based clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Matthew; Pearson, Alan; Ward, Cathy

    2003-04-01

    The translation of research findings into practice guidelines is an important aspect in maintaining the currency of practice and adding value to research. While there has been a large amount of published literature regarding the treatment and prevention of pressure ulcers, very few studies have attempted to provide clear clinical guidelines. The present study proposes a model to transform research into clinical guidelines whilst developing a series of guidelines that can be applied to a variety of clinical settings. PMID:12694478

  10. Enhancing the Quality of Prevention Research Supported by the National Institutes of Health

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Wilma Peterman; Simons-Morton, Denise; Engel, Jody; Portnoy, Barry; Wu, Jessica; Watson, Paris A.; Olkkola, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    As the nation’s premier biomedical research agency, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has supported most of the research that underlies the prevention services that are provided to citizens in the United States and around the world. Within the NIH, the Office of Disease Prevention (ODP) has as its mission to improve the public health by increasing the scope, quality, dissemination, and effect of prevention research supported by the NIH. In today’s environment, the ODP needs to focus its efforts to address this mission. To do so, the ODP has developed a strategic plan for 2014 to 2018. We provide background on the ODP and key points from the strategic plan. PMID:25393184

  11. The misuse of behavioral genetics in prevention research, or for whom the "bell curve" tolls.

    PubMed

    Poston, W S; Winebarger, A A

    1996-09-01

    In recent years, prevention research has increasingly emphasized the role of biological and genetic factors in the etiology of numerous mental health related problems (e.g. violence, conduct and school problems, mood disorders, and substance abuse) rather than viewing them as complex biopsychosocial phenomena. This current pattern of focusing on reductionistic constitutional deficit models and de-emphasizing the role of psychosocial factors is not a new trend, but part of a historical pattern in western science. Prevention researchers have recently utilized Behavioral Genetics methodologies to support these constitutional deficiency models. The current article proposes an alternative viewpoint that proposes two basic ideas: First, most advocates of constitutional deficiency models tend to ignore or discount large bodies of research that illustrate the undeniable influence of environmental factors; secondly, given the historical failure of the field of Behavioral Genetics to apply state of the art behavior sampling techniques, most of the genetics literature utilized by prevention researchers is essentially uninterpretible. Preliminary data from the Oregon Twin Project are presented in support of these assertions. Finally, we discuss reasons why prevention researchers often overlook the problems with the Behavioral Genetics research.

  12. Research brief: the need for historically grounded HIV/AIDS prevention research among Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Lowe, John

    2007-01-01

    This is a brief report that summarizes the need for historically grounded HIV prevention research among Native Americans living in the United States. It illustrates the intersection of culture and history, showing that ethnic groups can respond to historical traumatic events for generations, often to the detriment of individual and collective health. PMID:17403492

  13. Developing and implementing an integrated delirium prevention system of care: a theory driven, participatory research study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Delirium is a common complication for older people in hospital. Evidence suggests that delirium incidence in hospital may be reduced by about a third through a multi-component intervention targeted at known modifiable risk factors. We describe the research design and conceptual framework underpinning it that informed the development of a novel delirium prevention system of care for acute hospital wards. Particular focus of the study was on developing an implementation process aimed at embedding practice change within routine care delivery. Methods We adopted a participatory action research approach involving staff, volunteers, and patient and carer representatives in three northern NHS Trusts in England. We employed Normalization Process Theory to explore knowledge and ward practices on delirium and delirium prevention. We established a Development Team in each Trust comprising senior and frontline staff from selected wards, and others with a potential role or interest in delirium prevention. Data collection included facilitated workshops, relevant documents/records, qualitative one-to-one interviews and focus groups with multiple stakeholders and observation of ward practices. We used grounded theory strategies in analysing and synthesising data. Results Awareness of delirium was variable among staff with no attention on delirium prevention at any level; delirium prevention was typically neither understood nor perceived as meaningful. The busy, chaotic and challenging ward life rhythm focused primarily on diagnostics, clinical observations and treatment. Ward practices pertinent to delirium prevention were undertaken inconsistently. Staff welcomed the possibility of volunteers being engaged in delirium prevention work, but existing systems for volunteer support were viewed as a barrier. Our evolving conception of an integrated model of delirium prevention presented major implementation challenges flowing from minimal understanding of delirium prevention

  14. HIV/Hepatitis Prevention in Drug Abuse Treatment Programs: Guidance From Research

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, James L.; Masson, Carmen L.; Perlman, David C.

    2002-01-01

    A large body of research examines the relationship between HIV and drug dependence, but considerably less information is available on viral hepatitis and drug dependence. This article summarizes research indicating what drug abuse treatment programs can do to prevent their patients from acquiring HIV or hepatitis infection and to limit the consequences for patients who are already infected. Drug treatment programs can play a pivotal role in preventing, detecting, and treating HIV and hepatitis. Some activities can be accomplished by providers’ simply becoming aware of the issues; others will require significant infusion of leadership, education, and fiscal support. PMID:18567957

  15. Association of percentile ranking with citation impact and productivity in a large cohort of de novo NIMH-funded R01 grants.

    PubMed

    Doyle, J M; Quinn, K; Bodenstein, Y A; Wu, C O; Danthi, N; Lauer, M S

    2015-09-01

    Previous reports from National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation have suggested that peer review scores of funded grants bear no association with grant citation impact and productivity. This lack of association, if true, may be particularly concerning during times of increasing competition for increasingly limited funds. We analyzed the citation impact and productivity for 1755 de novo investigator-initiated R01 grants funded for at least 2 years by National Institute of Mental Health between 2000 and 2009. Consistent with previous reports, we found no association between grant percentile ranking and subsequent productivity and citation impact, even after accounting for subject categories, years of publication, duration and amounts of funding, as well as a number of investigator-specific measures. Prior investigator funding and academic productivity were moderately strong predictors of grant citation impact. PMID:26033238

  16. The prediction and prevention of Alzheimer's disease--towards a research agenda.

    PubMed Central

    van Reekum, R; Simard, M; Cohen, T

    1999-01-01

    This paper sets a research agenda for the prediction and prevention of future onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). From a MEDLINE review of the literature, the authors found age to be a predictor of AD. The literature also indicates that memory and attentional impairments predict AD, although the relative risk is relatively low. Late-onset depression may also predict AD, but these data are limited by a lack of cohort studies. Studying cognitively impaired subjects with late-onset depression may identify a high-risk group, facilitating prevention trials. Characteristics of an "ideal" preventive agent are suggested. There is a biologic rationale, and preliminary evidence, that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (including ASA), estrogen and vitamin E may play a preventive role in AD. Other compounds (such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors) are also promising, but costs, side effects, and lack of other health benefits may preclude their use in all but very high-risk groups. PMID:10586533

  17. A vision for chronic disease prevention intervention research: report from a workshop.

    PubMed

    Ashbury, Frederick D; Little, Julian; Ioannidis, John P A; Kreiger, Nancy; Palmer, Lyle J; Relton, Clare; Taylor, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Population Studies Research Network of Cancer Care Ontario hosted a strategic planning workshop to establish an agenda for a prevention intervention research program in Ontario, including priority topics for investigation and design considerations. The two-day workshop included: presentations on background papers developed to facilitate participants' preparation for and discussions in the workshop; keynote presentations on intervention research concerning primary prevention of chronic diseases, design and study implementation considerations; a dedicated session on critical and creative thinking to stimulate participation and discussion topics; break out groups to identify, discuss and present study ideas, designs, implementation considerations; and a consensus process to discuss and identify recommendations for research priorities and next steps. The retreat yielded the following recommendations: 1) develop an intervention research agenda that includes working with existing large-scale cohorts; 2) develop an intervention research agenda that includes novel research designs that could target individuals or groups; and 3) develop an intervention research agenda in which studies collect data on costs, define stakeholders, and ensure clear strategies for stakeholder engagement and knowledge transfer. The Population Studies Research Network will develop options from these recommendations and release a call for proposals in 2014 for intervention research pilot projects that reflect these recommendations. Pilot projects will be evaluated based on their fit with the retreat's recommendations, and their potential to scale up to full studies and application in practice.

  18. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  19. Collaborative AIDS prevention research in the developing world: the CAPS experience.

    PubMed

    Hearst, N; Mandel, J S; Coates, T J

    1995-07-01

    Prevention through behavior change is the only way to control the spread of HIV infection in the developing world. Success in prevention requires consistent and persistent intervention over time, a clear understanding of the realities of target populations, and involvement of members of these populations in prevention efforts. Applied local research is urgently needed, especially in the developing world, to design interventions that meet these criteria and to test their effectiveness. The Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) model of international collaborative research has been used at the University of California, San Francisco, for the past eight years. The model involves an intensive period for protocol development and another one for data analysis. Each year, 8-10 scientists from developing countries visit CAPS in San Francisco for 10 weeks of intensive learning and collaboration. They are immersed in HIV epidemiology, research design, computer skills, data management, and psychosocial aspect of the AIDS epidemic. The main emphasis is on designing a protocol for a research project related to AIDS prevention in the visiting scientist's home country. The greatest impediment to intervention trials in developing countries is lack of funding. CAPS provides pilot study funding and technical assistance to implement the project in the home country. In the summer of 1995 eight alumni worked intensively with the CAPS faculty on data analysis and manuscript preparation. The quality of the resulting collaborative research is represented by the articles published and by the many alumni of the program who have undertaken additional research projects and/or assumed leadership positions in AIDS control efforts in their countries. These studies cover a wide range of risk groups, including sexually transmitted disease patients in Zambia; adolescents in the Philippines and Russia; wives of HIV-infected men in Uganda; female sex workers in Brazil, India, and Thailand; and

  20. About the Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The group’s projects aim to identify and develop prevention agents with the potential to block, reverse, or delay the early stages of cancer. The overarching goal is to determine positive and negative predictive values of preclinical models for clinical development. |

  1. Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program Minority/Underserved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program (PRNCORP) will be the principal organization in the island that promotes cancer prevention, control and screening/post-treatment surveillance clinical trials. It will conduct cancer care delivery research and will provide access to treatment and imaging clinical trials conducted under the reorganization of the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN). It will evaluate disparity issues and outcomes in cancer care delivery and treatments. |

  2. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    PubMed

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  3. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  4. Future Directions in Etiologic, Prevention, and Treatment Research for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; South, Kelsey; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred regarding the understanding of etiologic processes that give rise to eating disorders and the design and evaluation of efficacious prevention programs and treatment interventions. Herein we offer suggestions regarding potentially fruitful directions for future research in these areas. We suggest it would be…

  5. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

    PubMed Central

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  6. Open Distance Learning for Development: Lessons from Strengthening Research Capacity on Gender, Crisis Prevention, and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babu, Suresh Chandra; Ferguson, Jenna; Parsai, Nilam; Almoguera, Rose

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents the experience and lessons from implementing an e-learning program aimed at creating research capacity for gender, crisis prevention, and recovery. It presents a case study of bringing together a multidisciplinary group of women professionals through both online and face-to-face interactions to learn the skills needed to be a…

  7. Active Supportive and Palliative Care Research Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Active NCI Community Oncology Research Program Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Antiretroviral Therapy in Prevention of HIV and TB: Update on Current Research Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Granich, Reuben; Gupta, Somya; Sutha, Amitabh B; Smyth, Caoimhe; Hoos, David; Vitoria, Marco; Simao, Mariangela; Hankins, Catherine; Schwartlander, Bernard; Ridzon, Renee; Bazin, Brigitte; Williams, Brian; Lo, Ying-Ru; McClure, Craig; Montaner, Julio; Hirnschall, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable scientific evidence supporting the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections. The complex nature of the HIV and TB prevention responses, resource constraints, remaining questions about cost and feasibility, and the need to use a solid evidence base to make policy decisions, and the implementation challenges to translating trial data to operational settings require a well-organised and coordinated response to research in this area. To this end, we aimed to catalogue the ongoing and planned research activities that evaluate the impact of ART plus other interventions on HIV- and/or TB-related morbidity, mortality, risk behaviour, HIV incidence and transmission. Using a limited search methodology, 50 projects were identified examining ART as prevention, representing 5 regions and 52 countries with a global distribution. There are 24 randomised controlled clinical trials with at least 12 large randomised individual or community cluster trials in resource-constrained settings that are in the planning or early implementation stages. There is considerable heterogeneity between studies in terms of methodology, interventions and geographical location. While the identified studies will undoubtedly advance our understanding of the efficacy and effectiveness of ART for prevention, some key questions may remain unanswered or only partially answered. The large number and wide variety of research projects emphasise the importance of this research issue and clearly demonstrate the potential for synergies, partnerships and coordination across funding agencies. PMID:21999779

  11. Translating Basic Psychopathology Research to Preventive Interventions: A Tribute to John R. Z. Abela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Judy; Korelitz, Katherine; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights how the many important contributions of John R. Z. Abela's research program can inform the development and implementation of interventions for preventing depression in youth. Abela provided evidence of multiple vulnerabilities to depression including cognitive (e.g., inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative…

  12. Dropout Prevention in Middle and High Schools: From Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Julia; Bost, Loujeania Williams

    2016-01-01

    Based on work with state and local education agencies in dropout prevention for students with disabilities, successful research-based interventions are described along with details of how these interventions have been implemented in middle and high schools across the country. The interventions that have helped students with disabilities graduate…

  13. Respecting and Protecting Our Relationships: A Community Research HIV Prevention Program for Teen Fathers and Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Janna; Verdugo, Robert L.; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tello, Jerry; Kappos, Barbara; Cumberland, William G.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a two-phase community and academic collaboration funded by the California Collaborative Research Initiative to develop and test the feasibility of an innovative HIV prevention program relevant to the needs of the population of inner-city Latino teen parenting couples and realistic for implementation in community settings.…

  14. Completed Supportive and Palliative Care Research Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Supportive and Palliative Care Research Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Supportive and Palliative Care Research Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Active Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. The Final Frontier-Transitions and Sustainability: From Mentored to Independent Research.

    PubMed

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bowleg, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    A recurrent theme in much of the contemporary HIV behavioral and social science research is that ecological approaches that acknowledge the interplay of structural, institutional, and individual-level factors are essential to improve HIV prevention efforts in racial/ethnic minority communities. Similarly, an ecological approach provides an innovative framework for understanding the challenges that many racial/ethnic minority HIV prevention researchers face in their quest to transition from mentored researcher to independent researchers. Informed by an ecological framework, and building on our experiences as two racial/ethnic minority women HIV prevention researchers who transitioned from a formal research mentorship relationship to become independent HIV prevention researchers-principal investigators of NIH-funded R01 grants-, we frame our discussion of the mentored to independence research trajectory with a focus on structural, institutional, and individual determinants. Throughout, we integrate suggestions for how institutions, mentors, and HIV prevention researchers can facilitate the final frontier from mentored research to independence.

  19. A Review of Teen Dating Violence Prevention Research: What About Hispanic Youth?

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Krithika; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Mitchell, Emma M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the literature on evidence-based teen dating violence (TDV) prevention programs with a particular focus on highlighting gaps in the literature with regard to prevention efforts targeting Hispanic teens. The target populations, characteristics, designs, and results of TDV prevention studies reported in the scientific literature for the last 20 years were reviewed and analyzed according to cultural and contextual factors associated with TDV among Hispanic teens. To date, three studies have focused on a predominantly Hispanic population with only one study looking at the long-term effects of a TDV intervention. There is a growing need to develop and evaluate immediate and long-term effects of TDV prevention programs that address ethnic pride, acculturation and acculturative stress, familism, and gender norms within the context of Hispanic communities (e.g., machismo and marianismo). The authors discuss the implications for research, prevention practice, and policy regarding TDV prevention for Hispanic teens.

  20. A Review of Teen Dating Violence Prevention Research: What About Hispanic Youth?

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Krithika; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Mitchell, Emma M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the literature on evidence-based teen dating violence (TDV) prevention programs with a particular focus on highlighting gaps in the literature with regard to prevention efforts targeting Hispanic teens. The target populations, characteristics, designs, and results of TDV prevention studies reported in the scientific literature for the last 20 years were reviewed and analyzed according to cultural and contextual factors associated with TDV among Hispanic teens. To date, three studies have focused on a predominantly Hispanic population with only one study looking at the long-term effects of a TDV intervention. There is a growing need to develop and evaluate immediate and long-term effects of TDV prevention programs that address ethnic pride, acculturation and acculturative stress, familism, and gender norms within the context of Hispanic communities (e.g., machismo and marianismo). The authors discuss the implications for research, prevention practice, and policy regarding TDV prevention for Hispanic teens. PMID:25062778

  1. 'Every teacher is a researcher!': Creating indigenous epistemologies and practices for HIV prevention through values-based action research.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lesley

    2012-12-01

    Since gender is an undisputed driver of HIV infection, teachers concerned with HIV prevention education should ideally encourage critical awareness of and culturally sensitive practices around gender inequalities. Many interventions and programmes have been developed for teachers to enable them to do this, however most have met with limited success. This article proceeds from the viewpoint that for HIV-prevention interventions to be sustainable and effective, teachers should be actively engaged in their design, implementation and evaluation. It outlines how teachers in an HIV prevention programme utilised an action research design to explore their own gender constructs as a necessary first step to the creation of more gender-sensitive school climates and teaching practices. This values-based self-enquiry moved the teachers to action on two levels: first, to adopt a more gender-sensitive approach in their own personal and professional lives and second, to take action to challenge gender inequalities within their particular educational contexts. Evidence is presented to justify the claim that action research of this genre helps teachers to generate indigenous epistemologies and practices that not only are effective in creating sustainable and empowering learning environments for HIV prevention education, but also for teaching and learning in general.

  2. Use of Caries Prevention Agents in Children: Findings from the Dental Practice-based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Richman, Joshua S.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Qvist, Vibeke; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gordan, Valeria V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Scientific evidence supports the application of caries preventive agents in children and this knowledge must transfer into the practice of dentistry. There is little multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize the use of caries preventive agents in pediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of dental practices. Methods This study surveyed Dental Practice-based Research Network dentists who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment and use of prevention techniques in children ages 6-18. Results Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries preventive agents ranged from 36%-7%, with non-prescription fluoride rinse the most common. Dentists who practiced in a large group practice model and dentists from the Scandinavian region more frequently use caries risk assessment than regions that were predominately dentists in private practice. Whether or not dentists used caries risk assessment with their pediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries preventive treatments on patients. Conclusion Although dentists reported the use of some form of in-office caries prevention, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practicing dentists about the benefits of caries preventive agents or a function of differing financial incentives or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk. PMID:21180672

  3. [10 years' research in the social sciences on AIDS in Burkina Faso. Elements for prevention].

    PubMed

    Desclaux, A

    1997-01-01

    The first cases of AIDS in Burkina Faso were reported in 1986. During the past ten years, there have been several types of research conducted in Burkina Faso in the field of social sciences, including KABP, focus groups, and ethnographic studies. This article reviews approximately 100 publications and presents the results most relevant to prevention. Although general knowledge of the disease, its transmission and means of protection has improved, part of the population remains poorly informed; erroneous ideas remain prevalent and certain concepts, for example asymptomatic infection, are ignored. Young women in rural areas have the poorest knowledge. Understanding the information is conditioned by underlying perceptions of blood and physiology, the "components of the person", pre-existent and sexually transmitted diseases, and modes of transmission. Research on sexuality has elucidated the age at which individuals become sexually active, and paramatrimonial practices. The prevalence of STD is high. STD are mostly treated by traditional practitioners or by automedication. Family planning is insufficiently developed. AIDS prevention should be integrated into wider considerations of reproductive health. The popular perception that "Others" are responsible for bringing AIDS into the country has often been reinforced by health messages. Consequently, people do not sufficiently consider themselves vulnerable to HIV infection. The populations that are most vulnerable, for various reasons that have been analysed, include young girls and women, married women, prostitutes, truck drivers, and young men from rural areas. The message "Fidelity or condom" has been widely used. However, it has hindered the generalisation of the use of condoms, because asking for a condom consequently implies distrust of the partner. The interpretation of fidelity is diverse, and many people who choose this means of prevention believe erroneously that they are protected. Studies of the social

  4. Unheard Voices: The Need for HIV Research and Prevention Priorities for YMSM in the Global Context.

    PubMed

    Hall, Casey D; Murdock, Daniel; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

    2016-06-01

    This commentary considers the AIDS Education and Prevention special issue (volume 28, number 3) entitled "Behavioral HIV Prevention Interventions for Diverse Young Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM)." The research presented in this special issue highlights the importance of addressing sub-populations of young MSM in order to better understand the unique realities and risk-factors affecting HIV epidemics and intervention needs. Here, we focus on several broad topics raised in this special issue and comment on their implications for HIV research and practice targeting young MSM in low- and middle-income countries. We consider issues relevant to reaching hidden populations, tailoring interventions, and integrating new communications and bio-medical technologies in research and practice in low-resource settings. PMID:27244194

  5. Preventing Obesity in the Military Community (POMC): The Development of a Clinical Trials Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Spieker, Elena A.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R.; Maurer, Douglas; Johnson, Dawn; Bryant, Edny; Bakalar, Jennifer L.; Schvey, Natasha A.; Ress, Rachel; Seehusen, Dean; Klein, David A.; Stice, Eric; Yanovski, Jack A.; Chan, Linda; Gentry, Shari; Ellsworth, Carol; Hill, Joanne W.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Stephens, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity impacts the U.S. military by affecting the health and readiness of active duty service members and their families. Preventing Obesity in Military Communities (POMC) is a comprehensive research program within Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs) in three Military Training Facilities. This paper describes three pilot randomized controlled trials that target critical high risk periods for unhealthy weight gain from birth to young adulthood: (1) pregnancy and early infancy (POMC-Mother-Baby), (2) adolescence (POMC-Adolescent), and (3) the first tour of duty after boot camp (POMC-Early Career). Each study employs a two-group randomized treatment or prevention program with follow up. POMC offers a unique opportunity to bring together research and clinical expertise in obesity prevention to develop state-of-the-art programs within PCMHs in Military Training Facilities. This research builds on existing infrastructure that is expected to have immediate clinical benefits to DoD and far-reaching potential for ongoing collaborative work. POMC may offer an economical approach for widespread obesity prevention, from conception to young adulthood, in the U.S. military as well as in civilian communities. PMID:25648176

  6. Sample Size Considerations in Prevention Research Applications of Multilevel Modeling and Structural Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Rick H; Gottfredson, Nisha C

    2015-10-01

    When the goal of prevention research is to capture in statistical models some measure of the dynamic complexity in structures and processes implicated in problem behavior and its prevention, approaches such as multilevel modeling (MLM) and structural equation modeling (SEM) are indicated. Yet the assumptions that must be satisfied if these approaches are to be used responsibly raise concerns regarding their use in prevention research involving smaller samples. In this article, we discuss in nontechnical terms the role of sample size in MLM and SEM and present findings from the latest simulation work on the performance of each approach at sample sizes typical of prevention research. For each statistical approach, we draw from extant simulation studies to establish lower bounds for sample size (e.g., MLM can be applied with as few as ten groups comprising ten members with normally distributed data, restricted maximum likelihood estimation, and a focus on fixed effects; sample sizes as small as N = 50 can produce reliable SEM results with normally distributed data and at least three reliable indicators per factor) and suggest strategies for making the best use of the modeling approach when N is near the lower bound.

  7. Biomedical HIV prevention research and epidemic control in Thailand: two sides of the same coin.

    PubMed

    van Griensven, Frits; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai

    2014-07-01

    For a country with a moderate adult HIV prevalence of just over 1% in 2012, Thailand is widely perceived as having made some extraordinary contributions to the global management of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. It has been promoted as a model of effective HIV control and applauded for its leadership in providing access to antiretroviral treatment. Thailand has also received international recognition for its contribution to biomedical HIV prevention research, which is generally perceived as exceptional. In this paper, Thailand's global role model function as an example of effective HIV/AIDS control and high-quality biomedical HIV prevention research is re-evaluated against the background of currently available data and more recent insights. The results indicate that Thailand's initial response in raising the level of the political significance of HIV/AIDS was indeed extraordinary, which probably prevented a much larger epidemic from occurring. However, this response transpired in unusual extraconstitutional circumstances and its effectiveness declined once the country returned to political normalcy. Available data confirm the country's more than exceptional contribution to biomedical HIV prevention research. Thailand has made a huge contribution to the global management and control of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. PMID:25000363

  8. Preventing Obesity in the Military Community (POMC): the development of a clinical trials research network.

    PubMed

    Spieker, Elena A; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R; Maurer, Douglas; Johnson, Dawn; Bryant, Edny; Bakalar, Jennifer L; Schvey, Natasha A; Ress, Rachel; Seehusen, Dean; Klein, David A; Stice, Eric; Yanovski, Jack A; Chan, Linda; Gentry, Shari; Ellsworth, Carol; Hill, Joanne W; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Stephens, Mark B

    2015-02-01

    Obesity impacts the U.S. military by affecting the health and readiness of active duty service members and their families. Preventing Obesity in Military Communities (POMC) is a comprehensive research program within Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs) in three Military Training Facilities. This paper describes three pilot randomized controlled trials that target critical high risk periods for unhealthy weight gain from birth to young adulthood: (1) pregnancy and early infancy (POMC-Mother-Baby), (2) adolescence (POMC-Adolescent), and (3) the first tour of duty after boot camp (POMC-Early Career). Each study employs a two-group randomized treatment or prevention program with follow up. POMC offers a unique opportunity to bring together research and clinical expertise in obesity prevention to develop state-of-the-art programs within PCMHs in Military Training Facilities. This research builds on existing infrastructure that is expected to have immediate clinical benefits to DoD and far-reaching potential for ongoing collaborative work. POMC may offer an economical approach for widespread obesity prevention, from conception to young adulthood, in the U.S. military as well as in civilian communities. PMID:25648176

  9. Preventing Obesity in the Military Community (POMC): the development of a clinical trials research network.

    PubMed

    Spieker, Elena A; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R; Maurer, Douglas; Johnson, Dawn; Bryant, Edny; Bakalar, Jennifer L; Schvey, Natasha A; Ress, Rachel; Seehusen, Dean; Klein, David A; Stice, Eric; Yanovski, Jack A; Chan, Linda; Gentry, Shari; Ellsworth, Carol; Hill, Joanne W; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Stephens, Mark B

    2015-01-22

    Obesity impacts the U.S. military by affecting the health and readiness of active duty service members and their families. Preventing Obesity in Military Communities (POMC) is a comprehensive research program within Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs) in three Military Training Facilities. This paper describes three pilot randomized controlled trials that target critical high risk periods for unhealthy weight gain from birth to young adulthood: (1) pregnancy and early infancy (POMC-Mother-Baby), (2) adolescence (POMC-Adolescent), and (3) the first tour of duty after boot camp (POMC-Early Career). Each study employs a two-group randomized treatment or prevention program with follow up. POMC offers a unique opportunity to bring together research and clinical expertise in obesity prevention to develop state-of-the-art programs within PCMHs in Military Training Facilities. This research builds on existing infrastructure that is expected to have immediate clinical benefits to DoD and far-reaching potential for ongoing collaborative work. POMC may offer an economical approach for widespread obesity prevention, from conception to young adulthood, in the U.S. military as well as in civilian communities.

  10. [Research on Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease by Translational Medicine Based Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Lu, Shi-chao; Zhang, Jun-ping

    2015-05-01

    Translational medicine is inevitable in the development of modern medicine, and the uprising concept of translational medicine provides an opportunity for the development of Chinese medicine (CM). Their ideas are well communicated. There are two patterns of researching on CM based on translational medicine: 'literature to bench to bedside' and 'bench to bedside to bench'. CM has her advantages in preventing and treating cardiovascular disease. Effective methods for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease by CM should be further studied based on translational medicine concepts.

  11. Environmental Research Brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of rebuilt industrial crankshafts

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H.W.; Kostrzewa, M.F.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The Waste Minimization Assessment Center at Colorado State University performed an assessment at a plant that refurbishes large industrial crankshafts. The team report indicated that the waste stream generated in the greatest quantity is spent cutting fluid from the grinding of crankshafts and that significant cost savings could be achieved by implementing a formal cutting fluid management program. This research brief discusses the process, existing waste management practices, pollution prevention opportunities, and gives additional recommendations. Tables summarize current waste generation and recommended pollution prevention opportunities.

  12. Cardiac rehabilitation, exercise training, and preventive cardiology research at Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute.

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, C J; Milani, R V; Ventura, H O; Messerli, F H; Murgo, J P

    1995-01-01

    We review data from our institution demonstrating the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training on coronary risk factors, exercise capacity, behavioral characteristics, and quality of life in various subgroups of patients. In addition, we discuss our research in several other areas of preventive cardiology, including lipid disorders, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, fish oils, and antioxidants. We believe that we are now in a very exciting era in which a multifactorial approach to the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease is needed in order to further reduce morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:7787470

  13. Alcohol Consumption among Youth: Current Trends and Research Findings. Prevention Research Update. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory; Roizen, Ron

    This update offers current knowledge about the scope and nature of adolescent drinking. Its goal is to bridge the communications gap between the researcher, the practitioner, and the general population by disseminating research findings in an accessible manner and by providing an introductory review of the significance of these findings. Abstracts…

  14. Advancing the strategic use of HIV operations research to strengthen local policies and programmes: the Research to Prevention Project

    PubMed Central

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Cheng, Alison Surdo; Sandison, Sarah J; Fonner, Virginia A; Holtgrave, David R; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-01-01

    In the field of HIV prevention, there is renewed interest in operations research (OR) within an implementation science framework. The ultimate goal of such studies is to generate new knowledge that can inform local programmes and policies, thus improving access, quality, efficiency and effectiveness. Using four case studies from the USAID-funded Research to Prevention (R2P) project, we highlight the strategic use of OR and the impact it can have on shaping the focus and content of HIV prevention programming across geographic and epidemic settings and populations. These case studies, which include experiences from several sub-Saharan African countries and the Caribbean, emphasize four unique ways that R2P projects utilized OR to stimulate change in a given context, including: (1) translating findings from clinical trials to real-world settings; (2) adapting promising structural interventions to a new context; (3) tailoring effective interventions to underserved populations; and (4) prioritizing key populations within a national response to HIV. Carefully crafted OR can bridge the common gap that exists between research-generated knowledge and field-based practice, lead to substantial, real-world changes in national policies and programmes, and strengthen local organizations and the use of data to be more responsive to a given topic or population, ultimately supporting a locally tailored HIV response. PMID:26290331

  15. Social justice and HIV vaccine research in the age of pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Theodore C; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-09-01

    The advent of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) as means of HIV prevention raises issues of justice concerning how most fairly and equitably to apportion resources in support of the burgeoning variety of established HIV treatment and prevention measures and further HIV research, including HIV vaccine research. We apply contemporary approaches to social justice to assess the ethical justification for allocating resources in support of HIV vaccine research given competing priorities to support broad implementation of HIV treatment and prevention measures, including TasP and PrEP. We argue that there is prima facie reason to believe that a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine would offer a distinct set of ethically significant benefits not provided by current HIV treatment or prevention methods. It is thereby possible to justify continued support for HIV vaccine research despite tension with priorities for treatment, prevention, and other research. We then consider a counter-argument to such a justification based on the uncertainty of successfully developing a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine. Finally, we discuss how HIV vaccine research might now be ethically designed and conducted given the new preventive options of TasP and PrEP, focusing on the ethically appropriate standard of prevention for HIV vaccine trials.

  16. Bridging the Divide: HIV Prevention Research and Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Christian; Powell, Borris; Humes, Damon; Wakefield, Steven; Kripke, Katharine; Eckstein, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We obtained contextual information regarding documented barriers to HIV clinical trial participation among Black men who have sex with men (MSM), and explored current preventive HIV clinical trial attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions among Black MSM leaders in the United States. Methods. We conducted 2 focus groups with Black MSM leaders attending an annual African American MSM Leadership Conference on HIV/AIDS. Focus group questions explored biomedical research perceptions and attitudes, barriers to participation in biomedical prevention research, and steps that need to be taken to address these barriers. A feedback and member checking (participants presented with final themes to provide feedback and guidance) session was also held at the 2012 conference. Results. Three distinct themes emerged regarding Black MSM engagement and participation in HIV vaccine research: (1) community-based organizations as true partners, (2) investment in the Black gay community, and (3) true efforts to inform and educate the community. Conclusions. A key focus for improving efforts to engage the Black MSM community in preventive HIV clinical trials is building and maintaining equitable and reciprocal partnerships among research institutions, Black-led AIDS service organizations and community-based organizations, and community members. PMID:24524520

  17. EPA`s adaptive controls system research program for pollution prevention and clean technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, R.J.; Chappell, P.J.; Miller, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The current effort of EPA`s control systems research is concentrated in three areas: electric motors, wind turbines, and combustion technologies. In general, these projects are concerned with pollution prevention through enhanced efficiency of operation and pollution control through lower emission levels. Pioneering effort has been achieved in the application of fuzzy-logic-based controls in these areas. Based on the results of these projects, fuzzy logic has emerged as an important tool in environmental technology for pollution elimination and control.

  18. The 'new genetics' in blood and cardiovascular research: applications to prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Motulsky, A G

    1984-11-01

    Genetic approaches have become an important component of both fundamental and disease-oriented research. Certain diseases of the blood--the hemoglobinopathies--have been elucidated by the spectacular methods of molecular genetics. Some of these advances have already been incorporated in disease management. Often, common conditions such as coronary heart disease and hypertension show familial aggregation. Genetic analysis of these diseases together with biochemical and molecular methods are likely to be useful for further understanding and ultimate prevention and control.

  19. Present Research and Standardization Activities on Small Space Debris at Space Environment Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Yukihito; Hanada, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Higashide, Masumi; Okudaira, Osamu; Kamiya, Koki; Nitta, Kumi

    2016-07-01

    The micro-debris of the size from 100 μm to several mm is expected to cause a spacecraft critical failures and troubles. However, the collision probability of the micro-debris and its effect on space equipment are hardly predicted due to lack knowledge regarding the debris distribution and experimental/numerical investigation on material and components. This paper introduce research and standardization activities related on micro-debris for space environmental prevention

  20. Implementing Research-Based Substance Abuse Prevention in Communities: Effects of a Coalition-Based Prevention Initiative in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flewelling, Robert L.; Austin, David; Hale, Kelly; LaPlante, Marcia; Liebig, Melissa; Piasecki, Linda; Uerz, Lori

    2005-01-01

    Despite the popularity and perceived potential effectiveness of community-based coalitions in helping to prevent and reduce adolescent substance use, empirical evidence supporting this approach is sparse. Many reasons have been suggested for why coalition-based prevention initiatives, and community-level interventions in general, have not…

  1. Compendium of HIV Prevention Interventions with Evidence of Effectiveness. From CDC's HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This publication was developed in response to requests by prevention service providers and planners, for science-based interventions that work in HIV/AIDS prevention. All interventions came from behavioral or social studies that had both intervention and control/comparison groups and positive results for behavioral or health outcomes. The document…

  2. Research into hand-arm vibration syndrome and its prevention in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Sakakibara, H

    1994-05-01

    Research on vibration syndrome in Japan began in the 1930s with studies of the disorder among railway, mining and shipyard workers. In 1947, the Ministry of Labor decided vibration syndrome among operators of rock drills and riveters etc. was an occupational disease. Industrial developments in the 1950s and 1960s promoted the survey of vibration syndrome in mining, stone quarrying and forestry. The Ministry of Labor (1965) and the National Personnel Agency (1966) legally recognized vibration syndrome among chain saw operators as an occupational disease. Guidelines for prevention and early therapy were issued in the 1970s and 80s. From the late 1970s into the 1980s, research focused on the clinical picture, diagnostic methods and therapy. In pathophysiology, advances were made in research into the autonomic nervous system during the 1980s. The 1970s and 80s saw a steady reduction in risk from technological change and working conditions, and advances in medical care, education and meteorological forecasting. A comprehensive prevention system established in the 1980s in the Japanese forest industry involved: 1) work restrictions, 2) an improved health care system, 3) advances in the design of vibrating tools, handle-warming devices, and 4) improved worker education. This comprehensive preventive system was legally introduced into other industries, resulting in a rapid decrease in the incidence of vibration syndrome in Japan. PMID:7708109

  3. Research into hand-arm vibration syndrome and its prevention in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Sakakibara, H

    1994-05-01

    Research on vibration syndrome in Japan began in the 1930s with studies of the disorder among railway, mining and shipyard workers. In 1947, the Ministry of Labor decided vibration syndrome among operators of rock drills and riveters etc. was an occupational disease. Industrial developments in the 1950s and 1960s promoted the survey of vibration syndrome in mining, stone quarrying and forestry. The Ministry of Labor (1965) and the National Personnel Agency (1966) legally recognized vibration syndrome among chain saw operators as an occupational disease. Guidelines for prevention and early therapy were issued in the 1970s and 80s. From the late 1970s into the 1980s, research focused on the clinical picture, diagnostic methods and therapy. In pathophysiology, advances were made in research into the autonomic nervous system during the 1980s. The 1970s and 80s saw a steady reduction in risk from technological change and working conditions, and advances in medical care, education and meteorological forecasting. A comprehensive prevention system established in the 1980s in the Japanese forest industry involved: 1) work restrictions, 2) an improved health care system, 3) advances in the design of vibrating tools, handle-warming devices, and 4) improved worker education. This comprehensive preventive system was legally introduced into other industries, resulting in a rapid decrease in the incidence of vibration syndrome in Japan.

  4. Advancing suicide prevention research with rural American Indian and Alaska Native populations.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Lisa; Chandler, Michael; Gone, Joseph P; Cwik, Mary; Kirmayer, Laurence J; LaFromboise, Teresa; Brockie, Teresa; O'Keefe, Victoria; Walkup, John; Allen, James

    2015-05-01

    As part of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Task Force, a multidisciplinary group of AI/AN suicide research experts convened to outline pressing issues related to this subfield of suicidology. Suicide disproportionately affects Indigenous peoples, and remote Indigenous communities can offer vital and unique insights with relevance to other rural and marginalized groups. Outcomes from this meeting include identifying the central challenges impeding progress in this subfield and a description of promising research directions to yield practical results. These proposed directions expand the alliance's prioritized research agenda and offer pathways to advance the field of suicide research in Indigenous communities and beyond. PMID:25790403

  5. The U.S. EPA Conference on Preventable Causes of Cancer in Children: a research agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Carroquino, M J; Galson, S K; Licht, J; Amler, R W; Perera, F P; Claxton, L D; Landrigan, P J

    1998-01-01

    On 15-16 September 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored the Conference on Preventable Causes of Cancer in Children. The conference was convened to examine rising trends in reported incidence of childhood cancer and the association of these trends with environmental exposures. This paper summarizes recommendations for future research offered by participants. These recommendations included more collaborative research integrating epidemiology, molecular biology, toxicology, and risk assessment; the development of better protocols for toxicologic testing including carcinogenicity using young animals; and research focused on specific periods of development during which susceptibility to environmental agents may be enhanced. Also recommended was enhanced use and development of molecular biomarkers for identification of susceptible populations, and documentation of exposures and effects in epidemiologic and toxicologic studies. Although toxicologic testing is considered essential to determine the effects of potential carcinogens on biological organisms, participants emphasized the need to link these findings with epidemiologic and exposure assessment research. PMID:9646050

  6. Detecting, preventing, and responding to "fraudsters" in internet research: ethics and tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Teitcher, Jennifer E F; Bockting, Walter O; Bauermeister, José A; Hoefer, Chris J; Miner, Michael H; Klitzman, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based health research is increasing, and often offers financial incentives but fraudulent behavior by participants can result. Specifically, eligible or ineligible individuals may enter the study multiple times and receive undeserved financial compensation. We review past experiences and approaches to this problem and propose several new strategies. Researchers can detect and prevent Internet research fraud in four broad ways: (1) through the questionnaire/instrument (e.g., including certain questions in survey; and software for administering survey); (2) through participants' non-questionnaire data and seeking external validation (e.g., checking data for same email addresses, usernames, passwords, and/or fake addresses or phone numbers; (3) through computer information, (e.g., IP addresses and cookies), and 4) through study design (e.g., avoid lump sum compensation and interviewing participants). These approaches each have pros and cons, and raise ethical, legal, and logistical questions, given that ethical tensions can emerge between preserving the integrity of research vs. protecting the privacy and confidentiality of study respondents. While past discussions concerning the ethics of online research have tended to focus on the participants' ability to trust the researchers, needs now arise to examine researchers' abilities to trust the participants. This analysis has several critical implications for future practice, policy, and research. PMID:25846043

  7. Detecting, preventing, and responding to "fraudsters" in internet research: ethics and tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Teitcher, Jennifer E F; Bockting, Walter O; Bauermeister, José A; Hoefer, Chris J; Miner, Michael H; Klitzman, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based health research is increasing, and often offers financial incentives but fraudulent behavior by participants can result. Specifically, eligible or ineligible individuals may enter the study multiple times and receive undeserved financial compensation. We review past experiences and approaches to this problem and propose several new strategies. Researchers can detect and prevent Internet research fraud in four broad ways: (1) through the questionnaire/instrument (e.g., including certain questions in survey; and software for administering survey); (2) through participants' non-questionnaire data and seeking external validation (e.g., checking data for same email addresses, usernames, passwords, and/or fake addresses or phone numbers; (3) through computer information, (e.g., IP addresses and cookies), and 4) through study design (e.g., avoid lump sum compensation and interviewing participants). These approaches each have pros and cons, and raise ethical, legal, and logistical questions, given that ethical tensions can emerge between preserving the integrity of research vs. protecting the privacy and confidentiality of study respondents. While past discussions concerning the ethics of online research have tended to focus on the participants' ability to trust the researchers, needs now arise to examine researchers' abilities to trust the participants. This analysis has several critical implications for future practice, policy, and research.

  8. Partnerships for the Design, Conduct, and Analysis of Effectiveness, and Implementation Research: Experiences of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O.; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L.; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W.; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J.; Pantin, Hilda M.; Gallo, Carlos G.; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J.; McManus, John W.

    2012-01-01

    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786

  9. Partnerships for the design, conduct, and analysis of effectiveness, and implementation research: experiences of the prevention science and methodology group.

    PubMed

    Brown, C Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J; Pantin, Hilda M; Gallo, Carlos G; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J; McManus, John W

    2012-07-01

    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted.

  10. Development of a pollution prevention and energy efficiency clearinghouse for biomedical research facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, L F; Rau, E H; Pfister, E A; Calcagni, J

    2000-01-01

    This is the report of the National Association of Physicians for the Environment Committee on Development of a Pollution Prevention and Energy Efficiency Clearinghouse for Biomedical Research Facilities from the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, on 1--2 November 1999. A major goal of the conference was the establishment of a World Wide Web-based clearinghouse, which would lend tremendous resources to the biomedical research community by providing access to a database of peer-reviewed articles and references dealing with a host of aspects of biomedical research relating to energy efficiency, pollution prevention, and waste reduction. A temporary website has been established with the assistance of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regions III and IV, where a pilot site provides access to the EPA's existing databases on these topics. A system of peer review for articles and promising techniques still must be developed, but a glimpse of topics and search engines is available for comment and review on the EPA Region IV-supported website (http://wrrc.p2pays.org/). PMID:11121361

  11. Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR): interventions addressing multiple influences in childhood and adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Charlotte A; Boyington, Josephine; Esposito, Layla; Pemberton, Victoria L; Bonds, Denise; Kelley, Melinda; Yang, Song; Murray, David; Stevens, June

    2013-11-01

    This paper is the first of five papers in this issue that describes a new research consortium funded by the National Institutes of Health. It describes the design characteristics of the Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) trials and common measurements across the trials. The COPTR Consortium is conducting interventions to prevent obesity in pre-schoolers and treat overweight or obese 7-13 year olds. Four randomized controlled trials will enroll a total of 1700 children and adolescents (~50% female, 70% minorities), and will test innovative multi-level and multi-component interventions in multiple settings involving primary care physicians, parks and recreational centers, family advocates, and schools. For all the studies, the primary outcome measure is body mass index; secondary outcomes, moderators and mediators of intervention include diet, physical activity, home and neighborhood influences, and psychosocial factors. COPTR is being conducted collaboratively among four participating field centers, a coordinating center, and NIH project offices. Outcomes from COPTR have the potential to enhance our knowledge of interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity.

  12. Fifty years of tobacco carcinogenesis research: from mechanisms to early detection and prevention of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Szabo, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the 1964 Surgeon General's Report initiated definitive and comprehensive research on the identification of carcinogens in tobacco products and the relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The resultant comprehensive data clearly illustrate established pathways of cancer induction involving carcinogen exposure, metabolic activation, DNA adduct formation, and consequent mutation of critical genes along with the exacerbating influences of inflammation, cocarcinogenesis, and tumor promotion. This mechanistic understanding has provided a framework for the regulation of tobacco products and for the development of relevant tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers that can be applied in cancer prevention. Simultaneously, the recognition of the link between smoking and lung cancer paved the way for two additional critical approaches to cancer prevention that are discussed here: detection of lung cancer at an early, curable stage, and chemoprevention of lung cancer. Recent successes in more precisely identifying at-risk populations and in decreasing lung cancer mortality with helical computed tomography screening are notable, and progress in chemoprevention continues, although challenges with respect to bringing these approaches to the general population exist. Collectively, research performed since the 1964 Report demonstrates unequivocally that the majority of deaths from lung cancer are preventable.

  13. Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is recognized as a serious violation of human well-being and of the law, no community has yet developed mechanisms that ensure that none of their youth will be sexually abused. CSA is, sadly, an international problem of great magnitude that can affect children of all ages, sexes, races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic classes. Upon invitation, this current publication aims at providing a brief overview of a few lessons we have learned from CSA scholarly research as to heighten awareness of mental health professionals on this utmost important and widespread social problem. This overview will focus on the prevalence of CSA, the associated mental health outcomes, and the preventive strategies to prevent CSA from happening in the first place. PMID:23866106

  14. The Relationship of Abortion and Violence Against Women: Violence Prevention Strategies and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha W; Speckhard, Anne; Brightup, Jennie E

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of peace psychology, the role of abortion in acts of violence against women is explored, with a focus on violence-prevention strategies. Setting aside the political debate, this task force report takes the conflict-transformation approach of considering all perspectives that have concern for the right of women to avoid being victims of violence. The evidence that victims of Intimate Partner Violence are disproportionately represented in women presenting for abortion suggests a need for screening at clinics. Coerced abortion is a form of violence and has occurred by government policy in China and as a result of other violence against women: sex trafficking and war situations. Sex-selection abortion of female fetuses, referred to as "gendercide," has reached pandemic proportions and caused a gender imbalance in some countries. Psychology, through empirical research, can make unique contributions to understanding the relationship between abortion and violence and in developing prevention strategies. PMID:26710370

  15. Type 2 diabetes in youth: epidemiology and current research toward prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2008-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has emerged as a diagnosis among adolescents in the United States, particularly among minority groups and concurrent with the well-documented epidemic of overweight and obesity. Opportunities for prevention of type 2 diabetes and approaches to optimized treatment regimens for adolescents with the disease have drawn largely from studies conducted in adult populations. Recognizing that much work remains to be done, this review summarizes key findings from recent research and highlights recent findings from large, ongoing studies of youth that address the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young people, the prevalence of complications among this group, and the current knowledge base that informs opportunities for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes in adolescents.

  16. Creating an African HIV Clinical Research and Prevention Trials Network: HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Anatoli; Price, Matt A.; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Inambao, Mubiana; Sanders, Eduard J.; Anzala, Omu; Latka, Mary H.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Asiki, Gershim; Ssetaala, Ali; Ruzagira, Eugene; Allen, Susan; Farmer, Paul; Hunter, Eric; Mutua, Gaudensia; Makkan, Heeran; Tichacek, Amanda; Brill, Ilene K.; Fast, Pat; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Gilmour, Jill

    2015-01-01

    HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner. PMID:25602351

  17. The Relationship of Abortion and Violence Against Women: Violence Prevention Strategies and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha W; Speckhard, Anne; Brightup, Jennie E

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of peace psychology, the role of abortion in acts of violence against women is explored, with a focus on violence-prevention strategies. Setting aside the political debate, this task force report takes the conflict-transformation approach of considering all perspectives that have concern for the right of women to avoid being victims of violence. The evidence that victims of Intimate Partner Violence are disproportionately represented in women presenting for abortion suggests a need for screening at clinics. Coerced abortion is a form of violence and has occurred by government policy in China and as a result of other violence against women: sex trafficking and war situations. Sex-selection abortion of female fetuses, referred to as "gendercide," has reached pandemic proportions and caused a gender imbalance in some countries. Psychology, through empirical research, can make unique contributions to understanding the relationship between abortion and violence and in developing prevention strategies.

  18. An Overview of Typical Infections of Research Mice: Health Monitoring and Prevention of Infection.

    PubMed

    Fahey, James R; Olekszak, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    There are many reasons to keep research mice healthy and free from infections. The two most important of these are to protect the health and welfare of research mice and to prevent infections from negatively impacting research. Just as the genetic integrity of a mouse strain will influence the reproducibility and validity of research data, so too will the microbiologic integrity of the animals. This has been repeatedly demonstrated in the literature of laboratory animal sciences wherein the direct impact of infections on physiologic parameters under study have been described. Therefore, it is of great importance that scientists pay close attention to the health status of their research animal colonies and maintain good communications with the animal facility personnel at their institution about mouse health issues. This overview provides information about animal health monitoring (HM) in research mouse colonies including commonly monitored agents, diagnostic methods, HM program, risk assessment, and animal facility biosecurity. Lastly, matters of communication with laboratory animal professionals at research institutions are also addressed.

  19. People Awakening: Collaborative Research to Develop Cultural Strategies for Prevention in Community Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Beehler, Sarah; Rowe, Hillary L.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and suicide create immense health disparities among Alaska Native people. The People Awakening project is a long-term collaboration between Alaska Native (AN) communities and university researchers seeking to foster health equity through development of positive solutions to these disparities. These efforts initiated a research relationship that identified individual, family, and community protective factors from AUD and suicide. AN co-researchers next expressed interest in translating these findings into intervention. This led to development of a strengths-based community intervention that is the focus of the special issue. The intervention builds these protective factors to prevent AUD and suicide risk within AN youth, and their families and communities. This review provides a critical examination of existing literature and a brief history of work leading to the intervention research. These work efforts portray a shared commitment of university researchers and community members to function as co-researchers, and to conduct research in accord with local Yup’ik cultural values. This imperative allowed the team to navigate several tensions we locate in a convergence of historical and contemporary ecological contextual factors inherent in AN tribal communities with countervailing constraints imposed by Western science. PMID:24903819

  20. The HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute: Training Early-Career Scientists to Conduct Research on Research Ethics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Celia B; Yuko, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries.

  1. Children's health and the environment: a new agenda for prevention research.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, P J; Carlson, J E; Bearer, C F; Cranmer, J S; Bullard, R D; Etzel, R A; Groopman, J; McLachlan, J A; Perera, F P; Reigart, J R; Robison, L; Schell, L; Suk, W A

    1998-06-01

    Patterns of illness in American children have changed dramatically in this century. The ancient infectious diseases have largely been controlled. The major diseases confronting children now are chronic and disabling conditions termed the "new pediatric morbidity"--asthma mortality has doubled; leukemia and brain cancer have increased in incidence; neurodevelopmental dysfunction is widespread; hypospadias incidence has doubled. Chemical toxicants in the environment as well as poverty, racism, and inequitable access to medical care are factors known and suspected to contribute to causation of these pediatric diseases. Children are at risk of exposure to over 15,000 high-production-volume synthetic chemicals, nearly all of them developed in the past 50 years. These chemicals are used widely in consumer products and are dispersed in the environment. More than half are untested for toxicity. Children appear uniquely vulnerable to chemical toxicants because of their disproportionately heavy exposures and their inherent biological susceptibility. To prevent disease of environmental origin in America's children, the Children's Environmental Health Network (CEHN) calls for a comprehensive, national, child-centered agenda. This agenda must recognize children's vulnerabilities to environmental toxicants. It must encompass a) a new prevention-oriented research focus; b) a new child-centered paradigm for health risk assessment and policy formulation; and c) a campaign to educate the public, health professionals, and policy makers that environmental disease is caused by preventable exposures and is therefore avoidable. To anchor the agenda, CEHN calls for long-term, stable investment and for creation of a national network of pediatric environmental health research and prevention centers.

  2. Preferences for caries prevention agents in adult patients: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Ajmo, Craig T.; Amundson, Craig; Anderson, Gerald A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors that are significantly associated with dentists’ use of specific caries preventive agents in adult patients, and whether dentists who use one preventive agent are also more likely to use certain others. Methods Data were collected from 564 practitioners in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network, a multi-region consortium of participating practices and dental organizations. Results In-office topical fluoride was the method most frequently used. Regarding at-home preventive agents, there was little difference in preference between non-prescription fluoride, prescription fluoride, or chlorhexidine rinse. Dentists who most frequently used caries prevention were also those who regularly perform caries risk assessment and individualize caries prevention at the patient level. Higher percentages of patients with dental insurance were significantly associated with more use of in-office prevention modalities. Female dentists and dentists with more-recent training were more likely to recommend preventive agents that are applied by the patient. Dentists who reported more-conservative decisions in clinical treatment scenarios were also more likely to use caries preventive agents. Groups of dentist who shared a common preference for certain preventive agents were identified. One group used preventive agents selectively, whereas the other groups predominately used either in-office or at-home fluorides. Conclusions Caries prevention is commonly used with adult patients. However, these results suggest that only a subset of dentists base preventive treatments on caries risk at the individual patient level. PMID:20560997

  3. Research needs for corrosion control and prevention in energy conservation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brooman, E.W.; Hurwitch, J.W.

    1985-06-01

    A group of 28 electrochemists, materials scientists and corrosion engineers was brought together to determine if the government could have a role as a focal point for corrosion R and D, discuss opportunities in fundamental research and solving corrosion problems, and develop a research agenda. Participants from government, industry and academia assembled into four technical discussion groups: localized corrosion, general corrosion, high temperature corrosion, and corrosion control and prevention. Research needs were identified, discussed, then assigned a figure of merit. Some 44 corrosion control and prevention topics were identified as having a high priority for consideration for funding. Another 35 topics were identified as having a medium priority for funding. When classified according to corrosion phenomenon, the areas which should receive the most attention are molten salt attack, crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, erosion-corrosion, pitting attack, intergranular attack and corrosion fatigue. When classified according to the sector or system involved, those which should receive the most attention are chemical processes, transportation, buildings and structures, electric power generation, and batteries and fuel cells.

  4. Previniendo el Uso de Drogas entre Ninos y Adolescentes: Una Guia Basada en Investigaciones (Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, Zili; David, Susan L.

    This question and answer guide provides an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people. The basic principles derived from drug abuse prevention research are…

  5. ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.

    2003-02-27

    The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy

  6. HIV, sex, and social change: applying ESID principles to HIV prevention research.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M Isabel; Bowen, G Stephen; Gay, Caryl L; Mattson, Tiffany R; Bital, Evelyne; Kelly, Jeffrey A

    2003-12-01

    The HIV epidemic has been the most significant public health crisis of the last 2 decades. Although Experimental Social Innovation and Dissemination (ESID) principles have been used by many HIV prevention researchers, the clearest application is the series of model-building and replication experiments conducted by Kelly and colleagues. The model mobilized, trained, and engaged key opinion leaders to serve as behavior change and safe-sex endorsers in their social networks. This paper illustrates how ESID principles were used to develop, test, and disseminate an innovative social model and discusses the challenges of applying ESID methodology in the midst of a public health emergency. PMID:14703268

  7. Current Concepts and Ongoing Research in the Prevention and Treatment of Open Fracture Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, Geoffrey D.; Pulos, Nicholas; Grice, Elizabeth A.; Mehta, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Open fractures are fractures in which the bone has violated the skin and soft tissue. Because of their severity, open fractures are associated with complications that can result in increased lengths of hospital stays, multiple operative interventions, and even amputation. One of the factors thought to influence the extent of these complications is exposure and contamination of the open fracture with environmental microorganisms, potentially those that are pathogenic in nature. Recent Advances: Current open fracture care aims to prevent infection by wound classification, prophylactic antibiotic administration, debridement and irrigation, and stable fracture fixation. Critical Issues: Despite these established treatment paradigms, infections and infection-related complications remain a significant clinical burden. To address this, improvements need to be made in our ability to detect bacterial infections, effectively remove wound contamination, eradicate infections, and treat and prevent biofilm formation associated with fracture fixation hardware. Future Directions: Current research is addressing these critical issues. While culture methods are of limited value, culture-independent molecular techniques are being developed to provide informative detection of bacterial contamination and infection. Other advanced contamination- and infection-detecting techniques are also being investigated. New hardware-coating methods are being developed to minimize the risk of biofilm formation in wounds, and immune stimulation techniques are being developed to prevent open fracture infections. PMID:25566415

  8. Toward an Integrated Theory of Relational Youth Violence: Bridging a Gap among the Theory, Research, and Practice of Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brion-Meisels, Gretchen; Garnett, Bernice Raveche

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increased interest in bullying prevention programming over the last 10 years, significant gaps remain among theory, research, and practice in this critical area of school psychology. This article argues that the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition of bullying does not fully capture the experiences of many…

  9. 45 CFR 46.407 - Research not otherwise approvable which presents an opportunity to understand, prevent, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... an opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or welfare... alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children. HHS will conduct or fund research..., prevention, or alleviation of a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children; and (b)...

  10. 45 CFR 46.407 - Research not otherwise approvable which presents an opportunity to understand, prevent, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... an opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or welfare... alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children. HHS will conduct or fund research..., prevention, or alleviation of a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children; and (b)...

  11. What Influences the Uptake of Information to Prevent Skin Cancer? A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garside, Ruth; Pearson, Mark; Moxham, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasing problem in Europe, America and Australasia, although largely preventable by avoiding excessive ultraviolet (UV) exposure. This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of qualitative research about the prevention of skin cancer attributable to UV exposure. The aim is to understand elements that may contribute…

  12. How acceptable are antiretrovirals for the prevention of sexually transmitted HIV?: A review of research on the acceptability of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention.

    PubMed

    Young, Ingrid; McDaid, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Recent research has demonstrated how antiretrovirals (ARVs) could be effective in the prevention of sexually transmitted HIV. We review research on the acceptability of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) for HIV prevention amongst potential users. We consider with whom, where and in what context this research has been conducted, how acceptability has been approached, and what research gaps remain. Findings from 33 studies show a lack of TasP research, PrEP studies which have focused largely on men who have sex with men (MSM) in a US context, and varied measures of acceptability. In order to identify when, where and for whom PrEP and TasP would be most appropriate and effective, research is needed in five areas: acceptability of TasP to people living with HIV; motivation for PrEP use and adherence; current perceptions and management of risk; the impact of broader social and structural factors; and consistent definition and operationalisation of acceptability which moves beyond adherence. PMID:23897125

  13. Prevention over cure: the administrative rationale for education in the responsible conduct of research.

    PubMed

    Vasgird, Daniel R

    2007-09-01

    The value of responsible conduct of research (RCR) education from an administrative perspective can be summed up in the oft-used adage, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. The National Academy of Sciences has underscored the importance of RCR education in three major reports relating public trust in research to the perception and reality of integrity within the field. Compliance and integrity cannot simply be hoped for. Rising numbers of reported cases of research misconduct support this view. This scenario calls for institutions to provide an environment where research integrity is a fundamental prerequisite. Supporting this notion is the adoption by federal oversight agencies of the compliance elements delineated in the Federal Sentencing Guidelines for Organizations as a guide for determining whether an institution promotes a culture of integrity. RCR education is most valuable to the administrator in raising the awareness of researchers regarding compliance and integrity issues and thereby reducing the risk of infraction. In turn, the overall level of confidence among users and supporters may be improved also. Therefore, RCR education has become a primary operational arm of administration in the quest for institutional stability.

  14. EVALUATION OF A PORTABLE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED GAS ANALYZER FOR MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...

  15. Translational Cancer Research: Balancing Prevention and Treatment to Combat Cancer Globally

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, John R.; de Jong, Bas W. D.; Dillner, Joakim; von Gertten, Christina; Groopman, John D.; Herceg, Zdenko; Holmes, Elaine; Holmila, Reetta; Olsen, Jørgen H.; Ringborg, Ulrik; Scalbert, Augustin; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Smith, Martyn T.; Ulrich, Cornelia; Vineis, Paolo; McLaughlin, John

    2015-01-01

    Cancer research is drawing on the human genome project to develop new molecular-targeted treatments. This is an exciting but insufficient response to the growing, global burden of cancer, particularly as the projected increase in new cases in the coming decades is increasingly falling on developing countries. The world is not able to treat its way out of the cancer problem. However, the mechanistic insights from basic science can be harnessed to better understand cancer causes and prevention, thus underpinning a complementary public health approach to cancer control. This manuscript focuses on how new knowledge about the molecular and cellular basis of cancer, and the associated high-throughput laboratory technologies for studying those pathways, can be applied to population-based epidemiological studies, particularly in the context of large prospective cohorts with associated biobanks to provide an evidence base for cancer prevention. This integrated approach should allow a more rapid and informed translation of the research into educational and policy interventions aimed at risk reduction across a population. PMID:25515230

  16. Pharmaceutical HIV prevention technologies in the UK: six domains for social science research

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Peter; Dodds, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The development of pharmaceutical HIV prevention technologies (PPTs) over the last five years has generated intense interest from a range of stakeholders. There are concerns that these clinical and pharmaceutical interventions are proceeding with insufficient input of the social sciences. Hence key questions around implementation and evaluation remain unexplored whilst biomedical HIV prevention remains insufficiently critiqued or theorised from sociological as well as other social science perspectives. This paper presents the results of an expert symposium held in the UK to explore and build consensus on the role of the social sciences in researching and evaluating PPTs in this context. The symposium brought together UK social scientists from a variety of backgrounds. A position paper was produced and distributed in advance of the symposium and revised in the light this consultation phase. These exchanges and the emerging structure of this paper formed the basis for symposium panel presentations and break-out sessions. Recordings of all sessions were used to further refine the document which was also redrafted in light of ongoing comments from symposium participants. Six domains of enquiry for the social sciences were identified and discussed: self, identity and personal narrative; intimacy, risk and sex; communities, resistance and activism; systems, structures and institutions; economic considerations and analyses; and evaluation and outcomes. These are discussed in depth alongside overarching consensus points for social science research in this area as it moves forward. PMID:25559236

  17. [Progress of researches on prevention and treatment of sports fatigue with moxibustion therapy].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui-Qian; Zhang, Hong-Ru; Gu, Yi-Huang

    2014-04-01

    Sports fatigue belongs to the category of functional deficiency-syndrome according to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. The moxibustion therapy has a long history and possesses a definite therapeutic effect in the prevention and treatment of sports fatigue. In the present paper, the authors reviewed development of researches on the effects of moxibustion intervention in the prevention and treatment of sports fatigue in recent 5 years. Results of researches showed that moxibustion intervention can 1) eliminate free radicals and reduce oxidative damage; 2) increase energy (glycogen) supply to delay the production of fatigue; 3) raise serum testosterone level (relieve exercise-induced neuroendocrine disorder) and reduce post-sports fatigue; 4) raise the anaerobic exercise ability, reduce the accumulation of metabolic products in the body and strengthen the endurance capacity of the skeletal muscle; and 5) improve ischemic cardiac function, and suppress cardiomyocyte apopotosis, etc. However, we should further strengthen our investigations on the moxibustion therapy in the ancient classical literature and sum up academic thoughts of different academic schools in the successive dynasties, put emphasis on the large sample randomized controlled clinical trails, establish united treatment standards, etc., and provide much evidence for effectively treating sports fatigue in the future.

  18. Translational cancer research: balancing prevention and treatment to combat cancer globally.

    PubMed

    Wild, Christopher P; Bucher, John R; de Jong, Bas W D; Dillner, Joakim; von Gertten, Christina; Groopman, John D; Herceg, Zdenko; Holmes, Elaine; Holmila, Reetta; Olsen, Jørgen H; Ringborg, Ulrik; Scalbert, Augustin; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Smith, Martyn T; Ulrich, Cornelia; Vineis, Paolo; McLaughlin, John

    2015-01-01

    Cancer research is drawing on the human genome project to develop new molecular-targeted treatments. This is an exciting but insufficient response to the growing, global burden of cancer, particularly as the projected increase in new cases in the coming decades is increasingly falling on developing countries. The world is not able to treat its way out of the cancer problem. However, the mechanistic insights from basic science can be harnessed to better understand cancer causes and prevention, thus underpinning a complementary public health approach to cancer control. This manuscript focuses on how new knowledge about the molecular and cellular basis of cancer, and the associated high-throughput laboratory technologies for studying those pathways, can be applied to population-based epidemiological studies, particularly in the context of large prospective cohorts with associated biobanks to provide an evidence base for cancer prevention. This integrated approach should allow a more rapid and informed translation of the research into educational and policy interventions aimed at risk reduction across a population.

  19. Pharmaceutical HIV prevention technologies in the UK: six domains for social science research.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Peter; Dodds, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The development of pharmaceutical HIV prevention technologies (PPTs) over the last five years has generated intense interest from a range of stakeholders. There are concerns that these clinical and pharmaceutical interventions are proceeding with insufficient input of the social sciences. Hence key questions around implementation and evaluation remain unexplored whilst biomedical HIV prevention remains insufficiently critiqued or theorised from sociological as well as other social science perspectives. This paper presents the results of an expert symposium held in the UK to explore and build consensus on the role of the social sciences in researching and evaluating PPTs in this context. The symposium brought together UK social scientists from a variety of backgrounds. A position paper was produced and distributed in advance of the symposium and revised in the light this consultation phase. These exchanges and the emerging structure of this paper formed the basis for symposium panel presentations and break-out sessions. Recordings of all sessions were used to further refine the document which was also redrafted in light of ongoing comments from symposium participants. Six domains of enquiry for the social sciences were identified and discussed: self, identity and personal narrative; intimacy, risk and sex; communities, resistance and activism; systems, structures and institutions; economic considerations and analyses; and evaluation and outcomes. These are discussed in depth alongside overarching consensus points for social science research in this area as it moves forward.

  20. Translational cancer research: balancing prevention and treatment to combat cancer globally.

    PubMed

    Wild, Christopher P; Bucher, John R; de Jong, Bas W D; Dillner, Joakim; von Gertten, Christina; Groopman, John D; Herceg, Zdenko; Holmes, Elaine; Holmila, Reetta; Olsen, Jørgen H; Ringborg, Ulrik; Scalbert, Augustin; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Smith, Martyn T; Ulrich, Cornelia; Vineis, Paolo; McLaughlin, John

    2015-01-01

    Cancer research is drawing on the human genome project to develop new molecular-targeted treatments. This is an exciting but insufficient response to the growing, global burden of cancer, particularly as the projected increase in new cases in the coming decades is increasingly falling on developing countries. The world is not able to treat its way out of the cancer problem. However, the mechanistic insights from basic science can be harnessed to better understand cancer causes and prevention, thus underpinning a complementary public health approach to cancer control. This manuscript focuses on how new knowledge about the molecular and cellular basis of cancer, and the associated high-throughput laboratory technologies for studying those pathways, can be applied to population-based epidemiological studies, particularly in the context of large prospective cohorts with associated biobanks to provide an evidence base for cancer prevention. This integrated approach should allow a more rapid and informed translation of the research into educational and policy interventions aimed at risk reduction across a population. PMID:25515230

  1. [Recommendations for cancer prevention of World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF): situational analysis for Chile].

    PubMed

    Crovetto, Mirta; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    The main diet-related cancers include colorectal, lung, breast in (postmenopausal) women, stomach, esophagus, prostate and pancreas. After tobacco, obesity is the leading cause of cancer; it accounts for one third of all cancers. Cancer is associated with high total body fat, abdominal fat and weight gain in adult life. These are all potentially modifiable risk factors. Consumption of a "healthy diet" and living an "active life" can significantly reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the recommendations published by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) for the prevention of cancer in 2007. We compared the recommendations of Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a global perspective", with the national situation in Chile, analyzing the national report on the prevalence of risk factors. Our main finding was that the pattern of consumption and lifestyles differ markedly from the WCRF recommendations: we observed an over consumption of sugary drinks and high intake of processed foods high in sodium and total fat and low consumption of legumes, vegetables, fruits high in antioxidants and fiber that protect from cancer. Chile has an increased cancer prevalence which is associated with poor quality diets, rising mean body mass index and a sedentary behavior. We recommend the strengthening programs to promote healthy diets and active living, in order to reduce cancer risk.

  2. Where are the young men in HIV prevention efforts? Comments on HIV prevention programs and research from young men who sex with men in Los Angeles county.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian W; Cederbaum, Julie A; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven

    2012-12-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M(age) = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to participation in HIV prevention programs. Summative content analyses were used to evaluate transcribed field notes from these interviews. Results showed that 28.0 % of all participants had previously attended an HIV prevention program, and that 21.3 % of those who were also asked if they had ever participated in any research pertaining to HIV prevention had done so. A significantly higher percentage of those who had participated in HIV prevention programs had been tested for HIV in the past 6 months compared to those who had not (p < .05). The most frequently mentioned barriers to participation in such a program were being too busy to attend (12.0 %), not perceiving themselves to be at risk for HIV infection (14.0 %), and believing that they already knew everything they needed to know about HIV transmission (23.0 %). YMSM suggested that future interventions should use technology (e.g., the Internet, mobile devices), engage their social networks, and highlight HIV prevention as a means for community connection. Collectively, these results provide some explanations for why YMSM account for a minority of HIV prevention program participants and offer possible directions for future HIV prevention efforts that target YMSM. PMID:23132515

  3. Saying 'No' to PrEP research in Malawi: what constitutes 'failure' in offshored HIV prevention research?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kristin; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Chigwedere, Edward; Nthete, Evaristo

    2015-12-01

    Between 2004 and 2005, the first multi-sited clinical trial tested whether an existing, marketed antiretroviral drug, Tenofovir (TDF), could prevent HIV transmission. Referred to as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), most of these trial sites prematurely closed down. Two sites located in Cambodia and Cameroon received international media attention. But little attention was drawn to sites in Malawi and Nigeria, where university ethicists and research scientists extensively debated PrEP. This article focuses on events that took place in Malawi where there was a prolonged dispute over the scientific rationales of PrEP and not trial specific ethics referred to as 'bioethics'. Specifically, the article discusses debates pertaining to three PrEP trial protocols that were refused ethics approval in Malawi between 2004 and 2009. It is argued that HIV science debates in Malawi are embedded in postcolonial politics--geopolitical histories and state and household economic dispossessions that have created the structural possibilities for Malawi to become an offshore destination for HIV clinical research. As such, ethics in this case does not pertain to trial or bioethical 'failures'. Rather, ethics is located at the scale of imperial relations that give rise to multiple, often invisible, research concerns and constraints. PMID:26422196

  4. Saying 'No' to PrEP research in Malawi: what constitutes 'failure' in offshored HIV prevention research?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kristin; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Chigwedere, Edward; Nthete, Evaristo

    2015-12-01

    Between 2004 and 2005, the first multi-sited clinical trial tested whether an existing, marketed antiretroviral drug, Tenofovir (TDF), could prevent HIV transmission. Referred to as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), most of these trial sites prematurely closed down. Two sites located in Cambodia and Cameroon received international media attention. But little attention was drawn to sites in Malawi and Nigeria, where university ethicists and research scientists extensively debated PrEP. This article focuses on events that took place in Malawi where there was a prolonged dispute over the scientific rationales of PrEP and not trial specific ethics referred to as 'bioethics'. Specifically, the article discusses debates pertaining to three PrEP trial protocols that were refused ethics approval in Malawi between 2004 and 2009. It is argued that HIV science debates in Malawi are embedded in postcolonial politics--geopolitical histories and state and household economic dispossessions that have created the structural possibilities for Malawi to become an offshore destination for HIV clinical research. As such, ethics in this case does not pertain to trial or bioethical 'failures'. Rather, ethics is located at the scale of imperial relations that give rise to multiple, often invisible, research concerns and constraints.

  5. Challenges and opportunities in international molecular cancer prevention research: An ASPO Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and International Cancer Prevention Interest Groups Report.

    PubMed

    Epplein, Meira; Bostick, Roberd M; Mu, Lina; Ogino, Shuji; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kanetsky, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that over half of the new cancer cases and almost two-thirds of the cancer deaths in 2012 occurred in low and middle income countries. To discuss the challenges and opportunities to reducing the burden of cancer worldwide, the Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and the International Issues in Cancer Special Interest Groups joined forces to hold a session during the 38th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Preventive Oncology (March 2014, Arlington, Virginia). The session highlighted three topics of particular interest to molecular cancer prevention researchers working internationally, specifically: 1) biomarkers in cancer research; 2) environmental exposures and cancer; and 3) molecular pathological epidemiology. A major factor for successful collaboration illuminated during the discussion was the need for strong, committed, and reliable international partners. A key element of establishing such relationships is to thoroughly involve individual international collaborators in the development of the research question; engaged international collaborators are particularly motivated to champion and shepherd the project through all necessary steps, including issues relating to institutional review boards, political sensitivity, laboratory-based assays, and tumor subtyping. Also essential is allotting time for the building, maintaining, and investing in such relationships so that successful international collaborations may take root and bloom. While there are many challenges inherent to international molecular cancer research, the opportunities for furthering the science and prevention of cancer worldwide are great, particularly at this time of increasing cancer incidence and prevalence in low and middle income countries.

  6. Building a science of partnership-focused research: forging and sustaining partnerships to support child mental health prevention and services research.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynes, Katherine Taylor

    2012-07-01

    Building on growing interest in translational research, this paper provides an overview of a special issue of Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Service Research, which is focused on the process of forging and sustaining partnerships to support child mental health prevention and services research. We propose that partnership-focused research is a subdiscipline of translational research which requires additional research to better refine the theoretical framework and the core principles that will guide future research and training efforts. We summarize some of the major themes across the eight original articles and three commentaries included in the special issue. By advancing the science of partnership-focused research we will be able to bridge the gap between child mental health prevention and services research and practice.

  7. Finding a voice: participatory research with street-involved youth in the youth injection prevention project.

    PubMed

    Coser, Larissa Rodrigues; Tozer, Kira; Van Borek, Natasha; Tzemis, Despina; Taylor, Darlene; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Buxton, Jane A

    2014-09-01

    This article uses a Positive Youth Development framework to explore the experiences of six experiential youth coresearchers (YCs) in the Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) participatory research project, and the parallel track process of empowerment and capacity building that developed. The YIP project was conducted in Metro Vancouver at the BC Centre for Disease Control and community organizations serving street-involved youth. A process evaluation was conducted to explore themes in the YCs experience in the project, as well as process strengths and challenges. Semistructured interviews with the YCs, researcher field notes, and team meeting and debrief session minutes were analyzed. The YIP project appears to have exerted a positive influence on the YCs. Positive self-identities, sense of purpose, reconceptualization of intellectual ability, new knowledge and skills, supportive relationships, finding a voice, and social and self-awareness were among the positive impacts. Process strengths included team-building activities, team check-in and checkout sessions, and professional networking opportunities. Process challenges included the time required to help YCs overcome personal barriers to participation. The YIP project demonstrates that participatory research with street-involved youth is a viable research option that contributes to positive youth development and empowerment.

  8. CPRIT/Johnson Space Center, September, 2011 (Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey; Lane, Helen; Baker, Tracey; Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    JSC researchers study carcinogenesis, cancer prevention and treatment along with epidemiological (primarily retrospective and longitudinal) studies, modeling, and interactions with the environment such as radiation, nutritional, and endocrine changes related to space flight along with behaviors such as smoking. Cancer research is a major focus for human space flight due to the exposure to space radiation which consists of particles of varying charges and energies, and secondary neutrons. The JSC laboratories collaborate with investigators from the U.S. as well as our European and Japanese partners. We use accelerator facilities at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Loma Linda University and Los Alamos National Laboratory that generate high energy charged particles and neutrons to simulate cosmic radiation and solar particle events. The research using cultured cells and animals concentrates on damage and repair from the level of DNA to organ tissues, due to exposure to simulated space radiation exposure, that contribute to the induction of leukemia and solid tumors in most major tissues such as lung, colon, liver and breast. The goal of the research is to develop a mathematical model that can predict cancer morbidity and mortality risks with sufficient accuracy for a given space mission.

  9. Introduction to Ecological Description of a Community Intervention: Building Prevention through Collaborative Field Based Research

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the American Journal of Community Psychology is the result of a 18-year partnership with Alaska Native communities using collaborative field based research methods. Its goal is to provide a case study fulfilling the spirit of ecological inquiry, offering a detailed and nuanced description of a community intervention. The articles describe the nature of our work, including some of our successes, as well as challenges, dilemmas, and even disappointments we experienced along the way. Our primary aim was to develop and assess the feasibility of a complex, multi-level intervention to increase protective factors hypothesized to reduce suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup’ik Alaska Native youth ages 12 to 18. The articles that follow include descriptions of the cultural context, relevant literature and project history, our methods of community engagement in measurement development strategies, an empirical test of the prevention model that guided the intervention, the development and implementation of the intervention, a feasibility and impact assessment, and an evaluation of community engagement. A final article summarizes what is generalizable from the work in field based intervention research with rural and culturally distinct populations, and future prospects for decolonizing community intervention research methods. These papers raise important issues, including (1) need for deep, contextual ecological descriptions, (2) reconceptualization of time in the research relationship, (3) distinctions between populations and communities, and (4) the conflict between values of communities and intervention science. PMID:24912872

  10. Preventing occupational exposure to pesticides: using participatory research with latino farmworkers to develop an intervention.

    PubMed

    Quandt, S A; Arcury, T A; Austin, C K; Cabrera, L F

    2001-04-01

    Pesticide exposure is an occupational health hazard for migrant farmworkers. The US-EPA Worker Protection Standard (WPS) mandates training programs to prevent or reduce exposure. WPS implementation in a local context requires understanding individual, workplace, and community environmental factors that lead to exposure and influence intervention effectiveness. Participatory research within the PRECEDE-PROCEED planning framework was used to design a WPS training program for Mexican farmworkers in North Carolina cucumber and tobacco production. Research with farmworkers, farmers, health care providers, and Cooperative Extension agents identified modifiable behaviors and environmental factors, as well as structural and regulatory barriers requiring intervention. Data were gathered and analyzed through individual and group interviews, community forums, an advisory board, and a partnership between academic researchers and a community-based organization. The intervention's dominant features are (a) focus on key health behaviors, (b) relevance to local conditions, and (c) attention to issues of control in the workplace. Participatory research is effective for designing a health intervention where diverse social, cultural, political, and regulatory issues affect farmworkers' risk of exposure. PMID:16228792

  11. Development of an interprofessional program for cardiovascular prevention in primary care: A participatory research approach

    PubMed Central

    Goudreau, Johanne; Hudon, Éveline; Lussier, Marie-Thérèse; Bareil, Céline; Duhamel, Fabie; Lévesque, Lise; Turcotte, Alain; Lalonde, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Background: The chronic care model provides a framework for improving the management of chronic diseases. Participatory research could be useful in developing a chronic care model–based program of interventions, but no one has as yet offered a description of precisely how to apply the approach. Objectives: An innovative, structured, multi-step participatory process was applied to select and develop (1) chronic care model–based interventions program to improve cardiovascular disease prevention that can be adapted to a particular regional context and (2) a set of indicators to monitor its implementation. Methods: Primary care clinicians (n = 16), administrative staff (n = 2), patients and family members (n = 4), decision makers (n = 5), researchers, and a research coordinator (n = 7) took part in the process. Additional primary care actors (n = 26) validated the program. Results: The program targets multimorbid patients at high or moderate risk of cardiovascular disease with uncontrolled hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes. It comprises interprofessional follow-up coordinated by case-management nurses, in which motivated patients are referred in a timely fashion to appropriate clinical and community resources. The program is supported by clinical tools and includes training in motivational interviewing. A set of 89 process and clinical indicators were defined. Conclusion: Through a participatory process, a contextualized interventions program to optimize cardiovascular disease prevention and a set of quality indicators to monitor its implementation were developed. Similar approach might be used to develop other health programs in primary care if program developers are open to building on community strengths and priorities. PMID:26770705

  12. National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing the Research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Green, Carmen R; Cowan, Penney; Elk, Ronit; O'Neil, Kathleen M; Rasmussen, Angela L

    2015-06-16

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing the Research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome was cosponsored by the NIH Office of Disease Prevention and the Trans-NIH Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Research Working Group. A multidisciplinary working group developed the agenda, and an Evidence-based Practice Center prepared an evidence report through a contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to facilitate the discussion. During the 1.5-day workshop, invited experts discussed the body of evidence and attendees had the opportunity to comment during open discussions. After weighing evidence from the evidence report, expert presentations, and public comments, an unbiased, independent panel prepared a draft report that identified research gaps and future research priorities. The report was posted on the NIH Office of Disease Prevention Web site for 4 weeks for public comment.

  13. Pediatric cancer genetics research and an evolving preventive ethics approach for return of results after death of the subject

    PubMed Central

    Scollon, Sarah; Bergstrom, Katie; McCullough, Laurence B.; McGuire, Amy L.; Gutierrez, Stephanie; Kerstein, Robin; Parsons, D. Williams; Plon, Sharon E.

    2015-01-01

    Précis The return of genetic research results after death in the pediatric setting comes with unique complexities. Researchers must determine which results and through which processes results are returned. This paper discusses the experience over 15 years in pediatric cancer genetics research of returning research results after the death of a child and proposes a preventive ethics approach to protocol development in order to improve the quality of return of results in pediatric genomic settings. PMID:26479562

  14. Domestic violence among adolescents in HIV prevention research in Tanzania: Participant experiences and measurement issues

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women’s Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Methods Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Results Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical/sexual violence and 17% scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15% scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Conclusions Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725

  15. Strategies to reduce indoor tanning: current research gaps and future opportunities for prevention.

    PubMed

    Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Glenn, Jeffrey D; Guy, Gery P; Watson, Meg; Baker, Katie; Cokkinides, Vilma; Gottlieb, Mark; Lazovich, DeAnn; Perna, Frank M; Sampson, Blake P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sinclair, Craig; Geller, Alan C

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning device use is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, including risk of malignant melanoma, and is an urgent public health problem. By reducing indoor tanning, future cases of skin cancer could be prevented, along with the associated morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. On August 20, 2012, the CDC hosted a meeting to discuss the current body of evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning as well as research gaps. Using the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Overarching Goals as a framework, the current paper provides highlights on the topics that were discussed, including (1) the state of the evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning; (2) the tools necessary to effectively assess, monitor, and evaluate the short- and long-term impact of interventions designed to reduce indoor tanning; and (3) strategies to align efforts at the national, state, and local levels through transdisciplinary collaboration and coordination across multiple sectors. Although many challenges and barriers exist, a coordinated, multilevel, transdisciplinary approach has the potential to reduce indoor tanning and prevent future cases of skin cancer.

  16. AIDS prevention research in Chile and implications for the United States.

    PubMed

    Aiken, L H; Mullin, M

    1996-01-01

    Chile holds interest for researchers due to the relatively low but increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and existence of an extensive infrastructure for implementing an affordable acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention strategy. To facilitate the development of a pragmatic, affordable AIDS intervention plan for Chile, the following data sources were reviewed: mandatory case reporting data collected by the Chilean Ministry of Health, findings of the Chilean version of the World Health Organization AIDS general population survey, studies of the validity of the official HIV transmission classification system used for national planning purposes, interviews with people with AIDS, and a study of HIV testing in Santiago's health care system. By June 1994, 1016 cases of AIDS had been reported and 1627 people had been identified as HIV-positive. 93% of those with AIDS were men; homosexual/bisexual transmission accounted for 66.2% of cases and heterosexual transmission another 19.4%. In-depth interviews with AIDS patients revealed they were a well-defined population subgroup with few linkages to other sectors. This finding calls into question the current government strategy of broad-based mass media campaigns. Preferable would be campaigns that target homosexual men. A strength of the Chilean primary health care system is its effective utilization of nurses. Nurses manage about 1/3 of clinic visits, with no input from physicians, and their involvement in AIDS prevention should be strengthened.

  17. Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Hypes and Hopes 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference.

    PubMed

    Patel, Prabhudas; Vora, Hemangini; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is primarily an "old-age" disease that has an "age-old" history. The overall incidence of cancer is much higher in Western countries, but is rapidly growing in Eastern countries perhaps due to change in life-style. Almost three million studies published to date indicate that cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that arises from dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. The cancer genome landscape indicates that approximately 140 genes and 12 cell signaling pathways drive almost all cancers. "Targeted therapy," a buzz word in cancer treatment for the past two decades, has provided antibodies, as well as small-molecule inhibitors. These therapies have been successful only in few instances. However, in most cases, minor increase in overall survival has been reported at the cost of huge expense. An alternative strategy is to prevent cancer or to diagnose and treat the disease at an early stage to gain survival benefits. Such interventions are also cost-effective. To address some of these issues, the 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference was held during February 4-7th, 2016, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; the homeland of Mahatma Gandhi. This conference was focused on utilizing multidisciplinary approaches for prevention and early treatment that would likely simultaneously or sequentially target many key pathways. Several distinguished speakers were invited from around the world. This article highlights primary features of this conference. PMID:27630358

  18. Technical Assistance to Enhance Prevention Capacity: a Research Synthesis of the Evidence Base.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jason; Wandersman, Abraham

    2016-05-01

    Despite the availability of many evidence-based prevention interventions (EBIs), gaps exist in bringing these programs into widespread practice. Technical assistance (TA) is a strategy for enhancing the readiness of practitioners to implement EBIs. Although many millions of dollars are spent on TA each year, there is little consensus about what the essential features of TA are and how to provide TA with quality. A broad-based research synthesis methodology was used for analyzing the current evidence base for TA using three frames: (1) applying the Getting To Outcomes (GTO) model for categorizing evidence on TA that specifies tasks for planning, implementing, and evaluating TA; (2) understanding the relevance of a successful relationship between the TA provider and TA recipient; and (3) considering the extent to which TA fits the life cycle needs of the preventive intervention. Results indicated that an explicit model or organizing framework is rarely used to plan, implement, and/or evaluate TA; specific TA tasks performed vary widely across studies; TA is rarely delivered to recipients who are seeking to sustain innovations subsequent to adoption and implementation; however, there is systematic attention to relationships and relationship-building. Overall, this synthesis indicates that the extent to which TA is being delivered systematically is limited. We suggest that funders and other stakeholders develop and implement standards for TA quality in order to ensure that many of these limitations are addressed. PMID:26858179

  19. Dietary-induced cancer prevention: An expanding research arena of emerging diet related to healthcare system

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Banerjee, Subham; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Scientific observations support the idea that dietary supplement can prevent breast cancer recurrences. Strong correlations are established between the high intake of saturated fat and the incidence of different types of cancer. It is found that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. Again, some evidences are also found regarding phosphorous, glutamate level in the body, and incidence of cancer. Different physiologically functional components are found in the dietary materials. Fibers, the major dietary components, have long been recognized for the unique properties in the treatment of cancer, which are related to its antineoplastic functions. Antioxidant rich diet has been added to the list of cancer-preventing dietary components. Also, recently published research has shown that natural carotenoids in the diet leads to a normalization of body epithelial cells and protects against the risk of stomach and esophagus cancer, and improves the immune system's response. Again, fruit juices, processed vegetable juices, orange peel, green tea, vitamins, flavonoids, and trace materials have cancer inhibitory properties. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of chemoprotective functions. Now, it can be recognized for another kind of functionality for the improvement of the health of mankind. PMID:22470889

  20. Global Nutrition Research: Nutrition and Breast Cancer Prevention as a Model

    PubMed Central

    Lelièvre, Sophie A.; Weaver, Connie M.

    2013-01-01

    The gene-environment interaction is paramount in light of the worldwide rise of incidence of chronic diseases, with cancers in the pole position. Diet is an environmental factor with potential to influence cancer onset by shaping the epigenome (i.e., the genome organization that controls the differential expression of genes). Yet, there is no consensus regarding how diet might help prevent breast cancer, the second most frequent malignancy globally. We propose that the complexity of breast cancers requires working on a global and multidisciplinary scale to further understand the relationship between breast cancer type, diet and the epigenome. This approach is the basis for the International Breast Cancer & Nutrition (IBCN) initiative and related symposia that gather scientists and clinicians from different backgrounds and world regions. A global endeavor will not only bring the diversity necessary to pinpoint important diet-gene relationships, it will also provide momentum to develop the models, detection and assessment tools, and funding and public policy framework necessary to advance primary prevention research for the benefit of all populations affected by breast cancer. This paradigm can be adapted to understanding diet-gene relationships for other chronic diseases. PMID:24447199

  1. Talking about sex in Botswana: social desirability bias and possible implications for HIV-prevention research.

    PubMed

    Chillag, Kata; Guest, Greg; Bunce, Arwen; Johnson, Laura; Kilmarx, Peter H; Smith, Dawn K

    2006-09-01

    Evaluations of the safety, effectiveness, and feasibility of HIV prevention interventions rely on self-reported sexual behaviour data. The accuracy of such data has sometimes been questioned. The absence of a so-called objective measure of sexual behaviour complicates this. Social desirability bias (SDB) is a key factor affecting the accuracy of self-reports. Individual, semi-structured interviews focusing on possible causes of and solutions to SDB were conducted with 30 Batswana women such as those who might enrol in planned vaginal microbicide trials. Respondents pointed to shame and the fear of public talk about them as key factors contributing to inaccurate self-reports, and they stressed the importance of privacy and confidentiality. Interviewer characteristics such as age, gender and personality were often viewed as likely to affect their candour. Alternative interviewing techniques such as audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) were appealing to some for the potential to reduce embarrassment; others were sceptical. The possible implications for HIV-prevention research are presented.

  2. Technical Assistance to Enhance Prevention Capacity: a Research Synthesis of the Evidence Base.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jason; Wandersman, Abraham

    2016-05-01

    Despite the availability of many evidence-based prevention interventions (EBIs), gaps exist in bringing these programs into widespread practice. Technical assistance (TA) is a strategy for enhancing the readiness of practitioners to implement EBIs. Although many millions of dollars are spent on TA each year, there is little consensus about what the essential features of TA are and how to provide TA with quality. A broad-based research synthesis methodology was used for analyzing the current evidence base for TA using three frames: (1) applying the Getting To Outcomes (GTO) model for categorizing evidence on TA that specifies tasks for planning, implementing, and evaluating TA; (2) understanding the relevance of a successful relationship between the TA provider and TA recipient; and (3) considering the extent to which TA fits the life cycle needs of the preventive intervention. Results indicated that an explicit model or organizing framework is rarely used to plan, implement, and/or evaluate TA; specific TA tasks performed vary widely across studies; TA is rarely delivered to recipients who are seeking to sustain innovations subsequent to adoption and implementation; however, there is systematic attention to relationships and relationship-building. Overall, this synthesis indicates that the extent to which TA is being delivered systematically is limited. We suggest that funders and other stakeholders develop and implement standards for TA quality in order to ensure that many of these limitations are addressed.

  3. Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Hypes and Hopes 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference.

    PubMed

    Patel, Prabhudas; Vora, Hemangini; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is primarily an "old-age" disease that has an "age-old" history. The overall incidence of cancer is much higher in Western countries, but is rapidly growing in Eastern countries perhaps due to change in life-style. Almost three million studies published to date indicate that cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that arises from dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. The cancer genome landscape indicates that approximately 140 genes and 12 cell signaling pathways drive almost all cancers. "Targeted therapy," a buzz word in cancer treatment for the past two decades, has provided antibodies, as well as small-molecule inhibitors. These therapies have been successful only in few instances. However, in most cases, minor increase in overall survival has been reported at the cost of huge expense. An alternative strategy is to prevent cancer or to diagnose and treat the disease at an early stage to gain survival benefits. Such interventions are also cost-effective. To address some of these issues, the 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference was held during February 4-7th, 2016, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; the homeland of Mahatma Gandhi. This conference was focused on utilizing multidisciplinary approaches for prevention and early treatment that would likely simultaneously or sequentially target many key pathways. Several distinguished speakers were invited from around the world. This article highlights primary features of this conference.

  4. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of locking devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Hurst, B.T.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide (EPA/600/R-92/088). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that fabricates and finishes metal components that are assembled into several types of locking devices. Raw materials are machined and then shipped offsite for heat-treating, stored until needed, or buffed and cleaned. Then, all parts other than those made of stainless steel are electroplated, electrostatically powder coated, or lacquer coated. The various component parts are then assembled into the locking devices. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the vapor degreasers generate a significant amount of waste and that vapor degreasing could be replaced with an aqueous cleaning system for intermediate cleaning. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  5. Understanding and preventing violence directed against teachers: recommendations for a national research, practice, and policy agenda.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy; Anderman, Eric M; Brown, Veda Evanell; Jones, Abraham; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; McMahon, Susan D; Reddy, Linda A; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2013-01-01

    Violence directed against K-12 teachers is a serious problem that demands the immediate attention of researchers, providers of teacher pre-service and in-service training, school administrators, community leaders, and policymakers. Surprisingly, little research has been conducted on this growing problem despite the broad impact teacher victimization can have on schooling, recruitment, and retention of highly effective teachers and on student academic and behavioral outcomes. Psychologists should play a leadership role in mitigating school violence, including violence directed toward teachers. There is a need for psychologists to conduct research accurately assessing the types and scope of violence that teachers experience; to comprehensively evaluate the individual, classroom, school, community, institutional, and cultural contextual factors that might predict and/or explain types of teacher violence; and to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of classroom, school, and district-wide prevention and intervention strategies that target teacher violence in school systems. Collectively, the work of psychologists in this area could have a substantial impact on schooling, teacher experience and retention, and overall student performance.

  6. Research Partnerships with Schools to Implement Prevention Programs for Mexican Origin Families

    PubMed Central

    Dumka, Larry E.; Mauricio, Anne-Marie; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe critical participatory principles and practices used in a successful multiyear partnership between university researchers and a public elementary school district to implement an efficacy trial of the Puentes program, a family based program to prevent school disengagement and mental health problems in Mexican origin 7th graders. We highlight the role of the School Advisory Board as the principle structure facilitating the collaboration and the expansion of roles and power sharing that evolved over the course of the project. We also present the results of a focus group conducted to evaluate the school district's perspective on the partnership. We end by sharing conclusions regarding the critical aspects of the partnership. PMID:17846895

  7. Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals.

  8. Internet based HIV prevention research targeting rural MSM: feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy.

    PubMed

    Bowen, A M; Williams, M L; Daniel, C M; Clayton, S

    2008-12-01

    Internet delivered primary prevention interventions for HIV risk reduction present significant challenges. Changing lifestyle behaviors, such as beginning to use condoms, is difficult and men seeking dates on line may want to avoid thinking about HIV risk which may lead to low initiation and high dropout rates. Many Internet delivered HIV risk reduction programs have mimicked face-to-face outreach programs, failing to take advantage of the Internet's capabilities or did not conduct evaluation. This study focuses on examining the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an Internet delivered HIV risk reduction program for rural men who have sex with men (MSM). The program included online recruiting, three intervention modules, each with two sessions, online questionnaires. The intervention was developed based on iterative research and the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model. Participants (N = 475) were randomly assigned to one of six module orders and data were collected automatically at pre-test and after each module. Data supports the feasibility and acceptability of the program as demonstrated by good retention and rapid program completion. Knowledge, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies and motivation increase in a dose response fashion. Post-intervention behavior changes included reduced anal sex and significant increases in condom use. Limitations include a short follow-up period, a predominantly young white rural sample, and the lack of an attention control. Overall the results of the study provide support for the efficacy of Internet-based interventions to reduce risk of HIV infection. Results also support traditional research methods to evaluate HIV prevention programs delivered exclusively through the Internet.

  9. Consent Challenges for Participation of Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (YMSM) in HIV Prevention Research in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Goldsamt, Lloyd A.; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun

    2014-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) under 18 years are often excluded from HIV prevention research in Thailand due to cultural attitudes toward youth sexuality, social stigma, and difficulties obtaining guardian permission. Culturally sensitive focus group discussions conducted with parents and YMSM in Bangkok, Thailand identified barriers and facilitators related to minors’ participation in HIV prevention research. Although gender and class differences emerged, mothers and fathers were generally accepting of research to reduce HIV risk, but not in favor of waiver. Youth’s positive attitude toward parental permission was tempered by concerns about harms posed by disclosing same-sex attraction through permission forms. PMID:25750498

  10. Can Basic Risk Research Help in the Prevention of Childhood and Adolescent Depression? Examining a Cognitive and Emotional Regulation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Frances; Rawal, Adhip

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight ways in which basic research findings in the field of childhood and adolescent depression can help to inform and refine preventive intervention efforts. We selectively review basic research evidence from community, clinical, and high-risk populations that identifies cognitive mechanisms (thought processes and reactions to negative affect) and emotional regulation as key processes involved in the onset and maintenance of depression. We focus on cognitive and emotional mechanisms in order to allow comparability with the majority of current preventive interventions. A range of basic research strategies and studies are then suggested that could be employed to help the development and refinement of prevention strategies. These include the need for prospective longitudinal studies to identify causal risk and protective factors, an integration of research approaches and methods, and a focus on understanding potential aetiological heterogeneity between childhood and adolescent depression. PMID:21197099

  11. It’s Your Game…Keep It Real: Can innovative public health prevention research thrive within a comparative effectiveness research framework?

    PubMed Central

    Shegog, Ross; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Johnson, Kimberly; Cuccaro, Paula; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    The federal comparative effectiveness research (CER) initiative is designed to evaluate best practices in health care settings where they can be disseminated for immediate benefit to patients. The CER strategic framework comprises four categories (research, human and scientific capital, data infrastructure, and dissemination) with three crosscutting themes (conditions, patient populations, and types of intervention). The challenge for the field of public health has been accommodating the CER framework within prevention research. Applying a medicine-based, research-to-practice CER approach to public health prevention research has raised concerns regarding definitions of acceptable evidence (an evidence challenge), effective intervention dissemination within heterogeneous communities (a dissemination and implementation challenge), and rewards for best practice at the cost of other promising but high-risk approaches (an innovation challenge). Herein, a dynamic operationalization of the CER framework is described that is compatible with the development, evaluation, and dissemination of innovative public health prevention interventions. An effective HIV, STI, and pregnancy prevention program, It’s Your Game…Keep It Real, provides a case study of this application, providing support that the CER framework can compatibly coexist with innovative, community-based public health prevention research. PMID:23344633

  12. Common pathways toward informing policy and environmental strategies to promote health: a study of CDC's Prevention Research Centers.

    PubMed

    Neri, Elizabeth M; Stringer, Kate J; Spadaro, Antonia J; Ballman, Marie R; Grunbaum, Jo Anne

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the roles academic researchers can play to inform policy and environmental strategies that promote health and prevent disease. Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) engage in academic-community partnerships to conduct applied public health research. Interviews were used to collect data on the roles played by 32 PRCs to inform policy and environmental strategies that were implemented between September 2009 and September 2010. Descriptive statistics were calculated in SAS 9.2. A difference in roles played was observed depending on whether strategies were policy or environmental. Of the policy initiatives, the most common roles were education, research, and partnership. In contrast, the most prevalent roles the PRCs played in environmental approaches were research and providing health promotion resources. Academic research centers play various roles to help inform policy and environmental strategies.

  13. Formative research to develop theory-based messages for a Western Australian child drowning prevention television campaign: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Denehy, Mel; Crawford, Gemma; Leavy, Justine; Nimmo, Lauren; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory will be used to explore participants' perspectives regarding proposed mass media messaging. This paper describes a qualitative protocol to undertake formative research to develop theory-based messages for a child drowning prevention campaign. Methods and analysis The primary data source will be focus group interviews with parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age in metropolitan and regional Western Australia. Qualitative content analysis will be used to analyse the data. Ethics and dissemination This study will contribute to the drowning prevention literature to inform the development of future child drowning prevention mass media campaigns. Findings from the study will be disseminated to practitioners, policymakers and researchers via international conferences, peer and non-peer-reviewed journals and evidence summaries. The study was submitted and approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. PMID:27207621

  14. Introduction-Epilepsy Research UK expert workshop 2014: SUDEP: Time for prevention-evidence and clinical translation Proceedings from the Epilepsy Research UK 2014 Expert Workshop.

    PubMed

    Nashef, Lina; Richardson, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    We offer Epilepsia readers this supplement based on the proceedings of an international workshop on sudden death in epilepsy (SUDEP) held in 2014 at St Anne's College at Oxford and hosted by Epilepsy Research UK (ERUK). This is the second Epilepsia supplement dedicated to SUDEP and its focus is on prevention. As workshop co-chairs, in this introduction we outline why we believe we are on the threshold of a new era of prevention in SUDEP.

  15. Improving the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of TB among people living with HIV: the role of operational research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Operational research is necessary to improve the access to and delivery of tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment interventions for people living with HIV. We conducted an extensive review of the literature and reports from recent expert consultations and research-related meetings organized by the World Health Organization and the Stop TB Partnership to identify a TB/HIV operational research agenda. We present critical operational research questions in a series of key areas: optimizing TB prevention by enhancing the uptake of isoniazid preventive therapy and the implementation of infection control measures; assessing the effectiveness of existing diagnostic tools and scaling up new technologies; improving service delivery models; and reducing risk factors for mortality among TB patients living with HIV. We discuss the potential impact that addressing the operational research questions may have on improving programmes’ performance, assessing new strategies or interventions for TB control, or informing global or national policy formulation. Financial resources to implement these operational research questions should be mobilized from existing and new funding mechanisms. National TB and HIV/AIDS programmes should develop their operational research agendas based on these questions, and conduct the research that they consider crucial for improving TB and HIV control in their settings in collaboration with research stakeholders. PMID:21967874

  16. Plagiarism in scientific research and publications and how to prevent it.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2014-04-01

    can re-publish the article already published. In that case, that is not plagiarism, because the journal states that the article was re-published with the permission of the journal in which the article is primarily released. The original can be only one, and the copy is a copy, and plagiarism is stolen copy. The aim of combating plagiarism is to improve the quality, to achieve satisfactory results and to compare the results of their own research, rather than copying the data from the results of other people's research. Copy leads to incorrect results. Nowadays the problem of plagiarism has become huge, or widespread and present in almost all spheres of human activity, particularly in science. Scientific institutions and universities should have a center for surveillance, security, promotion and development of quality research. Establishment of rules and respect the rules of good practice are the obligations of each research institutions, universities and every individual researchers, regardless of which area of science is being investigated. There are misunderstandings and doubts about the criteria and standards for when and how to declare someone a plagiarist. European and World Association of Science Editors (EASE and WAME), and COPE - Committee on Publishing Ethics working on the precise definition of that institution or that the scientific committee may sanction when someone is proven plagiarism and familiarize the authors with the types of sanctions. The practice is to inform the editors about discovered plagiarism and articles are withdrawn from the database, while the authors are put on the so-called black list. So far this is the only way of preventing plagiarism, because there are no other sanctions.

  17. Plagiarism in Scientific Research and Publications and How to Prevent It

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    can re-publish the article already published. In that case, that is not plagiarism, because the journal states that the article was re-published with the permission of the journal in which the article is primarily released. The original can be only one, and the copy is a copy, and plagiarism is stolen copy. The aim of combating plagiarism is to improve the quality, to achieve satisfactory results and to compare the results of their own research, rather than copying the data from the results of other people's research. Copy leads to incorrect results. Nowadays the problem of plagiarism has become huge, or widespread and present in almost all spheres of human activity, particularly in science. Scientific institutions and universities should have a center for surveillance, security, promotion and development of quality research. Establishment of rules and respect the rules of good practice are the obligations of each research institutions, universities and every individual researchers, regardless of which area of science is being investigated. There are misunderstandings and doubts about the criteria and standards for when and how to declare someone a plagiarist. European and World Association of Science Editors (EASE and WAME), and COPE - Committee on Publishing Ethics working on the precise definition of that institution or that the scientific committee may sanction when someone is proven plagiarism and familiarize the authors with the types of sanctions. The practice is to inform the editors about discovered plagiarism and articles are withdrawn from the database, while the authors are put on the so-called black list. So far this is the only way of preventing plagiarism, because there are no other sanctions. PMID:24944543

  18. Plagiarism in scientific research and publications and how to prevent it.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2014-04-01

    can re-publish the article already published. In that case, that is not plagiarism, because the journal states that the article was re-published with the permission of the journal in which the article is primarily released. The original can be only one, and the copy is a copy, and plagiarism is stolen copy. The aim of combating plagiarism is to improve the quality, to achieve satisfactory results and to compare the results of their own research, rather than copying the data from the results of other people's research. Copy leads to incorrect results. Nowadays the problem of plagiarism has become huge, or widespread and present in almost all spheres of human activity, particularly in science. Scientific institutions and universities should have a center for surveillance, security, promotion and development of quality research. Establishment of rules and respect the rules of good practice are the obligations of each research institutions, universities and every individual researchers, regardless of which area of science is being investigated. There are misunderstandings and doubts about the criteria and standards for when and how to declare someone a plagiarist. European and World Association of Science Editors (EASE and WAME), and COPE - Committee on Publishing Ethics working on the precise definition of that institution or that the scientific committee may sanction when someone is proven plagiarism and familiarize the authors with the types of sanctions. The practice is to inform the editors about discovered plagiarism and articles are withdrawn from the database, while the authors are put on the so-called black list. So far this is the only way of preventing plagiarism, because there are no other sanctions. PMID:24944543

  19. Using Community Based Participatory Research to Create a Culturally Grounded Intervention for Parents and Youth to Prevent Risky Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Felipe González; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Harthun, Mary L.; Valdez, Hector

    2011-01-01

    The principal goal of this article is to contribute to the field of prevention science by providing a sequential description of how Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) was used to develop a parent education curriculum aimed at preventing and decreasing adolescent drug use and risky sexual behaviors. CBPR principles are outlined, and information is provided on the unique contributions of researchers and community members who came together to develop this parent education program. Focus group information is presented as an exemplar to illustrate how thematic content from focus groups was used to inform the development of this parent education curriculum. A step by step description is given to facilitate replication of this process by other prevention researchers who are interested in applying this CBPR approach to develop a culturally responsive parent education intervention. PMID:21107693

  20. Reconceptualizing prevention of violence against women on college campuses: response to Victoria Banyard's actualizing the potential of primary prevention: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Gillum, Tameka L

    2014-10-01

    Research is clear that violence against college women is a problem that warrants alternative prevention approaches to addressing and reducing its prevalence and creating safer campuses for women and men. Banyard's presentation gave us food for thought as we consider what such novel approaches may look like. New and innovative approaches that are multifaceted, comprehensive, and informed by theory are key. The ecological model can inform our understanding of the issue, the risk and protective factors associated, and the design and implementation of prevention efforts. It is critically important to engage college students in these efforts to create interventions that are culturally appropriate for college students. We must also meet students where they are, utilizing social marketing campaigns and capitalizing on social media and the use of communication technologies. Together, such efforts will facilitate our ultimate goal of reducing, if not eliminating, violence against women on college campuses.

  1. Reconceptualizing prevention of violence against women on college campuses: response to Victoria Banyard's actualizing the potential of primary prevention: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Gillum, Tameka L

    2014-10-01

    Research is clear that violence against college women is a problem that warrants alternative prevention approaches to addressing and reducing its prevalence and creating safer campuses for women and men. Banyard's presentation gave us food for thought as we consider what such novel approaches may look like. New and innovative approaches that are multifaceted, comprehensive, and informed by theory are key. The ecological model can inform our understanding of the issue, the risk and protective factors associated, and the design and implementation of prevention efforts. It is critically important to engage college students in these efforts to create interventions that are culturally appropriate for college students. We must also meet students where they are, utilizing social marketing campaigns and capitalizing on social media and the use of communication technologies. Together, such efforts will facilitate our ultimate goal of reducing, if not eliminating, violence against women on college campuses. PMID:24504185

  2. Maximizing the Yield of Small Samples in Prevention Research: A Review of General Strategies and Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Hopkin, Cameron R.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Gottfredson, Nisha C.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this manuscript is describe strategies for maximizing the yield of data from small samples in prevention research. We begin by discussing what “small” means as a description of sample size in prevention research. We then present a series of practical strategies for getting the most out of data when sample size is small and constrained. Our focus is the prototypic between-group test for intervention effects; however, we touch on the circumstance in which intervention effects are qualified by one or more moderators. We conclude by highlighting the potential usefulness of graphical methods when sample size is too small for inferential statistical methods. PMID:25578307

  3. Bringing basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology to bear on preventive interventions for neglected and maltreated children.

    PubMed

    Gunnar, Megan R; Fisher, Philip A

    2006-01-01

    A major focus in developmental psychopathology is on understanding developmental mechanisms and, armed with this information, intervening to improve children's outcomes. Translational research attempts to bridge the distance between understanding and intervention. In the collaborations that have formed the core of our research network on early experience, stress, and prevention science, we have focused on translating basic research on early experiences and stress neurobiology into preventive interventions for neglected and abused children. Our experiences in attempting to move from bench to bedside have led us to recognize the many challenges that face translational researchers. This review provides a brief synopsis of the animal model literature on early experience and stress neurobiology from which we glean several key bridging issues. We then review what is currently known about the impact of childhood neglect and abuse on stress neurobiology in human adults and children. Next, we describe how this work has informed the evaluation of our preventive interventions with maltreated children. Finally, we discuss several considerations that should facilitate a more complete integration of basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology into preventive intervention strategies. PMID:17152395

  4. Experiences and challenges in implementing complex community-based research project: the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project.

    PubMed

    Schultz, J T; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Utter, J; Snowdon, W; McCabe, M P; Millar, L; Kremer, P; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Policy makers throughout the world are struggling to find effective ways to prevent the rising trend of obesity globally, particularly among children. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was the first large-scale, intervention research project conducted in the Pacific aiming to prevent obesity in adolescents. The project spanned four countries: Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga. This paper reports on the strengths and challenges experienced from this complex study implemented from 2004 to 2009 across eight cultural groups in different community settings. The key strengths of the project were its holistic collaborative approach, participatory processes and capacity building. The challenges inherent in such a large complex project were underestimated during the project's development. These related to the scale, complexity, duration, low research capacity in some sites and overall coordination across four different countries. Our experiences included the need for a longer lead-in time prior to intervention for training and up-skilling of staff in Fiji and Tonga, investment in overall coordination, data quality management across all sites and the need for realistic capacity building requirements for research staff. The enhanced research capacity and skills across all sites include the development and strengthening of research centres, knowledge translation and new obesity prevention projects.

  5. Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals. PMID:17367286

  6. The Evolving Landscape of Healthcare-Associated Infections: Recent Advances in Prevention and a Road Map for Research

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Nasia; Anderson, Deverick J.; Braun, Barbara I.; Carling, Philip; Cohen, Stuart; Donskey, Curtis; Drees, Marci; Harris, Anthony; Henderson, David K.; Huang, Susan S.; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Linkin, Darren R.; Meddings, Jennifer; Miller, Loren G.; Milstone, Aaron; Morgan, Daniel; Sengupta, Sharmila; Varman, Meera; Yokoe, Deborah; Zerr, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    This white paper identifies knowledge gaps and new challenges in healthcare epidemiology research, assesses the progress made toward addressing research priorities, provides the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Committee’s recommendations for high-priority research topics, and proposes a road map for making progress toward these goals. It updates the 2010 SHEA Research Committee document, “Charting the Course for the Future of Science in Healthcare Epidemiology: Results of a Survey of the Membership of SHEA,” which called for a national approach to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and a prioritized research agenda. This paper highlights recent studies that have advanced our understanding of HAIs, the establishment of the SHEA Research Network as a collaborative infrastructure to address research questions, prevention initiatives at state and national levels, changes in reporting and payment requirements, and new patterns in antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24709716

  7. Innovative and Community-Driven Communication Practices of the South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Heather M.; Freedman, Darcy A.; Adams, Swann Arp; Young, Vicki M.; Ureda, John R.; McCracken, James Lyndon; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (SC-CPCRN) is 1 of 10 networks funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) that works to reduce cancer-related health disparities. In partnership with federally qualified health centers and community stakeholders, the SC-CPCRN uses evidence-based approaches (eg, NCI Research-tested Intervention Programs) to disseminate and implement cancer prevention and control messages, programs, and interventions. We describe the innovative stakeholder- and community-driven communication efforts conducted by the SC-CPCRN to improve overall health and reduce cancer-related health disparities among high-risk and disparate populations in South Carolina. We describe how our communication efforts are aligned with 5 core values recommended for dissemination and implementation science: 1) rigor and relevance, 2) efficiency and speed, 3) collaboration, 4) improved capacity, and 5) cumulative knowledge. PMID:25058673

  8. Innovative and community-driven communication practices of the South Carolina cancer prevention and control research network.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Brandt, Heather M; Freedman, Darcy A; Adams, Swann Arp; Young, Vicki M; Ureda, John R; McCracken, James Lyndon; Hébert, James R

    2014-07-24

    The South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (SC-CPCRN) is 1 of 10 networks funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) that works to reduce cancer-related health disparities. In partnership with federally qualified health centers and community stakeholders, the SC-CPCRN uses evidence-based approaches (eg, NCI Research-tested Intervention Programs) to disseminate and implement cancer prevention and control messages, programs, and interventions. We describe the innovative stakeholder- and community-driven communication efforts conducted by the SC-CPCRN to improve overall health and reduce cancer-related health disparities among high-risk and disparate populations in South Carolina. We describe how our communication efforts are aligned with 5 core values recommended for dissemination and implementation science: 1) rigor and relevance, 2) efficiency and speed, 3) collaboration, 4) improved capacity, and 5) cumulative knowledge.

  9. Sensitization methodology and primary prevention of the research institute for fragrance materials.

    PubMed

    Api, Anne Marie

    2002-01-01

    The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials Inc. (RIFM) has approached sensitization studies with fragrance materials as primary prevention of sensitization in the healthy, normal population. Secondary prevention, or avoidance of elicitation, most often suggested by dermatologists for patients presenting with dermatitis, has not been part of its program effort. Historically, RIFM evaluated the sensitization potential of fragrance materials using the human maximization test method; no animal models were used. In general, petrolatum was used as the vehicle. This is a harsh procedure whose main use may provide a measure of the uppermost limits of sensitization. Treating skin with sodium lauryl sulfate may be problematic and finding a laboratory to conduct the study may also be difficult. In addition, using a human predictive test method for both hazard and safety assessments is not ideal. The current practice involves a hazard assessment using an animal model, followed by a safety assessment in a human repeated-insult patch test (HRIPT). The animal test method is used to identify the sensitization potential and a no-effect level. Following a review of the no-effect level and the maximum skin level, a safety assessment in humans can be conducted. RIFM also modified the original vehicle used in sensitization testing, since petrolatum presents two major difficulties: solubility and inconsistent effects on skin penetration. Since the greatest exposure to fragrance materials is considered to be from a cologne-type product, ethanol was chosen as a more realistic vehicle. Further modification resulted in combinations of ethanol and diethyl phthalate, due to diethyl phthalate's use in many perfume formulations as a solvent and fluidizer. Human testing should not be conducted as a hazard assessment. If conducted as a safety study, induction of sensitization should be a rare occurrence. Thus, follow-up studies are not meaningful since the number of sensitized volunteers

  10. Critical research gaps and translational priorities for the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice. Methods More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals collaborated to address nine thematic areas: genetics, epigenetics and epidemiology; molecular pathology and cell biology; hormonal influences and endocrine therapy; imaging, detection and screening; current/novel therapies and biomarkers; drug resistance; metastasis, angiogenesis, circulating tumour cells, cancer ‘stem’ cells; risk and prevention; living with and managing breast cancer and its treatment. The groups developed summary papers through an iterative process which, following further appraisal from experts and patients, were melded into this summary account. Results The 10 major gaps identified were: (1) understanding the functions and contextual interactions of genetic and epigenetic changes in normal breast development and during malignant transformation; (2) how to implement sustainable lifestyle changes (diet, exercise and weight) and chemopreventive strategies; (3) the need for tailored screening approaches including clinically actionable tests; (4) enhancing knowledge of molecular drivers behind breast cancer subtypes, progression and metastasis; (5) understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumour heterogeneity, dormancy, de novo or acquired resistance and how to target key nodes in these dynamic processes; (6) developing validated markers for chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity; (7) understanding the optimal duration, sequencing and rational combinations of treatment for improved personalised therapy; (8) validating multimodality imaging biomarkers for minimally invasive diagnosis and monitoring of responses in primary and metastatic disease

  11. Translating Research to Practice: Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Effective Off-Campus Party Intervention. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on overcoming barriers in implementing effective off-campus party intervention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Confronting the Problems Associated With Off-Campus Parties With Evidence-Based Strategies (John D. Clapp); (2) Overview of Research on Effective Off-Campus Party…

  12. 1994 C. H. McCloy Research Lecture: Does Physical Activity Play a Role in Preventing Osteoporosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drinkwater, Barbara L.

    1994-01-01

    Review considers problems encountered in relating women's physical activity to increases in bone mass, noting the implications of recommending exercise to help prevent osteoporosis based on that information. Research indicates that for the full benefit of exercise on skeletal health, there must be adequate gonadal hormone levels. (SM)

  13. What Works to Prevent Adolescent Smoking? A Systematic Review of the National Cancer Institute's Research-Tested Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Elyse J.; Primack, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cigarette use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Although school is an ideal setting for antismoking interventions, school-based programs have not been successful in the long term. The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of programs deemed to be successful short-term Research-Tested…

  14. 45 CFR 46.407 - Research not otherwise approvable which presents an opportunity to understand, prevent, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of children. 46.407 Section 46.407 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children. HHS will conduct or fund research..., prevention, or alleviation of a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children; and (b)...

  15. 34 CFR 97.407 - Research not otherwise approvable which presents an opportunity to understand, prevent, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children... affecting the health or welfare of children. ED conducts or funds research that the IRB does not believe... problem affecting the health or welfare of children; and (b) The Secretary, after consultation with...

  16. 45 CFR 46.407 - Research not otherwise approvable which presents an opportunity to understand, prevent, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of children. 46.407 Section 46.407 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL... alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children. HHS will conduct or fund research..., prevention, or alleviation of a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children; and (b)...

  17. 34 CFR 97.407 - Research not otherwise approvable which presents an opportunity to understand, prevent, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children... affecting the health or welfare of children. ED conducts or funds research that the IRB does not believe... problem affecting the health or welfare of children; and (b) The Secretary, after consultation with...

  18. NIH support of Centers for AIDS Research and Department of Health Collaborative Public Health Research: advancing CDC's Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning project.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Alan E; Purcell, David W; Gordon, Christopher M; Flores, Stephen; Grossman, Cynthia; Fisher, Holly H; Barasky, Rebecca J

    2013-11-01

    The contributions reported in this supplemental issue highlight the relevance of NIH-funded CEWG research to health department–supported HIV prevention and care activities in the 9 US cities with the highest numbers of AIDS cases. The project findings have the potential to enhance ongoing HIV treatment and care services and to advance the wider scientific agenda. The HIV testing to care continuum, while providing a framework to help track progress on national goals, also can reflect the heterogeneities of local epidemics. The collaborative research that is highlighted in this issue not only reflects a locally driven research agenda but also demonstrates research methods, data collection tools, and collaborative processes that could be encouraged across jurisdictions. Projects such as these, capitalizing on the integrated efforts of NIH, CDC, DOH, and academic institutions, have the potential to contribute to improvements in the HIV care continuum in these communities, bringing us closer to realizing the HIV prevention and treatment goals of the NHAS.

  19. Best Practice Guidelines on Prevention Practice, Research, Training, and Social Advocacy for Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hage, Sally M.; Romano, John L.; Conyne, Robert K.; Kenny, Maureen; Matthews, Connie; Schwartz, Jonathan P.; Waldo, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Preventive interventions have been shown to successfully aid the development of children, youths, and adults and avert maladjustment in individuals at risk for negative outcomes. Continued scientific advancement of preventive interventions is crucial to further the health of U.S. children, youths, and families. This article presents 15 best…

  20. The Strong African American Families Program: Translating Research into Prevention Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma McBride; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Molgaard, Virginia; McNair, Lily; Brown, Anita C.; Wills, Thomas A.; Spoth, Richard L.; Luo, Zupei; Chen, Yi-fu; Neubaum-Carlan, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    A randomized prevention trial contrasted families who took part in the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF), a preventive intervention for rural African American mothers and their 11-year-olds, with control families. SAAF is based on a contextual model positing that regulated, communicative parenting causes changes in factors protecting…

  1. Evaluating Policy, Systems, and Environmental Change Interventions: Lessons Learned From CDC’s Prevention Research Centers

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; McCarthy, William J.; Bastani, Roshan; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Clark, Heather; Garney, Whitney; Gustat, Jeanette; Hites, Lisle; Nothwehr, Faryle; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The field of public health is increasingly implementing initiatives intended to make policies, systems, and environments (PSEs) more supportive of healthy behaviors, even though the evidence for many of these strategies is only emerging. Our objective was 3-fold: 1) to describe evaluations of PSE-change programs in which the evaluators followed the steps of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health, 2) to share the resulting lessons learned, and 3) to assist future evaluators of PSE-change programs with their evaluation design decisions. Methods Seven Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) applied CDC’s framework to evaluate their own PSE-change initiatives. The PRCs followed each step of the framework: 1) engage stakeholders, 2) describe program, 3) focus evaluation design, 4) gather credible evidence, 5) justify conclusions, and 6) ensure use and share lessons learned. Results Evaluation stakeholders represented a range of sectors, including public health departments, partner organizations, and community members. Public health departments were the primary stakeholders for 4 of the 7 evaluations. Four PRCs used logic models to describe the initiatives being evaluated. Their evaluations typically included both process and outcome questions and used mixed methods. Evaluation findings most commonly focused on contextual factors influencing change (process) and the adoption or implementation of PSE-change strategies (outcome). Evaluators shared lessons learned through various channels to reach local stakeholders and broader public health audiences. Conclusion Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health is applicable to evaluations of PSE-change initiatives. Using this framework to guide such evaluations builds practice-based evidence for strategies that are increasingly being used to promote healthful behaviors. PMID:26469947

  2. Oxidative stress in prostate cancer: changing research concepts towards a novel paradigm for prevention and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Paschos, A; Pandya, R; Duivenvoorden, W C M; Pinthus, J H

    2013-09-01

    A mounting body of evidence suggests that increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is linked to aging processes and to the etiopathogenesis of aging-related diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis and degenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Excess ROS are deleterious to normal cells, while in cancer cells, they can lead to accelerated tumorigenesis. In prostate cancer (PC), oxidative stress, an innate key event characterized by supraphysiological ROS concentrations, has been identified as one of the hallmarks of the aggressive disease phenotype. Specifically, oxidative stress is associated with PC development, progression and the response to therapy. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the relationships between oxidative stress, redox homeostasis and the activation of proliferation and survival pathways in healthy and malignant prostate remains elusive. Moreover, the failure of chemoprevention strategies targeting oxidative stress reduced the level of interest in the field after the recent negative results of the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) trial. Therefore, a revisit of the concept is warranted and several key issues need to be addressed: The consequences of changes in ROS levels with respect to altered redox homeostasis and redox-regulated processes in PC need to be established. Similarly, the key molecular events that cause changes in the generation of ROS in PC and the role for therapeutic strategies aimed at ameliorating oxidative stress need to be identified. Moreover, the issues whether genetic/epigenetic susceptibility for oxidative stress-induced prostatic carcinogenesis is an individual phenomenon and what measurements adequately quantify prostatic oxidative stress are also crucial. Addressing these matters will provide a more rational basis to improve the design of redox-related clinical trials in PC. This review summarizes accepted concepts and principles in redox research, and

  3. Implementation of research results to prevent land degradation in viticultural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marqués Pérez, Maria Jose; Bienes, Ramon; de Benito, Alejandro; Velasco, Ana

    2013-04-01

    This study shows the lack of interest of land users to establish contact with scientific institutions and their reluctance to change their traditional way to manage their soils. It is conducted in Madrid and Castilla La Mancha, Spain, where the production of wine is an important source of income. The basic research was dealing with sustainable land management in sloping vineyards to prevent soil degradation. The usual reduced tillage practice in the area is compared with different cover grasses in the inter-rows of vines. The results demonstrate that these managements are able to increase soil organic matter, improve infiltration, reduce runoff and soil loss and increase soil aggregate stability. Nevertheless a decrease in production is noticed in some permanent cover treatments. A survey to know the feasibility of implementation of this sustainable land management was conducted. Less than 5% of vine growers coming to cellars and cooperatives were willing to be interviewed. Finally 64 vine growers answered a questionnaire regarding different aspects of their environmental concerns, age, land management practices and economic situation. The majority of respondents (82%) are worried about erosion problems in their sloping vineyards. They were informed about the results of the abovementioned project but only 32% of them would change the cultivation by grasses in the inter-rows. The respondents were not old (72% below 50 years old), and the agriculture was not their first activity (69% had other different sources of income). It is remarkable that they have some misunderstandings and lack of knowledge in questions regarding soil conservation. Only 3% of them receive some kind of economic aid from the institutions to avoid land degradation. This could be related to the small or medium size of their lands as 87% of them have plots smaller than 50 ha. The extension services and policy makers have to face this situation to achieve the proper implementation of scientific

  4. [Research status and strategies of preventing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Jia, Tao; Wang, Rui

    2016-02-01

    Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the main way to transmit hepatitis B virus (HBV), and it is also the biggest contributor to high prevalence of hepatitis B in high endemic areas. Therefore, preventing MTCT may result in the decline of HBV positive ratio foundationally. Hepatitis B vaccination is currently recognized as the most economic, effective and safe measure to prevent MTCT. The key strategies in the future to prevent MTCT should be to enhance the screening of hepatitis B surface antigen, to provide the infants born to surface antigen positive mother with hepatitis B vaccine combine with hepatitis B immunoglobulin(HBIG), and to monitor the effect of the intervention.

  5. Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders. Second Edition. In Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Elizabeth B.; David, Susan L.; Rao, Suman A.

    2003-01-01

    This "In Brief" edition provides highlights from the "Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders, Second Edition." It presents the updated prevention principles, an overview of program planning, and critical first steps for those learning about prevention. Thus, this…

  6. Generative Mechanisms in Early Childhood Interventions: A Confirmatory Research Framework for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu

    2016-10-01

    This article reviews methodological and analytic approaches and impact evidence for understanding the mechanisms of effects of early childhood interventions, including delinquency and violence prevention. Illustrations from longitudinal studies of preschool preventive interventions are provided. We restrict our attention to preventive interventions for children from birth to age 5, including evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), which investigates the impact of an established school-based early childhood intervention. Frameworks and evidence will be organized according to the Five-Hypothesis Model (5HM), which postulates that a variety of early childhood interventions impact later well-being through the promotion of cognitive and scholastic advantages, motivational advantages, social adjustment, family support behaviors, and school supports. Recommendations are made for advancing confirmatory approaches for identifying the most effective prevention programs using identification of generative mechanisms as a major methodological criterion.

  7. Changing the lens for youth 'gone wild': the call for primary prevention research by forensic nurses.

    PubMed

    Troy, Anne; Clements, Paul T

    2007-01-01

    Young people today are bombarded with information suggesting consequences do not apply to them. Increasing alarm over the exposure to violence of America's youth has sparked intensified examination of the need for targeted and enhanced primary prevention efforts. PMID:18027535

  8. Awareness of cervical cancer prevention among mothers of adolescent daughters in Korea: qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Duck Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Korean adolescent girls are unprepared for cervical cancer prevention due to the lack of a mandatory policy regarding human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and school health education regarding cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine how aware mothers are about cervical cancer prevention in their adolescent daughters, with a view to developing strategies for expanding primary cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls through the mothers’ involvement. Design A qualitative design was employed. Nine mothers with adolescent daughters participated in this study and were interviewed using open-ended questions. The themes were extracted by content analysis. Setting A general living area in Seoul, South Korea. Participants The snowball method was used to select mothers. Results Five themes emerged. In general, the mothers’ awareness of cervical cancer was not clear, and they exhibited a lack of awareness of the importance of having a regular Papanicolaou screening test. The mothers recognised that they were role models for their daughters, and realised and accepted the necessity of educating their daughters regarding cervical cancer; however, they perceived barriers related to the prevention of cervical cancer in their daughters. The mothers recommended enforcing sex education in schools and the provision of financial support for HPV vaccination. Conclusions The mothers’ awareness and preparedness with respect to the prevention of cervical cancer in their adolescent daughters were low and inadequate. Mothers should be informed and motivated to play a role in the education of their daughters regarding cervical cancer prevention. Strategies for disseminating information regarding early cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls are recommended by communicating with both the girls and their mothers and providing them with education regarding cervical cancer prevention. PMID:25976761

  9. New visions for basic research and primary prevention of pediatric allergy: an iPAC summary and future trends.

    PubMed

    Hamelmann, Eckard; Herz, Udo; Holt, Pat; Host, Arne; Lauener, Roger P; Matricardi, Paolo M; Wahn, Ulrich; Wickman, Magnus

    2008-08-01

    Hydrolyzed formula feeding, delayed introduction of solid food, indoor allergen avoidance, smoke and pollutants avoidance have been applied for several decades as primary preventive measures for allergic diseases. Unfortunately, some of these strategies have had no or modest success. Therefore, resources need to be focused on better understanding of the early allergic events and on interventional studies to investigate new strategies of primary and secondary prevention. Accordingly, this review summarizes the state-of-the-art of genetic, immunological and clinical aspects of primary prevention of allergic diseases. Studies investigating gene-by-gene and gene-by-environment interactions suggest that prevention of allergic diseases must be tailored to the individual genetic susceptibilities ('gene profiling') and environmental exposures. The expanding knowledge on new T cell populations (Th17, TSLP (thymic stromal derived lymphopoietin)-dependent 'inflammatory Th2 cells') is also inspiring new concepts on the origins of allergic diseases. The old concept of 'blocking immunoglobulin G antibodies' has been re-appraised and it is likely to generate novel preventive and therapeutic strategies. The major task for future clinical research is to clearly define the timing of optimal exposure to potential allergens. In addition, the role of microbial products such as certain bacteria, or their components, and of helminths or their larvae at different times in early life, alone or with potential allergens, definitely need to be further investigated. The benefit of efficient allergy prevention, based on focusing resources on novel and promising research lines, will be of prime importance to both affluent countries and other parts of the world where allergy is only currently emerging. PMID:18665959

  10. Weighing the Gold in the Gold Standard: Challenges in HIV Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    PADIAN, Nancy S.; McLOY, Sandra I.; BALKUS, Jennifer E.; WASSERHEIT, Judith N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) Few HIV prevention interventions have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We examined design, implementation, and contextual considerations that may limit detection of a positive or adverse effect in HIV prevention trials. Design A systematic review of late phase RCTs for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV that 1) randomly allocated intervention and comparison groups; 2) evaluated interventions to prevent sexual transmission in non-pregnant populations; and 3) reported HIV incidence as the primary or secondary outcome. Methods PubMed/MEDLINE, other electronic databases, and electronic conference proceedings of recent HIV/AIDS-related conferences were searched to identify published or unpublished trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Descriptive, methodological, and contextual factors were abstracted from each trial. Results The review included 36 HIV prevention RCTs reporting on 38 unique interventions. Only six RCTs, all evaluating biomedical interventions, demonstrated definitive effects on HIV incidence. Five of the six RCTs significantly reduced HIV infection: all three male circumcision trials, one trial of STI treatment and care, and one vaccine trial. One microbicide trial of nonoxynol-9 gel produced adverse results. Lack of statistical power, poor adherence, and diluted versions of the intervention in comparison groups may have been important issues for the other trials that demonstrated “flat” results. Conclusions Almost 90% of HIV prevention trials had “flat” results, which may be attributable to trial design and/or implementation. The HIV prevention community must not only examine evidence from significant RCTs, but must also examine flat trials, and address design and implementation issues that limit detection of an effect. PMID:20179575

  11. Generating better evidence to engage local food outlets in obesity prevention research.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Sara N

    2013-10-01

    Participation from the business community is critical to effectively addressing the problem of obesity. This commentary builds on the recent Institute of Medicine report - Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention - which calls for participation from the business community, particularly food outlets, to effectively address the problem of obesity. This commentary specifically discusses the importance of collecting information on fiscal-related outcomes (e.g., revenue) in order to better engage local food outlets in obesity prevention activities in the community. The routine collection of fiscal indicators in obesity prevention studies is critical so that the argument for more involvement from local food outlets, particularly for those interventions which are revenue positive or revenue neutral, can be more persuasively made. PMID:23887082

  12. Generating better evidence to engage local food outlets in obesity prevention research.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Sara N

    2013-10-01

    Participation from the business community is critical to effectively addressing the problem of obesity. This commentary builds on the recent Institute of Medicine report - Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention - which calls for participation from the business community, particularly food outlets, to effectively address the problem of obesity. This commentary specifically discusses the importance of collecting information on fiscal-related outcomes (e.g., revenue) in order to better engage local food outlets in obesity prevention activities in the community. The routine collection of fiscal indicators in obesity prevention studies is critical so that the argument for more involvement from local food outlets, particularly for those interventions which are revenue positive or revenue neutral, can be more persuasively made.

  13. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities. PMID:21690316

  14. Developing a family-based HIV prevention intervention in rural Kenya: challenges in conducting community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Puffer, Eve S; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A; Broverman, Sherryl A

    2013-04-01

    Community-Based Participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence.

  15. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  16. Update on Cancer Prevention Research in the United States and China: the 2009 China--U.S. Forum on Frontiers of Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Bode, Ann M; Cao, Ya; Dong, Zigang

    2010-12-01

    Cancer is one of the major physical, social, and economic burdens and public health threats worldwide. Citizens everywhere face the challenge of dealing with the costs and devastation of this dreadful disease regardless of country of residence. In October 2009, a joint China-U.S. forum focusing on cancer prevention was held in Changsha, China. The goal of this timely joint conference was to provide a forum for the exchange of the most recent and relevant information on cancer control, translational cancer prevention research, and clinical trials in China and the United States. The scientifically driven symposium comprised didactic sessions that included discussions focused on identifying and validating effective chemopreventive agents and their molecular and cellular targets. A major highlight of the meeting was the participation of Chinese and American experts from Xiangya Medical School, Central South University and the Center for Health Policy and Management (China), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH, United States), who provided a unique insight into each country's public efforts and progress in cancer prevention. Participants clearly agreed that our current understanding of the many factors influencing cancer causation indicates that as much as two thirds or more of human cancers can be prevented. This perspective presents an overview of the progress being made in cancer prevention in China and the United States.

  17. A Research Strategy Case Study of Alcohol and Drug Prevention by Non-Governmental Organizations in Sweden 2003-2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol and drug prevention is high on the public health agenda in many countries. An increasing trend is the call for evidence-based practice. In Sweden in 2002 an innovative project portfolio including an integrated research and competence-building strategy for non-governmental organisations (NGOs) was designed by the National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW). This research strategy case study is based on this initiative. Methods The embedded case study includes 135 projects in 69 organisations and 14 in-depth process or effect studies. The data in the case study has been compiled using multiple methods - administrative data; interviews and questionnaires to project leaders; focus group discussions and seminars; direct and participatory observations, interviews, and documentation of implementation; consultations with the NBHW and the NGOs; and a literature review. Annual reports have been submitted each year and three bi-national conferences Reflections on preventions have been held. Results A broad range of organisations have been included in the NBHW project portfolio. A minority of the project were run by Alcohol or drug organisations, while a majority has children or adolescents as target groups. In order to develop a trustful partnership between practitioners, national agencies and researchers a series of measures were developed and implemented: meeting with project leaders, project dialogues and consultations, competence strengthening, support to documentation, in-depth studies and national conferences. A common element was that the projects were program-driven and not research-driven interventions. The role of researchers-as-technical advisors was suitable for the fostering of a trustful partnership for research and development. The independence of the NGOs was regarded as important for the momentum in the project implementation. The research strategy also includes elements of participatory research. Conclusions This research strategy case

  18. EPA`s adaptive controls system research program for pollution prevention and clean technologies. Report for October 1991-March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, R.J.; Chappell, P.J.; Miller, C.A.

    1995-03-01

    EPA`s control systems research is concentrated in three areas: electric motors, wind turbines, and combustion technologies. In general, these projects are concerned with pollution prevention through enhanced efficiency of operation and pollution control through lower emission levels. Pioneering effort has been achieved in the application of fuzzy-logic-based controls in these areas. Based on the results of these projects, fuzzy logic has emerged as an important tool in environmental technology for pollution elimination and control.

  19. Community-based HIV prevention research among substance-using women in survival sex work: The Maka Project Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Kate; Bright, Vicki; Allinott, Shari; Alexson, Debbie; Gibson, Kate; Tyndall, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    Substance-using women who exchange sex for money, drugs or shelter as a means of basic subsistence (ie. survival sex) have remained largely at the periphery of HIV and harm reduction policies and services across Canadian cities. This is notwithstanding global evidence of the multiple harms faced by this population, including high rates of violence and poverty, and enhanced vulnerabilities to HIV transmission among women who smoke or inject drugs. In response, a participatory-action research project was developed in partnership with a local sex work agency to examine the HIV-related vulnerabilities, barriers to accessing care, and impact of current prevention and harm reduction strategies among women in survival sex work. This paper provides a brief background of the health and drug-related harms among substance-using women in survival sex work, and outlines the development and methodology of a community-based HIV prevention research project partnership. In doing so, we discuss some of the strengths and challenges of community-based HIV prevention research, as well as some key ethical considerations, in the context of street-level sex work in an urban setting. PMID:18067670

  20. Women who use or inject drugs: an action agenda for women-specific, multilevel and combination HIV prevention and research

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Women account for more than half of all individuals living with HIV globally. Despite increasing drug and HIV epidemics among women, females who use drugs are rarely found in research, harm reduction programs, or drug and HIV treatment and care. Women who use drugs continue to face challenges that increase their vulnerability to HIV and other co-morbidities due to high rates of gender-based violence, human rights violations, incarceration, and institutional and societal stigmatization. This special issue emphasizes how the burdens of HIV, drug use and their co-occurring epidemics affect women in a global context. Papers included focus on the epidemiology of HIV, HCV and other co-morbidities; HIV treatment, prevention, and care; and policies affecting the lives of female who use drugs. This issue also highlights the state of the science of biomedical and behavioral research related to women who use drugs. The final paper highlights the major findings of papers covered and presents a call to action regarding needed research, treatment, and preventive services for women who use drugs. To address these needs, we advocate for women-specific thinking and approaches that considers the social, micro, and macro contexts of women’s lives. We present a woman-specific risk environment framework that reflects the unique lives and contexts of women who use drugs and provide a call to action for intervention, prevention, and policies. PMID:25978486

  1. Recruiting and Retaining High-Risk Adolescents into Family-Based HIV Prevention Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapungu, Chisina T.; Nappi, Carla N.; Thakral, Charu; Miller, Steven A.; Devlin, Catharine; McBride, Cami; Hasselquist, Emily; Coleman, Gloria; Drozd, Derek; Barve, Chinmayee; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of evidence-based recruitment and retention strategies for a longitudinal, family-based HIV prevention intervention study targeting adolescents in psychiatric care by (1) determining consent rate (recruitment), rate of participation at the first intervention session (retention), and…

  2. Ten good reasons to consider biological processes in prevention and intervention research

    PubMed Central

    BEAUCHAINE, THEODORE P.; NEUHAUS, EMILY; BRENNER, SHARON L.; GATZKE-KOPP, LISA

    2009-01-01

    Most contemporary accounts of psychopathology acknowledge the importance of both biological and environmental influences on behavior. In developmental psychopathology, multiple etiological mechanisms for psychiatric disturbance are well recognized, including those operating at genetic, neurobiological, and environmental levels of analysis. However, neuroscientific principles are rarely considered in current approaches to prevention or intervention. In this article, we explain why a deeper understanding of the genetic and neural substrates of behavior is essential for the next generation of preventive interventions, and we outline 10 specific reasons why considering biological processes can improve treatment efficacy. Among these, we discuss (a) the role of biomarkers and endophenotypes in identifying those most in need of prevention; (b) implications for treatment of genetic and neural mechanisms of homotypic comorbidity, heterotypic comorbidity, and heterotypic continuity; (c) ways in which biological vulnerabilities moderate the effects of environmental experience; (d) situations in which Biology×Environment interactions account for more variance in key outcomes than main effects; and (e) sensitivity of neural systems, via epigenesis, programming, and neural plasticity, to environmental moderation across the life span. For each of the 10 reasons outlined we present an example from current literature and discuss critical implications for prevention. PMID:18606030

  3. Prevention of Bullying in Schools, Colleges, and Universities: Research Report and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educational Research Association (AERA), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The epicenter for bullying is schools, colleges, and universities, where vast numbers of children, youth, and young adults spend much of their time. Bullying--a form of harassment and violence--needs to be understood from a developmental, social, and educational perspective. The educational settings in which it occurs, and where prevention and…

  4. A General Causal Model to Guide Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Prevention: Assessing the Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna D.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Friend, Karen B.

    2004-01-01

    The problems associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) extract a significant health, social, and economic toll on American society. While the field of substance abuse prevention has made great strides during the past decade, two major challenges remain. First, the field has been disorganized and fragmented with respect to…

  5. 78 FR 4295 - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, January 16, 2013 [FR Doc. 2013-01272... Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a serious public health issue that affects...

  6. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…

  7. Using Evidence-Based Parenting Programs to Advance CDC Efforts in Child Maltreatment Prevention. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…

  8. Older Americans and AIDS: Transmission Risks and Primary Prevention Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catania, Joseph A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Growing number of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases among older Americans is of increasing concern. In context of primary prevention, reviews findings that bear on modes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission (blood transfusions, sexual) among older individuals and knowledge of magnitude of the AIDS problem represented…

  9. Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War prepare to consider applications for clinical research

    SciTech Connect

    Kandela, P.

    1987-08-07

    A report is presented from the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, the group's seventh world congress in Moscow this spring. Although nuclear weapons were the main concern of the congress, in the wake of the accident at Chernobyl there was also considerable debate on the risks of nuclear energy.

  10. Effectiveness of female controlled barrier methods in preventing sexually transmitted infections and HIV: current evidence and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    Minnis, A; Padian, N

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of female controlled physical and chemical barrier methods in preventing STI/HIV transmission, to examine recent reviews on microbicide development, and to highlight promising research directions. To discuss challenges in conducting effectiveness research and in translating results to public health intervention. Methods: Systematic review of articles that examined the disease prevention effectiveness of at least one female controlled barrier method. Review of conference abstracts that presented clinical and preclinical microbicide data. Results: Randomised controlled trials provide evidence that female condoms confer as much protection from STIs as male condoms. Observational studies suggest that the diaphragm protects against STI pathogens. Several microbicide effectiveness studies are under way and new directions, such as adaptation of therapeutic agents as preventive products, are being examined. Substantial attention is now given to product formulation and novel delivery strategies. Combining microbicide products with different mechanisms of action as well as combining chemical and physical barriers will be necessary to maximise prevention effectiveness. Conclusions: Increased investment in the development and identification of female controlled barrier methods offers promise that additional products will be available in the years ahead. Generalising trial results to a community setting, promoting products that may be less effective than male condoms, and bringing an effective product to scale introduce public health challenges that warrant attention. The need for female controlled barrier methods that provide women with the opportunity to take an active role in reducing their STI/HIV risk are urgently needed and constitute an essential tool to prevent continued spread of these infections. PMID:15923284

  11. A shift in priority in diabetic foot care and research: 75% of foot ulcers are preventable.

    PubMed

    Bus, Sicco A; van Netten, Jaap J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration poses a heavy burden on the patient and the healthcare system, but prevention thereof receives little attention. For every euro spent on ulcer prevention, ten are spent on ulcer healing, and for every randomized controlled trial conducted on prevention, ten are conducted on healing. In this article, we argue that a shift in priorities is needed. For the prevention of a first foot ulcer, we need more insight into the effect of interventions and practices already applied globally in many settings. This requires systematic recording of interventions and outcomes, and well-designed randomized controlled trials that include analysis of cost-effectiveness. After healing of a foot ulcer, the risk of recurrence is high. For the prevention of a recurrent foot ulcer, home monitoring of foot temperature, pressure-relieving therapeutic footwear, and certain surgical interventions prove to be effective. The median effect size found in a total of 23 studies on these interventions is large, over 60%, and further increases when patients are adherent to treatment. These interventions should be investigated for efficacy as a state-of-the-art integrated foot care approach, where attempts are made to assure treatment adherence. Effect sizes of 75-80% may be expected. If such state-of-the-art integrated foot care is implemented, the majority of problems with foot ulcer recurrence in diabetes can be resolved. It is therefore time to act and to set a new target in diabetic foot care. This target is to reduce foot ulcer incidence with at least 75%.

  12. The George W. Comstock Center for Public Health Research and Prevention: A Century of Collaboration, Innovation, and Translation.

    PubMed

    Coresh, Josef; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-01

    The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health has been engaged in public health research and practice in Washington County, Maryland, nearly since its inception a century ago. In 2005, the center housing this work was renamed the George W. Comstock Center for Public Health Research and Prevention to honor its pioneering leader. Principles that guided innovation and translation well in the past included: research synergies and opportunities for translation realized through longstanding connection with the community; integration of training with public health research; lifelong learning, mentorship, and teamwork; and efficiency through economies of scale. These principles are useful to consider as we face the challenges of improving the health of the population over the next 100 years. PMID:26872712

  13. Case Study: An Ethics Case Study of HIV Prevention Research on Facebook: The Just/Us Study

    PubMed Central

    Breslin, Lindsey T.; Wright, Erin E.; Black, Sandra R.; Levine, Deborah; Santelli, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To consider issues related to research with youth on social networking sites online. Methods Description of the data collection process from 1,588 participants in a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of HIV prevention education delivered on Facebook. Using respondent-driven sampling, staff-recruited participants are encouraged to recruit up to three friends to enroll in the study. Results Researchers should (a) consider whether an online social networking site is an appropriate place to implement a research study; (b) offer opportunities to review informed consent documents at multiple times and in multiple locations throughout the study; and (c) collect data outside the social networking site and store it behind secure firewalls to ensure it will not be accessible to any person on the social networking site. Conclusions Online social networks are growing in popularity. Conducting research on social media sites requires deliberate attention to consent, confidentiality, and security. PMID:21292724

  14. Has Relapse Prevention Received a Fair Shake? A Review and Implications for Future Transfer Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Holly M.; Burke, Lisa A.

    2006-01-01

    As learning and performance improvement continues to dominate the training research landscape, so does the need to justify the results of relevant interventions. One area in training research that has continued to elude practitioners and researchers is enhancing the use of trained skills back on the job (i.e., training transfer). Relapse…

  15. Is ‘bareback’ a useful construct in primary HIV-prevention? Definitions, identity, and research

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, A.; Ventuneac, A.; Bauermeister, J.; Dowsett, G.W.; Dolezal, C.; Remien, R.H.; Balan, I.; Rowe, M.

    2009-01-01

    The terms bareback and bareback identity are increasingly being used in academic discourse on HIV/AIDS without clear operationalisation. Using in-depth, face-to-face interviews with an ethnically diverse sample of 120 HIV infected and uninfected men, mainly gay-identifying, and recruited online in New York City, this study explored respondents’ definitions of bareback sex, the role that intentionality and risk played in those definitions, and whether respondents identified as ‘barebackers’. Results showed overall agreement with a basic definition of bareback sex as condomless anal intercourse, but considerable variation on other elements. Any identification as barebacker appeared too loose to be of use from a public health prevention perspective. To help focus HIV-prevention efforts, we propose a re-conceptualisation that contextualises risky condomless anal intercourse and distinguishing between behaviours that are intentional and may result in HIV-primary transmission from those that are not. PMID:19234950

  16. The research and development on the antioxidants in prevention of diabetic complications.

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Madiseh, Mohammad; Malekpour-Tehrani, Afsaneh; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart. Microvascular and macrovascular disorders are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia can increase the indicators of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in which free radicals have the main role in the pathogenesis of these complications. Therefore, antioxidants which combat oxidative stress should be able to prevent and repair free radicals induced damages. Although free radicals contribute to kidney damage, atherosclerosis, diabetes, heart disease, nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity; however, clinical trials do not uniquely confirm a substantial impact on diabetic damage. It seems that antioxidants in vegetables, fruits and grains help preventing diabetes complications; however, there is little evidence that taking single antioxidants such as vitamin E or vitamin C protect these complications. The findings about combination antioxidants are also complicated and not entirely clear. In this review paper we tried to present the role of oxidative stress on micro-vascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Other objective of this paper is to review the new findings about the role of various antioxidants on prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus as well as its complications including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. PMID:27633293

  17. A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach for Preventing Childhood Obesity: The Communities and Schools Together Project

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Evers, Cody; Zwink, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a systemic and complex multilevel public health problem. Research approaches are needed that effectively engage communities in reversing environmental determinants of child obesity. Objectives This article discusses the Communities and Schools Together Project (CAST) and lessons learned about the project’s community-based participatory research (CBPR) model. Methods A partnership of schools, community organizations, and researchers used multiple methods to examine environmental health risks for childhood obesity and conduct school–community health programs. Action work groups structured partner involvement for designing and implementing study phases. Lessons Learned CBPR in child obesity prevention involves engaging multiple communities with overlapping yet divergent goals. Schools are naturally situated to participate in child obesity projects, but engagement of key personnel is essential for functional partnerships. Complex societal problems require CBPR approaches that can align diverse communities and necessitate significant coordination by researchers. CBPR can provide simultaneous health promotion across multiple communities in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Support for emergent partner activities is an essential practice for maintaining community interest and involvement in multi-year CBPR projects. Conclusion Investigator-initiated CBPR partnerships can effectively organize and facilitate large health-promoting partnerships involving multiple, diverse stakeholder communities. Lessons learned from CAST illustrate the synergy that can propel projects that are holistically linked to the agents of a community. PMID:26548786

  18. Developing a research agenda for cardiovascular disease prevention in high-risk rural communities.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Cathy L; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Pratt, Charlotte A; Nelson, Cheryl; Walker, Evelyn R; Ammerman, Alice; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Best, Lyle G; Cherrington, Andrea L; Economos, Christina D; Green, Lawrence W; Harman, Jane; Hooker, Steven P; Murray, David M; Perri, Michael G; Ricketts, Thomas C

    2013-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health convened a workshop to engage researchers and practitioners in dialogue on research issues viewed as either unique or of particular relevance to rural areas, key content areas needed to inform policy and practice in rural settings, and ways rural contexts may influence study design, implementation, assessment of outcomes, and dissemination. Our purpose was to develop a research agenda to address the disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors among populations living in rural areas. Complementary presentations used theoretical and methodological principles to describe research and practice examples from rural settings. Participants created a comprehensive CVD research agenda that identified themes and challenges, and provided 21 recommendations to guide research, practice, and programs in rural areas.

  19. Developing a Research Agenda for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in High-Risk Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Nelson, Cheryl; Walker, Evelyn R.; Ammerman, Alice; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Best, Lyle G.; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Economos, Christina D.; Green, Lawrence W.; Harman, Jane; Hooker, Steven P.; Murray, David M.; Perri, Michael G.; Ricketts, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health convened a workshop to engage researchers and practitioners in dialogue on research issues viewed as either unique or of particular relevance to rural areas, key content areas needed to inform policy and practice in rural settings, and ways rural contexts may influence study design, implementation, assessment of outcomes, and dissemination. Our purpose was to develop a research agenda to address the disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors among populations living in rural areas. Complementary presentations used theoretical and methodological principles to describe research and practice examples from rural settings. Participants created a comprehensive CVD research agenda that identified themes and challenges, and provided 21 recommendations to guide research, practice, and programs in rural areas. PMID:23597371

  20. HIV prevention research and global inequality: steps towards improved standards of care*

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, K; Benatar, S

    2005-01-01

    Intensification of poverty and degradation of health infrastructure over recent decades in countries most affected by HIV/AIDS present formidable challenges to clinical research. This paper addresses the overall standard of health care (SOC) that should be provided to research participants in developing countries, rather than the narrow definition of SOC that has characterised the international debate on standards of health care. It argues that contributing to sustainable improvements in health by progressively ratcheting the standard of care upwards for research participants and their communities is an ethical obligation of those in resource-rich countries who sponsor and implement research in poorer ones. PMID:15634752

  1. HIV/AIDS - Related Stigma and Discrimination in Nigeria: Review of Research Studies and future directions for Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Smesny, Andrea; Essien, E. James

    2009-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS remain a major public health crisis in Nigeria which harbors more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India. A significant challenge to the success of achieving universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support by 2010 is HIV-AIDS stigma and discrimination. Eight studies looking at some degree of measurement of stigma and discrimination in Nigeria were reviewed in an attempt to investigate the cultural context of stigma, health seeking behavior and the role both perceived and community stigma play in HIV prevention. Results suggest that reducing stigma does increase the individual as well as community acceptance of people living with HIV-AIDS (PLWHAs), but long term studies are needed. Some suggestions are recommended for future research on culture specific stigma studies in Nigeria. PMID:20690259

  2. 11th Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NIH Pain Consortium will convene the 11th Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research, featuring keynote speakers and expert panel sessions on Innovative Models and Methods. The first keynote address will be delivered by David J. Clark, MD, PhD, Stanford University entitled “Challenges of Translational Pain Research: What Makes a Good Model?” |

  3. Understanding and Preventing Violence Directed against Teachers: Recommendations for a National Research, Practice, and Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy; Anderman, Eric M.; Brown, Veda Evanell; Jones, Abraham; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; McMahon, Susan D.; Reddy, Linda A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2013-01-01

    Violence directed against K-12 teachers is a serious problem that demands the immediate attention of researchers, providers of teacher pre-service and in-service training, school administrators, community leaders, and policymakers. Surprisingly, little research has been conducted on this growing problem despite the broad impact teacher…

  4. Economic analysis of nutrition interventions for chronic disease prevention: methods, research, and policy.

    PubMed

    Wong, John B; Coates, Paul M; Russell, Robert M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Schuttinga, James A; Bowman, Barbara A; Peterson, Sarah A

    2011-09-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about the economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or healthcare policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and US regulatory, policy, and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development.

  5. [Experimental research on the prevention of rabbit postoperative abdominal cavity adhesion with PLGA membrane].

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiubing; Pan, Yongming; Hua, Fei; Sun, Chaoying; Chen, Liang; Chen, Fangming; Zhu, Keyan; Xu, Jianqin; Chen, Minli

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the prevention of rabbit postoperative abdominal cavity adhesion with poly (lactic-co-glycotic acid) (PLGA) membrane and the mechanism of this prevention function. Sixty-six Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into normal control group, model control group and PLGA membrane group. The rabbits were treated with multifactor methods to establish the postoperative abdominal cavity adhesion models except for those in the normal control group. PLGA membrane was used to cover the wounds of rabbits in the PLGA membrane group and nothing covered the wounds of rabbits in the model control group. The hematologic parameters, liver and kidney functions and fibrinogen contents were detected at different time. The rabbit were sacrificed 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 weeks after the operations, respectively. The adhesions were graded blindly, and Masson staining and immunohistochemistry methods were used to observe the proliferation of collagen fiber and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) on the cecal tissues, respectively. The grade of abdominal cavity adhesion showed that the PLGA membrane-treated group was significant lower than that in the model control group, and it has no influence on liver and kidney function and hematologic parameters. But the fibrinogen content and the number of white blood cell in the PLGA membrane group were significant lower than those of model control group 1 week and 2 weeks after operation, respectively. The density of collagen fiber and optical density of TGF-β1 in the PLGA membrane group were significant lower than those of model control group. The results demonstrated that PLGA membrane could be effective in preventing the abdominal adhesions in rabbits, and it was mostly involved in the reducing of fibrinogen exudation, and inhibited the proliferation of collagen fiber and over-expression of TGF-β1.

  6. Preventing Teenage Pregnancy, Childbearing, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases: What the Research Shows. American Teens. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer; Terr-Humen, Elizabeth; Papillo, Angela Romano; Franzetta, Kerry; Williams, Stephanie; Ryan, Suzanne

    This brief presents a review of more than 150 research studies on adolescent reproductive health to identify the factors that contribute to improving adolescent reproductive health. These and other findings are highlighted from the vantage point of adolescents as individuals and within the context of their families, peers, partners, schools, and…

  7. Research on the fundamental principles of China's marine invasive species prevention legislation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jiayu

    2014-12-15

    China's coastal area is severely damaged by marine invasive species. Traditional tort theory resolves issues relevant to property damage or personal injuries, through which plaintiffs cannot cope with the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. Several defects exist within the current legal regimes, such as imperfect management systems, insufficient unified technical standards, and unsound legal responsibility systems. It is necessary to pass legislation to prevent the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. This investigation probes the fundamental principles needed for the administration and legislation of an improved legal framework to combat the problem of invasive species within China's coastal waters.

  8. Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development. PMID:25153474

  9. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  10. Setting research priorities to improve global newborn health and prevent stillbirths by 2025

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Sachiyo; Martines, José; Lawn, Joy E; Wall, Stephen; Souza, Joăo Paulo; Rudan, Igor; Cousens, Simon; Aaby, Peter; Adam, Ishag; Adhikari, Ramesh Kant; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Arifeen, Shams EI; Aryal, Dhana Raj; Asiruddin, Sk; Baqui, Abdullah; Barros, Aluisio JD; Benn, Christine S; Bhandari, Vineet; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Black, Robert E; Blencowe, Hannah; Bose, Carl; Brown, Justin; Bührer, Christoph; Carlo, Wally; Cecatti, Jose Guilherme; Cheung, Po–Yin; Clark, Robert; Colbourn, Tim; Conde–Agudelo, Agustin; Corbett, Erica; Czeizel, Andrew E; Das, Abhik; Day, Louise Tina; Deal, Carolyn; Deorari, Ashok; Dilmen, Uğur; English, Mike; Engmann, Cyril; Esamai, Fabian; Fall, Caroline; Ferriero, Donna M; Gisore, Peter; Hazir, Tabish; Higgins, Rosemary D; Homer, Caroline SE; Hoque, DE; Irgens, Lorentz; Islam, MT; de Graft–Johnson, Joseph; Joshua, Martias Alice; Keenan, William; Khatoon, Soofia; Kieler, Helle; Kramer, Michael S; Lackritz, Eve M; Lavender, Tina; Lawintono, Laurensia; Luhanga, Richard; Marsh, David; McMillan, Douglas; McNamara, Patrick J; Mol, Ben Willem J; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Mukasa, G. K; Mutabazi, Miriam; Nacul, Luis Carlos; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Narayanan, Indira; Olusanya, Bolajoko; Osrin, David; Paul, Vinod; Poets, Christian; Reddy, Uma M; Santosham, Mathuram; Sayed, Rubayet; Schlabritz–Loutsevitch, Natalia E; Singhal, Nalini; Smith, Mary Alice; Smith, Peter G; Soofi, Sajid; Spong, Catherine Y; Sultana, Shahin; Tshefu, Antoinette; van Bel, Frank; Gray, Lauren Vestewig; Waiswa, Peter; Wang, Wei; Williams, Sarah LA; Wright, Linda; Zaidi, Anita; Zhang, Yanfeng; Zhong, Nanbert; Zuniga, Isabel; Bahl, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2013, an estimated 2.8 million newborns died and 2.7 million were stillborn. A much greater number suffer from long term impairment associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital anomalies, and perinatal or infectious causes. With the approaching deadline for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015, there was a need to set the new research priorities on newborns and stillbirth with a focus not only on survival but also on health, growth and development. We therefore carried out a systematic exercise to set newborn health research priorities for 2013–2025. Methods We used adapted Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methods for this prioritization exercise. We identified and approached the 200 most productive researchers and 400 program experts, and 132 of them submitted research questions online. These were collated into a set of 205 research questions, sent for scoring to the 600 identified experts, and were assessed and scored by 91 experts. Results Nine out of top ten identified priorities were in the domain of research on improving delivery of known interventions, with simplified neonatal resuscitation program and clinical algorithms and improved skills of community health workers leading the list. The top 10 priorities in the domain of development were led by ideas on improved Kangaroo Mother Care at community level, how to improve the accuracy of diagnosis by community health workers, and perinatal audits. The 10 leading priorities for discovery research focused on stable surfactant with novel modes of administration for preterm babies, ability to diagnose fetal distress and novel tocolytic agents to delay or stop preterm labour. Conclusion These findings will assist both donors and researchers in supporting and conducting research to close the knowledge gaps for reducing neonatal mortality, morbidity and long term impairment. WHO, SNL and other partners will work to

  11. Ethical considerations in the conduct of research on therapies for the prevention and treatment of Ebola virus disease in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Haire, Bridget Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    The devastating toll of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa necessitates considerations of new approaches to research into new prevention technologies and treatments for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). Research must be planned and delivered in consultation with civil society from the epicentre to prevent mistrust and misunderstanding. Ethical considerations include development of local research and regulatory capacity; negotiating the standard of prevention packages for research participants, including healthcare workers; and strengthening health systems in developing countries to ensure effective response to future EVD outbreaks in the region. Also, strategic consultation with local communities is an ethical imperative for EVD research, particularly where there is potential for differential access to prevention and care packages between trial staff and local hospital staff.

  12. Systematizing planning and formative phases of HIV prevention research: Case studies from Brazil, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Spector, Anya Y.; Witte, Susan S.; Gilbert, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives International Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is vulnerable to contextual, political, and interpersonal issues that may hamper researchers’ abilities to develop and sustain partnerships with local communities. This paper responds to a call for systematizing CBPR practices and to the urgent need for frameworks with potential to facilitate partnership-building between researchers and communities in both “developed” and “developing” countries. Methods Using three brief case examples, each from a different context, with different partners and varied research questions, we demonstrate how to apply the International Participatory Research Framework (IPRF). Results IPRF consists of triangulated procedures (steps and actions) that can facilitate known participatory outcomes: 1) community-defined research goals, 2) capacity for further research, and 3) policies and programs grounded in research. Conclusions We show how the application of this model is particularly helpful in the planning and formative phases of CBPR. Other partnerships can use this framework in its entirety or aspects thereof, in different contexts. Further evaluation of how this framework can help other international partnerships, studying myriad diseases and conditions, should be a focus of future international CBPR. PMID:25489495

  13. HIV Prevention Research: Are We Meeting the Needs of African American Men Who Have Sex With Men?1

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.; Zamudio, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Two decades of HIV prevention efforts with men who have sex with men (MSM) have not eliminated the risk of new HIV infections in this vulnerable population. Indeed, current incidence rates in African American MSM are similar to those usually only seen in developing countries. A review of the existing literature suggests that the prevention research agenda for Black MSM could benefit from reframing conceptualization of risk as a function of individual properties to a broad consideration of social and interpersonal determinants. Studies that investigate dyadic and social-level influences on African American MSM’s relationships are needed. This includes research explicating the diversity existing within the categorizations of Black MSM with respect to perceived identity (gay, bisexual, “men on the down low,” “homo thugz”), constructions of masculinity, sexual scripts, sources of social support, and perceived norms and expectations. Recommendations are proposed for a research agenda focusing on linkages between interpersonal and social-structural determinants of HIV risk. PMID:20041036

  14. Advancing Suicide Prevention Research With Rural American Indian and Alaska Native Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Michael; Gone, Joseph P.; Cwik, Mary; Kirmayer, Laurence J.; LaFromboise, Teresa; Brockie, Teresa; O’Keefe, Victoria; Walkup, John; Allen, James

    2015-01-01

    As part of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention’s American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Task Force, a multidisciplinary group of AI/AN suicide research experts convened to outline pressing issues related to this subfield of suicidology. Suicide disproportionately affects Indigenous peoples, and remote Indigenous communities can offer vital and unique insights with relevance to other rural and marginalized groups. Outcomes from this meeting include identifying the central challenges impeding progress in this subfield and a description of promising research directions to yield practical results. These proposed directions expand the alliance’s prioritized research agenda and offer pathways to advance the field of suicide research in Indigenous communities and beyond. PMID:25790403

  15. Interactive NCORP Map Details Community Research Sites | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    An interactive map of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) with detailed information on hundreds of community sites that take part in clinical trials is available on the NCORP website. |

  16. Preventing fraud and abuse in low income weatherization programs: The proceedings of the EORI (Economic Opportunity Research Institute) Roundtable

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Economic Opportunity Research Institute (EORI) sponsored a national Roundtable on ''Prevention of Fraud and Abuse in Low Income Weatherization Programs'' in Washington, DC on March 23-24, 1987. Funding for the Roundtable and these Proceedings was provided jointly by the US Departments of Health and Human Services/Office of Family Assistance and Energy through Grant FG01-85CE63438. The purpose of the Roundtable was two-fold: (1) to share successful and possible replicable state and local measures to prevent fraud and abuse in low income conservation programs; and (2) to identify any areas in these programs where the potential for fraud and abuse may exist and examine methods to curb such potential. A Task Force representing eight states and including both state and local low income conservation program operators was chosen by EORI and the HHS Office of Family Assistance. The Agencies represented had developed successful preventive approaches to curbing fraud and abuse. Additional participants in the Roundtable included representatives from the US Department of Energy, Weatherization Assistance Program Office and the HHS Office of Energy Assistance, along with other state and local program operators.

  17. Dietary patterns and prevention of type 2 diabetes: from research to clinical practice; a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2009-11-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, a disease difficult to treat and expensive to manage, is increasing rapidly worldwide. It is also known that lifestyle, and particularly dietary habits, play an important role in the development of diabetes. Adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, like the Mediterranean diet, exerts a beneficial role regarding the development of diabetes. Additionally certain individual food groups and components of the diet, such as monounsaturated fatty acids, fruits, vegetables, whole grain cereals, dietary fiber, fish and moderate consumption of alcohol, also may protect against the development of diabetes, possibly through the amelioration of insulin sensitivity and their anti-inflammatory actions. Unfortunately, dietary habits in the developed world are changing towards an unhealthier direction. Consequently, emphasis should be given on encouraging at population and individual level for adopting a healthier lifestyle, including dietary habits, in order to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Economic Analysis of Nutrition Interventions for Chronic Disease Prevention: Methods, Research, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John B.; Coates, Paul M.; Russell, Robert M.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Schuttinga, James A.; Bowman, Barbara A.; Peterson, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or health care policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and U.S. regulatory, policy and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133

  19. Alternative research funding to improve clinical outcomes: model of prediction and prevention of sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Myerburg, Robert J; Ullmann, Steven G

    2015-04-01

    Although identification and management of cardiovascular risk markers have provided important population risk insights and public health benefits, individual risk prediction remains challenging. Using sudden cardiac death risk as a base case, the complex epidemiology of sudden cardiac death risk and the substantial new funding required to study individual risk are explored. Complex epidemiology derives from the multiple subgroups having different denominators and risk profiles, while funding limitations emerge from saturation of conventional sources of research funding without foreseeable opportunities for increases. A resolution to this problem would have to emerge from new sources of funding targeted to individual risk prediction. In this analysis, we explore the possibility of a research funding strategy that would offer business incentives to the insurance industries, while providing support for unresolved research goals. The model is developed for the case of sudden cardiac death risk, but the concept is applicable to other areas of the medical enterprise.

  20. Alternative research funding to improve clinical outcomes: model of prediction and prevention of sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Myerburg, Robert J; Ullmann, Steven G

    2015-04-01

    Although identification and management of cardiovascular risk markers have provided important population risk insights and public health benefits, individual risk prediction remains challenging. Using sudden cardiac death risk as a base case, the complex epidemiology of sudden cardiac death risk and the substantial new funding required to study individual risk are explored. Complex epidemiology derives from the multiple subgroups having different denominators and risk profiles, while funding limitations emerge from saturation of conventional sources of research funding without foreseeable opportunities for increases. A resolution to this problem would have to emerge from new sources of funding targeted to individual risk prediction. In this analysis, we explore the possibility of a research funding strategy that would offer business incentives to the insurance industries, while providing support for unresolved research goals. The model is developed for the case of sudden cardiac death risk, but the concept is applicable to other areas of the medical enterprise. PMID:25669654

  1. Research misconduct and crime lessons from criminal science on preventing misconduct and promoting integrity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas; Pimple, Kenneth D

    2005-01-01

    For 200 years, criminologists theorized that delinquent and criminal acts arise from deviant psychological states (such as irrationality or immorality) and/or social conditions that produce these psychological states. This theoretical perspective, which is being duplicated in most efforts to understand and control research misconduct, has not been productive. More recently, criminological perspectives have emerged, emphasizing situational factors that enhance or restrict the opportunity for illegal or imprudent behavior. These so-called "opportunity" theories have been shown to have practical value in reducing crime rates. We explore the promise of these newer theories for the responsible conduct of research (RCR). PMID:16634173

  2. Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement. PMID:23846829

  3. Aiming at a moving target: research ethics in the context of evolving standards of care and prevention.

    PubMed

    Shah, Seema; Lie, Reidar K

    2013-11-01

    In rapidly evolving medical fields where the standard of care or prevention changes frequently, guidelines are increasingly likely to conflict with what participants receive in research. Although guidelines typically set the standard of care, there are some cases in which research can justifiably deviate from guidelines. When guidelines conflict with research, an ethical issue only arises if guidelines are rigorous and should be followed. Next, it is important that the cumulative evidence and the conclusions reached by the guidelines do not eliminate the need for further research. Even when guidelines are rigorous and the study still asks an important question, we argue that there may be good reasons for deviations in three cases: (1) when research poses no greater net risk than the standard of care; (2) when there is a continued need for additional evidence, for example, when subpopulations are not covered by the guidelines; and (3) less frequently, when clinical practice guidelines can be justified by the evidence, but practitioners disagree about the guidelines, and the guidelines are not consistently followed as a result. We suggest that procedural protections may be especially useful in deciding when studies in the third category can proceed.

  4. Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement.

  5. Examining Marijuana User and Non-User Prototypes in Formative Research for Prevention Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    We report on research--both quantitative and qualitative--conducted to explore perceptions of prototypes of marijuana users, as well as the extent to which self-prototype congruence predicted marijuana use intention. Results of a survey of undergraduates (N = 139) showed that prototypes of users and non-users differed in terms of key attributes,…

  6. Trial Registration: Understanding and Preventing Reporting Bias in Social Work Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Bronwyn A.; Mayo-Wilson, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials are considered the gold standard for evaluating social work interventions. However, published reports can systematically overestimate intervention effects when researchers selectively report large and significant findings. Publication bias and other types of reporting biases can be minimized through prospective trial…

  7. Research Strategies for Nutritional and Physical Activity Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    In response to a series of controversial articles about nutritional epidemiology and cancer published in 2014, staff from the Environmental Epidemiology Branch initiated a series of meetings to refine programmatic priorities for human nutrition/physical activity and cancer etiology research in the near term.

  8. Preventing SED through Parent-Teacher Action Research and Social Skills Instruction: First-Year Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Kay, Pamela J.; Fitzgerald, Martha

    1998-01-01

    First-year outcomes are reported for 18 pairs of first graders at risk for serious emotional disturbance (SED) assigned to Parent-Teacher Action Research (PTAR) teams and a matched control group in the same classrooms. Children who had PTAR teams showed greater reductions in teacher-rated externalizing aggressive and delinquent behavior.…

  9. Effectiveness of school-based violence prevention for children and youth: a research report.

    PubMed

    Santos, Robert G; Chartier, Mariette J; Whalen, Jeanne C; Chateau, Dan; Boyd, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Aggression, bullying and violence in children and youth are prevalent in Canada (18%) and internationally. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of Roots of Empathy (ROE), a school-based mental health promotion and violence prevention program for children that has been widely implemented but rarely evaluated. Eight school divisions were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received ROE in 2002-2003 (445 students) or a wait-list control group (315 students). These were compared on three child mental health outcomes (physical aggression, indirect aggression and pro-social behaviour), rated by teachers and students (self-rated). The three wait-list school divisions received ROE in 2003-2004 (new cohort of 265 students) and were compared with the control group from 2002-2003 on the three outcomes, for replication purposes. For both comparisons, the authors report multi-level modelling analyses regarding (1) immediate effects after ROE completion at the end of the school year (pretest to post-test) and (2) long-term ROE effects up to three years after post-test. ROE had replicated, beneficial effects on all teacher-rated outcomes, which were generally maintained or further improved across follow-up. However, ROE had almost no statistically significant or replicated effects on student-rated outcomes. This is the first evaluation to suggest that ROE appears effective when implemented on a large scale under real-world delivery conditions. PMID:24956430

  10. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications – US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  11. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Donna; Sexton, Patrina; Hui, Katrina; Teitcher, Jennifer; Sugarman, Jeremy; London, Alex John; Barnes, Mark; Purpura, James; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  12. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Donna; Sexton, Patrina; Hui, Katrina; Teitcher, Jennifer; Sugarman, Jeremy; London, Alex John; Barnes, Mark; Purpura, James; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  13. Documenting the need for translational research: an example from workplace violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri H

    2010-02-01

    The leading cause of occupational death in small retail establishments--workplace violence--provides an example of how data can be used to document the need for type 2 translational research. First, strategies effective in reducing workplace violence in small retail businesses were identified. Next, the effectiveness of the researched strategies was compared with the types of strategies voluntarily implemented by small businesses. The strongest evidence-based strategies were the least likely to be implemented by businesses, and the relationship between effectiveness and implementation was nearly inverse. For example, cash control policies were found to be effective in 92% of studies, but fewer than 10% of businesses had implemented adequate cash control policies. Surveillance cameras were found to be effective in only 50% of studies, but more than 70% of businesses had implemented them. In the absence of effective translation of knowledge and practice, business owners installed the least effective strategies, often at a higher cost.

  14. NCI Approves Funding Plan for NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    On June 24, 2014, the Scientific Program Leaders (SPL) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) approved the funding plan for the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP), a national network of investigators, cancer care providers, academic institutions, and other organizations. NCORP will conduct multi-site cancer clinical trials and studies in diverse populations in community-based healthcare systems across the United States. The program will receive $93 million a year for five years. |

  15. Preventing biological weapon development through the governance of life science research.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Gerald L

    2012-03-01

    The dual-use dilemma in the life sciences-that illicit applications draw on the same science and technology base as legitimate applications-makes it inherently difficult to control one without inhibiting the other. Since before the September 11 attacks, the science and security communities in the United States have struggled to develop governance processes that can simultaneously minimize the risk of misuse of the life sciences, promote their beneficial applications, and protect the public trust. What has become clear over that time is that while procedural steps can be specified for assessing and managing dual-use risks in the review of research proposals, oversight of ongoing research, and communication of research results, the actions or decisions to be taken at each of these steps to mitigate dual-use risk defy codification. Yet the stakes are too high to do nothing, or to be seen as doing nothing. The U.S. government should therefore adopt an oversight framework largely along the lines recommended by the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity almost 5 years ago-one that builds on existing processes, can gain buy-in from the scientific community, and can be implemented at modest cost (both direct and opportunity), while providing assurance that a considered and independent examination of dual-use risks is being applied. Without extraordinary visibility into the actions of those who would misuse biology, it may be impossible to know how well such an oversight system will actually succeed at mitigating misuse. But maintaining the public trust will require a system to be established in which reasonably foreseeable dual-use consequences of life science research are anticipated, evaluated, and addressed. PMID:22455676

  16. Research Priorities for NCD Prevention and Climate Change: An International Delphi Survey.

    PubMed

    Colagiuri, Ruth; Boylan, Sinead; Morrice, Emily

    2015-10-01

    Climate change and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are arguably the greatest global challenges of the 21st Century. However, the confluence between them remains under-examined and there is little evidence of a comprehensive, systematic approach to identifying research priorities to mitigate their joint impact. Consequently, we: (i) convened a workshop of academics (n = 25) from the Worldwide Universities Network to identify priority areas at the interface between NCDs and climate change; (ii) conducted a Delphi survey of international opinion leaders in public health and relevant other disciplines; and (iii) convened an expert panel to review and advise on final priorities. Three research areas (water security; transport; conceptualising NCD harms to support policy formation) were listed among the top 10 priorities by >90% of Delphi respondents, and ranked among the top 12 priorities by >60% of respondents who ranked the order of priority. A fourth area (reducing the carbon footprint of cities) was ranked highest by the same >60% of respondents. Our results are consistent with existing frameworks on health and climate change, and extends them by focusing specifically on NCDs. Researching these priorities could progress understanding of climate change and NCDs, and inform global and national policy decisions for mitigating associated harms. PMID:26501301

  17. Research Priorities for NCD Prevention and Climate Change: An International Delphi Survey

    PubMed Central

    Colagiuri, Ruth; Boylan, Sinead; Morrice, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are arguably the greatest global challenges of the 21st Century. However, the confluence between them remains under-examined and there is little evidence of a comprehensive, systematic approach to identifying research priorities to mitigate their joint impact. Consequently, we: (i) convened a workshop of academics (n = 25) from the Worldwide Universities Network to identify priority areas at the interface between NCDs and climate change; (ii) conducted a Delphi survey of international opinion leaders in public health and relevant other disciplines; and (iii) convened an expert panel to review and advise on final priorities. Three research areas (water security; transport; conceptualising NCD harms to support policy formation) were listed among the top 10 priorities by >90% of Delphi respondents, and ranked among the top 12 priorities by >60% of respondents who ranked the order of priority. A fourth area (reducing the carbon footprint of cities) was ranked highest by the same >60% of respondents. Our results are consistent with existing frameworks on health and climate change, and extends them by focusing specifically on NCDs. Researching these priorities could progress understanding of climate change and NCDs, and inform global and national policy decisions for mitigating associated harms. PMID:26501301

  18. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of automotive lighting equipment and accessories

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Couch, B.; Handmaker, A.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a Pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacture who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lac the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) we established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures outboard motors for water craft. Three basic subunits received from other manufacturing plants undergo primarily painting and assembly operations in order to produce the final product. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint overspray waste and spent clean-up solvent are generated in large quantities and that significant cost savings could be achieved by installing robotic paint application equipment. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  19. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of components for outboard motors

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Coleman, T.N.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a Pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacture who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lac the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) we established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures outboard motors for water craft. Three basic subunits received from other manufacturing plants undergo primarily painting and assembly operations in order to produce the final product. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint overspray waste and spent clean-up solvent are generated in large quantities and that significant cost savings could be achieved by installing robotic paint application equipment. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  20. Research Priorities for NCD Prevention and Climate Change: An International Delphi Survey.

    PubMed

    Colagiuri, Ruth; Boylan, Sinead; Morrice, Emily

    2015-10-16

    Climate change and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are arguably the greatest global challenges of the 21st Century. However, the confluence between them remains under-examined and there is little evidence of a comprehensive, systematic approach to identifying research priorities to mitigate their joint impact. Consequently, we: (i) convened a workshop of academics (n = 25) from the Worldwide Universities Network to identify priority areas at the interface between NCDs and climate change; (ii) conducted a Delphi survey of international opinion leaders in public health and relevant other disciplines; and (iii) convened an expert panel to review and advise on final priorities. Three research areas (water security; transport; conceptualising NCD harms to support policy formation) were listed among the top 10 priorities by >90% of Delphi respondents, and ranked among the top 12 priorities by >60% of respondents who ranked the order of priority. A fourth area (reducing the carbon footprint of cities) was ranked highest by the same >60% of respondents. Our results are consistent with existing frameworks on health and climate change, and extends them by focusing specifically on NCDs. Researching these priorities could progress understanding of climate change and NCDs, and inform global and national policy decisions for mitigating associated harms.