Science.gov

Sample records for prevention research r01

  1. Grant R01CA155301 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA172136 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA180949 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA166710 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA195723 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA166557 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA185301 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA169175 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA196762 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA133050 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA190710 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA187027 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA184926 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA169363 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA140368 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA184027 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01AT007429 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01GM095657 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA193522 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA203950 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA202936 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA206026 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA174432 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA204378 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA155297 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA151494 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01NR014068 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA138800 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA148966 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01NS046606 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01AI093723 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01AG041869 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA154489 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA148817 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01EB019337 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA164782 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA172444 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01AT008108 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01AT005295 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA208303 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA190610 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA188038 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA137178 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA184820 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA164574 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA162139 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01AT007003 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA200417 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA172576 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA172517 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA163103 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA140561 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA165309 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA180087 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01AT006885 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA080946 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA204345 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA179949 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01AT006860 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA196639 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA208371 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA161534 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA197919 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA128134 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA190612 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA084233 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA179992 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA194617 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA215797 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA200423 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA166011 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01AT007452 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA168292 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA163803 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA162401 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA120933 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA124481 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA182284 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA132927 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA107408 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA196854 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA187160 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA163293 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA160880 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA200977 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA177562 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA174683 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA169398 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA162139 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA182905 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA140605 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA087546 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA163293 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA157469 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA158668 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA094076 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA183296 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA170549 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01DK063621 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA208711 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA148828 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA159976 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA163683 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA190092 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA205633 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA205608 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA152799 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA151304 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA172627 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA183869 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA182969 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA190291 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA196200 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA182076 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA181242 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA179511 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01GM066170 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA211996 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA193885 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA132951 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA195688 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA200795 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA210370 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA195708 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA192124 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA183301 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA151708 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA166590 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA026582 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA105266 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA174683 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA114412 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA177995 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA134620 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA098286 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA158319 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA164124 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA196692 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA190776 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA187160 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. 75 FR 47602 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Products Research Project Grant (R01) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... substantially contribute to, market approval of these products. Applicants must include in the application's... proposed study will either help support product approval or provide essential data needed for...

  2. 77 FR 46764 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... Products Research Project Grant (R01) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... substantially contribute to, market approval of these products. Applicants must include in the application's... either help support product approval or provide essential data needed for product development....

  3. Perspective: is NIH funding the "best science by the best scientists"? A critique of the NIH R01 research grant review policies.

    PubMed

    Costello, Leslie C

    2010-05-01

    Clinical and experimental biomedical research provides the foundation for advances in medicine, health, and the welfare of the public. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the major agency providing funding for biomedical research. The stated objectives of the NIH for funding research grants (R01s) are to "fund the best science, by the best scientists" and "to see that NIH grant applications receive fair, independent, expert, and timely reviews-free from inappropriate influences-so NIH can fund the most promising research." The NIH recently reviewed and identified issues involved with the study section peer review process that compromise the achievement of these laudable and important objectives. Consequently, the NIH has and continues to issue new guidelines and requirements relating to the R01 grant review process. The author argues that some of these NIH directives conflict with and counteract the achievement of the NIH's stated objectives. The author further contends that the directives introduce discrimination into the review process. Such conditions impede the funding of the best science by the best scientists, while funding lesser-quality research. The NIH should eliminate all directives that prevent R01 grants from being awarded solely to the highest-quality research. This is in the best interest of the biomedical community and the health and welfare of the public at large.

  4. Gender Differences in Receipt of National Institutes of Health R01 Grants Among Junior Faculty at an Academic Medical Center: The Role of Connectivity, Rank, and Research Productivity.

    PubMed

    Warner, Erica T; Carapinha, René; Weber, Griffin M; Hill, Emorcia V; Reede, Joan Y

    2017-08-03

    To determine whether there were gender differences in likelihood of receiving a first National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 award among 5445 instructors and assistant professors at Harvard Medical School (HMS). Data on R01 award principal investigators were obtained from NIH ExPORTER and linked with faculty data. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, we examined the association of gender with receipt of first R01 award between 2008 and 2015 accounting for demographics, research productivity metrics, and professional characteristics. Compared to males, females had fewer publications, lower h-index, smaller coauthor networks and were less likely to be assistant professors (p < 0.0001). Four hundred and thirteen of 5445 faculty (7.6%) received their first R01 award during the study period. There was no gender difference in receipt of R01 awards in age-adjusted (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70-1.08) or multivariable-adjusted models (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.86-1.34). Compared to white males, there was a nonsignificant 10%, 18%, and 30% lower rate of R01 receipt among white, Asian or Pacific Islander, and underrepresented minority females, respectively. These differences were eliminated in the multivariable-adjusted model. Network reach, age, HMS start year, h-index, academic rank, previous K award, terminal degree, and HMS training were all significant predictors of receiving an R01 award. A relatively small proportion of HMS junior faculty obtained their first NIH R01 award during the study period. There was no significant gender difference in likelihood of award. However, we are unable to distinguish faculty that never applied from those who applied and were not successful.

  5. Toward Independence: Resubmission Rate of Unfunded National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 Research Grant Applications Among Early Stage Investigators.

    PubMed

    Boyington, Josephine E A; Antman, Melissa D; Patel, Katherine C; Lauer, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    The current, budget-driven low rate of National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for biomedical research has raised concerns about new investigators' ability to become independent scientists and their willingness to persist in efforts to secure funding. The authors sought to determine resubmission rates for unfunded National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) early stage investigator (ESI) independent research grant (R01) applications and to identify resubmission predictors. The authors used a retrospective cohort study design and retrieved applications submitted in fiscal years 2010-2012 from NIH electronic research administrative sources. They defined ESI applicants as those who have received no prior R01 (or equivalent) funding and are within 10 years of completion of their terminal research degree or medical residency training. ESI applications at the NHLBI were eligible for special funding consideration if they scored above, but within 10 points of, the payline. The primary outcome was application resubmission after failing to secure funding with the first R01 submission. Over half of the unfunded applications were resubmitted. Some of these were discussed and "percentiled." Among percentiled applications, the only significant predictor of resubmission was the percentile score. Over half (59%) of the ESI R01 grants funded by NHLBI in fiscal years 2010-2012 had percentile scores above but within 10 points of the NHLBI payline, and benefited from the special funding considerations. The only independent predictor of resubmission of NHLBI ESI R01 grant applications was percentile score; applicant demographics and institutional factors were not predictive of resubmission.

  6. Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and National Institutes of Health R01 Research Awards: Is There Evidence of a Double Bind for Women of Color?

    PubMed

    Ginther, Donna K; Kahn, Shulamit; Schaffer, Walter T

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, and the probability of being awarded an R01 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The authors used data from the NIH Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination grants management database for the years 2000-2006 to examine gender differences and race/ethnicity-specific gender differences in the probability of receiving an R01 Type 1 award. The authors used descriptive statistics and probit models to determine the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, degree, investigator experience, and R01 award probability, controlling for a large set of observable characteristics. White women PhDs and MDs were as likely as white men to receive an R01 award. Compared with white women, Asian and black women PhDs and black women MDs were significantly less likely to receive funding. Women submitted fewer grant applications, and blacks and women who were new investigators were more likely to submit only one application between 2000 and 2006. Differences by race/ethnicity explain the NIH funding gap for women of color, as white women have a slight advantage over men in receiving Type 1 awards. Findings of a lower submission rate for women and an increased likelihood that they will submit only one proposal are consistent with research showing that women avoid competition. Policies designed to address the racial and ethnic diversity of the biomedical workforce have the potential to improve funding outcomes for women of color.

  7. Towards Independence: Resubmission Rate of Unfunded National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 Research Grant Applications among Early Stage Investigators

    PubMed Central

    Boyington, Josephine E.A.; Antman, Melissa D.; Patel, Katherine C.; Lauer, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The current, budget-driven low rate of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for biomedical research has raised concerns about the ability of new investigators to become independent scientists and their willingness to persist in efforts to secure funding. The authors sought to determine resubmission rates for unfunded National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) early stage investigator (ESI) independent research grant (RO1) applications and to identify predictors of resubmission. Method The authors used a retrospective cohort study design and retrieved applications submitted in fiscal years 2010–2012 from NIH electronic research administrative sources. They defined ESI applicants as those who have received no prior R01 (or equivalent) funding and were within 10 years of completion of their terminal research degree or medical residency training. ESI applications at the NHLBI were eligible for special funding consideration if they scored above, but within ten points of, the payline. The primary outcome was application resubmission after failing to secure funding with the first R01 submission. Results Over half of the unfunded applications were resubmitted. Some of these were discussed and “percentiled,” and among these applications, the only significant predictor of resubmission was the percentile score. Over half (59%) of the ESI R01grants funded by NHLBI in FY-2010–2012 had percentile scores above, but within ten points of the NHLBI payline, and benefitted from the special funding considerations. Conclusions The only independent predictor of resubmission of NHLBI ESI R01 grant applications was percentile score; applicant demographics and institutional factors were not predictive of resubmission. PMID:26650674

  8. 75 FR 53701 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... FDA's Office of Orphan Products Development (OPD) grant program. The document was published with an.... FDA-2010-N-0394] Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research...

  9. NCI will no longer support investigator-initiated phase III clinical trials through R01 and P01s grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI has traditionally provided support for all phases of clinical trials and interventions via grants and cooperative agreements (including the R03, R21, R01, P01, U01, U10, and UM1 mechanisms). Historically, the majority of early phase trials have been conducted under R03, R21, R01, P01, U01, and UM1 activity codes, whereas most Phase III clinical trials have been conducted under the U10 activity code, with a limited number of Phase III clinical trials performed under the R01, P01, and U01 activity codes... |

  10. Research Areas: Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's prevention research has a broad focus—from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and testing ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  11. Citation impact of NHLBI R01 grants funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act as compared to R01 grants funded through a standard payline.

    PubMed

    Danthi, Narasimhan S; Wu, Colin O; DiMichele, Donna M; Hoots, W Keith; Lauer, Michael S

    2015-02-27

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to fund R01 grants that fared less well on peer review than those funded by meeting a payline threshold. It is not clear whether the sudden availability of additional funding enabled research of similar or lesser citation impact than already funded work. To compare the citation impact of ARRA-funded de novo National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 grants with concurrent de novo National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 grants funded by standard payline mechanisms. We identified de novo (type 1) R01 grants funded by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in fiscal year 2009: these included 458 funded by meeting Institute's published payline and 165 funded only because of ARRA funding. Compared with payline grants, ARRA grants received fewer total funds (median values, $1.03 versus $1.87 million; P<0.001) for a shorter duration (median values including no-cost extensions, 3.0 versus 4.9 years; P<0.001). Through May 2014, the payline R01 grants generated 3895 publications, whereas the ARRA R01 grants generated 996. Using the InCites database from Thomson-Reuters, we calculated a normalized citation impact for each grant by weighting each article for the number of citations it received normalizing for subject, article type, and year of publication. The ARRA R01 grants had a similar normalized citation impact per $1 million spent as the payline grants (median values [interquartile range], 2.15 [0.73-4.68] versus 2.03 [0.75-4.10]; P=0.61). The similar impact of the ARRA grants persisted even after accounting for potential confounders. Despite shorter durations and lower budgets, ARRA R01 grants had comparable citation outcomes per $million spent to that of contemporaneously funded payline R01 grants. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. The Prevention Researcher, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    As a service of Integrated Research Services, a non-profit organization, this newsletter reports on many facets of prevention research. Written in direct, accessible language, each issue provides a "snapshot" update on a specific topic. Some articles are reprinted (often in a briefer format) from other publications; others provide a synthesis of…

  13. The Prevention Researcher, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of volume 7 of "The Prevention Researcher," a service of Integrated Research Services. Each issue provides information on a specific topic. The topic of Issue Number One is adolescent dating violence. This issue includes articles on adolescents' beliefs about rape and sexual victimization, and contains a report on an…

  14. The Prevention Researcher, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    As a service of Integrated Research Services, a non-profit organization, this newsletter reports on many facets of prevention research. Written in direct, accessible language, each issue provides a "snapshot" update on a specific topic. Some articles are reprinted (often in a briefer format) from other publications; others provide a synthesis of…

  15. The Prevention Researcher, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of volume 7 of "The Prevention Researcher," a service of Integrated Research Services. Each issue provides information on a specific topic. The topic of Issue Number One is adolescent dating violence. This issue includes articles on adolescents' beliefs about rape and sexual victimization, and contains a report on an…

  16. The Prevention Researcher, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Volume 6 of" The Prevention Researcher" contains three 12-page issues and one supplement. Issue Number 1 focuses on gambling, and contains the following articles: (1) "Gambling in the Family: The Hidden Addiction" (D. A. Abbott); (2) "Adolescent Gambling and Substance Use: The View from Texas" (L. Wallisch); (3)…

  17. The Prevention Researcher, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Volume 6 of" The Prevention Researcher" contains three 12-page issues and one supplement. Issue Number 1 focuses on gambling, and contains the following articles: (1) "Gambling in the Family: The Hidden Addiction" (D. A. Abbott); (2) "Adolescent Gambling and Substance Use: The View from Texas" (L. Wallisch); (3)…

  18. Difference in R01 Grant Funding Among Osteopathic and Allopathic Emergency Physicians over the Last Decade.

    PubMed

    Antony, Martina; Savino, Jennifer; Ashurst, John

    2017-06-01

    Receiving an R01 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is regarded as a major accomplishment for the physician researcher and can be used as a means of scholarly activity for core faculty in emergency medicine (EM). However, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires that a grant must be obtained for it to count towards a core faculty member's scholarly activity, while the American Osteopathic Association states that an application for a grant would qualify for scholarly activity whether it is received or not. The aim of the study was to determine if a medical degree disparity exists between those who successfully receive an EM R01 grant and those who do not, and to determine the publication characteristics of those recipients. We queried the NIH RePORTER search engine for those physicians who received an R01 grant in EM. Degree designation was then determined for each grant recipient based on a web-based search involving the recipient's name and the location where the grant was awarded. The grant recipient was then queried through PubMed central for the total number of publications published in the decade prior to receiving the grant. We noted a total of 264 R01 grant recipients during the study period; of those who received the award, 78.03% were allopathic physicians. No osteopathic physician had received an R01 grant in EM over the past 10 years. Of those allopathic physicians who received the grant, 44.17% held a dual degree. Allopathic physicians had an average of 48.05 publications over the 10 years prior to grant receipt and those with a dual degree had 51.62 publications. Allopathic physicians comprise the majority of those who have received an R01 grant in EM over the last decade. These physicians typically have numerous prior publications and an advanced degree.

  19. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to prevent pollution and reduce risk in communities, homes, workplaces, and ecosystems. This goal must be based in large part on the application of the best available science and technology associat...

  20. The Prevention Researcher, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    The issues of this quarterly publication and year end supplement contain professional articles on topics that concern at risk youth and emphasize preventive measures. Number 1 highlights the importance of mentoring programs for at-risk youth. Discussions on mentoring for special groups such as gifted adolescents and lesbian and gay youth are…

  1. The Prevention Researcher, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    The issues of this quarterly publication and year end supplement contain professional articles on topics that concern at risk youth and emphasize preventive measures. Number 1 highlights the importance of mentoring programs for at-risk youth. Discussions on mentoring for special groups such as gifted adolescents and lesbian and gay youth are…

  2. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to prevent pollution and reduce risk in communities, homes, workplaces, and ecosystems. This goal must be based in large part on the application of the best available science and technology associat...

  3. Prevention Researcher, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The issues of this quarterly publication and year end supplement contain professional articles on topics that concern at risk youth and emphasize preventive measures. Number 1 highlights the challenges facing gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth in schools. Many schools have nothing in their curricula to help provide an understanding of these issues…

  4. [Memorandum prevention research - research areas and methods].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Nöcker, G; Plaumann, M; Linden, S; Pott, E; Koch, U; Pawils, S; Altgeld, T; Dierks, M L; Frahsa, A; Jahn, I; Krauth, C; Pomp, M; Rehaag, R; Robra, B P; Süß, W; Töppich, J; Trojan, A; von Unger, H; Wildner, M; Wright, M

    2012-10-01

    From 2004 to 2012, the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) established its first funding programme for the promotion of prevention research. 60 projects on primary prevention and health promotion and the meta-project entitled "Cooperation for Sustainable Prevention Research" (KNP) received BMBF grants under this programme during this period. The experience and knowledge gained and recommendations arising from the research funded under this programme are compiled in memorandum format. The "Memorandum on Prevention Research - Research Areas and Methods" highlights 5 research areas that are considered to be especially relevant from the perspective of the involved scientists and practice partners.The promotion of structural development and sustainability enhancement in disease prevention and health promotion are central areas that should branch out from existing nuclei of crystallization. Improving the health competence of the population and of specific subpopulations is another major area. Research in these areas should contribute to the development of theoretical concepts and to the empirical testing of these concepts. The transfer of knowledge for effective use of developed disease prevention and health promotion programmes and measures is still a scarcely researched area. Among other things, studies of the transfer of programmes from one context to another, analyses of the coop-eration between politics and science, and the continued theoretical and conceptual development of transfer research are needed. Long-term data on the effects of intervention studies are also needed for proper evaluation of sustainability. The latter dem-onstrates the importance of method development in disease prevention and health promotion research as an area that should receive separate funding and support. This research should include, in particular, studies of the efficacy of complex interventions, health economic analyses, and participative health research. © Georg Thieme

  5. Prevention research and rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Rao, Jaya K; Hootman, Jennifer M

    2004-03-01

    Prevention may occur in clinical, community, or population settings and is often classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary types. To provide a context for this review, we define the three types and provide general and arthritis-specific examples of prevention strategies. Next, we highlight recently published longitudinal cohort and intervention studies that focus on arthritis prevention in the following topic areas: cognitive and behavioral strategies, obesity, exercise, and occupational injury prevention. Few studies examined primary prevention strategies. In one study, an educational intervention significantly changed tick-related knowledge and behaviors among a population at risk of Lyme disease. Another population-based study used a mailed, stage-based educational program to successfully increase physical activity levels; this intervention may have practical application as a primary or tertiary prevention strategy for arthritis. Tertiary prevention research received much attention: Recent studies extend the benefits of exercise and cognitive-behavioral interventions to persons with different rheumatic conditions (eg, neck pain, low back pain, systemic lupus erythematosus, fibromyalgia). Longitudinal cohort studies improve our understanding of the relationships between computer use and carpal tunnel syndrome among office workers, birth weight and hand osteoarthritis, and baseline balance and functional declines among older adults with knee pain. Prevention of arthritis and its complications is an active focus of investigation. Primary prevention research remains a challenge because of the prolonged time frame for disease expression. Scientific evidence continues to provide support for tertiary prevention strategies among people with documented rheumatic disease.

  6. Research in fire prevention.

    PubMed

    Pearce, N

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes in broad terms, the fire testing programme we carried out on whole bed assemblies in 1984. It should be clear that the tests were carried out in a thoroughly rigorous scientific manner. As always there is more to be done. The immediate task of finding the so called 'safe' bed assembly is proceeding with the search this year for safer pillows. Softer barrier foams are now being produced and it may be that the NHS could use full depth foam mattresses rather than a barrier foam wrap. On the engineering side I have explained the false alarm problem, and I have reviewed some of the research we are doing to see that new technology is used to give us better systems in future. Life safety sprinkler systems give the possibility of truly active fire protection in patient areas. They will enhance fire safety but at the moment no trade-offs can be offered in other areas of fire protection--either active or passive. My final point is that although I have considered the Department's fire research by looking separately at specific projects, the fire safety of a hospital must always be considered as a total package. To be effective, individual components of fire safety must not be considered in isolation but as part of the overall fire safety system.

  7. [Memorandum - research funding of prevention].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Gold, C; Hoffmann, W; Jahn, I; Töppich, J; Wildner, M; Dubben, S; Franze, M; John, J; Kliche, T; Lehmann, H; Naegele, G; Nöcker, G; Plaumann, M; Pott, E; Robra, B-P

    2012-08-01

    The memorandum of the research funding of prevention has been devised within the framework of the Prevention Research Funding Programme of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It consists not only of the obtained findings of the research-practice co-operation but also of recommendations for the implementation of prospective, innovational, effective, practice-oriented and sustainable research. The respective knowledge has been acquired from quantitative surveys on the experiences of scientists and practice partners within the prevention research funding project as well as from extensive qualitative methods of structured group evaluation. A participatory co-operation between research and practice based on mutual respect, trust and recognition is seen as mandatory for the further development of both prevention and health promotion research. Research and practice partners are required to engage in an ab initio collaboration starting from the conception phase, whereby it is advisable to encourage and fortify the communication between research, practice and funding partners by systematic surveillance in form of a meta-project. In addition, the inclusion of the target population from the outset and on a collaborative basis is considered as beneficial in order to ensure the practical application of the research findings. Furthermore, innovatory research designs which are able to provide a framework for internal flexibility, continuous re-assessment and adjustment are fundamental for the implementation of practice-oriented research. Moreover, a dynamic co-operation between different groups of interest not only depends on sharing responsibility but also on sufficient funding for both research and practice, which is particularly important for the transfer and communication of the attained findings. With regard to the evaluation of both effectiveness and sustainability of interventions, a research funding project is required which makes long-term results possible

  8. Injury prevention and future research.

    PubMed

    Emery, Carolyn A

    2005-01-01

    To critically examine and summarize the literature identifying risk factors and prevention strategies for injury in child and adolescent sport. Seven electronic databases were searched including: Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psychinfo, Cochrane Database for Systematic and Complete Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, HealthSTAR and SPORTDiscus. Medical subject headings and text words included: athletic injury, sport injury, risk factors, adolescent and child. Additional articles were reviewed based on sport-specific contributions in the previous chapters of this book. Despite the diversity of injuries occurring in various pediatric sporting populations, the uniformity with respect to many of the risk factors identified in the literature is noteworthy (i.e. previous injury, age, sport specificity, psychosocial factors, decreased strength and endurance). The literature is significantly limited with respect to the prospective evaluation of risk factors and prevention strategies for injury in pediatric sport. The consistencies, however, between the adult and pediatric literature are encouraging with respect to prevention strategies involving neuromuscular training programs (i.e. balance training programs) to reduce lower extremity injuries in some sports and the use of sport-specific protective equipment (i.e. helmets). Notwithstanding the limitations in the literature, the successful evaluation of some sport-specific prevention strategies to reduce injury in pediatric sport is encouraging. There is significant opportunity to methodologically improve upon the current pediatric sport injury literature in descriptive surveillance research, risk factor evaluation research, and prevention research. There is a need for prospective studies, ideally randomized controlled trials, in the evaluation of prevention strategies in pediatric sport. The integration of basic science, laboratory and epidemiological research is

  9. Cancer Prevention Research in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Siwang; Yang, Chung S; Li, Junyao; You, Weicheng; Chen, Jianguo; Cao, Ya; Dong, Zigang; Qiao, Youlin

    2015-08-01

    Although cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States and some European countries have started to decrease, those in developing countries are increasing. China, the most populous developing country, is facing a serious challenge from cancer. Cancer incidence has been increasing for decades, and cancer is the leading cause of death in China. In 2012, the cancer incidence was 174.0 per 100,000, and the cancer mortality was 122.2 per 100,000 in China. In addition to the still-prevalent traditional Chinese cancers of the stomach, liver, esophagus, cervix, and nasopharynx, the incidence of "Western" cancers such those of the lung, breast, and colorectum has increased alarmingly in recent years. These increases are likely due to the lifestyle and environmental changes associated with rapid economic development and population aging. More importantly, a large portion of these cancers are preventable. Researchers in China have made important contributions to cancer prevention research, especially in the traditional Chinese cancers. More cancer prevention research and measures, especially on the major emerging cancers, are urgently needed. This review article highlights some of the past achievements and present needs in cancer prevention research in China and suggests important areas for future studies.

  10. A Quantitative Linguistic Analysis of National Institutes of Health R01 Application Critiques from Investigators at One Institution

    PubMed Central

    Kaatz, Anna; Magua, Wairimu; Zimmerman, David R.; Carnes, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Career advancement in academic medicine often hinges on the ability to garner research funds, and the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH’s) R01 award is the “gold standard” of an independent research program. Studies show inconsistencies in R01 reviewers’ scoring and in award outcomes for certain applicant groups. Consistent with the NIH recommendation to examine potential bias in R01 peer review, the authors performed a text analysis of R01 reviewers’ critiques. Method The authors collected 454 critiques (262 from 91 unfunded and 192 from 67 funded applications) from 67 of 76 (88%) R01 investigators at the University of Wisconsin-Madison with initially unfunded applications subsequently funded between December 2007 and May 2009. To analyze critiques the authors developed positive and negative grant application evaluation word categories and selected 5 existing categories relevant to grant review. The authors analyzed results with linear mixed effects models for differences due to applicant and application characteristics. Results Critiques of funded applications contained more positive descriptors and superlatives and fewer negative evaluation words than critiques of unfunded applications. Experienced investigators’ critiques contained more references to competence. Critiques showed differences due to applicant sex despite similar application scores or funding outcomes: more praise for applications from female investigators; greater reference to competence/ability for funded applications from female experienced investigators; and more negative evaluation words for applications from male investigators (Ps < .05). Conclusions Results suggest that text analysis is a promising tool for assessing consistency in R01 reviewers’ judgments and gender stereotypes may operate in R01 review. PMID:25140529

  11. HIV prevention transformed: the new prevention research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Padian, Nancy S.; McCoy, Sandra I.; Karim, Salim Abdool; Hasen, Nina; Kim, Julia; Bartos, Michael; Katabira, Elly; Bertozzi, Stefano; Schwartländer, Bernhard; Cohen, Myron S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We have entered a new era in HIV prevention whereby priorities have expanded from biomedical discovery to include implementation, effectiveness, and the effect of combination prevention at the population level. However, gaps in knowledge and implementation challenges remain. In this Review we analyse trends in the rapidly changing landscape of HIV prevention, and chart a new path for HIV prevention research that focuses on the implementation of effective and efficient combination prevention strategies to turn the tide on the HIV pandemic. PMID:21763938

  12. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States. Seven Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  13. The potential application of personalized preventive research.

    PubMed

    Song, Minkyo; Lee, Hwi-Won; Kang, Daehee

    2014-11-01

    With increases in life expectancy, the focus has shifted to living a healthier, longer life. By concentrating on preventing diseases before occurrence, researchers aim to diminish the increasing gap in medical costs and health inequalities prevalent across many nations. Although we have entered an era of post-genomics, we are still in infancy in terms of personalized preventive research. Personalized preventive research has and will continue to improve with advancements in the use of biomarkers and risk assessment. More evidence based on well-designed epidemiologic studies is required to provide comprehensive preventive medical care based on genetic and non-genetic profile data. The realization of personalized preventive research requires building of evidence through appropriate methodology, verification of results through translational studies as well as development and application of prediction models. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  15. Crime Prevention Research at the National Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinzelmann, Fred

    Crime Prevention deals with the effort to control crime and the fear of crime through a variety of community resources. Research efforts of the Department of Justice, first developed in the early 1970's, focused on increasing knowledge and understanding to promote more effective crime prevention. The National Institute of Justice has sponsored…

  16. The Prevention Researcher, 1994-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Researcher, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the first 10 issues of the newsletter, "Prevention Researcher," published during the 4-year period 1994 through 1997. The 1994 issues (two) focus on dating violence and youth gangs. The 1995 issues (two) focus on Internet resources for prevention professionals and on drunk driving. The 1996 issues (three) focus…

  17. Translating research to practice in bullying prevention.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-01-01

    Bullying continues to be a concern in schools and communities across the United States and worldwide, yet there is uncertainty regarding the most effective approaches for preventing it and addressing its impacts on children and youth. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of studies and meta-analyses examining the efficacy of bullying prevention programs. This paper considers some methodological issues encountered when testing the efficacy and effectiveness of bullying prevention and intervention approaches. It also identifies several areas requiring additional research in order to increase the effectiveness of bullying prevention efforts in real-world settings. Drawing upon a public health perspective and findings from the field of prevention science, this paper aims to inform potential future directions for enhancing the adoption, high quality implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based bullying prevention programs. It is concluded that although bullying prevention programs can be effective in reducing bullying and victimization among school-aged youth, there is a great need for more work to increase the acceptability, fidelity, and sustainability of the existing programs in order to improve bullying-related outcomes for youth. The findings from this review are intended to inform both policy and public health practice related to bullying prevention.

  18. Priority setting in paediatric preventive care research.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Mikael; Birken, Catherine S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Straus, Sharon; Laupacis, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    To identify the unanswered research questions in paediatric preventive care that are most important to parents and clinicians, and to explore how questions from parents and clinicians may differ. Iterative mixed methods research priority setting process. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Parents of children aged 0-5 years enrolled in a research network in Toronto, and clinicians practising in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Informed by the James Lind Alliance's methodology, an online questionnaire collected unanswered research questions in paediatric preventive care from study participants. Similar submissions were combined and ranked. A consensus workshop attended by 28 parents and clinicians considered the most highly ranked submissions and used the nominal group technique to select the 10 most important unanswered research questions. Forty-two clinicians and 115 parents submitted 255 and 791 research questions, respectively, which were combined into 79 indicative questions. Most submissions were about nutrition, illness prevention, parenting and behaviour management. Parents were more likely to ask questions about screen time (49 parents vs 8 clinicians, p<0.05) and environmental toxins (18 parents vs 0 clinicians, p<0.05). The top 10 unanswered questions identified at the workshop related to mental health, parental stress, physical activity, obesity, childhood development, behaviour management and screen time. The top 10 most important unanswered research questions in paediatric preventive care from the perspective of parents and clinicians were identified. These research priorities may be important in advancing preventive healthcare for children. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Occupational Injury Prevention Research in NIOSH.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Stout, Nancy

    2010-12-01

    This paper provided a brief summary of the current strategic goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) occupational injury research program. Three primary drivers (injury database, stakeholder input, and staff capacity) were used to define NIOSH research focuses to maximize relevance and impact of the NIOSH injury-prevention-research program. Injury data, strategic goals, program activities, and research impacts were presented with a focus on prevention of four leading causes of workplace injury and death in the US: motor vehicle incidents, falls, workplace violence, and machine and industrial vehicle incidents. This paper showcased selected priority goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH injury prevention program. The NIOSH contribution to the overall decrease in fatalities and injuries is reinforced by decreases in specific goal areas. There were also many intermediate outcomes that are on a direct path to preventing injuries, such as new safety regulations and standards, safer technology and products, and improved worker safety training. The outcomes serve as an excellent foundation to stimulate further research and worldwide partnership to address global workplace injury problems.

  20. Occupational Injury Prevention Research in NIOSH

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    This paper provided a brief summary of the current strategic goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) occupational injury research program. Three primary drivers (injury database, stakeholder input, and staff capacity) were used to define NIOSH research focuses to maximize relevance and impact of the NIOSH injury-prevention-research program. Injury data, strategic goals, program activities, and research impacts were presented with a focus on prevention of four leading causes of workplace injury and death in the US: motor vehicle incidents, falls, workplace violence, and machine and industrial vehicle incidents. This paper showcased selected priority goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH injury prevention program. The NIOSH contribution to the overall decrease in fatalities and injuries is reinforced by decreases in specific goal areas. There were also many intermediate outcomes that are on a direct path to preventing injuries, such as new safety regulations and standards, safer technology and products, and improved worker safety training. The outcomes serve as an excellent foundation to stimulate further research and worldwide partnership to address global workplace injury problems. PMID:22953170

  1. Mediation designs for tobacco prevention research

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Taborga, Marcia P.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research designs and statistical analyses to investigate how tobacco prevention programs achieve their effects on tobacco use. A theoretical approach to program development and evaluation useful for any prevention program guides the analysis. The theoretical approach focuses on action theory for how the program affects mediating variables and on conceptual theory for how mediating variables are related to tobacco use. Information on the mediating mechanisms by which tobacco prevention programs achieve effects is useful for the development of efficient programs and provides a test of the theoretical basis of prevention efforts. Examples of these potential mediating mechanisms are described including mediated effects through attitudes, social norms, beliefs about positive consequences, and accessibility to tobacco. Prior research provides evidence that changes in social norms are a critical mediating mechanism for successful tobacco prevention. Analysis of mediating variables in single group designs with multiple mediators are described as well as multiple group randomized designs which are the most likely to accurately uncover important mediating mechanisms. More complicated dismantling and constructive designs are described and illustrated based on current findings from tobacco research. Mediation analysis for categorical outcomes and more complicated statistical methods are outlined. PMID:12324176

  2. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH WITHIN THE FEDERAL COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the primary ongoing programs for promotion and encouragement of pollution prevention research is a cooperative program between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Federal community at large. EPA’s Waste Reduction Evaluations At Federal Sites (WREAFS) Pro...

  3. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH WITHIN THE FEDERAL COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the primary ongoing programs for promotion and encouragement of pollution prevention research is a cooperative program between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Federal community at large. EPA’s Waste Reduction Evaluations At Federal Sites (WREAFS) Pro...

  4. Cohort Research in "Omics" and Preventive Medicine.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Zhang, Sheng; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Jiajia

    2017-01-01

    Cohort studies are observational studies in which the investigator determines the exposure status of subjects and then follows them for subsequent outcomes. The incidence of outcomes is observed in the exposed group and compared with that in a nonexposed group. Recently, new epidemiologic strategies have encouraged cohort research information exchange and cooperation to improve the cognition of disease etiology, such as case-cohort design and nested case-control study, which is available for "omics" data. Meanwhile, large-scale cohort studies using a prospective multiple design and long follow-ups have explored some of the challenges in preventive medicine. Cohort study can bridge the gap between the micro and macro research.This chapter is divided into three parts: 1. Basic knowledge of cohort study, which included the definition of cohort study and different types of cohort study, how to design the cohort study, data analysis for the cohort study, sources of bias in cohort studies, tools and software for cohort studies, and strengths and limitations of cohort study 2. Cohort study for "omics" data analysis, which introduced three related methodologically distinct study designs, case-cohort design for genomic cohort study, nested case-control design for transcriptomics cohort data, and population-based design for integrative "omics" cohort 3. Perspectives on cohort study including data-driven medicine and cohort research, cohort research for healthcare medicine, and cohort research for preventive medicine.

  5. Behavioral Research in Cancer Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Klein, William M. P.; Bloch, Michele; Hesse, Bradford W.; McDonald, Paige G.; Nebeling, Linda; O’Connell, Mary E.; Riley, William T.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Tesauro, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Human behavior is central to the etiology and management of cancer outcomes and presents several avenues for targeted and sustained intervention. Psychosocial experiences such as stress and health behaviors including tobacco use, sun exposure, poor diet, and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of some cancers yet are often quite resistant to change. Cancer screening and other health services are misunderstood and over-utilized, and vaccination underutilized, in part because of the avalanche of information about cancer prevention. Coordination of cancer care is suboptimal, and only a small fraction of cancer patients enroll in clinical trials essential to the development of new cancer treatments. A growing population of cancer survivors has necessitated a fresh view of cancer as a chronic rather than acute disease. Fortunately, behavioral research can address a wide variety of key processes and outcomes across the cancer controbiol continuum from prevention to end-of-life care. Here we consider effects at the biobehavioral and psychological, social and organizational, and environmental levels. We challenge the research community to address key behavioral targets across all levels of influence, while taking into account the many new methodological tools that can facilitate this important work. PMID:24512871

  6. Research and Intervention. Preventing Substance Abuse in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; Clement, Vonnie V., Ed.

    This publication presents four major research papers on college campus substance abuse prevention and research with reviews of the papers by practitioners in the substance abuse prevention field. Following a Preface and Introduction, the first paper is "Theories, Dominant Models, and the Need for Applied Research" by Gerardo M. Gonzalez.…

  7. Depression Prevention Research: Design, Implementation, and Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; And Others

    This document contains three papers concerned with prevention intervention research, a new area of depression research which has shown great promise for contributing new knowledge to the understanding of depression. The first paper, "Clinical Trials vs. Prevention Trials: Methodological Issues in Depression Research" (Ricardo F. Munoz), emphasizes…

  8. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  9. Cancer prevention research - then and now.

    PubMed

    Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang

    2009-07-01

    Throughout history, humankind has won the battle against deadly diseases, including small pox and polio, by defeating them through prevention. Cancer prevention is a global priority, but studying history suggests that the journey towards achieving this goal is difficult and full of detours and roadblocks. Epidemiology and clinical evidence clearly indicate that specific genetic, environmental and behavioural factors are associated with an increased risk for cancer development. What can we learn from the past that is applicable to the reality of successful cancer prevention?

  10. Conducting Psychopathology Prevention Research in the RDoC Era

    PubMed Central

    Zalta, Alyson K.; Shankman, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative promoted by the National Institute of Mental Health emphasizes a dimensional approach to psychopathology that is agnostic to DSM diagnosis. The RDoC project offers exciting possibilities for advancing research aimed at preventing psychopathology. However, prevention has historically been defined using diagnostic status, requiring the field to redefine what constitutes prevention using an RDoC approach. This article outlines new criteria for prevention in the RDoC context and provides guidance for implementing these criteria. We also describe the role of prevention-mechanism trials that examine whether preventive interventions change proximal etiological mechanisms known to be associated with psychopathology. We hope that these modified criteria and recommendations will stimulate new possibilities for prevention research that will advance the field. PMID:27065571

  11. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR MOLD CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Indoor Environment Management Branch has, since 1995, conducted research into controlling biological contamination in the indoor environment. In this paper four areas of research are discusse...

  12. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR MOLD CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Indoor Environment Management Branch has, since 1995, conducted research into controlling biological contamination in the indoor environment. In this paper four areas of research are discusse...

  13. [Experience of stroke prevention-Enlightenment for cancer research].

    PubMed

    You, Weicheng

    2015-08-01

    Cancer, stroke and heart diseases are most common causes of death. This paper summarized the experience of stroke prevention, which is an enlightenment for cancer research. In addition, this paper also described the progress of cancer epidemiological research, particular the primary and second preventions in China.

  14. Operational Research to Improve HIV Prevention in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Glassman, Marlene; Carey, James W.; Painter, Thomas M.; Gelaude, Deborah J.; Fasula, Amy M.; Raiford, Jerris L.; Freeman, Arin E.; Harshbarger, Camilla; Viall, Abigail H.; Purcell, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States continues despite several recent noteworthy advances in HIV prevention. Contemporary approaches to HIV prevention involve implementing combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions in novel ways to achieve high levels of impact on the epidemic. Methods are needed to develop optimal combinations of approaches for improving efficiency, effectiveness, and scalability. This article argues that operational research offers promise as a valuable tool for addressing these issues. We define operational research relative to domestic HIV prevention, identify and illustrate how operational research can improve HIV prevention, and pose a series of questions to guide future operational research. Operational research can help achieve national HIV prevention goals of reducing new infections, improving access to care and optimization of health outcomes of people living with HIV, and reducing HIV-related health disparities. PMID:22217681

  15. Operational research to improve HIV prevention in the United States.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Jeffrey H; Glassman, Marlene; Carey, James W; Painter, Thomas M; Gelaude, Deborah J; Fasula, Amy M; Raiford, Jerris L; Freeman, Arin E; Harshbarger, Camilla; Viall, Abigail H; Purcell, David W

    2012-04-15

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States continues despite several recent noteworthy advances in HIV prevention. Contemporary approaches to HIV prevention involve implementing combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions in novel ways to achieve high levels of impact on the epidemic. Methods are needed to develop optimal combinations of approaches for improving efficiency, effectiveness, and scalability. This article argues that operational research offers promise as a valuable tool for addressing these issues. We define operational research relative to domestic HIV prevention, identify and illustrate how operational research can improve HIV prevention, and pose a series of questions to guide future operational research. Operational research can help achieve national HIV prevention goals of reducing new infections, improving access to care and optimization of health outcomes of people living with HIV, and reducing HIV-related health disparities.

  16. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods. PMID:12940467

  17. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    OTHER PERSON OR CORPORATION; OR CONVEY ANY RIGHTS OR PERMISSION TO MANUFACTURE, USE, OR SELL ANY PATENTED INVENTION THAT MAY RELATE TO THEM. LIMITED...American women have higher mortality rates for this disease compared to white women. To address this issue, Lw efforts to increase minority...FELLOWSHIP: AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION:EPIDEMIOLOGY & PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE 1996 HIV/AIDS PRIMARY CARE RESIDENCY PROGRAM PACIFIC AIDS

  18. About Supportive and Palliative Care Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The program supports research in three areas: prevention or treatment of acute or chronic symptoms and morbidities related to cancer, its treatment and caregiving (symptom management research); effects on quality of life from cancer, its treatment and caregiving (quality of life research); and end-of-life psychosocial issues, caregiving and treatment strategies (end-of-life research). |

  19. Vandalism: research, prevention, and social policy.

    Treesearch

    H.H. Christensen; D.R. Johnson; M.H. Brookes

    1992-01-01

    This book is an examination of how vandalism is being approached through research, law enforcement, education, design, understanding human behavior, innovative ideas, and integrated programs. An introductory section provides theoretical and empirical perspectives on vandalism. Chapters describe the role of research in designing against vandalism, psycho-social...

  20. Collaboration for preventing substance abuse in the workplace: modeling research partnerships in prevention.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J B; Beaudin, C L

    2000-01-01

    The managed care community and employers have expressed interest in substance abuse prevention, but there has been little consensus about which prevention and health promotion activities are most appropriately provided in the workplace. In the past 5 years, academicians have become increasingly interested in working with healthcare organizations to develop and implement short- and long-term research partnerships. The most helpful prevention research will serve mutual interests and produce mutual benefit. This article presents a preliminary guide to help facilitate greater collaboration among managed behavioral healthcare organizations, employee assistance programs, and health services researchers interested in preventing substance abuse in the workplace. This guide identifies broad objectives, topic areas, critical applications, and assumptions that can guide collaborative efforts in prevention research.

  1. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (U.S.D.A.) Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  2. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  3. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the US Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  4. Advancing prevention research on the role of culture in suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Joe, Sean; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Romer, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Despite evidence of considerable racial/ethnic variation in adolescent suicidal behavior in the United States, research on youth of European American descent accounts for much of what is know about preventing adolescent suicide. In response to the need to advance research on the phenomenology and prevention of suicidal behavior among ethnic minority populations, NIMH co-sponsored the "Pragmatic Considerations of Culture in Preventing Suicide" workshop to elicit through interdisciplinary dialogue how culture can be considered in the design, development, and implementation of suicidal behavior prevention programs. In this discussion paper we consider the three ethnic minority suicide prevention efforts described in the articles appearing in this issue, along with workshop participants' comments, and propose six major areas where issues of culture need to be better integrated into suicidal behavior research.

  5. Simulation and Baseline Research in Rape Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Stanley L.; Klemmack, Susan H.

    This paper begins by describing an organizational model for the disciplinary study of rape--the University of Alabama's Rape Research Group. It outlines the structure, function, and some techniques of the study group, including the use of simulations and prototypical situations. In one study, verbal responses of rape victims were classified into…

  6. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Attendee Testimonial Plenty of Food for Thought Served Up at the John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum by Julia Tobacyk Read the Testimonial (DOC, 3.3MB) Date: March 12-16, 2018 |

  7. SU-F-R-01: Preclinical Radioimmunogenomics Study to Design Personalized Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Abdollahi, H

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Radiogenomics is an active area of research to find clinical correlation between genomics and radiotherapy outcomes. In this era, many different biological issues should be taken into account. In this study we aimed to introduce “Radioimmunogenomics” as a new approach to study immunogetics issue regard to radiotherapy induced clinical manifestations. Methods: We studied different immunological pathways and signaling molecules which underling radiation response of normal and malignant tissues. In the other hand, we found many genes and proteins are responsible to radiation effects on biological tissues. We defined a theoretical framework to correlate these genes with radiotherapy outcomes as TCP and NTCP biological dose tools. Results: Our theoretical results showed, high-throughput immunogenomics biomarkers can be correlated with radiotherapy outcomes. Genes regarding to inflammation, apoptosis, repair molecules and many other immunological markers can be defined as radioimmune markers to predict radiotherapy response. Conclusion: Radioimmunogenomics can be used as a new personalized radiotherapy research area to enhance treatment outcome as well as quality of life.

  8. Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Charlotte A.; Stevens, June; Daniels, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group’s recommendations on future research directions in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. The Working Group consisted of leaders and representatives from public and private academic and medical institutions with expertise in a variety of health specialties. They reviewed the literature and discussed the findings as well as their own experiences in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The Working Group made recommendations that were based on scientific importance, the potential likelihood of public health impact, and the feasibility and timeliness for childhood obesity prevention and treatment research. These recommendations are intended to assist investigators in the development of research agendas to advance the knowledge of effective childhood obesity prevention and treatment. PMID:18617353

  9. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations.

  10. HIV prevention research ethics: an introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Celia B

    2014-02-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics represents a sampling of projects fostered through the NIDA-funded Fordham University HIV Prevention Research Ethics Institute. The first three articles employ processes of co-learning to give voice to the experiences of individuals recovering from substance abuse and engaged in sex work who have participated in HIV prevention studies in the United States, India, and the Philippines. The fourth article describes a unique community-based approach to the development of research ethics training modules designed to increase participation of American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) tribal members as partners in research on health disparities. The last two articles focus a critical scholarly lens on two underexamined areas confronting IRB review of HIV research: The emerging and continuously changing ethical challenges of using social media sites for recruitment into HIV prevention research, and the handling of research-related complaints from participants involving perceived research harms or research experiences that do not accord with their initial expectations. Together, the articles in this special issue identify key ethical crossroads and provide suggestions for best practices that respect the values and merit the trust of research participants.

  11. Research Animal Holding Facility Prevents Space Lab Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Healthy environment for both rodents and human researchers maintained. Research animal holding facility (RAHF) and rodent cage prevent solid particles (feces, food bits, hair), micro-organisms, ammonia, and odors from escaping into outside environment during spaceflight. Rodent cage contains compartments for two animals. Provides each drinking-water dispenser, feeding alcove, and activity-monitoring port. Feeding and waste trays removable.

  12. An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajaram, Shireen S.

    2007-01-01

    This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

  13. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  14. Research Animal Holding Facility Prevents Space Lab Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Healthy environment for both rodents and human researchers maintained. Research animal holding facility (RAHF) and rodent cage prevent solid particles (feces, food bits, hair), micro-organisms, ammonia, and odors from escaping into outside environment during spaceflight. Rodent cage contains compartments for two animals. Provides each drinking-water dispenser, feeding alcove, and activity-monitoring port. Feeding and waste trays removable.

  15. Bullying Prevention: A Research Dialogue with Dorothy Espelage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Researcher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Bullying impacts many of our nation's youth, either as victims, bullies, or bystanders. Over the past two decades, we have seen the research on bullying grow as researchers first defined bullying, and then explored how to effectively intervene and prevent it from happening. We know from listening to our readers and board members that there are…

  16. School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

  17. School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

  18. Bullying Prevention: A Research Dialogue with Dorothy Espelage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Researcher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Bullying impacts many of our nation's youth, either as victims, bullies, or bystanders. Over the past two decades, we have seen the research on bullying grow as researchers first defined bullying, and then explored how to effectively intervene and prevent it from happening. We know from listening to our readers and board members that there are…

  19. National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing Research to Prevent Youth Suicide.

    PubMed

    Little, Todd D; Roche, Kathleen M; Chow, Sy-Miin; Schenck, Anna P; Byam, Leslie-Ann

    2016-12-06

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Pathways to Prevention Workshop "Advancing Research to Prevent Youth Suicide" was cosponsored by the NIH Office of Disease Prevention, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, and National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. A multidisciplinary working group developed the agenda, and an evidence-based practice center prepared an evidence report that addressed data systems relevant to suicide prevention efforts through a contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. During the workshop, experts discussed the evidence and participants commented during open forums. After considering the data from the evidence report, expert presentations, and public comments, an independent panel prepared a draft report that was posted on the NIH Office of Disease Prevention Web site for 5 weeks for public comment. This abridged version of the final report provides a road map for optimizing youth suicide prevention efforts by highlighting strategies for guiding the next decade of research in this area. These strategies include recommendations for improving data systems, enhancing data collection and analysis methods, and strengthening the research and practice community.

  20. A call to address complexity in prevention science research.

    PubMed

    Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Ginexi, Elizabeth M; Osgood, Nathaniel D; Mabry, Patricia L

    2013-06-01

    The problems targeted by preventive interventions are often complex, embedded in multiple levels of social and environmental context, and span the developmental lifespan. Despite this appreciation for multiple levels and systems of influence, prevention science has yet to apply analytic approaches that can satisfactorily address the complexities with which it is faced. In this article, we introduce a systems science approach to problem solving and methods especially equipped to handle complex relationships and their evolution over time. Progress in prevention science may be significantly enhanced by applying approaches that can examine a wide array of complex systems interactions among biology, behavior, and environment that jointly yield unique combinations of developmental risk and protective factors and outcomes. To illustrate the potential utility of a systems science approach, we present examples of current prevention research challenges, and propose how to complement traditional methods and augment research objectives by applying systems science methodologies.

  1. Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma to improve risk stratification and develop prevention strategies. | Multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration to enhance understanding of Barrett's esophagus and to prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  2. [Future of scientific research on preventive medicine in Korea].

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Sul

    2006-03-01

    The Korean Society of Preventive Medicine has undergone continuous development, after overcoming the difficult early years, in the 59 years since its establishment in 1947. It has repeatedly upgraded its quality and quantity of research with the first journal edition in 1968 and the continuous increase in publication numbers, scientific articles, joint research projects, intra-field exchanges and participation in various international scientific activities. In the future, we should gather a more extensive collection of opinions regarding the introduction of clinical preventive medicine specialists and prepare for the establishment of a training program for clinical specialists into a preventive medicine residency course. Moreover, we should raise interest in the importance of protecting individual information and maintaining medicine ethics. It's impossible to develop academic activities without cooperation. We need such cooperation with basic medical approaches across a wide range of fields. Furthermore, we should strengthen our cooperation with aspects of clinical and drug epidemiology in many fields including public health, statistics, and dietetics. Finally, we should raise the level of international cooperation with many countries, including North Korea, to prevent diseases and promote health. Preventive medicine is a science in which practice is as important as theory. We must aim to nurture preventive medicine specialists who practice in many areas of society with the goal of preventing diseases, promoting health, improving fertility, and securing healthy elderly life for individuals and the entire population. To this end, we will endeavor to promote both theoretical and practical components of academic development.

  3. National pathways for suicide prevention and health services research.

    PubMed

    Ahmedani, Brian K; Vannoy, Steven

    2014-09-01

    In 2012, the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force (RPTF) released a series of Aspirational Goals (AGs) to decrease suicide deaths and attempts. The RPTF asked experts to summarize what was known about particular AGs and to propose research pathways that would help reach them. This manuscript describes what is known about the benefits of access to health care (AG8) and continuity of care (AG9) for individuals at risk for suicide. Research pathways are proposed to address limitations in current knowledge, particularly in U.S. healthcare-based research. Using a three-step process, the expert panel reviewed available literature from electronic databases. For two AGs, the experts summarized the current state of knowledge, determined breakthroughs needed to advance the field, and developed a series of research pathways to achieve prevention goals. Several components of healthcare provision have been found to be associated with reduced suicide ideation, and in some cases they mitigated suicide deaths. Randomized trials are needed to provide more definitive evidence. Breakthroughs that support more comprehensive patient data collection (e.g., real-time surveillance, death record linkage, and patient registries) would facilitate the steps needed to establish research infrastructure so that various interventions could be tested efficiently within various systems of care. Short-term research should examine strategies within the current healthcare systems, and long-term research should investigate models that redesign the health system to prioritize suicide prevention. Evidence exists to support optimism regarding future suicide prevention, but knowledge is limited. Future research is needed on U.S. healthcare services and system enhancements to determine which of these approaches can provide empirical evidence for reducing suicide. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Research on injury prevention: topics for systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rivara, F; Johansen, J; Thompson, D

    2002-01-01

    Background: Duplication should be avoided in research and only effective intervention programs should be implemented. Objective: To arrive at a consensus among injury control investigators and practitioners on the most important research questions for systematic review in the area of injury prevention. Design: Delphi survey. Methods: A total of 34 injury prevention experts were asked to submit questions for systematic review. These were then collated; experts then ranked these on importance and availability of research. Results: Twenty one experts generated 79 questions. The prevention areas with the most number of questions generated were fires and burns, motor vehicle, and violence (other than intimate partner), and the least were other interventions (which included Safe Communities), and risk compensation. These were ranked by mean score. There was good agreement between the mean score and the proportion of experts rating questions as important or very important. Nine of the top 24 questions were rated as having some to a substantial amount of research available, and 15 as having little research available. Conclusions: The Delphi technique provided a useful means to develop consensus on injury prevention research needs and questions for systematic review. PMID:12120838

  5. Clinical Trial Design for HIV Prevention Research: Determining Standards of Prevention.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Liza; Zwerski, Sheryl

    2015-06-01

    This article seeks to advance ethical dialogue on choosing standards of prevention in clinical trials testing improved biomedical prevention methods for HIV. The stakes in this area of research are high, given the continued high rates of infection in many countries and the budget limitations that have constrained efforts to expand treatment for all who are currently HIV-infected. New prevention methods are still needed; at the same time, some existing prevention and treatment interventions have been proven effective but are not yet widely available in the countries where they most urgently needed. The ethical tensions in this field of clinical research are well known and have been the subject of extensive debate. There is no single clinical trial design that can optimize all the ethically important goals and commitments involved in research. Several recent articles have described the current ethical difficulties in designing HIV prevention trials, especially in resource limited settings; however, there is no consensus on how to handle clinical trial design decisions, and existing international ethical guidelines offer conflicting advice. This article acknowledges these deep ethical dilemmas and moves beyond a simple descriptive approach to advance an organized method for considering what clinical trial designs will be ethically acceptable for HIV prevention trials, balancing the relevant criteria and providing justification for specific design decisions. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Preventing HIV among Young People: research priorities for the future

    PubMed Central

    Pettifor, Audrey; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Hosek, Sybil; DiClemente, Ralph; Rosenberg, Molly; Bull, Sheana; Allison, Susannah; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Cowan, Frances

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the current state of knowledge on the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV in adolescents and to highlight existing gaps and priority areas for future research. Background A disproportionate burden of HIV infections falls on adolescents, a developmental stage marked by unique neural, biological, and social transition. Successful interventions are critical to prevent the spread of HIV in this vulnerable population. Methods We summarized the current state of research on HIV prevention in adolescents by providing examples of successful interventions and best practices, and highlighting current research gaps. Results Adolescent interventions fall into three main categories: biomedical, behavioral, and structural. The majority of current research has focused on individual behavior change, while promising biomedical and structural interventions have been largely understudied in adolescents. Combination prevention interventions may be particularly valuable to this group. Conclusions Adolescents have unique needs with respect to HIV prevention and, thus, interventions should be designed to most effectively reach this population with information and services that will be relevant to them. PMID:23764629

  7. International Collaboration in HIV Prevention Research: Evidence from a Research Seminar in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Batluk, Julia V.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Shaboltas, Alla V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract HIV transmission is a major health concern. Global efforts are necessary to control the spread of infection. International collaborative studies in countries with high rates of new infections are essential for increasing knowledge on the behavioral, social, and biomedical aspects of HIV/AIDS and HIV transmission. Statistics indicate a growing HIV epidemic in Russia. There are alarming proportions of new cases attributed to heterosexual contact, and HIV is increasingly affecting people in the general population who are not part of any traditional high-risk group. Despite recent advances in HIV prevention, data on effective behavioral prevention approaches are limited. There is minimal evidence to suggest which types of prevention will be effective in reducing the risk for HIV transmission among people at risk in the general population. This article presents a review and discussion of an international research seminar, HIV Prevention Research: Evidence-Based Behavioral Approaches. Local and international interdisciplinary researchers gathered for the purposes of exchanging research results and information about ongoing studies, identifying gaps in knowledge, and discussing promising prevention strategies. The overarching goal was to advance HIV prevention research through scientific integration. The seminar provided an excellent platform for building research capacity in interdisciplinary HIV research in Russia and integrating research efforts with the international research community to contribute to HIV prevention research throughout the world. PMID:25430518

  8. Hispanic Youth, Substance Abuse, and Stress: Implications for Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Moncher, Michael S.; Palleja, Josephine; Zayas, Luis H.; Schilling, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Hispanic adolescents are the fastest growing ethnic-minority age group in America. They are also at high risk for drug, alcohol, and tobacco use. In this paper, the authors discuss the etiology of Hispanic adolescents’ substance abuse, as explained in part by psychological stress. Based on the authors’ research and on other data, a model for preventing substance abuse among Hispanic youths is presented. The model draws from coping, acculturation, social learning, and informal network theories. Concluding with a research agenda, the paper calls for descriptive, correlative, and intervention outcome studies to scientifically understand and prevent substance use among Hispanic adolescents. PMID:3066765

  9. Balancing life-style and genomics research for disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Willett, Walter C

    2002-04-26

    Genetic and environmental factors, including diet and life-style, both contribute to cardiovascular disease, cancers, and other major causes of mortality, but various lines of evidence indicate that environmental factors are most important. Overly enthusiastic expectations regarding the benefits of genetic research for disease prevention have the potential to distort research priorities and spending for health. However, integration of new genetic information into epidemiologic studies can help clarify causal relations between both life-style and genetic factors and risks of disease. Thus, a balanced approach should provide the best data to make informed choices about the most effective means to prevent disease.

  10. Bringing Cancer Prevention Research Competencies to the Classroom.

    PubMed

    Yates, Melinda S; Chang, Shine; Lee, Hwa-Young; Faupel-Badger, Jessica; Cameron, Carrie

    2016-06-20

    The field of cancer prevention incorporates research all along the spectrum from basic science studies at the laboratory bench to epidemiology, behavioral sciences, and clinical studies, with the convergence of evidence from these different approaches aimed at implementing public health interventions that reduce the burden of this disease. Due to the necessity of multiple disciplines interacting in order to achieve a public health outcome, traditional discipline-specific training may not be adequately preparing the cancer prevention research workforce. We propose that cancer prevention researchers establish defined professional competencies which will allow them to shape the future directions of the field as well as to collaborate effectively in multidisciplinary teams, disseminate new findings beyond their own scientific circles, and advocate for their implementation for the public good. We previously proposed that these core competencies focus on knowledge of issues in other research fields, interdisciplinary communication, and leadership/teamwork. Here, we describe the reorganization of an existing course to incorporate activities deliberately designed to foster these competencies. We provide details about the course structure, student feedback, and ideas for future versions of this course. We hope this framework will be useful to others who are engaged in the collective effort to develop leaders in the field of cancer prevention research.

  11. National Pathways for Suicide Prevention and Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Ahmedani, Brian K.; Vannoy, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Context In 2012, the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention (Action Alliance)'s Research Prioritization Task Force (RPTF) released a series of Aspirational Goals (AGs) to decrease suicide deaths and attempts. The RPTF asked experts to summarize what was known about particular AGs, and to propose research pathways that would help reach them. This manuscript describes what is known about the benefits of access to health care (AG8) and continuity of care (AG9) for individuals at risk for suicide. Research pathways are proposed to address limitations in current knowledge, particularly in U.S. healthcare-based research. Evidence acquisition Using a three-step process, the expert panel reviewed available literature from electronic databases. For two AGs, the experts summarized the current state of knowledge, determined breakthroughs needed to advance the field, and developed a series of research pathways to achieve prevention goals. Evidence synthesis Several components of healthcare provision have been found to be associated with reduced suicide ideation, and in some cases mitigated suicide deaths. Randomized trials are needed to provide more definitive evidence. Breakthroughs that support more comprehensive patient data collection (e.g., real-time surveillance, death record linkage, patient registries) would facilitate the steps needed to establish research infrastructure so that various interventions could be tested efficiently within various systems of care. Short-term research should examine strategies within the current healthcare systems, and long-term research should investigate models that redesign the health system to prioritize suicide prevention. Conclusions Evidence exists to support optimism regarding future suicide prevention, but knowledge is limited. Future research is needed on U.S. healthcare services and system enhancements to determine which of these approaches can provide empirical evidence for reducing suicide. PMID:25145743

  12. Fall Prevention Research and Practice: A Total Worker Safety Approach

    PubMed Central

    HSIAO, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Slips, trips, and falls (STF) represent a serious hazard to workers and occupants in many industries, homes, and communities. Often, the cause of a STF incident is multifactorial, encompassing human, environmental, and task risk factors. A STF-related disability can greatly diminish the occupational capability and quality of life of individuals in both the workplace and the home. Countering STF hazards and risks both on and off the job and on all aspects of control measures is a “total worker safety” matter, a challenging yet tangible undertaking. As the federal organization responsible for conducting research for the prevention of work-related injuries in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been conducting research on STF controls for some decades. Many NIOSH research outcomes have been utilized for STF prevention in workplaces, with potential for prevention in homes as well. This paper summarizes the concept of total worker safety for STF control, NIOSH priority research goals, major activities, and accomplishments, and some emerging issues on STF. The strategic planning process for the NIOSH research goals and some identified research focuses are applicable to the development and implementation of global STF research goals. PMID:25345424

  13. Cancer Prevention Health Services Research: An Emerging Field

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Tektiridis, Jennifer H.; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    In October 2009, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center hosted a symposium, “Future Directions in Cancer Prevention and Control: Workforce Implications for Training, Practice, and Policy.” This article summarizes discussions and an Internet and literature review by the symposium's Health Services Infrastructure Working Group. We agree on the need for the recognition of Cancer Prevention Health Services Research (CP-HSR) as a unified research field. With advances in cancer screening and increased emphasis on preventive services under healthcare reform, there is a growing need for investigators with both cancer prevention and HSR expertise to consider the comparative effectiveness of cancer screening methods, the cost-effectiveness of early detection technologies, and the accessibility of preventive care for individuals at risk of cancer. Defining CP-HSR as a field will provide investigators with credibility and will serve to draw more researchers to the field. Increasing funding to train individuals in CP-HSR will be important to help meet the anticipated demand for investigators with this specialized multidisciplinary expertise. PMID:22311693

  14. The Struggle to Prevent and Evaluate: Application of Population Attributable Risk and Preventive Fraction to Suicide Prevention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krysinska, Karolina; Martin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Population attributable risk (PAR) estimates have been used in suicide research to evaluate the impact of psychosocial and socioeconomic risk factors, including affective disorders, traumatic life events, and unemployment. A parallel concept of preventive fraction (PF), allowing for estimation of the impact of protective factors and effectiveness…

  15. The Struggle to Prevent and Evaluate: Application of Population Attributable Risk and Preventive Fraction to Suicide Prevention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krysinska, Karolina; Martin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Population attributable risk (PAR) estimates have been used in suicide research to evaluate the impact of psychosocial and socioeconomic risk factors, including affective disorders, traumatic life events, and unemployment. A parallel concept of preventive fraction (PF), allowing for estimation of the impact of protective factors and effectiveness…

  16. Southeast Asian Mental Health: Treatment, Prevention, Services, Training and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owan, Tom Choken, Ed.

    This sourcebook contains 19 papers which discuss the mental health service needs of Southeast Asian refugees in the United States. The volume is divided into five sections: Treatment; Prevention; Services; Training; and Research. The papers (and their authors) are: (1) "Psychiatric Care for Southeast Asians: How Different Is Different?"…

  17. Participatory Research for Chronic Disease Prevention in Inuit Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Kratzmann, Meredith; Reid, Rhonda; Ogina, Julia; Sharma, Sangita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop a community-based chronic disease prevention program for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. Methods: Stakeholders contributed to intervention development through formative research [in-depth interviews (n = 45), dietary recalls (n = 42)], community workshops, group feedback and implementation training. Results: Key cultural themes…

  18. Methodological Review of Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christine E.; Graybeal, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a methodological review of empirical program evaluation research in the area of intimate partner violence prevention. The authors adapted and utilized criterion-based rating forms to standardize the evaluation of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of each study. The findings indicate that the limited amount of…

  19. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - USDA BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed during the spring of 1991 which identified areas for waste reduction at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland. he areas selected for this joint E...

  20. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - USDA BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed during the spring of 1991 which identified areas for waste reduction at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland. he areas selected for this joint E...

  1. Young Children of Substance Abusers. Prevention Research Update No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory; Prendergast, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The stated objectives of this document are: to increase awareness of and clarify the risks facing children of substance abusers (COSAs) through a review of recent empirical research literature; and to examine the prevention and intervention issues involved in providing services to these youth in the schools. The literature review deals mainly with…

  2. Active Early Detection Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Moving from Efficacy to Effectiveness Trials in Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Erica; Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Becker, Carolyn Black

    2013-01-01

    Efficacy trials test whether interventions work under optimal, highly controlled conditions whereas effectiveness trials test whether interventions work with typical clients and providers in real-world settings. Researchers, providers, and funding bodies have called for more effectiveness trials to understand whether interventions produce effects under ecologically valid conditions, which factors predict program effectiveness, and what strategies are needed to successfully implement programs in practice settings. The transition from efficacy to effectiveness with preventive interventions involves unique considerations, some of which are not shared by treatment research. The purpose of this article is to discuss conceptual and methodological issues that arise when making the transition from efficacy to effectiveness research in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, drawing on the experiences of two complimentary research groups as well as the existing literature. We address (a) program of research, (b) intervention design and conceptualization, (c) participant selection and characteristics, (d) providers, (e) context, (f) measurement and methodology, (g) outcomes, (h) cost, and (i) sustainability. We present examples of research in eating disorder prevention that demonstrate the progression from efficacy to effectiveness trials. PMID:21092935

  4. Towards research-tested smartphone applications for preventing breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Thind, Herpreet; Liu, Benyuan; Wilson, Lt Col Candy

    2016-06-01

    Efforts to prevent breast cancer and other chronic illnesses have focused on promoting physical activity, healthy diet and nutrition, and avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption. Smartphone applications (apps) offer a low-cost, effective strategy for breast cancer prevention in women through behavioral change. However, there are currently no research-tested smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention that are suitable for women with varying levels of health literacy and eHealth literacy. In this perspective, we consider modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in women in relation to the development of smartphone apps to promote healthy behaviors associated with breast cancer-risk reduction. First, we provide a summary of breast cancer risk factors that are modifiable through behavioral change including their corresponding relative risk. Second, we discuss scientific issues related to the development of smartphone apps for the primary prevention of breast cancer and offer suggestions for further research. Smartphone apps for preventing breast cancer should be tailored for women at different life stages (e.g., young women, women who are post-menopausal, and older women). Topics such as breastfeeding and oral contraceptives are appropriate for younger women. Weight management, physical activity, avoiding cigarette smoking, and dispelling breast cancer myths are appropriate for women of all ages. As women age, topics such as hormone replacement therapy or comorbid health conditions become more important to address. Apps for breast cancer prevention should be grounded in a behavioral theory or framework and should be suitable for people with varying levels of health literacy. Future developments in smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention should include apps that are tailored for specific cultural, racial, and ethnic groups.

  5. Towards research-tested smartphone applications for preventing breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Thind, Herpreet; Liu, Benyuan; Wilson, Lt Col Candy

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to prevent breast cancer and other chronic illnesses have focused on promoting physical activity, healthy diet and nutrition, and avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption. Smartphone applications (apps) offer a low-cost, effective strategy for breast cancer prevention in women through behavioral change. However, there are currently no research-tested smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention that are suitable for women with varying levels of health literacy and eHealth literacy. In this perspective, we consider modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in women in relation to the development of smartphone apps to promote healthy behaviors associated with breast cancer-risk reduction. First, we provide a summary of breast cancer risk factors that are modifiable through behavioral change including their corresponding relative risk. Second, we discuss scientific issues related to the development of smartphone apps for the primary prevention of breast cancer and offer suggestions for further research. Smartphone apps for preventing breast cancer should be tailored for women at different life stages (e.g., young women, women who are post-menopausal, and older women). Topics such as breastfeeding and oral contraceptives are appropriate for younger women. Weight management, physical activity, avoiding cigarette smoking, and dispelling breast cancer myths are appropriate for women of all ages. As women age, topics such as hormone replacement therapy or comorbid health conditions become more important to address. Apps for breast cancer prevention should be grounded in a behavioral theory or framework and should be suitable for people with varying levels of health literacy. Future developments in smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention should include apps that are tailored for specific cultural, racial, and ethnic groups. PMID:27390745

  6. Are Race, Ethnicity, and Medical School Affiliation Associated With NIH R01 Type Award Probability for Physician Investigators?

    PubMed Central

    Ginther, Donna K.; Haak, Laurel L.; Schaffer, Walter T.; Kington, Raynard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the relationship among NIH R01 Type 1 applicant degree, institution type, and race/ethnicity, and application award probability. Method The authors used 2000–2006 data from the NIH IMPAC II grants database and other sources to determine which individual and institutional characteristics of applicants may affect the probability of applications being awarded funding. They used descriptive statistics and probit models to estimate correlations between race/ethnicity, degree (MD or PhD), and institution type (medical school or other institution), and application award probability, controlling for a large set of observable characteristics. Results Applications from medical schools were significantly more likely than those from other institutions to receive funding, as were applications from MDs versus PhDs. Overall, applications from blacks and Asians were less likely than those from whites to be awarded funding; however, among applications from MDs at medical schools, there was no difference in funding probability between whites and Asians and the difference between blacks and whites decreased to 7.8 percentage points. The inclusion of human subjects significantly decreased the likelihood of receiving funding. Conclusions Compared with applications from whites, applications from blacks have a lower probability of being awarded R01 Type 1 funding, regardless of the investigator’s degree. However, funding probability is increased for applications with MD investigators and for those from medical schools. To some degree, these advantages combine so that applications from black MDs at medical schools have the smallest difference in funding probability compared with those from whites. PMID:23018334

  7. To prevent, react, and rebuild: health research and the prevention of genocide.

    PubMed

    Adler, Reva N; Smith, James; Fishman, Paul; Larson, Eric B

    2004-12-01

    To develop an approach to the primary prevention of genocide, based on established public health-based violence prevention methods derived from a variety of high-risk settings. (1) Peer-reviewed literature in the fields of public health, violence/injury prevention, medicine, economics, sociology, psychology, history, and genocide studies, (2) demographic and health data bases made available by governments and international organizations, (3) reports on recent episodes of genocide published by international and nongovernmental organizations, (4) newspaper and journalistic accounts of recent and past genocides, (5) archival testimonies of genocide victims and perpetrators, and (6) court transcripts of international genocide prosecutions. The research was conducted as a medical-historical policy analysis synthesizing data within the following framework: (1) Assessment of current violence and injury prevention models for suitability in the prevention of extreme, population-wide violence, (2) analysis of morbidity and mortality data to quantify the impact of genocide on the health of populations, (3) making an inventory of the known societal risk factors for genocidal violence, (4) identification of the theorized, modifiable attitudinal risk factors for genocidal behavior within a population health model, and (5) assessment of existing projects targeting primary violence and injury prevention in high risk jurisdictions, for future adaptation within a structured, public health approach. Mortality rates due to genocidal violence are far in excess of other public health emergencies including malaria and HIV/AIDS. The immediate and long-range health consequences of genocide include the sequelae of infectious diseases, organ system failure, and psychiatric disorders, conferring an increased burden of disease on affected populations for multiple subsequent generations. The impact of genocide on local health economies is catastrophic, and the opportunity costs of diverting

  8. HIV prevention research: taking stock and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi; Padian, Nancy; McCormack, Sheena; Wasserheit, Judith

    2010-10-01

    Previous papers in this supplement have reviewed the evidence of the effectiveness of alternative HIV prevention methods from randomized controlled trials and other studies. This paper draws together the main conclusions from these reviews. A conceptual framework is presented that maps the proximal and distal determinants of sexual HIV transmission and helps to identify the stages in the causal pathway at which each intervention approach acts. The advances, gaps and challenges emerging from the reviews of individual intervention methods are summarized and cross-cutting themes identified. Approximately 90% of HIV prevention trials have found no effect on HIV incidence and we explore the alternative explanations for the large number of 'flat' trials. We conclude that there is no single explanation for these flat results, which may be due to interventions that are ineffective or inappropriately targeted or implemented, or to factors related to the design or conduct of trials. We examine the lessons from these flat results and provide recommendations on what should be done differently in future trials. HIV prevention remains of critical importance in an era of expanded delivery of antiretroviral therapy. In future HIV prevention research, it is important that resources are used as efficiently as possible to provide rigorous evidence of the effectiveness of a wider array of complementary prevention tools.

  9. Supportive and Palliative Care Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Supportive and palliative care research includes studies to prevent or treat the acute and chronic symptoms and morbidities related to cancer and its treatment, and to examine the effects of cancer and its treatment on quality of life and psychosocial issues and treatment strategies at the end of life. Active Projects can range from caregiver issues to geriatrics, physical functioning to cognitive dysfunction. | Examining symptoms and morbidities related to cancer, its treatment, quality of life and end of life.

  10. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems Through Health Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-related health policy research is responsible for guiding the implementation of laws and public health policies that have reduced alcohol-related highway injuries and deaths, as well as other alcohol-related problems over the last 40 years. This research, which tests theories about potential policy changes and responds to specific problems, has examined a vast array of prevention programs. This article briefly identifies 10 program categories and highlights four programs to illustrate the scope and complexity of the individual health policy areas within the categories. PMID:23579933

  11. Creating a transatlantic research enterprise for preventing Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Khachaturian, Zaven S; Camí, Jordi; Andrieu, Sandrine; Avila, Jesús; Boada Rovira, Mercè; Breteler, Monique; Froelich, Lutz; Gauthier, Serge; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Khachaturian, Ara S; Kuller, Lewis H; Larson, Eric B; Lopez, Oscar L; Martinez-Lage, José Manuel; Petersen, Ronald C; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Sunyer, Jordi; Vellas, Bruno; Bain, Lisa J

    2009-07-01

    In recognition of the global problem posed by Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, an international think-tank meeting was convened by Biocat, the Pasqual Maragall Foundation, and the Lou Ruvo Brain Institute in February 2009. The meeting initiated the planning of a European Union-North American collaborative research enterprise to expedite the delay and ultimate prevention of dementing disorders. The key aim is to build parallel and complementary research infrastructure that will support international standardization and inter-operability among researchers in both continents. The meeting identified major challenges, opportunities for research resources and support, integration with ongoing efforts, and identification of key domains to influence the design and administration of the enterprise.

  12. Curriculum Development to Increase Minority Research Literacy for HIV Prevention Research: A CBPR Approach

    PubMed Central

    Isler, Malika Roman; Brown, Andre L.; Eley, Natalie; Mathews, Allison; Batten, Kendra; Rogers, Randy; Powell, Noah; White, Caressa; Underwood, Rosalee; MacQueen, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Minority engagement in HIV prevention research can improve the process and products of research. Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) to develop capacity-building tools can promote community awareness of HIV prevention, clinical research, and community roles in research. Objectives We sought to describe a CBPR approach to curriculum development to increase HIV prevention research literacy among Blacks ages 18 to 30. Methods Community members and researchers documented the iterative and participatory nature of curriculum development and lessons learned. Results/Lessons Learned We used specific strategies to support and verify multi-stakeholder engagement, team building, capacity building, and shared decision making. Objective or formal assessments of baseline capacity, ongoing stakeholder engagement, and reinforcing the value of multiple perspectives can promote further equity in curriculum development between researchers and community members. Conclusions The iterative process of shared discussion, development, and consensus building strengthened collaboration between stakeholder groups and produced a stronger, more culturally appropriate curriculum to promote HIV prevention research engagement among young Blacks. PMID:25727984

  13. Implications of the precautionary principle for primary prevention and research.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The precautionary principle (PP) is an extension of the public health presage that prevention is better than cure. The PP has recently achieved new relevance in regard to serious but uncertain threats to human health and the environment and has now entered national and international legislation. However, frameworks for its unambiguous application in practice are yet to be designed. They will depend on legal and cultural circumstances and are likely to involve pluralities of perspectives and stakeholder participation. The rules for causal reasoning and dose dependence need to be addressed and may be conveniently expressed in accordance with probability theory. Although the PP will allow action before convincing evidence is secured, it is not science averse. However, it provides an occasion to review environmental health research strategies, methodologies, and research-reporting traditions. From this perspective, current research is afflicted by important biases and insufficient focus on major environmental health problems.

  14. Preventing Suicide: A Neglected Social Work Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Summary Social workers encounter suicidal clients; however, little is known about social work’s empirical knowledge base for suicide assessment and treatment. In the first comprehensive study of social work’s contribution to the suicide literature, the authors conducted systematic electronic and manual searches for suicide research published in peer-reviewed journals by social work investigators for the period 1980–2006, with the purpose of ascertaining the state of clinical knowledge related to suicide risk factors and effective treatments. These findings reveal that despite recent increases to the study of suicide by social work researchers, they have contributed limited evidenced-based knowledge in the last twenty-six years on the treatment or prevention of suicide or suicide-related behaviours. The article outlines the risk factors for suicide and discusses the implications for clinical social work practice and research. PMID:19924271

  15. What violence prevention research can tell us about developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Tolan, Patrick H; Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews major issues of a developmental psychopathology understanding of youth violence and related insights gained from violence prevention efforts to date. Based in a perspective that emphasizes three areas of knowledge, epidemiology, risk factors and models, and developmental trajectories, findings are reviewed that help clarify theoretical propositions about the developmental patterns, influences, and pathways related to youth violence. Extant research is able to support several major contentions of basic developmental psychopathology theories of youth violence. Support is most robust for risk factors central to prevailing models of the development of youth violence. In addition to noting current knowledge contributions, the review suggests areas of needed additional analytic progress and theoretical extension to refine knowledge and expand understanding of the development of violence risk and its prevention.

  16. To Prevent, React, and Rebuild: Health Research and the Prevention of Genocide

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Reva N; Smith, James; Fishman, Paul; Larson, Eric B

    2004-01-01

    Objective To develop an approach to the primary prevention of genocide, based on established public health-based violence prevention methods derived from a variety of high-risk settings. Data Sources (1) Peer-reviewed literature in the fields of public health, violence/injury prevention, medicine, economics, sociology, psychology, history, and genocide studies, (2) demographic and health data bases made available by governments and international organizations, (3) reports on recent episodes of genocide published by international and nongovernmental organizations, (4) newspaper and journalistic accounts of recent and past genocides, (5) archival testimonies of genocide victims and perpetrators, and (6) court transcripts of international genocide prosecutions. Study Design The research was conducted as a medical-historical policy analysis synthesizing data within the following framework: (1) Assessment of current violence and injury prevention models for suitability in the prevention of extreme, population-wide violence, (2) analysis of morbidity and mortality data to quantify the impact of genocide on the health of populations, (3) making an inventory of the known societal risk factors for genocidal violence, (4) identification of the theorized, modifiable attitudinal risk factors for genocidal behavior within a population health model, and (5) assessment of existing projects targeting primary violence and injury prevention in high risk jurisdictions, for future adaptation within a structured, public health approach. Principal Findings Mortality rates due to genocidal violence are far in excess of other public health emergencies including malaria and HIV/AIDS. The immediate and long-range health consequences of genocide include the sequelae of infectious diseases, organ system failure, and psychiatric disorders, conferring an increased burden of disease on affected populations for multiple subsequent generations. The impact of genocide on local health economies is

  17. An Action Research Project to Determine the Utility of Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support for Elementary School Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia

    2014-01-01

    A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…

  18. An Action Research Project to Determine the Utility of Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support for Elementary School Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia

    2014-01-01

    A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…

  19. Research and dissemination: an ethical way to prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugeri, Francesca; Farabollini, Piero

    2015-04-01

    The Italian landscape is well representative of the dualism risk / resource which, along with its contradictions, characterizes the whole country. In fact, it also poses continuous questions to the further parallel duality defense / management, as we think to those cases where the natural environment is a high source of hazard to the population living in the concerned territory, being at the same time a resource thanks to the beauty expressed by the shapes of the landscape. The knowledge of the environment where we live is an essential process, even for the survival itself; the difficult journey towards science and knowledge, has been characterized, in the various ages, from different approaches, conditioned by the availability of tools and resources, as well as by the particular historical social, political phases. Research on the evolution of phenomena in time and space; their description, representation and analysis; the interaction between mankind and the physical environment, are a priority for geologists. More than 50 years after the tragedy of Vajont, the issues of shared knowledge, awareness, perception of risk, are still pending and the prevention practices are still a dramatically distant goal. It is essential to disseminate scientific heritage, by implementing processes of communication, using new codes and strategies, able to make individuals / communities / society aware of the local context, in order to trigger a consistent and shared virtuous behaviour,. The strategies of participatory democracy are based on this indispensable assumption, aiming at involving the public in policy management, as well as in prevention practices, towards the sustainable development of the territory. A shared ethics, for the world of research as well as for the society, must aim at overcoming the usual and sterile actions of a mere repairing of the damage, in order to reach a shared behaviour, based on a conscious knowledge, which is the essential foundation to start

  20. Research progress of cardioprotective agents for prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Cui, Xiaohai; Yan, Yan; Li, Min; Yang, Ya; Wang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Anthracyclines, including doxorubicin, epirubicin, daunorubicin and aclarubicin, are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of hematologic and solid tumor, including acute leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, soft tissue sarcomas and ovarian cancer. In the cancer treatment, anthracyclines also can be combined with other chemotherapies and molecular-targeted drugs. The combination of anthracyclines with other therapies is usually the first-line treatment. Anthracyclines are effective and potent agents with a broad antitumor spectrum, but may cause adverse reactions, including hair loss, myelotoxicity, as well as cardiotoxicity. We used hematopoietic stimulating factors to control the myelotoxicity, such as G-CSF, EPO and TPO. However, the cardiotoxicity is the most serious side effect of anthracyclines. Clinical research and practical observations indicated that the cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines is commonly progressive and irreversible. Especially to those patients who have the first time use of anthracyclines, the damage is common. Therefore, early detection and prevention of anthracyclines induced cardiotoxicity are particularly important and has already aroused more attention in clinic. By literature review, we reviewed the research progress of cardioprotective agents for prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. PMID:27508008

  1. The role of churches in disease prevention research studies.

    PubMed Central

    Lasater, T M; Wells, B L; Carleton, R A; Elder, J P

    1986-01-01

    The design of a large-scale research project (The Health and Religion Project) in which church volunteers deliver behavior change programming on major cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, elevated blood pressure, elevated serum cholesterol, excess weight, and physical inactivity) is described. A total of 20 churches (Roman Catholic, Baptist, and Episcopal) were recruited throughout Rhode Island and randomly assigned to five experimental conditions. These conditions were designed to test the necessity of training special task forces to coordinate efforts within each church and to test the relative efficacy of high or low levels of professional (paid staff) involvement. Churches have many characteristics that are compatible with behavior change programming for primary prevention of chronic diseases. However, there have been very few research studies of churches engaging in primary prevention activities. Thus, the first step was to test the churches' receptivity to participation in this type of project. To do this, all churches in Rhode Island were surveyed by mail and phone. Those that met several eligibility criteria were randomly selected for recruitment into the study. The high receptivity of the churches was demonstrated by a response rate of 65 percent (20 of 31). This readiness is bolstered by the fact that all of the 20 churches that originally began the study have remained involved for at least 2 1/2 years. PMID:3083467

  2. Challenges and Lessons Learned From a Prevention Research Center Partnership.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Lesley; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard

    2017-03-01

    For more than a decade, the West Virginia Prevention Research Center, Mid-Ohio Valley Health Department, and the Wood County Schools have built and sustained a partnership to reduce health disparities and promote population health. Specifically, this partnership has contributed significantly to the peer-reviewed literature on children's physical activity, fitness, and academic achievement, as well as identifying possible areas for physical activity interventions (within the school and community settings) that would improve health and academic outcomes. This case study describes the partnership among a University Prevention Research Center, a local health department, and a local school system. In the description of the partnership, this paper sequentially explores characteristics of the partnership that were advantageous or challenging over time. It details the interface among state and local partner interest, resources, and goals all directed toward enhancing children's physical activity, fitness, cardiovascular risk, and academic improvement. The paper concludes with lessons learned that may contribute to the science and practice of multilevel collaborations in child health.

  3. Impact of the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network: Accelerating the Translation of Research Into Practice.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Fernandez, Maria E; Friedman, Daniela B; Hannon, Peggy A; Leeman, Jennifer; Moore, Alexis; Olson, Lindsay; Ory, Marcia; Risendal, Betsy; Sheble, Laura; Taylor, Vicky M; Williams, Rebecca S; Weiner, Bryan J

    2017-03-01

    The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN) is a thematic network dedicated to accelerating the adoption of evidence-based cancer prevention and control practices in communities by advancing dissemination and implementation science. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, CPCRN has operated at two levels: Each participating network center conducts research projects with primarily local partners as well as multicenter collaborative research projects with state and national partners. Through multicenter collaboration, thematic networks leverage the expertise, resources, and partnerships of participating centers to conduct research projects collectively that might not be feasible individually. Although multicenter collaboration is often advocated, it is challenging to promote and assess. Using bibliometric network analysis and other graphical methods, this paper describes CPCRN's multicenter publication progression from 2004 to 2014. Searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science in 2014 identified 249 peer-reviewed CPCRN publications involving two or more centers out of 6,534 total. The research and public health impact of these multicenter collaborative projects initiated by CPCRN during that 10-year period were then examined. CPCRN established numerous workgroups around topics such as: 2-1-1, training and technical assistance, colorectal cancer control, federally qualified health centers, cancer survivorship, and human papillomavirus. This paper discusses the challenges that arise in promoting multicenter collaboration and the strategies that CPCRN uses to address those challenges. The lessons learned should broadly interest those seeking to promote multisite collaboration to address public health problems, such as cancer prevention and control.

  4. About the Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group conducts and supports prevention and early detection research on colorectal, esophageal, liver, pancreatic, and hematolymphoid cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. |

  5. Qualitative research methods: key features and insights gained from use in infection prevention research.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jane; Creswell, John W; Damschroder, Laura; Kowalski, Christine P; Krein, Sarah L

    2008-12-01

    Infection control professionals and hospital epidemiologists are accustomed to using quantitative research. Although quantitative studies are extremely important in the field of infection control and prevention, often they cannot help us explain why certain factors affect the use of infection control practices and identify the underlying mechanisms through which they do so. Qualitative research methods, which use open-ended techniques, such as interviews, to collect data and nonstatistical techniques to analyze it, provide detailed, diverse insights of individuals, useful quotes that bring a realism to applied research, and information about how different health care settings operate. Qualitative research can illuminate the processes underlying statistical correlations, inform the development of interventions, and show how interventions work to produce observed outcomes. This article describes the key features of qualitative research and the advantages that such features add to existing quantitative research approaches in the study of infection control. We address the goal of qualitative research, the nature of the research process, sampling, data collection and analysis, validity, generalizability of findings, and presentation of findings. Health services researchers are increasingly using qualitative methods to address practical problems by uncovering interacting influences in complex health care environments. Qualitative research methods, applied with expertise and rigor, can contribute important insights to infection prevention efforts.

  6. Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, James O

    2008-03-01

    Given the disease and cost burdens, Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine. Growing evidence in this special issue and beyond indicates that simultaneous and sequential interventions can be effective. The challenge for the future is to make such interventions more effective, cost effective and less demanding. Co-variation represents one innovative approach in which effective change on one treated behavior increases the odds of effective action on a second targeted behavior. Co-variation can occur when all behaviors received full treatment, when one receives full treatment and the others receive minimal treatment and when only one behavior is treated and others co-vary without treatment. Integrative treatments represent another innovation in which higher order constructs drive change on multiple behaviors related to the construct and treatment has to be only on one higher order behavior. A more integrated approach to research and practice involves new paradigms complementing established paradigms. Multiple behaviors proactively treated in populations at home or work by computer-based and stage-based interventions designed to generate co-variation that produces greater impacts can complement traditional paradigms that treat single behaviors in individual patients in clinics by clinicians with action-oriented modular interventions designed for specific behaviors to produce significant efficacy. More inclusive research to support more inclusive practices can hopefully lead to more inclusive care.

  7. Drug treatment as HIV prevention: a research update.

    PubMed

    Metzger, David S; Woody, George E; O'Brien, Charles P

    2010-12-01

    Drug use continues to be a major factor fueling the global epidemic of HIV infection. This article reviews the current literature on the ability of drug treatment programs to reduce HIV transmission among injection and noninjection drug users. Most data come from research on the treatment of opiate dependence and provide strong evidence on the effectiveness of medication-assisted treatment for reducing the frequency of drug use, risk behaviors, and HIV infections. This has been a consistent finding since the epidemic began among diverse populations and cultural settings. Use of medications other than methadone (such as buprenorphine/naloxone and naltrexone) has increased in recent years with promising data on their effectiveness as HIV prevention and as new treatment options for communities heavily affected by opiate use and HIV infection. However, few treatment interventions for stimulant abuse and dependence have shown efficacy in reducing HIV risk. The cumulative literature provides strong support of drug treatment programs for improving access and adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Drug users in substance abuse treatment are significantly more likely to achieve sustained viral suppression, making viral transmission less likely. Although there are challenges to implementing drug treatment programs for maximum impact, the scientific literature leaves no doubt about the effectiveness of drug treatment as an HIV prevention strategy.

  8. Performing Drug Safety Research During Pregnancy and Lactation: Biomedical HIV Prevention Research as a Template.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Richard H; Noguchi, Lisa; Brown, Gina; Piper, Jeanna; Watts, D Heather

    2016-07-01

    Evidence-based guidance regarding use of nearly all pharmaceuticals by pregnant and lactating women is limited. Models for performing research may assist in filling these knowledge gaps. Internationally, reproductive age women are at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Susceptibility to HIV infection may be increased during pregnancy, and risk of maternal-child transmission is increased with incident HIV infection during pregnancy and lactation. A multidisciplinary meeting of experts was convened at the United States National Institutes of Health to consider paradigms for drug research in pregnancy and lactation applicable to HIV prevention. This report summarizes the meeting proceedings and describes a framework for research on candidate HIV prevention agent use during pregnancy and lactation that may also have broader applications to other pharmaceutical products.

  9. Research infrastructures, policies and the 'web of prevention': the ethical implications of inadequate research environments.

    PubMed

    Bezuidenhout, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The dual-use potential of scientific research refers to the possibility that any beneficial scientific research may be misused for nefarious purposes by a third party. This potential within the life sciences has led to much discussion regarding ways to raise awareness and limit possible harm. The concept of a 'web of prevention' as a multifaceted system for addressing this potential for harm provides a comprehensive method of conceptualizing a system of controls in the life sciences. The web of prevention involves multiple stakeholders, from diverse backgrounds such as science, public health, security studies and governance. Research within the life sciences relies on a number of different structures, such as waste disposal and border controls, which provide a comprehensive environment for scientists to work in. The web of prevention relies on the assumption of these systems working to support any further initiatives that are proposed. Unfortunately, in many countries around the world, these systems are insufficiently addressed, which may raise ethical problems. Structural problems may undermine the web of prevention and alter the responsibilities attributed to the individual scientist within this system. Examples from sub-Saharan Africa illustrate two pertinent structural difficulties, and these are discussed in relation to ethical responsibilities.

  10. [The relationship between research and design of AIDS prevention program].

    PubMed

    Pina, J A; Jimenez, S; Mondragon, V

    1992-01-01

    The global threat of AIDS requires massive public educational campaigns that employ social and behavioral sciences such as psychology, sociology, and anthropology because sexual behavior possesses a social dimension. Research is concerned with what stimulates behavioral change, what are the prerequisites of learned behavior, and what enables personal control over the environment and future. Educational programs designing strategies for AIDS prevention require social and behavioral science content and input. Interdisciplinary provides general principles with psychological, social, and cultural aspects of human behavior. Without knowledge about psychological processes (thinking, perception, speech, aspects of personality, and interactive behavior) and social processes (economic conditions, social networks, and resources) which are implicated in health problems and also in AIDS, these educational programs cannot produce credible results. These programs and their subsequent implementation require their application in practice in a systemic and consistent fashion. Evaluations are also needed to make sure that the applied processes for behavioral change conform to methodological criteria that ensure their effectiveness. These types of studies are more complex than pure AIDS research which is aimed at finding a cure.

  11. Workplace Outcomes in Work-Disability Prevention Research: A Review with Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Young, Amanda E; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Boot, Cécile R L; Chan, Chetwyn; de Porras, David Gimeno Ruiz; Linton, Steven J

    2016-12-01

    Introduction Outcome assessment is a central issue in work disability prevention research. The goal of this paper was to (1) ascertain the most salient workplace outcomes; (2) evaluate the congruence between business and science perspectives; (3) illustrate new perspectives on assessing longitudinal outcomes; and (4) provide recommendations for advancing outcome evaluation in this area of research. Methods The authors participated in a year-long collaboration that culminated in a sponsored 3-day conference, "Improving Research of Employer Practices to Prevent Disability", held October 14-16, 2015, in Hopkinton, MA, USA. The collaboration included a topical review of the literature, group conference calls to identify key areas and challenges, drafting of initial documents, review of industry publications, and a conference presentation that included feedback from peer researchers and a question/answer session with a special panel of knowledge experts with direct employer experience. Results Numerous workplace work-disability prevention outcome measures were identified. Analysis indicated that their applicability varied depending on the type of work disability the worker was experiencing. For those who were working, but with health-related work limitations (Type 1), predominant outcomes were measures of productivity, presenteeism, and work-related limitations. For those who were off work due to a health condition (Type 2), predominant outcomes were measures of time off work, supervisor/employee interactions, and return-to-work (RTW) preparation. For those who had returned to work (Type 3), predominant outcomes were measures of presenteeism, time until RTW, percentage of work resumption, employment characteristics, stigma, work engagement, co-worker interactions, and sustained or durable RTW. For those who had withdrawn from the labor force (Type 4), predominant outcomes were cost and vocational status. Discussion Currently available measures provide a good basis to

  12. Male circumcision for HIV prevention: Current research and programmatic issues

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Helen A; Dickson, Kim E; Agot, Kawango; Hankins, Catherine A

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that adult male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV acquisition in men by about 60%. In this paper we review recent data on the association of male circumcision and HIV/STI in men and women. This includes a summary of data showing some evidence of an effect of male circumcision against genital ulcer disease, HSV-2 infection, HPV and Trichomonas vaginalis, but not Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhea in men. Longitudinal studies among HIV discordant couples suggest that male circumcision may provide some direct long-term benefit to women, which may start after complete wound-healing. Circumcision may also protect against HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men and practice unprotected anal intercourse (either exclusively or predominantly), although this data is not consistent. To date, there is little evidence from the few studies available of either unsafe practices or reported increases in risky behaviour, or adverse changes in sexual satisfaction and function. As countries in southern and eastern Africa scale up services, operational research will likely be useful to iteratively improve programme delivery and impact, while identifying the best methods of integrating safe male circumcision services into HIV prevention strategies and strengthening health systems. PMID:21042054

  13. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  14. School-Based Obesity Prevention: Research, Challenges, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Geraldine M.; Volpe, Stella L.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood overweight is one of the most serious problems currently affecting individual and public health. Schools represent a logical site for prevention because children spend 6-8 hours a day there during most of the year. Although reports of school-based overweight or obesity prevention programs exist, there are no summaries specifying which…

  15. Research priorities in suicide prevention: an examination of Australian-based research 2007-11.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jo; Pirkis, Jane

    2014-02-01

    Suicide prevention, including among youth, has been a national priority in Australia for some time. Yet despite this, rates of suicide, and related behaviour, remain high. The aim of this study was to review all suicide-prevention research that had been conducted in Australia between January 2007 and December 2011, with a specific emphasis on studies relating to young people, in order to determine whether or not we are prioritising the sort of research that can adequately inform policy development and guide 'best practice'. Data were collected from two sources. First, several electronic databases were searched in October 2012 in order to identify published journal articles relating to suicide, written by Australian authors. Second, summary data obtained from the National Health and Medical Research Council, the Australian Rotary Health Research Fund and the Australian Research Council were examined in order to identify currently funded studies that relate to suicide. Studies were then classified according to whether or not they had a focus on youth, and according to research type, type of suicide-related behaviour under investigation and method of suicide. There were 224 articles published and 12 grants funded that specifically focussed on suicide-related behaviour over the period January 2007 to December 2011. Of these, 47 articles (21%) and five funded grants (42%) focussed on young people. Youth studies, in particular those reported in the published articles, tended to be epidemiological in nature and only six of the published articles (13%) and two of the funded grants related to intervention studies. Although the focus on youth is welcome, the lack of intervention studies is disappointing. Given that rates of suicide and related behaviour remain high, there is a clear need for a stronger body of intervention research that can inform national policy, if we are to successfully develop effective approaches to reducing suicide risk. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC

  16. [Early childhood prevention: implications for applied research and quality management].

    PubMed

    Roos, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    The importance of prevention has received increasing recognition the world over. In Germany, laws are being enacted and initiatives are taken to make prevention a firmly anchored and integral part of public health care. Preventive measures in early childhood encompass a great breadth and variety of resources. However, any specific preventive measure can only be justified to the extent that it has been proven to be efficient and effective. In Germany small collection of studies have shown the efficacy of psychosocial prevention and early intervention programs. Quality standards can only be determined when empirical evidence has demonstrated the prerequisites for ensuring successful treatment. Criteria for success must include life quality or academic success (school achievement). The stability of the family must also be assessed both before and after the intervention.

  17. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  18. NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER AND THE TIDEWATER INTERAGENCY POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Langley Research Center (LaRC) is an 807-acre research center devoted to aeronautics and space research. aRC has initiated a broad-based pollution prevention program guided by a Pollution Prevention Program Plan and implement...

  19. NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER AND THE TIDEWATER INTERAGENCY POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Langley Research Center (LaRC) is an 807-acre research center devoted to aeronautics and space research. aRC has initiated a broad-based pollution prevention program guided by a Pollution Prevention Program Plan and implement...

  20. Percentile ranking and citation impact of a large cohort of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded cardiovascular R01 grants.

    PubMed

    Danthi, Narasimhan; Wu, Colin O; Shi, Peibei; Lauer, Michael

    2014-02-14

    Funding decisions for cardiovascular R01 grant applications at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) largely hinge on percentile rankings. It is not known whether this approach enables the highest impact science. Our aim was to conduct an observational analysis of percentile rankings and bibliometric outcomes for a contemporary set of funded NHLBI cardiovascular R01 grants. We identified 1492 investigator-initiated de novo R01 grant applications that were funded between 2001 and 2008 and followed their progress for linked publications and citations to those publications. Our coprimary end points were citations received per million dollars of funding, citations obtained <2 years of publication, and 2-year citations for each grant's maximally cited paper. In 7654 grant-years of funding that generated $3004 million of total National Institutes of Health awards, the portfolio yielded 16 793 publications that appeared between 2001 and 2012 (median per grant, 8; 25th and 75th percentiles, 4 and 14; range, 0-123), which received 2 224 255 citations (median per grant, 1048; 25th and 75th percentiles, 492 and 1932; range, 0-16 295). We found no association between percentile rankings and citation metrics; the absence of association persisted even after accounting for calendar time, grant duration, number of grants acknowledged per paper, number of authors per paper, early investigator status, human versus nonhuman focus, and institutional funding. An exploratory machine learning analysis suggested that grants with the best percentile rankings did yield more maximally cited papers. In a large cohort of NHLBI-funded cardiovascular R01 grants, we were unable to find a monotonic association between better percentile ranking and higher scientific impact as assessed by citation metrics.

  1. Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescents. NIDA Research Monograph 63. A RAUS Review Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Catherine S., Ed.; Battjes, Robert, Ed.

    Papers from the meeting "Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents" which focused on social skills and social inoculation approaches and also included a contrasting cognitive-developmental approach are presented in this document. These papers are included: (1) "Overview of Drug Abuse Prevention Research," (Catherine…

  2. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH ONGOING - EPA'S RISK REDUCTION ENGINEERING LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory is to advance the understanding, development and application of engineering solutions for the prevention or reduction of risks from environmental contamination. This mission is accomplished through basic and applied researc...

  3. A Concise History of School-Based Smoking Prevention Research: A Pendulum Effect Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…

  4. A Concise History of School-Based Smoking Prevention Research: A Pendulum Effect Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…

  5. Promoting a social justice approach to prevention: future directions for training, practice, and research.

    PubMed

    Hage, Sally M; Kenny, Maureen E

    2009-01-01

    The final paper of this special issue devoted to prevention and social justice calls for prevention practitioners and researchers to redirect their energy and resources to creating genuine social change. To begin, the contribution of the American Psychological Association ethical code to social justice-oriented prevention work is explored, and significant ethical issues that need to be further addressed by the current code are briefly outlined. Second, we discuss the implications of a social justice approach to prevention for training, practice and research. Finally, we invite readers to take the lead in putting a social justice prevention approach into practice.

  6. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  7. Research Priorities for Economic Analyses of Prevention: Current Issues & Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, D. Max; Hill, Laura Griner; Kuklinski, Margaret R.; Jones, Damon E.

    2013-01-01

    In response to growing interest in economic analyses of prevention efforts, a diverse group of prevention researchers, economists, and policy analysts convened a scientific panel, on “Research Priorities in Economic Analysis of Prevention” at the 19th annual conference of the Society for Prevention Research. The panel articulated four priorities that, if followed in future research, would make economic analyses of prevention efforts easier to compare and more relevant to policymakers, and community stakeholders. These priorities are: (1) increased standardization of evaluation methods, (2) improved economic valuation of common prevention outcomes, (3) expanded efforts to maximize evaluation generalizability and impact, as well as (4) enhanced transparency and communicability of economic evaluations. In this paper we define three types of economic analyses in prevention, provide context and rationale for these four priorities as well as related sub-priorities, and discuss the challenges inherent in meeting them. PMID:23963624

  8. Prevalence and Implementation Fidelity of Research-Based Prevention Programs in Public Schools. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosse, Scott; Williams, Barbara; Hagen, Carol A.; Harmon, Michele; Ristow, Liam; DiGaetano, Ralph; Broene, Pamela; Alexander, Debbie; Tseng, Margaret; Derzon, James H.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents descriptive information about the prevalence and quality of implementation of research-based programs from the Study of the Implementation of Research-Based Programs to Prevent Youth Substance Abuse and School Crime. The study found that, while schools reported implementing a large number of prevention programs during the…

  9. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Linking Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Marilyn J.; Moncloa, Fe; Gong, Elizabeth J.

    2000-01-01

    Assessments of schools and community agencies with teen pregnancy prevention programs (n=23) in three California counties were conducted using surveys, interviews, and site visits. Best practices identified included youth development programs, Involvement of family and other caring adults, and culturally appropriate and locally relevant…

  10. Screening and Brief Interventions: Research Update. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Developed in 1993 at the University of Washington, Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) is a preventive intervention program to reduce drinking and enhance awareness about alcohol-related issues. BASICS targets college students who are considered at risk because of heavy drinking behaviors. The brief intervention…

  11. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.   The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  12. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  13. Prevention of missing data in clinical research studies.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Stephen R; Leon, Andrew C; Otto, Michael W; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2006-06-01

    Missing data is a problem that is ubiquitous to all clinical studies and a source of multiple problems from an analytic point of view (reduced statistical power, increased the type I error, bias) Statistical approaches have been developed to analyze data collected from trials with missing data. Understanding and implementing the appropriate statistical technique is essential but should be differentiated from preventive approaches that are designed to reduce rates of missing data In this article, we draw attention to these preventive efforts. Seven steps to minimizing the amount of missing data are defined as documentation, training, monitoring reports, patient contact, data entry and management, pilot studies, and communication. Although the implementation of these approaches is time consuming and costly, the overall quality of the study is increased. Despite efforts devoted to areas, no study is without missing data. Once the study is completed, it is essential to assess the pattern of missing data and apply the appropriate statistical analysis.

  14. Policy research for disease prevention: challenges and practical recommendations.

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, R C; Newschaffer, C J; Ali-Abarghoui, F

    1997-01-01

    Policy approaches to health promotion and disease prevention hold great potential, as several community-based projects have illustrated. Policy interventions, despite their wide-spread use, frequently lack a systematic framework for implementation and evaluation. The authors propose a four-stage framework for the formation and evaluation of public health policy. The stages are identification of health risks and preventive options; intervention development; policy development; and policy enactment and assurance. A strong focus on evaluation is included within the framework. In addition, a series of practical implications and recommendations are given under the broad headings of evaluation issues and linkages. It is hoped that the issues described will lead to more systematic implementation and evaluation of public health policy measures. PMID:9184498

  15. Research perspectives: The 2013 AAOS/ORS research symposium on Bone Quality and Fracture Prevention.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Eve; Lane, Joseph M; Boskey, Adele L

    2014-07-01

    Bone fracture resistance is determined by the amount of bone present ("bone quantity") and by a number of other geometric and material factors grouped under the term "bone quality." In May 2013, a workshop was convened among a group of clinicians and basic science investigators to review the current state of the art in Bone Quality and Fracture Prevention and to make recommendations for future directions for research. The AAOS/ORS/OREF workshop was attended by 64 participants, including two representatives of the National Institutes of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and 13 new investigators whose posters stimulated additional interest. A key outcome of the workshop was a set of recommendations regarding clinically relevant aspects of both bone quality and quantity that clinicians can use to inform decisions about patient care and management. The common theme of these recommendations was the need for more education of clinicians in areas of bone quality and for basic science studies to address specific topics of pathophysiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of altered bone quality. In this report, the organizers with the assistance of the speakers and other attendees highlight the major findings of the meeting that justify the recommendations and needs for this field.

  16. ACL Injury Prevention: What Does Research Tell Us?

    PubMed

    Nessler, Trent; Denney, Linda; Sampley, Justin

    2017-06-27

    Mechanisms leading to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have been identified, yet re-injury or a secondary injury persists in the athletic population. The purpose of this review is to identify risk factors associated with ACL injury and investigate programs to prevent injury. Faulty mechanics during dynamic movement that cause excessive valgus force at the knee increases the risk of ACL injury. Faulty mechanics may be a result of lateral displacement of the trunk, unequal limb loading, and lack of control to avoid the valgus knee position. Altered movements that place the ACL at risk are best identified in a fatigued state; however, could be recognized in a standard dynamic assessment. The faulty movement patterns are modifiable and should be addressed in an injury prevention program. Prevention programs include various modes of exercise such as plyometrics, neuromuscular training, and strength training. This review concludes that those programs which utilize neuromuscular training and strength training at a young age show the most promise in reducing ACL injuries. An ongoing thorough dynamic examination is necessary for all athletes while adjusting the intervention program in order to decrease the risk of ACL injury.

  17. Standards of Evidence for Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Scale-up Research in Prevention Science: Next Generation.

    PubMed

    Gottfredson, Denise C; Cook, Thomas D; Gardner, Frances E M; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Howe, George W; Sandler, Irwin N; Zafft, Kathryn M

    2015-10-01

    A decade ago, the Society of Prevention Research (SPR) endorsed a set of standards for evidence related to research on prevention interventions. These standards (Flay et al., Prevention Science 6:151-175, 2005) were intended in part to increase consistency in reviews of prevention research that often generated disparate lists of effective interventions due to the application of different standards for what was considered to be necessary to demonstrate effectiveness. In 2013, SPR's Board of Directors decided that the field has progressed sufficiently to warrant a review and, if necessary, publication of "the next generation" of standards of evidence. The Board convened a committee to review and update the standards. This article reports on the results of this committee's deliberations, summarizing changes made to the earlier standards and explaining the rationale for each change. The SPR Board of Directors endorses "The Standards of Evidence for Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Scale-up Research in Prevention Science: Next Generation."

  18. A feminist perspective on risk factor research and on the prevention of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Piran, Niva

    2010-01-01

    This review utilizes a feminist lens to discuss risk factor research and prevention work in the field of eating disorders. The article suggests that feminist informed risk factor research needs to consider gender as it intersects with other social variables as a relevant higher level risk factor and examine its relationship to individual level risk factors such as the internalization of thinness or negative body image. The article also highlights the key elements of participatory approaches and systemic changes to feminist informed prevention work. Prevention work conducted to date suggests the relevance of these elements to achieving behavioral changes in prevention work.

  19. Divorce Workshops: An Opportunity for Preventive Education & Epidemiological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John; And Others

    This paper describes the program and research related to the "Making It" series of 18 multi-media divorce workshops co-sponsored by a community mental health center (CMHC) and a chapter of Parents without Partners (PWP). An introductory section discusses the rationale for larger scale community intervention and epidemiological research. The…

  20. Divorce Workshops: An Opportunity for Preventive Education & Epidemiological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John; And Others

    This paper describes the program and research related to the "Making It" series of 18 multi-media divorce workshops co-sponsored by a community mental health center (CMHC) and a chapter of Parents without Partners (PWP). An introductory section discusses the rationale for larger scale community intervention and epidemiological research. The…

  1. Improving the performance of interorganizational networks for preventing chronic disease: identifying and acting on research needs.

    PubMed

    Willis, Cameron D; Riley, Barbara L; Taylor, Martin; Best, Allan

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the role of interorganizational networks in chronic disease prevention and an action research agenda for promoting understanding and improvement. Through a model of engaged scholarship, leaders with expertise and experience in chronic disease prevention networks helped shape research directions focused on network value, governance, and evolution. The guiding principles for facilitating this research include applying existing knowledge, developing network-appropriate methods and measures, creating structural change, promoting an impact orientation, and fostering cultural change.

  2. PERVAPORATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to describe research activities with USDPA's NRMRL Prevaporation Team pertaining to industrial waste. The presentation will provide a brief introduction to pervaporation technology theory and applications. Pervaporation is a membrane separ...

  3. PERVAPORATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to describe research activities with USDPA's NRMRL Prevaporation Team pertaining to industrial waste. The presentation will provide a brief introduction to pervaporation technology theory and applications. Pervaporation is a membrane separ...

  4. About the Cancer Biomarkers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Biomarkers Research Group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. Activities include development and validation of promising cancer biomarkers, collaborative databases and informatics systems, and new technologies or the refinement of existing technologies. NCI DCP News Note Consortium on Imaging and Biomarkers (CIB) Created: Eight Grants Awarded to Improve Accuracy of Cancer Screening, Detection, and Diagnosis |

  5. Retreat from Nuremberg: can we prevent unethical medical research?

    PubMed

    Horner, J S

    1999-09-01

    The prosecution of doctors guilty of appalling human rights abuses at Nuremberg was achieved on the mistaken premise that the research community already had a code of conduct which, if applied, would have made such abuses impossible. In fact, not only was there no such code but when the 'Nuremberg Code' was published after the trial it continued to be ignored by many doctors for some thirty years afterwards. Indeed its central principle of informed consent has itself been eroded by subsequent international agreements on the ethics of medical research. This review shows that the mechanisms for approval of medical research which have now been promulgated in England and Wales, in practice, are applied on a very variable basis. Research in vulnerable groups unable to give fully informed consent such as children, prisoners and the incompetent elderly require the application of more rigorous standards of ethical control than those currently in operation. The use of vulnerable populations in the developing world and the application of international standards to them is also considered. A number of suggestions for improvements in current procedures in all these areas are put forward. The proposals for the United Kingdom would meet the requirements of the European Convention on bioethical research and the recent government consultation paper on medical treatment and research in incompetent adults.

  6. Toward Rigorous Idiographic Research in Prevention Science: Comparison Between Three Analytic Strategies for Testing Preventive Intervention in Very Small Samples

    PubMed Central

    Pineo, Thomas Z.; Maldonado Molina, Mildred M.; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial prevention research lacks evidence from intensive within-person lines of research to understand idiographic processes related to development and response to intervention. Such data could be used to fill gaps in the literature and expand the study design options for prevention researchers, including lower-cost yet rigorous studies (e.g., for program evaluations), pilot studies, designs to test programs for low prevalence outcomes, selective/indicated/ adaptive intervention research, and understanding of differential response to programs. This study compared three competing analytic strategies designed for this type of research: autoregressive moving average, mixed model trajectory analysis, and P-technique. Illustrative time series data were from a pilot study of an intervention for nursing home residents with diabetes (N=4) designed to improve control of blood glucose. A within-person, intermittent baseline design was used. Intervention effects were detected using each strategy for the aggregated sample and for individual patients. The P-technique model most closely replicated observed glucose levels. ARIMA and P-technique models were most similar in terms of estimated intervention effects and modeled glucose levels. However, ARIMA and P-technique also were more sensitive to missing data, outliers and number of observations. Statistical testing suggested that results generalize both to other persons as well as to idiographic, longitudinal processes. This study demonstrated the potential contributions of idiographic research in prevention science as well as the need for simulation studies to delineate the research circumstances when each analytic approach is optimal for deriving the correct parameter estimates. PMID:23299558

  7. Great Minds Don't Always Think Alike: The Challenges of Conducting Substance Abuse Prevention Research in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Susan L.; Ringwalt, Chris; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Hanley, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Prevention researchers and school personnel lack a common understanding concerning the opportunities and burdens of school-based drug prevention research. In this article, we review issues related to researching substance abuse prevention programs in school settings, and assess challenges related to recruitment, communication, research design,…

  8. Investigators' - Site Coordinators' Opportunity for Research Excellence (I-SCORE) Workshop | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The DCP Organ Systems Research Groups develop, support and oversee clinical cancer prevention trials and promote participation by all populations. The trials are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of promising new preventive agents, the utility of novel biomarkers and the value of innovative technologies to identify premalignant lesions. The Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials program was created to facilitate the efficient implementation of these studies by teams of multidisciplinary investigators. |

  9. [Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Epidemiology, treatment, prevention and diagnostic research].

    PubMed

    Perronne, C; de Truchis, P

    1995-01-01

    The recent augmentation of the prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is related to the high incidence of tuberculosis in HIV infected people, especially in those with low social status and no medical care; several nosocomial epidemics of MDR tuberculosis were observed in American and European institutions where HIV-infected persons were hospitalized; these MDR tuberculosis were associated with a high mortality-rate and frequent nosocomial transmission to immunocompromised contacts and care workers. The rapid institution of an adequate treatment with ancient antituberculosis agents (cycloserin, capreomycin, aminoglycosides) and/or new drugs (rifabutine, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, etc) is necessary to avoid mortality and to diminish transmission. Prevention of MDR tuberculosis transmission is very important: patient isolation, adequate and prolonged therapy, better detection of resistance with gene-amplification methods (PCR) which are under investigation.

  10. Translating cancer prevention and control research into the community setting: workforce implications.

    PubMed

    Harrop, J Phil; Nelson, David E; Kuratani, Darrah Goo; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Paskett, Electra D

    2012-05-01

    A gap exists between cancer prevention research and its translation into community practice. Two strategies to reduce this gap are community-based participatory research (CBPR) and dissemination research. CBPR offers an avenue to engage academic and community partners, thereby providing mechanisms for joint learning and application of knowledge. Dissemination research examines the movement of evidence-based public health and clinical innovations to practice settings. While applying these approaches may reduce the gap between research and practice, the cancer prevention workforce may be inadequate in size, insufficiently trained, lack resources and incentives, or face structural barriers to effectively participate in CBPR and disseminate evidence-based research findings into practice. Information on translating cancer prevention information to communities and workforce implications was obtained from a panel of experts and through a review of the literature on CBPR and dissemination research. The expert panel and literature review identified major barriers to successfully conducting CBPR and dissemination research in community settings. Barriers included inadequate policies; insufficient networking and communication infrastructures; unsupportive research cultures, climates, and mindsets; inadequate researcher and practitioner education; and limited CBPR and dissemination research with adequate study designs. No specific estimates of the cancer prevention workforce were found; however, indirect evidence for a shortfall were identified. We recommend expanding CBPR training for academic and community partners; increasing funding for dissemination research and practice; supporting proven partnerships; and providing strategic coordination for government agencies, research institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to foster better dissemination of information and integration of community-based cancer prevention and control programs and practices

  11. Ethics of medical care and clinical research: a qualitative study of principal investigators in biomedical HIV prevention research.

    PubMed

    Haire, Bridget G

    2013-04-01

    In clinical research there is a tension between the role of a doctor, who must serve the best interests of the patient, and the role of the researcher, who must produce knowledge that may not have any immediate benefits for the research participant. This tension is exacerbated in HIV research in low and middle income countries, which frequently uncovers comorbidities other than the condition under study. Some bioethicists argue that as the goals of medicine and those of research are distinct, it is a mistake for researchers to assume therapeutic responsibilities while engaging in research. Others propose that there is a duty of care, but disagree as to how this is limited and specified. In this qualitative study, principal investigators from HIV prevention trials discuss their experience of providing medical benefits to participants within the context of conducting research into HIV biomedical prevention technologies. They describe the limitations imposed at times by funders and at times by infrastructure constraints, and canvass the importance of ancillary care provision and capacity building in trial communities. The views of the principal investigators are compatible with the perspective that there is a duty of care, limited by the nature of the research, the depth of the relationship between research and participant, and the capacity of the research site. The therapeutic orientation in HIV prevention trial appears to be indivisible from competent research practise by making concrete and appropriate benefits available to trial participants and their communities that support rather than compete with local infrastructure.

  12. Prevention

    Treesearch

    Kerry Britton; Barbara Illman; Gary Man

    2010-01-01

    Prevention is considered the most cost-effective element of the Forest Service Invasive Species Strategy (USDA Forest Service 2004). What makes prevention difficult is the desire to maximize free trade and the resulting benefits to society while, at the same time, protecting natural resources. The role of science is to first identify which commodities pose an...

  13. Dentists’ practice patterns regarding caries prevention: results from a dental practice-based research network

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yoko; Kakudate, Naoki; Sumida, Futoshi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gordan, Valeria V

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to (1) quantify dentists' practice patterns regarding caries prevention and (2) test the hypothesis that certain dentists' characteristics are associated with these practice patterns. Design The study used a cross-sectional study design consisting of a questionnaire survey. Participants The study queried dentists who worked in outpatient dental practices who were affiliated with the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Japan, which seeks to engage dentists in investigating research questions and sharing experiences and expertise (n=282). Measurement Dentists were asked about their practice patterns regarding caries preventive dentistry. Background data on patients, practice and dentist were also collected. Results 38% of dentists (n=72) provided individualised caries prevention to more than 50% of their patients. Overall, 10% of the time in daily practice was spent on caries preventive dentistry. Dentists who provided individualised caries prevention to more than 50% of their patients spent significantly more time on preventive care and less time on removable prosthetics treatment, compared to dentists who did not provide individualised caries prevention. Additionally, they provided oral hygiene instruction, patient education, fluoride recommendations, intraoral photographs taken and diet counselling to their patients significantly more often than dentists who did not provide individualised caries prevention. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that the percentage of patients interested in caries prevention and the percentage of patients who received hygiene instruction, were both associated with the percentage of patients who receive individualised caries prevention. Conclusions We identified substantial variation in dentists' practice patterns regarding preventive dentistry. Individualised caries prevention was significantly related to provision of other preventive services and to having a higher percentage

  14. Guides to Pollution Prevention: Research and Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Office of Research and Development.

    This guide provides an overview of waste generating processes and operations that occur in educational or research institutions and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling. A broad spectrum of waste chemicals in laboratories, art studios, print shops, maintenance, and other operations can be…

  15. NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) is a national network of cancer care investigators, providers, academia, and other organizations that care for diverse populations in health systems. View the list of publications from NCORP. | Clinical Trials network of cancer care professionals who care for diverse populations across the U.S.

  16. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  17. Social Action Research and Prevention of Unplanned Pregnancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Bruce E.; And Others

    Many teenagers have unplanned, unwanted pregnancies. Research has shown that effective contraceptive use is hampered by a lack of knowledge and by negative attitudes. Providing accurate information does not necessarily lead to contraceptive use. This two-phase study attempted to assess contraceptive behavior, knowledge, and beliefs. In the first…

  18. Livestock and Agribusiness Pollution Prevention and Waste Utilization Research

    SciTech Connect

    Revey, W.R.

    1999-03-04

    We found that a process could be assembled and implemented consisting of common and existing equipment to effectively utilize materials traditionally seen as waste problems. Some of the additional applied research activities planned at Northwest include the actual implementation and application of such a system on campus to demonstrate and utilize biomass materials available on and around the campus as energy resources.

  19. POLLUTION PREVENTION FOR CLEANER AIR: EPA'S AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribu...

  20. POLLUTION PREVENTION FOR CLEANER AIR: EPA'S AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribu...

  1. Research, Policy, and the Federal Role in Prevention Initiatives for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripple, Carol H.; Zigler, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Reviews five federal policy-based initiatives for children and families (Project Head Start; lead poisoning prevention; Medicaid; Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children; and Earned Income Tax Credit), discussing aspects of federal prevention program design, implementation, policy, and research. (Contains references.) (SM)

  2. Drug Abuse Prevention Research Needs among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Joseph E.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes the literature regarding alcohol and drug abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives noting four major knowledge gaps in the literature. Discusses abuse prevention efforts among American Indians and notes research questions to be considered regarding primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention efforts. Makes eight recommendations…

  3. From Research to Intervention: Substance Abuse Prevention among Hispanic Adolescents. Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Merrill; Garcia, Roberto

    Although there is a strong experiential sense among people in the substance abuse prevention field that Hispanic adolescents may be particularly at-risk for the abuse of licit and illicit drugs, this concern has produced only limited research or culturally sensitive, ethnically targeted prevention efforts. The following factors hinder the…

  4. 3 CFR - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Prevention of Gun Violence Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 16, 2013 Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is...

  5. Oregon Research Institute's Smoking Prevention Program: Helping Students Resist Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severson, Herbert; And Others

    1981-01-01

    In 1980, Oregon Research Institute implemented Programs to Advance Teen Health (PATH), a smoking prevention program that helps seventh and ninth graders learn to resist social pressures to smoke. This report describes PATH and discusses the reasons behind its smoking prevention strategy. The report first notes the importance of preventing…

  6. Abduction Prevention Training: A Review of Findings and Issues for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Olsen, Laurie A.

    1996-01-01

    This study reviewed the research evaluating procedures for teaching abduction prevention skills to children. Examination of types of skills, types of abduction scenarios, training procedures, and assessment strategies indicated that children can learn abduction prevention skills through behavioral skills training procedures, and that individual…

  7. Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. The following are some key findings: (1) Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect,…

  8. Advances in the prevention of oral disease; the role of the International Association for Dental Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Since its foundation in 1920, prevention of oral disease has been a priority for the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) and the commitment of the organisation to the subject area is clearly expressed in its mission to improve oral health worldwide. The IADR has a current global membership of almost 11,000 people who share an interest in oral and craniofacial research. Contribution of IADR This paper provides an overview of the contribution of IADR to supporting research and associated activities in disease prevention, in disseminating knowledge and in advocating for better oral health for all citizens of the world. It looks back over time and summarises current supports. Two more recent initiatives in disease prevention are described in more detail, the Global Oral Health Inequalities Research Agenda (GOHIRA) and the proceedings at the 2013 World Conference on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD, 2013), a joint initiative between IADR and WHO. Through organisational structure, meetings, publications, scientific groups and networks and external relations, IADR has been at the forefront of advancing research for the prevention of oral diseases. Conclusions IADR is committed to ensuring research advances get disseminated and implemented and at the same time encourages and advocates for basic, clinical and translational research across disciplines so that we may uncover the major breakthrough in prevention of oral disease. PMID:26391001

  9. School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention: A Review of Program Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William J.

    1985-01-01

    Classifies school-based prevention activities into the following five educational domains: (1) cognitive; (2) affective/interpersonal; (3) behavioral; (4) environmental; and (5) therapeutic. Discusses research findings for each domain. (Author/LHW)

  10. School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention: A Review of Program Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William J.

    1985-01-01

    Classifies school-based prevention activities into the following five educational domains: (1) cognitive; (2) affective/interpersonal; (3) behavioral; (4) environmental; and (5) therapeutic. Discusses research findings for each domain. (Author/LHW)

  11. Pollution prevention: Implications for engineering design, research, and education

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, S.K.

    1989-05-01

    The role of engineers in the design of environmentally compatible products and industrial plants is discussed. Research is needed in the fields of waste reduction, development of biodegradable plastics, and in the reduction of particulate emissions by modification of particle size of pulverized coal. It is recommended that pollution control concepts be included in the normal engineering curricula of the separate disciplines and that selection and design of manufacturing processes and products include environmental constraints right from the start.

  12. Dr. Worta McCaskill-Stevens Named Recipient of AACR Minorities in Cancer Research Award | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Worta McCaskill-Stevens, MD, MS, Chief of the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group, NCI Division of Cancer Prevention, was named the recipient of the 2016 American Association for Cancer Research Jane Cooke Wright Memorial Lectureship. |

  13. The use of theory based semistructured elicitation questionnaires: formative research for CDC's Prevention Marketing Initiative.

    PubMed Central

    Middlestadt, S E; Bhattacharyya, K; Rosenbaum, J; Fishbein, M; Shepherd, M

    1996-01-01

    Through one of its many HIV prevention programs, the Prevention Marketing Initiative, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention promotes a multifaceted strategy for preventing the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among people less than 25 years of age. The Prevention Marketing Initiative is an application of marketing and consumer-oriented technologies that rely heavily on behavioral research and behavior change theories to bring the behavioral and social sciences to bear on practical program planning decisions. One objective of the Prevention Marketing Initiative is to encourage consistent and correct condom use among sexually active young adults. Qualitative formative research is being conducted in several segments of the population of heterosexually active, unmarried young adults between 18 and 25 using a semistructured elicitation procedure to identify and understand underlying behavioral determinants of consistent condom use. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of this type of qualitative research methodology in designing effective theory-based behavior change interventions. Issues of research design and data collection and analysis are discussed. To illustrate the methodology, results of content analyses of selected responses to open-ended questions on consistent condom use are presented by gender (male, female), ethnic group (white, African American), and consistency of condom use (always, sometimes). This type of formative research can be applied immediately to designing programs and is invaluable for valid and relevant larger-scale quantitative research. PMID:8862153

  14. CDC's research portfolio in older adult fall prevention: a review of progress, 1985-2005, and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Sleet, David A; Moffett, Daphne B; Stevens, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among adults age 65 and older. Population models predict steep increases in the 65 and older population bands in the next 10-15 years and in turn, public health is bracing for increased fall rates and the strain they place on health care systems and society. To assess progress in fall prevention, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a research portfolio review to examine the quality, relevance, outcomes and successes of the CDC fall prevention program and its impact on public health. A peer review panel was charged with reviewing 20 years of funded research and conducting a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for extramural and intramural research activities. Information was collected from grantees (via a survey instrument), staff were interviewed, and progress reports and products were reviewed and analyzed. CDC has invested over $24,900,000 in fall-related research and programs over 20 years. The portfolio has had positive impacts on research, policies and programs, increasing the public health injury prevention workforce, and delivering effective fall prevention programs. Public health agencies, practitioners, and policy makers recognize that while there are some evidence-based older adult fall prevention interventions available, many remain unused or are infeasible to implement. Specific recommendations across the public health model, include: additional research in gathering robust epidemiologic data on trends and patterns of fall-related injuries at all levels; researching risk factors by setting or sub-population; developing and testing innovative interventions; and engaging in translation and dissemination research on best practices to increase uptake and adoption of fall prevention strategies. CDC has responded to a number of suggestions from the portfolio review including: funding translation research of a proven Tai Chi fall intervention; beginning to

  15. Research on resilience and its implications for tobacco prevention.

    PubMed

    Braverman, M T

    1999-01-01

    The concept of resilience refers to successful developmental processes in children who grow up in stressful or high-risk environments. Protective factors that increase the likelihood of positive developmental outcomes, as identified by longitudinal studies, include personal-level characteristics of autonomy, self-regulation, and problem-solving skill; family characteristics of warm but demanding relationships with parents, high parental expectations, and affectionate bonds with other family members; and community characteristics of social support, effective schools, and the availability of opportunities at major life transition points. Challenges include several cross-study ambiguities in the fundamental concepts, as well as potential misapplications of this research by policymakers who believe that children can be made 'invulnerable' to environmental stressors. It is recommended that: (1) Researchers should seek to understand those cases that do not conform to predictive statistical models; clinically oriented, qualitative methodologies can be useful for this purpose. (2) Greater focus needs to be placed on identifying individual differences in children's attraction to tobacco and their motivations for use. (3) Tobacco use can be studied as an instrumental strategy on the part of adolescents for dealing with critical developmental tasks. (4) Understanding the development of stress and coping processes in children can shed light on their use of tobacco as a coping mechanism, particularly in later phases of the uptake process. Overall, the study of resilience suggests a broad lifespan view of development, in which tobacco use is just one aspect of adaptation to critical developmental tasks.

  16. Design, methods, and rationale in the Hypertension Prevention Trial. Hypertension Prevention Trial Research Group.

    PubMed

    Meinert, C L; Borhani, N O; Langford, H G

    1989-09-01

    The Hypertension Prevention Trial (HPT) was a randomized, controlled, multicenter (four clinics, four resource centers) trial designed to test the feasibility of achieving and sustaining dietary changes in the intake of calories, sodium, and potassium and to assess the effect of those changes on blood pressure in a normotensive population. The trial involved 841 men and women (plus a test cohort of 78) who, at the first baseline (BL) examination, were in the age range of 25-49 years and had diastolic blood pressure (DBP) greater than or equal to 76 but less than 100 mm Hg (average of two readings), and at the examination prior to randomization (BL 2) had DBP greater than or equal to 78 but less than 90 mm Hg (also averaged). Participants were randomly assigned to a control treatment group (no dietary counseling) or to one of four dietary treatment groups involving counseling designed to reduce calorie intake, reduce sodium intake, reduce sodium and calorie intake, and reduce sodium and increase potassium intake. Dietary counseling was provided primarily in group settings and was aimed at changing participants' shopping, cooking, and eating habits related to a designated treatment assignment. The effect of dietary counseling was measured through changes in urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, changes in body weight, and changes in reported food intake based on 24-hour food records. Blood pressure changes during the 3-year course of followup were based on measurements taken at 6-month intervals from enrollment using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. This chapter provides a general description of the design and methods of the HPT and the underlying rationale for decisions affecting the design.

  17. Practicalities and Research Considerations for Conducting Childhood Obesity Prevention Interventions with Families.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Rachel A; Collins, Clare E; Hesketh, Kylie D; Young, Myles D; Burrows, Tracy L; Magarey, Anthea M; Brown, Helen L; Hinkley, Trina; Perry, Rebecca A; Brennan, Leah; Spence, Alison C; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-11-08

    Internationally, childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Given the established difficulties in treating obesity, designing and evaluating effective obesity prevention interventions are research priorities. As parents play a crucial role in establishing positive health behaviours in children, they are a key target for child obesity prevention programs. However, recruiting and engaging parents in such interventions can be a considerable challenge for researchers and practitioners. Members of the 'Parenting, Child Behaviour and Well-being' stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN) have considerable and varied expertise in conducting such interventions and can provide insights into addressing these challenges. This paper aims to highlight considerations regarding the design, implementation, and evaluation of obesity prevention interventions with families and provide practical insights and recommendations for researchers and practitioners conducting family-based research in this area. Case studies of three family-based interventions conducted by ACAORN members are highlighted to provide examples and contextualise the recommendations proposed.

  18. 75 FR 18837 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... misconduct in grant applications 1 R01 DK072026-01 and 1 R01 DK072026-01A2 submitted to the National... Respondent engaged in misconduct in science, 42 CFR 50.102, in NIDDK, NIH, grant application 1 R01...

  19. The greater Denver Latino Cancer Prevention/Control Network. Prevention and research through a community-based approach.

    PubMed

    Flores, Estevan; Espinoza, Paula; Jacobellis, Jillian; Bakemeier, Richard; Press, Norma

    2006-10-15

    The Latino/a Research & Policy Center (LRPC), at the University of Colorado (UC) at Denver and Health Sciences Center built the Greater Denver Latino Cancer Prevention Network, a successful cancer prevention network, in 6 Denver metro area counties. The Network consisted of 23 Latino community-based organizations, health clinics, social service agencies, faith-based groups, and employee-based organizations; 2 migrant health clinics; and 14 scientific partners including the UC Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, and the American Cancer Society. The Network focused on 5 significant cancers: breast, cervical, lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer. The Steering Committee initiated a review process for junior researchers that resulted in 5 NCI-funded pilot projects. Pilot projects were conducted with various Latino populations. The Network developed community education and health promotion projects including the bilingual outreach play The Cancer Monologues. The Network's partnership also started and held 2 annual health fairs, Dia de la Mujer Latina/Day of the Latina Woman, and annual health prevention summits. The Special Population Network (SPN) adapted and revised a clinical trials education outreach module that reached Network community partners. SPN partners recruited Latino/a students to cancer research through a6-week NCI training program held yearly at the UCHSC campus. The Network methodology of bringing together the Latino community with the scientific community increased the level of awareness of cancer in the Latino community and increased cancer research and the level of engagement of the scientific partners with the Latino community. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  20. Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Elizabeth B.; David, Susan L.; Rao, Suman A.

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) published the first edition of "Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide" to share the latest NIDA-funded prevention research findings with parents, educators, and community leaders. The guide introduced the concept of "research-based prevention" with questions…

  1. 33 CFR 151.3000 - Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act. 151.3000 Section 151.3000... Definition of Marine Debris for the Purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act § 151.3000 Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and...

  2. 33 CFR 151.3000 - Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act. 151.3000 Section 151.3000... Definition of Marine Debris for the Purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act § 151.3000 Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and...

  3. 33 CFR 151.3000 - Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act. 151.3000 Section 151.3000... Definition of Marine Debris for the Purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act § 151.3000 Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention,...

  4. 33 CFR 151.3000 - Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act. 151.3000 Section 151.3000... Definition of Marine Debris for the Purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act § 151.3000 Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention,...

  5. The role of experimental research in the study of the prevention of malignant tumours

    PubMed Central

    Shabad, L. M.

    1962-01-01

    The author discusses the role of experimental oncological research in the prevention of malignant neoplasms, with special reference to the conclusions drawn from such research in the USSR. He points out that experimental research can contribute to cancer prevention in two ways: (a) by supplying information on the occurrence of carcinogenic substances in the human environment—in the atmosphere, in industry and in foodstuffs—and thus providing a rational basis for the introduction of measures to prevent cancer from arising; and (b) by throwing light on the series of tissue changes that may precede the development of the malignant tumour and hence making it possible, through the timely treatment and cure of known precancerous conditions, to prevent cancer from developing. PMID:13911073

  6. The future workforce in cancer prevention: advancing discovery, research, and technology.

    PubMed

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Scheurer, Michael E; Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Clague, Jessica; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Woods, Kendra V

    2012-05-01

    As part of a 2-day conference on October 15 and 16, 2009, a nine-member task force composed of scientists, clinicians, educators, administrators, and students from across the USA was formed to discuss research, discovery, and technology obstacles to progress in cancer prevention and control, specifically those related to the cancer prevention workforce. This article summarizes the task force's findings on the current state of the cancer prevention workforce in this area and its needs for the future. The task force identified two types of barriers impeding the current cancer prevention workforce in research, discovery, and technology from reaching its fullest potential: (1) limited cross-disciplinary research opportunities with underutilization of some disciplines is hampering discovery and research in cancer prevention, and (2) new research avenues are not being investigated because technology development and implementation are lagging. Examples of impediments and desired outcomes are provided in each of these areas. Recommended solutions to these problems are based on the goals of enhancing the current cancer prevention workforce and accelerating the pace of discovery and clinical translation.

  7. The Future Workforce in Cancer Prevention: Advancing Discovery, Research, and Technology

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne. D.; Scheurer, Michael. E.; Faupel-Badger, Jessica. M.; Clague, Jessica.; Weitzel, Jeffrey.; Woods, Kendra. V.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a 2 day conference on October 15 and 16, 2009, a nine-member task force composed of scientists, clinicians, educators, administrators, and students from across the United States was formed to discuss research, discovery, and technology obstacles to progress in cancer prevention and control, specifically those related to the cancer prevention workforce. This article summarizes the task force’s findings on the current state of the cancer prevention workforce in this area and its needs for the future. The task force identified two types of barriers impeding the current cancer prevention workforce in research, discovery, and technology from reaching its fullest potential: 1) limited cross-disciplinary research opportunities with underutilization of some disciplines is hampering discovery and research in cancer prevention, and 2) new research avenues are not being investigated because technology development and implementation are lagging. Examples of impediments and desired outcomes are provided in each of these areas. Recommended solutions to these problems are based on the goals of enhancing the current cancer prevention workforce and accelerating the pace of discovery and clinical translation. PMID:22314794

  8. Introducing students to cancer prevention careers through programmed summer research experiences.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Carrie; Collie, Candice L; Chang, Shine

    2012-06-01

    Training programs in cancer prevention research play an important role in addressing impending shortages in the cancer prevention workforce. Published reports on the effectiveness of these programs, however, often focus on a program's success in recruiting and retaining a demographically diverse trainee population or on academic successes of the trainees, in general. Little has been reported about programs' success in stimulating long-term interest in cancer prevention per se, whether in research or in other choATsen applications. We set out to examine the success of our National Cancer Institute (NCI) R25E American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)-funded summer research experiences program for undergraduates at fostering awareness of and career interest in cancer prevention. Fourteen summer research undergraduates participated in a 12-week structured training program which featured a variety of experiences designed to create awareness of and interest in cancer prevention and cancer prevention research as career tracks. Experiences included career talks by faculty, informational interviewing of role model faculty, career exploration workshops, and structured interactions with graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and junior faculty. Students were surveyed about the effectiveness of the program via SurveyMonkey 8 months after completing the program. This article reports on the results of the survey and analyzes the relative effectiveness of the various types of programming strategies used. Implications for use in training program development are discussed.

  9. Introducing Students to Cancer Prevention Careers through Programmed Summer Research Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Collie, Candice L.; Chang, Shine

    2013-01-01

    Training programs in cancer prevention research play an important role in addressing impending shortages in the cancer prevention workforce. Published reports on the effectiveness of these programs, however, often focus on a program’s success in recruiting and retaining a demographically diverse trainee population or on academic successes of the trainees, in general. Little has been reported about programs’ success in stimulating long-term interest in cancer prevention per se, whether in research or in other choATsen applications. We set out to examine the success of our National Cancer Institute (NCI) R25E American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)-funded summer research experiences program for undergraduates at fostering awareness of and career interest in cancer prevention. Fourteen summer research undergraduates participated in a 12-week structured training program which featured a variety of experiences designed to create awareness of and interest in cancer prevention and cancer prevention research as career tracks. Experiences included career talks by faculty, informational interviewing of role model faculty, career exploration workshops, and structured interactions with graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and junior faculty. Students were surveyed about the effectiveness of the program via SurveyMonkey 8 months after completing the program. This article reports on the results of the survey and analyzes the relative effectiveness of the various types of programming strategies used. Implications for use in training program development are discussed. PMID:22147335

  10. Application of Virtual Reality Methods to Obesity Prevention and Management Research

    PubMed Central

    Persky, Susan

    2011-01-01

    There is a great need for empirical evidence to inform clinical prevention and management of overweight and obesity. Application of virtual reality (VR) methods to this research agenda could present considerable advantages. Use of VR methods in basic and applied obesity prevention and treatment research is currently extremely limited. However, VR has been employed for social and behavioral research in many other domains where it has demonstrated validity and utility. Advantages of VR technologies as research tools include the ability to situate hypothetical research scenarios in realistic settings, tight experimental control inherent in virtual environments, the ability to manipulate and control any and all scenario elements, and enhanced behavioral measurement opportunities. The means by which each of these features could enhance obesity prevention and management research is discussed and illustrated in the context of an example research study. Challenges associated with the application of VR methods, such as technological limitations and cost, are also considered. By employing experimental VR methods to interrogate clinical encounters and other health-related situations, researchers may be able to elucidate causal relationships, strengthen theoretical models, and identify potential targets for intervention. In so doing, researchers stand to make important contributions to evidence-based practice innovation in weight management and obesity prevention. PMID:21527102

  11. From research to nationwide implementation: the impact of AHRQ's HAI prevention program.

    PubMed

    Battles, James B; Farr, Stacy L; Weinberg, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ's) Patient Safety Program is responsive to AHRQ's mission of quality improvement in healthcare. As part of this program, AHRQ has invested in projects to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), and funding has increased significantly over the last decade. AHRQ-funded projects have focused on generating new knowledge and promoting the nationwide implementation of proven HAI prevention measures in diverse healthcare settings. To provide insight to AHRQ's HAI prevention strategies by: first, discussing the context and structure of AHRQ's HAI research portfolio and funding decisions; secondly, describing the process of prevention practice implementation and lessons learned; and third, explaining the outcomes and national impact of the AHRQ program. In the early 2000s, AHRQ identified HAIs as an important and preventable public health threat and built their HAI-prevention portfolio based on National Action Plan priorities, available resources, advice from experts, and the state of science. This paper describes major contributions that have emerged from AHRQ-funded HAI projects. The projects examined, many of which focus on implementation of HAI prevention practices, yield useful lessons learned for future implementation and research endeavors and show significant impact of AHRQ's program in reducing HAIs.

  12. Conducting Nonsexist Research, Prevention, and Treatment with Fathers and Mothers: A Call for a Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Vicky

    1996-01-01

    Examines why fathers tend to be underrepresented in research on child and family functioning. Recommendations for encouraging more nonsexist family research that includes both mothers and fathers are explored, and the implications for the inclusion of fathers in prevention and clinical interventions are discussed. (GR)

  13. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  14. Putting Research into Practice in School Violence Prevention and Intervention: How Is School Counseling Doing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Charles; Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a national survey of practicing school counselors regarding their knowledge of current research in school violence prevention and intervention. The authors describe four active areas of youth violence research over the past two decades and present findings that suggest that a potentially dangerous gap may exist…

  15. Concerns about Research and Prevention Strategies in Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminson, Mary; Jureidini, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This article examines three motives for research into Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy child abuse, which are to enhance treatment, to understand the psychopathology of perpetrators, and to find interventions to prevent its occurrence. It argues that only the first justification is valid and proposes that research energy be directed toward…

  16. OPPORTUNITIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT THE 33/50 PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document compiles information on existing pollution prevention methods and dentifies research needs. It helps define areas for research to increase application of existing methods and create new approaches for source reduction and recovery/recycling of 17 chemical groups ta...

  17. Culturally Competent Substance Abuse Prevention Research among Rural Native American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubben, Jerry

    A study examined the process of evaluating family-oriented substance abuse prevention efforts in three Native American communities. In general, the Native communities exhibited a lack of commitment to academic evaluation research due to concerns over who would gain from such research, how much value was placed on Indian opinions, the level of…

  18. The Begun Center for Violence Prevention Research and Education at Case Western Reserve University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Daniel J.; Singer, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Established in the year 2000, the Begun Center for Violence Prevention Research and Education is a multidisciplinary center located at a school of social work that engages in collaborative, community-based research and evaluation that spans multiple systems and disciplines. The Center currently occupies 4,200 sq. ft. with multiple offices and…

  19. Concerns about Research and Prevention Strategies in Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminson, Mary; Jureidini, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This article examines three motives for research into Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy child abuse, which are to enhance treatment, to understand the psychopathology of perpetrators, and to find interventions to prevent its occurrence. It argues that only the first justification is valid and proposes that research energy be directed toward…

  20. Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

  1. Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

  2. A Plan for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention Research: Seven Key Policy Investigative Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Thomas J.; Szekeres,Gregory

    2004-01-01

    Although HIV prevention research has accomplished much over the last 2 decades, significant challenges remain. The accomplishments have included rapid progression through various stages of research--from descriptive to clinical trials--and the fielding of several Phase 3 trials with biological endpoints. The challenges include developing…

  3. A Plan for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention Research: Seven Key Policy Investigative Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Thomas J.; Szekeres,Gregory

    2004-01-01

    Although HIV prevention research has accomplished much over the last 2 decades, significant challenges remain. The accomplishments have included rapid progression through various stages of research--from descriptive to clinical trials--and the fielding of several Phase 3 trials with biological endpoints. The challenges include developing…

  4. OPPORTUNITIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT THE 33/50 PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document compiles information on existing pollution prevention methods and dentifies research needs. It helps define areas for research to increase application of existing methods and create new approaches for source reduction and recovery/recycling of 17 chemical groups ta...

  5. The Begun Center for Violence Prevention Research and Education at Case Western Reserve University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Daniel J.; Singer, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Established in the year 2000, the Begun Center for Violence Prevention Research and Education is a multidisciplinary center located at a school of social work that engages in collaborative, community-based research and evaluation that spans multiple systems and disciplines. The Center currently occupies 4,200 sq. ft. with multiple offices and…

  6. Accelerating Progress in Eating Disorders Prevention: A Call for Policy Translation Research and Training.

    PubMed

    Austin, S Bryn

    2016-01-01

    The public health burden of eating disorders is well documented, and over the past several decades, researchers have made important advances in the prevention of eating disorders and related problems with body image. Despite these advances, however, several critical limitations to the approaches developed to date leave the field far from achieving the large-scale impact that is needed. This commentary provides a brief review of what achievements in prevention have been made and identifies the gaps that limit the potential for greater impact on population health. A plan is then offered with specific action steps to accelerate progress in high-impact prevention, most compellingly by promoting a shift in priorities to policy translation research and training for scholars through the adoption of a triggers-to-action framework. Finally, the commentary provides an example of the application of the triggers-to-action framework as practiced at the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, a program based at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and Boston Children's Hospital. Much has been achieved in the nearly 30 years of research carried out for the prevention of eating disorders and body image problems, but several critical limitations undermine the field's potential for meaningful impact. Through a shift in the field's priorities to policy translation research and training with an emphasis on macro-environmental influences, the pace of progress in prevention can be accelerated and the potential for large-scale impact substantially improved.

  7. HIV Prevention Among Diverse Young MSM: Research Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Wong, Frank Y

    2016-06-01

    There remains a profound need for innovative and effective interventions designed for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) generally, and racial and ethnic minority YMSM, YMSM living in rural communities, and low-income YMSM, particularly, to prevent HIV and improve health outcomes in the United States. This introduction to this theme issue, "Behavioral HIV Prevention Interventions for Diverse YMSM," of AIDS Education and Prevention identifies some of the research needs, priorities, and opportunities that emerged during a seminal NIMHD-sponsored workshop on HIV prevention behavioral interventions for diverse YMSM. It provides researchers, practitioners, and federal partners guidance in next steps to reduce the impact of the HIV epidemic among YMSM. The needs, priorities, and opportunities identified serve as a foundation to push both the science and the practice of HIV prevention forward. We recognize that considerably more research is needed, and this issue highlights intervention research-where we have been and where we should go. With the disparities faced by YMSM, we must act rapidly to do the work it will take to meet their prevention needs, reduce infections, and save lives.

  8. Increasing Participation in Prevention Research: Strategies for Youth, Parents and Schools

    PubMed Central

    Hooven, Carole; Walsh, Elaine; Willgerodt, Mayumi; Salazar, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Topic Subject participation is a critical concern for clinicians and researchers involved in prevention programs, especially for intensive interventions that require randomized assignment and lengthy youth and parent involvement. Purpose This paper describes details of an integrated approach used to recruit and retain at-risk high school youth, their parents and high schools to two different comprehensive “indicated” prevention programs. Sources used Parent and youth recruitment and retention data for the two studies is provided in support of the approach described. A coordinated, multi-level approach, organized around cross-cutting issues, is described in detail as a response to the challenges of including vulnerable populations in intervention research. Conclusion Methods are relevant to nurse clinicians who deliver prevention programs, and important to clinical research that relies upon adequate participation in research programs. PMID:21810129

  9. Translating Genetic Research into Preventive Intervention: The Baseline Target Moderated Mediator Design.

    PubMed

    Howe, George W; Beach, Steven R H; Brody, Gene H; Wyman, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.

  10. Translating Genetic Research into Preventive Intervention: The Baseline Target Moderated Mediator Design

    PubMed Central

    Howe, George W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Brody, Gene H.; Wyman, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach. PMID:26779062

  11. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C; Farrar, John T; Fillingim, Roger B; Gilron, Ian; Markman, John D; Oaklander, Anne Louise; Polydefkis, Michael J; Raja, Srinivasa N; Robinson, James P; Woolf, Clifford J; Ziegler, Dan; Ashburn, Michael A; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; George, Steven Z; Goli, Veeraindar; Graff, Ole X; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Katz, Joel; Kehlet, Henrik; Kitt, Rachel A; Kopecky, Ernest A; Malamut, Richard; McDermott, Michael P; Palmer, Pamela; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Steigerwald, Ilona; Tobias, Jeffrey; Walco, Gary A

    2015-07-01

    Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations for clinical trials investigating the prevention of chronic pain. We present general design considerations for prevention trials in populations that are at relatively high risk for developing chronic pain. Specific design considerations included subject identification, timing and duration of treatment, outcomes, timing of assessment, and adjusting for risk factors in the analyses. We provide a detailed examination of 4 models of chronic pain prevention (ie, chronic postsurgical pain, postherpetic neuralgia, chronic low back pain, and painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy). The issues discussed can, in many instances, be extrapolated to other chronic pain conditions. These examples were selected because they are representative models of primary and secondary prevention, reflect persistent pain resulting from multiple insults (ie, surgery, viral infection, injury, and toxic or noxious element exposure), and are chronically painful conditions that are treated with a range of interventions. Improvements in the design of chronic pain prevention trials could improve assay sensitivity and thus accelerate the identification of efficacious interventions. Such interventions would have the potential to reduce the prevalence of chronic pain in the population. Additionally, standardization of outcomes in prevention clinical trials will facilitate meta-analyses and systematic reviews and improve detection of preventive strategies emerging from clinical trials.

  12. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Heavy Metal Adsorbents for Storm Water Pollution Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Heavy Metal Adsorbents for Storm Water Pollution Prevention U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK DIVISION, NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER in...National Shipbuilding Research Program, Heavy Metal Adsorbents for Storm Water Pollution Prevention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...States Navy. ANY POSSIBLE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE ARE SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMED. FINAL REPORT HEAVY METAL ADSORBENTS

  13. A review of trachoma history in China: research, prevention, and control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningli; Deng, Shijing; Tian, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Trachoma is one of the most widespread blinding eye diseases, which is harmful to human visual health. The efforts to prevent and control trachoma in China can be divided into three periods, i.e., highly epidemic period, research on pathogenesis and control of trachoma, and blinding trachoma elimination and epidemiological evaluation. In 1956, Prof. Feifan Tang and Xiaolou Zhang first discovered and isolated Chlamydia trachomatis, which clarified the cause of trachoma, and kick-started a fresh chapter in trachoma research, prevention, and control around the world. Although, the prevalence of trachoma differed in different areas, the average prevalence once exceeded 50% and was as high as 90% in some areas before and at early liberation of China. Therefore, the government-led efforts were made to comprehensively prevent and control trachoma, including development of National Plan for the Prevention and Control of Trachoma, nationwide screening and treatment of trachoma, implementation of National Patriotic Health Campaign and improvement of water supply and lavatories. After decades of effort, China reached the goal of eliminating blinding trachoma in 2015. China has gained remarkable achievements in the prevention and treatment of trachoma, making outstanding contributions toward the goal of eliminating trachoma worldwide. The research, prevention, and control of trachoma in China were reviewed in this paper.

  14. Bridging the gap between the science and service of HIV prevention: transferring effective research-based HIV prevention interventions to community AIDS service providers.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J A; Somlai, A M; DiFranceisco, W J; Otto-Salaj, L L; McAuliffe, T L; Hackl, K L; Heckman, T G; Holtgrave, D R; Rompa, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: AIDS service organizations (ASOs) rarely have access to the information needed to implement research-based HIV prevention interventions for their clients. We compared the effectiveness of 3 dissemination strategies for transferring HIV prevention models from the research arena to community providers of HIV prevention services. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with the directors of 74 ASOs to assess current HIV prevention services. ASOs were randomized to programs that provided (1) technical assistance manuals describing how to implement research-based HIV prevention interventions, (2) manuals plus a staff training workshop on how to conduct the implementation, or (3) manuals, the training workshop, and follow-up telephone consultation calls. Follow-up interviews determined whether the intervention model had been adopted. RESULTS: The dissemination package that provided ASOs with implementation manuals, staff training workshops, and follow-up consultation resulted in more frequent adoption and use of the research-based HIV prevention intervention for gay men, women, and other client populations. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies are needed to quickly transfer research-based HIV prevention methods to community providers of HIV prevention services. Active collaboration between researchers and service agencies results in more successful program adoption than distribution of implementation packages alone. PMID:10897186

  15. [Strengthen the prevention and health promotion in a science-based way--Results and experience of the German National Prevention Research Initiative].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Kliche, T; Pawils, S; Nöcker, G; Trenker, M; Finck, S; Linden, S; Plaumann, M

    2015-09-01

    From 2004 to 2013, the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) established its first funding programme for the promotion of prevention research. Objectives of this programme were the prevention of widespread health risks and diseases and to reinforce health promotion. Within this programme, 4 phases concentrated on socially disadvantaged target groups and on methodical and structural challenges relating to prevention/ health promotion. The projects covered evaluating the effectiveness of existing or newly-designed measures, developing and testing new concepts, programmes and access routes. Furthermore, the projects should contribute to the development of methods. The umbrella project "Kooperation für nachhaltige Präventionsforschung" (KNP-Cooperation for sustainable prevention research) was set up in 2009 to support the meaningful processing and application of key knowledge from this BMBF funding focus on prevention research and to promote networking between science, practice, and politics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Developing and implementing an integrated delirium prevention system of care: a theory driven, participatory research study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Delirium is a common complication for older people in hospital. Evidence suggests that delirium incidence in hospital may be reduced by about a third through a multi-component intervention targeted at known modifiable risk factors. We describe the research design and conceptual framework underpinning it that informed the development of a novel delirium prevention system of care for acute hospital wards. Particular focus of the study was on developing an implementation process aimed at embedding practice change within routine care delivery. Methods We adopted a participatory action research approach involving staff, volunteers, and patient and carer representatives in three northern NHS Trusts in England. We employed Normalization Process Theory to explore knowledge and ward practices on delirium and delirium prevention. We established a Development Team in each Trust comprising senior and frontline staff from selected wards, and others with a potential role or interest in delirium prevention. Data collection included facilitated workshops, relevant documents/records, qualitative one-to-one interviews and focus groups with multiple stakeholders and observation of ward practices. We used grounded theory strategies in analysing and synthesising data. Results Awareness of delirium was variable among staff with no attention on delirium prevention at any level; delirium prevention was typically neither understood nor perceived as meaningful. The busy, chaotic and challenging ward life rhythm focused primarily on diagnostics, clinical observations and treatment. Ward practices pertinent to delirium prevention were undertaken inconsistently. Staff welcomed the possibility of volunteers being engaged in delirium prevention work, but existing systems for volunteer support were viewed as a barrier. Our evolving conception of an integrated model of delirium prevention presented major implementation challenges flowing from minimal understanding of delirium prevention

  17. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... May Be a Signal for Physical Decline and Memory Loss in Older Adults, Researchers Conclude Friday, February ... will periodically do a short test of your memory and thinking to see if any further testing ...

  18. Leveraging school-based research to inform bullying prevention and policy.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-11-01

    School-based bullying and other forms of school violence have been the topic of over 40 years of research in the U.S. and internationally. Within the last 2 decades, research has increasingly informed bullying prevention, policy, and legislative efforts. The purpose of this article is to highlight several critical research areas on bullying and other forms of school violence that have shaped prevention efforts and policy over the last 2 decades. As the recipient of the 2016 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, the discussion here will focus largely on research findings from The Espelage Lab and collaborators, but these studies and findings will be situated in the larger literature. Topics covered include conceptualization of bullying from a social-ecological framework, developmental considerations of bullying and associated forms of aggression, identification of populations at heightened risk for bullying, and efficacy of bullying prevention programs. Recommendations are provided for the next generation of scholars, practitioners, and policymakers focused on bullying prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Ethical considerations in clinical research on herbal medicine for prevention of cardiovascular disease in the ageing.

    PubMed

    Koonrungsesomboon, Nut; Karbwang, Juntra

    2016-10-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the ageing is a major public health problem worldwide. The nature of most CVD is subclinical with pathological processes that can span over years. Use of preventive measures could be an appropriate approach to prevailing over CVD in the ageing, and herbal medicine is one of the promising preventive approaches and is currently of interest among medical societies. In the evidence-based era, herbal medicine is, however, often underestimated and approached with skepticism, mainly due to the paucity of scientific evidence. Properly designed clinical trials on herbal medicine for prevention of CVD in a geriatric population are thus of importance and of clinical value. To review ethical issues and discuss considerations when such research is proposed. Four ethical issues, including the scientific validity of research, risk-benefit assessments, subject selection and vulnerability, and informed consent, are structured and extensively discussed in this article. Ethical core considerations of prevention research of CVD on herbal medicine involve particular attention on the scientific validity of research, risk-benefit assessments, subject selection and vulnerability, and informed consent. These issues and considerations are keys, although they must be adapted to an individual research setting in which a clinical study is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Indian Student Involvement in Tribal Community-Based Research: Underage Drinking Prevention among Rural Native Californians

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Calac, Daniel; Montag, Annika C.; Brodine, Stephanie; Luna, Juan A.; Flores, Rosalie Y.; Gilder, David A.; Moore, Roland S.

    2013-01-01

    The critical need for increased numbers of American Indian/Alaska Native scientists and health professionals motivated the development of the California Native American Research Center for Health (CA-NARCH) initiative. One strategy of the initiative has been to encourage opportunities for applied research experiences for American Indian/Alaska Native students. Placement of CA-NARCH students in funded research assistant positions for a research project “Preventing Underage Drinking by Southwest California Indians: Building Capacity” based at the Southern California Tribal Health Clinic, Inc., in a rural part of Southern California, provides a model in which both American Indian//Alaska Native students and research investigators have benefitted. Six students received training in research ethics, data collection methods and data management and analysis. The students’ participation in project activities has resulted in positive experiences for themselves, a productive research staff for the project and positive responses from community members to this sensitive research project. PMID:25356438

  1. The Final Frontier-Transitions and Sustainability: From Mentored to Independent Research.

    PubMed

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bowleg, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    A recurrent theme in much of the contemporary HIV behavioral and social science research is that ecological approaches that acknowledge the interplay of structural, institutional, and individual-level factors are essential to improve HIV prevention efforts in racial/ethnic minority communities. Similarly, an ecological approach provides an innovative framework for understanding the challenges that many racial/ethnic minority HIV prevention researchers face in their quest to transition from mentored researcher to independent researchers. Informed by an ecological framework, and building on our experiences as two racial/ethnic minority women HIV prevention researchers who transitioned from a formal research mentorship relationship to become independent HIV prevention researchers-principal investigators of NIH-funded R01 grants-, we frame our discussion of the mentored to independence research trajectory with a focus on structural, institutional, and individual determinants. Throughout, we integrate suggestions for how institutions, mentors, and HIV prevention researchers can facilitate the final frontier from mentored research to independence.

  2. Challenges in defining and developing the field of rural mental disorder preventive intervention research.

    PubMed

    Spoth, R

    1997-08-01

    An overview of selected issues and challenges in defining and developing the field of rural preventive intervention research is presented. One fundamental challenge is to clarify the distinguishing characteristics of prevention science in rural contexts. Other challenges are evident in the need to address: the lack of consensus on conceptual and methodological approaches to this field, limited empirical study to date, the tremendous diversity of rural populations, and inconsistencies in the usage of the term "rural". This article suggests the organization of a work group to formulate and implement a clear research agenda. In addition, several general questions are discussed that, if addressed, might serve to better define and further develop the field. These questions concern the implications of multiple approaches to prevention science in rural contexts, the classification of rural populations, the functional relevance of rural residence in the etiology of specific disorders, the application of extant etiological models to interventions designed specifically for rural populations, the conduct of rural area prevention needs assessments, the development of models for collaboration between intervention researchers and rural community stakeholders, and strategies to engage rural residents in preventive interventions.

  3. Increase in Ticks and Lyme Borreliosis, Yet Research into Its Prevention on the Wane.

    PubMed

    Beaujean, Desirée; Crutzen, Rik; Kengen, Cindy; van Steenbergen, Jim; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    There is increased concern about the upward incidence of Lyme Borreliosis (LB) in Europe, the United States, Asia, and Northern Africa. However, effective measures to control tick populations or vaccines for LB are not yet available. Therefore, behavioral measures including avoidance of areas inhabited by ticks, performing routine body checks, using protective clothing, and the application of tick repellents are of great importance. Unfortunately, acceptance and uptake of many of these preventive behaviors are currently low. Hence, effective health education and public health communication aimed at promoting the uptake of preventive behaviors regarding tick bites and LB are urgently needed. In 2012, Mowbray recommended to conduct more research aimed at improving evidence-based insights regarding the promotion of preventive behaviors among the general public when exposed to the risk of LB. We fully agree with Mowbray and repeated her systematic review in May 2015 covering the period 1995-May 2015. Unfortunately, our review yielded exactly the same studies as already included in the review by Mowbray. Therefore, we again sound the alarm bell, just as Mowbray did a few years ago. As long as there are no effective measures for controlling tick populations and there is no vaccine available, we rely solely on health education and communication efforts to prevent tick bites and LB. We call on researchers and funders to prioritize research in the field of public health interventions for tick bites and LB because, in the words of Benjamin Franklin, "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure."

  4. A vision for chronic disease prevention intervention research: report from a workshop.

    PubMed

    Ashbury, Frederick D; Little, Julian; Ioannidis, John P A; Kreiger, Nancy; Palmer, Lyle J; Relton, Clare; Taylor, Peter

    2014-04-17

    The Population Studies Research Network of Cancer Care Ontario hosted a strategic planning workshop to establish an agenda for a prevention intervention research program in Ontario, including priority topics for investigation and design considerations. The two-day workshop included: presentations on background papers developed to facilitate participants' preparation for and discussions in the workshop; keynote presentations on intervention research concerning primary prevention of chronic diseases, design and study implementation considerations; a dedicated session on critical and creative thinking to stimulate participation and discussion topics; break out groups to identify, discuss and present study ideas, designs, implementation considerations; and a consensus process to discuss and identify recommendations for research priorities and next steps. The retreat yielded the following recommendations: 1) develop an intervention research agenda that includes working with existing large-scale cohorts; 2) develop an intervention research agenda that includes novel research designs that could target individuals or groups; and 3) develop an intervention research agenda in which studies collect data on costs, define stakeholders, and ensure clear strategies for stakeholder engagement and knowledge transfer. The Population Studies Research Network will develop options from these recommendations and release a call for proposals in 2014 for intervention research pilot projects that reflect these recommendations. Pilot projects will be evaluated based on their fit with the retreat's recommendations, and their potential to scale up to full studies and application in practice.

  5. Advancing suicide prevention research with rural American Indian and Alaska Native populations.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Lisa; Chandler, Michael; Gone, Joseph P; Cwik, Mary; Kirmayer, Laurence J; LaFromboise, Teresa; Brockie, Teresa; O'Keefe, Victoria; Walkup, John; Allen, James

    2015-05-01

    As part of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Task Force, a multidisciplinary group of AI/AN suicide research experts convened to outline pressing issues related to this subfield of suicidology. Suicide disproportionately affects Indigenous peoples, and remote Indigenous communities can offer vital and unique insights with relevance to other rural and marginalized groups. Outcomes from this meeting include identifying the central challenges impeding progress in this subfield and a description of promising research directions to yield practical results. These proposed directions expand the alliance's prioritized research agenda and offer pathways to advance the field of suicide research in Indigenous communities and beyond.

  6. A research agenda to guide progress on childhood obesity prevention in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kline, L; Jones-Smith, J; Jaime Miranda, J; Pratt, M; Reis, R S; Rivera, J A; Sallis, J F; Popkin, B M

    2017-07-01

    Childhood obesity rates in Latin America are among the highest in the world. This paper examines and evaluates the many efforts underway in the region to reduce and prevent further increases in obesity, identifies and discusses unique research challenges and opportunities in Latin America, and proposes a research agenda in Latin America for the prevention of childhood obesity and concomitant non-communicable diseases. Identified research gaps include biological challenges to healthy growth across the life cycle, diet and physical activity dynamics, community interventions promoting healthy child growth, and rigorous evaluation of national food and activity programs and regulatory actions. Addressing these research gaps is critical to advance the evidence-based policy and practice in childhood obesity tailored to the Latin American context that will be effective in addressing obesity. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  7. A journey to HIV prevention research: From social psychology to social health via multidisciplinarity.

    PubMed

    Kippax, Susan

    2017-05-01

    This article is a personal account of my research in HIV prevention and how and why I navigated my way from social psychology to 'social health' via multidisciplinarity. My work in HIV prevention - from 1984 to the present day - developed my understandings of epistemology, building on and expanding the ways in which I undertook research. This article describes those whose writings and research influenced me and the input of colleagues and students. It also demonstrates my disquiet with the individualism of psychology as a way of thinking about what was needed to prevent HIV transmission. HIV prevention requires social transformation and such change is produced via changes in the social practices and social norms of communities and networks rather than by changes in the behaviours of individuals. While the input of social and biomedical scientists was and continues to be of central importance to the success of HIV prevention, so also is the input of the expertise of the members of the communities and networks most affected by HIV - collectivities of gay men, people who inject drugs and sex workers. It was the members of these communities and networks who collectively transformed their practices and made them safer. The article outlines the ways in which the research participants in research studies made me re-examine notions of knowledge and evidence. Over time, my colleagues and I developed a 'social health': a model of social transformation that involves enabling communities and their members to modify their social practices by building on emergent community responses, responses that were identified by the use of a reflexive research methodology.

  8. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  9. About the Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The group’s projects aim to identify and develop prevention agents with the potential to block, reverse, or delay the early stages of cancer. The overarching goal is to determine positive and negative predictive values of preclinical models for clinical development. |

  10. Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program Minority/Underserved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program (PRNCORP) will be the principal organization in the island that promotes cancer prevention, control and screening/post-treatment surveillance clinical trials. It will conduct cancer care delivery research and will provide access to treatment and imaging clinical trials conducted under the reorganization of the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN). It will evaluate disparity issues and outcomes in cancer care delivery and treatments. |

  11. A critique of adolescent pregnancy prevention research: the invisible white male.

    PubMed

    Meyer, V F

    1991-01-01

    This study examined sex and race bias in recently published research on adolescent pregnancy prevention. Descriptive statistics from 71 citations showed that of 33 articles that focused on a single sex, only one was on males (inner city, presumably minority). Of the remaining articles, the majority either did not differentiate between the sexes or provided only minimal data on sex differences. The consequences of research that ignores or minimizes the male contribution to the adolescent pregnancy problem are discussed.

  12. Cervical cancer prevention and treatment research in Africa: a systematic review from a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Wexler, Catherine; Maloba, May; Mabachi, Natabhona; Ndikum-Moffor, Florence; Bukusi, Elizabeth

    2016-06-04

    Women living in Africa experience the highest burden of cervical cancer. Research and investment to improve vaccination, screening, and treatment efforts are critically needed. We systematically reviewed and characterized recent research within a broader public health framework to organize and assess the range of cervical cancer research in Africa. We searched online databases and the Internet for published articles and cervical cancer reports in African countries. Inclusion criteria included publication between 2004 and 2014, cervical cancer-related content pertinent to one of the four public health categories (primary, secondary, tertiary prevention or quality of life), and conducted in or specifically relevant to countries or regions within the African continent. The study design, geographic region/country, focus of research, and key findings were documented for each eligible article and summarized to illustrate the weight and research coverage in each area. Publications with more than one focus (e.g. secondary and tertiary prevention) were categorized by the primary emphasis of the paper. Research specific to HIV-infected women or focused on feasibility issues was delineated within each of the four public health categories. A total of 380 research articles/reports were included. The majority (54.6 %) of cervical cancer research in Africa focused on secondary prevention (i.e., screening). The number of publication focusing on primary prevention (23.4 %), particularly HPV vaccination, increased significantly in the past decade. Research regarding the treatment of precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer is emerging (17.6 %), but infrastructure and feasibility challenges in many countries have impeded efforts to provide and evaluate treatment. Studies assessing aspects of quality of life among women living with cervical cancer are severely limited (4.1 %). Across all categories, 11.3 % of publications focused on cervical cancer among HIV

  13. Antiretroviral Therapy in Prevention of HIV and TB: Update on Current Research Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Granich, Reuben; Gupta, Somya; Sutha, Amitabh B; Smyth, Caoimhe; Hoos, David; Vitoria, Marco; Simao, Mariangela; Hankins, Catherine; Schwartlander, Bernard; Ridzon, Renee; Bazin, Brigitte; Williams, Brian; Lo, Ying-Ru; McClure, Craig; Montaner, Julio; Hirnschall, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable scientific evidence supporting the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections. The complex nature of the HIV and TB prevention responses, resource constraints, remaining questions about cost and feasibility, and the need to use a solid evidence base to make policy decisions, and the implementation challenges to translating trial data to operational settings require a well-organised and coordinated response to research in this area. To this end, we aimed to catalogue the ongoing and planned research activities that evaluate the impact of ART plus other interventions on HIV- and/or TB-related morbidity, mortality, risk behaviour, HIV incidence and transmission. Using a limited search methodology, 50 projects were identified examining ART as prevention, representing 5 regions and 52 countries with a global distribution. There are 24 randomised controlled clinical trials with at least 12 large randomised individual or community cluster trials in resource-constrained settings that are in the planning or early implementation stages. There is considerable heterogeneity between studies in terms of methodology, interventions and geographical location. While the identified studies will undoubtedly advance our understanding of the efficacy and effectiveness of ART for prevention, some key questions may remain unanswered or only partially answered. The large number and wide variety of research projects emphasise the importance of this research issue and clearly demonstrate the potential for synergies, partnerships and coordination across funding agencies. PMID:21999779

  14. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  15. Translating Basic Psychopathology Research to Preventive Interventions: A Tribute to John R. Z. Abela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Judy; Korelitz, Katherine; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights how the many important contributions of John R. Z. Abela's research program can inform the development and implementation of interventions for preventing depression in youth. Abela provided evidence of multiple vulnerabilities to depression including cognitive (e.g., inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative…

  16. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    PubMed

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  17. Progestogens to Prevent Preterm Birth: A Review of the Research about Progestogens for Women at Risk

    MedlinePlus

    Progestogens To Prevent Preterm Birth A Review of the Research About Progestogens for Women at Risk Is This Information Right for Me? Yes, if: At ... is called “spontaneous (spon-TAY-nee-us) preterm birth.” An example is if your “water broke” before ...

  18. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Prevention-Related Research Targeting African American Alternative Education Program Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; Watts, Amy M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a program of research that examined the background, planning, implementation, and evaluation of an after-school preventive intervention program within an ongoing urban alternative education program targeting African American students referred to the school because of their problematic behavior in regular schools. The…

  20. Active NCI Community Oncology Research Program Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Completed Supportive and Palliative Care Research Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Supportive and Palliative Care Research Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Future Directions in Etiologic, Prevention, and Treatment Research for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; South, Kelsey; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred regarding the understanding of etiologic processes that give rise to eating disorders and the design and evaluation of efficacious prevention programs and treatment interventions. Herein we offer suggestions regarding potentially fruitful directions for future research in these areas. We suggest it would be…

  4. Supportive and Palliative Care Research Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Active Supportive and Palliative Care Research Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  7. Dropout Prevention in Middle and High Schools: From Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Julia; Bost, Loujeania Williams

    2016-01-01

    Based on work with state and local education agencies in dropout prevention for students with disabilities, successful research-based interventions are described along with details of how these interventions have been implemented in middle and high schools across the country. The interventions that have helped students with disabilities graduate…

  8. Prevention-Related Research Targeting African American Alternative Education Program Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; Watts, Amy M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a program of research that examined the background, planning, implementation, and evaluation of an after-school preventive intervention program within an ongoing urban alternative education program targeting African American students referred to the school because of their problematic behavior in regular schools. The…

  9. Translating Basic Psychopathology Research to Preventive Interventions: A Tribute to John R. Z. Abela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Judy; Korelitz, Katherine; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights how the many important contributions of John R. Z. Abela's research program can inform the development and implementation of interventions for preventing depression in youth. Abela provided evidence of multiple vulnerabilities to depression including cognitive (e.g., inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative…

  10. Open Distance Learning for Development: Lessons from Strengthening Research Capacity on Gender, Crisis Prevention, and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babu, Suresh Chandra; Ferguson, Jenna; Parsai, Nilam; Almoguera, Rose

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents the experience and lessons from implementing an e-learning program aimed at creating research capacity for gender, crisis prevention, and recovery. It presents a case study of bringing together a multidisciplinary group of women professionals through both online and face-to-face interactions to learn the skills needed to be a…

  11. Dropout Prevention in Middle and High Schools: From Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Julia; Bost, Loujeania Williams

    2016-01-01

    Based on work with state and local education agencies in dropout prevention for students with disabilities, successful research-based interventions are described along with details of how these interventions have been implemented in middle and high schools across the country. The interventions that have helped students with disabilities graduate…

  12. Future Directions in Etiologic, Prevention, and Treatment Research for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; South, Kelsey; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred regarding the understanding of etiologic processes that give rise to eating disorders and the design and evaluation of efficacious prevention programs and treatment interventions. Herein we offer suggestions regarding potentially fruitful directions for future research in these areas. We suggest it would be…

  13. Fusarium mycotoxins: Current research at the USDA ARS Mycotoxin Prevention unit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the health and economic costs of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species, there is a compelling need for improved understanding of these fungi, from across diverse perspectives and disciplinary approaches. Current research at the USDA ARS Mycotoxin Prevention unit addresses Fusarium mycotoxin...

  14. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  15. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

    PubMed Central

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  16. Active Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Promoting culturally targeted chronic disease prevention research through an adapted participatory research approach: The Qassim-Stanford Universities project.

    PubMed

    Winter, Sandra J; King, Abby C; Stafford, Randall S; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Haskell, William L; Farquhar, John W

    2011-06-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), similar to other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean, has been experiencing a recent rapid increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases and associated risk factors. To begin to take advantage of the chronic disease prevention and health promotion (CDPHP) knowledge available from other nations, researchers at a newly established University in the Qassim Province of the KSA have partnered with Stanford University in the United States of America. To ensure that CDPHP research and interventions are culturally relevant and appropriate, a participatory research approach has been adopted where local researchers are the target "community." Contextual challenges of conducting CDPHP research in the KSA, at the individual, social/cultural, organizational and environmental/policy levels, are identified, as well as examples of CDPHP intervention strategies that may be culturally appropriate at each level.

  18. The cancer prevention and control research network: An interactive systems approach to advancing cancer control implementation research and practice.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María E; Melvin, Cathy L; Leeman, Jennifer; Ribisl, Kurt M; Allen, Jennifer D; Kegler, Michelle C; Bastani, Roshan; Ory, Marcia G; Risendal, Betsy C; Hannon, Peggy A; Kreuter, Matthew W; Hebert, James R

    2014-11-01

    Although cancer research has advanced at a rapid pace, a gap remains between what is known about how to improve cancer prevention and control (CPC) and what is implemented as best practices within health care systems and communities. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN), with more than 10 years of dissemination and implementation research experience, aims to accelerate the uptake and use of evidence-based CPC interventions. The collective work of the CPCRN has facilitated the analysis and categorization of research and implementation efforts according to the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation (ISF), providing a useful heuristic for bridging the gap between prevention research and practice. The ISF authors have called for examples of its application as input to help refine the model. We provide examples of how the collaborative activities supported by the CPCRN, using community-engaged processes, accelerated the synthesis and translation of evidence, built both general and innovation-specific capacity, and worked with delivery systems to advance cancer control research and practice. The work of the CPCRN has provided real-world examples of the application of the ISF and demonstrated that synthesizing and translating evidence can increase the potential that evidence-based CPC programs will be used and that capacity building for both the support system and the delivery system is crucial for the successful implementation and maintenance of evidence-based cancer control. Adoption and implementation of CPC can be enhanced by better understanding ISF systems and intervening to improve them. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Conference Report: Eighth Annual AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Abenaa M; Patterson, Sherri L; Forman, Michele R; Hughes-Halbert, Chanita; Limburg, Paul J; Ondrey, Frank G; Paskett, Electra D; Wetter, David W; Hawk, Ernest T

    2010-08-01

    The Eighth Annual Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research meeting was held in Houston, Texas, in November 2009. This report highlights significant presentations that advance the fields of chemoprevention, clinical trial recruitment and retention, cancer screening including optical imaging, energy balance, and nutritional epidemiology, and health communications and decision making. In findings from the randomized Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial, dutasteride reduced the risk of biopsy-detectable prostate cancer in high-risk men by 23% compared with placebo. Important clues about the dosing and window of susceptibility for supplementation with choline, vitamin D, and folate were revealed from epigenetic research that has implications for future nutritional epidemiology research. Noninvasive optical imaging techniques using endoscopic ultrasound and autofluorescence for the early detection of cancers in the lung, pancreas, and oral cavity are being studied. The report also addresses the challenges of promoting cancer prevention. Understanding how individuals process risk information and make sustained behavior changes and the effect of socioeconomic status on health disparities were identified as critical areas of research. This multidisciplinary research meeting of basic, clinical, and behavioral scientists and epidemiologists continues to play a major role in identifying the research priority areas of cancer prevention, elucidating new mechanisms of carcinogenesis for targeted chemoprevention therapies and delivering a comprehensive strategy for engaging individuals in the unifying goal to reduce cancer incidence.

  20. 'Every teacher is a researcher!': Creating indigenous epistemologies and practices for HIV prevention through values-based action research.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lesley

    2012-12-01

    Since gender is an undisputed driver of HIV infection, teachers concerned with HIV prevention education should ideally encourage critical awareness of and culturally sensitive practices around gender inequalities. Many interventions and programmes have been developed for teachers to enable them to do this, however most have met with limited success. This article proceeds from the viewpoint that for HIV-prevention interventions to be sustainable and effective, teachers should be actively engaged in their design, implementation and evaluation. It outlines how teachers in an HIV prevention programme utilised an action research design to explore their own gender constructs as a necessary first step to the creation of more gender-sensitive school climates and teaching practices. This values-based self-enquiry moved the teachers to action on two levels: first, to adopt a more gender-sensitive approach in their own personal and professional lives and second, to take action to challenge gender inequalities within their particular educational contexts. Evidence is presented to justify the claim that action research of this genre helps teachers to generate indigenous epistemologies and practices that not only are effective in creating sustainable and empowering learning environments for HIV prevention education, but also for teaching and learning in general.

  1. A Review of Teen Dating Violence Prevention Research: What About Hispanic Youth?

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Krithika; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Mitchell, Emma M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the literature on evidence-based teen dating violence (TDV) prevention programs with a particular focus on highlighting gaps in the literature with regard to prevention efforts targeting Hispanic teens. The target populations, characteristics, designs, and results of TDV prevention studies reported in the scientific literature for the last 20 years were reviewed and analyzed according to cultural and contextual factors associated with TDV among Hispanic teens. To date, three studies have focused on a predominantly Hispanic population with only one study looking at the long-term effects of a TDV intervention. There is a growing need to develop and evaluate immediate and long-term effects of TDV prevention programs that address ethnic pride, acculturation and acculturative stress, familism, and gender norms within the context of Hispanic communities (e.g., machismo and marianismo). The authors discuss the implications for research, prevention practice, and policy regarding TDV prevention for Hispanic teens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Advancing the strategic use of HIV operations research to strengthen local policies and programmes: the Research to Prevention Project.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Cheng, Alison Surdo; Sandison, Sarah J; Fonner, Virginia A; Holtgrave, David R; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-01-01

    In the field of HIV prevention, there is renewed interest in operations research (OR) within an implementation science framework. The ultimate goal of such studies is to generate new knowledge that can inform local programmes and policies, thus improving access, quality, efficiency and effectiveness. Using four case studies from the USAID-funded Research to Prevention (R2P) project, we highlight the strategic use of OR and the impact it can have on shaping the focus and content of HIV prevention programming across geographic and epidemic settings and populations. These case studies, which include experiences from several sub-Saharan African countries and the Caribbean, emphasize four unique ways that R2P projects utilized OR to stimulate change in a given context, including: (1) translating findings from clinical trials to real-world settings; (2) adapting promising structural interventions to a new context; (3) tailoring effective interventions to underserved populations; and (4) prioritizing key populations within a national response to HIV. Carefully crafted OR can bridge the common gap that exists between research-generated knowledge and field-based practice, lead to substantial, real-world changes in national policies and programmes, and strengthen local organizations and the use of data to be more responsive to a given topic or population, ultimately supporting a locally tailored HIV response.

  3. Advancing the strategic use of HIV operations research to strengthen local policies and programmes: the Research to Prevention Project

    PubMed Central

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Cheng, Alison Surdo; Sandison, Sarah J; Fonner, Virginia A; Holtgrave, David R; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-01-01

    In the field of HIV prevention, there is renewed interest in operations research (OR) within an implementation science framework. The ultimate goal of such studies is to generate new knowledge that can inform local programmes and policies, thus improving access, quality, efficiency and effectiveness. Using four case studies from the USAID-funded Research to Prevention (R2P) project, we highlight the strategic use of OR and the impact it can have on shaping the focus and content of HIV prevention programming across geographic and epidemic settings and populations. These case studies, which include experiences from several sub-Saharan African countries and the Caribbean, emphasize four unique ways that R2P projects utilized OR to stimulate change in a given context, including: (1) translating findings from clinical trials to real-world settings; (2) adapting promising structural interventions to a new context; (3) tailoring effective interventions to underserved populations; and (4) prioritizing key populations within a national response to HIV. Carefully crafted OR can bridge the common gap that exists between research-generated knowledge and field-based practice, lead to substantial, real-world changes in national policies and programmes, and strengthen local organizations and the use of data to be more responsive to a given topic or population, ultimately supporting a locally tailored HIV response. PMID:26290331

  4. Practicalities and Research Considerations for Conducting Childhood Obesity Prevention Interventions with Families

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Philip J.; Jones, Rachel A.; Collins, Clare E.; Hesketh, Kylie D.; Young, Myles D.; Burrows, Tracy L.; Magarey, Anthea M.; Brown, Helen L.; Hinkley, Trina; Perry, Rebecca A.; Brennan, Leah; Spence, Alison C.; Campbell, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Given the established difficulties in treating obesity, designing and evaluating effective obesity prevention interventions are research priorities. As parents play a crucial role in establishing positive health behaviours in children, they are a key target for child obesity prevention programs. However, recruiting and engaging parents in such interventions can be a considerable challenge for researchers and practitioners. Members of the ‘Parenting, Child Behaviour and Well-being’ stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN) have considerable and varied expertise in conducting such interventions and can provide insights into addressing these challenges. This paper aims to highlight considerations regarding the design, implementation, and evaluation of obesity prevention interventions with families and provide practical insights and recommendations for researchers and practitioners conducting family-based research in this area. Case studies of three family-based interventions conducted by ACAORN members are highlighted to provide examples and contextualise the recommendations proposed. PMID:27834820

  5. Training and technical assistance to enhance capacity building between prevention research centers and their partners.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Antonia J; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Dawkins, Nicola U; Wright, Demia S; Rubel, Stephanie K; Green, Diane C; Simoes, Eduardo J

    2011-05-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has administered the Prevention Research Centers Program since 1986. We quantified the number and reach of training programs across all centers, determined whether the centers' outcomes varied by characteristics of the academic institution, and explored potential benefits of training and technical assistance for academic researchers and community partners. We characterized how these activities enhanced capacity building within Prevention Research Centers and the community. The program office collected quantitative information on training across all 33 centers via its Internet-based system from April through December 2007. Qualitative data were collected from April through May 2007. We selected 9 centers each for 2 separate, semistructured, telephone interviews, 1 on training and 1 on technical assistance. Across 24 centers, 4,777 people were trained in 99 training programs in fiscal year 2007 (October 1, 2006-September 30, 2007). Nearly 30% of people trained were community members or agency representatives. Training and technical assistance activities provided opportunities to enhance community partners' capacity in areas such as conducting needs assessments and writing grants and to improve the centers' capacity for cultural competency. Both qualitative and quantitative data demonstrated that training and technical assistance activities can foster capacity building and provide a reciprocal venue to support researchers' and the community's research interests. Future evaluation could assess community and public health partners' perception of centers' training programs and technical assistance.

  6. Preventing childhood obesity in Latin America: an agenda for regional research and strategic partnerships.

    PubMed

    Caballero, B; Vorkoper, S; Anand, N; Rivera, J A

    2017-07-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America poses a major public health challenge to the region. In response, many countries are implementing obesity prevention programmes aimed at modifying known risk factors. However, the limited scientific evidence inhibits the development and implementation of novel, effective interventions across the region. To address these gaps, the NIH Fogarty International Center convened a workshop of researchers, policymakers, programme implementers and public health advocates who are actively engaged in the region to prevent childhood obesity. Major aims of the meeting were to define the current status of childhood obesity, identify the scientific gaps in our understanding of the epidemic, point out the barriers and opportunities for research and outline a plan for capacity building in the region in the area of childhood obesity. This series of articles reflects the key outcome of the meeting and offers an analysis of the knowledge translation needed for evidence-based policy initiatives, a review of the research agenda and an evaluation of research capacity in the region. The goal of the papers is to inform the development of multidisciplinary and multisector research collaborations, which are essential to the implementation of successful childhood obesity prevention strategies in the region. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  7. Commentary: Children and Predictive Genomic Testing: Disease Prevention, Research Protection, and Our Future

    PubMed Central

    Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Wilfond, Benjamin S.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing offered by direct-to-consumer companies—herein referred to as “predictive genomic testing”—has come under federal scrutiny. Critics claim testing yields uninterpretable and potentially harmful information. Supporters assert individuals have a right to this information, which could catalyze preventive health actions. Despite contentions that predictive genomic testing is a tool of primary disease prevention, little discussion has focused on its use with children. This partly stems from concerns expressed in existing professional guidelines about the potential for psychological and behavioral harm to children engendered by predictive genetic tests for Mendelian diseases. Conducting research to understand the actual benefits and harms is important for policy development and practice guidance and can be ethically justified within the pediatric regulatory framework of research that offers a prospect of direct benefit. Child health psychologists are well poised to contribute to this research effort, and promote the translation of genomic discoveries to improve pediatric medicine. PMID:21816897

  8. Environments for Healthy Aging: Linking Prevention Research and Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lynda A.; Belza, Basia; Bodiford, Kristin; Hooker, Steven P.; Kochtitzky, Chris S.; Marquez, David X.; Satariano, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Safe and well-designed community environments support healthful behaviors that help prevent chronic conditions and unintentional injuries and enable older adults to be active and engaged in community life for as long as possible. We describe the work of the Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) and partners over the past decade to better understand place-based determinants of health and translate that knowledge to real-world practice, with a focus on environmental strategies. Using key components of the Knowledge to Action framework, we document the importance of a sustained, multidisciplinary, collaborative approach and ongoing interaction between researchers and communities. We share examples of practical tools and strategies designed to engage and support critical sectors with the potential to enhance the health and well-being of older adults and their communities. We conclude with a description of lessons learned in facilitating the translation of prevention research into practice. PMID:23597393

  9. Preventing Obesity in the Military Community (POMC): The Development of a Clinical Trials Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Spieker, Elena A.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R.; Maurer, Douglas; Johnson, Dawn; Bryant, Edny; Bakalar, Jennifer L.; Schvey, Natasha A.; Ress, Rachel; Seehusen, Dean; Klein, David A.; Stice, Eric; Yanovski, Jack A.; Chan, Linda; Gentry, Shari; Ellsworth, Carol; Hill, Joanne W.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Stephens, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity impacts the U.S. military by affecting the health and readiness of active duty service members and their families. Preventing Obesity in Military Communities (POMC) is a comprehensive research program within Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs) in three Military Training Facilities. This paper describes three pilot randomized controlled trials that target critical high risk periods for unhealthy weight gain from birth to young adulthood: (1) pregnancy and early infancy (POMC-Mother-Baby), (2) adolescence (POMC-Adolescent), and (3) the first tour of duty after boot camp (POMC-Early Career). Each study employs a two-group randomized treatment or prevention program with follow up. POMC offers a unique opportunity to bring together research and clinical expertise in obesity prevention to develop state-of-the-art programs within PCMHs in Military Training Facilities. This research builds on existing infrastructure that is expected to have immediate clinical benefits to DoD and far-reaching potential for ongoing collaborative work. POMC may offer an economical approach for widespread obesity prevention, from conception to young adulthood, in the U.S. military as well as in civilian communities. PMID:25648176

  10. Preventing Obesity in the Military Community (POMC): the development of a clinical trials research network.

    PubMed

    Spieker, Elena A; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R; Maurer, Douglas; Johnson, Dawn; Bryant, Edny; Bakalar, Jennifer L; Schvey, Natasha A; Ress, Rachel; Seehusen, Dean; Klein, David A; Stice, Eric; Yanovski, Jack A; Chan, Linda; Gentry, Shari; Ellsworth, Carol; Hill, Joanne W; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Stephens, Mark B

    2015-01-22

    Obesity impacts the U.S. military by affecting the health and readiness of active duty service members and their families. Preventing Obesity in Military Communities (POMC) is a comprehensive research program within Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs) in three Military Training Facilities. This paper describes three pilot randomized controlled trials that target critical high risk periods for unhealthy weight gain from birth to young adulthood: (1) pregnancy and early infancy (POMC-Mother-Baby), (2) adolescence (POMC-Adolescent), and (3) the first tour of duty after boot camp (POMC-Early Career). Each study employs a two-group randomized treatment or prevention program with follow up. POMC offers a unique opportunity to bring together research and clinical expertise in obesity prevention to develop state-of-the-art programs within PCMHs in Military Training Facilities. This research builds on existing infrastructure that is expected to have immediate clinical benefits to DoD and far-reaching potential for ongoing collaborative work. POMC may offer an economical approach for widespread obesity prevention, from conception to young adulthood, in the U.S. military as well as in civilian communities.

  11. Sample Size Considerations in Prevention Research Applications of Multilevel Modeling and Structural Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Rick H; Gottfredson, Nisha C

    2015-10-01

    When the goal of prevention research is to capture in statistical models some measure of the dynamic complexity in structures and processes implicated in problem behavior and its prevention, approaches such as multilevel modeling (MLM) and structural equation modeling (SEM) are indicated. Yet the assumptions that must be satisfied if these approaches are to be used responsibly raise concerns regarding their use in prevention research involving smaller samples. In this article, we discuss in nontechnical terms the role of sample size in MLM and SEM and present findings from the latest simulation work on the performance of each approach at sample sizes typical of prevention research. For each statistical approach, we draw from extant simulation studies to establish lower bounds for sample size (e.g., MLM can be applied with as few as ten groups comprising ten members with normally distributed data, restricted maximum likelihood estimation, and a focus on fixed effects; sample sizes as small as N = 50 can produce reliable SEM results with normally distributed data and at least three reliable indicators per factor) and suggest strategies for making the best use of the modeling approach when N is near the lower bound.

  12. Sample Size Considerations in Prevention Research Applications of Multilevel Modeling and Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, Rick H.; Gottfredson, Nisha C.

    2014-01-01

    When the goal of prevention research is to capture in statistical models some measure of the dynamic complexity in structures and processes implicated in problem behavior and its prevention, approaches such as multilevel modeling (MLM) and structural equation modeling (SEM) are indicated. Yet the assumptions that must be satisfied if these approaches are to be used responsibly raise concerns regarding their use in prevention research involving smaller samples. In this manuscript we discuss in nontechnical terms the role of sample size in MLM and SEM and present findings from the latest simulation work on the performance of each approach at sample sizes typical of prevention research. For each statistical approach, we draw from extant simulation studies to establish lower bounds for sample size (e.g., MLM can be applied with as few as 10 groups comprising 10 members with normally distributed data, restricted maximum likelihood estimation, and a focus on fixed effects; sample sizes as small as N = 50 can produce reliable SEM results with normally distributed data and at least three reliable indicators per factor) and suggest strategies for making the best use of the modeling approach when N is near the lower bound. PMID:24752569

  13. Community-Based Participatory Research Studies on HIV/AIDS Prevention, 2005–2014

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2016-01-01

    The recent literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to preventing HIV infection in diverse communities was systematically reviewed as part of the planning process for a new study. Published HIV prevention studies that employed CBPR methods were identified for the period January 1, 2005 to April 30, 2014 using PubMed databases and MeSH term and keyword searches. A total of 44 studies on CBPR and HIV or AIDS prevention were identified, of which 3 focused on adolescents, 33 on adults, and 8 on both adolescents and adults. A variety of at-risk populations were the focus of the studies including men who have sex with men, African American or Hispanic men, and African American or Hispanic women. Few studies focused on Asian/Pacific Islander or American Indian populations in the U.S. Six studies employed CBPR methods to address HIV prevention in church settings. Many of the studies were limited to formative research (ethnographic research, in-depth interviews of key informants, or focus groups). Other studies had a pre-/post-test design, quasi-experimental, or randomized design. Additional CBPR studies and faith-based interventions are needed with adequate sample sizes and rigorous study designs to address lack of knowledge of HIV and inadequate screening in diverse communities to address health disparities. PMID:28066841

  14. Human papillomavirus and cancer prevention: gaps in knowledge and prospects for research, policy, and advocacy.

    PubMed

    Franco, Eduardo L; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Broker, Thomas R; Stanley, Margaret A; Chevarie-Davis, Myriam; Isidean, Sandra D; Schiffman, Mark

    2012-11-20

    The recognition that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the central, necessary cause of cervical cancer paved the way to new fronts of prevention via improved screening methods and HPV vaccination. Much has been learned in all fronts, from the molecular basis of our understanding of how HPV causes disease to the health economics of preventive strategies at the individual and population levels. Progress in other areas of cancer control has yet to show the same multi- and trans-disciplinary gains seen in research on HPV-associated malignancies, which is one of the unequivocal success stories in disease prevention. Yet, as an embarrassment of riches, much more research is needed to fill the gaps in knowledge that remain before we are able to reap the benefits from the knowledge translation from all fronts. Public health research on setting-specific implementation of HPV-based preventive strategies and more concerted advocacy to counter barriers facing the adoption of these strategies are likely to yield major dividends in reducing the burden of HPV-associated diseases. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence-based programming for adolescent HIV prevention and care: operational research to inform best practices.

    PubMed

    Kapogiannis, Bill G; Legins, Ken E; Chandan, Upjeet; Lee, Sonia

    2014-07-01

    Globally, a staggering number of adolescents, approximately 2.1 million, were estimated to be living with HIV in 2012. Unique developmental, psychosocial, and environmental considerations make them particularly vulnerable to HIV acquisition and argue for a comprehensive response to address this burgeoning problem. This article explores the current state of the science of HIV prevention, treatment, and care for adolescents and identifies opportunities to address knowledge gaps and improve health outcomes for this age group. Over the past decade, several important milestones have been achieved in HIV prevention and care among adults, and despite evidence that adherence to care and medications among affected adolescents is significantly compromised, critical research among adolescents and young adults substantially lags behind. Operational research, in particular, is crucial to understanding how to use effective services and interventions for HIV prevention and care safely and effectively for adolescents who are in dire need. Operational research among adolescent populations affected by HIV is critically needed to close the knowledge and investment gaps, and scale-up efforts for HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for this vulnerable age group.

  16. Latino recruitment to cancer prevention/screening trials in the Southwest: setting a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Larkey, Linda K; Ogden, Sheryl L; Tenorio, Sally; Ewell, Teresa

    2008-02-01

    Examples of cancer prevention and screening trials in the Southwest are reviewed as a platform for highlighting gaps in research on Latino recruitment. Three trials are described, using "message/source/channel" categories as a framework. Each trial engaged community members to facilitate recruitment and developed tailored strategies to meet challenges emerging after recruitment began. Although we affirm that culturally relevant messages, community member referral networks, and adjustment to community realities seem important to Latino recruitment, current anecdotal and research findings do not allow evidence-based recommendations to be made. We suggest a research agenda to further illuminate critical factors for successful Latino recruitment.

  17. Environmental Research Brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a Manufacturer of pressure-sensitive adhesive tape

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H.W.; Kostrzewa, M.F.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The Waste Minimization Assessment Center at Colorado State University performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures three varieties of pressure-sensitive tape. The team report indicated that waste natural rubber adhesive is shipped offsite for disposal in large quantities, and that singificant cost savings could be achieved by redesigning the adhesive applicator on the coater for natural rubber adhesive. This research brief discusses the manufacturing process, existing waste management practices, pollution prevention opportunities, and gives additional recommendations. Tables summarize current waste generation and recommended pollution prevention opportunity.

  18. Use of Caries Prevention Agents in Children: Findings from the Dental Practice-based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Richman, Joshua S.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Qvist, Vibeke; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gordan, Valeria V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Scientific evidence supports the application of caries preventive agents in children and this knowledge must transfer into the practice of dentistry. There is little multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize the use of caries preventive agents in pediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of dental practices. Methods This study surveyed Dental Practice-based Research Network dentists who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment and use of prevention techniques in children ages 6-18. Results Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries preventive agents ranged from 36%-7%, with non-prescription fluoride rinse the most common. Dentists who practiced in a large group practice model and dentists from the Scandinavian region more frequently use caries risk assessment than regions that were predominately dentists in private practice. Whether or not dentists used caries risk assessment with their pediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries preventive treatments on patients. Conclusion Although dentists reported the use of some form of in-office caries prevention, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practicing dentists about the benefits of caries preventive agents or a function of differing financial incentives or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk. PMID:21180672

  19. Sustainable exposure prevention through innovative detection and remediation technologies from the NIEHS Superfund Research Program.

    PubMed

    Henry, Heather F; Suk, William A

    2017-03-01

    Innovative devices and tools for exposure assessment and remediation play an integral role in preventing exposure to hazardous substances. New solutions for detecting and remediating organic, inorganic, and mixtures of contaminants can improve public health as a means of primary prevention. Using a public health prevention model, detection and remediation technologies contribute to primary prevention as tools to identify areas of high risk (e.g. contamination hotspots), to recognize hazards (bioassay tests), and to prevent exposure through contaminant cleanups. Primary prevention success is ultimately governed by the widespread acceptance of the prevention tool. And, in like fashion, detection and remediation technologies must convey technical and sustainability advantages to be adopted for use. Hence, sustainability - economic, environmental, and societal - drives innovation in detection and remediation technology. The National Institute of Health (NIH) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) is mandated to advance innovative detection, remediation, and toxicity screening technology development through grants to universities and small businesses. SRP recognizes the importance of fast, accurate, robust, and advanced detection technologies that allow for portable real-time, on-site characterization, monitoring, and assessment of contaminant concentration and/or toxicity. Advances in non-targeted screening, biological-based assays, passive sampling devices (PSDs), sophisticated modeling approaches, and precision-based analytical tools are making it easier to quickly identify hazardous "hotspots" and, therefore, prevent exposures. Innovation in sustainable remediation uses a variety of approaches: in situ remediation; harnessing the natural catalytic properties of biological processes (such as bioremediation and phytotechnologies); and application of novel materials science (such as nanotechnology, advanced

  20. Global research priorities for interpersonal violence prevention: a modified Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masako; Tomlinson, Mark; Streiner, David L; Tonmyr, Lil; Lee, Bandy X; Fisher, Jane; Hegadoren, Kathy; Pim, Joam Evans; Wang, Shr-Jie Sharlenna; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish global research priorities for interpersonal violence prevention using a systematic approach. Methods Research priorities were identified in a three-round process involving two surveys. In round 1, 95 global experts in violence prevention proposed research questions to be ranked in round 2. Questions were collated and organized according to the four-step public health approach to violence prevention. In round 2, 280 international experts ranked the importance of research in the four steps, and the various substeps, of the public health approach. In round 3, 131 international experts ranked the importance of detailed research questions on the public health step awarded the highest priority in round 2. Findings In round 2, “developing, implementing and evaluating interventions” was the step of the public health approach awarded the highest priority for four of the six types of violence considered (i.e. child maltreatment, intimate partner violence, armed violence and sexual violence) but not for youth violence or elder abuse. In contrast, “scaling up interventions and evaluating their cost–effectiveness” was ranked lowest for all types of violence. In round 3, research into “developing, implementing and evaluating interventions” that addressed parenting or laws to regulate the use of firearms was awarded the highest priority. The key limitations of the study were response and attrition rates among survey respondents. However, these rates were in line with similar priority-setting exercises. Conclusion These findings suggest it is premature to scale up violence prevention interventions. Developing and evaluating smaller-scale interventions should be the funding priority. PMID:28053363

  1. Communication and health education research: potential sources for education for prevention of drug use.

    PubMed

    Maccoby, N

    1990-01-01

    Studies conducted by the Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention have been carried out over the last 15 years. These studies indicate that, with systematic planning by interdisciplinary research teams, field research projects, based on appropriate theory, can be mounted successfully both at the community level and in schools for the study of adolescents and for adolescent children. Both final and interim results are for the most part encouraging. While all of the research reported here applies to health problems completely different from AIDS, some useful suggestions may emerge. For one thing, in both AIDS prevention and chronic disease prevention, the most effective measures to be taken appear to be behavioral. The research reported here is almost exclusively concerned with developing and testing methods for assisting people to change their behavior in ways that are likely to promote health and reduce risk of disease. They involve education at a community level and in schools. Perhaps education for AIDS prevention can follow similar lines with some success. Recently, several studies have been directed toward the prevention of drug abuse habits being formed by schoolchildren. A 1984 Rand Corporation report summarizes a number of relevant studies and describes models that have been applied (Polich et al. 1984). These programs are aimed at nonuser adolescents who otherwise might become users. It depicts four stages of experimental use of drugs: (1) nonuse--never tried drugs, (2) experimental or episodic use, (3) regular or frequent use, and finally (4) heavy use. Primary prevention is aimed at the early stages of use. The methods used are essentially those described above. Students need to be able to identify pressures to begin usage, especially from peers. They then need to know the dangers and problems arising from drug use. Next, and crucially, they need to develop skills to resist such pressures and practice using the skills in the presence of such

  2. 45 CFR 46.407 - Research not otherwise approvable which presents an opportunity to understand, prevent, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... an opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or welfare... § 46.407 Research not otherwise approvable which presents an opportunity to understand, prevent, or..., prevention, or alleviation of a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children; and (b) The...

  3. 45 CFR 46.207 - Research not otherwise approvable which presents an opportunity to understand, prevent, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... an opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or welfare... which presents an opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the... that the research presents a reasonable opportunity to further the understanding, prevention,...

  4. 45 CFR 46.207 - Research not otherwise approvable which presents an opportunity to understand, prevent, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... an opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or welfare... which presents an opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the... that the research presents a reasonable opportunity to further the understanding, prevention,...

  5. 45 CFR 46.407 - Research not otherwise approvable which presents an opportunity to understand, prevent, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... an opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or welfare... § 46.407 Research not otherwise approvable which presents an opportunity to understand, prevent, or..., prevention, or alleviation of a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children; and (b)...

  6. A Consensus-Driven Agenda for Emergency Medicine Firearm Injury Prevention Research.

    PubMed

    Ranney, Megan L; Fletcher, Jonathan; Alter, Harrison; Barsotti, Christopher; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Betz, Marian E; Carter, Patrick M; Cerdá, Magdalena; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Crane, Peter; Fahimi, Jahan; Miller, Matthew J; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Vogel, Jody A; Wintemute, Garen J; Waseem, Muhammad; Shah, Manish N

    2017-02-01

    To identify critical emergency medicine-focused firearm injury research questions and develop an evidence-based research agenda. National content experts were recruited to a technical advisory group for the American College of Emergency Physicians Research Committee. Nominal group technique was used to identify research questions by consensus. The technical advisory group decided to focus on 5 widely accepted categorizations of firearm injury. Subgroups conducted literature reviews on each topic and developed preliminary lists of emergency medicine-relevant research questions. In-person meetings and conference calls were held to iteratively refine the extensive list of research questions, following nominal group technique guidelines. Feedback from external stakeholders was reviewed and integrated. Fifty-nine final emergency medicine-relevant research questions were identified, including questions that cut across all firearm injury topics and questions specific to self-directed violence (suicide and attempted suicide), intimate partner violence, peer (nonpartner) violence, mass violence, and unintentional ("accidental") injury. Some questions could be addressed through research conducted in emergency departments; others would require work in other settings. The technical advisory group identified key emergency medicine-relevant firearm injury research questions. Emergency medicine-specific data are limited for most of these questions. Funders and researchers should consider increasing their attention to firearm injury prevention and control, particularly to the questions identified here and in other recently developed research agendas. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Framework for Valuing Investments in a Nurturing Society: Opportunities for Prevention Research.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Max; Jones, Damon

    2017-03-01

    Investing in strategies that aim to build a more nurturing society offers tremendous opportunities for the field of prevention science. Yet, scientists struggle to consistently take their research beyond effectiveness evaluations and actually value the impact of preventive strategies. Ultimately, it is clear that convincing policymakers to make meaningful investments in children and youth will require estimates of the fiscal impact of such strategies across public service systems. The framework offered here values such investments. First, we review current public spending on children and families. Then, we describe how to quantify and monetize the impact of preventive interventions. This includes a new measurement strategy for assessing multisystem service utilization and a price list for key service provision from public education, social services, criminal justice, health care and tax systems.

  8. Moving alcohol prevention research forward-Part I: introducing a complex systems paradigm.

    PubMed

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael K; Barry, Adam E; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2017-07-22

    The drinking environment is a complex system consisting of a number of heterogeneous, evolving and interacting components, which exhibit circular causality and emergent properties. These characteristics reduce the efficacy of commonly used research approaches, which typically do not account for the underlying dynamic complexity of alcohol consumption and the interdependent nature of diverse factors influencing misuse over time. We use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as an example for framing our argument for a complex systems paradigm. A complex systems paradigm, grounded in socio-ecological and complex systems theories and computational modeling and simulation, is introduced. Theoretical, conceptual, methodological and analytical underpinnings of this paradigm are described in the context of college drinking prevention research. The proposed complex systems paradigm can transcend limitations of traditional approaches, thereby fostering new directions in alcohol prevention research. By conceptualizing student alcohol misuse as a complex adaptive system, computational modeling and simulation methodologies and analytical techniques can be used. Moreover, use of participatory model-building approaches to generate simulation models can further increase stakeholder buy-in, understanding and policymaking. A complex systems paradigm for research into alcohol misuse can provide a holistic understanding of the underlying drinking environment and its long-term trajectory, which can elucidate high-leverage preventive interventions. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Bridging the Divide: HIV Prevention Research and Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Christian; Powell, Borris; Humes, Damon; Wakefield, Steven; Kripke, Katharine; Eckstein, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We obtained contextual information regarding documented barriers to HIV clinical trial participation among Black men who have sex with men (MSM), and explored current preventive HIV clinical trial attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions among Black MSM leaders in the United States. Methods. We conducted 2 focus groups with Black MSM leaders attending an annual African American MSM Leadership Conference on HIV/AIDS. Focus group questions explored biomedical research perceptions and attitudes, barriers to participation in biomedical prevention research, and steps that need to be taken to address these barriers. A feedback and member checking (participants presented with final themes to provide feedback and guidance) session was also held at the 2012 conference. Results. Three distinct themes emerged regarding Black MSM engagement and participation in HIV vaccine research: (1) community-based organizations as true partners, (2) investment in the Black gay community, and (3) true efforts to inform and educate the community. Conclusions. A key focus for improving efforts to engage the Black MSM community in preventive HIV clinical trials is building and maintaining equitable and reciprocal partnerships among research institutions, Black-led AIDS service organizations and community-based organizations, and community members. PMID:24524520

  10. Beyond the 'tick and flick': facilitating best practice falls prevention through an action research approach.

    PubMed

    Lea, Emma; Andrews, Sharon; Hill, Keith; Haines, Terry; Nitz, Jennifer; Haralambous, Betty; Moore, Kirsten; Robinson, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    To examine residential aged care facility staff views on using falls risk assessment tools and the implications for developing falls prevention practices in the context of an action research project. Falls risk assessments play an important role in care planning by identifying and monitoring aged care facility residents most at risk of falls. Yet while such assessments are recommended in falls prevention best practice guidelines, there is little published research that examines staff procedures and views related to conducting falls risk assessments. Falls risk assessments were undertaken in the context of an action research project. Twelve staff members from two residential aged care facilities (RACFs) in Tasmania formed a single Falls Action Research Group, which met 22 times over a year, providing the study's qualitative data. During this time, key group members assessed 178 residents using a new falls risk assessment tool (FROP-Resi). According to group members, facilities evolved from a 'tick-and-flick' approach to falls risk assessment to a more individualised, face-to-face assessment process. Group members perceived the process to be more meaningful and enjoyable for staff involved in the assessment process resulting in higher quality of assessments and leading to improved levels of falls awareness among staff, residents and family caregivers. An action research process is useful for facilitating a new approach to falls risk assessments, engaging aged care facility staff with falls prevention and prompting improvements in falls prevention practices. RACFs need to provide opportunities for staff to meet regularly to discuss practice, identify issues and take action. By doing so, staff can engage meaningfully with best practice activities such as optimising falls risk assessment processes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Develop the PARTNERS Youth Violence Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Vaughn, Nicole A.; Thomas, Nicole A.; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Freedman, Melanie A.; Abdul-Kabir, Saburah; Woodlock, Joseph; Guerra, Terry; Bradshaw, Ayana S.; Woodburn, Elizabeth M.; Myers, Rachel K.; Fein, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background School-based violence prevention programs have shown promise for reducing aggression and increasing children’s prosocial behaviors. Prevention interventions within the context of urban after-school programs provide a unique opportunity for academic researchers and community stakeholders to collaborate in the creation of meaningful and sustainable violence prevention initiatives. Objectives This paper describes the development of a collaborative between academic researchers and community leaders to design a youth violence prevention/leadership promotion program (PARTNERS Program) for urban adolescents. Employing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) model, this project addresses the needs of urban youth, their families, and their community. Methods Multiple strategies were used to engage community members in the development and implementation of the PARTNERS Program. These included focus groups, pilot testing the program in an after-school venue, and conducting organizational assessments of after-school sites as potential locations for the intervention. Results Community members and academic researchers successfully worked together in all stages of the project development. Community feedback helped the PARTNERS team redesign the proposed implementation and evaluation of the PARTNERS Program such that the revised study design allows for all sites to obtain the intervention over time and increases the possibility of building community capacity and sustainability of programs. Conclusion Despite several challenges inherent to CBPR, the current study provides a number of lessons learned for the continued development of relationships and trust among researchers and community members, with particular attention to balancing the demand for systematic implementation of community-based interventions while being responsive to the immediate needs of the community. PMID:20729611

  12. Social Justice and HIV Vaccine Research in the Age of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Treatment as Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Theodore C.; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The advent of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) as means of HIV prevention raises issues of justice concerning how most fairly and equitably to apportion resources in support of the burgeoning variety of established HIV treatment and prevention measures and further HIV research, including HIV vaccine research. We apply contemporary approaches to social justice to assess the ethical justification for allocating resources in support of HIV vaccine research given competing priorities to support broad implementation of HIV treatment and prevention measures, including TasP and PrEP. We argue that there is prima facie reason to believe that a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine would offer a distinct set of ethically significant benefits not provided by current HIV treatment or prevention methods. It is thereby possible to justify continued support for HIV vaccine research despite tension with priorities for treatment, prevention, and other research. We then consider a counter-argument to such a justification based on the uncertainty of successfully developing a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine. Finally, we discuss how HIV vaccine research might now be ethically designed and conducted given the new preventive options of TasP and PrEP, focusing on the ethically appropriate standard of prevention for HIV vaccine trials. PMID:24033297

  13. Social justice and HIV vaccine research in the age of pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Theodore C; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-09-01

    The advent of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) as means of HIV prevention raises issues of justice concerning how most fairly and equitably to apportion resources in support of the burgeoning variety of established HIV treatment and prevention measures and further HIV research, including HIV vaccine research. We apply contemporary approaches to social justice to assess the ethical justification for allocating resources in support of HIV vaccine research given competing priorities to support broad implementation of HIV treatment and prevention measures, including TasP and PrEP. We argue that there is prima facie reason to believe that a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine would offer a distinct set of ethically significant benefits not provided by current HIV treatment or prevention methods. It is thereby possible to justify continued support for HIV vaccine research despite tension with priorities for treatment, prevention, and other research. We then consider a counter-argument to such a justification based on the uncertainty of successfully developing a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine. Finally, we discuss how HIV vaccine research might now be ethically designed and conducted given the new preventive options of TasP and PrEP, focusing on the ethically appropriate standard of prevention for HIV vaccine trials.

  14. National efforts to identify research issues related to prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Waters, Thomas R

    2004-02-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), including low back and upper extremity disorders, represent one of the greatest work-related health concerns facing industrialized nations. Recently, two national groups were charged with developing research agendas aimed at increasing our knowledge of the prevention of these disorders. The first agenda, developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) MSD team, was based on input from several hundred practitioners and safety and health experts representing industry, labor, and academia. The second agenda, developed by the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) National Panel on Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace, was based on input from leading researchers in the fields of medicine, information science, and ergonomics. This paper summarizes the findings of the two groups and compares the two research agendas.

  15. Play it forward! A community-based participatory research approach to childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hanson, Carrie; Doty, Jennifer; Jagaraj, Kimberly; Braaten, Kent; Doherty, William J

    2016-03-01

    To date there has been limited success with childhood obesity prevention interventions. This may be due in part, to the challenge of reaching and engaging parents in interventions. The current study used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to engage parents in cocreating and pilot testing a childhood obesity prevention intervention. Because CBPR approaches to childhood obesity prevention are new, this study aims to detail the creation, including the formation of the citizen action group (CAG), and implementation of a childhood obesity prevention intervention using CBPR methods. A CBPR approach was used to recruit community members to partner with university researchers in the CAG (n = 12) to create and implement the Play It Forward! childhood obesity intervention. The intervention creation and implementation took 2 years. During Year 1 (2011-2012), the CAG carried out a community needs and resources assessment and designed a community-based and family focused childhood obesity prevention intervention. During Year 2 (2012-2013), the CAG implemented the intervention and conducted an evaluation. Families (n = 50; 25 experimental/25 control group) with children ages 6-12 years participated in Play It Forward! Feasibility and process evaluation data suggested that the intervention was highly feasible and participants in both the CAG and intervention were highly satisfied. Specifically, over half of the families attended 75% of the Play It Forward! events and 33% of families attended all the events. Equal collaboration between parents and academic researchers to address childhood obesity may be a promising approach that merits further testing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The prevention of diabetic foot ulceration: how biomechanical research informs clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    DiLiberto, Frank E.; Baumhauer, Judith F.; Nawoczenski, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Implementation of interprofessional clinical guidelines for the prevention of neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration has demonstrated positive effects regarding ulceration and amputation rates. Current foot care recommendations are primarily based on research regarding the prevention of ulcer recurrence and focused on reducing the magnitude of plantar stress (pressure overload). Yet, foot ulceration remains to be a prevalent and debilitating consequence of Diabetes Mellitus. There is limited evidence targeting the prevention of first-time ulceration, and there is a need to consider additional factors of plantar stress to supplement current guidelines. Objectives The first purpose of this article is to discuss the biomechanical theory underpinning diabetic foot ulcerations and illustrate how plantar tissue underloading may precede overloading and breakdown. The second purpose of this commentary is to discuss how advances in biomechanical foot modeling can inform clinical practice in the prevention of first-time ulceration. Discussion Research demonstrates that progressive weight-bearing activity programs to address the frequency of plantar stress and avoid underloading do not increase ulceration risk. Multi-segment foot modeling studies indicate that dynamic foot function of the midfoot and forefoot is compromised in people with diabetes. Emerging research demonstrates that implementation of foot-specific exercises may positively influence dynamic foot function and improve plantar stress in people with diabetes. Conclusion Continued work is needed to determine how to best design and integrate activity recommendations and foot-specific exercise programs into the current interprofessional paradigm for the prevention of first-time ulceration in people with Diabetes Mellitus. PMID:27849290

  17. Play it Forward!: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach to Childhood Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Jin, Seokwon; Hanson-Bradley, Carrie; Doty, Jennifer; Jagaraj, Kimberly; Braaten, Kent; Doherty, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Background To date there has been limited success with childhood obesity prevention interventions. This may be due in part, to the challenge of reaching and engaging parents in interventions. The current study used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to engage parents in co-creating and pilot testing a childhood obesity prevention intervention. Because CBPR approaches to childhood obesity prevention are new, this study aims to detail the creation, including the formation of the Citizen Action Group (CAG), and implementation of a childhood obesity prevention intervention using CBPR methods. Methods A CBPR approach was used to recruit community members to partner with university researchers in the CAG (n=12) to create and implement the Play it Forward! childhood obesity intervention. The intervention creation and implementation took two years. During year 1 (2011–2012), the CAG carried out a community needs and resources assessment and designed a community-based and family-focused childhood obesity prevention intervention. During year 2 (2012–2013), the CAG implemented the intervention and conducted an evaluation. Families (n = 50; 25 experimental/25 control group) with children ages 6–12 years participated in Play it Forward! Results Feasibility and process evaluation data suggested that the intervention was highly feasible and participants in both the CAG and intervention were highly satisfied. Specifically, over half of the families attended 75% of the Play it Forward! events and 33% of families attended all the events. Conclusion Equal collaboration between parents and academic researchers to address childhood obesity may be a promising approach that merits further testing. PMID:26618640

  18. Participatory Action Research: creating an effective prevention curriculum for adolescents in the Southwestern US.

    PubMed

    Gosin, M N; Dustman, P A; Drapeau, A E; Harthun, M L

    2003-06-01

    Existing research confirms a need to seek strategies that combine the strengths of researchers and community to create effective prevention curricula for youth. This article describes how components of Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology were used to create the keepin' it REAL Drug Resistance Strategies (DRS) curriculum designed for a diverse Southwestern US youth population. School community participants were involved in multiple stages of creation and implementation. The research team developed a systematic process for creating lessons built upon strong theoretical foundations, while teachers and students contributed lesson modifications and evaluations, suggestions for supplemental activities, and the actual production of instructional videos. While the experimental design and some methodological constraints served to limit school community involvement in some phases of the DRS project, this article describes how PAR methodology ensured that researchers collaborated with school community members to create this promising drug prevention curriculum. Results of the REAL experiment, discussion of the use of this methodology, implications and recommendations for future research also are included.

  19. CCR researchers identify pathway critical for preventing premature aging | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, fatal disease in which patients age prematurely. To identify primary HGPS driver mechanisms, Nard Kubben, Ph.D., a Research Fellow in the laboratory of Tom Misteli, Ph.D., in CCR’s Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, and colleagues in the NCI High-throughput Imaging Facility developed an imaging-based high-throughput small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen.

  20. Challenges and successes in recruiting firefighters for hearing loss prevention research.

    PubMed

    Hong, OiSaeng; Fiola, Lauren Ann; Feld, Jamie

    2013-06-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant occupational health problem in the United States, affecting more than 1 million firefighters. Noise hazards include vehicles, sirens, and power tools. Additionally, firefighters are commonly exposed to ototoxic chemicals. Because the use of hearing protection is not universally required for firefighters, firefighters must be educated about NIHL to ensure they take personal responsibility for hearing loss prevention. This study discusses challenges associated with recruiting firefighters to participate in a randomized, controlled trial testing a web-based hearing protection training program. Successful recruitment strategies included collaboration with key stakeholders, a flexible and convenient computer-based intervention, expansion to multiple recruitment sites, and interactive outreach to potential participants. Future research should use quantitative methods to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of specific recruitment strategies to facilitate firefighter enrollment in research studies. Developing and testing effective hearing protection interventions for firefighters is a crucial first step toward preventing NIHL in this population.

  1. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Preventing Sudden Death in Sport and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Katch, Rachel K; Scarneo, Samantha E; Adams, William M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Belval, Luke N; Stamm, Julie M; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    Participation in organized sport and recreational activities presents an innate risk for serious morbidity and mortality. Although death during sport or physical activity has many causes, advancements in sports medicine and evidence-based standards of care have allowed clinicians to prevent, recognize, and treat potentially fatal injuries more effectively. With the continual progress of research and technology, current standards of care are evolving to enhance patient outcomes. In this article, we provided 10 key questions related to the leading causes and treatment of sudden death in sport and physical activity, where future research will support safer participation for athletes and recreational enthusiasts. The current evidence indicates that most deaths can be avoided when proper strategies are in place to prevent occurrence or provide optimal care.

  2. Preventing plane-assisted suicides through the lessons of research on homicide and suicide-homicide.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R; Sher, Leo

    2016-08-01

    The Germanwings 9525 incident drew significant attention to the 'plane-assisted suicide' construct, yet little scientific literature exists on this topic. This paper reviews the available literature and applies lessons from the suicide-homicide and men's mental health literature to better understand this construct from a scientific perspective. A systematic review of the relevant clinical literature was undertaken. Multiple lines of evidence suggests the applicability and relevance of suicide-homicide research and men's mental health to the plane-assisted suicide phenomenon. Plane-assisted suicides occur within an overwhelmingly male, middle aged population who, in addition to suicide, commit large scale acts of murder. Issues of divorce, separation, and threats to masculinity appear integral to an effective prevention program. Further research in the understanding of plane-assisted suicide as a product of neuropsychiatric disorder may advance such prevention efforts and have the opportunity to reduce the loss of life in future tragedies.

  3. Clinical Research in Cardiac Rehabilitation and Secondary Prevention: Looking Back and Moving Forward

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Patrick D.; Sanderson, Bonnie K.; Brown, Todd M.; Berra, Kathy; Ades, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac Rehabilitation/Secondary Prevention (CR/SP) programs are considered standard of care and provide critically important resources for optimizing the care of cardiac patients. The objective of this paper is to briefly review the evolution of CR/SP programs from a singular exercise intervention to its current, more comprehensive multifaceted approach. Additionally, we offer perspective on critical concerns and suggest future research considerations to optimize the effectiveness and utilization of CR/SP program interventions. PMID:21946418

  4. 33 CFR 151.3000 - Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act. 151.3000 Section 151.3000... Definition of Marine Debris for the Purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act...

  5. Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising. Research in Brief. National Institute of Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lawrence W.; Gottfredson, Denise C.; MacKenzie, Doris L.; Eck, John; Reuter, Peter; Bushway, Shawn D.

    This Research in Brief describes the scientific methodologies used to perform a review of crime prevention programs and then discusses what research has shown to work, what it has shown not to work, and what approaches seem promising for crime prevention. The first step was to identify and review reports evaluating the effectiveness of crime…

  6. Epidemiology to public health intervention for preventing cardiovascular diseases: The role of translational research

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Anand; Yadav, Kapil; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Despite significant progress in medical research, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) continue to be the largest contributors of morbidity and mortality both in developed and developing countries. The status of public health interventions related to CVDs prevention was reviewed to identify actions that are required to bridge the existing gap between the evidence and the policy. We used a framework comprising two steps - “bench to bedside” and from “bedside to community” to evaluate translational research. Available literature was reviewed to document the current status of CVD prevention and control at national level in India. Case studies of risk factor surveillance, tobacco control and blood pressure measurement were used to understand different aspects of translational research. National level initiatives in non-communicable diseases surveillance, prevention and control are a recent phenomena in India. The delay in translation of research to policy has occurred primarily at the second level, i.e., from ‘bedside to community’. The possible reasons for this were: inappropriate perception of the problem by policy makers and programme managers, lack of global public health guidelines and tools, and inadequate nationally relevant research related to operationalization and cost of public health interventions. Public health fraternity, both nationally and internationally, needs to establish institutional mechanisms to strengthen human resource capacity to initiate and monitor the process of translational research in India. Larger public interest demands that focus should shift to overcoming the barriers at community level translation. Only this will ensure that the extraordinary scientific advances of this century are rapidly translated for the benefit of more than one billion Indians. PMID:21150018

  7. Research into hand-arm vibration syndrome and its prevention in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Sakakibara, H

    1994-05-01

    Research on vibration syndrome in Japan began in the 1930s with studies of the disorder among railway, mining and shipyard workers. In 1947, the Ministry of Labor decided vibration syndrome among operators of rock drills and riveters etc. was an occupational disease. Industrial developments in the 1950s and 1960s promoted the survey of vibration syndrome in mining, stone quarrying and forestry. The Ministry of Labor (1965) and the National Personnel Agency (1966) legally recognized vibration syndrome among chain saw operators as an occupational disease. Guidelines for prevention and early therapy were issued in the 1970s and 80s. From the late 1970s into the 1980s, research focused on the clinical picture, diagnostic methods and therapy. In pathophysiology, advances were made in research into the autonomic nervous system during the 1980s. The 1970s and 80s saw a steady reduction in risk from technological change and working conditions, and advances in medical care, education and meteorological forecasting. A comprehensive prevention system established in the 1980s in the Japanese forest industry involved: 1) work restrictions, 2) an improved health care system, 3) advances in the design of vibrating tools, handle-warming devices, and 4) improved worker education. This comprehensive preventive system was legally introduced into other industries, resulting in a rapid decrease in the incidence of vibration syndrome in Japan.

  8. Integrating basic research with prevention/intervention to reduce risky substance use among college students

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Danielle M.; Hancock, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Too often basic research on etiological processes that contribute to substance use outcomes is disconnected from efforts to develop prevention and intervention programming. Substance use on college campuses is an area of concern where translational efforts that bring together basic scientists and prevention/intervention practitioners have potential for high impact. We describe an effort at a large, public, urban university in the United States to bring together researchers across the campus with expertise in college behavioral health with university administration and health/wellness practitioners to address college student substance use and mental health. The project “Spit for Science” examines how genetic and environmental influences contribute to behavioral health outcomes across the college years. We argue that findings coming out of basic research can be used to develop more tailored prevention and intervention programming that incorporates both biologically and psychosocially influenced risk factors. Examples of personalized programming suggest this may be a fruitful way to advance the field and reduce risky substance use. PMID:25999878

  9. Future directions in research on consumer-provider communication and adherence to cancer prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    DiMatteo, M Robin

    2003-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine emerging issues in consumer-provider communication and patient adherence to cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and coping with survivorship. Many factors that have been shown to affect adherence can be supported or hindered by provider-patient communication, including the provider-patient relationship, patients' beliefs, social and cultural norms, family and social support, mood, and behavioral management. Six research questions are posed, and substantive and methodological recommendations are offered for empirical research on the measurement and achievement of patient adherence.

  10. Cultural dynamics in HIV/AIDS prevention research among young people.

    PubMed

    Hare, Martha L; Villarruel, Antonia M

    2007-01-01

    In September 2005, the National Institute of Nursing Research with the support of several other components of the National Institutes of Health held a workshop, "Cultural Dynamics in HIV Biobehavioral Research." This special issue of the Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care contains a series of articles developed from that workshop. The articles are derived from those presentations that focused on prevention of infection. They do not contain an agenda or recommendations from the National Institute of Nursing Research or any other component of the National Institutes of Health. Rather, the purpose of this special issue is to share with a broad audience the exciting dialogue that began at the workshop and which the authors hope will continue for some time in the future. The articles represent an interdisciplinary and global perspective. Issues discussed include behavioral theory, intergenerational communication, historical trauma, modernization, research methodology, and the ethics of community clinic trials.

  11. Compendium of HIV Prevention Interventions with Evidence of Effectiveness. From CDC's HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This publication was developed in response to requests by prevention service providers and planners, for science-based interventions that work in HIV/AIDS prevention. All interventions came from behavioral or social studies that had both intervention and control/comparison groups and positive results for behavioral or health outcomes. The document…

  12. Adolescent Self-Consent for Biomedical Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Research.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Amy Lewis; Knopf, Amelia S; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Hosek, Sybil G; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Zimet, Gregory D

    2015-07-01

    The Adolescent Medicine Trials Network Protocol 113 (ATN113) is an open-label, multisite demonstration project and Phase II safety study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preexposure prophylaxis with 15- to 17-year-old young men who have sex with men that requires adolescent consent for participation. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to the process by which Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and researchers made decisions regarding whether to approve and implement ATN113 so as to inform future biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. Participants included 17 researchers at 13 sites in 12 states considering ATN113 implementation. Qualitative descriptive methods were used. Data sources included interviews and documents generated during the initiation process. A common process for initiating ATN113 emerged, and informants described how they identified and addressed practical, ethical, and legal challenges that arose. Informants described the process as responding to the protocol, preparing for IRB submission, abstaining from or proceeding with submission, responding to IRB concerns, and reacting to the outcomes. A complex array of factors impacting approval and implementation were identified, and ATN113 was ultimately implemented in seven of 13 sites. Informants also reflected on lessons learned that may help inform future biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. The results illustrate factors for consideration in determining whether to implement such trials, demonstrate that such protocols have the potential to be approved, and highlight a need for clearer standards regarding biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute: Training Early-Career Scientists to Conduct Research on Research Ethics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Celia B; Yuko, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries.

  14. Detecting, preventing, and responding to "fraudsters" in internet research: ethics and tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Teitcher, Jennifer E F; Bockting, Walter O; Bauermeister, José A; Hoefer, Chris J; Miner, Michael H; Klitzman, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based health research is increasing, and often offers financial incentives but fraudulent behavior by participants can result. Specifically, eligible or ineligible individuals may enter the study multiple times and receive undeserved financial compensation. We review past experiences and approaches to this problem and propose several new strategies. Researchers can detect and prevent Internet research fraud in four broad ways: (1) through the questionnaire/instrument (e.g., including certain questions in survey; and software for administering survey); (2) through participants' non-questionnaire data and seeking external validation (e.g., checking data for same email addresses, usernames, passwords, and/or fake addresses or phone numbers; (3) through computer information, (e.g., IP addresses and cookies), and 4) through study design (e.g., avoid lump sum compensation and interviewing participants). These approaches each have pros and cons, and raise ethical, legal, and logistical questions, given that ethical tensions can emerge between preserving the integrity of research vs. protecting the privacy and confidentiality of study respondents. While past discussions concerning the ethics of online research have tended to focus on the participants' ability to trust the researchers, needs now arise to examine researchers' abilities to trust the participants. This analysis has several critical implications for future practice, policy, and research.

  15. Translating basic psychopathology research to preventive interventions: A tribute to John Abela

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Judy; Korelitz, Katherine E.; Larkin, Silvia Samanez

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights how the many important contributions of John R. Z. Abela’s research program can inform the development and implementation of interventions for preventing depression in youth. Abela provided evidence of multiple vulnerabilities to depression including cognitive (e.g., inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative response style), interpersonal (e.g., reassurance seeking, attachment, dependency), personality (e.g., neuroticism, self-criticism), and contextual (e.g., stress, parental depression). He introduced important methodological advances to the study of the hopelessness model of depression, especially in children, including the “weakest link” approach, cognitive priming, and idiographic measurement of stress. We briefly review what is currently known about the prevention of depression regarding intervention targets, content, outcomes, effect sizes, moderators, mediators, specificity, and durability. Next, we summarize several of Abela’s contributions that are most relevant to the prevention of depression. We describe the implications of Abela’s work for the development, implementation, and testing of programs aimed at preventing depression, and discuss important challenges such as the transfer of training to and the personalization of interventions so as to capitalize on individuals’ strengths versus compensate for their weaknesses. PMID:22891820

  16. Translating basic psychopathology research to preventive interventions: a tribute to john R. Z. Abela.

    PubMed

    Garber, Judy; Korelitz, Katherine; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights how the many important contributions of John R. Z. Abela's research program can inform the development and implementation of interventions for preventing depression in youth. Abela provided evidence of multiple vulnerabilities to depression including cognitive (e.g., inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative response style), interpersonal (e.g., reassurance seeking, attachment, dependency), personality (e.g., neuroticism, self-criticism), and contextual (e.g., stress, parental depression). He introduced important methodological advances to the study of the hopelessness model of depression, especially in children, including the "weakest link" approach, cognitive priming, and idiographic measurement of stress. We briefly review what is currently known about the prevention of depression regarding intervention targets, content, outcomes, effect sizes, moderators, mediators, specificity, and durability. Next, we summarize several of Abela's contributions that are most relevant to the prevention of depression. We describe the implications of Abela's work for the development, implementation, and testing of programs aimed at preventing depression and discuss important challenges such as the transfer of training to and the personalization of interventions so as to capitalize on individuals' strengths versus compensate for their weaknesses.

  17. Vulnerable Youth as Prosumers in HIV Prevention: Studies Using Participatory Action Research

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Shoba; Lubis, Dinar; Maibvisira, Carol; Modderman, Kristel

    2017-01-01

    Background Stigma, voicelessness, and legislative and rights barriers, coupled with top-down decision making, are the common experiences of vulnerable youth populations that limit their opportunities to participate in vital health promotion efforts such as HIV prevention. Objective To consider new opportunities arising from a digital society for youth to creatively shape HIV prevention. Methods Drawing on research with vulnerable youth in Busoga, Uganda; Bulawayo, Zimbabwe; Bangkok, Thailand; and Bali, Indonesia, we explore current youth participation, in theory and practice, while considering new opportunities arising from a digital society for youth to creatively shape HIV prevention. Results Collaborative commons and prosumer models are defined as people employing new technology to codesign toward a common goal. Within the context of a diminishing role of the traditional institution and the rise of digitized networks, such models offer exciting new directions for youth as electronic health promotion prosumers to participate in difficult challenges such as HIV prevention in the 21st century. Conclusions It is time for institutions to embrace such opportunities, especially in areas where access to technology is widening, while continuing to champion youth and advocate for supportive social environments. PMID:28807890

  18. Coproduction of Research Questions and Research Evidence in Public Health: The Study to Prevent Teen Drinking Parties.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Mark; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Rhodes, Scott D; Egan, Kathleen L; Sparks, Michael; Ellerbee, Dylan; Song, Eunyoung Y; Debinski, Beata; Terrillion, Albert; Vining, Judi; Yang, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a set of principles and practices intended to foster coproduction of knowledge. However, CBPR often has shortcomings when applied to population-level policy and practice interventions, including a focus on single communities and a lack of focus on policy change. At the same time, community trials focused on policy have shortcomings, including lack of stakeholder involvement in framing research questions and modest engagement in study implementation and interpretation and dissemination of results. We describe an attempt to hybridize CBPR and community trials by creating a partnership that included a national membership organization, a coalition advisory board, intervention and delayed intervention communities, and an academic study team, which collaborated on a study of community strategies to prevent underage drinking parties. We use qualitative and quantitative data to critically assess the partnership. Areas where the partnership was effective included (1) identifying a research question with high public health significance, (2) enhancing the intervention, and (3) improving research methods. Challenges included community coalition representatives' greater focus on their own communities rather than the production of broader scientific knowledge. This model can be applied in future attempts to narrow the gap between research, policy, and practice.

  19. Theory, method, and power in drug and HIV-prevention research: a participant-observer's critique.

    PubMed

    Bourgois, P

    1999-12-01

    Why do most substance misuse and HIV-prevention researchers not practice what they preach concerning the complementarity of quantitative and qualitative methods? Why does most of the public health literature fail to address the important intellectual and political debates that substance misuse and HIV infection confronts? Why is the entire field so timid with respect to social science theory? Most drug researchers, and virtually all the anthropologists working on the subject, publicly acknowledge the need to combine quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Surprisingly, however, there are almost no successful examples of substance misuse and HIV prevention research projects that meld quantitative methods with participant-observation approaches organically. While this methodological schism also holds true for most of the social sciences more broadly, in few other fields besides that of substance misuse research is the complementarity of quantitative and qualitative methods more urgently and obviously necessary. On the one hand this methodological dialogue has practical utility for creating better public health interventions that might relieve human suffering; and on the other hand this applied dialogue has the potential for a critical, multidisciplinary, theoretical impact on academia.

  20. A novel approach to mixing qualitative and quantitative methods in HIV and STI prevention research.

    PubMed

    Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Macaluso, Maurizio; Peacock, Nadine; Snead, M Christine; Posner, Samuel F

    2014-04-01

    Mixed-method designs are increasingly used in sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevention research. The authors designed a mixedmethod approach and applied it to estimate and evaluate a predictor of continued female condom use (6+ uses, among those who used it at least once) in a 6-month prospective cohort study. The analysis included 402 women who received an intervention promoting use of female and male condoms for STI prevention and completed monthly quantitative surveys; 33 also completed a semistructured qualitative interview. The authors identified a qualitative theme (couples' female condom enjoyment [CFCE]), applied discriminant analysis techniques to estimate CFCE for all participants, and added CFCE to a multivariable logistic regression model of continued female condom use. CFCE related to comfort, naturalness, pleasure, feeling protected, playfulness, ease of use, intimacy, and feeling in control of protection. CFCE was associated with continued female condom use (adjusted odds ratio: 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-5.6) and significantly improved model fit (p < .001). CFCE predicted continued female condom use. Mixed-method approaches for "scaling up" qualitative findings from small samples to larger numbers of participants can benefit HIV and STI prevention research.

  1. Fifty years of tobacco carcinogenesis research: from mechanisms to early detection and prevention of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Szabo, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the 1964 Surgeon General's Report initiated definitive and comprehensive research on the identification of carcinogens in tobacco products and the relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The resultant comprehensive data clearly illustrate established pathways of cancer induction involving carcinogen exposure, metabolic activation, DNA adduct formation, and consequent mutation of critical genes along with the exacerbating influences of inflammation, cocarcinogenesis, and tumor promotion. This mechanistic understanding has provided a framework for the regulation of tobacco products and for the development of relevant tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers that can be applied in cancer prevention. Simultaneously, the recognition of the link between smoking and lung cancer paved the way for two additional critical approaches to cancer prevention that are discussed here: detection of lung cancer at an early, curable stage, and chemoprevention of lung cancer. Recent successes in more precisely identifying at-risk populations and in decreasing lung cancer mortality with helical computed tomography screening are notable, and progress in chemoprevention continues, although challenges with respect to bringing these approaches to the general population exist. Collectively, research performed since the 1964 Report demonstrates unequivocally that the majority of deaths from lung cancer are preventable.

  2. From research to public policy: the prevention of motor vehicle injuries, childhood drownings, and firearm violence.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, G J

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the development of the modern sciences of injury epidemiology and injury prevention and to illustrate the use of applied research in formulating effective public policy. MEDLINE searches were conducted from 1966 to 1990, and bibliographies of articles thus obtained were reviewed. Fugitive sources were identified by multiple means. Motor vehicle fatality rates on a per mile driven basis have been reduced by 50% over the past 25 years, largely through attention to the road environment and design of motor vehicles. Passive restraint systems such as air bags promise further reductions. Drowning has emerged as a leading cause of death among young children. Complete pool fencing is expected to prevent many of these events. Firearm violence, particularly among young people, is rapidly increasing. Firearms are hazardous consumer products but are not addressed as such by our current regulatory structure and intervention agenda. Epidemiologic and other applied research can make important contributions to the development of public policies designed to prevent injury. Such policies often address the design and performance of hazardous products and environments and consider individual behavior change as only a secondary objective.

  3. Narrative communication in cancer prevention and control: a framework to guide research and application.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Green, Melanie C; Cappella, Joseph N; Slater, Michael D; Wise, Meg E; Storey, Doug; Clark, Eddie M; O'Keefe, Daniel J; Erwin, Deborah O; Holmes, Kathleen; Hinyard, Leslie J; Houston, Thomas; Woolley, Sabra

    2007-06-01

    Narrative forms of communication-including entertainment education, journalism, literature, testimonials, and storytelling-are emerging as important tools for cancer prevention and control. To stimulate critical thinking about the role of narrative in cancer communication and promote a more focused and systematic program of research to understand its effects, we propose a typology of narrative application in cancer control. We assert that narrative has four distinctive capabilities: overcoming resistance, facilitating information processing, providing surrogate social connections, and addressing emotional and existential issues. We further assert that different capabilities are applicable to different outcomes across the cancer control continuum (e.g., prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship). This article describes the empirical evidence and theoretical rationale supporting propositions in the typology, identifies variables likely to moderate narrative effects, raises ethical issues to be addressed when using narrative communication in cancer prevention and control efforts, and discusses potential limitations of using narrative in this way. Future research needs based on these propositions are outlined and encouraged.

  4. Partnerships for the Design, Conduct, and Analysis of Effectiveness, and Implementation Research: Experiences of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O.; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L.; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W.; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J.; Pantin, Hilda M.; Gallo, Carlos G.; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J.; McManus, John W.

    2012-01-01

    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786

  5. Partnerships for the design, conduct, and analysis of effectiveness, and implementation research: experiences of the prevention science and methodology group.

    PubMed

    Brown, C Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J; Pantin, Hilda M; Gallo, Carlos G; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J; McManus, John W

    2012-07-01

    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted.

  6. People Awakening: Collaborative Research to Develop Cultural Strategies for Prevention in Community Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Beehler, Sarah; Rowe, Hillary L.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and suicide create immense health disparities among Alaska Native people. The People Awakening project is a long-term collaboration between Alaska Native (AN) communities and university researchers seeking to foster health equity through development of positive solutions to these disparities. These efforts initiated a research relationship that identified individual, family, and community protective factors from AUD and suicide. AN co-researchers next expressed interest in translating these findings into intervention. This led to development of a strengths-based community intervention that is the focus of the special issue. The intervention builds these protective factors to prevent AUD and suicide risk within AN youth, and their families and communities. This review provides a critical examination of existing literature and a brief history of work leading to the intervention research. These work efforts portray a shared commitment of university researchers and community members to function as co-researchers, and to conduct research in accord with local Yup’ik cultural values. This imperative allowed the team to navigate several tensions we locate in a convergence of historical and contemporary ecological contextual factors inherent in AN tribal communities with countervailing constraints imposed by Western science. PMID:24903819

  7. Research capacity for childhood obesity prevention in Latin America: an area for growth.

    PubMed

    Parra, Diana C; Vorkoper, Susan; Kohl, Harold W; Caballero, Benjamin; Batis, Carolina; Jauregui, Alejandra; Mason, Jessica; Pratt, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The rise of childhood obesity in Latin America calls for research capacity to understand, monitor and implement strategies, policies and programmes to address it. The objective of the study was to assess current research capacity in Latin America related to childhood obesity, nutrition and physical activity. We conducted a search of peer-reviewed articles on childhood obesity in Latin America with at least one Latin American author from 2010 to May 2015. We coded 484 published articles for author affiliation, study subjects' nationality, research topic and study design and extracted a series of networks per research topic, study design and collaborating country for each of the countries. Obesity is the most frequently explored topic. Nutrition and obesity are somewhat better developed compared with physical activity and sedentary behaviour. There are numerous observational and cross-sectional studies, indicating either a lack of capacity required for more complex research or the extent of the problem and associated factors is still unknown. The low number of intervention studies and the near absence of policy articles suggest a void in research capacity. For childhood obesity, there is a clear need to build research capacity that documents the current state of the problem and design evidence-based prevention and intervention efforts. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  8. Call for research on bystander intervention to prevent sexual violence: the role of campus environments.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    An important next step for the field is to determine what setting-level factors beyond the individual are critical to fostering campus environments that support pro-social, helpful bystander intervention action to prevent sexual violence. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide a research agenda to investigate key areas of the campus environment and their potential influence on bystander intervention. To create the research agenda, a number of steps were followed including: (1) systematically reviewing the larger bystander literature to identify key environmental areas, (2) assessing what research is available specific to college campuses and sexual assault in each of these areas, and (3) outlining future research to address each of these areas on college campuses and determine their applicability to sexual violence situations. Five main groups of factors were found to influence bystander intervention beyond the individual, group and situational levels, including: social norms, sense of community, pro-social modeling, policies, and the physical environment. Certain areas of research on environmental influences on bystander intervention are more developed such as social norms, with little research on areas such as policies and the physical environment. However, further research is needed in each of the identified five areas to help identify how college campuses can support bystander intervention.

  9. Cultural Dynamics in HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Among Young People

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Martha L.; Villarruel, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    In September 2005, the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), with the support of several other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)1, held a workshop entitled “Cultural Dynamics in HIV Biobehavioral Research.” This Special Issue of the Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care contains a series of articles developed from that workshop. These articles are derived from those presentations that focused on prevention of infection. The articles do not contain an agenda or recommendations from NINR or any other component of the NIH. Rather, the purpose of this special issue is to share with a broad audience the exciting dialogue that began at the workshop, and which the authors hope will continue for some time in the future. The articles represent an interdisciplinary and global perspective. Issues discussed include behavioral theory, inter-generational communication, historical trauma, modernization, research methodology, and the ethics of community clinic trials. PMID:17403490

  10. Manualization of Occupational Therapy Interventions: Illustrations from the Pressure Ulcer Prevention Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Blanche, Erna Imperatore; Fogelberg, Donald; Diaz, Jesus; Carlson, Mike; Clark, Florence

    2011-01-01

    The manualization of a complex occupational therapy intervention is a crucial step in ensuring treatment fidelity for both clinical application and research purposes. Towards this latter end, intervention manuals are essential for assuring trustworthiness and replicability of randomized controlled trials (RCT’s) that aim to provide evidence of the effectiveness of occupational therapy. In this paper, literature on the process of intervention manualization is reviewed. The prescribed steps are then illustrated through our experience in implementing the University of Southern California/Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center’s collaborative Pressure Ulcer Prevention Project (PUPP). In this research program, qualitative research provided the initial foundation for manualization of a multifaceted occupational therapy intervention designed to reduce incidence of medically serious pressure ulcers in people with SCI. PMID:22214116

  11. Future directions for research on the development and prevention of early conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel S

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during the past three decades; however, many challenges remain in understanding the development of early conduct problems for girls, the contribution of poverty across variations in community urbanicity, and developing cascading models of conduct problems that incorporate prenatal risk. Significant advances in early prevention and intervention are also described, as well as challenges for identifying and engaging parents of at-risk children in nontraditional community settings.

  12. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during the past three decades; however, many challenges remain in understanding the development of early conduct problems for girls, the contribution of poverty across variations in community urbanicity, and developing cascading models of conduct problems that incorporate prenatal risk. Significant advances in early prevention and intervention are also described, as well as challenges for identifying and engaging parents of at-risk children in nontraditional community settings. PMID:23534691

  13. The Relationship of Abortion and Violence Against Women: Violence Prevention Strategies and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha W; Speckhard, Anne; Brightup, Jennie E

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of peace psychology, the role of abortion in acts of violence against women is explored, with a focus on violence-prevention strategies. Setting aside the political debate, this task force report takes the conflict-transformation approach of considering all perspectives that have concern for the right of women to avoid being victims of violence. The evidence that victims of Intimate Partner Violence are disproportionately represented in women presenting for abortion suggests a need for screening at clinics. Coerced abortion is a form of violence and has occurred by government policy in China and as a result of other violence against women: sex trafficking and war situations. Sex-selection abortion of female fetuses, referred to as "gendercide," has reached pandemic proportions and caused a gender imbalance in some countries. Psychology, through empirical research, can make unique contributions to understanding the relationship between abortion and violence and in developing prevention strategies.

  14. Creating an African HIV Clinical Research and Prevention Trials Network: HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Anatoli; Price, Matt A.; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Inambao, Mubiana; Sanders, Eduard J.; Anzala, Omu; Latka, Mary H.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Asiki, Gershim; Ssetaala, Ali; Ruzagira, Eugene; Allen, Susan; Farmer, Paul; Hunter, Eric; Mutua, Gaudensia; Makkan, Heeran; Tichacek, Amanda; Brill, Ilene K.; Fast, Pat; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Gilmour, Jill

    2015-01-01

    HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner. PMID:25602351

  15. Creating an African HIV clinical research and prevention trials network: HIV prevalence, incidence and transmission.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Anatoli; Price, Matt A; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Inambao, Mubiana; Sanders, Eduard J; Anzala, Omu; Latka, Mary H; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Asiki, Gershim; Ssetaala, Ali; Ruzagira, Eugene; Allen, Susan; Farmer, Paul; Hunter, Eric; Mutua, Gaudensia; Makkan, Heeran; Tichacek, Amanda; Brill, Ilene K; Fast, Pat; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Amornkul, Pauli N; Gilmour, Jill

    2015-01-01

    HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner.

  16. Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is recognized as a serious violation of human well-being and of the law, no community has yet developed mechanisms that ensure that none of their youth will be sexually abused. CSA is, sadly, an international problem of great magnitude that can affect children of all ages, sexes, races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic classes. Upon invitation, this current publication aims at providing a brief overview of a few lessons we have learned from CSA scholarly research as to heighten awareness of mental health professionals on this utmost important and widespread social problem. This overview will focus on the prevalence of CSA, the associated mental health outcomes, and the preventive strategies to prevent CSA from happening in the first place. PMID:23866106

  17. Behavioral research in preventive dentistry: educational and contingency management approaches to the problem of patient compliance.

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, B A; Becksfort, C M

    1981-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reinforcement on compliance with an oral hygiene education program. Patients 18 years of age or older who enrolled in an ongoing program at a periodontal practice received 3-5 sessions of instruction in preventive dental care. Using a between-subjects design, patients who entered the program during alternating months also had a portion of their fees refunded contingent upon improvements in their dental plaque scores. Pre- and posttreatment data showed that all subjects exhibited lower plaque levels following the program, but that greater improvements were seen in patients who were exposed to the fee reduction contingency. Plaque scores taken at a 6-month follow-up revealed some relapse for the Fee Reduction subjects. However, their scores were still substantially better than pretreatment, and better than those of the Education only subjects, whose data differed little from untreated Controls. Methodological and practical issues related to behavioral research in preventive dentistry are discussed. PMID:7287595

  18. Community-Based Participatory Research: Lessons Learned from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Barbara A.; Parker, Edith A.; Rowe, Zachary; Salvatore, Alicia; Minkler, Meredith; López, Jesús; Butz, Arlene; Mosley, Adrian; Coates, Lucretia; Lambert, George; Potito, Paul A.; Brenner, Barbara; Rivera, Maribel; Romero, Harry; Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria; Halstead, Sandy

    2005-01-01

    Over the past several decades there has been growing evidence of the increase in incidence rates, morbidity, and mortality for a number of health problems experienced by children. The causation and aggravation of these problems are complex and multifactorial. The burden of these health problems and environmental exposures is borne disproportionately by children from low-income communities and communities of color. Researchers and funding institutions have called for increased attention to the complex issues that affect the health of children living in marginalized communities—and communities more broadly—and have suggested greater community involvement in processes that shape research and intervention approaches, for example, through community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships among academic, health services, public health, and community-based organizations. Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research (Children’s Centers) funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were required to include a CBPR project. The purpose of this article is to provide a definition and set of CBPR principles, to describe the rationale for and major benefits of using this approach, to draw on the experiences of six of the Children’s Centers in using CBPR, and to provide lessons learned and recommendations for how to successfully establish and maintain CBPR partnerships aimed at enhancing our understanding and addressing the multiple determinants of children’s health. PMID:16203263

  19. Research needs for corrosion control and prevention in energy conservation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brooman, E.W.; Hurwitch, J.W.

    1985-06-01

    A group of 28 electrochemists, materials scientists and corrosion engineers was brought together to determine if the government could have a role as a focal point for corrosion R and D, discuss opportunities in fundamental research and solving corrosion problems, and develop a research agenda. Participants from government, industry and academia assembled into four technical discussion groups: localized corrosion, general corrosion, high temperature corrosion, and corrosion control and prevention. Research needs were identified, discussed, then assigned a figure of merit. Some 44 corrosion control and prevention topics were identified as having a high priority for consideration for funding. Another 35 topics were identified as having a medium priority for funding. When classified according to corrosion phenomenon, the areas which should receive the most attention are molten salt attack, crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, erosion-corrosion, pitting attack, intergranular attack and corrosion fatigue. When classified according to the sector or system involved, those which should receive the most attention are chemical processes, transportation, buildings and structures, electric power generation, and batteries and fuel cells.

  20. What works for obesity prevention and treatment in black Americans? Research directions.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, S K; Whitt-Glover, M C; Haire-Joshu, D

    2014-10-01

    Obesity prevalence in black/African American children and adults of both sexes is high overall and compared with US whites. What we know, and do not know, about how to enhance the effectiveness of obesity prevention and treatment interventions in African Americans is the focus of the 10 articles in this special issue of Obesity Reviews. The evidence base is limited in quantity and quality and insufficient to provide clear guidance. With respect to children, there is relatively consistent, but not definitive support for prioritizing the systematic implementation and evaluation of child-focused interventions in pre-school and school settings and outside of school time. For adults or all ages, developing and refining e-health approaches and faith-based or other culturally and contextually relevant approaches, including translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program intervention to community settings is indicated. Major evidence gaps were identified with respect to interventions with black men and boys, ways to increase participation and retention of black adults in lifestyle behaviour change programmes, and studies of the impact of environmental and policy changes on eating and physical activity in black communities. Bold steps related to research funding priorities, research infrastructure and methodological guidelines are recommended to improve the quantity and quality of research in this domain. © 2014 World Obesity.