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Sample records for preventive behavior persuasion

  1. Cancer risk and preventive behavior: persuasion as an intervention strategy.

    PubMed

    Tonani, Marcela; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed that there are high risks for colon/rectum, cervical, and endometrial cancer; and moderate risks for the above as well as lung and breast cancer. In terms of persuasion, it was observed that cancer information was spread but not sustained for long periods. Moreover, there was no reinforcement. In view of cancer risk and the identified preventive behaviors, persuasion is considered a useful strategy to reduce these risks, as well as to encourage and sustain preventive behaviors, since it indicates routes to be followed.

  2. Persuasive Communications to Change Actions: An Analysis of Behavioral and Cognitive Impact in HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; McNatt, Penny S.; Klein, Cynthia T. F.; Ho, Ringo M.; Mitchell, Amy L.; Kumkale, G. Tarcan

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the validity of various theoretical assumptions about cognitive and behavioral change following a communication recommending condom use. The synthesis comprised 82 treatment and 29 control groups included in 46 longitudinal reports with measures of perceived severity and susceptibility, attitudes and expectancies, norms, perceptions of control, intentions, knowledge, behavioral skills, or condom use. Results indicated that across the sample of studies, communications taught recipients about facts related to HIV and also induced favorable attitudes and expectancies, greater control perceptions, and stronger intentions to use condoms in the future. Moreover, messages that presented attitudinal information and modeled behavioral skills led to increased condom use. Results are discussed in the context of theories of human behavior and change and in reference to HIV-prevention interventions. PMID:12683737

  3. Temporal framing and persuasion to adopt preventive health behavior: moderating effects of individual differences in consideration of future consequences on sunscreen use.

    PubMed

    Orbell, Sheina; Kyriakaki, Maria

    2008-11-01

    Previous work on temporal framing of health communications has focused upon detection behaviors that possess an inherent immediate risk of negative consequences. The present studies evaluate the role of temporal frame for a preventive behavior, using sunscreen. Two experimental field studies manipulated the temporal frame in which positive and negative consequences of using sunscreen were presented. Cognitive responses, intention, and behavior (experiment 2). Consistent with hypotheses, Experiment 1 showed that individual differences in consideration of future consequences (CFC; A. Strathman, F. Gleicher, D. S. Boninger, & C. S. Edwards, 1994) moderated (a) the processing of long- versus short-term consequences and (b) the persuasive impact of the different temporal frames on behavioral intentions. In Experiment 2, the balance of positive versus negative thoughts generated by reading the persuasive communications was shown to mediate the effects of the Temporal Frame x CFC interaction on a behavioral measure. Findings extend previous work by demonstrating the importance of individual differences in CFC to the processing of health communication about a preventive health behavior and to a behavioral outcome.

  4. Social Mediation of Persuasive Media in Adolescent Substance Prevention.

    PubMed

    Crano, William D; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Tan, Cara N; Siegel, Jason T

    2017-03-16

    Social commentary about prevention messages may affect their likelihood of acceptance. To investigate this possibility, student participants (N = 663) viewed 3 antimarijuana advertisements, each followed immediately by videotaped discussions involving 4 adults or 4 adolescents using either extreme or moderate language in their positive commentaries. The commentaries were expected to affect participants' perceptions of the extent to which the ads were designed to control their behavior (perceived control), which was hypothesized to inhibit persuasion. Two indirect effects analyses were conducted. Marijuana attitudes and usage intentions were the outcome variables. Both analyses revealed statistically significant source by language interactions on participants' perceived control (both p < .02). Further analyses revealed significant indirect effects of language extremity on attitudes and intentions through perceived control with adult, but not peer sources (both p < .05). These perceptions were associated with more negative marijuana attitudes and diminished usage intentions when adults used moderate (vs. extreme) language in their favorable ad commentaries (both p < .05). The findings may facilitate development of more effective prevention methods that emphasize the importance of the role of perceived control in persuasion, and the impact of interpersonal communication variations on acceptance of media-transmitted prevention messages. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz, Ann Christine

    A textbook called "Persuasion" was designed to provide discovery situations and a skills program to teach students to be aware of the ways in which they are influenced by various methods of communication, both public and private. The text focuses first on the persuader and the emotions he seeks to manipulate, then on the persuader and the image he…

  6. Car App's Persuasive Design Principles and Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chao; Wan, Lili; Min, Daihwan

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis of this study lies in behavior change after using car apps that assist users in using their vehicles and establishing a process for examining the interrelationship between car app's persuasive characteristics and behavior change. A categorizing method was developed and 697 car apps were investigated and classified into eight…

  7. Predicting Persuasion-Induced Behavior Change from the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Emily B.; Berkman, Elliot T.; Mann, Traci; Harrison, Brittany; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Although persuasive messages often alter people’s self-reported attitudes and intentions to perform behaviors, these self-reports do not necessarily predict behavior change. We demonstrate that neural responses to persuasive messages can predict variability in behavior change in the subsequent week. Specifically, an a priori region of interest (ROI) in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was reliably associated with behavior change (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Additionally, an iterative cross-validation approach using activity in this MPFC ROI predicted an average 23% of the variance in behavior change beyond the variance predicted by self-reported attitudes and intentions. Thus, neural signals can predict behavioral changes that are not predicted from self-reported attitudes and intentions alone. Additionally, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to demonstrate that a neural signal can predict complex real world behavior days in advance. PMID:20573889

  8. I Can Talk You into It: Theory of Mind and Persuasion Behavior in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Moore, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We investigated links between persuasive behavior and theory of mind (ToM) understanding using a novel naturalistic peer persuasion task in which children were invited to convince an interactive puppet to eat raw broccoli or brush his teeth. Sixty-three 3- to 8-year-olds (M age = 6 years, 6 months) took part in the persuasion task and were also…

  9. I Can Talk You into It: Theory of Mind and Persuasion Behavior in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Moore, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We investigated links between persuasive behavior and theory of mind (ToM) understanding using a novel naturalistic peer persuasion task in which children were invited to convince an interactive puppet to eat raw broccoli or brush his teeth. Sixty-three 3- to 8-year-olds (M age = 6 years, 6 months) took part in the persuasion task and were also…

  10. I can talk you into it: theory of mind and persuasion behavior in young children.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C; Moore, Chris

    2013-02-01

    We investigated links between persuasive behavior and theory of mind (ToM) understanding using a novel naturalistic peer persuasion task in which children were invited to convince an interactive puppet to eat raw broccoli or brush his teeth. Sixty-three 3- to 8-year-olds (M age = 6 years, 6 months) took part in the persuasion task and were also given a battery of first-order and advanced false belief tests. As predicted, the number of independent persuasive arguments children produced was significantly associated with false belief scores, even after controlling for age and verbal ability. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavior Disorder How to Write Persuasive Essays Fluently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerar, Nancy Irby

    2012-01-01

    A multiprobe, multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of persuasive writing strategy instruction. Six middle school students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) received two instructional phases of Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) instruction for writing persuasive essays over 33 days of intervention.…

  12. The eye movement desensitization and reprocessing procedure prevents defensive processing in health persuasion.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Arie; van Asten, Regine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is studied to understand and prevent defensive reactions with regard to a negatively framed message advocating fruit and vegetable consumption. EMDR has been shown to tax the working memory. Participants from a university sample (n = 124) listened to the persuasive message in a randomized laboratory experiment. In the EMDR condition, they were also instructed to follow with their eyes a dot on the computer screen. The dot constantly moved from one side of the screen to the other in 2 seconds. In addition, a self-affirmation procedure was applied in half of the participants. EMDR led to a significant increase in persuasion, only in recipients in whom the persuasive message could be expected to activate defensive self-regulation (in participants with a moderate health value and in participants with low self-esteem). In those with a moderate health value, EMDR increased persuasion, but only when recipients were not affirmed. In addition, EMDR increased persuasion only in recipients with low self-esteem, not in those with high self-esteem. These results showed that EMDR influenced persuasion and in some way lowered defensive reactions. The similarities and differences in effects of EMDR and self-affirmation further increased our insight into the psychology of defensiveness.

  13. Dissonance-based Interventions for the Prevention of Eating Disorders: Using Persuasion Principles to Promote Health

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Becker, Carolyn Black; Rohde, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The limited efficacy of prior eating disorder (ED) prevention programs led to the development of dissonance-based interventions (DBI) that utilize dissonance-based persuasion principles from social psychology. Although DBIs have been used to change other attitudes and behaviors, only recently have they been applied to ED prevention. This article reviews the theoretical rationale and empirical support for this type of prevention program. Relative to assessment-only controls, DBIs have produced greater reductions in ED risk factors, ED symptoms, future risk for onset of threshold or subthreshold EDs, future risk for obesity onset, and mental health utilization, with some effects persisting through 3-year follow-up. DBIs have also produced significantly stronger effects than alternative interventions for many of these outcomes, though these effects typically fade more quickly. A meta-analysis indicated that the average effects for DBIs were significantly stronger than those for non-DBI ED prevention programs that have been evaluated. DBIs have produced effects when delivered to high-risk samples and unselected samples, as well as in efficacy and effectiveness trials conducted by six independent labs, suggesting that the effects are robust and that DBIs should be considered for the prevention of other problems, such as smoking, substance abuse, HIV, and diabetes care. PMID:18506621

  14. Persuasive Embodied Agents: Using Embodied Agents to Change People's Behavior, Beliefs, and Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents (i.e., avatars; ECAs) are appearing in increasingly many everyday contexts, such as e-commerce, occupational training, and airport security. Also common to a typical person's daily life is persuasion. Whether being persuaded or persuading, the ability to change another person's attitude or behavior is a…

  15. Persuasive Embodied Agents: Using Embodied Agents to Change People's Behavior, Beliefs, and Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents (i.e., avatars; ECAs) are appearing in increasingly many everyday contexts, such as e-commerce, occupational training, and airport security. Also common to a typical person's daily life is persuasion. Whether being persuaded or persuading, the ability to change another person's attitude or behavior is a…

  16. The Effect of Normative and Behavioral Persuasion on Help Seeking in Thai and American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.; Kirkhart, Matthew W.; D'Souza, June B.

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of previous research on self-construals, the theory of reasoned action, and persuasive communication, the authors hypothesized that individual, behavioral-focused information would be more effective in increasing help-seeking intention among college students in the United States, whereas relational, normative-focused information would…

  17. The Role of Persuasive Arguments in Changing Affirmative Action Attitudes and Expressed Behavior in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Fiona A.; Charles, Margaret A.; Nelson, Jacqueline K.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of…

  18. The role of empathy in responses to persuasive risk communication: overcoming resistance to HIV prevention messages.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rose G; Babrow, Austin S

    2004-01-01

    This article offers a theoretical analysis of the role of empathy as a key mediator of the suasive effects of health messages, and it discusses the testing of an empirical tool for studying the state of empathy in responses to persuasive messages. It is argued that felt empathy evokes cognitive and emotional processing conducive to important health-promoting responses. This assertion was tested by operationalizing empathy as a response state via a new measure, the Empathy Response Scale (ERS). Two pilot tests and one major study, all set in the challenging area of HIV/AIDS prevention, provided preliminary data supporting the theoretical analysis and the ERS as a measure of the state of empathy. The article concludes with discussions of directions for future tests of the empathy theory and scale, as well as applications of the current framework for developing persuasive messages.

  19. Attitude ambivalence, social norms, and behavioral intentions: Developing effective antitobacco persuasive communications.

    PubMed

    Hohman, Zachary P; Crano, William D; Niedbala, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the moderating effects of attitude ambivalence on the relationship between social norms, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use tobacco. It was predicted that people would use social norms to reduce attitude ambivalence, and that reduced ambivalence would lead to changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions. To test this hypothesis, participants (N = 152) were exposed to persuasive communications designed to influence attitude ambivalence and perceived social norms regarding tobacco use. Analysis indicated that providing a social norm antagonistic to tobacco use significantly reduced ambivalence among participants reading the ambivalence message (p < .001). Examining changes in tobacco attitudes from pre- to postpersuasive communications demonstrated a significant decrease in tobacco attitudes only for participants reading the ambivalence message who were provided with the antitobacco use norm (p < .001). Ambivalent message participants also expressed significantly lower intentions to use tobacco when provided with social norms indicating antitobacco sentiments (p < .02), and this significant decrease in intentions was associated with changes in attitudes toward tobacco. These results point to the important role of social norms in mediating the effects of attitude ambivalence on subsequent behavior in preventative programs targeting tobacco use. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Evidence-based tailoring of behavior-change campaigns: increasing fluoride-free water consumption in rural Ethiopia with persuasion.

    PubMed

    Huber, Alexandra C; Tobias, Robert; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-03-01

    Two hundred million people worldwide are at risk of developing dental and skeletal fluorosis due to excessive fluoride uptake from their water. Since medical treatment of the disease is difficult and mostly ineffective, preventing fluoride uptake is crucial. In the Ethiopian Rift Valley, a fluoride-removal community filter was installed. Despite having access to a fluoride filter, the community used the filter sparingly. During a baseline assessment, 173 face-to-face interviews were conducted to identify psychological factors that influence fluoride-free water consumption. Based on the results, two behavior-change campaigns were implemented: a traditional information intervention targeting perceived vulnerability, and an evidence-based persuasion intervention regarding perceived costs. The interventions were tailored to household characteristics. The campaigns were evaluated with a survey and analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in changing behavior and targeted psychological factors. While the intervention targeting perceived vulnerability showed no desirable effects, cost persuasion decreased the perceived costs and increased the consumption of fluoride-free water. This showed that altering subjective perceptions can change behavior even without changing objective circumstances. Moreover, interventions are more effective if they are based on evidence and tailored to specific households. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  1. Role of Humor in the Persuasiveness of Entertainment Narratives on Unprotected Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Futerfas, Michelle L; Nan, Xiaoli

    2017-02-19

    Past research involving the persuasive impact of entertainment narratives on health attitudes and behavior has largely been limited to dramatic narratives. The current research focuses on humorous narratives related to unprotected sex. We conducted an experiment (N = 161) in which female viewers were exposed to a humorous story line about unprotected sex, an identical story line with humor edited out, or a story line unrelated to unprotected sex. Our findings suggested that humor increased perceived severity of unintended pregnancy, while having no effect on counterarguing. Also, the presence of humor reduced behavioral intentions to engage in unprotected sex. Implications of the findings for safe sex communication are discussed.

  2. Persuasion: Attitude/Behavior Change. A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    Designed for teachers, students and researchers of the psychological dimensions of attitude and behavior change, this annotated bibliography lists books, bibliographies and articles on the subject ranging from general introductions and surveys through specific research studies, and from theoretical position essays to literature reviews. The 42…

  3. The role of persuasive arguments in changing affirmative action attitudes and expressed behavior in higher education.

    PubMed

    White, Fiona A; Charles, Margaret A; Nelson, Jacqueline K

    2008-11-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Studies 1 and 2 established effective manipulations of positive?negative AA information, and peripheral?central routes of processing. Study 3 implemented these techniques, and a path analysis was carried out testing the differential effects of valence of information processed via different routes on AA evaluative beliefs, attitudes, intention, and expressed behavior. Results indicated that positive AA messages processed centrally (i.e., for meaning) resulted in significantly more positive evaluative beliefs. Modifications to the original model resulted in a final model with excellent fit to the data that supported the mediating role of intention in the AA attitude?behavior relationship, as predicted by the theory of reasoned action. The findings highlight potential benefits of interventions for improving support for AA policies, provided that positive information is processed at a central, evaluative level.

  4. Persuasive Design: An Information-Systems Design-Theory Approach to Persuade Employment-Seeking Behavior among People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Buhairan, Fadi

    2012-01-01

    People with disabilities face a number of societal challenges that influence this vulnerable population to be less interested and motivated to pursue working. According to researchers, persuasive technologies are able to motivate intended users to change a targeted behavior. This study included the design, development, and evaluation of an…

  5. The Effects of Strategy Instruction for Writing and Revising Persuasive Quick Writes on Middle School Students with Emotional Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Maryanne Mong

    2011-01-01

    A multiple baseline alternating treatment (A-B-C-D) design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies for teaching persuasive writing and peer revision. Eight middle school students enrolled in an alternative program for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) received Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) instruction…

  6. Persuasive Design: An Information-Systems Design-Theory Approach to Persuade Employment-Seeking Behavior among People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Buhairan, Fadi

    2012-01-01

    People with disabilities face a number of societal challenges that influence this vulnerable population to be less interested and motivated to pursue working. According to researchers, persuasive technologies are able to motivate intended users to change a targeted behavior. This study included the design, development, and evaluation of an…

  7. Quantifying the impact of Wellington Zoo's persuasive communication campaign on post-visit behavior.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Zoos potential to facilitate visitor conservation behavior is commonly articulated. Few studies, however, have quantified whether zoos' conservation messages result in visitors implementing the behavior. To test if zoo conservation messages are adopted at home, I implemented a persuasive communication campaign which advocated keeping cats indoor at night, a behavior that is a potential solution to cats depredating native wildlife. Furthermore, I tested if a public commitment (signing a pledge card) strengthened the relationship between on-site intention to engage in the behavior and actual implementation of the behavior at home. The conservation behavior was included in the twice-daily animal presentations in the amphitheater. A sample of 691 visitors completed a survey as they exited the amphitheater that measured their recall of the conservation behavior and intention to engage in the behavior at home. The last 311 visitors to complete the survey were asked to sign a pledge card which was publicly displayed in the amphitheater. Six weeks after their zoo trip, visitors were contacted and asked if they had implemented the behavior. Recall of the conservation behavior was high (91% for control, 100% for pledge group) and the entire pledge group had implemented the behavior whereas just half (51%) of the control group did. Furthermore, signing the pledge card strengthened the relationship between onsite intention and at home behavior (r = 1.0 of for the pledge group and r = 0.21 for the control group). Overall, the zoo's conservation message was recalled and behavior implemented at home. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Persuasion [and] Persuasion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz, Ann Christine

    The units in the Persuasion Program are meant to help students develop a critical awareness of methods and techniques used by those who want to persuade or influence them, and to help the students develop a proficiency in the art of persuading others. In this program, TV, films, radio, newspapers, magazines, and all types of advertising are…

  9. Understanding persuasion contexts in health gamification: A systematic analysis of gamified health behavior change support systems literature.

    PubMed

    Alahäivälä, Tuomas; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2016-12-01

    Gamification is increasingly used as a design strategy when developing behavior change support systems in the healthcare domain. It is commonly agreed that understanding the contextual factors is critical for successful gamification, but systematic analyses of the persuasive contexts have been lacking so far within gamified health intervention studies. Through a persuasion context analysis of the gamified health behavior change support systems (hBCSSs) literature, we inspect how the contextual factors have been addressed in the prior gamified health BCSS studies. The implications of this study are to provide the practitioners and researchers examples of how to conduct a systematic analysis to help guide the design and research on gamified health BCSSs. The ideas derived from the analysis of the included studies will help identify potential pitfalls and shortcomings in both the research and implementations of gamified health behavior change support systems. We systematically analyzed the persuasion contexts of 15 gamified health intervention studies. According to our results, gamified hBCSSs are implemented under different facets of lifestyle change and treatments compliance, and use a multitude of technologies and methods. We present a set of ideas and concepts to help improve endeavors in studying gamified health intervention through comprehensive understanding of the persuasive contextual factors. Future research on gamified hBCSSs should systematically compare the different combinations of contextual factors, related theories, chosen gamification strategies, and the study of outcomes to help understand how to achieve the most efficient use of gamification on the different aspects of healthcare. Analyzing the persuasion context is essential to achieve this. With the attained knowledge, those planning health interventions can choose the 'tried-and-tested' approaches for each particular situation, rather than develop solutions in an ad-hoc manner. Copyright © 2016

  10. [The persuasive effects according to types of exercise promotion advertisements for obesity prevention in elementary school students].

    PubMed

    An, Gyeong Ju; Choe, Myoung-Ae; Kim, Byoung Hee

    2005-08-01

    This study was to identify the persuasive effects of exercise promotion advertisements for obesity prevention according to the source types(ordinary people, experts, celebrity endorsers) and advertising message types(slices of life, testimonials). Gender, height, body weight, BMI, attitude toward obesity(Aob) and exercise(Aex), and intention to exercise(Iex) were collected from 626 elementary school students in a pretest. After 2 months, six advertisements type attached to a questionnaire were provided for 20 minutes and then Aob, Aex, Iex, source credibility and attitude toward advertisements(Aad) were collected in posttest. 1) In posttest the Iex of 6 the groups increased significantly compared with that of the pretest, 2) Source credibility of the Ordinary+Testimonial group was lower than the Celebrity+Testimonial, Celebrity+Slice of life, Ordinary+Slice of life, and Expert+Testimonial groups. Aad of the Celebrity+Testimonial group was higher than the Ordinary+ Testimonial group. 3) The Main effect and interaction effect of source types and advertising message types were significant in source credibility and Aad. Persuasive effects of exercise promotion advertisements in elementary school students was found to be the most effective in Celebrity+Testimonial. This study suggests that selection of health education advertisements according to demographic characteristics is important to promote persuasive effects.

  11. Prevention of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe.

  12. Prevention of suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe. PMID:27489458

  13. Field experiment evidence of substantive, attributional, and behavioral persuasion by members of Congress in online town halls

    PubMed Central

    Minozzi, William; Neblo, Michael A.; Esterling, Kevin M.; Lazer, David M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Do leaders persuade? Social scientists have long studied the relationship between elite behavior and mass opinion. However, there is surprisingly little evidence regarding direct persuasion by leaders. Here we show that political leaders can persuade their constituents directly on three dimensions: substantive attitudes regarding policy issues, attributions regarding the leaders’ qualities, and subsequent voting behavior. We ran two randomized controlled field experiments testing the causal effects of directly interacting with a sitting politician. Our experiments consist of 20 online town hall meetings with members of Congress conducted in 2006 and 2008. Study 1 examined 19 small meetings with members of the House of Representatives (average 20 participants per town hall). Study 2 examined a large (175 participants) town hall with a senator. In both experiments we find that participating has significant and substantively important causal effects on all three dimensions of persuasion but no such effects on issues that were not discussed extensively in the sessions. Further, persuasion was not driven solely by changes in copartisans’ attitudes; the effects were consistent across groups. PMID:25775516

  14. Field experiment evidence of substantive, attributional, and behavioral persuasion by members of Congress in online town halls.

    PubMed

    Minozzi, William; Neblo, Michael A; Esterling, Kevin M; Lazer, David M J

    2015-03-31

    Do leaders persuade? Social scientists have long studied the relationship between elite behavior and mass opinion. However, there is surprisingly little evidence regarding direct persuasion by leaders. Here we show that political leaders can persuade their constituents directly on three dimensions: substantive attitudes regarding policy issues, attributions regarding the leaders' qualities, and subsequent voting behavior. We ran two randomized controlled field experiments testing the causal effects of directly interacting with a sitting politician. Our experiments consist of 20 online town hall meetings with members of Congress conducted in 2006 and 2008. Study 1 examined 19 small meetings with members of the House of Representatives (average 20 participants per town hall). Study 2 examined a large (175 participants) town hall with a senator. In both experiments we find that participating has significant and substantively important causal effects on all three dimensions of persuasion but no such effects on issues that were not discussed extensively in the sessions. Further, persuasion was not driven solely by changes in copartisans' attitudes; the effects were consistent across groups.

  15. Persuasion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    In this teacher's guide to the textbook called "Persuasion" the emphasis is on assisting the teacher to develop in his students the skills of critical and creative thinking. Each instructional unit moves from the experience of persuasive techniques, through critical analysis, to the creative practice of the technique in question. Essays on…

  16. Persuasive Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidel, Thomas M.

    This book, for either college or secondary-school speech or rhetoric courses, defines persuasive speaking as essentially a process or activity and discusses the elements which facilitate analyzing that process. Sections deal with (1) the nature and history of persuasive speaking, especially classical and modern canons of rhetoric, (2) the…

  17. Persuasive Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidel, Thomas M.

    This book, for either college or secondary-school speech or rhetoric courses, defines persuasive speaking as essentially a process or activity and discusses the elements which facilitate analyzing that process. Sections deal with (1) the nature and history of persuasive speaking, especially classical and modern canons of rhetoric, (2) the…

  18. Effects of Persuasive Messages on Blood Donation Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Leippe, Michael R.

    Only about 9% of the eligible American population actually donates blood, and the rate of donors who fail to give a second time is very high. Since many people who view blood-giving as a humanitarian act also see it as an unpleasant experience, persuasive appeals that promote a sense of moral obligation may be ineffectual in prompting donations. A…

  19. Persuasive communication about AIDS prevention: need for cognition determines the impact of message format.

    PubMed

    Bakker, A B

    1999-04-01

    Adolescents were classified as being high or low in need for cognition (NFC) (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982) and expressed their knowledge about AIDS, attitudes toward condom use, and perceived supportive norms after being exposed to a cartoon or a written message about safe sex. Both messages have a positive impact on knowledge and attitudes. Theoretically interesting is the finding that the cartoon message is more effective in bringing about change in attitudes and subjective norms than the written message for low-NFC adolescents, and that the written message is more effective than the cartoon message for high-NFC adolescents. These results are consistent with the theory-based prediction that a persuasive communication will be most effective when the format of the message is tailored to people's information-processing proclivities. The practical implications of the findings for AIDS education are discussed.

  20. Participatory and persuasive telehealth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duckki; Helal, Sumi; Anton, Steve; De Deugd, Scott; Smith, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances in telehealth systems are primarily focused on sensing and monitoring. However, these systems are limited in that they only rely on sensors and medical devices to obtain vital signs. New research and development are urgently needed to offer more effective and meaningful interactions between patients, medical professionals and other individuals around the patients. Social networking with Web 2.0 technologies and methods can meet these demands, and help to develop a more complete view of the patient. Also many people, including the elderly, may be resistant to change, which can reduce the efficacy of telehealth systems. Persuasive technology and mechanisms are urgently needed to counter this resistance and promote healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we propose the participatory and persuasive telehealth system as a solution for these two limitations. By integrating connected health solutions with social networking and adding persuasive influence, we increase the chances for effective interventions and behavior alterations.

  1. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Persuasive Writing to Increase the Writing and Self-Efficacy Skills of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Health Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robin Parks; Jolivette, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative includes an emphasis on teaching writing and related skills in all subject areas. This study sought to improve the persuasive writing skills and self-efficacy skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders by implementing self-regulated strategy development with pairs of students in a high…

  2. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Persuasive Writing to Increase the Writing and Self-Efficacy Skills of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Health Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robin Parks; Jolivette, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative includes an emphasis on teaching writing and related skills in all subject areas. This study sought to improve the persuasive writing skills and self-efficacy skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders by implementing self-regulated strategy development with pairs of students in a high…

  3. Teacher Behavior as Preventive Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuke, Susan V.; Knoblock, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Teacher behaviors which foster preventive discipline include communicating respect to each student, seeking out diverse sources of information, developing curricula that prevent behavior problems, and implementing instructional procedures that minimize misbehaviors. A learning environment inventory which includes student assessment information and…

  4. How To Prevent Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Brian J.; Segal, Amiel

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews what teachers can do to prevent aggressive behavior in students with emotional and behavioral disorders. It considers the dynamics of aggression, the role of the therapeutic teacher, creation of the positive classroom climate, functional assessment, and teaching alternative behaviors. (DB)

  5. Humor in print health advertisements: enhanced attention, privileged recognition, and persuasiveness of preventive messages.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication.

  6. Pitfalls in Persuasion: How Do Users Experience Persuasive Techniques in a Web Service?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segerståhl, Katarina; Kotro, Tanja; Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa

    Persuasive technologies are designed by utilizing a variety of interactive techniques that are believed to promote target behaviors. This paper describes a field study in which the aim was to discover possible pitfalls of persuasion, i.e., situations in which persuasive techniques do not function as expected. The study investigated persuasive functionality of a web service targeting weight loss. A qualitative online questionnaire was distributed through the web service and a total of 291 responses were extracted for interpretative analysis. The Persuasive Systems Design model (PSD) was used for supporting systematic analysis of persuasive functionality. Pitfalls were identified through situations that evoked negative user experiences. The primary pitfalls discovered were associated with manual logging of eating and exercise behaviors, appropriateness of suggestions and source credibility issues related to social facilitation. These pitfalls, when recognized, can be addressed in design by applying functional and facilitative persuasive techniques in meaningful combinations.

  7. Attitudes and persuasion.

    PubMed

    Crano, William D; Prislin, Radmila

    2006-01-01

    Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding.

  8. Preventing teen pregnancy through persuasive communications: realities, myths, and the hard-fact truths.

    PubMed

    Witte, K

    1997-04-01

    Effective campaigns are desperately needed to combat the serious social problem of teen pregnancy. However, public health campaigns are most often noted for failures, rather than successes. One reason for a campaign failing to have the intended effect is lack of theoretical guidance at the formative evaluation stage. The study reported here is a theoretically-based formative evaluation with inner city teens. Six focus groups were conducted to determine knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and recommendations for effective campaigns to deter teen pregnancy. The results indicate that campaign messages need to combat positive attitudes toward pregnancy, negative attitudes toward birth control, the perception of personal invulnerability, and emphasize the negative consequences of sexual intercourse. This study's findings also suggest that campaigns with these messages need to start at an early age in order to effectively prevent teen pregnancy.

  9. Exercises in Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck-Hamlin, William J.; And Others

    The 35 exercises presented in this paper have been designed to simulate real-life experiences involving the process of persuasion and to enhance understanding of the persuasive process. Among the aspects of the persuasive process dealt with are the identification of persuasive events, emotive language, language intensity, source credibility,…

  10. Strategic Persuasive Writing Instruction for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Irby Cerar, Nancy; Guckert, Mary; Thompson, Catherine; Bronaugh, Danette Allen; Jakulski, Jill; Abdulalim, Latif; Mills, Sara; Evmenova, Anya; Regan, Kelley; Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna

    2015-01-01

    Expressive writing is important for school and life success, but remains challenging for many students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. Emerging evidence reveals promise for teaching students with learning and behavioral issues to improve written expression with self-regulated strategy development instruction. In that research, students…

  11. Strategic Persuasive Writing Instruction for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Irby Cerar, Nancy; Guckert, Mary; Thompson, Catherine; Bronaugh, Danette Allen; Jakulski, Jill; Abdulalim, Latif; Mills, Sara; Evmenova, Anya; Regan, Kelley; Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna

    2015-01-01

    Expressive writing is important for school and life success, but remains challenging for many students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. Emerging evidence reveals promise for teaching students with learning and behavioral issues to improve written expression with self-regulated strategy development instruction. In that research, students…

  12. Persuasive Conversational Agent with Persuasion Tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Yasuhiko

    Persuasive conversational agents persuade people to change their attitudes or behaviors through conversation, and are expected to be applied as virtual sales clerks in e-shopping sites. As an approach to create such an agent, we have developed a learning agent with the Wizard of Oz method in which a person called Wizard talks to the user pretending to be the agent. The agent observes the conversations between the Wizard and the user, and learns how to persuade people. In this method, the Wizard has to reply to most of the user's inputs at the beginning, but the burden gradually falls because the agent learns how to reply as the conversation model grows.

  13. Resisting persuasion by the skin of one's teeth: the hidden success of resisted persuasive messages.

    PubMed

    Tormala, Zakary L; Clarkson, Joshua J; Petty, Richard E

    2006-09-01

    Recent research has suggested that when people resist persuasion they can perceive this resistance and, under specifiable conditions, become more certain of their initial attitudes (e.g., Z. L. Tormala & R. E. Petty, 2002). Within the same metacognitive framework, the present research provides evidence for the opposite phenomenon--that is, when people resist persuasion, they sometimes become less certain of their initial attitudes. Four experiments demonstrate that when people perceive that they have done a poor job resisting persuasion (e.g., they believe they generated weak arguments against a persuasive message), they lose attitude certainty, show reduced attitude-behavioral intention correspondence, and become more vulnerable to subsequent persuasive attacks. These findings suggest that resisted persuasive attacks can sometimes have a hidden yet important success by reducing the strength of the target attitude. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Persuasion and attitude change in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    Many strategies used to induce the occurrence of desirable science-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors involve the use of persuasive messages. Science educators need to become acquainted with persuasion in the context of social influence and learning theory to be able to evaluate its usefulness in the science education milieu. Persuasion is the conscious attempt to bring about a jointly developed mental state common to both source and receiver through the use of symbolic cues, and it can be distinguished from other forms of social influence. Propaganda is a type of persuasion directed toward a mass audience. Coercion relies on reinforcement control, whereas persuasion is prompted by information. Brainwashing involves coercive techniques used to obtain cooperation and compliance. Persuasion and instruction are much alike; both require conscious cognitive activity by the recipient and involve communication which includes giving arguments and evidence for the purpose of getting someone to do something or to believe something.Persuasion research is anchored in learning theory. Early efforts were based on information processing. Studies following an information process approach focused on the effect of the variables harbored within the question Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect? on belief and attitude change. Cognitive processing and social exchange approaches to persuasion represent extensions to information process. Cognitive processing is concerned specifically with how people personally process the arguments presented in a persuasive message. Social exchange emphasizes the interchange that takes place between the message source and recipient. These approaches seem to be fruitful areas for future persuasion research in science education.Science educators' unfamiliarity with persuasion research stems from the fact that it is largely reported in the social psychology literature and has not been integrated into a framework familiar to

  15. Research in the Social Psychology of Persuasion and Behavior Modification: Relevant to School Health Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard I.

    1973-01-01

    Brief description of a series of investigations designed to determine the relative effectiveness of various motivators in effecting oral hygiene behavior in a group of junior high school. Presented at the annual meeting of the American School Health Association, San Diego, California, 1972. (JC)

  16. Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders to Self-Advocate through Persuasive Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca-Sanchez, Yojanna; Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Kidd, Julie K.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model of writing instruction with a self-determination training component for middle school-age students with emotional and behavioral disorders. We randomly assigned students to experimental or comparison treatments during which special education teachers provided the…

  17. Communication, Attitudes and Behavior: An Axiomatic Theory with Implications for Persuasion Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plax, Timothy G.; De Fleur, Melvin L.

    Defining "attitudes" as a structure or organization of beliefs, this paper advances a formal theory of the relationship between attitudes, other belief configurations, and overt behavior. The theory presented assumes that an attitude about a given topic consists of three major dimensions of belief orientation (favorability/unfavorability),…

  18. Combining Persuasive Technology With Behavioral Theory to Support Weight Maintenance Through a Mobile Phone App: Protocol for the MotiMate App

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Freyne, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of health-focused mobile phone apps available for download increases daily, with weight management apps being among the most proliferative. However, most lack theoretic grounding or evidence of efficacy. There is a significant body of literature which provides evidence for behaviors which are associated with successful weight loss maintenance. Behavioral theory also provides further insight regarding successful behavior change and maintenance. Objective We aimed to apply this knowledge to the development of the functionality of an app targeting weight loss maintenance. Methods We have subsequently undertaken the development of a persuasive and behavior targeting mobile app (MotiMate) to assist in maintenance of weight loss. MotiMate combines persuasive and behavior change theories in a practical targeted tool through its motivational messages, personalized feedback, and intelligent supportive tools to manage weight, food, exercise, mood and stress. Results The development and trial of MotiMate received funding support in May 2014. All 88 volunteers started the trial by December 2014 and were in the process of completing their final visits when this paper was submitted (May 2015). Data analysis is currently underway. Conclusions The paper has presented a scientifically informed mobile phone app to support weight loss maintenance. Further evaluation of its efficacy is in progress. Trial Registration ANZCTR 12614000474651; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366120 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6eJeQiKxi). PMID:26747725

  19. Combining Persuasive Technology With Behavioral Theory to Support Weight Maintenance Through a Mobile Phone App: Protocol for the MotiMate App.

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A; Freyne, Jill

    2016-01-08

    The prevalence of health-focused mobile phone apps available for download increases daily, with weight management apps being among the most proliferative. However, most lack theoretic grounding or evidence of efficacy. There is a significant body of literature which provides evidence for behaviors which are associated with successful weight loss maintenance. Behavioral theory also provides further insight regarding successful behavior change and maintenance. We aimed to apply this knowledge to the development of the functionality of an app targeting weight loss maintenance. We have subsequently undertaken the development of a persuasive and behavior targeting mobile app (MotiMate) to assist in maintenance of weight loss. MotiMate combines persuasive and behavior change theories in a practical targeted tool through its motivational messages, personalized feedback, and intelligent supportive tools to manage weight, food, exercise, mood and stress. The development and trial of MotiMate received funding support in May 2014. All 88 volunteers started the trial by December 2014 and were in the process of completing their final visits when this paper was submitted (May 2015). Data analysis is currently underway. The paper has presented a scientifically informed mobile phone app to support weight loss maintenance. Further evaluation of its efficacy is in progress. ANZCTR 12614000474651; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366120 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6eJeQiKxi).

  20. Ethics and Professional Persuasive Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Ralph D.; Black, Jay

    1994-01-01

    Likens the role of a public relations practitioner to that of a lawyer, as an advocate in an adversarial society. Argues that this role justifies the distribution of "selective truth," relieves the public person from the obligation to tell "objective truth," allows for ethical persuasion, but does not delineate the parameters of ethical behavior.…

  1. Persuasion as Ethical Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, I.

    1985-01-01

    States that teachers should help students understand in practical terms how to recognize good ethical persuasion and to understand when even distinguished, honest, and moral writers might need to resort to "unfair ethical persuasion." (EL)

  2. Symbolic Action in India: Gandhi's Nonverbal Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Allen H.

    1975-01-01

    Examines symbolic action as a method of exerting public influence nonverbally through nonviolent behavior. Discusses Gandhi's persuasive tactics including fasting, propaganda tours, silence, clothing and adoption of symbols. (MH)

  3. Symbolic Action in India: Gandhi's Nonverbal Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Allen H.

    1975-01-01

    Examines symbolic action as a method of exerting public influence nonverbally through nonviolent behavior. Discusses Gandhi's persuasive tactics including fasting, propaganda tours, silence, clothing and adoption of symbols. (MH)

  4. Cultural Styles of Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, E. S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Offers an alternative methodology for studying persuasive strategies by examining the persuasive strategies selected by professional persuaders representing those cultures being studied. Analyzes the persuasive styles of United States, Soviet Union and Arab diplomats involved in international negotiations in the Security Council of the United…

  5. Model, Framework, and Platform of Health Persuasive Social Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ayubi, Soleh Udin

    2013-01-01

    Persuasive technology (PT) has the potential to support individuals to perform self-management and social support as a part of health behavior change. This has led a few researchers in the intersection of the areas of health behavior change and software engineering to apply behavior change and persuasion theories to software development practices,…

  6. Model, Framework, and Platform of Health Persuasive Social Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ayubi, Soleh Udin

    2013-01-01

    Persuasive technology (PT) has the potential to support individuals to perform self-management and social support as a part of health behavior change. This has led a few researchers in the intersection of the areas of health behavior change and software engineering to apply behavior change and persuasion theories to software development practices,…

  7. The Zen Scavenger Hunt: Constructing and Presenting Persuasive Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Persuasion; Persuasive Speaking. Objectives: Students will demonstrate the ability to apply persuasive concepts in constructing persuasive messages creatively, and students will present and analyze their persuasive messages.

  8. "Show and Tell" Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Virgil R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To engage in the process of formulating compelling persuasive arguments. Type of speech: Persuasive. Point value: Incorporated into participation points. Requirements: (a) References: 0; (b) Length: 1-2 minutes; (c) Visual aid: No; (d) Outline: No; (e) Prerequisite reading: Chapter 19 (DeVito, 2003); (f) Additional requirements: None.…

  9. "Show and Tell" Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Virgil R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To engage in the process of formulating compelling persuasive arguments. Type of speech: Persuasive. Point value: Incorporated into participation points. Requirements: (a) References: 0; (b) Length: 1-2 minutes; (c) Visual aid: No; (d) Outline: No; (e) Prerequisite reading: Chapter 19 (DeVito, 2003); (f) Additional requirements: None.…

  10. A practitioner's guide to persuasion: an overview of 15 selected persuasion theories, models and frameworks.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kenzie A

    2009-03-01

    To provide a brief overview of 15 selected persuasion theories and models, and to present examples of their use in health communication research. The theories are categorized as message effects models, attitude-behavior approaches, cognitive processing theories and models, consistency theories, inoculation theory, and functional approaches. As it is often the intent of a practitioner to shape, reinforce, or change a patient's behavior, familiarity with theories of persuasion may lead to the development of novel communication approaches with existing patients. This article serves as an introductory primer to theories of persuasion with applications to health communication research. Understanding key constructs and general formulations of persuasive theories may allow practitioners to employ useful theoretical frameworks when interacting with patients.

  11. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  12. Structuring the Classroom to Prevent Disruptive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, William; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Specific suggestions to help teachers structure the classroom to prevent disruptive behaviors are offered in the areas of physical arrangement and "traffic rules" time management, assignments, grouping practices, classroom atmosphere, and professional demeanor. (DB)

  13. Structuring the Classroom to Prevent Disruptive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, William; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Specific suggestions to help teachers structure the classroom to prevent disruptive behaviors are offered in the areas of physical arrangement and "traffic rules" time management, assignments, grouping practices, classroom atmosphere, and professional demeanor. (DB)

  14. Preventing Drug Abuse Through Behavior Change Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.

    1973-01-01

    This article discusses several principles derived from learning theory which aid in understanding the use and abuse of drugs and illustrates their role in behavioral group counseling, a promising new strategy for drug abuse prevention. (JC)

  15. Within-individual increases in innovative behavior and creative, persuasion, and change self-efficacy over time: A social-cognitive theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas W H; Lucianetti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Studies of innovative behavior (the generation, dissemination, and implementation of new ideas) have generally overlooked the agency perspective on this important type of performance behavior. Guided by social-cognitive theory, we propose a moderated mediation relationship to explain why and how employees become motivated to make things happen through their innovative endeavors. First, we propose that within-individual increases in organizational trust and perceived respect by colleagues promote within-individual increases in creative, persuasion, and change self-efficacy over time. Second, we propose that within-individual increases in self-efficacy beliefs promote within-individual increases in idea generation, dissemination, and implementation over time. Finally, we propose that psychological collectivism (a between-individual variable) is a moderator, and that a higher level of psychological collectivism weakens the positive relationship between within-individual increases in self-efficacy beliefs and within-individual increases in innovative behavior. Repeated measures collected from 267 employees in Italy at 3 time points over an 8-month period generally support our proposed dynamic moderated mediation relationship. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Persuasion Via Mere Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Raymond K.; Ware, Paul D.

    1971-01-01

    Describes an experiment which sought to effect persuasion by merely exposing subjects to the name of a stimulus object for a specified number of times. Through illustration, explains the theoretical basis and methodology employed in a mere exposure experiment. (Author)

  17. Reducing HIV risk behavior of men who have sex with men through persuasive computing: results of the Men's INTernet Study-II.

    PubMed

    Rosser, B R Simon; Oakes, J Michael; Konstan, Joseph; Hooper, Simon; Horvath, Keith J; Danilenko, Gene P; Nygaard, Katherine E; Smolenski, Derek J

    2010-08-24

    The primary objective of this study was to develop and test a highly interactive Internet-based HIV prevention intervention for men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM remain the group at highest risk for HIV/AIDS in the United States and similar countries. As the Internet becomes popular for seeking sex, online interventions to reduce sexual risk are critical. Given previous studies, a secondary objective was to demonstrate that good retention is possible in online trials. A randomized controlled trial with 3-month, 6-month, 9-month, and 12-month follow-up design was employed. In 2008, 650 participants were randomized to an online, interactive sexual risk reduction intervention or to a waitlist null control. Retention was 76-89% over 12 months. At 3-month follow-up, results showed a 16% reduction in reported unprotected anal intercourse risk among those in the treatment condition versus control [95% confidence interval (95% CI) of rate ratio: 0.70-1.01]. No meaningful differences were observed at 12-month follow-up. Internet-based, persuasive computing programs hold promise as an effective new approach to HIV prevention for MSM, at least in the short term. Further, online trials can be conducted with acceptable retention provided strong retention protocols are employed. Four directions for future research are identified.

  18. Persuasion Detection in Conversation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    is the first step in developing machine learning systems that can automatically detect persuasion in conversations. This corpus was developed from...requires some form of persuasion. Based on this research, it may be possible to construct a machine learning system that can automatically detect...specific markers, can these markers be learned and identified by annotators? Our research attempted to answer all of these questions by annotating a

  19. Fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention and three prevention behaviors.

    PubMed

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Levy, Andrea Gurmankin

    2007-05-01

    A substantial proportion of US adults hold fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention. Although evidence suggests that fatalistic beliefs discourage people from engaging in screening behaviors that can reduce their cancer risk, far less is known about associations between cancer fatalism and other prevention behaviors. We examined sociodemographic correlates of these beliefs and their associations with regular exercise, smoking, and fruit and vegetable consumption with a national sample of American adults. Data were analyzed from the first wave of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2003). HINTS used random-digit dialing to complete phone interviews with adult Americans (N = 6,369). Nearly half of respondents (47.1%) agreed that "It seems like almost everything causes cancer," 27.0% agreed that "There's not much people can do to lower their chances of getting cancer," and 71.5% agreed that "There are so many recommendations about preventing cancer, it's hard to know which ones to follow." These beliefs were stronger in subjects who were less educated but generally weaker among both African Americans and Hispanics relative to Whites. Fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention were negatively associated with exercising weekly, not smoking, and eating five or more fruits and vegetables daily in multivariate analysis controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Americans who hold fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention may be at greater risk of cancer because they are less likely to engage in various prevention behaviors. Results have notable implications for future cancer communication and education efforts.

  20. Models of Persuasion Dialogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakken, Henry

    This chapter1 reviews formal dialogue systems for persuasion. In persuasion dialogues two or more participants try to resolve a conflict of opinion, each trying to persuade the other participants to adopt their point of view. Dialogue systems for persuasion regulate how such dialogues can be conducted and what their outcome is. Good dialogue systems ensure that conflicts of view can be resolved in a fair and effective way [6]. The term ‘persuasion dialogue’ was coined by Walton [13] as part of his influential classification of dialogues into six types according to their goal. While persuasion aims to resolve a difference of opinion, negotiation tries to resolve a conflict of interest by reaching a deal, information seeking aims at transferring information, deliberationdeliberation wants to reach a decision on a course of action, inquiry is aimed at “growth of knowledge and agreement” and quarrel is the verbal substitute of a fight. This classification leaves room for shifts of dialogues of one type to another. In particular, other types of dialogues can shift to persuasion when a conflict of opinion arises. For example, in information-seeking a conflict of opinion could arise on the credibility of a source of information, in deliberation the participants may disagree about likely effects of plans or actions and in negotiation they may disagree about the reasons why a proposal is in one’s interest.

  1. Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, W. A. J. W.; Zain, M. Z. M.

    2014-02-01

    Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females.

  2. Preventing antisocial behavior in the schools

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, G. Roy

    1995-01-01

    Multiple correlates and determinants of antisocial behavior within the home, community, and school are reviewed. Due to the school's pivotal role in our society, an emphasis is placed on how our schools contribute to antisocial behavior, and what educators can do to prevent anti-social behavior and related attendance problems. A variety of contextual factors and setting events within our schools appear to be major contributors to antisocial behavior, and some of the same factors identified within the schools also have been identified within the home. These setting events, rather than quick restrictive fixes, must be given more attention if we are to provide safe school environments—environments that durably prevent antisocial behavior and related attendance problems. PMID:16795877

  3. Preventing behavior problems in puppies and kittens.

    PubMed

    Seksel, Kersti

    2008-09-01

    There are many common issues that owners find problematic with their puppy's or kitten's behavior, such as eliminating in inappropriate locations, chewing, mouthing, growling, and biting. Many of these issues can be prevented or managed by helping owners understand normal canine and feline behavior and by teaching the puppy and kitten socially acceptable behaviors. The focus always should be on rewarding acceptable behaviors rather than punishing unacceptable ones. Puppy Preschool and Kitten Kindergarten classes are an ideal avenue to introduce pet owners to modern, humane ways to train and socialize their pets to be a valuable part of today's society.

  4. The Necessary Art of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Jay A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the importance of persuasion in business and offers four essential steps to effective persuasion: establish credibility, identify common ground, use vivid language and compelling evidence, and connect emotionally with the audience. (JOW)

  5. The Necessary Art of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Jay A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the importance of persuasion in business and offers four essential steps to effective persuasion: establish credibility, identify common ground, use vivid language and compelling evidence, and connect emotionally with the audience. (JOW)

  6. Affective and executive network processing associated with persuasive antidrug messages.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Ian S; Yzer, Marco C; Luciana, Monica; Vohs, Kathleen D; MacDonald, Angus W

    2013-07-01

    Previous research has highlighted brain regions associated with socioemotional processes in persuasive message encoding, whereas cognitive models of persuasion suggest that executive brain areas may also be important. The current study aimed to identify lateral prefrontal brain areas associated with persuasive message viewing and understand how activity in these executive regions might interact with activity in the amygdala and medial pFC. Seventy adolescents were scanned using fMRI while they watched 10 strongly convincing antidrug public service announcements (PSAs), 10 weakly convincing antidrug PSAs, and 10 advertisements (ads) unrelated to drugs. Antidrug PSAs compared with nondrug ads more strongly elicited arousal-related activity in the amygdala and medial pFC. Within antidrug PSAs, those that were prerated as strongly persuasive versus weakly persuasive showed significant differences in arousal-related activity in executive processing areas of the lateral pFC. In support of the notion that persuasiveness involves both affective and executive processes, functional connectivity analyses showed greater coactivation between the lateral pFC and amygdala during PSAs known to be strongly (vs. weakly) convincing. These findings demonstrate that persuasive messages elicit activation in brain regions responsible for both emotional arousal and executive control and represent a crucial step toward a better understanding of the neural processes responsible for persuasion and subsequent behavior change.

  7. Exploiting attractiveness in persuasion: senders' implicit theories about receivers' processing motivation.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Tobias; Kutzner, Florian; Fiedler, Klaus; Freytag, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Previous research suggests a positive correlation between physical attractiveness and the expectation of positive outcomes in social interactions, such as successful persuasion. However, prominent persuasion theories do not imply a general advantage of attractive senders. Instead, the persuasion success should vary with the receivers' processing motivation and processing capacity. Focusing on the perspective of the sender, the authors elaborate on lay theories about how attractiveness affects persuasion success. They propose that lay theories (a) match scientific models in that they also comprise the interaction of senders' attractiveness and receivers' processing characteristics, (b) guide laypersons' anticipation of persuasion success, and (c) translate into strategic behavior. They show that anticipated persuasion success depends on the interplay of perceived attractiveness and expectations about receivers' processing motivation (Experiment 1 and 2). Further experiments show that laypersons strategically attempt to exploit attractiveness in that they approach situations (Experiment 3) and persons (Experiment 4) that promise persuasion success.

  8. Persuasive technology for health and wellness: State-of-the-art and emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Orji, Rita; Moffatt, Karyn

    2016-05-31

    The evolving field of persuasive and behavior change technology is increasingly targeted at influencing behavior in the area of health and wellness. This paper provides an empirical review of 16 years (85 papers) of literature on persuasive technology for health and wellness to: (1.) answer important questions regarding the effectiveness of persuasive technology for health and wellness, (2.) summarize and highlight trends in the technology design, research methods, motivational strategies, theories, and health behaviors targeted by research to date, (3.) uncover pitfalls of existing persuasive technological interventions for health and wellness, and (4.) suggest directions for future research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. A Review of Persuasive Principles in Mobile Apps for Chronic Arthritis Patients: Opportunities for Improvement.

    PubMed

    Geuens, Jonas; Swinnen, Thijs Willem; Westhovens, Rene; de Vlam, Kurt; Geurts, Luc; Vanden Abeele, Vero

    2016-10-13

    Chronic arthritis (CA), an umbrella term for inflammatory rheumatic and other musculoskeletal diseases, is highly prevalent. Effective disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for CA are available, with the exception of osteoarthritis, but require a long-term commitment of patients to comply with the medication regimen and management program as well as a tight follow-up by the treating physician and health professionals. Additionally, patients are advised to participate in physical exercise programs. Adherence to exercises and physical activity programs is often very low. Patients would benefit from support to increase medication compliance as well as compliance to the physical exercise programs. To address these shortcomings, health apps for CA patients have been created. These mobile apps assist patients in self-management of overall health measures, health prevention, and disease management. By including persuasive principles designed to reinforce, change, or shape attitudes or behaviors, health apps can transform into support tools that motivate and stimulate users to achieve or keep up with target behavior, also called persuasive systems. However, the extent to which health apps for CA patients consciously and successfully employ such persuasive principles remains unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the number and type of persuasive principles present in current health apps for CA patients. A review of apps for arthritis patients was conducted across the three major app stores (Google Play, Apple App Store, and Windows Phone Store). Collected apps were coded according to 37 persuasive principles, based on an altered version of the Persuasive System Design taxonomy of Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjuma and the taxonomy of Behavior Change Techniques of Michie and Abraham. In addition, user ratings, number of installs, and price of the apps were also coded. We coded 28 apps. On average, 5.8 out of 37 persuasive principles were used in each app. The most

  10. A Review of Persuasive Principles in Mobile Apps for Chronic Arthritis Patients: Opportunities for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Swinnen, Thijs Willem; Westhovens, Rene; de Vlam, Kurt; Geurts, Luc; Vanden Abeele, Vero

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic arthritis (CA), an umbrella term for inflammatory rheumatic and other musculoskeletal diseases, is highly prevalent. Effective disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for CA are available, with the exception of osteoarthritis, but require a long-term commitment of patients to comply with the medication regimen and management program as well as a tight follow-up by the treating physician and health professionals. Additionally, patients are advised to participate in physical exercise programs. Adherence to exercises and physical activity programs is often very low. Patients would benefit from support to increase medication compliance as well as compliance to the physical exercise programs. To address these shortcomings, health apps for CA patients have been created. These mobile apps assist patients in self-management of overall health measures, health prevention, and disease management. By including persuasive principles designed to reinforce, change, or shape attitudes or behaviors, health apps can transform into support tools that motivate and stimulate users to achieve or keep up with target behavior, also called persuasive systems. However, the extent to which health apps for CA patients consciously and successfully employ such persuasive principles remains unknown. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the number and type of persuasive principles present in current health apps for CA patients. Methods A review of apps for arthritis patients was conducted across the three major app stores (Google Play, Apple App Store, and Windows Phone Store). Collected apps were coded according to 37 persuasive principles, based on an altered version of the Persuasive System Design taxonomy of Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjuma and the taxonomy of Behavior Change Techniques of Michie and Abraham. In addition, user ratings, number of installs, and price of the apps were also coded. Results We coded 28 apps. On average, 5.8 out of 37 persuasive

  11. The Effects of Instruction in Peer-Revision on the Persuasive Writing of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research supports the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) to improve the writing skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This single subject multiple baseline, multiple probe design study extends this research base by investigating the effects of peer-revision instruction on the persuasive…

  12. Self-Regulated Strategy Development: Connecting Persuasive Writing to Self-Advocacy for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna; Mustian, April L.

    2013-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders often experience difficulties in expressive writing and social outcomes in school and beyond. Therefore, writing instruction and self-determination skills are critical for this population. This research study, in which special education teachers were trained to be implementers, successfully…

  13. The persuasive power of oral health promotion messages: a theory of planned behavior approach to dental checkups among young adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christina N; Noar, Seth M; Rogers, Brandi D

    2013-01-01

    Although routine dental checkups are important for both oral and overall health, several factors influence young adults' use or nonuse of dental services. The two studies included in this report tested the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and an expanded TPB model in predicting young adults' routine dental checkups. Additionally, the study tested the perceived message effectiveness of TPB-based messages. Results support the use of an expanded TPB model (particularly adding satisfaction with the dentist and environmental constraints to the traditional model) for an understanding of routine dental checkup intention and behavior, and, most notably, provide support for the use of subjective norm-based messages to prompt dental checkups. This study lays the groundwork for a health communication campaign encouraging routine dental checkups among young adults. The use of targeting and tailoring to design effective oral health media campaign messages is discussed.

  14. DXA, health beliefs, and osteoporosis prevention behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, Carol A; Doheny, Margaret O; Estok, Patricia J; Zeller, Richard A; Winchell, Janice

    2007-10-01

    This experimental longitudinal study was designed to examine the relationship between having a bone density through dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) and osteoporosis preventing behaviors (OPB) among healthy postmenopausal women. Subjects were 203 healthy community-based women 50-65 years of age. Mediating variables were general knowledge of osteoporosis and revised health belief model variables. Treatment group women (n = 101) had a DXA screen and control group women (n = 102) did not. Study questionnaires were completed at three time points; initially and at 6 months and 12 months. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed treatment group women scored significantly higher on perceived susceptibility and calcium intake. Wilks's Lambda F revealed a significant difference in use of osteoporosis preventing medications. Personal knowledge gained from DXAs increased perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis, calcium intake, and use of osteoporosis preventing medications and appears to be an effective intervention in promoting OPB in younger postmenopausal women.

  15. Behavioral Research in Cancer Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Klein, William M. P.; Bloch, Michele; Hesse, Bradford W.; McDonald, Paige G.; Nebeling, Linda; O’Connell, Mary E.; Riley, William T.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Tesauro, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Human behavior is central to the etiology and management of cancer outcomes and presents several avenues for targeted and sustained intervention. Psychosocial experiences such as stress and health behaviors including tobacco use, sun exposure, poor diet, and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of some cancers yet are often quite resistant to change. Cancer screening and other health services are misunderstood and over-utilized, and vaccination underutilized, in part because of the avalanche of information about cancer prevention. Coordination of cancer care is suboptimal, and only a small fraction of cancer patients enroll in clinical trials essential to the development of new cancer treatments. A growing population of cancer survivors has necessitated a fresh view of cancer as a chronic rather than acute disease. Fortunately, behavioral research can address a wide variety of key processes and outcomes across the cancer controbiol continuum from prevention to end-of-life care. Here we consider effects at the biobehavioral and psychological, social and organizational, and environmental levels. We challenge the research community to address key behavioral targets across all levels of influence, while taking into account the many new methodological tools that can facilitate this important work. PMID:24512871

  16. Persuasibility--A Reception-yielding Process: A Nonmonotonic Theory of Man's Reception Distortion Behaviors as a Function of Environmental Fluctuations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, John E.; Reinard, John C., Jr.

    Three environmental elements--messages, events, and perceived consequences of choices--cause varying amounts of stress on an individual and affect his capacity to deal with his environment. There is a nonmonotonic relationship between environmental pressures ("event press") and persuasibility in that the number and importance of…

  17. A Persuasive Example of Collaborative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsmith, Kevin M.; Cooper, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Describes the 12-week long collaborative learning project used in a persuasion and propaganda course. Explains that the students worked in groups on a persuasive campaign to change a target population. States that the student projects were persuasive. (CMK)

  18. A Persuasive Example of Collaborative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsmith, Kevin M.; Cooper, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Describes the 12-week long collaborative learning project used in a persuasion and propaganda course. Explains that the students worked in groups on a persuasive campaign to change a target population. States that the student projects were persuasive. (CMK)

  19. Politics of Persuasion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    conform to social and political standards of appropriateness, the ethics of persuasion, and the social sanctions given to the change agent. An analysis...of the techniques used by salesmen, police interrogators, and volunteers canvassing for political candidates helps make explicit some of these...fundamental assumptions. In the process of presenting these general analyses, extractions from police training manuals and improvised tactics used to

  20. Japanese risk behaviors and their HIV/AIDS-preventive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Munakata, T; Tajima, K

    1996-04-01

    This study is to identify the risk behaviors of the Japanese that may lead to HIV infection and the behaviors that prevent such infection, as well as their background factors. Two behavioral surveys were conducted for the present study. (1) For international comparison on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) related to HIV/AIDS, we conducted a survey on a sample of 10,000 adults, randomly selected from a nationwide population in Japan; and (2) for sexual partner relation, we conducted a survey on a sample of 10,000 adults randomly selected from a population in five major cities of Japan. Our main findings include: (1) Most of the Japanese adult did not regard AIDS as a major threat in the area where they lived; (2) People in their twenties are too casual about "having sex without using a condom with someone they've met for the first time and know little about"; (3) Thirteen percent (19% male, 8% female) of those with a steady sex partner including a spouse, on average, had sex with 2.4 non-steady partners in the previous year; and (4) Only 25 percent used condoms always when they engaged in casual sex during the previous four weeks. These risk behaviors of the Japanese adults might lead to an explosive rise in the number of HIV-infected in the near future unless steps are taken immediately to prevent it.

  1. Designing for Persuasion: Toward Ambient Eco-Visualization for Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tanyoung; Hong, Hwajung; Magerko, Brian

    When people are aware of their lifestyle's ecological consequences, they are more likely to adjust their behavior to reduce their impact. Persuasive design that provides feedback to users without interfering with their primary tasks can increases the awareness of neighboring problems. As a case study of design for persuasion, we designed two ambient displays as desktop widgets. Both represent a users' computer usage time, but in different visual styles. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative study of two ambient displays. We discuss the gradual progress of persuasion supported by the ambient displays and the differences in users' perception affected by the different visualization styles. Finally, Our empirical findings lead to a series of design implications for persuasive media.

  2. Personality and Persuasive Technology: An Exploratory Study on Health-Promoting Mobile Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halko, Sajanee; Kientz, Julie A.

    Though a variety of persuasive health applications have been designed with a preventive standpoint toward diseases in mind, many have been designed largely for a general audience. Designers of these technologies may achieve more success if applications consider an individual's personality type. Our goal for this research was to explore the relationship between personality and persuasive technologies in the context of health-promoting mobile applications. We conducted an online survey with 240 participants using storyboards depicting eight different persuasive strategies, the Big Five Inventory for personality domains, and questions on perceptions of the persuasive technologies. Our results and analysis revealed a number of significant relationships between personality and the persuasive technologies we evaluated. The findings from this study can guide the development of persuasive technologies that can cater to individual personalities to improve the likelihood of their success.

  3. Toward a theory of persuasive hope: effects of cognitive appraisals, hope appeals, and hope in the context of climate change.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Amy E

    2015-01-01

    Hope has the potential to be a powerful motivator for influencing behavior. However, hope and messages that evoke hope (hope appeals) have rarely been the focus of theoretical development or empirical research. As a step toward the effective development and use of hope appeals in persuasive communication, this study conceptualized and operationalized hope appeals in the context of climate change prevention. Then, the study manipulated components of the hope evocation part of a hope appeal. Specifically, the components were designed to address appraisals of the importance, goal congruence, future expectation, and possibility of climate protection, resulting in a 2 (strong/weak importance) × 2 (strong/weak goal congruence) × 2 (strong/weak future expectation) × 2 (strong/weak possibility) between-subjects pretest-posttest factorial design. Two hundred forty-five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of the 16 message conditions and completed the study online. The study tested whether the four appraisals predict feelings of hope. It determined whether message components that address importance, goal congruence, future expectation, and possibility affect appraisals, feelings of hope, and persuasion outcomes. Finally, this study tested the effects of feelings of hope on persuasion outcomes. This study takes an important step toward enabling the effective use of hope appeals in persuasive communication.

  4. Persuasion, Surveillance, and Voting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Alan E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the efficacy of two basic strategies which might be employed to increase the probability that a potential voter will act in accordance with his presumed belief that it is right, good, or desirable to exercise his franchise. (Author)

  5. Persuasion: Reception and Responsibility. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.

    This book is designed to develop students' skills both as consumers and as producers of persuasion. The book explains, with examples from diverse media campaigns, strategies of persuasion constantly used in the mass media, in political rhetoric, and in advertising. The book covers material on persuasion theory, persuasion research, and persuasion…

  6. Behavioral versus Traditional Approaches to Prevention of Child Abduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberg, Daniel S.; Johnson, Blair T.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews literature on prevention of child abduction and states shortcomings of traditional versus behavioral approaches to prevention of child abduction. Reveals that behavioral-skills training appears to be a necessary component in effective prevention programs and suggests children undergo such training, with the focus being on self-protective…

  7. Re-Examining the Agentic Shift: The Sense of Agency Influences the Effectiveness of (Self)Persuasion.

    PubMed

    Damen, Tom G E; Müller, Barbara C N; van Baaren, Rick B; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether differences in the sense of agency influenced the effectiveness of both direct persuasion and self-persuasion techniques. By manipulating both the delay and contingency of the outcomes of actions, participants were led to experience either a low or high sense of agency. Participants were subsequently presented with arguments as to why a clean local environment is important (direct persuasion), or were asked to generate those arguments themselves (self-persuasion). Subsequently, participants' cleanliness attitudes and willingness to participate in a campus cleanup were measured. The results show that techniques of direct persuasion influenced attitudes and volunteering behavior under conditions of low rather than high agency, whereas techniques of self-persuasion were most effective under conditions of high rather than low agency. The present findings therefore show how recent experiences of agency, a state based experience of control, can influence the effectiveness of both external and internal persuasion techniques.

  8. Re-Examining the Agentic Shift: The Sense of Agency Influences the Effectiveness of (Self)Persuasion

    PubMed Central

    Damen, Tom G. E.; Müller, Barbara C. N.; van Baaren, Rick B.; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether differences in the sense of agency influenced the effectiveness of both direct persuasion and self-persuasion techniques. By manipulating both the delay and contingency of the outcomes of actions, participants were led to experience either a low or high sense of agency. Participants were subsequently presented with arguments as to why a clean local environment is important (direct persuasion), or were asked to generate those arguments themselves (self-persuasion). Subsequently, participants’ cleanliness attitudes and willingness to participate in a campus cleanup were measured. The results show that techniques of direct persuasion influenced attitudes and volunteering behavior under conditions of low rather than high agency, whereas techniques of self-persuasion were most effective under conditions of high rather than low agency. The present findings therefore show how recent experiences of agency, a state based experience of control, can influence the effectiveness of both external and internal persuasion techniques. PMID:26053303

  9. Influence of Incidental Discrete Emotions on Health Risk Perception and Persuasion.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli

    2017-06-01

    This research examines the effects of two incidental discrete emotions-fear and anger-on health risk perception (i.e., perceived susceptibility to a health problem) and persuasion. In two experiments, fear and anger were induced before participants were exposed to a public service announcement that advocated sun protection behaviors to prevent skin cancer (Experiment 1) or flossing to prevent gum diseases (Experiment 2). It was found that fearful participants perceived greater susceptibility to the health risk than angry participants and those who were in a neutral affective state. Angry participants did not differ from those in a neutral affective state in terms of perceived susceptibility. There was mixed evidence that fear exerted an indirect effect on attitude toward the recommended health behavior and intention to perform the health behavior through health risk perception. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Persuasive Mobile Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Wylie, Carlos; Coulton, Paul

    With many industrialized societies bearing the cost of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle on the health of their populations there is a need to find new ways of encouraging physical activity to promote better health and well being. With the increasing power of mobile phones and the recent emergence of personal heart rate monitors, aimed at dedicated amateur runners, there is now a possibility to develop “Persuasive Mobile Health Applications” to promote well being through the use of real-time physiological data and persuade users to adopt a healthier lifestyle. In this paper we present a novel general health monitoring software for mobile phones called Heart Angel. This software is aimed at helping users monitor, record, as well as improve their fitness level through built-in cardio-respiratory tests, a location tracking application for analyzing heart rate exertion over time and location, and a fun mobile-exergame called Health Defender.

  11. Change through persuasion.

    PubMed

    Garvin, David A; Roberto, Michael A

    2005-02-01

    Faced with the need for a massive change, most managers respond predictably. They revamp the organization's strategy, shift around staff, and root out inefficiencies. They then wait patiently for performance to improve--only to be bitterly disappointed because they've failed to adequately prepare employees for the change. In this article, the authors contend that to make change stick, leaders must conduct an effective persuasion campaign-one that begins weeks or months before the turn-around plan is set in concrete. Like a political campaign, a persuasion campaign is largely one of differentiation from the past. Turnaround leaders must convince people that the organization is truly on its deathbed-or, at the very least, that radical changes are required if the organization is to survive and thrive. (This is a particularly difficult challenge when years of persistent problems have been accompanied by few changes in the status quo.) And they must demonstrate through word and deed that they are the right leaders with the right plan. Accomplishing all this calls for a four-part communications strategy. Prior to announcing a turnaround plan, leaders need to set the stage for employees' acceptance of it. At the time of delivery, they must present a framework through which employees can interpret information and messages about the plan. As time passes, they must manage the mood so that employees' emotional states support implementation and follow-through. And at critical intervals, they must provide reinforcement to ensure that the desired changes take hold and that there's no backsliding. Using the example of the dramatic turn-around at Boston's Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, the authors elucidate the inner workings of a successful change effort.

  12. When the model fits the frame: the impact of regulatory fit on efficacy appraisal and persuasion in health communication.

    PubMed

    Bosone, Lucia; Martinez, Frédéric; Kalampalikis, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    In health-promotional campaigns, positive and negative role models can be deployed to illustrate the benefits or costs of certain behaviors. The main purpose of this article is to investigate why, how, and when exposure to role models strengthens the persuasiveness of a message, according to regulatory fit theory. We argue that exposure to a positive versus a negative model activates individuals' goals toward promotion rather than prevention. By means of two experiments, we demonstrate that high levels of persuasion occur when a message advertising healthy dietary habits offers a regulatory fit between its framing and the described role model. Our data also establish that the effects of such internal regulatory fit by vicarious experience depend on individuals' perceptions of response-efficacy and self-efficacy. Our findings constitute a significant theoretical complement to previous research on regulatory fit and contain valuable practical implications for health-promotional campaigns.

  13. Promoting UV Exposure Awareness with Persuasive, Wearable Technologies.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M Sazzad; Cripwell, Liam; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Freyne, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Current methods to promote awareness of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation have focussed on delivering population level information and some location-based reporting of UV Index (UVI). However, diseases related to excessive (e.g. sunburn, skin cancer) or insufficient (e.g. vitamin D deficiency) exposure to sunlight still remain a global burden. The emergence of wearable sensors and the application of persuasive technology in health domains raise the possibility for technology to influence awareness of sufficient sun intake for vitamin D production, as well as preventing risk of skin damage. This paper presents a personalised solution to promote healthy, safe sun exposure using wearable devices and persuasive techniques.

  14. Estimates of Preventability and Their Relation to Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gary D.

    It was hypothesized that a person's estimates of the preventability of health problems would be related to health behaviors such that a person who engages in healthful behavior should make higher estimates of preventability. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between causal attribution of health problems and health-related…

  15. Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in Male and Female Army Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    intervention, an Army-specific video, and the comparison nutrition , fitness and injury prevention intervention. Based on our focus group discussions, it is...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0159 TITLE: Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in...NUMBER Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in Male and Female Army Recruits 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0159 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  16. [The paradoxical effect of persuasive communication in health education sessions].

    PubMed

    Piperini, Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the communication dynamics leading to the adoption of new attitudes and cognitions in health education sessions. We examined the verbal interactions at work in persuasive communication in 16 health education sessions. The study found that the medical expertise of the educator and the initial level of commitment of the participants had a positive effect on adherence to recommendations. However, persuasive communication in health education sessions appears to involve a paradoxical process in which criticism of the message can go hand in hand with the expression of an intention to implement new risk-reducing behaviors.

  17. Prevention messages and AIDS risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hearst, Norman; Kajubi, Phoebe; Hudes, Esther Sid; Maganda, Albert K; Green, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    Uganda was one of the first countries to substantially reduce HIV rates through behavior change, but these gains have not continued in recent years. Little is known about what messages Ugandans are currently hearing about AIDS prevention, what they themselves believe to be important prevention strategies, and how these beliefs are associated with behavior. We interviewed men and women aged between 20 and 39 in two poor peri-urban areas of Kampala, using a random sample, cross-sectional household survey design. Respondents provided detailed reports of sexual behavior over the past six months, the main prevention message they are currently hearing about AIDS, and their own ranking of the importance of prevention strategies. Condom use was the main AIDS prevention message that respondents reported hearing, followed by getting tested. These were also what respondents themselves considered most important, followed closely by faithfulness. Abstinence was the lowest ranked strategy, but a higher ranking for this prevention strategy was the only one consistently associated with less risky behavior. A higher ranking for condoms was associated with higher levels of risk behavior, while the ranking of testing made no difference in any behavior. These results present challenges for AIDS prevention strategies that rely primarily on promoting condoms and testing. HIV prevention programs need to assess their impact on behavior.

  18. Twelve Practical Strategies to Prevent Behavioral Escalation in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla-Mehta, Smita; Albin, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe 12 practical strategies identified as empirically effective in preventing behavioral escalation in students: (1) Reinforce calm and on-task behaviors; (2) Know the triggers; (3) Pay attention to anything unusual about the student's behavior; (4) Do not escalate along with the student; (5) Offer students…

  19. Twelve Practical Strategies To Prevent Behavioral Escalation in Classroom Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla-Mehta, Smita; Albin, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve practical strategies that can be used by classroom teachers to prevent behavioral escalation are discussed, including reinforce calm, know the triggers, pay attention to anything unusual, do not escalate, intervene early, know the function of problem behavior, use extinction wisely, teach prosocial behavior, and teach academic survival…

  20. Personalized persuasion: tailoring persuasive appeals to recipients' personality traits.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, Jacob B; Kang, Sonia K; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2012-06-01

    Persuasive messages are more effective when they are custom-tailored to reflect the interests and concerns of the intended audience. Much of the message-framing literature has focused on the advantages of using either gain or loss frames, depending on the motivational orientation of the target group. In the current study, we extended this research to examine whether a persuasive appeal's effectiveness can be increased by aligning the message framing with the recipient's personality profile. For a single product, we constructed five advertisements, each designed to target one of the five major trait domains of human personality. In a sample of 324 survey respondents, advertisements were evaluated more positively the more they cohered with participants' dispositional motives. These results suggest that adapting persuasive messages to the personality traits of the target audience can be an effective way of increasing the messages' impact, and highlight the potential value of personality-based communication strategies.

  1. Contagion on complex networks with persuasion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Min; Zhang, Li-Jie; Xu, Xin-Jian; Fu, Xinchu

    2016-03-31

    The threshold model has been widely adopted as a classic model for studying contagion processes on social networks. We consider asymmetric individual interactions in social networks and introduce a persuasion mechanism into the threshold model. Specifically, we study a combination of adoption and persuasion in cascading processes on complex networks. It is found that with the introduction of the persuasion mechanism, the system may become more vulnerable to global cascades, and the effects of persuasion tend to be more significant in heterogeneous networks than those in homogeneous networks: a comparison between heterogeneous and homogeneous networks shows that under weak persuasion, heterogeneous networks tend to be more robust against random shocks than homogeneous networks; whereas under strong persuasion, homogeneous networks are more stable. Finally, we study the effects of adoption and persuasion threshold heterogeneity on systemic stability. Though both heterogeneities give rise to global cascades, the adoption heterogeneity has an overwhelmingly stronger impact than the persuasion heterogeneity when the network connectivity is sufficiently dense.

  2. Contagion on complex networks with persuasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Min; Zhang, Li-Jie; Xu, Xin-Jian; Fu, Xinchu

    2016-03-01

    The threshold model has been widely adopted as a classic model for studying contagion processes on social networks. We consider asymmetric individual interactions in social networks and introduce a persuasion mechanism into the threshold model. Specifically, we study a combination of adoption and persuasion in cascading processes on complex networks. It is found that with the introduction of the persuasion mechanism, the system may become more vulnerable to global cascades, and the effects of persuasion tend to be more significant in heterogeneous networks than those in homogeneous networks: a comparison between heterogeneous and homogeneous networks shows that under weak persuasion, heterogeneous networks tend to be more robust against random shocks than homogeneous networks; whereas under strong persuasion, homogeneous networks are more stable. Finally, we study the effects of adoption and persuasion threshold heterogeneity on systemic stability. Though both heterogeneities give rise to global cascades, the adoption heterogeneity has an overwhelmingly stronger impact than the persuasion heterogeneity when the network connectivity is sufficiently dense.

  3. Preventing Severe Problem Behavior in Young Children: The Behavior Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawken, Leanne S.; Johnston, Susan S.

    2007-01-01

    Best practice in preventing severe problem behavior in schools involves implementing a continuum of effective behavior support. This continuum includes primary prevention strategies implemented with all students, secondary prevention strategies for students at-risk, and tertiary interventions for students who engage in the most severe problem…

  4. [Construction of the addiction prevention core competency model for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young

    2013-12-01

    This study was done to provide fundamental data for the development of competency reinforcement programs to prevent addictive behavior in adolescents through the construction and examination of an addiction prevention core competency model. In this study core competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling were identified, and the addiction prevention core competency model was developed. It was validated methodologically. Competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents as defined by the addiction prevention core competency model are as follows: positive self-worth, self-control skill, time management skill, reality perception skill, risk coping skill, and positive communication with parents and with peers or social group. After construction, concurrent cross validation of the addiction prevention core competency model showed that this model was appropriate. The study results indicate that the addiction prevention core competency model for the prevention of addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling can be used as a foundation for an integral approach to enhance adolescent is used as an adjective and prevent addictive behavior. This approach can be a school-centered, cost-efficient strategy which not only reduces addictive behavior in adolescents, but also improves the quality of their resources.

  5. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  6. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  7. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of this counseling. This fact sheet explains the ... skin looking young and healthy. Potential Benefits and Harms of Behavioral Counseling The main potential benefit of ...

  8. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... STD Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Many ... and School Health addresses HIV, other STDS, and teen pregnancy through Data collection and analysis Science-based guidance ...

  9. Strategies for Preventing Behavioral Incidents in the Nation's Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Johnny; Leonard, Rex

    1985-01-01

    Discusses strategies that can be used to prevent the five most common behavioral problems in secondary schools: (1) failure to complete assigned work, (2) tardiness, (3) inattentiveness, (4) littering, and (5) failure to bring materials to class. (FL)

  10. Strategies for Preventing Behavioral Incidents in the Nation's Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Johnny; Leonard, Rex

    1985-01-01

    Discusses strategies that can be used to prevent the five most common behavioral problems in secondary schools: (1) failure to complete assigned work, (2) tardiness, (3) inattentiveness, (4) littering, and (5) failure to bring materials to class. (FL)

  11. Advances in Preventing Childhood and Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of prevention have led to a deeper understanding of the causes of adolescent problem behavior and to the identification of efficacious strategies to prevent delinquency, drug use, and other antisocial conduct. This 2009 Aaron Rosen lecture to members of the "Society for Social Work and Research" traces the evolution of…

  12. Advances in Preventing Childhood and Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of prevention have led to a deeper understanding of the causes of adolescent problem behavior and to the identification of efficacious strategies to prevent delinquency, drug use, and other antisocial conduct. This 2009 Aaron Rosen lecture to members of the "Society for Social Work and Research" traces the evolution of…

  13. The Persuasive Power of Data Visualization.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anshul Vikram; Manivannan, Anjali; Nov, Oded; Satterthwaite, Margaret; Bertini, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    Data visualization has been used extensively to inform users. However, little research has been done to examine the effects of data visualization in influencing users or in making a message more persuasive. In this study, we present experimental research to fill this gap and present an evidence-based analysis of persuasive visualization. We built on persuasion research from psychology and user interfaces literature in order to explore the persuasive effects of visualization. In this experimental study we define the circumstances under which data visualization can make a message more persuasive, propose hypotheses, and perform quantitative and qualitative analyses on studies conducted to test these hypotheses. We compare visual treatments with data presented through barcharts and linecharts on the one hand, treatments with data presented through tables on the other, and then evaluate their persuasiveness. The findings represent a first step in exploring the effectiveness of persuasive visualization.

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Prevention of Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinke, Steven Paul; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Studied high-school sophmores, who through group training, were given contraceptive information, steps for solving problems, and practice in communicating decisions about sexual behavior. Compared with untrained, control-condition teenagers, trained teenagers had more positive postest scores on measures of sexual knowledge, interpersonal problem…

  15. Patterns of Propaganda and Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rank, Hugh

    Because children are exposed to highly professional sales pitches on television and because the old material produced by the Institute of Propaganda Analysis is outdated and in error, a new tool for the analysis of propaganda and persuasion is called for. Such a tool is the intensify/downplay pattern analysis chart, which includes the basic…

  16. Persuasive Appeal for Clean Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFrene, Debbie D.; Lehman, Carol M.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that one way to expose students to the problems associated with profanity is to tie the exploration and discussion of the issue to the persuasive writing assignment that is common in many undergraduate business communication courses. Presents a discussion of such an assignment. (SG)

  17. Changing attitudes through persuasive communication.

    PubMed

    Clarke, A

    Nurses are uniquely placed to provide effective health education with the aim of promoting attitude and behavioural change. This article explores the literature relating to attitude formation, attitude change and the nature of persuasive communication, and identifies specific strategies that will be useful to all nurses.

  18. Identifying Major Techniques of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makosky, Vivian Parker

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this class exercise is to increase undergraduate psychology students' awareness of common persuasion techniques used in advertising, including the appeal to or creation of needs, social and prestige suggestion, and the use of emotionally loaded words and images. Television commercials and magazine advertisements are used as…

  19. Prevention of Suicidal Behavior in Prisons

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Background: Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Research on near-lethal suicide attempts can provide important insights into risk and protective factors, and inform suicide prevention initiatives in prison. Aims: To synthesize findings of research on near-lethal attempts in prisons, and consider their implications for suicide prevention policies and practice, in the context of other research in custody and other settings. Method: We searched two bibliographic indexes for studies in any language on near-lethal and severe self-harm in prisoners, supplemented by targeted searches over the period 2000–2014. We extracted information on risk factors descriptively. Data were not meta-analyzed owing to heterogeneity of samples and methods. Results: We identified eight studies reporting associations between prisoner near-lethal attempts and specific factors. The latter included historical, prison-related, and clinical factors, including psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity, trauma, social isolation, and bullying. These factors were also identified as important in prisoners' own accounts of what may have contributed to their attempts (presented in four studies). Conclusion: Factors associated with prisoners' severe suicide attempts include a range of potentially modifiable clinical, psychosocial, and environmental factors. We make recommendations to address these factors in order to improve detection, management, and prevention of suicide risk in prisoners. PMID:27278569

  20. Prevention of Suicidal Behavior in Prisons.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Lisa; Hawton, Keith; Rivlin, Adrienne; Smith, E Naomi; Piper, Mary; Fazel, Seena

    2016-09-01

    Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Research on near-lethal suicide attempts can provide important insights into risk and protective factors, and inform suicide prevention initiatives in prison. To synthesize findings of research on near-lethal attempts in prisons, and consider their implications for suicide prevention policies and practice, in the context of other research in custody and other settings. We searched two bibliographic indexes for studies in any language on near-lethal and severe self-harm in prisoners, supplemented by targeted searches over the period 2000-2014. We extracted information on risk factors descriptively. Data were not meta-analyzed owing to heterogeneity of samples and methods. We identified eight studies reporting associations between prisoner near-lethal attempts and specific factors. The latter included historical, prison-related, and clinical factors, including psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity, trauma, social isolation, and bullying. These factors were also identified as important in prisoners' own accounts of what may have contributed to their attempts (presented in four studies). Factors associated with prisoners' severe suicide attempts include a range of potentially modifiable clinical, psychosocial, and environmental factors. We make recommendations to address these factors in order to improve detection, management, and prevention of suicide risk in prisoners.

  1. Preventing Trouble: Making Schools Safer Places Using Positive Behavior Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Karen; Safran, Stephen; Johanson, George

    2005-01-01

    Effective management of disruptive behaviors in schools is a national concern. While substantial resources are often allocated toward individual students who exhibit challenging behavior, less emphasis is placed on preventative interventions in common areas such as hallways, cafeterias and playgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine…

  2. What Teachers Can Do To Prevent Behavior Problems in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    This article surveys several teacher interventions supported in the research literature to prevent the development of behavior problems in school-aged children. Strategies include specific teaching of social communication skills, clear communication of behavior expectations, creating a supportive school climate, and continual reinforcement of…

  3. Oxytocin Enhances Social Persuasion during Hypnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Richard A.; Hung, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that hypnosis cannot promote behaviors that people will not otherwise engage in. Oxytocin can enhance trust in others, and may promote the extent to which a hypnotized person complies with the suggestion of a hypnotist. This double-blind placebo study administered oxytocin or placebo to high hypnotizable participants (N = 28), who were then administered hypnotic suggestions for socially unorthodox behaviors, including swearing during the experiment, singing out loud, and dancing in response to a posthypnotic cue. Participants who received oxytocin were significantly more likely to swear and dance than those who received the placebo. This finding may be interpreted in terms of oxytocin increasing social compliance in response as a function of (a) increased trust in the hypnotist, (b) reduced social anxiety, or (c) enhanced sensitivity to cues to respond to experimental expectations. These results point to the potential role of oxytocin in social persuasion. PMID:23577153

  4. Oxytocin enhances social persuasion during hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Hung, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that hypnosis cannot promote behaviors that people will not otherwise engage in. Oxytocin can enhance trust in others, and may promote the extent to which a hypnotized person complies with the suggestion of a hypnotist. This double-blind placebo study administered oxytocin or placebo to high hypnotizable participants (N = 28), who were then administered hypnotic suggestions for socially unorthodox behaviors, including swearing during the experiment, singing out loud, and dancing in response to a posthypnotic cue. Participants who received oxytocin were significantly more likely to swear and dance than those who received the placebo. This finding may be interpreted in terms of oxytocin increasing social compliance in response as a function of (a) increased trust in the hypnotist, (b) reduced social anxiety, or (c) enhanced sensitivity to cues to respond to experimental expectations. These results point to the potential role of oxytocin in social persuasion.

  5. The necessary art of persuasion.

    PubMed

    Conger, J A

    1998-01-01

    Business today is largely run by teams and populated by authority-averse baby boomers and Generation Xers. That makes persuasion more important than ever as a managerial tool. But contrary to popular belief, the author asserts, persuasion is not the same as selling an idea or convincing opponents to see things your way. It is instead a process of learning from others and negotiating a shared solution. To that end, persuasion consists of four essential elements: establishing credibility, framing to find common ground, providing vivid evidence, and connecting emotionally. Credibility grows, the author says, out of two sources: expertise and relationships. The former is a function of product or process knowledge and the latter a history of listening to and working in the best interest of others. But even if a persuader's credibility is high, his position must make sense--even more, it must appeal--to the audience. Therefore, a persuader must frame his position to illuminate its benefits to everyone who will feel its impact. Persuasion then becomes a matter of presenting evidence--but not just ordinary charts and spreadsheets. The author says the most effective persuaders use vivid--even over-the-top--stories, metaphors, and examples to make their positions come alive. Finally, good persuaders have the ability to accurately sense and respond to their audience's emotional state. Sometimes, that means they have to suppress their own emotions; at other times, they must intensify them. Persuasion can be a force for enormous good in an organization, but people must understand it for what it is: an often painstaking process that requires insight, planning, and compromise.

  6. Who Persuades Who? An Analysis of Persuasion Choices Related to Antibiotic-Free Food.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel A; Carpenter, Christopher J

    2017-02-03

    Personal communication, in which one person persuades another to engage in a particular behavior, is one means through which behaviors spread. To better understand how personal communication spreads behavior, we investigated adults' (N = 228) likelihood of persuading others in a fictitious social network to buy antibiotic-free food, and who they attempted to persuade, based on behavioral determinants, homophily, and superdiffuser traits. For potential consumers, the findings showed that behavioral determinants, behavioral intentions, and mavenism predicted intentions to persuade others. Homophily, mavenism, and connectivity predicted patterns of interpersonal persuasion. For vegetarians (without homophily in action), behavioral determinants and mavenism predicted persuasion intentions. Persuasiveness was associated with targeting more network members; mavenism was associated with selecting structurally central members.

  7. The neural correlates of persuasion: a common network across cultures and media.

    PubMed

    Falk, Emily B; Rameson, Lian; Berkman, Elliot T; Liao, Betty; Kang, Yoona; Inagaki, Tristen K; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2010-11-01

    Persuasion is at the root of countless social exchanges in which one person or group is motivated to have another share its beliefs, desires, or behavioral intentions. Here, we report the first three functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to investigate the neurocognitive networks associated with feeling persuaded by an argument. In the first two studies, American and Korean participants, respectively, were exposed to a number of text-based persuasive messages. In both Study 1 and Study 2, feeling persuaded was associated with increased activity in posterior superior temporal sulcus bilaterally, temporal pole bilaterally, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The findings suggest a discrete set of underlying mechanisms in the moment that the persuasion process occurs, and are strengthened by the fact that the results replicated across two diverse linguistic and cultural groups. Additionally, a third study using region-of-interest analyses demonstrated that neural activity in this network was also associated with persuasion when a sample of American participants viewed video-based messages. In sum, across three studies, including two different cultural groups and two types of media, persuasion was associated with a consistent network of regions in the brain. Activity in this network has been associated with social cognition and mentalizing and is consistent with models of persuasion that emphasize the importance of social cognitive processing in determining the efficacy of persuasive communication.

  8. The Neural Correlates of Persuasion: A Common Network across Cultures and Media

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Emily B.; Rameson, Lian; Berkman, Elliot T.; Liao, Betty; Kang, Yoona; Inagaki, Tristen K.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Persuasion is at the root of countless social exchanges in which one person or group is motivated to have another share its beliefs, desires, or behavioral intentions. Here, we report the first three functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to investigate the neurocognitive networks associated with feeling persuaded by an argument. In the first two studies, American and Korean participants, respectively, were exposed to a number of text-based persuasive messages. In both Study 1 and Study 2, feeling persuaded was associated with increased activity in posterior superior temporal sulcus bilaterally, temporal pole bilaterally, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The findings suggest a discrete set of underlying mechanisms in the moment that the persuasion process occurs, and are strengthened by the fact that the results replicated across two diverse linguistic and cultural groups. Additionally, a third study using region-of-interest analyses demonstrated that neural activity in this network was also associated with persuasion when a sample of American participants viewed video-based messages. In sum, across three studies, including two different cultural groups and two types of media, persuasion was associated with a consistent network of regions in the brain. Activity in this network has been associated with social cognition and mentalizing and is consistent with models of persuasion that emphasize the importance of social cognitive processing in determining the efficacy of persuasive communication. PMID:19925175

  9. Strategies for primary HIV prevention that target behavioral change.

    PubMed

    Safren, Steven A; Wingood, Gina; Altice, Frederick L

    2007-12-15

    In the absence of a vaccine or cure, behavioral change remains the major method to prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Public awareness campaigns that disseminate information about the risks and routes of transmission, although important, have an insufficient influence on the behavioral changes essential to reduce the risk of HIV infection. Because of the complex interplay of cultural and psychosocial influences that guides human behavior, specific programs to decrease high-risk behavior have been developed for target populations. In this report, tested initiatives for preventing HIV infection are summarized and their success evaluated for men who have sex with men, injection drug users, and women of minority racial groups. Objective evidence of reductions in high-risk behavior in these 3 groups, which account for the majority of HIV transmissions in the United States, has critical implications for reducing the overall rate of new HIV infections.

  10. The Role of Reciprocity in Verbally Persuasive Robots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Liang, Yuhua Jake

    2016-08-01

    The current research examines the persuasive effects of reciprocity in the context of human-robot interaction. This is an important theoretical and practical extension of persuasive robotics by testing (1) if robots can utilize verbal requests and (2) if robots can utilize persuasive mechanisms (e.g., reciprocity) to gain human compliance. Participants played a trivia game with a robot teammate. The ostensibly autonomous robot helped (or failed to help) the participants by providing the correct (vs. incorrect) trivia answers. Then, the robot directly asked participants to complete a 15-minute task for pattern recognition. Compared to no help, results showed that a robot's prior helping behavior significantly increased the likelihood of compliance (60 percent vs. 33 percent). Interestingly, participants' evaluations toward the robot (i.e., competence, warmth, and trustworthiness) did not predict compliance. These results also provided an insightful comparison showing that participants complied at similar rates with the robot and with computer agents. This result documents a clear empirically powerful potential for the role of verbal messages in persuasive robotics.

  11. Preventing Problem Behaviors: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Level Prevention Interventions for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Tary J.; Sugai, George

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare changes in social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence for kindergarten or first grade students identified as being at risk for serious behavior problems who received primary, secondary, or tertiary level preventive interventions. Of the 93 participants in this study, 73% were male; 86% were…

  12. Behavioral and Biomedical Combination Strategies for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bekker, Linda-Gail; Beyrer, Chris; Quinn, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Around 2.5 million people become infected with HIV each year. This extraordinary toll on human life and public health worldwide will only be reversed with effective prevention. What’s more, in the next few years, it is likely at least, that no single prevention strategy will be sufficient to contain the spread of the disease. There is a need for combination prevention as there is for combination treatment, including biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. Expanded HIV prevention must be grounded in a systematic analysis of the epidemic’s dynamics in local contexts. Although 85% of HIV is transmitted sexually, effective combinations of prevention have been shown for people who inject drugs. Combination prevention should be based on scientifically derived evidence, with input and engagement from local communities that fosters the successful integration of care and treatment. PMID:22908192

  13. The Persuasive Mr. Darwin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy

    1997-01-01

    Argues that Darwin's "On the Origin of Species" remains a seldom-read book among both biologists and biology students. Explains that this situation presents two problems: (1) it perpetuates misconceptions about Darwin and his ideas, and (2) it prevents an understanding of developing arguments through the selection of appropriate…

  14. Health Literacy and Injury Prevention Behaviors Among Caregivers of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Heerman, William J.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Sanders, Lee M.; Eden, Svetlana K.; Shintani, Ayumi; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Bronaugh, Andrea B.; Barkin, Shari L.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintentional injury is a leading cause of infant mortality. Purpose To examine the role of caregiver health literacy in infant injury prevention behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2010–2012 from a randomized trial at four pediatric clinics was performed in 2012–2013. Caregiver health literacy was assessed with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Caregiver-reported adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics-recommended injury prevention behaviors was assessed across seven domains: (1) car seat position; (2) car seat use; (3) sleeping safety; (4) fire safety; (5) hot water safety; (6) fall prevention; and (7) firearm safety. Results Data were analyzed from 844 English and Spanish-speaking caregivers of 2-month-old children. Many caregivers were non-adherent with injury prevention guidelines, regardless of health literacy. Notably, 42.6% inappropriately placed their children in the prone position to sleep, and 88.6% did not have their hot water heater set <120°F. Eleven percent of caregivers were categorized as having low health literacy. Low caregiver health literacy, compared to adequate health literacy, was significantly associated with increased odds of caregiver non-adherence with recommended behaviors for car seat position (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=1.6, 7.1), and fire safety (AOR=2.0, 95% CI=1.02, 4.1) recommendations. Caregivers with low health literacy were less likely to be non-adherent to fall prevention recommendations (AOR=0.5, 95% CI=0.2, 0.9). Conclusions Non-adherence to injury prevention guidelines was common. Low caregiver health literacy was significantly associated with some injury prevention behaviors. Future interventions should consider the role of health literacy in promoting injury prevention. PMID:24745634

  15. Persuasive Technology in Nursing Education About Pain.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ana Graziela; Dal Sasso, Grace T M; Iyengar, Sriram

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices, as persuasive technologies, represent an important platform to promote changes in attitudes and behaviors. They are not only understood as tools, but as a learning process that provides different opportunities to learn how to learn. The objectives of the study were to measure the quality of a virtual mobile learning object, to measure the mental workload of the educational intervention, and to evaluate the learning results. This is a technological production study with a mixed method, quasi-experimental approach. Three simulated clinical scenarios comprise the m-OVADor@, allowing for a simulated evaluation of acute pain through interactive tools. The technology met the quality criteria for educational software, with low mental workload, demonstrating a significant strategy for learning about pain among nursing students.

  16. Persuasion factors influencing the decision to use sustainable household water treatment.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Silvie M; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2010-02-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a sustainable water treatment method. With the help of the sun and plastic bottles, water is treated and illnesses prevented. This paper aims to identify the factors influencing SODIS uptake, that is, why someone may become a SODIS user. This uptake decision can be influenced by persuasion. From behaviour theory, variables are recognised which have been proven to influence intention and behaviour and simultaneously can be influenced by persuasion. A total of (n = 878) structured interviews were conducted in a field study in Zimbabwe. Linear and binary logistic regressions showed that several of the initially proposed persuasion variables have significant influence. Persuasion factors have a stronger influence on the uptake of SODIS use and on intention to use SODIS in the future than on the amount of SODIS water consumed. Ideas are presented for using the effective variables in future SODIS campaigns and campaigns in other fields.

  17. Bringing the frame into focus: the influence of regulatory fit on processing fluency and persuasion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Angela Y; Aaker, Jennifer L

    2004-02-01

    This research demonstrates that people's goals associated with regulatory focus moderate the effect of message framing on persuasion. The results of 6 experiments show that appeals presented in gain frames are more persuasive when the message is promotion focused, whereas loss-framed appeals are more persuasive when the message is prevention focused. These regulatory focus effects suggesting heightened vigilance against negative outcomes and heightened eagerness toward positive outcomes are replicated when perceived risk is manipulated. Enhanced processing fluency leading to more favorable evaluations in conditions of compatibility appears to underlie these effects. The findings underscore the regulatory fit principle that accounts for the persuasiveness of message framing effects and highlight how processing fluency may contribute to the "feeling right" experience when the strategy of goal pursuit matches one's goal.

  18. Persuasion on Trial: An Exercise for Understanding the Benefits of Studying Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, John S.; Gass, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The study of persuasion is the wellspring of the communication discipline. Nevertheless, in one review, Seiter and Gass (2004) noted that ''critics of persuasion seem to emerge and reemerge with some regularity'' (p. 2). Although the study of persuasion is generally venerated by those within the field of communication, it is…

  19. Persuasion on Trial: An Exercise for Understanding the Benefits of Studying Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, John S.; Gass, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The study of persuasion is the wellspring of the communication discipline. Nevertheless, in one review, Seiter and Gass (2004) noted that ''critics of persuasion seem to emerge and reemerge with some regularity'' (p. 2). Although the study of persuasion is generally venerated by those within the field of communication, it is…

  20. [A predictive model of fall prevention behaviors in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Jung; Ahn, Sukhee

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to propose and test a predictive model that would explain and predict fall prevention behaviors in postmenopausal women. The health belief model was the theoretical basis to aid development of a nursing intervention fall prevention program. Data for 421 postmenopausal women were selected from an original data set using a survey design. The structural equation model was tested for 3 constructs: modifying factors, expectation factors, and threat factors. Expectation factors were measured as relative perceived benefit (perceived benefit minus perceived barrier), self-efficacy, and health motivation; threat factors, as perceived susceptibility (fear of falling) and perceived severity (avoiding activity for fear of falling); and modifying factors: level of education and knowledge about fall prevention. Data were analyzed using SPSS Windows and AMOS program. Mean age was 55.7 years (range 45-64), and 19.7% had experienced a fall within the past year. Fall prevention behaviors were explained by expectation and threat factors indicating significant direct effects. Mediating effect of health beliefs was significant in the relationship between modifying factors and fall prevention behaviors. The proposed model explained 33% of the variance. Results indicate that fall prevention education should include knowledge, expectation, and threat factors based on health belief model.

  1. Inhibited power motivation and persuasive communication: a lens model analysis.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Oliver C; Brunstein, Joachim C

    2002-08-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that after motive arousal, individuals with an inhibited power motive (IPM) would excel at a persuasive task and explored the behavioral strategies IPM individuals use to that purpose. Sixty-eight participants presented their point of view on a controversial subject to another person. Power motivation and inhibition were both assessed by a picture-story test. Prior to their presentation, half of the participants imaginatively explored the ensuing task. The other half was assigned to a no-imagery control condition. Lens model analysis of videotaped presentations revealed that IPM participants in the imagery condition were judged to be the most persuasive of all participants. This interactive effect of power motivation, inhibition, and imagery condition was accounted for by three behavioral cues: verbal fluency, gesturing, and eyebrow lifts. No comparable effects emerged among no-imagery participants.

  2. Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, James O

    2008-03-01

    Given the disease and cost burdens, Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine. Growing evidence in this special issue and beyond indicates that simultaneous and sequential interventions can be effective. The challenge for the future is to make such interventions more effective, cost effective and less demanding. Co-variation represents one innovative approach in which effective change on one treated behavior increases the odds of effective action on a second targeted behavior. Co-variation can occur when all behaviors received full treatment, when one receives full treatment and the others receive minimal treatment and when only one behavior is treated and others co-vary without treatment. Integrative treatments represent another innovation in which higher order constructs drive change on multiple behaviors related to the construct and treatment has to be only on one higher order behavior. A more integrated approach to research and practice involves new paradigms complementing established paradigms. Multiple behaviors proactively treated in populations at home or work by computer-based and stage-based interventions designed to generate co-variation that produces greater impacts can complement traditional paradigms that treat single behaviors in individual patients in clinics by clinicians with action-oriented modular interventions designed for specific behaviors to produce significant efficacy. More inclusive research to support more inclusive practices can hopefully lead to more inclusive care.

  3. Preventive, Lifestyle, and Personal Health Behaviors among Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Makar, Marian; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ani, Chizobam; Wolf, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examines personal health behaviors and wellness, health-related lifestyles, and prevention screening practices among licensed physicians. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,875 physicians practicing in California. Data from 763 returned questionnaires (41%) were analyzed. Results: Our data…

  4. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  5. Preventive, Lifestyle, and Personal Health Behaviors among Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Makar, Marian; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ani, Chizobam; Wolf, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examines personal health behaviors and wellness, health-related lifestyles, and prevention screening practices among licensed physicians. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,875 physicians practicing in California. Data from 763 returned questionnaires (41%) were analyzed. Results: Our data…

  6. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  7. Preventing Antisocial Behavior: Interventions from Birth through Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Tremblay, Richard E., Ed.

    A variety of approaches to preventing antisocial behavior in children have ranged from infant schools to residential treatment centers, from social training to psychological therapies, with evaluations that have typically been little more than testimonials to current fashions. By introducing experimental approaches to the study of intervention…

  8. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  9. Behavioral counseling to prevent skin cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2012-07-03

    Update of the 2003 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement on counseling to prevent skin cancer. The USPSTF performed a targeted literature search for new evidence that counseling patients about sun protection reduces intermediate outcomes (such as sunburn) or skin cancer. Other key questions addressed the link between counseling and behavior change, the link between behavior change and incidence of skin cancer, and the adverse effects of counseling or sun-protective behavior changes. The USPSTF recommends counseling children, adolescents, and young adults aged 10 to 24 years who have fair skin about minimizing their exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce risk for skin cancer (B recommendation).The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of counseling adults older than 24 years about minimizing risks to prevent skin cancer (I statement).

  10. Ambient Persuasive Technology Needs Little Cognitive Effort: The Differential Effects of Cognitive Load on Lighting Feedback versus Factual Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Jaap; Midden, Cees

    Persuasive technology can influence behavior or attitudes by for example providing interactive factual feedback about energy conservation. However, people often lack motivation or cognitive capacity to consciously process such relative complex information (e.g., numerical consumption feedback). Extending recent research that indicates that ambient persuasive technology can persuade the user without receiving the user's conscious attention, we argue here that Ambient Persuasive Technology can be effective while needing only little cognitive resources, and in general can be more influential than more focal forms of persuasive technology. In an experimental study, some participants received energy consumption feedback by means of a light changing color (more green=lower energy consumption, vs. more red=higher energy consumption) and others by means of numbers indicating kWh consumption. Results indicated that ambient feedback led to more conservation than factual feedback. Also, as expected, only for participants processing factual feedback, additional cognitive load lead to slower processing of that feedback. This research sheds light on fundamental characteristics of Ambient Persuasive Technology and Persuasive Lighting, and suggests that it can have important advantages over more focal persuasive technologies without losing its persuasive potential.

  11. Translating self-persuasion into an adolescent HPV vaccine promotion intervention for parents attending safety-net clinics.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Austin S; Denman, Deanna C; Sala, Margarita; Marks, Emily G; Shay, L Aubree; Fuller, Sobha; Persaud, Donna; Lee, Simon Craddock; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Wiebe, Deborah J; Tiro, Jasmin A

    2017-04-01

    Self-persuasion is an effective behavior change strategy, but has not been translated for low-income, less educated, uninsured populations attending safety-net clinics or to promote human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. We developed a tablet-based application (in English and Spanish) to elicit parental self-persuasion for adolescent HPV vaccination and evaluated its feasibility in a safety-net population. Parents (N=45) of age-eligible adolescents used the self-persuasion application. Then, during cognitive interviews, staff gathered quantitative and qualitative feedback on the self-persuasion tasks including parental decision stage. The self-persuasion tasks were rated as easy to complete and helpful. We identified six question prompts rated as uniformly helpful, not difficult to answer, and generated non-redundant responses from participants. Among the 33 parents with unvaccinated adolescents, 27 (81.8%) reported deciding to get their adolescent vaccinated after completing the self-persuasion tasks. The self-persuasion application was feasible and resulted in a change in parents' decision stage. Future studies can now test the efficacy of the tablet-based application on HPV vaccination. The self-persuasion application facilitates verbalization of reasons for HPV vaccination in low literacy, safety-net settings. This self-administered application has the potential to be more easily incorporated into clinical practice than other patient education approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Communication Consulting as Persuasion: Issues and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Roseanna G.

    Focusing on the issue of the training and preparation of the communication specialist in communication consulting, an investigation of the persuasive elements in the client-consulting relationship suggests that more direct focus on consulting as persuasion can lead to more responsible and effective enactment of the role of both consultant and…

  13. A Heuristic for the Teaching of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, John F.

    Interpreting Aristotle's criteria for persuasive writing--ethos, logos, and pathos--as a concern for writer, language, and audience creates both an effective model for persuasive writing and a structure around which to organize discussions of relevant rhetorical issues. Use of this heuristic to analyze writing style, organization, and content…

  14. Language Symmetry: A Force behind Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Joseph; Sommer, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Language operates according to rules. Rules mean prediction. The application of these language rules to persuasive campaigns through linguistic technology can result in major gains in advertising, political and marketing outcomes. For qualitative researchers in communications, marketing and messaging, one area of persuasive language technology can…

  15. Using Persuasion to Plan a Moon Walk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Muriel

    1977-01-01

    Describes an exercise in learning about persuasion using a NASA exercise in group decision-making centered on a theoretical crash landing on the moon. Students experience the power of the authoritative voice, the persuasive power of facts, the bandwagon approach, and group manipulation. (TJ)

  16. A Synthetic Model of Mass Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneupper, Charles W.; Underwood, Willard A.

    Mass persuasion involves a message production process which significantly alters or reinforces an attitude, belief, or action of the members of a large, heterogeneous audience. A synthetic communication model for mass persuasion has been constructed which incorporates aspects of several models created to describe the process of effective…

  17. Using Persuasion to Plan a Moon Walk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Muriel

    1977-01-01

    Describes an exercise in learning about persuasion using a NASA exercise in group decision-making centered on a theoretical crash landing on the moon. Students experience the power of the authoritative voice, the persuasive power of facts, the bandwagon approach, and group manipulation. (TJ)

  18. Contagion on complex networks with persuasion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Min; Zhang, Li-Jie; Xu, Xin-Jian; Fu, Xinchu

    2016-01-01

    The threshold model has been widely adopted as a classic model for studying contagion processes on social networks. We consider asymmetric individual interactions in social networks and introduce a persuasion mechanism into the threshold model. Specifically, we study a combination of adoption and persuasion in cascading processes on complex networks. It is found that with the introduction of the persuasion mechanism, the system may become more vulnerable to global cascades, and the effects of persuasion tend to be more significant in heterogeneous networks than those in homogeneous networks: a comparison between heterogeneous and homogeneous networks shows that under weak persuasion, heterogeneous networks tend to be more robust against random shocks than homogeneous networks; whereas under strong persuasion, homogeneous networks are more stable. Finally, we study the effects of adoption and persuasion threshold heterogeneity on systemic stability. Though both heterogeneities give rise to global cascades, the adoption heterogeneity has an overwhelmingly stronger impact than the persuasion heterogeneity when the network connectivity is sufficiently dense. PMID:27029498

  19. Credibility, Persuasibility, and the Perception of Machiavellianism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, H. Thomas; And Others

    The authors contend that the personality construct of "Machiavellianism" should be of concern to communication researchers because of its implicit relationship to the process of persuasion. Two studies are reported which investigate the relationship between the Machiavellian personality and two variables in the persuasive process: source…

  20. Mood and Persuasion: A Cognitive Response Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Norbert; And Others

    Three related experiments investigated the impact of happy and sad moods on the processing of persuasive communications. These experiments suggest that subjects in a happy mood are less likely to elaborate the content of a persuasive message than subjects in a sad mood. Sad subjects' attitudes and cognitive responses (in experiment 2, with 87…

  1. Persuasive Arguments Theory: A Test of Assumptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Renee A.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses Persuasive Arguments Theory (PAT) assumptions about argument and argument influence. Reviews and critiques PAT, advancing five hypotheses to test its assumptions. Finds little correspondence between cognitive and discussion arguments in number, content, or persuasiveness. Discusses implications for PAT and for the role of communication in…

  2. Social policy and the role of the behavior analyst in the prevention of delinquent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Burchard, John D.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to encourage behavior analysts to expand their domain of interest and application to include the “social/political” contingencies that are developed and implemented by policymakers and lawmakers. Using the Vermont juvenile justice system as a prototype, examples are provided that focus on the tertiary, secondary, and primary prevention of delinquent behavior. PMID:22477964

  3. The Effects of Strategy Instruction for Writing and Revising Persuasive Quick Writes for Middle School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne Mong; Mason, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline alternating treatment (A-B-C-D) design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a writing and peer revision intervention. Eight middle school students enrolled in an alternative program for students with emotional and behavioral disorders received Self- Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) for 10-minute quick writing and…

  4. The persuasive effects of framing messages on fruit and vegetable consumption according to regulatory focus theory.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Arie; Rothman, Alexander; Pietersma, Suzanne

    2011-08-01

    According to Regulatory Focus theory (RFT), outcomes in persuasive messages can be framed in four different ways, as gains, non-gains, losses or non-losses. In study 1, the persuasiveness of all four frames was compared and the presence/absence effect that was expected on the basis of the feature-positive effect was verified: Statements about present outcomes (gain, loss) were more persuasive than those about absent outcomes (non-gain, non-loss). However, this study failed to support the prediction that a gain-framed message would be more persuasive than a loss-framed message when promoting a prevention behaviour. Study 2 was designed to examine the latter finding. It was hypothesised that the threat posed by the loss-framed message in study 1 was too low to elicit a defensive reaction. Therefore, in study 2, the personal relevance of the gain and the loss framed message was manipulated. Consistent with predictions, the gain-framed message was more persuasive than the loss-framed message, but only when the message was personalised to increase self-relevance. Moreover, the effect was due to a significant drop in persuasion in the loss condition, probably caused by a defensive reaction. These data shed a new light on the findings of past framing studies.

  5. Fostering Multiple Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors for Primary Prevention of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; King, Abby; Pagoto, Sherry; Van Horn, Linda; Fisher, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The odds of developing cancer are increased by specific lifestyle behaviors (tobacco use, excess energy and alcohol intakes, low fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity, risky sexual behaviors, and inadequate sun protection). These behaviors are largely absent in childhood, emerge and tend to cluster over the lifespan, and show an increased prevalence among those disadvantaged by low education or income or minority status. Even though risk behaviors are modifiable, few are diminishing in the population over time. We review the prevalence and population distribution of these behaviors and apply an ecological model to describe effective or promising healthy lifestyle interventions targeted to the individual, the sociocultural context, or environmental and policy influences. We suggest that implementing multiple health behavior change interventions across several ecological levels could substantially reduce the prevalence of cancer and the burden it places on the public and the health care system. We note important still unresolved questions about which behaviors can be intervened upon simultaneously in order to maximize positive behavioral synergies, minimize negative ones, and effectively engage underserved populations. We conclude that interprofessional collaboration is needed to appropriately evaluate and convey the value of primary prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases. PMID:25730716

  6. Overt head movements and persuasion: a self-validation analysis.

    PubMed

    Briñol, Pablo; Petty, Richard E

    2003-06-01

    The authors report 3 experiments that examine a new mechanism by which overt head movements can affect attitude change. In each experiment, participants were induced to either nod or to shake their heads while listening to a persuasive message. When the message arguments were strong, nodding produced more persuasion than shaking. When the arguments were weak, the reverse occurred. These effects were most pronounced when elaboration was high. These findings are consistent with the "self-validation" hypothesis that postulates that head movements either enhance (nodding) or undermine (shaking) confidence in one's thoughts about the message. In a 4th experiment, the authors extended this result to another overt behavior (writing with the dominant or nondominant hand) and a different attitude domain (self-esteem).

  7. The Role of Behavioral Counseling in STD Prevention Program Settings

    PubMed Central

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Hogben, Matthew; Kinsey, Jennine

    2015-01-01

    Background Behavioral counseling for STD prevention is recommended for persons at risk, and the body of evidence yields numerous interventions that have STD preventive efficacy. What is needed is a review of the subset of these interventions that could be feasible in clinical settings, especially settings in STD prevention programs. Methods We reviewed existing systematic reviews of the literature and abstracted from them studies that fit the following criteria in that the interventions: (1) used no more than 60 minutes contact time in 1 to 2 sessions, (2) were individual-level and face to face, (3) took place in a clinical setting, (4) had STD outcomes available, (5) were based in the United States, (6) were peer-reviewed, and (7) had a control group. Results From 6 reviews (published 2006 – 2014) covering 91 studies, we found 13 analyses representing 11 intervention studies that fit the selection criteria. Of these 13, 5 returned lower STD rates in the intervention group at follow-up; one study reported a higher rate of STD in one subset of the intervention group (men who have sex with men: MSM). Studies with effects on STD at follow-up were quite similar to studies across populations, settings and follow-up periods, although successful interventions were more likely to demonstrate behavioral effects as well (5 of 5 versus 2 of 5 among 10 interventions measuring behavior change). Conclusions Counseling is likely to benefit some STD clinic attendees, although unlikely to benefit MSM. The balance of costs and benefits of implementing behavioral counseling in STD programs is unclear, but feasibility would be improved if behavioral counseling were implemented in the context of other prevention efforts. Because populations outside typical STD clinic settings could also benefit, programs may exercise a valuable role through partnerships. PMID:26779681

  8. Advanced communication skills: conflict management and persuasion.

    PubMed

    Ang, Marigene

    2002-11-01

    principles used in persuasion. Each student had the opportunity to make a five-to-ten-minute persuasive speech, the topic to be applicable to the student's specialty, which was reviewed by his peers. Feedback was tailored specifically to the different principles of persuasion. The curriculum was judged to be effective in changing confidence and attitudes as evidenced by pre- and post-course evaluations that students filled out during the last session of the class. Six things contributed to its success: (1) the class was offered as a fourth-year seminar; students could see its relevance and therefore were motivated to learn. (2) Activities were designed to build on learning in ways that graduated from passive to active. In such a way the theoretical was made practical. (3) Feedback was immediate and congruent. For example, the evaluators and patient-actors were all trained in the conflict management principles taught. (4) Feedback done by peer review allowed students to internalize strategies. (5) Concrete steps were given for behavioral change. (6) Small-group sessions invited camaraderie and allowed for individualized attention. Future activities include integrating this curriculum into residency teaching; the course is a continuation of a first-year course on interviewing skills taken by every student.

  9. Educational storylines in entertainment television: audience reactions toward persuasive strategies in medical dramas.

    PubMed

    Asbeek Brusse, Elsbeth D; Fransen, Marieke L; Smit, Edith G

    2015-04-01

    Medical television drama series provide an important source of health information. This form of entertainment-education (E-E) can be used to influence knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward health-related issues. In the literature, E-E is generally regarded as a persuasive strategy in itself, whereas in an increasing number of E-E programs, several different persuasive strategies are used. An important question is how the audience ethically evaluates these strategies. The aim of the present study is to examine viewers' ethical judgments toward the use of three persuasive strategies in E-E: product placement, framing, and persuasion toward a controversial position. A survey among 525 viewers of 5 popular medical dramas demonstrates that viewers evaluate the use of the currently investigated attitudinal statements about potential persuasive strategies in E-E as being immoral and that viewers prefer neutral storylines. Adopting a strategy that viewers find inappropriate may interfere with the intended prosocial effects of E-E. A broader understanding of the appropriate and inappropriate uses of persuasive strategies in E-E is indispensable for effective E-E productions.

  10. Prevention of STDs -- the challenge of changing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Halpern, J; Finger, W R

    1992-04-01

    STD prevention efforts in Latin America, particularly in the Dominican Republic, have begun to stress the need for behavioral changes. Traditionally, the professional public health community has focused on secondary prevention of STDs -- detection and treatment of the disease in order to prevent complications from developing. But in light of the AIDS epidemic, greater attention has been paid to primary prevention. Hoping to prevent the disease from occurring, primary prevention efforts target high risk groups (prostitutes and their clients and young people) with health education and promotion of behavioral change. Such changes include using condoms, seeking medical care for STDs, and decreasing the number of sex partners. An example of primary prevention programs is the Avancemos Project in the Dominican Republic. Launched in 1989 by the country's Ministry of Health and Family Health International's AIDSTECH Division, the project targets sex workers with several intervention measures. Initially, the Avancemos Project trained 16 sex workers to serve as peer educators to distribute condoms and educational materials. These 16 volunteers have in turn trained more than 300 other peer educators. Among the educational materials distributed by the peer educators are 2 comic books entitled "Martiza's Advice" and "The Triumphs of Maritza." A handsome, well dressed, and street-wise sex worker, the title character in these comic books instructs on a range of issues, including how to negotiate with clients how to use a condom. As those involved with the project attest, the comic books have become extremely popular among the target group, tapping into the women's buried feelings of self-worth.

  11. Preventing HIV Transmission in Chinese Internal Migrants: A Behavioral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China. PMID:25610903

  12. Healthy Living with Persuasive Technologies: Framework, Issues, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Samir; Price, Alan

    2009-01-01

    While our Y2K worries about old computers “retiring” at midnight captured the television and news media attention, a more significant “old age” phenomenon snuck onto the scene with hardly a headline: the dawn of the age of the aged. 1 The over burdened health care system will face a worldwide wave of retirees who will live longer, cost more to treat, and demand new goods and services to help them stay healthy, active, and independent. Research in persuasive technologies and the associated usage of a computing system, device, or application intentionally designed to change a person's attitude or behavior in a predetermined way is showing the potential to assist in improving healthy living, reduce the costs on the health care system, and allow the aged to maintain a more independent life. This article gives a deeper insight into the evolution of persuasive technologies and presents a framework that can guide a researcher or practitioner in comprehending more effectively the work being done in this novel research field. It also provides categories of domains within health care in which these technologies are used and surveys exemplars from published literature. The article's goal is to provide greater understanding by addressing the challenges that lie ahead for all key stakeholders that design and/or use persuasive technologies in health care. PMID:19074300

  13. "Think" versus "feel" framing effects in persuasion.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Nicole D; Tormala, Zakary L

    2010-04-01

    Three studies explored think ("I think . . . ") versus feel ("I feel . . . ") message framing effects on persuasion.The authors propose a matching hypothesis, suggesting that think framing will be more persuasive when the target attitude or message recipient is cognitively oriented, whereas feel framing will be more persuasive when the target attitude or message recipient is affectively oriented. Study 1 presented cognitively and affectively oriented individuals with a think- or feel-framed message. Study 2 primed cognitive or affective orientation and then presented a think- or feel-framed message. Study 3 presented male and female participants with an advertisement containing think- or feel-framed arguments. Results indicated that think (feel) framing was more persuasive when the target attitude or recipient was cognitively (affectively) oriented. Moreover, Study 2 demonstrated that this matching effect was mediated by processing fluency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  14. Embodied Resistance to Persuasion in Advertising.

    PubMed

    Lewinski, Peter; Fransen, Marieke L; Tan, Ed S

    2016-01-01

    From the literature on resistance to persuasion in advertising, much is known about how people can resist advertising by adopting resistance strategies, such as avoidance, counter-arguing, and selective attention (e.g., Fransen et al., 2015b). However, the role of emotion regulation and bodily expression in resisting persuasion is so far underexplored. This is a surprising observation if one considers that at least 40% of advertisements use positive emotions (i.e., happiness) to persuade people to like the ad, brand, and product (Weinberger et al., 1995). In this article we present a framework in which we apply previous knowledge and theories on emotion regulation and embodiment to the process of resistance to persuasion. In doing so, we specifically address the role of facial expression in the course of resistance. The literature and findings from our own research lead us to propose that people can resist persuasion by controlling their facial expression of emotion when exposed to an advertisement. Controlling the expression of emotions elicited by an ad (for example refusing to smile) might be a fruitful way to resist the ad's persuasive potential. Moreover, we argue that co-viewers can affect embodied resistance to persuasion. Showing the viability of embodied resistance to persuasion is relevant in view of the fact that ads trying to persuade us by addressing our positive emotions are ubiquitous. Embodied resistance might help people to cope with these induced positive emotions in order to resist advertisements and might therefore work as a novel and effective strategy to resist persuasion.

  15. Embodied Resistance to Persuasion in Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Lewinski, Peter; Fransen, Marieke L.; Tan, Ed S.

    2016-01-01

    From the literature on resistance to persuasion in advertising, much is known about how people can resist advertising by adopting resistance strategies, such as avoidance, counter-arguing, and selective attention (e.g., Fransen et al., 2015b). However, the role of emotion regulation and bodily expression in resisting persuasion is so far underexplored. This is a surprising observation if one considers that at least 40% of advertisements use positive emotions (i.e., happiness) to persuade people to like the ad, brand, and product (Weinberger et al., 1995). In this article we present a framework in which we apply previous knowledge and theories on emotion regulation and embodiment to the process of resistance to persuasion. In doing so, we specifically address the role of facial expression in the course of resistance. The literature and findings from our own research lead us to propose that people can resist persuasion by controlling their facial expression of emotion when exposed to an advertisement. Controlling the expression of emotions elicited by an ad (for example refusing to smile) might be a fruitful way to resist the ad’s persuasive potential. Moreover, we argue that co-viewers can affect embodied resistance to persuasion. Showing the viability of embodied resistance to persuasion is relevant in view of the fact that ads trying to persuade us by addressing our positive emotions are ubiquitous. Embodied resistance might help people to cope with these induced positive emotions in order to resist advertisements and might therefore work as a novel and effective strategy to resist persuasion. PMID:27574512

  16. Preventive Intervention for Early Childhood Behavioral Problems: An Ecological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Stephanie A.; Dickstein, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of preventive interventions targeting parents when addressing early childhood behavior problems. We briefly review evidence-based parent management training programs (PMT), focusing on one particular program, the Incredible Years Series (IY). Next, we discuss the barriers to embedding evidence-based practice like IY in community contexts, and demonstrate how early childhood mental health consultation can be used to enhance community capacity to adopt evidence-based practice and improve outcomes for the large number of young children and their families in need. PMID:19486845

  17. Hex death: voodoo magic or persuasion?

    PubMed

    Meador, C K

    1992-03-01

    Hex death is one that follows a ritualized pronouncement of death by a powerful authority, a phenomenon not widely accepted by the Western medical community, despite scattered accounts witnessed by reputable observers. Case histories of two patients are presented. The first patient, a poorly educated man near death after a hex pronounced by a local voodoo priest, rapidly recovered after ingenious words and actions by his family physician. The second, who had a diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma of the esophagus, died believing he was dying of widespread cancer, as did his family and his physicians. At autopsy, only a 2 cm nodule of cancer in his liver was found. The cases raise several intriguing questions. Is death from hexing limited to ignorant and superstitious tribes, or is it part of some general phenomenon basic to many forms of human communication? Is hex death only a form of human persuasion? If we can cause death by what we say or do, then what lesser behavior do we induce in our patients? Can diagnostic labels of serious or life-threatening diseases, whether correct or not, be part of this general phenomenon?

  18. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for preventing Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Reid, Larry D; Avens, Faith E; Walf, Alicia A

    2017-09-15

    This review provides the rationale for implementing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are known risk factors associated with the development of AD, some of which may be ameliorated with CBT. We posit that treating the risk factors of inactivity, poor diet, hyposmia and anosmia, sleep disorders and lack of regularly engaged challenging cognitive activity will modify the physiology of the brain sufficiently to avoid the accumulation of excess proteins, including amyloid beta, causal events in the development of AD. Further, the successful treatment of the listed risk factors is well within our technology to do so and, even further, it is cost effective. Also, there is considerable scientific literature to support the proposition that, if implemented by well-established practices, CBT will be effective and will be engaged by those of retirement age. That is, we present a biologically informed CBT for the prevention of the development of AD, i.e., an aspect of applied behavioral neuroscience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluations of dieting prevention messages by adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Pilawski, Angela; Durkin, Sarah; Holt, Tracey

    2002-11-01

    Dieting prevention interventions have been relatively unsuccessful and may be more effective if they concentrate on messages known to be relatively high on persuasive properties. We aimed to identify anti-dieting messages rated most strongly on persuasive dimensions and participant characteristics that predicted message evaluations in adolescent girls. Grade 7 and 8 girls completed questionnaires assessing risk factors for, and early symptoms of, eating disorders. Two weeks later, participants viewed on video seven messages (each 2-3 minutes long) frequently used to dissuade against dieting in prevention interventions and one control message. After viewing each message, participants rated it on a scale assessing the persuasive dimensions of Relevance, Believability, Emotional Response, and Intention to Diet. A quarter to a third of participants felt less likely to go on a diet after viewing the messages. "Skipping meals makes you feel starved so you overeat and feel bad" and "Don't be fooled by the fad diets promoted in the media" were rated most strongly. Higher dieting, body dissatisfaction, and negative affect were generally associated with lower persuasive ratings, suggesting the importance of intervention prior to the establishment of dieting behaviors after which there is more message resistance. Age was also a predictor of Believability for some messages, supporting the importance of ensuring the age appropriateness of messages.

  20. Structural model for osteoporosis preventing behavior in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Estok, Patricia J; Sedlak, Carol A; Doheny, Margaret O; Hall, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis prevention behaviors (OPBs) can prevent and delay bone deterioration; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan can identify osteoporosis and provide personal osteoporosis risk information that may promote prevention behaviors. This study was designed to estimate relationships between receiving personal knowledge of bone mineral density (gained through DXA scan), general knowledge of osteoporosis, health beliefs, and the two OPBs of calcium intake and weight-bearing exercise in healthy postmenopausal women 50 to 65 years. In this longitudinal, randomized clinical trial (including covariates), receipt of personal DXA information was manipulated by random assignment to the experimental or control group. The remaining antecedent and outcome variable measures were collected by questionnaire at three time points (initial [T1; pre-DXA], 6 months [T2], 12 months [T3]) and by bone density assessment from 203 women over an 18-month period in 2001-2003. The experimental manipulation (DXA results) had a direct positive effect (beta = .23, p < .05) on calcium intake at T2, and indirectly at T3 through T2. Women in the experimental group who were informed they had osteopenia or osteoporosis had a greater T1-T2 change in daily calcium intake than those with normal bone density (beta = .23, p < .05). However, providing DXA results did not relate to change in exercise. Health beliefs and general osteoporosis knowledge predicted initial calcium and exercise levels; there was tentative evidence that susceptibility beliefs partially mediate between DXA results and change in calcium intake. Personal knowledge of DXA results was related significantly to increases in calcium intake in postmenopausal women, but not to exercise. Directions for further study are discussed.

  1. Men's perspectives on cancer prevention behaviors associated with HPV.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Serena; Cornally, Nicola; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-07-28

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the diagnosis of anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers in men. Evidence indicates that correct condom use in addition to obtaining the HPV vaccine provides the greatest protection from HPV infections. To explore young men's beliefs and behavioral intention in relation to receiving the HPV vaccine and using a condom correctly and consistently for sexual contact. A cross-sectional study underpinned by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was conducted with male participants (n = 359, 18-28 years) who completed an online survey. Descriptive, correlational, and hierarchical regression analyses were performed on both status variables and variables of the TPB. Subjective norms (β = 0.519, P < .001) was identified as the most influential predictor in relation to men's intention to receive the HPV vaccine, while relationship status (β = -0.215, P < .001) and attitudes (β = 0.394, P < .001) presented as the most significant predictors of intention to use a condom. Summarily, 51% of the variance in intention to receive the HPV vaccine and 44% in intention to use a condom were explained by the TPB model. Results from this study will impact on future sexual health research, education programs, and interventions for both HPV preventative behaviors towards the elimination of HPV-related cancers in men. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Message generalizations that support evidence-based persuasive message design: specifying the evidentiary requirements.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based persuasive message design can be informed by dependable research-based generalizations about the relative persuasiveness of alternative message-design options. Five propositions are offered as specifying what constitutes the best evidence to underwrite such generalizations: (1) The evidence should take the form of replicated randomized trials in which message features are varied. (2) Results should be described in terms of effect sizes and confidence intervals, not statistical significance. (3) The results should be synthesized using random-effects meta-analytic procedures. (4) The analysis should treat attitudinal, intention, and behavioral assessments as yielding equivalent indices of relative persuasiveness. (5) The replications included in research syntheses should not be limited to published studies or to English-language studies.

  3. How the Media Effects Schema and the Persuasion Ethics Schema Affect Audience Responses to Antismoking Campaign Messages.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2017-02-03

    This study examines the roles that the media effects and persuasion ethics schemas play in people's responses to an antismoking ad in South Korea. An online experiment was conducted with 347 adults. The media effects schema was manipulated with news stories on an antismoking campaign's effectiveness, while the persuasion ethics schema was measured and median-split. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were performed for issue attitudes (Iatt), attitude toward the ad (Aad), and behavioral intention (BI). Results show significant main effects of the media effects schema on the three dependent variables. People in the weak media effects condition had significantly lower Iatt, Aad, and BI than those in either the strong media effects condition or the control condition. This pattern was more pronounced among smokers. While there was no significant main effect of the persuasion ethics schema on any of the dependent variables, a significant interaction effect for persuasion ethics schema and smoking status was found on behavioral intention (BI). Nonsmokers' BI was significantly higher than smokers' in the low-persuasion ethics schema condition, but it was not significant in the high-persuasion ethics schema condition.

  4. Multiple behavior interventions to prevent substance abuse and increase energy balance behaviors in middle school students.

    PubMed

    Velicer, Wayne F; Redding, Colleen A; Paiva, Andrea L; Mauriello, Leanne M; Blissmer, Bryan; Oatley, Karin; Meier, Kathryn S; Babbin, Steven F; McGee, Heather; Prochaska, James O; Burditt, Caitlin; Fernandez, Anne C

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of two transtheoretical model-tailored, computer-delivered interventions designed to impact multiple substance use or energy balance behaviors in a middle school population recruited in schools. Twenty middle schools in Rhode Island including sixth grade students (N=4,158) were stratified and randomly assigned by school to either a substance use prevention (decreasing smoking and alcohol) or an energy balance (increasing physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and limiting TV time) intervention group in 2007. Each intervention involved five in-class contacts over a 3-year period with assessments at 12, 24, and 36 months. Main outcomes were analyzed using random effects modeling. In the full energy balance group and in subsamples at risk and not at risk at baseline, strong effects were found for physical activity, healthy diet, and reducing TV time, for both categorical and continuous outcomes. Despite no direct treatment, the energy balance group also showed significantly lower smoking and alcohol use over time than the substance use prevention group. The energy balance intervention demonstrated strong effects across all behaviors over 3 years among middle school students. The substance use prevention intervention was less effective than the energy balance intervention in preventing both smoking and alcohol use over 3 years in middle school students. The lack of a true control group and unrepresented secular trends suggest the need for further study.

  5. The Community Disease Prevention Behaviors in District Maros South Sulawesi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman; Dirawan, Gufran Darma; Yahya, Muhammad; Taiyeb, Mushawwir

    2015-01-01

    The community diseases prevention behaviors assumed influenced by knowledge of infectious disease, hygiene and health knowledge, motivation and of behaviors of disease prevention than influence by attitude prevention of infectious diseases. This study aimed to examine the effect of variable knowledge infectious disease, hygiene and health…

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…

  8. Source personality and persuasiveness: big five predispositions to being persuasive and the role of message involvement.

    PubMed

    Oreg, Shaul; Sverdlik, Noga

    2014-06-01

    In the present studies we incorporate a Person × Situation perspective into the study of the persuasion source. Specifically, we aimed to identify the personality characteristics of the persuasive individual and test the moderating role of target and source involvement. In three studies we found support for hypothesized relationships between source persuasiveness and Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience, and evidence for a moderating effect of involvement. In a preliminary study (N = 66, M(age)  = 22.7, 64% female), we demonstrated expected differences in the personality ratings assigned to a hypothetical persuasive versus nonpersuasive individual. In Study 1 (N = 95, M(age)  = 24.1, 62% female), through sets of two-person debates, we showed that source Extraversion and Openness to Experience were positively, and Neuroticism negatively, associated with source persuasiveness. In Study 2 (N = 148, M(age)  = 24.3, 61% female), we manipulated the level of involvement and mostly replicated the results from Study 1, but, corresponding with our predictions, only when involvement was low. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of an interactionist approach to the study of persuasion, highlighting the role of personality in the study of the persuasion source. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Suicidal Behaviors Among Muslim Women. Patterns, Pathways, Meanings, and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2015-01-01

    The literature on Muslim women's suicidality has been growing. Comprehensive reviews are, however, unavailable, and theory needs development. This article reviews and integrates theories and findings about Muslim women's suicidality. Two databases (PsycINFO and Web of Science) were searched for publications about Muslim women's suicidality. There is significant variability in Muslim women's patterns of suicidality across Muslim-majority communities and countries. Muslim women represent half to nearly all cases of nonfatal suicidal behavior. According to the official records of Muslim-majority countries, women's suicide mortality is lower than that of men. Community studies, however, show that in some areas, Muslim women have significantly higher suicide rates than Muslim men. Both nonfatal and fatal suicidal behaviors are most common among uneducated and poor rural young women. Muslim women's typical suicide methods vary by locale, and include self-burning, hanging, and poisoning. With regard to contexts and meanings, a recurring female script is that of suicidality as protest against and desperate escape from the oppressive regulation as well as the abuse many women endure within their families and societies. Understanding and preventing Muslim women's suicidality, and the socially sanctioned oppression it is often a response to, require system-level - not just individual-level - analyses and interventions as well as a human rights perspective.

  10. Teaching Students the Persuasive Message through Small Group Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creelman, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Teaching students to write persuasive messages is a critical feature of any undergraduate business communications course. For the persuasive writing module in the author's course, students write a persuasive message on the basis of the four-part indirect pattern often used for sales or fund-raising messages. The course text she uses identifies…

  11. Using Online Media to Write Extended Persuasive Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton-Standish, Leisa

    2014-01-01

    This article examines methods of teaching students immersed in online media to write extended persuasive text. Specific examples for the writing classroom are outlined to engage students in persuasive writing through the use of online media. The persuasive writing examples are linked to the Common Core State Standards.

  12. The Car Accident: An Exercise in Persuasive Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    The ability to communicate persuasively is an important managerial tool. Surveys of both students and employers underscore the importance of oral and written communication skills and persuasion to successful careers in business. Writing persuasive documents to customers, subordinates, superiors, or stakeholders requires the ability to analyze the…

  13. The Car Accident: An Exercise in Persuasive Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    The ability to communicate persuasively is an important managerial tool. Surveys of both students and employers underscore the importance of oral and written communication skills and persuasion to successful careers in business. Writing persuasive documents to customers, subordinates, superiors, or stakeholders requires the ability to analyze the…

  14. Beliefs versus Values: Salient Beliefs in Designing a Persuasive Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutman, Randall K.; Newell, Sara E.

    1984-01-01

    The authors use Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action to develop arguments and to design persuasive strategies. Results of their research suggest that these strategies may be useful in teaching persuasive writing and speaking, as well as in furthering understanding of the persuasive process. (PD)

  15. [Training in preventing assaultive behaviors for psychiatric professionals].

    PubMed

    Axer, A; Beckett, R

    1998-01-01

    Dangerous behaviors in psychiatric institutions constitute major clinical and administrative problems. Staff competency in dealing with assaultive patients is an important factor in reducing institutional violence. One of the training programs for mental health staff working with dangerous patients is called Professional Assault Response Training (PART). PART is a product of several years of experience accumulated by the group of California authors in their efforts at designing a safe and effective approach in responding to various dangerous behaviors. PART principles guide staff in 1) de-escalating dangerous incidents through verbal crisis interventions; 2) avoiding or minimizing the risk of minor physical injury through evasion; 3) preventing serious bodily harm through the use of manual restraint. The importance of maintaining self-control by staff is reinforced throughout the entire course as a crucial professional skill. Other PART principles include identifying realistic treatment expectations for assaultive patients, proper physical mobility and emotional balance of staff, recognizing warning signals of impeding danger, using reasonable force to match response to the level of dangerousness. The PART training explores various theoretical explanations of violence (legal model, stress model, environmental model, communication model, developmental model, basic needs model and common-sense model). Verbal interventions which are a cornerstone of the PART approach are matching specific motives of threatening behavior--fear, frustration, manipulation and intimidation. Physical interventions taught in the course (evasion and manual restraint) include only techniques which can be used safely and which are not pain inducing. Finally, the PART training also assists staff in properly documenting assaultive incidents.

  16. Persuasive Discourse Impairments in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ghayoumi, Zahra; Yadegari, Fariba; Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari, Behrooz; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Rasouli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the cognitive and linguistic complexity of discourse production, it is expected that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) should face difficulties in this task. Therefore, clinical examination of discourse has become a useful tool for studying and assessment of communication skills of people suffering from TBI. Among different genres of discourse, persuasive discourse is considered as a more cognitively demanding task. However, little is known about persuasive discourse in individuals suffering from TBI. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of adults with TBI on a task of spoken persuasive discourse to determine the impaired linguistic measures. Patients and Methods: Thirteen TBI nonaphasic Persian speaking individuals, ranged between 19 to 40 years (Mean = 25.64 years; SD = 6.10) and 59 healthy adults matched by age, were asked to perform the persuasive discourse task. The task included asking the participants to express their opinion on a topic, and after the analysis of the produced discourse, the two groups were compared on the basis of their language productivity, sentential complexity, maze ratio and cohesion ratio. Results: The TBI group produced discourses with less productivity, sentential complexity, cohesion ratio and more maze ratio compared the control group. Conclusions: As it is important to consider acquired communication disorders particularly discourse impairment of brain injured patients along with their other clinical impairments and regarding the fact that persuasive discourse is crucial in academic and social situations, the persuasive discourse task presented in this study could be a useful tool for speech therapists, intending to evaluate communication disorders in patients with TBI. PMID:25798418

  17. Avian Influenza Risk Perception and Preventive Behavior among Traditional Market Workers and Shoppers in Taiwan: Practical Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Der

    2011-01-01

    Background Avian influenza (AI) can be highly pathogenic and fatal. Preventive behavior such as handwashing and wearing face masks has been recommended. However, little is known about what psychosocial factors might influence people's decision to adopt such preventive behavior. This study aims to explore risk perception and other factors associated with handwashing and wearing face masks to prevent AI. Methodology/Principal Findings An interviewer-administered survey was conducted among 352 traditional market workers and shoppers in Taiwan between December 2009 and January 2010. Factors associated with the recommended AI preventive behavior (i.e., when in a traditional market, wearing a face mask and also washing hands after any contact with poultry) included: having correct knowledge about the fatality rate of AI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.18), knowing of severe cases of AI (AOR = 2.13), being informed of local AI outbreaks (AOR = 2.24), living in northeastern Taiwan (AOR = 6.01), having a senior high-school education (AOR = 3.33), and having a university or higher education (AOR = 6.86). Gender interactive effect was also found among participants with a senior high-school education, with males being less likely to engage in the recommended AI preventive behavior than their female counterparts (AOR = 0.34). Conclusions/Significance Specific information concerning AI risk perception was associated with the recommended AI preventive behavior. In particular, having correct knowledge about the fatality rate of AI and being informed of severe cases and local outbreaks of AI were linked to increased AI preventive behavior. These findings underscore the importance of transparency in dealing with epidemic information. These results also have practical implications for prevention and policy-making to more effectively promote the recommended AI preventive behavior in the public. PMID:21912667

  18. An Action Research Project to Determine the Utility of Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support for Elementary School Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia

    2014-01-01

    A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…

  19. An Action Research Project to Determine the Utility of Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support for Elementary School Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia

    2014-01-01

    A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…

  20. Persuasive Features in Web-Based Alcohol and Smoking Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past decade, the use of technologies to persuade, motivate, and activate individuals’ health behavior change has been a quickly expanding field of research. The use of the Web for delivering interventions has been especially relevant. Current research tends to reveal little about the persuasive features and mechanisms embedded in Web-based interventions targeting health behavior change. Objectives The purpose of this systematic review was to extract and analyze persuasive system features in Web-based interventions for substance use by applying the persuasive systems design (PSD) model. In more detail, the main objective was to provide an overview of the persuasive features within current Web-based interventions for substance use. Methods We conducted electronic literature searches in various databases to identify randomized controlled trials of Web-based interventions for substance use published January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009, in English. We extracted and analyzed persuasive system features of the included Web-based interventions using interpretive categorization. Results The primary task support components were utilized and reported relatively widely in the reviewed studies. Reduction, self-monitoring, simulation, and personalization seem to be the most used features to support accomplishing user’s primary task. This is an encouraging finding since reduction and self-monitoring can be considered key elements for supporting users to carry out their primary tasks. The utilization of tailoring was at a surprisingly low level. The lack of tailoring may imply that the interventions are targeted for too broad an audience. Leveraging reminders was the most common way to enhance the user-system dialogue. Credibility issues are crucial in website engagement as users will bind with sites they perceive credible and navigate away from those they do not find credible. Based on the textual descriptions of the interventions, we cautiously

  1. Investments in Prevention; the Prevention of Learning and Behavior Problems in Young Children. Evaluation Report, 1966--1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vleet, Phyllis

    The general purpose of this project was to initiate, implement and evaluate a program concerned with developing improved and more effective techniques for the reduction or prevention of learning and behavior problems in children. The children included in the PACE I.D. Center Study were an extreme group as far as behavior and learning problems were…

  2. The role of self-control in resistance to persuasion.

    PubMed

    Burkley, Edward

    2008-03-01

    Four studies investigated a self-control theory of resistance to persuasion. This theory asserts that resistance to persuasion requires and consumes self-control resources. Study 1 showed that resistance to a persuasive message reduced the ability to engage in a subsequent self-control task. Studies 2 and 3 showed that self-control depletion leads to increased persuasion. Study 4 showed that self-control depletion increased persuasion, particularly under effortful resistance (i.e., strong arguments). Together, these findings suggest that self-control plays a vital role in the process of resistance to persuasion. People must have self-control resources to fend off persuasive appeals; without them, they become susceptible to influence.

  3. The Relationship Between Pregnancy Prevention and STI/HIV Prevention and Sexual Risk Behavior Among American Indian Men.

    PubMed

    Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kristofer; Anastario, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between American Indian men's attitudes toward pregnancy prevention, STI/HIV prevention, and sexual risk behavior. Attention was given to: (1) attitudes and intentions to use condoms and sexual risk behavior; (2) STI/HIV prevention characteristics and sexual risk behavior; (3) attitudes toward abstinence and monogamy and sexual risk behavior; and (4) decision-making in relationships and sexual risk behavior. Our sample included 120 heterosexual American Indian men aged 18 to 24 living on a reservation. Data were collected during in-depth interviews. A community-based participatory research framework was used to ensure the relevancy and acceptability of the study given the sensitivity of the topic. Results demonstrated that attitudinal factors were associated with sexual risk behavior, particularly inconsistent condom use. Attitudes associated with consistent condom use suggested greater levels of positive dispositions toward prevention and intention to use condoms. Consistent condom use was associated with more cautious attitudes toward sex with multiple sex partners. Study results suggested that American Indian men who reported sex with multiple partners exhibited a set of attitudes and beliefs toward pregnancy prevention and STI/HIV prevention that corresponded with a disposition resulting from their behaviors, in that engaging in sexual risk behavior elevated their levels of risk perception. Our findings suggest that heterosexual American Indian men living in rural environments need sexual and reproductive health programs and clinical services that address differing attitudes toward condom use within the context of multiple sex partners and sexual risk behavior. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  4. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Wagner, Donald I; Wilkerson, Janice

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary children. A 52-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 159 fifth graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.072). Hours of TV watching were predicted by number of times taught about healthy eating at school and self-control through goal setting (R2 = 0.055). Glasses of water consumed were predicted by expectations for drinking water (R2 = 0.091). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.137). Social cognitive theory offers a practically useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.

  5. Application of Neurolinguistic Programming for Treatment and Relapse Prevention of Addictive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Daya Singh

    The dilemma of relapse exists for a number of addictive behaviors, and mental health authorities agree that keeping addictive behaviors off permanently is much more difficult than treating the behaviors initially. Several relapse prevention models have been posited and environmental, physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and affective factors have…

  6. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory.

    PubMed

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  7. Persuasive and Informative Advertising: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeborn, Beth A.; Hulbert, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors outline a pair of classroom activities designed to provide an intuitive foundation to the theoretical introduction of advertising in monopoly markets. The roles of both informative and persuasive advertising are covered. Each student acts as a monopolist and chooses the number of (costly) advertisements and the price. The experiments…

  8. Persuasion = Stating and Arguing Claims Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Inside a ninth-grade classroom, we witness one teacher's very intentional instructional attempts that resulted in her students being able to convey well-crafted reasoning and text-supported evidence to mount persuasive arguments. Through personal examples and Internet resources, the teacher concretized pathos, logos, and ethos. The teacher and…

  9. Content and Structure Demands of Persuasive Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Nukhet; And Others

    A two-part study manipulated structure demands (sequencing ideas, forming sentences, and complying with punctuation/spelling mechanics) in a persuasive writing task to measure the resulting effects on content operations (generating arguments/propositions). In part one of the study, 40 graduate students wrote preliminary and final drafts in one of…

  10. Managing social norms for persuasive impact

    Treesearch

    R.B. Cialdini; L.J. Demaine; B.J. Sagarin; D.W. Barrett; K. Rhoads; P.L. Winter

    2006-01-01

    In order to mobilise action against a social problem, public service communicators often include normative information in their persuasive appeals. Such messages can be either effective or ineffective because they can normalise either desirable or undesirable conduct. To examine the implications in an environmental context, visitors to Arizona's Petrified Forest...

  11. Does Rational Persuasion Influence Potential Consultees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, Stephen D.; Richardson, Robert D.; Cohen, Celina; Frank, Alicia; Palmeri, Deanna

    2003-01-01

    Success in collaborative school-based consultation depends on whether teachers implement interventions suggested by consultants. Rational Persuasion (RP) has been identified as one potentially effective way to influence consultee perceptions about proposed interventions. Investigates whether presenting RP importance and objections for behavioral…

  12. Persuasive and Informative Advertising: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeborn, Beth A.; Hulbert, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors outline a pair of classroom activities designed to provide an intuitive foundation to the theoretical introduction of advertising in monopoly markets. The roles of both informative and persuasive advertising are covered. Each student acts as a monopolist and chooses the number of (costly) advertisements and the price. The experiments…

  13. A REINFORCEMENT LEARNING MODEL OF PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEISS, ROBERT FRANK

    THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALOGIES ARE DRAWN BETWEEN LEARNING THEORY AND PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION AS AN EXTENSION OF LIBERALIZED STIMULUS RESPONSE THEORY. IN THE FIRST EXPERIMENT ON INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING OF ATTITUDES, THE SUBJECTS READ AN OPINION TO BE LEARNED, FOLLOWED BY A SUPPORTING ARGUMENT ASSUMED TO FUNCTION AS A REINFORCER. THE TIME…

  14. Rhetoric and Gender in Jane Austen's "Persuasion."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Arthur E.

    1995-01-01

    Argues for a reading of Jane Austen's "Persuasion" that undermines Joseph Duffy's reading of the novel as a commentary on shifting social class structures, and which bolsters Nancy Armstrong's reading as a commentary on female voice and the values of the domestic household. Interprets the novel in the light of 18th-century rhetorical…

  15. Evaluating Persuasive Messages: Systematic and Heuristic Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, H. Allen; Miller, M. Mark

    One hundred undergraduate students at a large southern university were the subjects of a study to determine whether the persuasion process encompasses two mutually exclusive strategies--systematic or heuristic processing of information--or whether the two processes are, in fact, independent. Subjects participated in groups of about l5 and were…

  16. Persuasive email messages for patient communication.

    PubMed

    Walji, Muhammad; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Johnson, Todd; Bernstam, Elmer; Zhang, Jiajie

    2005-01-01

    To improve health and reduce costs, we need to encourage patients to make better health care decisions. Since email is widely available, it may be useful for patient-directed interventions. However, we know little about how the contents of an email message can influence a health-related decision. We propose a model to understand how patients may process persuasive email messages.

  17. Persuasion = Stating and Arguing Claims Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Inside a ninth-grade classroom, we witness one teacher's very intentional instructional attempts that resulted in her students being able to convey well-crafted reasoning and text-supported evidence to mount persuasive arguments. Through personal examples and Internet resources, the teacher concretized pathos, logos, and ethos. The teacher and…

  18. Rhetoric and Gender in Jane Austen's "Persuasion."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Arthur E.

    1995-01-01

    Argues for a reading of Jane Austen's "Persuasion" that undermines Joseph Duffy's reading of the novel as a commentary on shifting social class structures, and which bolsters Nancy Armstrong's reading as a commentary on female voice and the values of the domestic household. Interprets the novel in the light of 18th-century rhetorical…

  19. Power of Persuasion: Becoming the Influencer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William C.; Young, Norman

    2012-01-01

    The ability to effectively communicate an idea is as important as the idea itself. Facility managers are called on to perform an incredible variety of tasks taking into account a diverse group of stakeholders and multiple competing priorities. Becoming a powerful influencer and sharpening one's skills of persuasion will prove to be a fundamental…

  20. Source Credibility in Persuasive Oral Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Vanessa Dean

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses persuasive communication and explores why some speakers are seen as credible sources of information while others are not. She covers several factors related to perceived credibility, including (1) sex, (2) size, (3) age, and (4) social status of the source. Methods of establishing credibility are discussed. (CH)

  1. Persuasion, Influence, and Value: Perspectives from Communication and Social Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Falk, Emily; Scholz, Christin

    2017-09-27

    Opportunities to persuade and be persuaded are ubiquitous. What determines whether influence spreads and takes hold? This review provides an overview of evidence for the central role of subjective valuation in persuasion and social influence for both propagators and receivers of influence. We first review evidence that decisions to communicate information are determined by the subjective value a communicator expects to gain from sharing. Wenext review evidence that the effects of social influence and persuasion on receivers, in turn, arise from changes in the receiver's subjective valuation of objects, ideas, and behaviors. We then review evidence that self-related and social considerations are two key inputs to the value calculation in both communicators and receivers. Finally, we highlight biological coupling between communicators and receivers as a mechanism through which perceptions of value can be transmitted. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 69 is January 4, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  2. Voice and persuasion in a banking telemarketing context.

    PubMed

    Chebat, Jean-Charles; El Hedhli, Kamel; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire; Boivin, Robert

    2007-04-01

    Voice has been neglected in research on advertising and persuasion. The present study examined the influence of voice and sex on the credibility of the voice source in a banking telemarketing context as well as with regards to the attitude toward the advertisement, and subjects' behavioral intention. An experiment using voices of a man and a woman was conducted. A recorded mock-telemarketing message consisted of an advertisement for an ATM card offered by a Canadian bank. Subjects were undergraduate students (N=399; 71.6% women, 28.4% men; M age=26.5 yr., SD = 7.4). They completed a questionnaire after hearing the message in telemarketing conditions. Analysis indicated a moderate intensity, an unmarked intonation, and a fast speech rate are associated with a more credible source than the other combinations. Sex was not a significant moderator in the relationship between voice characteristics and source credibility. Voice characteristics significantly affected attitudes toward the advertisement and behavioral intention.

  3. Meta-analysis of single-session behavioral interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections: implications for bundling prevention packages.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Lisa A; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Kalichman, Seth C; Pellowski, Jennifer A; Sagherian, Michael J; Warren, Michelle; Popat, Ami R; Johnson, Blair T

    2012-11-01

    Evidence-based, single-session behavioral interventions are urgently needed for preventing the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To estimate the efficacy of single-session, behavioral interventions for STI prevention, we collected data from 29 single-session interventions (20 studies; n = 52 465) with an STI outcome. Infection with an STI was 35% less likely (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.55-0.77) among intervention group participants than among control group participants. Single-session interventions offer considerable benefits in terms of disease prevention and create minimal burden for both the patient and the provider. Brief and effective STI prevention interventions are a valuable tool and can be readily adapted to bolster the benefits of biomedical technologies focusing on the prevention of HIV and other STIs.

  4. Meta-Analysis of Single-Session Behavioral Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections: Implications for Bundling Prevention Packages

    PubMed Central

    Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Sagherian, Michael J.; Warren, Michelle; Popat, Ami R.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based, single-session behavioral interventions are urgently needed for preventing the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To estimate the efficacy of single-session, behavioral interventions for STI prevention, we collected data from 29 single-session interventions (20 studies; n = 52 465) with an STI outcome. Infection with an STI was 35% less likely (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.55–0.77) among intervention group participants than among control group participants. Single-session interventions offer considerable benefits in terms of disease prevention and create minimal burden for both the patient and the provider. Brief and effective STI prevention interventions are a valuable tool and can be readily adapted to bolster the benefits of biomedical technologies focusing on the prevention of HIV and other STIs. PMID:22994247

  5. Six-week Latino family prevention pilot program effectively promotes healthy behaviors and reduces obesogenic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hammons, Amber J; Wiley, Angela R; Fiese, Barbara H; Teran-Garcia, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of a 6-week family-based healthy eating pilot program aimed to reduce obesogenic behaviors among Latino parents and children. A 6-week healthy eating pilot program focused on dietary changes within Latino families with a 6- to 13-year-old child. A 1-group, pre-posttest design with 2-month follow-up examining fruit, vegetable, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. The program was effective at increasing parent-report of child fruit consumption, (P < .001, effect size = .26), vegetable consumption, (P = .001, effect size = .20), and decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, (P = .002, effect size = .16). This family-based prevention program was effective at improving healthy eating in Latino families, especially for children. The curriculum can be used in future prevention programs for Latino families with a 6- to 13-year-old child. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing a Tablet-Based Self-Persuasion Intervention Promoting Adolescent HPV Vaccination: Protocol for a Three-Stage Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Tiro, Jasmin A; Lee, Simon Craddock; Marks, Emily G; Persaud, Donna; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Street, Richard L; Wiebe, Deborah J; Farrell, David; Bishop, Wendy Pechero; Fuller, Sobha; Baldwin, Austin S

    2016-01-29

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers are a significant burden on the US health care system that can be prevented through adolescent HPV vaccination. Despite guidelines recommending vaccination, coverage among US adolescents is suboptimal particularly among underserved patients (uninsured, low income, racial, and ethnic minorities) seen in safety-net health care settings. Many parents are ambivalent about the vaccine and delay making a decision or talking with a provider about it. Self-persuasion-generating one's own arguments for a health behavior-may be particularly effective for parents who are undecided or not motivated to make a vaccine decision. Through a 3-stage mixed-methods protocol, we will identify an optimal and feasible self-persuasion intervention strategy to promote adolescent HPV vaccination in safety-net clinics. In Stage 1, we will define content for a tablet-based self-persuasion app by characterizing (1) parents' self-generated arguments through cognitive interviews conducted with parents (n=50) of patients and (2) parent-provider HPV vaccine discussions through audio recordings of clinic visits (n=50). In Stage 2, we will compare the effects of the four self-persuasion intervention conditions that vary by cognitive processing level (parents verbalize vs listen to arguments) and choice of argument topics (parents choose vs are assigned topics) on parental vaccine intentions in a 2 × 2 factorial design randomized controlled trial (n=160). This proof-of-concept trial design will identify which intervention condition is optimal by quantitatively examining basic self-persuasion mechanisms (cognitive processing and choice) and qualitatively exploring parent experiences with intervention tasks. In Stage 3, we will conduct a pilot trial (n=90) in the safety-net clinics to assess feasibility of the optimal intervention condition identified in Stage 2. We will also assess its impact on parent-provider discussions. This paper describes the study

  7. Speak Up: Help Prevent Errors in Your Care: Behavioral Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... TM Help Prevent Errors in Your Care Behavioral Health Care To prevent health care errors, patients are urged to... SpeakUP TM Service ... individuals should be involved in their own behavioral health care. These efforts to increase consumer awareness and involvement ...

  8. Health Belief Factors and Dispositional Optimism as Predictors of STD and HIV Preventive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak-Place, Jennifer; Stern, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Identifying factors predictive of youth's engaging in preventive behaviors related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV remains a prominent public health concern. The utility of the Health Belief Model (HBM) continues to be suggested in identifying preventive behaviors. This study sought to examine the full HBM, including self-efficacy,…

  9. Learning with Gadgets: Teaching Persuasive Strategies through Student-Created Infomercials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, David H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Communicators are involved in persuasion every day. For students to be effective in their persuasive attempts, they need experiential practice in creating and evaluating persuasive messages that utilize persuasive strategies. Persuasive strategies can help speakers to influence their audiences to accept proposed ideas and the possible…

  10. 75 FR 26768 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services: Division of Behavioral Health Domestic Violence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Clinical and Preventive Services: Division of Behavioral Health Domestic Violence Prevention Initiative Domestic Violence Announcement Type: New. Funding Announcement Number: HHS-2010-IHS-BHDV-0001. Catalog of... for the Domestic Violence Prevention Initiative (DVPI) for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN...

  11. What would you do? The effect of verbal persuasion on task choice.

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Larkin; Gionfriddo, Alicia M; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L; Adkin, Allan L

    2014-01-01

    Verbal persuasion has been shown to influence psychological and behavioral outcomes. The present study had two objectives: (1) to examine the effect of verbal persuasion on task choice in a balance setting and (2) to evaluate the use of verbal persuasion as an approach to experimentally induce mismatches between perceived and actual balance. Healthy young adults (N=68) completed an 8-m tandem walk task without vision and then were randomly assigned to a feedback group (good, control, or poor), regardless of actual balance. Following the feedback, participants chose to perform the task in one of three conditions differing in level of challenge and also were required to perform the task under the same pre-feedback conditions. Balance efficacy and perceived stability were rated before and after each pre- and post-feedback task, respectively. Balance performance measures were also collected. Following the feedback, participants in the good group were more likely to choose the most challenging task while those in the poor group were more likely to choose the least challenging task. Following the feedback, all groups showed improved balance performance. However, balance efficacy and perceived stability increased for the good and control groups but balance efficacy decreased and perceived stability was unchanged for the poor group. Thus, these findings demonstrate that verbal persuasion can influence task choice and may be used as an approach to experimentally create mismatches between perceived and actual balance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intention to Enact and Enactment of Gatekeeper Behaviors for Suicide Prevention: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, Shane T W; Walch, Susan E; Bauer, Kristina N; Glenn, April D

    2017-08-01

    Gatekeeper training for suicide prevention was evaluated on a college campus to examine the impact of training on gatekeeper enactment of behaviors in support of suicide prevention and identify predictors of enactment of gatekeeper behaviors. Trained gatekeepers (N = 216) displayed greater perceived knowledge and self-efficacy for suicide prevention and reported higher rates of self-reported actual gatekeeper behaviors, including inquiring about suicidal ideation and referring for mental health treatment when they encountered someone in distress, compared to their untrained counterparts (N = 169). Consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior, SEM results indicated that attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived knowledge explained intentions to engage in gatekeeper behaviors, accounting for 59% of the variance in intentions to inquire about suicidal ideation and supporting the role of attitudes and perceived behavioral control in intentions to act. These intentions explained self-reported actual gatekeeper behaviors among participants who encountered someone in distress, with each one-point increase in intention associated with nearly twice the likelihood of both inquiring about suicidal ideation and referring someone for mental health care. On the other hand, self-reported situational barriers were associated with a decreased likelihood of referral behavior, indicating the role of actual behavioral control over volitional actions. Findings support the value of gatekeeper training for promoting factors that influence the likelihood of action on behalf of suicide prevention.

  13. Parthenolide prevents the expression of cocaine-induced withdrawal behavior in planarians.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Amanda L; Pagán, Oné R

    2008-03-31

    We recently reported that parthenolide and related sesquiterpene lactones are able to prevent and reverse behavioral responses in planarian worms induced by acute cocaine exposure. Previous reports indicate that when planarians are chronically exposed to microM concentrations of cocaine, they display stereotypical withdrawal-like behaviors when the cocaine is removed. Here we report that parthenolide prevents this cocaine-induced expression of planarian withdrawal-like behaviors.

  14. The Relationships Between Health Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Bonnie L.

    1970-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of health attitudes on behavior as well as the effects of a persuasive communication on health attitudes and behavior and the effects of attitudes and behavior on receptivity to health educational materials. Teenagers exposed to two persuasive communications about diabetes exhibited no effects on…

  15. Propentofylline Prevents Sickness Behavior and Depressive-Like Behavior Induced by Lipopolysaccharide in Rats via Neuroinflammatory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Danilo; Coelho, Cideli P.; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Martins, Maria F. M.; Bondan, Eduardo F.; Bernardi, Maria M.; Kirsten, Thiago Berti

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the intimate relationship between depression and immune disturbances. Aware of the efficacy limits of existing antidepressant drugs and the potential anti-inflammatory properties of propentofylline, we sought to evaluate the use of propentofylline as a depression treatment. We used a rat model of depression induced by repetitive lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administrations. We have studied sickness behavior, by assessing daily body weight, open field behavior, and TNF-α plasmatic levels. Anxiety-like behavior (light-dark test), depressive-like behavior (forced swim test), plasmatic levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, depression biomarker), and central glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression (an astrocyte biomarker) were also evaluated. LPS induced body weight loss, open field behavior impairments (decreased locomotion and rearing, and increased immobility), and increased TNF-α levels in rats, compared with control group. Thus, LPS induced sickness behavior. LPS also increased the immobility and reduced climbing in the forced swim test, when compared with the control group, i.e., LPS induced depressive-like behavior in rats. Propentofylline prevented sickness behavior after four days of consecutive treatment, as well as prevented the depressive-like behavior after five days of consecutive treatments. Propentofylline also prevented the increase in GFAP expression induced by LPS. Neither LPS nor propentofylline has influenced the anxiety and BDNF levels of rats. In conclusion, repetitive LPS administrations induced sickness behavior and depressive-like behavior in rats. Propentofylline prevented both sickness behavior and depressive-like behavior via neuroinflammatory pathway. The present findings may contribute to a better understanding and treatment of depression and associated diseases. PMID:28056040

  16. Influence of Risk Factors for Child Disruptive Behavior on Parent Attendance at a Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…

  17. Preventive Effects of Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Middle Childhood on Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zonnevylle-Bender, Marjo J. S.; Matthys, Walter; van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Lochman, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is a well-known risk factor for substance abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescence. Therefore, the long-term preventive effects of treatment of DBD in middle childhood on beginning substance use and delinquency in early adolescence were investigated. Method: Children with DBD (8-13 years old) had…

  18. Preventive Effects of Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Middle Childhood on Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zonnevylle-Bender, Marjo J. S.; Matthys, Walter; van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Lochman, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is a well-known risk factor for substance abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescence. Therefore, the long-term preventive effects of treatment of DBD in middle childhood on beginning substance use and delinquency in early adolescence were investigated. Method: Children with DBD (8-13 years old) had…

  19. Emotional and persuasive perception of fonts.

    PubMed

    Juni, Samuel; Gross, Julie S

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the latent affective and persuasive meaning attributed to text when appearing in two commonly used fonts. Two satirical readings were selected from the New York Times. These readings (one addressing government issues, the other education policy) were each printed in Times New Roman and Arial fonts of the same size and presented in randomized order to 102 university students, who ranked the readings on a number of adjective descriptors. Analysis showed that satirical readings in Times New Roman were perceived as more funny and angry than those in Arial, the combination of emotional perception which is congruent with the definition of satire. This apparent interaction of font type with emotional qualities of text has implications for marketing, advertising, and the persuasive literature.

  20. Health education: learning the techniques of persuasion.

    PubMed

    Weeks, S

    1995-01-01

    Know your audience and tailor your message accordingly. Keep the message simple and straightforward. Consider providing written hand-outs to back up a visual presentation. Provide practical details, e.g. where and when to go for a cervical smear. Repetition is a useful technique. Consider what factors are likely to make the presenter more persuasive--e.g. gender, credibility, appearance. Encourage audience participation. The more thought and effort they put into the session, the more they will retain the message. Nurses, health visitors and midwives should be given more training in how to promote their health messages. Too many health promotion campaigns have disregarded basic techniques of persuasion and the lessons to be learned from advertising and psychology.

  1. Persuasive Reminders for Health Self-Management

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Katie; Liu, Leslie; McClure, Jennifer B.; Ralston, James; Pratt, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Health reminders are integral to self-managing chronic illness. However, to act on these health reminders, patients face many challenges, such as lack of motivation and ability to perform health tasks. As a result, patients experience negative consequences for their health. To investigate the design of health reminders that persuade patients to take action, we conducted six participatory design sessions with two cohorts: mothers of children with asthma, and older adults with type 2 diabetes. Participants used collages, storyboards, and photos to express design ideas for future health reminder systems. From their design artifacts, we identified four types of persuasive reminders for health self-management: introspective, socially supportive, adaptive, and symbolic. We contribute insights into desired features for persuasive reminder systems from the perspectives of patients and informal caregivers, including features that support users to understand why and how to complete health tasks ahead of time, and affordances for intra-familial and patient-provider collaboration. PMID:28269896

  2. Persuasive Email Messages for Patient Communication

    PubMed Central

    Walji, Muhammad; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Johnson, Todd; Bernstam, Elmer; Zhang, Jiajie

    2005-01-01

    To improve health and reduce costs, we need to encourage patients to make better health care decisions. Since email is widely available, it may be useful for patient-directed interventions. However, we know little about how the contents of an email message can influence a health-related decision. We propose a model to understand how patients may process persuasive email messages. PMID:16779434

  3. Negotiation as a form of persuasion: arguments in first offers.

    PubMed

    Maaravi, Yossi; Ganzach, Yoav; Pazy, Asya

    2011-08-01

    In this article we examined aspects of negotiation within a persuasion framework. Specifically, we investigated how the provision of arguments that justified the first offer in a negotiation affected the behavior of the parties, namely, how it influenced counteroffers and settlement prices. In a series of 4 experiments and 2 pilot studies, we demonstrated that when the generation of counterarguments was easy, negotiators who did not add arguments to their first offers achieved superior results compared with negotiators who used arguments to justify their first offer. We hypothesized and provided evidence that adding arguments to a first offer was likely to cause the responding party to search for counterarguments, and this, in turn, led him or her to present counteroffers that were further away from the first offer.

  4. Framing in Entertainment-Education: Effects on Processes of Narrative Persuasion.

    PubMed

    Brusse, Elsbeth D Asbeek; Fransen, Marieke L; Smit, Edith G

    2016-11-04

    Nowadays, entertainment-education (E-E) is often used as a persuasive strategy to stimulate prosocial behavior. Although E-E is mostly regarded as a persuasive strategy in itself, in an increasing number of E-E programs several persuasive strategies are used to communicate the educational message to the audience. This study investigates the effects of a strategy widely used in health communication, but not previously studied in the field of E-E: framing. To this means we examined the effect of two different ways an E-E message can be framed: by emphasizing either the losses of not performing the behavior in question or the gains of performing this behavior. A serial multiple mediation model showed that framing affected intention to refrain from drunk cycling via counterarguing and attitude toward drunk cycling; the use of a gain frame decreased counterarguing, which decreased the attitude toward drunk cycling. This subsequently resulted in a higher intention to refrain from this behavior. Implications of these results are discussed.

  5. Social and cognitive factors associated with preventative health care behaviors of culturally diverse adolescents.

    PubMed

    Richards, Chanelle R; Tucker, Carolyn M; Brozyna, Angelica; Ferdinand, Lisa A; Shapiro, Michael A

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether culturally diverse adolescents' self-reported engagement in preventative health care behaviors is associated with the following social and cognitive variables: health self-efficacy, value placed on health, perceived barriers to health promotion, and perceptions regarding primary caregivers' and peers' engagement in preventative health care behaviors. A cross-sectional study involving 108 high school students in health education classes was conducted. The majority of these participants (59.3%) identified as a racial minority, and 68% of these participants were female. Health self-efficacy, value placed on health, and perceptions regarding primary caregivers' and peers' engagement in preventative health care practices were all significantly correlated with the participating adolescents' self-reported engagement in preventative health care behaviors. Primary caregivers' and peers' engagement in preventative health care behaviors emerged as significant predictors of the participating adolescents' preventative health care behaviors. Present findings suggest that family and peers are likely role models for adolescents in the area of preventative health care behaviors. Thus, interventions to promote these behaviors among adolescents similar to those in the present study need to be family, school, and community-based.

  6. Within-subject analysis of a prevention strategy for problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Fahmie, Tara A; Iwata, Brian A; Mead, Sarah C

    2016-12-01

    Although decades of research on functional analysis methodology have identified common contingencies that maintain problem behavior and effective interventions, relatively little research has been conducted on strategies to prevent the initial development of problem behavior. We conducted a 2-part case study, the purposes of which were to illustrate the use of sensitivity tests as the bases for intervention (Study 1) and subsequently to assess the efficacy of a prevention strategy using a single-subject design (Study 2). Results showed that the sensitivity tests identified establishing operations that may set the occasion for the development of problem behavior and that interventions based on differential reinforcement prevented increases in the severity of problem behavior relative to untreated and control baselines. Benefits and limitations to this individualized approach to prevention are discussed. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Internet prevention messages: targeting the right online behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2007-02-01

    Internet safety programs urge youth to avoid sharing personal information and talking with "strangers" online. To examine whether sharing personal information and talking with strangers online or other behaviors are associated with the greatest odds for online interpersonal victimization. The Second Youth Internet Safety Survey was a cross-sectional random digit-dial telephone survey. United States. A total of 1500 youth aged 10 to 17 years who had used the Internet at least once a month for the previous 6 months. Online behavior, including disclosure of personal information, aggressive behavior, talking with people met online, sexual behavior, and downloading images using file-sharing programs. Online interpersonal victimization (ie, unwanted sexual solicitation or harassment). Aggressive behavior in the form of making rude or nasty comments (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.3; P<.001) or frequently embarrassing others (AOR, 4.6; P = .003), meeting people in multiple ways (AOR, 3.4; P<.001), and talking about sex online with unknown people (AOR, 2.0; P = .02) were significantly related to online interpersonal victimization after adjusting for the total number of different types of online behaviors youth engaged in. Engaging in 4 types of online behaviors seemed to represent a tipping point of increased risk for online interpersonal victimization (OR, 11.3; P<.001). Talking with people known only online ("strangers") under some conditions is related to online interpersonal victimization, but sharing personal information is not. Engaging in a pattern of different kinds of online risky behaviors is more influential in explaining victimization than many specific behaviors alone. Pediatricians should help parents assess their child's online behaviors globally in addition to focusing on specific types of behaviors.

  8. Prior source exposure and persuasion: further evidence for misattributional processes.

    PubMed

    Weisbuch, Max; Mackie, Diane M; Garcia-Marques, Teresa

    2003-06-01

    To assess the persuasive impact of prior source exposure, two studies paired persuasive messages with a source to whom participants had previously been exposed subliminally, explicitly, or not at all. In Experiment 2, participants' attention also was drawn to information that potentially undermined the implications of any reaction to re-exposure. Compared to no exposure, prior subliminal exposure increased the source's persuasiveness, an effect not mediated by source liking. Explicit exposure increased source persuasiveness to the extent that the source was liked more and only absent a recall cue. Results favored misattributional accounts of prior exposure effects.

  9. Play: An Important Component of Preventative Behavior Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Teri

    This paper discusses linkages between play, healthy social and emotional development, and behavior management in young children. Play is defined as pleasurable, self-motivated, non-goal-directed, and spontaneous behavior, free from adult-imposed rules. Many children have limited time available for play because they are directed by adults in day…

  10. Integrating Bullying Prevention into Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Chris P.; McIntosh, Kent; Gietz, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Bullying is often defined as unprovoked aggressive behavior repeatedly carried out against victims who are unable to defend themselves. Children and youth who engage in bullying behavior may have a physical advantage, higher social status, or power in numbers, whereas those who are targeted by bullies are likely to be solitary, smaller in stature,…

  11. Advancing Cancer Prevention and Behavior Theory in the Era of Big Data.

    PubMed

    Atienza, Audie A; Serrano, Katrina J; Riley, William T; Moser, Richard P; Klein, William M

    2016-09-01

    The era of "Big Data" presents opportunities to substantively address cancer prevention and control issues by improving health behaviors and refining theoretical models designed to understand and intervene in those behaviors. Yet, the terms "model" and "Big Data" have been used rather loosely, and clarification of these terms is required to advance the science in this area. The objectives of this paper are to discuss conceptual definitions of the terms "model" and "Big Data", as well as examine the promises and challenges of Big Data to advance cancer prevention and control research using behavioral theories. Specific recommendations for harnessing Big Data for cancer prevention and control are offered.

  12. Increasing the efficacy of cue exposure treatment in preventing relapse of addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Havermans, Remco C; Jansen, Anita T M

    2003-07-01

    Theoretically, cue exposure treatment should be able to prevent relapse by extinguishing conditioned drug responding (e.g. cue-elicited craving). According to contemporary learning theory, though, extinction does not eliminate conditioned responding. Analogous cue exposure with response prevention (CERP) as a treatment of addictive behavior might not eliminate the learned relation between drug-related cues and drug use. This does not necessarily mean that cue exposure cannot successfully prevent relapse. Various suggestions for increasing the efficacy of cue exposure treatment are being discussed from a contemporary learning theory perspective. It is suggested that cue exposure treatment incorporating retrieval cues can be a beneficial treatment in preventing relapse of addictive behavior.

  13. Prevention of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: A Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral and Interpersonal Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Jason L.; Garber, Judy; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 programs for preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents. Participants were 380 high school students randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral program (CB), an interpersonal psychotherapy-adolescent skills training program (IPT-AST), or a no-intervention control. The interventions involved eight 90-min…

  14. Assessing the success of invasive species prevention efforts at changing the behaviors of recreational boaters.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ellen; Keller, Reuben P; Garbach, Kelly

    2016-12-15

    Aquatic invasive species (AIS) pose major conservation challenges in freshwater ecosystems. In response, conservation organizations invest considerable resources in outreach to encourage AIS prevention behaviors among recreational boaters. Despite this, remarkably little is known about whether these efforts catalyze significant changes in boaters' perceptions, or whether they cause changes in behaviors that reduce AIS risk. We interviewed managers at the 14 Illinois organizations active in AIS outreach to determine regional priorities for, and investment in, AIS outreach. The results show a network of collaboration that reinforces a limited set of conservation messages. Next, we surveyed 515 recreational boaters to evaluate access to outreach, knowledge of AIS, and consistency of prevention behavior. Boater recognition of prevention slogans and knowledge of AIS and AIS prevention behavior was similar across Illinois regions despite large regional differences in investment in outreach. Most boaters (94%) report never intentionally moving organisms among waterbodies. Fewer reported that they Always perform recommended actions to reduce risk of AIS spread on their boat interior (68%), boat exterior (63%), or fishing tackle (47%). Recognition of prevention slogans and the number of AIS recognized were significantly, positively, associated with Always performing AIS prevention behavior on the vectors of the boat exterior, and fishing tackle, respectively. Our results suggest that increasing knowledge may be a necessary condition for higher adoption of AIS prevention behaviors, but that this alone may not be sufficient. Instead, efforts targeted at boaters who do not currently practice the recommended actions are likely to be necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Text Messaging to Improve Preventive Health Attitudes and Behaviors During Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Moniz, Michelle H; Meyn, Leslie A; Beigi, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    To delineate the effects of text messages sent to pregnant women to promote preventive health beliefs and behaviors. A prospective cohort analysis was performed among women who participated in a randomized, controlled trial aimed at improving preventive health. Participants (158 pregnant women enrolled from 2010-2012) received 12 weekly text messages encouraging preventive health behaviors (tobacco cessation, condom use for disease prevention, nutrition optimization, seat belt use, breastfeeding). Pre- and postintervention surveys assessed preventive health beliefs and practices. At follow-up, participants agreed that receiving text messages changed their beliefs about targeted preventive health behaviors: smoking (50%), sexually transmitted disease prevention (72%), prenatal vitamins (83%), seat belt use (68%), nutritious foods (84%), and breastfeeding (68%). Many participants reported more frequent engagement in target behaviors at follow-up than at baseline: decreased tobacco use (among 41% of smokers), more consistent condom use (among 7% of sexually active participants), more prenatal vitamin intake (32%), more frequent seatbelt use (32%), more frequent healthy food intake (41%), and intention to breastfeed longer (21%). Pregnant women receiving text messages promoting preventive health reported improvements in targeted beliefs and behaviors, suggesting that text messaging may be used for health promotion during pregnancy.

  16. Adherence behavior in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nancy Houston

    2012-01-01

    Adherence is critical to the overall management of individuals at risk for and with cardiovascular disease. It forms an interplay between the patient, provider, and health care system and includes barriers that have been encountered within all 3 domains. Improving adherence to exercise, diet, and medication as well as focusing on addictive disorders such as smoking cessation requires patient, provider, and health care system approaches. The use of the cognitive/behavioral elements of health behavior change and communication strategies such as motivational interviewing and coaching serve to enhance overall adherence. Continuous quality improvement initiatives at the system level of change also increase the likelihood that teams will succeed in helping individuals change their behavior. Cardiac rehabilitation programs offer a unique opportunity for health care professionals to play a key role in supporting individuals through the health behavior change process.

  17. Toward Community Action. Investments in Prevention. The Prevention of Learning and Behavior Problems in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownbridge, Robert, Ed.; Van Vleet, Phyllis, Ed.

    Investments in Prevention is the report of a conference held in May, 1968, at Asilomar, California. The purposes of the conference were to identify and develop a framework for community action and education programs concerned with "young children at risk" and to develop alternative means for implementing comprehensive, prevention-oriented…

  18. Behavioral change communications on malaria prevention in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tweneboah-Koduah, Ernest Yaw; Braimah, Mahama; Otuo, Priscilla Ntriwaa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the various communications strategies designed to promote insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use among pregnant women and children. This study is an exploratory study into the communications activities by institutions involved in malaria prevention in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed. We found that most of the interventions are aimed at encouraging the target markets to acquire ITNs, although most messages on malaria prevention are not integrated. Several challenges were noted, including financial constraints, lack of human resources, cultural barriers, negative publicity, and negative perceptions on malaria.

  19. [Review of the approach to exercise behavior modification from the viewpoint of preventive medicine].

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takuo; Kouta, Munetsugu; Shigemori, Kenta; Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Sato, Atsushi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the approaches to behavior modification for exercise from the viewpoint of preventive medicine. Articles were searched according to the particular field of preventive medicine, i.e., primary prevention, secondary prevention, tertiary prevention, and other fields of prevention. In the field of primary prevention for elderly people living at home, many fall prevention programs were found to have been carried out. In these studies, various programs were found to be effective if the exercise proved to be sufficient. Although some approaches were observed to be based on the productive aging theory and social capital, the number of such studies was small. In the field of secondary prevention, illness and functional disorders are prevented from becoming worse. It is therefore important for each individual to exercise by himself/herself and also acquire sufficient self-monitoring skills. Social capital is useful for learning good exercise habits. In the field of tertiary prevention, although exercise therapy is effective for improving physical functions and preventing disease recurrence in patients with chronic disease, some patients nevertheless find it difficult to continue such an exercise therapy. The approaches to behavior modification were extremely effective for patients with chronic disease. In other fields of preventive medicine, daily exercises such stair climbing are effective methods for reducing the risk of chronic disease and such a behavior modification may lead to a considerable public health gain. In the future, further studies with a many lines of evidence should be performed, and approaches based on behavioral science should be established.

  20. Behavioral Treatment Approaches to Prevent Weight Gain Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Olga A.

    Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…

  1. Preventing Relapse to Cigarette Smoking by Behavioral Skill Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    Although smoking cessation techniques have been effective, few programs have long term results. To investigate the effectiveness of a tobacco dependence relapse prevention program, 123 adult smokers (51 male, 72 female) voluntarily participated in one of four small group treatment conditions (6 or 30 second aversive smoking plus skill training, or…

  2. Developing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Depressive Relapse in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jarrett, Robin B.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    Relapse rates for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) range from 30% to 40% within 1 to 2 years after acute treatment. Although relapse rates are high, there have been relatively few studies on the prevention of relapse in youth. While acute phase pharmacotherapy has been shown to reduce symptoms rapidly in depressed…

  3. Public Attitudes and Behaviors with Respect to Child Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Examines public attitudes toward parental discipline practices, incidences of parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of causes of child maltreatment. Found that most persons view physical punishment and repeated yelling and swearing at children as harmful.…

  4. Incoming College Students' Bystander Behaviors to Prevent Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Banyard, Victoria L.; McMahon, Sheila M.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluations of bystander intervention education programs demonstrate that this approach results in students' increased willingness to intervene in prosocial ways to prevent sexual violence (e.g., Moynihan, Banyard, Arnold, Eckstein, & Stapleton, 2010). These programs often focus on first-year college students, though theories and research on…

  5. Developing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Depressive Relapse in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jarrett, Robin B.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    Relapse rates for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) range from 30% to 40% within 1 to 2 years after acute treatment. Although relapse rates are high, there have been relatively few studies on the prevention of relapse in youth. While acute phase pharmacotherapy has been shown to reduce symptoms rapidly in depressed…

  6. Incoming College Students' Bystander Behaviors to Prevent Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Banyard, Victoria L.; McMahon, Sheila M.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluations of bystander intervention education programs demonstrate that this approach results in students' increased willingness to intervene in prosocial ways to prevent sexual violence (e.g., Moynihan, Banyard, Arnold, Eckstein, & Stapleton, 2010). These programs often focus on first-year college students, though theories and research on…

  7. Do hedonic motives moderate regulatory focus motives? Evidence from the framing of persuasive messages.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Prashant; Brendl, C Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Research on regulatory focus has established a regulatory matching effect: The persuasiveness of a message is enhanced when regulatory orientations of message and perceiver match (i.e., both are promotion or both are prevention). We report evidence that varying the hedonic outcome reverses this effect. We manipulated hedonic outcome by explicitly stating pleasurable versus painful outcomes as part of the message frame as well as by priming perceivers to focus on either pleasurable or painful outcomes. When both message and perceiver were focused on pleasurable outcomes, we replicated the regulatory matching effect. However, the matching effect reversed when the hedonic outcome of the message was opposed to that of the perceiver (i.e., one was pleasurable and the other painful). Under these conditions, messages that mismatched the perceivers' regulatory orientation were more persuasive (i.e., promotion message for a prevention oriented perceiver or vice versa). We also examined the persuasion effects when both message and perceiver were focused on painful outcomes and found that the regulatory matching effect re-emerged. The reversal of the regulatory matching effect by hedonic outcome strongly suggests that hedonic motives (approach of pleasure vs. avoidance of pain) and regulatory focus motives are distinct constructs. This is important because contrary to theoretical statements these constructs have often been confounded.

  8. Prevention of mental disorders, substance abuse, and problem behaviors: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Beardslee, William R; Chien, Peter L; Bell, Carl C

    2011-03-01

    Robust scientific evidence shows that mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders can be prevented before they begin. This article highlights and expands points from a 2009 Institute of Medicine report to provide a concise summary of the literature on preventing mental illness. Because prevention requires intervention before the onset of illness, effective preventive approaches are often interdisciplinary and developmental. Evidence-based preventive strategies are discussed for the different phases of a young person's life. Specific recommendations to focus on parenting, child development, and the prevention of depression are made for a target audience of practicing psychiatrists and mental health professionals. Further systemic recommendations are to prioritize prevention and to coordinate and facilitate research on preventive practices in order to reduce suffering, create healthier families, and save money.

  9. Factors influencing preventive behaviors for dengue infection among housewives in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Chanyasanha, Charnchudhi; Guruge, Geethika Rathnawardana; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease prevalent in Sri Lanka. Some factors may influence preventive behaviors. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and preventive behaviors associated with dengue and analyzed the factors influencing preventive behaviors among housewives in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The analytical study was designed, and data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The χ(2) test and binary logistic regression were used to analyze data. The mean age of housewives was 39.41 years, 91% were married, 52% were Buddhist, and 46.5% had a family monthly income of 15 000 to 25 000 rupees. The knowledge of dengue preventive behaviors was 69.2%. The majority (91.5%) had a positive attitude toward dengue prevention. Only 39.3% used a mosquito net, and 89.3% had water storage container covers. Overall, 58.5% were knowledgeable about preventive measures. Age, religion, family income, education, knowledge, and attitude were associated with preventive behaviors. These findings are useful for dengue control in Colombo.

  10. Longitudinal correlated changes in conscientiousness, preventative health-related behaviors, and self-perceived physical health.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Edmonds, Grant W; Jackson, Joshua J; Roberts, Brent W

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has found that conscientiousness has positive associations with preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived health, but little is known about the links between changes in these variables over time. In the present study, we examined how levels and changes in conscientiousness were linked to levels and changes in both preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived physical health. Personality and health questionnaires were administered to participants in two waves, with an interval of approximately three years. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 94. To elucidate the tripartite relations between conscientiousness, preventative health-related behaviors, and self-perceived physical health, we used latent change models to estimate levels and changes of these latent constructs over time. Changes in conscientiousness were significantly and positively correlated with changes in preventative health behaviors and changes in self-perceived physical health. Changes in preventative health behaviors partially mediated the relation between changes in conscientiousness and changes in self-perceived physical health. This longitudinal study extends previous research on conscientiousness and health by exploring the relations between latent variables over a 3-year period. It provides evidence that increases in conscientiousness and preventative health-related behaviors are associated with improvements in self-perceived health over the same time period. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Longitudinal Correlated Changes in Conscientiousness, Preventative Health-related Behaviors, and Self-perceived Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Edmonds, Grant W.; Jackson, Joshua J.; Roberts, Brent W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous research has found that conscientiousness has positive associations with preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived health, but little is known about the links between changes in these variables over time. In the present study, we examined how levels and changes in conscientiousness were linked to levels and changes in both preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived physical health. Method Personality and health questionnaires were administered to participants in two waves, with an interval of approximately 3 years. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 94. To elucidate the tripartite relations between conscientiousness, preventative health-related behaviors, and self-perceived physical health, we used latent change models to estimate levels and changes of these latent constructs over time. Results Changes in conscientiousness were significantly and positively correlated with changes in preventative health behaviors and changes in self-perceived physical health. Changes in preventative health behaviors partially mediated the relation between changes in conscientiousness and changes in self-perceived physical health. Conclusion This longitudinal study extends previous research on conscientiousness and health by exploring the relations between latent variables over a 3-year period. It provides evidence that increases in conscientiousness and preventative health-related behaviors are associated with improvements in self-perceived health over the same time period. PMID:23072269

  12. The Forewarning Effect of Coherence Markers in Persuasive Discourse: Evidence from Persuasion and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamalski, Judith; Lentz, Leo; Sanders, Ted; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies showed how coherence markers, like connectives and lexical cue phrases, influence the processing and representation of informative text. Although discourse analysts have repeatedly argued that coherence markers influence the processing of persuasive text as well, there is hardly any empirical evidence for this idea. This article…

  13. Behavioral Vaccines and Evidence Based Kernels: Non-Pharmaceutical Approaches for the Prevention of Mental, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 1

    PubMed Central

    Embry, Dennis D.

    2011-01-01

    In March of 2009, the Institute of Medicine issued a new report on the Prevention of Mental, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People.1 Fundamentally, the report calls for ending the rationing of prevention of mental, emotional and behavioral disorders (MEBs) among America’s children, youth and young adults. Continued rationing of access to scientifically proven prevention causes a serious threat to the country’s national security2 and to our economic competitiveness compared to 22 other rich countries.3 Such MEBs are also the leading preventable cost center for local, state and the federal governments.1, 4 These preventable MEBs cause health-care costs to continue to spiral up. The IOM Report calls for a public-health approach to MEBs—basically like how America and Canada dealt with the polio epidemic, measles, mumps, car passenger injuries to children, and accidental poisoning from medications and toxic chemicals. Why is this necessary? America’s rates of some of these mental, emotional and behavioral problems are worse than other developed countries,5, 6 and rates of some of these problems have objectively increased over the past 20-50 years in America.7 The attributes of a public-health approach for MEBs are defined in the article. The article discusses multiple examples of how public health approaches might reduce or prevent MEBs using low-cost evidence based kernels, which are fundamental units of behavior. Such kernels can be used repeatedly, which then act as “behavioral vaccines” to reduce morbidity or mortality and/or improve human wellbeing. This document calls for six key policy actions to improve mental, emotional and behavioral health in young people—with resulting wellbeing and economic competiveness of North America and reducing health-care costs. PMID:21333837

  14. Prevention of Addictive Behavior Based on the Formation of Teenagers' Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleeva, Vera P.; Shubnikova, Ekaterina G.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is due to the development of a new stage of prevention and the need to justify new educational goals and objectives of the pedagogical prevention of addictive behavior in the educational environment. The purpose of this article is to examine the totality of the necessary and sufficient individual resources, that are…

  15. 75 FR 26763 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services; Division of Behavioral Health; Domestic Violence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Clinical and Preventive Services; Division of Behavioral Health; Domestic Violence Prevention Initiative.... Reports from the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) found that the rate of domestic violence (DV) and sexual... lifetime physical and/or sexual IPV. The impact of domestic violence and sexual assault on women's...

  16. Effects of Comprehensive, Multiple High-Risk Behaviors Prevention Program on High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…

  17. An Attachment Parenting Intervention to Prevent Adolescents' Problem Behaviors: A Pilot Study in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ortega, Enrique; Stattin, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Background: In spite of the proven effectiveness of parenting based programs to prevent adolescent risk behaviors, such programs are rarely implemented in Mediterranean countries. Objective: This pilot study was aimed at assessing the feasibility and the effects of a parenting based universal prevention program (Connect) in Italy. Methods: Our…

  18. An Attachment Parenting Intervention to Prevent Adolescents' Problem Behaviors: A Pilot Study in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ortega, Enrique; Stattin, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Background: In spite of the proven effectiveness of parenting based programs to prevent adolescent risk behaviors, such programs are rarely implemented in Mediterranean countries. Objective: This pilot study was aimed at assessing the feasibility and the effects of a parenting based universal prevention program (Connect) in Italy. Methods: Our…

  19. Cultural Effects on Cancer Prevention Behaviors: Fatalistic Cancer Beliefs and Risk Optimism Among Asians in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Lwin, May O

    2016-09-09

    Although culture is acknowledged as an important factor that influences health, little is known about cultural differences pertaining to cancer-related beliefs and prevention behaviors. This study examines two culturally influenced beliefs-fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention, and optimistic beliefs about cancer risk-to identify reasons for cultural disparity in the engagement of cancer prevention behaviors. We utilized data from national surveys of European Americans in the United States (Health Information National Trends Survey 4, Cycle3; N = 1,139) and Asians in Singapore (N = 1,200) to make cultural comparisons. The odds of an Asian adhering to prevention recommendations were less than half the odds of a European American, with the exception of smoking avoidance. Compared to European Americans, Asians were more optimistic about their cancer risk both in an absolute and a comparative sense, and held stronger fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention. Mediation analyses revealed that fatalistic beliefs and absolute risk optimism among Asians partially explain their lower engagement in prevention behaviors, whereas comparative risk optimism increases their likelihood of adhering to prevention behaviors. Our findings underscore the need for developing culturally targeted interventions in communicating cancer causes and prevention.

  20. Effects of Comprehensive, Multiple High-Risk Behaviors Prevention Program on High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…

  1. National Institutes of Health funding for behavioral interventions to prevent chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Calitz, Chris; Pollack, Keshia M; Millard, Chris; Yach, Derek

    2015-04-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause the majority of premature deaths, disability, and healthcare expenditures in the U.S. Six largely modifiable risk behaviors and factors (tobacco use, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and poor mental health) account for more than 50% of premature mortality and considerably more morbidity and disability. The IOM proposed that population burden of disease and preventability should be major determinants of the amount of research funding provided by the U.S. NIH. Data on NIH prevention funding between fiscal years 2010 and 2012 for human behavioral interventions that target the modifiable risk factors of NCDs were analyzed during 2013-2014. The NIH prevention portfolio comprises approximately 37% human behavioral studies and 63% basic biomedical, genetic, and animal studies. Approximately 65% of studies were secondary prevention versus 23% for primary prevention, and 71% of studies intervened at the individual and family levels. Diet and exercise were the most-studied risk factors (41%), and few studies conducted economic analyses (12%). NIH spends an estimated $2.2-$2.6 billion annually (7%-9% of the total of $30 billion) on human behavioral interventions to prevent NCDs. Although NIH prevention funding broadly aligns with the current burden of disease, overall funding remains low compared to funding for treatment, which suggests funding misalignment with the preventability of chronic diseases.

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Relapse in Pediatric Responders to Pharmacotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Relapse in Pediatric Responders to Pharmacotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…

  4. Detecting Early Signatures of Persuasion in Information Cascades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    ADDRESS. Indiana University at Bloomington Trustees of Indiana University 509 E 3RD ST Bloomington, IN 47401 -3654 Detecting Early Signatures of Persuasion ...SMISC  Project:   DESPIC:  Detecting  Early  Signatures  of   Persuasion  in  Information  Cascades     Teams:   Indiana

  5. The Effect of Authority on the Persuasiveness of Mathematical Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Matthew; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments are reported that investigate the extent to which an authority figure influences the level of persuasion undergraduate students and research-active mathematicians invest in mathematical arguments. We demonstrate that, in some situations, both students and researchers rate arguments as being more persuasive when they are…

  6. Receiver Expectations: Toward a New Model of Resistance to Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael D.; Burgoon, Michael

    Communication research long has noted how pretreatment strategies ("inoculations") induce resistance to persuasion, but a new model proposes that resistance is an integral part of the persuasion process. Using the inoculation framework, researchers showed the importance of threats to an individual's attitudes in developing resistance to…

  7. The Application of Persuasive Technology to Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Joseph; Aagaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Persuasive technology is a sub-discipline of Human-Computer Interaction that has emerged within the last 10 years, and which has generated increasing interest in the application of persuasion to systems design. Most applications have to date been developed in commercial contexts, as well in the domain of health promotion. We present a mainly…

  8. Advanced Persuasive Speaking, English, Speech: 5114.112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Developed as a high school quinmester unit on persuasive speaking, this guide provides the teacher with teaching strategies for a course which analyzes speeches from "Vital Speeches of the Day," political speeches, TV commercials, and other types of speeches. Practical use of persuasive methods for school, community, county, state, and…

  9. 12 CFR 108.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 108.10 Section 108.10 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  10. Persuasion: The Theory and Practice of Manipulative Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, George N.

    Drawing together both the history of persuasion as an historical facet of civilization and current practice, and speculation concerning its many manifestation in modern life, this book attempts to review persuasive communication--interpersonal, social, and mass-oriented--from the influences of society to the influences of the mass media. The first…

  11. A Check List for Evaluating Persuasive Features of Mathematics Courseware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aris, Baharuddin; Gharbaghi, Alireza; Ahmad, Maizah Hura; Rosli, Mohd Shafie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to introduce a check list for evaluating persuasive features of mathematics courseware. Since mathematics is a source of anxiety among students (Zeidner & Matthews, 2010), this research is an attempt to employ persuasive features that can be used in mathematics courseware. Specifically, we sought to determine…

  12. Persuasion: The Theory and Practice of Manipulative Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, George N.

    Drawing together both the history of persuasion as an historical facet of civilization and current practice, and speculation concerning its many manifestation in modern life, this book attempts to review persuasive communication--interpersonal, social, and mass-oriented--from the influences of society to the influences of the mass media. The first…

  13. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden of...

  14. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  15. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  16. 12 CFR 108.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 108.10 Section 108.10 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  17. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  18. Persuasion with Unintelligible Messages: A Cognitive Response Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Vernon R.; Brock, Timothy C.

    Theories of persuasion have long assumed a process which includes comprehension of the message by the recipient. Several hundred undergraduates at Ohio State University and Marshall University (Ohio) participated in six experiments examining persuasion and the use of unintelligible messages. Subjects in individual cubicles of a university language…

  19. Self-Disclosure and Decreased Persuasiveness of Political Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartabedian, Robert A.; Burger, Jerry M.

    Previous laboratory research has found that self-disclosure by a speaker identified as a political officeholder results in a decrease in persuasiveness, whereas similar disclosure by nonofficials increases persuasiveness. Two experiments were conducted to examine this effect further. In experiment 1, subjects were 75 male and 77 female…

  20. The Effect of Authority on the Persuasiveness of Mathematical Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Matthew; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments are reported that investigate the extent to which an authority figure influences the level of persuasion undergraduate students and research-active mathematicians invest in mathematical arguments. We demonstrate that, in some situations, both students and researchers rate arguments as being more persuasive when they are…

  1. Receiver Expectations: Toward a New Model of Resistance to Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael D.; Burgoon, Michael

    Communication research long has noted how pretreatment strategies ("inoculations") induce resistance to persuasion, but a new model proposes that resistance is an integral part of the persuasion process. Using the inoculation framework, researchers showed the importance of threats to an individual's attitudes in developing resistance to…

  2. An Empirical Test of a Model of Resistance to Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Burgoon, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Tests a model of resistance to persuasion based upon variables not considered by earlier congruity and inoculation models. Supports the prediction that the kind of critical response set induced and the target of the criticism are mediators of resistance to persuasion. (JMF)

  3. Establishing a Companywide Customer Orientation through Persuasive Internal Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Kathleen K.; Enis, Ben

    1990-01-01

    Argues that applying persuasion strategies to internal marketing efforts can facilitate the adoption of a customer orientation among employees and elicit greater commitment to the company and its goals. Examines four specific persuasion strategies: defining the customer satisfaction link; encouraging self-efficacy; providing rewards; and creating…

  4. Fluent Persuasive Writing with Counterarguments for Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Cerar, Nancy Irby; Allen-Bronaugh, Dannette; Thompson, Catherine; Guckert, Mary; Leins, Pat; Hauth, Clara; Cuenca-Sanchez, Yojanna

    2014-01-01

    Twelve seventh- and eighth-grade students with emotional disturbance participated in a multiple probe, multiple baseline design two-phase intervention study to improve persuasive writing skills. The first phase after baseline taught students to plan and write persuasive essays including counterarguments. In the second phase, students were taught…

  5. The Application of Persuasive Technology to Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Joseph; Aagaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Persuasive technology is a sub-discipline of Human-Computer Interaction that has emerged within the last 10 years, and which has generated increasing interest in the application of persuasion to systems design. Most applications have to date been developed in commercial contexts, as well in the domain of health promotion. We present a mainly…

  6. Spoken Persuasive Discourse Abilities of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Catherine; Kirk, Cecilia; Powell, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the performance of adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) during a spoken persuasive discourse task. Persuasive discourse is frequently used in social and academic settings and is of importance in the study of adolescent language. Method: Participants included 8 adolescents with ABI and 8 peers…

  7. Fluent Persuasive Writing with Counterarguments for Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Cerar, Nancy Irby; Allen-Bronaugh, Dannette; Thompson, Catherine; Guckert, Mary; Leins, Pat; Hauth, Clara; Cuenca-Sanchez, Yojanna

    2014-01-01

    Twelve seventh- and eighth-grade students with emotional disturbance participated in a multiple probe, multiple baseline design two-phase intervention study to improve persuasive writing skills. The first phase after baseline taught students to plan and write persuasive essays including counterarguments. In the second phase, students were taught…

  8. "Dateline NBC"'s Persuasive Attack on Wal-Mart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Dorries, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Develops a typology of persuasive attack strategies. Identifies two key components of persuasive attack: responsibility and offensiveness. Describes several strategies for intensifying each of these elements. Applies this analysis to "Dateline NBC"'s allegations that Wal-Mart's "Buy American" campaign was deceptive. Concludes…

  9. A Design Approach to Teaching Persuasion: Theory and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, W. Patrick; And Others

    One course in persuasion reviews six theories of attitude change--five based on Otto Lerbinger's designs for persuasive communication (cognitive design, stimulus response design, motivational design, personality design, and social design), and a sixth (perceptual design) developed by the instructors. Instruction in each includes a variety of…

  10. ARE RISK TAKERS MORE PERSUASIVE THAN CONSERVATIVES IN GROUP DISCUSSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALLACH, MICHAEL A.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED WHETHER THE PHENOMENON OF SHIFTS TOWARD GREATER RISK TAKING FOLLOWING DISCUSSION OF RISK-RELATED MATERIALS CAN BE ATTRIBUTED TO GREATER GENERAL PERSUASIVENESS EXERTED BY RISK TAKERS THAN BY CONSERVATIVES. ITS PROCEDURE WAS TO DISCOVER WHETHER RISK TAKERS WOULD BE JUDGED MORE PERSUASIVE THAN CONSERVATIVES FOLLOWING…

  11. Preventing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool: Effective Strategies for Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Janelle C.; Crosby, Megan G.; Irwin, Heather K.; Dennis, Lindsay R.; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides practical strategies and techniques that early childhood educators can implement in their classrooms to effectively manage challenging behaviors. The specific strategies addressed fall under the following categories: (a) classroom management, (b) reinforcement, and (c) communication. Suggestions are made for how parents can…

  12. Preventing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool: Effective Strategies for Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Janelle C.; Crosby, Megan G.; Irwin, Heather K.; Dennis, Lindsay R.; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides practical strategies and techniques that early childhood educators can implement in their classrooms to effectively manage challenging behaviors. The specific strategies addressed fall under the following categories: (a) classroom management, (b) reinforcement, and (c) communication. Suggestions are made for how parents can…

  13. Measuring Bystander Attitudes and Behavior to Prevent Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Allen, Christopher T.; Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sheila M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe Hoffman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal…

  14. Measuring Bystander Attitudes and Behavior to Prevent Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Allen, Christopher T.; Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sheila M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe Hoffman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal…

  15. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…

  16. Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: The School-Based Model of Individualized Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Glen; Iovannone, Rose; Kincaid, Donald; Wilson, Kelly; Christiansen, Kathy; Strain, Phillip; English, Carie

    2010-01-01

    Solve serious behavior challenges in K-8 classrooms with this easy-to-use book, the first practical guide to the research-proven Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model. Developed by some of the most respected authorities on positive behavior support, this innovative model gives school-based teams a five-step plan for reducing problems unresolved by…

  17. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Self-Determination Theory with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…

  18. Psychological and Pedagogical Conditions for the Prevention of Deviant Behavior among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vist, Natalya V.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on such a highly relevant subject as the prevention and correction of deviant behavior in the adolescent environment. The study revealed the main vectors for the development of the modern science of deviant behavior, identified the main causes of deviations and carried out a comparative analysis of the work on the prevention…

  19. Core Competencies and the Prevention of High-Risk Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Vignetta Eugenia; Blum, Robert Wm.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior has numerous individual, family, community, and societal consequences. In an effort to contribute to the research and propose new directions, this chapter applies the core competencies framework to the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior. It describes the magnitude of the problem, summarizes explanatory…

  20. Behavior Problems in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: An Initial Step towards Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; du Bois, Marleen Grimbel; Graef, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    To develop prevention activities, an analysis is conducted of child and parent characteristics that occur significantly more often among children with a mild intellectual disability and behavior problems than among children with a mild intellectual disability and no behavior problems and their families. The sample consisted of 45 children…

  1. Behavior Problems in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: An Initial Step towards Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; du Bois, Marleen Grimbel; Graef, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    To develop prevention activities, an analysis is conducted of child and parent characteristics that occur significantly more often among children with a mild intellectual disability and behavior problems than among children with a mild intellectual disability and no behavior problems and their families. The sample consisted of 45 children…

  2. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…

  3. Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: The School-Based Model of Individualized Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Glen; Iovannone, Rose; Kincaid, Donald; Wilson, Kelly; Christiansen, Kathy; Strain, Phillip; English, Carie

    2010-01-01

    Solve serious behavior challenges in K-8 classrooms with this easy-to-use book, the first practical guide to the research-proven Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model. Developed by some of the most respected authorities on positive behavior support, this innovative model gives school-based teams a five-step plan for reducing problems unresolved by…

  4. Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on Academic Engagement and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJager, Brett W.; Filter, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions…

  5. Core Competencies and the Prevention of High-Risk Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Vignetta Eugenia; Blum, Robert Wm.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior has numerous individual, family, community, and societal consequences. In an effort to contribute to the research and propose new directions, this chapter applies the core competencies framework to the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior. It describes the magnitude of the problem, summarizes explanatory…

  6. Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: Addressing Problem Behaviors of Students with Autism in General Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Phillip S.; Wilson, Kelly; Dunlap, Glen

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism and other disabilities are often prohibited from participating in inclusive educational environments due to the occurrence of problem behaviors. In this study, a standardized model for individualizing procedures of behavior support, Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR), was evaluated in general education settings with three…

  7. Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on Academic Engagement and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJager, Brett W.; Filter, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions…

  8. Behaviour patterns detection for persuasive design in Nursing Homes to help dementia patients.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Llatas, Carlos; Garcia-Gomez, Juan Miguel; Vicente, Javier; Naranjo, Juan Carlos; Robles, Monserrat; Benedi, Jose Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Nursing homes usually host large accounts of persons with different levels of dementia. Detecting dementia process in early stages may allow the application of mechanisms to reduce or stop the cognitive impairment. Our ultimate objective is to demonstrate that the use of persuasive techniques may serve to motivate these subjects and induct re-learning mechanisms to stop mental impairment. Nevertheless, this requires the study of the behaviour of each patient individually in order to detect conduct disorders in their living ambient. This study presents a behavior pattern detection architecture based on the Ambient Assisted Living paradigm and Workflow Mining technology to enable re-learning mechanisms in dementia processes via providing tools to automate the conduct disorder detection. This architecture fosters the use of Workflows as representation languages to allow health professionals to represent persuasive motivation protocols in the AAL environment to react individually to dementia symptoms detected.

  9. Maternal reports of behavior problems in preschool Hispanic children: an exploratory study in preventive pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Lequerica, M; Hermosa, B

    1995-12-01

    Maternal reports on the health, behavioral, and educational characteristics of Hispanic low-income preschoolers were gathered from a pediatric clinic to conduct appropriate consultation and teaching of behavioral issues to pediatric residents. Fifty-two Hispanic mothers attending an urban hospital clinic were given a questionnaire. Interviews provided data on family demographics, children's health status, behavior problems (65 items adapted from Achenbach's 1981 and 1987 Child Behavior Checklists [CBCL]), maternal depression, family life stressful events, and discipline methods. Thirteen externalizing and five internalizing high frequency behaviors were identified. Behavior problem scores were significantly related to the use of yelling and hitting/spanking as methods of discipline. Precarious health status and low enrollment in preschool programs also were reported. A broader preventive role for pediatricians in that pediatric setting was recommended and pursued. Results suggest a broad preventive role for pediatricians and pediatric clinics servicing low-income preschoolers.

  10. Health behavior change among office workers: an exploratory study to prevent repetitive strain injuries.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this evidence-based study is to investigate the impact of a multi-component intervention on health behavior change among office/computer workers in preventing repetitive strain injuries. Forty office workers employed in an administrative office in Michigan participated in this project. The subjects completed a comprehensive questionnaire at three different times in 1994 and 1995. The intervention took place between time 2 and time 3 and included posters, e-mail tips, mini-workshops, and activities of a Wellness Ergonomic Team. A theoretical model was tested to identify factors influencing healthy behaviors. Study findings revealed positive behavior change for 62% of the participants. The factors most strongly related to health behavior change appear to be self-efficacy, the intention to change one's behavior, and perceived health status. Better understanding of health behavior change coupled with ergonomic modifications is a significant step toward the prevention of repetitive strain injuries resulting from computer use.

  11. Maternal reports of behavior problems in preschool Hispanic children: an exploratory study in preventive pediatrics.

    PubMed Central

    Lequerica, M.; Hermosa, B.

    1995-01-01

    Maternal reports on the health, behavioral, and educational characteristics of Hispanic low-income preschoolers were gathered from a pediatric clinic to conduct appropriate consultation and teaching of behavioral issues to pediatric residents. Fifty-two Hispanic mothers attending an urban hospital clinic were given a questionnaire. Interviews provided data on family demographics, children's health status, behavior problems (65 items adapted from Achenbach's 1981 and 1987 Child Behavior Checklists [CBCL]), maternal depression, family life stressful events, and discipline methods. Thirteen externalizing and five internalizing high frequency behaviors were identified. Behavior problem scores were significantly related to the use of yelling and hitting/spanking as methods of discipline. Precarious health status and low enrollment in preschool programs also were reported. A broader preventive role for pediatricians in that pediatric setting was recommended and pursued. Results suggest a broad preventive role for pediatricians and pediatric clinics servicing low-income preschoolers. PMID:8558617

  12. Understanding Persistence and Desistance in Crime and Risk Behaviors in Adulthood: Implications for Theory and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, Deborah M; Kerr, David C R; Eddy, J Mark; Tiberio, Stacey S

    2016-10-01

    Recent theoretical advances related to the development and course, including persistence and desistance, of antisocial behaviors and conduct problems, violent behaviors, and related problem behaviors are discussed. Integrative theoretical models, including the Dynamic Developmental Systems (DDS), are discussed. Aspects of the DDS model regarding the development of and change in antisocial behavior and violence across adolescence and early adulthood are illustrated with findings from the Oregon Youth Study, an ongoing, long-term examination of the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior for a community-based sample of men (and their romantic partners) who were raised in neighborhoods with high delinquency rates. Preventive implications of the model are discussed.

  13. The prevention of AIDS by modifying sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    William, D C

    1984-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic has promoted the emergence of a new sexual ethic among homosexual men in the US. Gay men have been encouraged to significantly and dramatically limit their number of sexual partners. This has given rise to a pattern of creative sexuality that includes dating, serial monogamous relationships, mutual masturbation, condom use, massage, and nonsexual leisure time activities. Friendships, social groups, and gym workouts have increased in importance in many gay communities and sexuality has become a delayed gratification. Dating and courtship have begun to emerge as part of the new behavior pattern. Encouraging is the decline in the proportion of AIDS cases reported from New York City from 46% to 39% of the national total in the past year. This trend is believed to reflect decreased levels of promiscuous sexual behavior.

  14. [Suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13: A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Baux-Cazal, L; Gokalsing, E; Amadeo, S; Messiah, A

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to review international literature on suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13. We gathered all relevant articles on suicide prevention for children under 13. We researched all publications in the French and English languages in PubMed (MEDLINE), PsychINFO and SUDOC databases published until February 2014, with the keywords "child", "child preschool", "prevention and control", "suicide", and "suicide attempted". Publications were included if they described suicidal behavior prevention programs (suicide prevention programs, attempted-suicide prevention programs, suicidal ideation screening programs), and if the studies concerned children under age 13. We also included references cited in the articles if they were not already present in our searches but met inclusion criteria. Studies were excluded if they analyzed populations of children and adolescents without sub-analysis for children under age 13. A total of 350 potentially relevant articles were identified, 33 of which met the inclusion criteria, including 4 retrieved from articles' bibliography. Preventive measures against suicidal behavior for children under 13 exist and include: social programs, maltreatment prevention, curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, suicide screening in schools, gatekeepers, reduction of access of lethal means of suicide, suicide screening by primary care, and post-suicide intervention programs. Overall, the evidence was limited by methodological concerns, particularly a lack of RCTs. However, positive effects were found: school-based suicide prevention programs and gatekeepers increased knowledge about suicide and how to seek help, post-suicide programs helped to reduce psychological distress in the short term. One study showed a decreased risk of attempted-suicide after entry into the child welfare system. There are promising interventions but there is not enough scientific evidence to support any efficient preventive measure against

  15. Social partners prevent alcohol relapse behavior in prairie voles

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Caroline M.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2013-01-01

    There is robust evidence for a protective role of interpersonal factors such as social support on alcohol relapse, but research on the mechanisms that social factors may be acting on to effectively protect individuals against relapse is lacking. Prairie voles are highly social, monogamous rodents that freely self-administer ethanol in high amounts, and are a useful model for understanding social influences on alcohol drinking. Here we investigated whether prairie voles can be used to model social influences on relapse using the alcohol deprivation effect, in which animals show a transient increase in ethanol drinking following deprivation. In Experiment I, subjects were housed alone during four weeks of 24-hour access to 10% ethanol in a two-bottle choice test. Ethanol was then removed from the cage for 72 hours. Animals remained in isolation or were then housed with a familiar same-sex social partner, and ethanol access was resumed. Animals that remained isolated showed an increase in ethanol intake relative to pre-deprivation baseline, indicative of relapse-like behavior. However, animals that were socially housed did not show an increase in ethanol intake, and this was independent of whether the social partner also had access to ethanol. Experiment II replicated the alcohol deprivation effect in a separate cohort of isolated animals. These findings demonstrate that prairie voles display an alcohol deprivation effect and suggest a ‘social buffering’ effect of relapse-like behavior in the prairie vole. This behavioral paradigm provides a novel approach for investigating the behavioral and neurobiological underpinnings of social influences on alcohol relapse. PMID:24275014

  16. Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in Male and Female Army Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    examine the association of sociodemographic, sexual health behaviors, contraceptive and condom use and a history of unintended pregnancy in soldiers... contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training.” This abstract focused on factors associated with...effective contraceptive (birth control) methods used by young adult men and women. Since data analyses were still underway, the abstract only reflects the

  17. Measuring Performance and Effectiveness in Irregular Warfare: Preventing Dysfunctional Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    behavior, it will also support operational commanders in diagnosing problems, making critical decisions, fostering learning, adjusting strategies , and...the area where Netflix continues to dominate…Blockbuster is doomed.” 11 While bottom line figures such as monthly earnings are important, unless...how to adapt and manage its metrics to better support its strategy . The reality of a measurement failure has grave consequences for the military

  18. Administrative and behavioral interventions for workplace violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Runyan, C W; Zakocs, R C; Zwerling, C

    2000-05-01

    Violence in the workplace accounts for 1000 fatalities and over 20,000 nonfatal events annually in the United States. The occupations with the most fatalities are taxicab drivers, employees in retail establishments, and law enforcement officers. Environmental strategies as well as behavioral and administrative measures could be employed to address violence. This paper reports a critical review of the published literature on administrative and behavioral interventions directed at addressing workplace violence. Searching 17 different databases, we identified 137 papers that described workplace violence intervention strategies. Papers were further categorized according to whether they provided empirical data about an intervention or merely suggested intervention ideas. Suggested interventions were categorized according to applicability to types of workplace violence and organized according to the Haddon Matrix. Forty-one reports suggested intervention strategies but provided no empirical data; nine reported results of intervention evaluations. All intervention studies were based in the health care industry and addressed violent encounters between workers and patients. Overall, the research designs employed were weak and the results inconclusive. None used experimental designs. The lack of rigorous research to assess administrative and behavioral measures to address workplace violence represents a significant gap. Intervention research needs to draw on appropriate theoretical and conceptual frameworks, address the multiple contexts in which violence occurs, and employ strong evaluation research designs, including attention to process, impact, and outcome measures.

  19. Young drivers' responses to anti-speeding advertisements: Comparison of self-report and objective measures of persuasive processing and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; Lewis, Ioni; Algie, Jennifer; White, Melanie J

    2016-05-18

    Self-report measures are typically used to assess the effectiveness of road safety advertisements. However, psychophysiological measures of persuasive processing (i.e., skin conductance response [SCR]) and objective driving measures of persuasive outcomes (i.e., in-vehicle Global Positioning System [GPS] devices) may provide further insights into the effectiveness of these advertisements. This study aimed to explore the persuasive processing and outcomes of 2 anti-speeding advertisements by incorporating both self-report and objective measures of speeding behavior. In addition, this study aimed to compare the findings derived from these different measurement approaches. Young drivers (N = 20, M age = 21.01 years) viewed either a positive or negative emotion-based anti-speeding television advertisement. While viewing the advertisement, SCR activity was measured to assess ad-evoked arousal responses. The RoadScout GPS device was then installed in participants' vehicles for 1 week to measure on-road speed-related driving behavior. Self-report measures assessed persuasive processing (emotional and arousal responses) and actual driving behavior. There was general correspondence between the self-report measures of arousal and the SCR and between the self-report measure of actual driving behavior and the objective driving data (as assessed via the GPS devices). This study provides insights into how psychophysiological and GPS devices could be used as objective measures in conjunction with self-report measures to further understand the persuasive processes and outcomes of emotion-based anti-speeding advertisements.

  20. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.

  1. Self-Care Adherence and Psychological Functioning of Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Effects of Persuasion, Social Pressure, and Self-Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Pang, Joyce S; Cheng, Wendy J Y

    2016-12-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the role of family members' use of persuasion versus pressure as distinct forms of social control by which family members attempt to encourage better diabetes management among older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study also examined how self-efficacy might moderate the relationship between persuasion/pressure, psychological functioning, and self-care adherence. Participants were 96 men and 103 women with T2DM, with a mean age of 63.3 years. Regression results show that neither persuasion nor pressure was significantly related to self-care adherence, but persuasion and pressure were associated in complex ways with diabetes-related emotional distress and depressive symptoms for which significant interaction effects were found. Patients with lower self-efficacy benefited from persuasion, but were adversely affected by pressure. In contrast, patients with higher self-efficacy were adversely affected by persuasion, but were less negatively affected by pressure. Findings highlight the importance of reducing pressure-based social control, considering patients' self-efficacy when family members seek to influence patients' self-care behaviors, and targeting patient-family interactions in future interventions.

  2. When does self-sacrificial leadership motivate prosocial behavior? It depends on followers' prevention focus.

    PubMed

    De Cremer, David; Mayer, David M; van Dijke, Marius; Bardes, Mary; Schouten, Barbara C

    2009-07-01

    In the present set of studies, the authors examine the idea that self-sacrificial leadership motivates follower prosocial behavior, particularly among followers with a prevention focus. Drawing on the self-sacrificial leadership literature and regulatory focus theory, the authors provide results from 4 studies (1 laboratory and 3 field studies) that support the research hypothesis. Specifically, the relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and prosocial behavior (i.e., cooperation, organizational citizenship behavior) is stronger among followers who are high in prevention focus. Implications for the importance of taking a follower-centered approach to leadership are discussed.

  3. HIV Prevention among Mexican Migrants at Different Migration Phases: Exposure to Prevention Messages and Association With Testing Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants’ HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N=3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57%–75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14%–25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57%–63%, p<.001). In general, exposure to prevention messages is positively associated with greater odds of HIV testing at the pre-departure, destination, and interception phases. Binational efforts need to be intensified to reach and deliver HIV prevention to Mexican im/migrants across the migration continuum. PMID:26595267

  4. HIV Prevention Among Mexican Migrants at Different Migration Phases: Exposure to Prevention Messages and Association With Testing Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Rangel, M Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi

    2015-12-01

    Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants' HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N = 3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57-75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14-25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57-63%, p < .001). In general, exposure to prevention messages is positively associated with greater odds of HIV testing at the pre-departure, destination, and interception phases. Binational efforts need to be intensified to reach and deliver HIV prevention to Mexican im/migrants across the migration continuum.

  5. [Persuasive communications and regular blood donation: an experimental study].

    PubMed

    Cunha, Balduino Guedes Fernandes da; Dias, Mardonio Rique

    2008-06-01

    This study aimed to: investigate yielding to the dependent variable "behavioral intent to become a regular blood donor", verify the impact of such communications on variance in the dependent variable, examine the single contribution of the external independent variable to the Rational Action Theory, and test the fit of the expanded Rational Choice Theory to the target behavior and sample. Only a post-test design and double-blinded procedure were used, randomly picking 405 university students for experimental groups 1 and 2, placebo control, and control only. The results showed: lack of yielding by the experimental groups; considerable percentage variance in the dependent variable explained by the independent variable in the experimental and placebo control groups; and satisfactory and significant correlations for variables in the expanded theory. Absence of yielding for the criterion variable was probably due to the time interval. The positive persuasive strategy accounted for the greatest variance in the dependent variable. Moral obligation showed the greatest impact on participants' intent to perform the behavior. The correlations corroborated the theoretical and methodological validity of the expanded theory.

  6. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior and its predictors in southwest rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Lachat, Carl; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Background Inappropriate child feeding and caring practices are a major cause of malnutrition. To date, no studies have examined concordance and discordance of child feeding and preventive behavior and their predictors in developing countries. Methods We used baseline data generated from A 2-year-longitudinal agriculture-nutrition panel survey conducted from February 9 to April 9, 2014, in nine districts encompassing 20 randomly selected counties in Oromiya Region and Southern Nation, Nationality and Peoples Region in Ethiopia. Households were recruited using the Expanded Program on Immunization sampling method. A total of 623 children under the age of 5 years and their respective caregivers were included in the analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustered observations. Results Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was observed in 45.1% of the children, while 45.5% of the children were suffering from discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Concordance and discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior had almost different predictors. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was significantly associated with the age of the caretaker of ≥40 years (odds ratio (OR)=2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.41), low household dietary diversity (OR=3.69; 95% CI: 1.93, 7.04), medium household dietary diversity (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.00), severe household food insecurity (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.93), and increase with increasing child age. Conclusion A substantial number of children in the southwest of rural Ethiopia are exposed to both poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Low household dietary diversity and extreme food insecurity household were predictors of concordance of poor child feeding and poor preventive behavior and provide useful entry points for comprehensive interventions to address child feeding and caring in the area. PMID:27511625

  7. Perioperative registered nurses knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers regarding pressure ulcer prevention in perioperative patients.

    PubMed

    Tallier, Peggy C; Reineke, Patricia R; Asadoorian, Kathy; Choonoo, John G; Campo, Marc; Malmgreen-Wallen, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Hospital acquired pressure ulcers have a detrimental effect on patient quality of life, morbidity, mortality, and cost to the healthcare industry. Little is known about pressure ulcer prevention in perioperative services. The objectives of this study were to describe perioperative registered nurses (RNs) knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers about pressure ulcer prevention and to determine if knowledge and the availability of a pressure ulcer staging tool are predictors of pressure ulcer prevention behavior. A cross-sectional descriptive pilot study was conducted. Sixty-two perioperative RNs from 10 acute care hospitals participated. Perioperative nurses believed carrying out pressure ulcer prevention strategies is essential to nursing practice but only two-thirds reported conducting pressure ulcer risk assessment on all patients and daily assessment on at risk patients. Results indicated a knowledge deficit regarding assessment and prevention of pressure ulcers as performance on the PUKT (72%) fell below the recommended score of 90%. Results of binary logistic regression indicated that knowledge as measured by the PUKT and availability of a pressure ulcer staging tool were statistically significant (p=0.03) predictors of pressure ulcer prevention behavior. The initial model without the predictor variables, indicated an overall success rate of correct predictions of 64% which increase to 73% when the predictor variables were added to the initial model. Although perioperative nurses believe that pressure ulcer prevention is important, a knowledge deficit exists and there is a need for pressure ulcer prevention education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of a Comprehensive, Multiple Risky Behavior Prevention Program on High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; LaChapelle, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the effect of a multiple risky behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The noncurriculum prevention program was created based upon the key elements of effective prevention programming and the need to address the growing variety of risky behaviors that the youth face today. Results (n = 469 to 614) indicated that 7 out of 15 risky behaviors statistically significantly decreased throughout the 4-year study, with 6 behaviors involving alcohol and drugs. However, many of the targeted non-substance-use risky behaviors displayed inconsistent prevalence rate patterns without statistically significant changes. These findings indicate that the frequency and intensity of programming for non-substance-use behaviors should be increased to a value at least equal to that of the substance-use behaviors. Implications for schools, prevention specialists, and future program development and research are discussed. PMID:27672475

  9. "Oh, ppbbt!": Differences between the Oral and Written Persuasive Strategies of School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erftmier, Thelma; Dyson, Ann Hass

    1986-01-01

    Reports on a study indicating children's dependency in oral persuasion on the cooperative nature of dialog and nonverbal vocalizations and their dependence in written persuasion on persuasive strategies found in speech that can be transferred to writing and, concomitantly, their relatively infrequent use of persuasive strategies specific to…

  10. Preventing Bullying through Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS): A Multitiered Approach to Prevention and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Although bullying continues to be a growing public health concern in schools across the United States, there are considerable gaps in the American understanding of effective prevention approaches for addressing this seemingly intractable issue. This article applies a public health approach to addressing bullying through the multitiered Positive…

  11. Preventing Bullying through Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS): A Multitiered Approach to Prevention and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Although bullying continues to be a growing public health concern in schools across the United States, there are considerable gaps in the American understanding of effective prevention approaches for addressing this seemingly intractable issue. This article applies a public health approach to addressing bullying through the multitiered Positive…

  12. Emotional flow in persuasive health messages.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, the literature on the persuasive influence of emotions has focused on individual emotions, fear in particular, though some recent attention has been given to mixed emotions in persuasive appeals. Building on this newer wave of research, this article argues that instead of focusing on singular emotional states or collections of emotions evoked by a message, it might prove valuable to explore the flow, or evolution, of emotional experience over the course of exposure to a health message. The article offers a brief introduction to the concept of emotion, followed by a review of the state of the literature on the use of emotion in health messages. The concept of emotional flow is then introduced along with a consideration of how it has been tacitly incorporated into the study of emotional health messages. Finally, the utility of the concept of emotional flow is elaborated by articulating the ways in which it might be harnessed to facilitate the creation of more effective health messages, individually as well as across campaigns. The article concludes with an agenda for future research.

  13. The longitudinal effects of a rape-prevention program on fraternity men's attitudes, behavioral intent, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Foubert, J D

    2000-01-01

    Rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and sexually coercive behavior of 145 fraternity men randomly assigned to a control group or a rape-prevention program were surveyed. One third of 23 fraternities on a mid-Atlantic public university campus volunteered to participate in the study. The rape-prevention intervention consisted of "the men's program," a victim empathy-based presentation titled "How to help a sexual assault survivor: What men can do." Although no evidence of change in sexually coercive behavior was found, significant 7-month declines in rape myth acceptance and the likelihood of committing rape were shown among program participants. In the case of rape myth acceptance, the 7-month decrement remained lower in the participant group than in the control group. Implications of using these initial findings from the men's program for rape-prevention programming are discussed.

  14. Maintenance of health behavior change in preventive cardiology. Internalization and self-regulation of new behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bellg, Albert J

    2003-01-01

    Long-term health behavior maintenance remains a challenge for patients and health behavior interventionists. Resource-intensive systems of external reinforcement and behavioral cues can support behavior maintenance; an alternative approach is to promote patient internalization and self-regulation of health behaviors. Based in part on organismic internalization theory, self-determination theory, and the experience of patients successful at maintaining health behaviors, the health behavior internalization model (HBIM) is proposed to describe motivational factors associated with internalization processes and hypothesizes that integrated internalization may be associated with long-term health behavior maintenance. The HBIM identifies four self-needs (ownership, self-determination, security, and support) and four behavior-related needs (preference, context, competence, and coping) as motivating health behavior internalization. Behavior change strategies promoting integrated internalization are identified from self-determination theory, motivational interviewing, and transtheoretical model interventions. Other health behavior change constructs are reviewed in relation to internalization processes, and potential limits to the model are discussed.

  15. Preventing the threat of credit-card fraud: Factors influencing cashiers' identification-checking behavior.

    PubMed

    Downing, Christopher; Howard, E Henry; Goodwin, Christina; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined factors influencing cashiers' identification (ID)-checking behavior in order to inform the development of interventions to prevent credit-card fraud. In both studies, research assistants made credit purchases in various stores and noted the cashiers' ID-checking behavior. In the first study, the store type, whether the cashier swiped the credit/debit card, the amount of the purchase, and whether the credit/debit card was signed significantly influenced ID-checking behavior. In the second study, an A-B-A design was used to evaluate the impact of a "Check my ID" prompt placed on the credit/debit card. The prompt increased cashiers' ID-checking behavior from 5.9% at Baseline to 10.3% during the Intervention. When the prompt was removed, the cashiers' ID-checking behavior decreased to 7.2%. Implications for further intervention research to prevent credit-card fraud are discussed.

  16. The asymmetrical force of persuasive knowledge across the positive–negative divide

    PubMed Central

    Nordmo, Mads; Selart, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    In two experimental studies we explore to what extent the general effects of positive and negative framing also apply to positive and negative persuasion. Our results reveal that negative persuasion induces substantially higher levels of skepticism and awareness of being subjected to a persuasion attempt. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in positive persuasion, more claims lead to stronger persuasion, while in negative persuasion, the numerosity of claims carries no significant effect. We interpret this finding along the lines of a satiety-model of persuasion. Finally, using diluted, or low strength claims in a persuasion attempt, we reveal a significant interaction between dispositional reactance and dilution of claims on persuasion knowledge. The interaction states that diluted claims increase the awareness of being subjected to a persuasion attempt, but only for those with a high dispositional level of reactance. PMID:26388821

  17. Developing a Tablet-Based Self-Persuasion Intervention Promoting Adolescent HPV Vaccination: Protocol for a Three-Stage Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Simon Craddock; Marks, Emily G; Persaud, Donna; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Street, Richard L; Wiebe, Deborah J; Farrell, David; Bishop, Wendy Pechero; Fuller, Sobha; Baldwin, Austin S

    2016-01-01

    -provider discussions. Results This paper describes the study protocol and activities to date. Currently, we have developed the initial prototype of the tablet app for English- and Spanish-speaking populations, and completed Stage 1 data collection. Conclusions Our systematic collaboration between basic and applied behavioral scientists accelerates translation of promising basic psychological research into innovative interventions suitable for underserved, safety-net populations. At project’s end, we plan to have a feasible and acceptable self-persuasion intervention that can affect key cancer disparities in the United States through prevention of HPV-related cancers. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02537756 and http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02535845 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6e5XcOGXz and http://www.webcitation.org/6e5XfHoic, respectively). PMID:26825137

  18. The influence of advertising on compulsive buying – The role of persuasion knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Mikołajczak-Degrauwe, Kalina; Brengman, Malaika

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The growing concern over compulsive buying (CB) among consumers has led to vast amount of research examining the antecedents of this maladaptive behaviour. The focus of previous research was, however, mainly on examining the internal, psychological factors contributing to CB. The current research, on the other hand, sheds light on one of the external triggers which can possibly stimulate CB, namely advertising. Methods: An online survey has been conducted to identify the attitudes and scepticism towards advertising as well as ad avoidance and persuasion knowledge among a sample of 582 Belgian consumers. Furthermore, all participants were screened with regard to compulsive buying tendencies. Results: This research provides evidence that positive attitudes towards advertising can lead to CB. An important factor in this relation is persuasion knowledge. Conclusions: The study results lead to the conclusion that people higher in persuasion knowledge dispose less positive attitudes towards advertising which can subsequently prevent them from engaging in CB. Moreover high scores on scepticism towards advertising and ad avoidance among Belgian consumers in our sample point to a need for advertisers to modify their practices in order to gain more trust from consumers. This study also shows that advertising in particular attracts and seems to affect an already disadvantaged group of people – namely compulsive buyers. PMID:25215215

  19. The influence of advertising on compulsive buying - The role of persuasion knowledge.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczak-Degrauwe, Kalina; Brengman, Malaika

    2014-03-01

    The growing concern over compulsive buying (CB) among consumers has led to vast amount of research examining the antecedents of this maladaptive behaviour. The focus of previous research was, however, mainly on examining the internal, psychological factors contributing to CB. The current research, on the other hand, sheds light on one of the external triggers which can possibly stimulate CB, namely advertising. An online survey has been conducted to identify the attitudes and scepticism towards advertising as well as ad avoidance and persuasion knowledge among a sample of 582 Belgian consumers. Furthermore, all participants were screened with regard to compulsive buying tendencies. This research provides evidence that positive attitudes towards advertising can lead to CB. An important factor in this relation is persuasion knowledge. The study results lead to the conclusion that people higher in persuasion knowledge dispose less positive attitudes towards advertising which can subsequently prevent them from engaging in CB. Moreover high scores on scepticism towards advertising and ad avoidance among Belgian consumers in our sample point to a need for advertisers to modify their practices in order to gain more trust from consumers. This study also shows that advertising in particular attracts and seems to affect an already disadvantaged group of people - namely compulsive buyers.

  20. Preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis in pregnant adolescents in the state of Ceara, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When toxoplasmosis is acquired during pregnancy, it can be transmitted to the fetus causing severe lesions in the first two gestational trimesters. This study analyzed the main factors associated with the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis among pregnant adolescents in the city of Fortaleza in northeast Brazil. Methods It is a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2009 to November 2010, with a sample of 320 pregnant adolescents, ages ranging from 12 to 19 years old, receiving prenatal care in the Public Health Care System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model analyses were used to identify the association between preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis, and the independent variables and 95% confidence interval. Results We observed that 16.3% of the pregnant adolescents showed preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis. The factors positively associated to the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis were: age group between 12 and 14 years old (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.23-6.12) and more than two prenatal consultations (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.17-4.09). Conclusions Noteworthy is the importance of a serologic follow-up for pregnant adolescents with clearer and more precise information about risk factors and the importance of adopting preventive behaviors. Thus, it is necessary to establish educational measures for handling food and raising kittens during prenatal care. PMID:22272659

  1. H1N1 Preventive Health Behaviors in a University Setting

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Sanza, Megan; Johnston, Lindsay; Petinaux, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: When H1N1 emerged in 2009, institutions of higher education were immediately faced with questions about how best to protect their community from the virus, yet limited information existed to help predict student preventive behaviors. Methods: The authors surveyed students at a large urban university in November 2009 to better understand how students perceived their susceptibility to and the severity of H1N1, which preventive behaviors they engaged in, and if policies impacted their preventive health decisions. Results: Preventive health behavior messaging had a mixed impact on students. Students made simple behavior changes to protect themselves from H1N1, especially if they perceived a high personal risk of contracting H1N1. Although policies were instituted to enable students to avoid classes when ill, almost no student self-isolated for the entire duration of their illness. Conclusions: These findings can help inform future decision making in a university setting to best influence preventive health behaviors. PMID:22171729

  2. Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

    PubMed

    Sircova, Anna; Karimi, Fariba; Osin, Evgeny N; Lee, Sungmin; Holme, Petter; Strömbom, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP), a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1) The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940) and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2) The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3) The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4) diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index). It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues

  3. Simulating Irrational Human Behavior to Prevent Resource Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Sircova, Anna; Karimi, Fariba; Osin, Evgeny N.; Lee, Sungmin; Holme, Petter; Strömbom, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP), a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1) The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940) and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2) The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3) The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4) diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index). It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues

  4. Coupling infectious diseases, human preventive behavior, and networks--a conceptual framework for epidemic modeling.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liang; Yang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Human-disease interactions involve the transmission of infectious diseases among individuals and the practice of preventive behavior by individuals. Both infectious diseases and preventive behavior diffuse simultaneously through human networks and interact with one another, but few existing models have coupled them together. This article proposes a conceptual framework to fill this knowledge gap and illustrates the model establishment. The conceptual model consists of two networks and two diffusion processes. The two networks include: an infection network that transmits diseases and a communication network that channels inter-personal influence regarding preventive behavior. Both networks are composed of same individuals but different types of interactions. This article further introduces modeling approaches to formulize such a framework, including the individual-based modeling approach, network theory, disease transmission models and behavioral models. An illustrative model was implemented to simulate a coupled-diffusion process during an influenza epidemic. The simulation outcomes suggest that the transmission probability of a disease and the structure of infection network have profound effects on the dynamics of coupled-diffusion. The results imply that current models may underestimate disease transmissibility parameters, because human preventive behavior has not been considered. This issue calls for a new interdisciplinary study that incorporates theories from epidemiology, social science, behavioral science, and health psychology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fall prevention modulates decisional saccadic behavior in aging

    PubMed Central

    Coubard, Olivier A.

    2012-01-01

    As society ages and frequency of falls increases in older adults, counteracting motor decline is a challenging issue for developed countries. Physical activity based on aerobic and strength training as well as motor activity based on skill learning both help benefit balance and reduce the risk of falls, as assessed by clinical or laboratory measures. However, how such programs influence motor control is a neglected issue. This study examined the effects of fall prevention (FP) training on saccadic control in older adults. Saccades were recorded in 12 participants aged 64–91 years before and after 2.5 months training in FP. Traditional analysis of saccade timing and dynamics was performed together with a quantitative analysis using the LATER model, enabling us to examine the underlying motor control processes. Results indicated that FP reduced the rate of anticipatory and express saccades in inappropriate directions and enhanced that of express saccades in the appropriate direction, resulting in decreased latency and higher left-right symmetry of motor responses. FP reduced within-participant variability of saccade duration, amplitude, and peak velocity. LATER analysis suggested that FP modulates decisional thresholds, extending our knowledge of motor training influence on central motor control. We introduce the Threshold Interval Modulation with Early Release-Rate of rIse Deviation with Early Release (TIMER-RIDER) model to account for the results. PMID:22807914

  6. Designing persuasive health materials using processing fluency: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masahumi; Kato, Mio; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2017-06-08

    Health materials to promote health behaviors should be readable and generate favorable evaluations of the message. Processing fluency (the subjective experience of ease with which people process information) has been increasingly studied over the past decade. In this review, we explore effects and instantiations of processing fluency and discuss the implications for designing effective health materials. We searched seven online databases using "processing fluency" as the key word. In addition, we gathered relevant publications using reference snowballing. We included published records that were written in English and applicable to the design of health materials. We found 40 articles that were appropriate for inclusion. Various instantiations of fluency have a uniform effect on human judgment: fluently processed stimuli generate positive judgments (e.g., liking, confidence). Processing fluency is used to predict the effort needed for a given task; accordingly, it has an impact on willingness to undertake the task. Physical perceptual, lexical, syntactic, phonological, retrieval, and imagery fluency were found to be particularly relevant to the design of health materials. Health-care professionals should consider the use of a perceptually fluent design, plain language, numeracy with an appropriate degree of precision, a limited number of key points, and concrete descriptions that make recipients imagine healthy behavior. Such fluently processed materials that are easy to read and understand have enhanced perspicuity and persuasiveness.

  7. Structural model for osteoporosis preventing behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Doheny, Margaret O; Sedlak, Carol A; Hall, Rosalie J; Estok, Patricia J

    2010-12-01

    This longitudinal study evaluates the effect of bone mineral density screening on calcium intake and daily exercise of 196 healthy men older than 50 years over a period of 1 year. In this randomized clinical trial, the experimental group received personal bone density information via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The men completed measures addressing knowledge, health beliefs, calcium intake, and exercise behaviors. Outcome measures were collected by a questionnaire at three time points: initial (Time 1 [T1]; pre-DXA), 6 months (Time 2 [T2]), and 12 months (Time 3 [T3]). Using structural equation modeling for data analysis, results indicated that men in the experimental group had a significantly higher T2 calcium intake than the control group, with no additional direct effect at T3. T1 daily calcium intake was significantly predicted by T1 health beliefs. Men with higher levels of health motivation tended to have higher initial levels of daily calcium intake. Personal knowledge of DXA results relate significantly to increased calcium intake.

  8. Evaluation of an Intervention among Adolescents to Reduce Preventive Misconception in HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lally, Michelle; Goldsworthy, Richard; Sarr, Moussa; Kahn, Jessica; Brown, Larry; Peralta, Ligia; Zimet, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Placebo and randomization are important concepts that must be understood before youth can safely participate in HIV vaccine studies or other biomedical trials for HIV prevention. These concepts are central to the phenomenon of preventive misconception which may be associated with an increase in risk behavior among study participants related to mistaken beliefs. Persuasive messaging, traditionally used in the field of marketing, could enhance educational efforts associated with randomized clinical trials. Methods Two educational brochures were designed to increase knowledge about HIV vaccine clinical trials via 1 and 2-sided persuasive messaging. Through the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network, 120 youth were enrolled, administered a mock HIV vaccine trial consent, and then randomized to receive either no supplemental information or one of the two brochures. Results The 2-sided brochure group in which common clinical trial misconceptions were acknowledgedand then refuted had significantly higher scores on knowledge of randomization and interpretation of side effects than the consent-only control group, and willingness to participate in an HIV vaccine trial was not decreased with the use of this brochure. Conclusion Two sided persuasive messaging improves understanding of the concepts of randomization and placebo among youth who would consider participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Further evaluation of this approach should be considered for at-risk youth participating in an actual trial of a biomedical intervention for HIV prevention. PMID:24613097

  9. Advancing Cancer Prevention and Behavior Theory in the Era of Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Atienza, Audie A.; Serrano, Katrina J.; Riley, William T.; Moser, Richard P.; Klein, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The era of “Big Data” presents opportunities to substantively address cancer prevention and control issues by improving health behaviors and refining theoretical models designed to understand and intervene in those behaviors. Yet, the terms “model” and “Big Data” have been used rather loosely, and clarification of these terms is required to advance the science in this area. The objectives of this paper are to discuss conceptual definitions of the terms “model” and “Big Data”, as well as examine the promises and challenges of Big Data to advance cancer prevention and control research using behavioral theories. Specific recommendations for harnessing Big Data for cancer prevention and control are offered. PMID:27722147

  10. An Experimental Test of the Persuasive Effect of Source Similarity in Narrative and Nonnarrative Health Blogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Blogs, or websites containing online personal journals, are a form of popular personal communication with immense potential for health promotion. Objective Narratives are stories with a beginning, middle, and end that provide information about the characters and plot. Source similarity refers to the degree to which the message source and each recipient are alike with respect to certain attributes. Narratives and source similarity have seldom been examined in tandem as strategies for health persuasion. Personal health blogs provide a suitable platform for such an investigation. This study examined the persuasive effects of message type and source similarity on participants’ intentions to adopt a specific health behavior (running for exercise). Methods A total of 150 participants were randomly assigned to conditions (n=25 per condition) in a completely crossed, 2 (message type: narrative and nonnarrative) × 3 (source similarity: no similarity, non-health-related similarity, and health-related similarity) between-subjects experiment. First, in an online questionnaire, participants provided personal information in 42 categories and rated the relatedness of each category to running and then completed pretest measures of the dependent variables. Based on their responses, 150 personal health blogs were created. Two weeks later, the initial participants read the blog created with their personal characteristics and completed a questionnaire online. Results The source similarity effect was stronger in nonnarrative than narrative blogs. When the blogs were nonnarrative, those with health-related similarities were more persuasive than those with non-health-related similarities. Narrative blogs generated more positive thoughts and stronger blogger identification than nonnarrative blogs. Conclusions Health-related source similarity is key for persuasive health communication, especially when the messages are nonnarrative. PMID:23887135

  11. An experimental test of the persuasive effect of source similarity in narrative and nonnarrative health blogs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Amy Shirong

    2013-07-25

    Blogs, or websites containing online personal journals, are a form of popular personal communication with immense potential for health promotion. Narratives are stories with a beginning, middle, and end that provide information about the characters and plot. Source similarity refers to the degree to which the message source and each recipient are alike with respect to certain attributes. Narratives and source similarity have seldom been examined in tandem as strategies for health persuasion. Personal health blogs provide a suitable platform for such an investigation. This study examined the persuasive effects of message type and source similarity on participants' intentions to adopt a specific health behavior (running for exercise). A total of 150 participants were randomly assigned to conditions (n=25 per condition) in a completely crossed, 2 (message type: narrative and nonnarrative) × 3 (source similarity: no similarity, non-health-related similarity, and health-related similarity) between-subjects experiment. First, in an online questionnaire, participants provided personal information in 42 categories and rated the relatedness of each category to running and then completed pretest measures of the dependent variables. Based on their responses, 150 personal health blogs were created. Two weeks later, the initial participants read the blog created with their personal characteristics and completed a questionnaire online. The source similarity effect was stronger in nonnarrative than narrative blogs. When the blogs were nonnarrative, those with health-related similarities were more persuasive than those with non-health-related similarities. Narrative blogs generated more positive thoughts and stronger blogger identification than nonnarrative blogs. Health-related source similarity is key for persuasive health communication, especially when the messages are nonnarrative.

  12. Moderate treadmill exercise prevents oxidative stress-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Salim, Samina; Sarraj, Nada; Taneja, Manish; Saha, Kaustuv; Tejada-Simon, Maria Victoria; Chugh, Gaurav

    2010-04-02

    Recent work has suggested correlation of oxidative stress with anxiety-like behavior. There also is evidence for anxiolytic effects of physical exercise. However, a direct role of oxidative stress in anxiety is not clear and a protective role of physical exercise in oxidative stress-mediated anxiety has never been addressed. In this study, we have utilized rats to test direct involvement of oxidative stress with anxiety-like behavior and have identified oxidative stress mechanisms likely involved in anxiolytic effects of physical exercise. Intraperitoneal injections at non-toxic dose of l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), an agent that increases oxidative stress markers, increased anxiety-like behavior of rats compared to vehicle-treated control rats. Prior 2 weeks treatment with the antioxidant, tempol attenuated BSO-induced anxiety-like behavior of rats suggesting a role of oxidative stress in this phenomenon. Moreover, moderate treadmill exercise prevented BSO-induced anxiety-like behavior of rats and also prevented BSO-mediated increase in oxidative stress markers in serum, urine and brain tissue homogenates from hippocampus, amygdala and locus coeruleus. Thus increasing oxidative stress increases anxiety-like behavior of rats. Moreover, antioxidant or treadmill exercise training both reduce oxidative stress in the rat brain regions implicated in anxiety response and prevent anxiety-like behavior of rats.

  13. A Review of Multiple Health Behavior Change Interventions for Primary Prevention.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Judith J; Prochaska, James O

    2011-05-01

    Most individuals engage in multiple unhealthy lifestyle behaviors with the potential for negative health consequences. Yet most health promotion research has addressed risk factors as categorically separate entities, and little is known about how to effectively promote multiple health behavior change (MHBC). This review summarizes the recent literature (January 2004 to December 2009) on randomized clinical trials evaluating MHBC interventions for primary prevention. Combining all the studies across all the reviews, fewer than 150 studies were identified. This is a fraction of the number of trials conducted on changing individual behavioral risks. Three primary behavioral clusters dominated: (1) the energy balance behaviors of physical activity and diet; (2) addictive behaviors like smoking and other drugs; and (3) disease-related behaviors, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer related. Findings were largely disappointing for studies of diet and physical activity, particularly with youth. Treating 2 addictions, including smoking, resulted in greater long-term sobriety from alcohol and illicit drugs. MHBC intervention effects were stronger and more consistent for cancer prevention than CVD prevention. MHBC interventions offer a new paradigm for broader, more comprehensive health promotion; however, the potential value in maximizing intervention impact is largely unmet.

  14. A Review of Multiple Health Behavior Change Interventions for Primary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Prochaska, James O.

    2013-01-01

    Most individuals engage in multiple unhealthy lifestyle behaviors with the potential for negative health consequences. Yet most health promotion research has addressed risk factors as categorically separate entities, and little is known about how to effectively promote multiple health behavior change (MHBC). This review summarizes the recent literature (January 2004 to December 2009) on randomized clinical trials evaluating MHBC interventions for primary prevention. Combining all the studies across all the reviews, fewer than 150 studies were identified. This is a fraction of the number of trials conducted on changing individual behavioral risks. Three primary behavioral clusters dominated: (1) the energy balance behaviors of physical activity and diet; (2) addictive behaviors like smoking and other drugs; and (3) disease-related behaviors, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer related. Findings were largely disappointing for studies of diet and physical activity, particularly with youth. Treating 2 addictions, including smoking, resulted in greater long-term sobriety from alcohol and illicit drugs. MHBC intervention effects were stronger and more consistent for cancer prevention than CVD prevention. MHBC interventions offer a new paradigm for broader, more comprehensive health promotion; however, the potential value in maximizing intervention impact is largely unmet. PMID:24358034

  15. Combination HIV Prevention Interventions: The Potential of Integrated Behavioral and Biomedical Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Combination HIV prevention interventions that integrate efficacious behavioral and biomedical strategies offer the potential to reduce new HIV infections. Purpose We overview the efficacy data for three biomedical HIV prevention approaches: microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and an HIV vaccination, review factors associated with differential acceptability and uptake of these methods, and suggest strategies to optimize the effectiveness and dissemination of combination HIV prevention approaches. Methods A narrative review was conducted highlighting key efficacy data for microbicides, PrEP, and an HIV vaccination and summarizing acceptability data for each of the three biomedical HIV prevention approaches. Recommendations for the integration and dissemination of combined behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention approaches are provided. Results To date, microbicides and an HIV vaccination have demonstrated limited efficacy for the prevention of HIV. However, PrEP has demonstrated efficacy in reducing HIV incident infections. A diverse array of factors influences both hypothetical willingness and actual usage of each biomedical prevention method. Conclusions Strategies to effectively integrate and evaluate combination HIV prevention interventions are urgently needed. PMID:25216985

  16. Atypical antipsychotic paliperidone prevents behavioral deficits in mice prenatally challenged with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Umesh; Mohanty, Banalata

    2015-01-15

    Studies on animal models provide enough evidences that old age appearance of psychosis on exposures to various insults during critical period of brain development could be prevented by antipsychotic drug treatment. Presently, gestational intervention of the atypical antipsychotic paliperidone (PAL) is done along with the exposure of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide/LPS hypothesizing that the drug would counteract and/or prevent the immune activation-induced behavioral deficits in mice. Effect of the PAL (0.05 mg/kg; GD 15-PND 28) in preventing reflex, sensorimotor and anxiety deficits in prenatally LPS-challenged (800 µg/kg; GD 15 and GD 17) mice was assessed at three different life stages: neonatal (PND 4-PND 14), adolescence (PND 35) and at adulthood (PND 85). LPS-induced behavioral deficits were recognizable even at neonatal and adolescence stages, though more pronounced at adulthood. In only PAL-treated group few behavioral deficits though observed both at neonatal and adult stages but less prominent than LPS group were found. PAL co-treatment prevented the abnormalities in nest-seeking behavior in neonates, anxiety abnormalities at adolescence and adulthood but not the sensorimotor impairment. The drug might have maintained the stress homeostasis to counteract the behavioral abnormalities as LPS-induced hypercorticosteronemia was prevented on PAL co-treatment. In view of the in utero exposure, comparatively low drug dose was selected. Though efficacy has been predicted, the dose was not effective to prevent all psychopathological impairments. Considering the wider objectives, it was not possible to conduct multi dose study simultaneously. Our ongoing study with higher dose may predict the effective PAL dose in prevention of psychiatric illness.

  17. Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to <30 years and those with previous history of unfavorable pregnancy outcome were more likely to follow toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to <40 years (OR=1.53), with ≥ secondary education (OR=1.96), had previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes (OR=1.88) and investigated for toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are

  18. Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0387 TITLE: Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight-Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI...Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight-Shifting Activities to Prevent... Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0387 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Stephen Sprigle, PhD

  19. Health Behavior Theory for Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Root-Cause Analysis Project in Critical Care Nursing.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kristen R; Ragnoni, Jennifer A; Bickmann, Jonathan D; Saarinen, Hannah A; Gosselin, Ann K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use a behavioral theory to examine pressure ulcer prevention by nurses in a critical care setting. A root-cause analysis approach was used, including an integrative literature review, operationalization of behavioral constructs into a survey, and root-cause analysis application in a cardiovascular intensive care unit. This article highlights an innovative approach to quality improvement in critical care.

  20. Attributed meanings and strategies to prevent challenging behaviors of hospitalized children with autism: two perspectives.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Norah L; Bekhet, Abir; Robinson, Karen; Rodriguez, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Understanding is limited of the meaning attributed to behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder and strategies used to prevent challenging behaviors in the context of hospitalization. This qualitative study consisted of two focus groups (n = 10; five mothers and five health care providers [HCPs]). Transcripts were analyzed using the qualitative method of narrative inquiry. The meaning attributed to behaviors by the mothers and the HCPs differed. The mothers attributed behaviors to the child's communication of frustration, hyperactivity, and self-calming. The HCPs attributed challenging behaviors to self-stimulation and child aggression. Strategies to prevent behaviors also differed. Mothers focused on preparation prior to hospitalization and attempts to partner with HCPs. HCPs identified fewer strategies and consulted mothers for strategies to manage challenging behaviors. HCP and parent collaboration could lead to strategies to increase supports for children with autism spectrum disorder in the hospital to decrease their frustration and challenging behaviors. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preventive Healthcare: A Neural Network Analysis of Behavioral Habits and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Viju; Raghupathi, Wullianallur

    2017-01-01

    The research aims to explore the association between behavioral habits and chronic diseases, and to identify a portfolio of risk factors for preventive healthcare. The data is taken from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, for the year 2012. Using SPSS Modeler, we deploy neural networks to identify strong positive and negative associations between certain chronic diseases and behavioral habits. The data for 475,687 records from BRFS database included behavioral habit variables of consumption of soda and fruits/vegetables, alcohol, smoking, weekly working hours, and exercise; chronic disease variables of heart attack, stroke, asthma, and diabetes; and demographic variables of marital status, income, and age. Our findings indicate that with chronic conditions, behavioral habits of physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption are negatively associated; soda, alcohol, and smoking are positively associated; and income and age are positively associated. We contribute to individual and national preventive healthcare by offering a portfolio of significant behavioral risk factors that enable individuals to make lifestyle changes and governments to frame campaigns and policies countering chronic conditions and promoting public health. PMID:28178194

  2. Preventive Healthcare: A Neural Network Analysis of Behavioral Habits and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Raghupathi, Viju; Raghupathi, Wullianallur

    2017-02-06

    The research aims to explore the association between behavioral habits and chronic diseases, and to identify a portfolio of risk factors for preventive healthcare. The data is taken from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, for the year 2012. Using SPSS Modeler, we deploy neural networks to identify strong positive and negative associations between certain chronic diseases and behavioral habits. The data for 475,687 records from BRFS database included behavioral habit variables of consumption of soda and fruits/vegetables, alcohol, smoking, weekly working hours, and exercise; chronic disease variables of heart attack, stroke, asthma, and diabetes; and demographic variables of marital status, income, and age. Our findings indicate that with chronic conditions, behavioral habits of physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption are negatively associated; soda, alcohol, and smoking are positively associated; and income and age are positively associated. We contribute to individual and national preventive healthcare by offering a portfolio of significant behavioral risk factors that enable individuals to make lifestyle changes and governments to frame campaigns and policies countering chronic conditions and promoting public health.

  3. The Language of Civil Engineering: Descriptive, Prescriptive, and Persuasive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machauf, Liora

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the language of civil engineering as manifested in the professional journal "Civil Engineering ASCE." Articles are analyzed, both syntactically and lexically, in terms of three major rhetorical functions: description, prescription, and persuasion. (17 references) (GLR)

  4. Theory of Synesthesia Applied to Persuasion in Print Advertising Headlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michelle R.; Hitchon, Jacqueline C.

    1995-01-01

    Tests the persuasive impact of synesthetic metaphors (which equate sense A to sense B) in advertising headlines. Finds that in some circumstances, synesthetic headlines produce less, rather than more, favorable attitudes toward the advertisement and brand than literal equivalents. (SR)

  5. Whatever? The effect of social exclusion on adopting persuasive messages.

    PubMed

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Aydin, Nilüfer; Frey, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    The aversive state of social exclusion can result in a broad range of cognitive deficits. Being unable or unmotivated to process relevant information, we assumed that social exclusion would also affect the success of persuasive attempts. We hypothesized that socially excluded people would adopt attitudes regardless of persuasion quality. In three studies using different manipulations of social exclusion and persuasion, we showed that participants who were socially excluded adopted persuasive messages regardless of argument quality. In contrast, this undifferentiated response was not shown by socially included participants who were more persuaded by high- compared to low-quality arguments. In Study 3, we moreover revealed that this pattern could only be replicated in reliable situations-that is, when the communicator appeared credible. These findings support the assumption that social exclusion can lead to reduced processing of information.

  6. Theory of Synesthesia Applied to Persuasion in Print Advertising Headlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michelle R.; Hitchon, Jacqueline C.

    1995-01-01

    Tests the persuasive impact of synesthetic metaphors (which equate sense A to sense B) in advertising headlines. Finds that in some circumstances, synesthetic headlines produce less, rather than more, favorable attitudes toward the advertisement and brand than literal equivalents. (SR)

  7. Strategies and motives for resistance to persuasion: an integrative framework.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Marieke L; Smit, Edith G; Verlegh, Peeter W J

    2015-01-01

    Persuasion is an important element of human communication. But in many situations, we resist rather than embrace persuasive attempts. Resistance to persuasion has been studied in many different disciplines, including communication science, psychology, and marketing. The present paper reviews and connects these diverse literatures, and provides an organizing framework for understanding and studying resistance. Four clusters of resistance strategies are defined (avoidance, contesting, biased processing, and empowerment), and these clusters are related to different motivations for resisting persuasion (threat to freedom, reluctance to change, and concerns of deception). We propose that, while avoidance strategies may be triggered by any of these motivations, contesting strategies are linked primarily to concerns of deception, while empowerment and biased processing strategies are most common when people are reluctant to change.

  8. Effects of Persuasive Appeals in Public Service Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Jerry R.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that of four message types perceived on the basis of persuasive appeal--emotional, logical, source-attribute, and fear--emotional appeal is the most effective and source-attribute the least effective method of advertising. (RB)

  9. Strategies and motives for resistance to persuasion: an integrative framework

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Marieke L.; Smit, Edith G.; Verlegh, Peeter W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Persuasion is an important element of human communication. But in many situations, we resist rather than embrace persuasive attempts. Resistance to persuasion has been studied in many different disciplines, including communication science, psychology, and marketing. The present paper reviews and connects these diverse literatures, and provides an organizing framework for understanding and studying resistance. Four clusters of resistance strategies are defined (avoidance, contesting, biased processing, and empowerment), and these clusters are related to different motivations for resisting persuasion (threat to freedom, reluctance to change, and concerns of deception). We propose that, while avoidance strategies may be triggered by any of these motivations, contesting strategies are linked primarily to concerns of deception, while empowerment and biased processing strategies are most common when people are reluctant to change. PMID:26322006

  10. Interaction patterns in crisis negotiations: persuasive arguments and cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    This research examines cultural differences in negotiators' responses to persuasive arguments in crisis (hostage) negotiations over time. Using a new method of examining cue-response patterns, the authors examined 25 crisis negotiations in which police negotiators interacted with perpetrators from low-context (LC) or high-context (HC) cultures. Compared with HC perpetrators, LC perpetrators were found to use more persuasive arguments, to reciprocate persuasive arguments in the second half of negotiations, and to respond to persuasive arguments in a compromising way. Further analyses found that LC perpetrators were more likely to communicate threats, especially in the first half of the negotiations, but that HC perpetrators were more likely to reciprocate them. The implications of these findings for our understanding of intercultural interaction are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Learning to Sell Door to Door: Teaching as Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Robert

    1972-01-01

    Two national firms with standardized marketing schemes employ persuasion rather than instruction in teaching an employee to sell. Students leave for their first assignment convinced of success in spite of a lack of skill. (JB)

  12. Travel health risk perceptions and prevention behaviors of US study abroad students.

    PubMed

    Hartjes, Laurie B; Baumann, Linda C; Henriques, Jeffrey B

    2009-01-01

    The number of American study abroad students increased more than 150% in the past decade, along with growth in destinations with increased health risks. This study investigated travel health risk perceptions and prevention behaviors to guide interventions that address the emerging health needs of US study abroad students. A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 318 American study abroad students using a Web-based survey. The primary source of travel health information was youth-oriented travel guidebooks (85%). The grand mean risk perception score for 18 travel health threats was 1.7 on a 1 to 4 scale, with top-rated threats being contaminated food/water, psychological distress, personal assault, and excessive sun exposure. Predeparture advice was received from primary care providers (52%) and travel health specialists (18%). Additional prevention measures were vaccines (42%) and medication (24%). Of 114 students listing their travel vaccinations, 11% described receiving a malaria vaccine and 4% a hepatitis C vaccine, although no such vaccines exist. Most respondents were confident/very confident in their ability to engage in prevention behaviors (94%). Health problems were primarily infectious disease (70%), psychological distress (10%), and injuries (8%). When asked if prior travel destinations involved areas where malaria transmission occurs, 20% responded, "Don't know." Identified gaps in travel health knowledge and prevention behaviors may produce hazardous consequences when combined with low-perceived risk, reliance on travel guidebooks for health information, and high ratings for prevention self-efficacy. Future research is needed to test the effectiveness of educational interventions designed for student travelers who would benefit from guided practice with destination-specific risk appraisal and prevention planning. Web-based educational resources are a good fit for this population because they are easily updated, available in all phases of

  13. Criticism and interpretation: teaching the persuasive aspects of research articles.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    Research articles are an excellent tool for promoting active learning about the scientific process. One difficulty in teaching research articles is that they address a professional audience and often seek to be persuasive as well as informative. This essay discusses pedagogical strategies that are intended to help students differentiate the purely informative aspects of research articles, such as descriptions of the methods and results, from the persuasive aspects, such as interpretation of results and critical evaluation of the work of other scientists.

  14. School-Based Obesity-Prevention Policies and Practices and Weight-Control Behaviors among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-01

    The promotion of healthy eating and physical activity within school settings is an important component of population-based strategies to prevent obesity; however, adolescents may be vulnerable to weight-related messages, as rapid development during this life stage often leads to preoccupation with body size and shape. This study examines secular trends in secondary school curricula topics relevant to the prevention of unhealthy weight-control behaviors; describes cross-sectional associations between weight-related curricula content and students' use of weight-control behaviors; and assesses whether implementation of school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices is longitudinally related to students' weight-control behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey (grades 9 and 12) data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to examine secular trends, cross-sectional associations (n=141 schools), and longitudinal associations (n=42 schools). Students self-reported their height and weight along with past-year use of healthy (eg, exercise), unhealthy (eg, fasting), and extreme (eg, use laxatives) weight-control behaviors. Descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equations, and generalized linear regression models accounting for school-level demographics. There was no observable pattern during the years 2008 to 2014 in the mean number of curricula topics addressing unhealthy weight-control behaviors, despite an increase in the prevalence of curricula addressing acceptance of body-size differences. Including three vs fewer weight-control topics and specifically including the topic of eating disorders in the curricula was related to a lower school-level percent of students using any extreme weight-control behaviors. In contrast, an overall measure of implementing school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices (eg, prohibited advertising) was unrelated to use of unhealthy or extreme behaviors

  15. "Nudges" to Prevent Behavioral Risk Factors Associated With Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Woodend, Ashleigh; Schölmerich, Vera; Denktaş, Semiha

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder-colloquially called "depression"-is a primary global cause of disability. Current preventive interventions, such as problem-solving therapy, are effective but also expensive. "Nudges" are easy and cheap interventions for altering behavior. We have explored how nudging can reduce three behavioral risk factors of depression: low levels of physical activity, inappropriate coping mechanisms, and inadequate maintenance of social ties. These nudges use cognitive biases associated with these behavioral risks, such as valuing the present more than the future, following the herd or the norm, making different choices in light of equivalent conditions, and deciding on the basis of salience or attachment to status quo.

  16. An Opinion Interactive Model Based on Individual Persuasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Liu, Liang; Ma, Liang; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the formation process of group opinion in real life, we put forward a new opinion interactive model based on Deffuant model and its improved models in this paper because current models of opinion dynamics lack considering individual persuasiveness. Our model has following advantages: firstly persuasiveness is added to individual's attributes reflecting the importance of persuasiveness, which means that all the individuals are different from others; secondly probability is introduced in the course of interaction which simulates the uncertainty of interaction. In Monte Carlo simulation experiments, sensitivity analysis including the influence of randomness, initial persuasiveness distribution, and number of individuals is studied at first; what comes next is that the range of common opinion based on the initial persuasiveness distribution can be predicted. Simulation experiment results show that when the initial values of agents are fixed, no matter how many times independently replicated experiments, the common opinion will converge at a certain point; however the number of iterations will not always be the same; the range of common opinion can be predicted when initial distribution of opinion and persuasiveness are given. As a result, this model can reflect and interpret some phenomena of opinion interaction in realistic society. PMID:26508911

  17. An Opinion Interactive Model Based on Individual Persuasiveness.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Chen, Bin; Liu, Liang; Ma, Liang; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the formation process of group opinion in real life, we put forward a new opinion interactive model based on Deffuant model and its improved models in this paper because current models of opinion dynamics lack considering individual persuasiveness. Our model has following advantages: firstly persuasiveness is added to individual's attributes reflecting the importance of persuasiveness, which means that all the individuals are different from others; secondly probability is introduced in the course of interaction which simulates the uncertainty of interaction. In Monte Carlo simulation experiments, sensitivity analysis including the influence of randomness, initial persuasiveness distribution, and number of individuals is studied at first; what comes next is that the range of common opinion based on the initial persuasiveness distribution can be predicted. Simulation experiment results show that when the initial values of agents are fixed, no matter how many times independently replicated experiments, the common opinion will converge at a certain point; however the number of iterations will not always be the same; the range of common opinion can be predicted when initial distribution of opinion and persuasiveness are given. As a result, this model can reflect and interpret some phenomena of opinion interaction in realistic society.

  18. THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOR OF YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PELEGRINO, DONALD A.; AND OTHERS

    THE IN-SERVICE TRAINING GUIDE FOR YOUTH SERVICES PERSONNEL WAS DESIGNED TO AID PERSONNEL IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANTI-SOCIAL YOUTH BEHAVIOR. THIS PRACTICAL GUIDE AND TRAINING MANUAL PRESENTS A COMPENDIUM OF IDEAS, SUGGESTIONS, AND TECHNIQUES. THE INTRODUCTION PRESENTS THE BACKGROUND AND PROCEDURES OF THE GUIDE'S PUBLICATION AND…

  19. Family history of colorectal cancer: clinicians' preventive recommendations and patient behavior.

    PubMed

    Zlot, Amy I; Silvey, Kerry; Newell, Nanette; Coates, Ralph J; Leman, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Few population-based studies have addressed the role that family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) plays in clinician decision making or patient health choices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of family history of CRC on clinician practice, patient CRC screening, and patient preventive behavior. We analyzed 2008 Oregon Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to examine associations between family history of CRC and 1) patient-reported clinician recommendations, 2) perceived risk of developing CRC, 3) adoption of preventive and screening behaviors, and 4) CRC risk factors among 1,795 respondents without CRC. A family history of CRC was positively associated with a higher likelihood of respondents reporting that their clinicians discussed colorectal cancer screening (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.4-7.4) and of respondents having colorectal screening within the recommended time period (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9). A family history of CRC was also associated with respondents reporting lifestyle changes to prevent CRC (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.7-4.0). A family history of CRC may prompt clinicians to recommend screening and preventive behavior changes and motivate patients to adopt such strategies.

  20. A Review of Tier 2 Interventions Conducted within Multitiered Models of Behavioral Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner

    2014-01-01

    To support students' academic, behavioral, and social needs, many schools have adopted multitiered models of prevention. Because Tier 3 interventions are costly in terms of time and resources, schools must find efficient and effective Tier 2 interventions prior to providing such intense supports. In this article, we review the literature base on…

  1. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  2. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  3. Impact of a Universal Prevention Strategy on Reading and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruth, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study addresses the problem of reading and behavioral performance in elementary school by examining the impact of a universal preventive intervention on both the proximal and distal outcomes of students in the fourth grade at a mid-western elementary school. These proximal outcomes (disruptions per student per hour) were measured…

  4. Perceptions of Vulnerability: Impact on AIDS-Preventive Behavior among College Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickler, Susan E.

    Although college students are generally knowledgeable about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and how it is transmitted, many heterosexual college students fail to engage in AIDS-preventive behavior. This study examined heterosexual college students' perceptions of their own and other peoples' vulnerability to AIDS and explored the…

  5. A Review of Tier 2 Interventions Conducted within Multitiered Models of Behavioral Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner

    2014-01-01

    To support students' academic, behavioral, and social needs, many schools have adopted multitiered models of prevention. Because Tier 3 interventions are costly in terms of time and resources, schools must find efficient and effective Tier 2 interventions prior to providing such intense supports. In this article, we review the literature base on…

  6. Effects of a Multifocused Prevention Program on Preschool Children's Competencies and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefan, Catrinel A.; Miclea, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a multifocused (child-, teacher- and parent-focused) prevention program for Romanian preschoolers, targeting social--emotional competence development, as well as reduction of behavior problems. Fourteen classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. Subsequent…

  7. The Effect of Preventive Classroom Management Training Program on Approval and Disapproval Behaviors of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guner, Nevin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of Preventive Classroom Management Training Program (PCMTP) on approval and disapproval behaviors of teachers working in inclusive classrooms was investigated. The study group consisted of 45 teachers who were working in public schools and had students with special needs in their classrooms. Data were gathered using…

  8. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  9. The Effect of Genetic Risk Information and Health Risk Assessment on Compliance with Preventive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberg, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)

  10. Reactions of First-Year Men to a Rape Prevention Program: Attitude and Predicted Behavior Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Tatum, Jerry L.; Donahue, Greg A.

    2006-01-01

    First-year men (261) saw a rape prevention program and were asked to give their reactions to what they saw by answering four open-ended questions, requesting information about whether participants experience either attitude or behavior change resulting from the program, particularly in relation to situations involving alcohol and sexually intimate…

  11. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  12. Practices for Enhancing Children's Social-Emotional Development and Preventing Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corso, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Many challenging behaviors can be prevented by designing environments that promote children's engagement and teaching children new social skills (Lawry, Danko, & Strain, 1999; Neilsen, Olive, Donovan, & McEvoy, 1999; Strain & Hemmeter, 1999). Fox, Dunlap, Hemmeter, Joseph, and Strain (2003) have described a framework for promoting children's…

  13. Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training for Teaching Abduction-Prevention Skills to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brigitte M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Egemo-Helm, Kristin; Jostad, Candice M.; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of individual behavioral skills training in conjunction with in situ training in teaching 13 preschool children abduction prevention skills. Children's performance was measured during baseline, training, and at 2-week, 1-month, and 3-month follow-ups using in situ assessments in which abduction prevention…

  14. Initial Behavior Outcomes for the PeaceBuilders Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Daniel J.; And Others

    2003-01-01

    Assigned elementary schools to either immediate postbaseline intervention (PBI) with PeaceBuilders, a school-based violence prevention program, or to intervention 1 year later (PBD). Found significant gains in social competence for kindergarten through second-graders in Year 1, in peace-building behavior in Grades K to 5, and reduced aggression in…

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention for Children of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Keller, Gary; Champion, Jennifer E.; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen L.; McKee, Laura; Fear, Jessica M.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Hardcastle, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lori; Potts, Jennifer; Garai, Emily; Coffelt, Nicole; Roland, Erin; Sterba, Sonya K.; Cole, David A.

    2009-01-01

    A family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for parents with a history of depression and their 9-15-year-old children was compared with a self-study written information condition in a randomized clinical trial (n = 111 families). Outcomes were assessed at post-intervention (2 months), after completion of 4 monthly booster sessions (6…

  16. Co-evolution: A behavioral 'spam filter' to prevent nest parasitism.

    PubMed

    Wheatcroft, David J

    2009-02-24

    A series of recent studies on nest parasitism shows that, in addition to rejection of foreign eggs, host birds also use mobbing behavior to prevent cuckoos from laying eggs in the first place, which has likely led to two interrelated co-evolutionary arms races between cuckoos and their hosts.

  17. The Effect of Genetic Risk Information and Health Risk Assessment on Compliance with Preventive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberg, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)

  18. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP): treatment model, feasibility, and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-10-01

    To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and theoretically grounded in principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, and targeted therapies for suicidal youths with depression. The CBT-SP consists of acute and continuation phases, each lasting about 12 sessions, and includes a chain analysis of the suicidal event, safety plan development, skill building, psychoeducation, family intervention, and relapse prevention. The CBT-SP was administered to 110 recent suicide attempters with depression aged 13 to 19 years (mean 15.8 years, SD 1.6) across five academic sites. Twelve or more sessions were completed by 72.4% of the sample. A specific intervention for adolescents at high risk for repeated suicide attempts has been developed and manual based, and further testing of its efficacy seems feasible.

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention for Children of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Keller, Gary; Champion, Jennifer E.; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen L.; McKee, Laura; Fear, Jessica M.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Hardcastle, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lori; Potts, Jennifer; Garai, Emily; Coffelt, Nicole; Roland, Erin; Sterba, Sonya K.; Cole, David A.

    2009-01-01

    A family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for parents with a history of depression and their 9-15-year-old children was compared with a self-study written information condition in a randomized clinical trial (n = 111 families). Outcomes were assessed at post-intervention (2 months), after completion of 4 monthly booster sessions (6…

  20. Primary Prevention for Mental Health: Results of an Exploratory Cognitive-Behavioral College Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiraldi, Glenn R.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2001-01-01

    Tests the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral college course based on the stress inoculation training model. Targeting healthy adults, the course taught skills to manage anger, prevent anxiety and depression, and build self-esteem. Analysis showed significant reductions in anxiety and depression, and significant improvements in self-esteem.…

  1. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  2. Behavior Differences Seven Months Later: Effects of a Rape Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Newberry, Johnathan T.; Tatum, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    First-year men at a midsized public university either saw a rape prevention program or were in a control group and were asked to complete attitude and behavior surveys at the beginning and end of an academic year. Participants were also asked whether they joined fraternities during that year. With 90% of first-year men participating throughout the…

  3. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the elements of a manualized cognitive behavior psychotherapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction, relapse prevention approach and theoretically grounded in principles of cognitive behavior therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy and targeted therapies for suicidal, depressed youth. CBT-SP consists of acute and continuation phases, each lasting about 12 sessions, and includes a chain analysis of the suicidal event, safety plan development, skill building, psychoeducation, family intervention, and relapse prevention. Results CBT-SP was administered to 110 depressed, recent suicide attempters aged 13–19 years (mean 15.8±1.6) across five academic sites. Twelve or more sessions were completed by 72.4% of the sample. Conclusions A specific intervention for adolescents at high risk for repeated suicide attempts has been developed and manualized, and further testing of its efficacy appears feasible. PMID:19730273

  4. Programs and Policies that Promote Positive Youth Development and Prevent Risky Behaviors: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naudeau, Sophie; Cunningham, Wendy; Lundberg, Mattias K. A.; McGinnis, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This chapter provides an international perspective on the promotion of positive development and the prevention of risky behavior among youth. We discuss some of the specific challenges that youth face in low- and middle-income countries and identify six key evidence-based policies and programs that aim to promote positive youth development and…

  5. The Impact of Violence Prevention Programs on School Based Violent Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed-Reynolds, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…

  6. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  7. Effects of a Multifocused Prevention Program on Preschool Children's Competencies and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefan, Catrinel A.; Miclea, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a multifocused (child-, teacher- and parent-focused) prevention program for Romanian preschoolers, targeting social--emotional competence development, as well as reduction of behavior problems. Fourteen classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. Subsequent…

  8. Reactions of First-Year Men to a Rape Prevention Program: Attitude and Predicted Behavior Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Tatum, Jerry L.; Donahue, Greg A.

    2006-01-01

    First-year men (261) saw a rape prevention program and were asked to give their reactions to what they saw by answering four open-ended questions, requesting information about whether participants experience either attitude or behavior change resulting from the program, particularly in relation to situations involving alcohol and sexually intimate…

  9. The Impact of Violence Prevention Programs on School Based Violent Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed-Reynolds, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…

  10. Behavior problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities: an initial step towards prevention.

    PubMed

    Embregts, Petri J C M; du Bois, Marleen Grimbel; Graef, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    To develop prevention activities, an analysis is conducted of child and parent characteristics that occur significantly more often among children with a mild intellectual disability and behavior problems than among children with a mild intellectual disability and no behavior problems and their families. The sample consisted of 45 children attending schools for special education. Data were collected from the children, their parents, and their teachers. The instruments used are the Dutch version of the Parenting Stress Index, the Nijmegen Child-Rearing Situation Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for parents, teachers and children. On the basis of the results of parents on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the research sample was divided into one group of children with behavior problems and one group without behavior problems. Parents of the children with behavior problems were found to feel less competent, more socially isolated, less satisfied about their relationship with their partner, and indicate more negative life occurrences than the parents of the children without behavior problems. Characteristics in the area of adaptability, mood, distractibility/hyperactivity, demandingness, reinforcement of parents, and acceptability were found to contribute to the total stress in the child-parent relationship for those children with behavior problems and their parents. On the basis of these results prevention activities will be developed and tested on their effectiveness.

  11. Narrative persuasion, causality, complex integration, and support for obesity policy.

    PubMed

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Shapiro, Michael A; Kim, Hye Kyung; Bartolo, Danielle; Porticella, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Narrative messages have the potential to convey causal attribution information about complex social issues. This study examined attributions about obesity, an issue characterized by interrelated biological, behavioral, and environmental causes. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of three narratives emphasizing societal causes and solutions for obesity or an unrelated story that served as the control condition. The three narratives varied in the extent to which the character in the story acknowledged personal responsibility (high, moderate, and none) for controlling her weight. Stories that featured no acknowledgment and moderate acknowledgment of personal responsibility, while emphasizing environmental causes and solutions, were successful at increasing societal cause attributions about obesity and, among conservatives, increasing support for obesity-related policies relative to the control group. The extent to which respondents were able to make connections between individual and environmental causes of obesity (complex integration) mediated the relationship between the moderate acknowledgment condition and societal cause attributions. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this work for narrative persuasion theory and health communication campaigns.

  12. Pathways to prevention: improving nonresident African American fathers' parenting skills and behaviors to reduce sons' aggression.

    PubMed

    Howard Caldwell, Cleopatra; Antonakos, Cathy L; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E Hill; Njai, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8- to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group families. Structural equation model results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving fathers' parenting skills satisfaction, which was positively associated with sons' satisfaction with paternal engagement. Sons' paternal engagement satisfaction was positively associated with their intentions to avoid violence. Although aggressive behaviors were lower for comparison group sons, the intervention effectively reduced sons' aggressive behaviors indirectly by enhancing fathers' parenting behaviors. Support for family-centered youth violence prevention efforts is discussed.

  13. Predicting intentions versus predicting behaviors: domestic violence prevention from a theory of reasoned action perspective.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Robin L; Southwell, Brian; Hornik, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A central assumption of many models of human behavior is that intention to perform a behavior is highly predictive of actual behavior. This article presents evidence that belies this notion. Based on a survey of 1,250 Philadelphia adults, a clear and consistent pattern emerged suggesting that beliefs related to domestic violence correlate with intentions to act with respect to domestic violence but rarely correlate with reported actions (e.g., talking to the abused woman). Numerous methodological and substantive explanations for this finding are offered with emphasis placed on the complexity of the context in which an action to prevent a domestic violence incident occurs. We conclude by arguing that despite the small, insignificant relationships between beliefs and behaviors found, worthwhile aggregate effects on behavior might still exist, thus reaffirming the role of communication campaign efforts.

  14. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment. PMID:22690178

  15. Early behavioral intervention, brain plasticity, and the prevention of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the fields of cognitive and affective developmental neuroscience, developmental psychopathology, neurobiology, genetics, and applied behavior analysis have contributed to a more optimistic outcome for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These advances have led to new methods for early detection and more effective treatments. For the first time, prevention of ASD is plausible. Prevention will entail detecting infants at risk before the full syndrome is present and implementing treatments designed to alter the course of early behavioral and brain development. This article describes a developmental model of risk, risk processes, symptom emergence, and adaptation in ASD that offers a framework for understanding early brain plasticity in ASD and its role in prevention of the disorder.

  16. Social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in early life: a review.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan

    2012-03-01

    The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment.

  17. Translating Models of Antisocial Behavioral Development Into Efficacious Intervention Policy to Prevent Adolescent Violence

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Sandra N.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent chronic antisocial behavior is costly but concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals. The search for effective preventive interventions draws from empirical findings of three kinds of gene-by-environment interactions: (1) parenting behaviors mute the impact of genes; (2) genes alter the impact of traumatic environmental experiences such as physical abuse and peer social rejection; and (3) individuals and environments influence each other in a dynamic developmental cascade. Thus, environmental interventions that focus on high-risk youth may prove effective. The Fast Track intervention and randomized controlled trial are described. The intervention is a 10-year series of efforts to produce proximal change in parenting, peer relations, social cognition, and academic performance in order to lead to distal prevention of adolescent conduct disorder. Findings indicate that conduct disorder cases can be prevented, but only in the highest risk group of children. Implications for policy are discussed. PMID:20175096

  18. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Exposure and Response Prevention on Repetitive Behaviors Associated with Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetterneck, Chad T.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure and response prevention (ERP) was evaluated as treatment for three repetitive behaviors in an 11-year-old boy using a multiple baseline across behaviors design. The repetitive behaviors and associated self-reported distress were eliminated. At 3-month follow-up, the frequency for two of the three behaviors returned to baseline levels.…

  19. Topics and Sources of Memorable Breast Cancer Messages and Their Impact on Prevention and Detection Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Often, people are able to recall a message on a particular topic for a long period of time. These memorable messages have the ability to influence behavior when they are recalled from memory long after initial exposure. Knowing the topics and sources of the messages that are remembered about breast cancer can improve the efficacy of future breast cancer outreach. To this end, 359 women completed an online survey about memorable breast cancer messages. Most women (60%) recalled a memorable message, described it, identified its source, and noted whether it had resulted in prevention or detection behaviors. Four categories of message topics emerged: early detection (37.3%), awareness (30.9%), treatment (25.8%), and prevention (6%)). Furthermore, five categories of sources of these memorable messages were found: (media (35.5%), friends (22.2%), family (21.6%), medical professionals (15.2%), and others (5.5%)). The media were a major source of all four topics of messages although family members, friends, and the medical community were major sources for particular message topics, as well. Memorable messages originating from medical professionals were substantially more likely to motivate detection behaviors than prevention behaviors. This research demonstrates that message topic and source both play roles in determining message recall as well as in determining how memorable messages impacted behavior. PMID:19440911

  20. Social-information-processing patterns mediate the impact of preventive intervention on adolescent antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Kenneth A; Godwin, Jennifer

    2013-04-01

    In the study reported here, we tested the hypothesis that the Fast Track preventive intervention's positive impact on antisocial behavior in adolescence is mediated by its impact on social-cognitive processes during elementary school. Fast Track is the largest and longest federally funded preventive intervention trial for children showing aggressive behavior at an early age. Participants were 891 high-risk kindergarten children (69% male, 31% female; 49% ethnic minority, 51% ethnic majority) who were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group by school cluster. Multiyear intervention addressed social-cognitive processes through social-skill training groups, parent groups, classroom curricula, peer coaching, and tutoring. Assigning children to the intervention decreased their mean antisocial-behavior score after Grade 9 by 0.16 standardized units (p < .01). Structural equation models indicated that 27% of the intervention's impact on antisocial behavior was mediated by its impact on three social-cognitive processes: reducing hostile-attribution biases, increasing competent response generation to social problems, and devaluing aggression. These findings support a model of antisocial behavioral development mediated by social-cognitive processes, and they guide prevention planners to focus on these processes.

  1. Content and effects of news stories about uncertain cancer causes and preventive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lee, Theodore; Robbins, Rebecca; Kim, Hye Kyung; Kresovich, Alex; Kirshenblat, Danielle; Standridge, Kimberly; Clarke, Christopher E; Jensen, Jakob; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from two studies that describe news portrayals of cancer causes and prevention in local TV and test the effects of typical aspects of this coverage on cancer-related fatalism and overload. Study 1 analyzed the content of stories focused on cancer causes and prevention from an October 2002 national sample of local TV and newspaper cancer coverage (n = 122 television stations; n = 60 newspapers). Informed by results from the content analysis, Study 2 describes results from a randomized experiment testing effects of the volume and content of news stories about cancer causes and prevention (n = 601). Study 1 indicates that local TV news stories describe cancer causes and prevention as comparatively more certain than newspapers but include less information about how to reduce cancer risk. Study 2 reveals that the combination of stories conveying an emerging cancer cause and prevention behavior as moderately certain leads to an increased sense of overload, while a short summary of well-established preventive behaviors mitigates these potentially harmful beliefs. We conclude with a series of recommendations for health communication and health journalism practice.

  2. Promotion of Influenza Prevention Beliefs and Behaviors through Primary School Science Education.

    PubMed

    Koep, T H; Jenkins, S; M Hammerlund, M E; Clemens, C; Fracica, E; Ekker, S C; Enders, F T; Huskins, W C; Pierret, C

    2016-06-01

    School-based campaigns to improve student health have demonstrated short-term success across various health topics. However, evidence of the effectiveness of programs in promoting healthy beliefs and behaviors is limited. We hypothesized that educational curricula teaching the science behind health promotion would increase student knowledge, beliefs and adherence to healthy behaviors, in this case related to influenza. Integrated Science Education Outreach is a successful education intervention in Rochester, Minnesota public schools that has demonstrated improvements in student learning. Within this program, we designed novel curricula and assessments to determine if gains in knowledge extended to influenza prevention. Further, we coupled InSciEd Out programming with a clinical intervention, Influenza Prevention Prescription Education (IPPE), to compare students' attitudes, intentions and healthy behaviors utilizing surveys and hand hygiene monitoring equipment. 95 students participated in (IPPE) in the intervention school. Talking drawings captured improvement in influenza prevention understanding related to hand washing [pre n=17(43%); post n=30(77%)] and vaccination [pre n=2(5%); post n=15(38%)]. Findings from 1024 surveys from 566 students revealed strong baseline understanding and attitudes related to hand washing and cough etiquette (74% or greater positive responses). Automated hand hygiene monitoring in school bathrooms and classrooms estimated compliance for both soap (overall median 63%, IQR 38% to 100%) and hand sanitizer use (0.04 to 0.24 uses per student per day) but did not show significant pre/ post IPPE differences. Student understanding of principles of influenza prevention was reasonably high. Even with this baseline, InSciEd Out and IPPE improved students' unprompted knowledge of behaviors to prevent influenza, as reflected by talking drawings. This novel metric may be more sensitive in capturing knowledge among students than traditional

  3. Promotion of Influenza Prevention Beliefs and Behaviors through Primary School Science Education

    PubMed Central

    Koep, TH; Jenkins, S; M Hammerlund, ME; Clemens, C; Fracica, E; Ekker, SC; Enders, FT; Huskins, WC; Pierret, C

    2016-01-01

    Background School-based campaigns to improve student health have demonstrated short-term success across various health topics. However, evidence of the effectiveness of programs in promoting healthy beliefs and behaviors is limited. We hypothesized that educational curricula teaching the science behind health promotion would increase student knowledge, beliefs and adherence to healthy behaviors, in this case related to influenza. Methods Integrated Science Education Outreach is a successful education intervention in Rochester, Minnesota public schools that has demonstrated improvements in student learning. Within this program, we designed novel curricula and assessments to determine if gains in knowledge extended to influenza prevention. Further, we coupled InSciEd Out programming with a clinical intervention, Influenza Prevention Prescription Education (IPPE), to compare students' attitudes, intentions and healthy behaviors utilizing surveys and hand hygiene monitoring equipment. Results 95 students participated in (IPPE) in the intervention school. Talking drawings captured improvement in influenza prevention understanding related to hand washing [pre n=17(43%); post n=30(77%)] and vaccination [pre n=2(5%); post n=15(38%)]. Findings from 1024 surveys from 566 students revealed strong baseline understanding and attitudes related to hand washing and cough etiquette (74% or greater positive responses). Automated hand hygiene monitoring in school bathrooms and classrooms estimated compliance for both soap (overall median 63%, IQR 38% to 100%) and hand sanitizer use (0.04 to 0.24 uses per student per day) but did not show significant pre/ post IPPE differences. Conclusions Student understanding of principles of influenza prevention was reasonably high. Even with this baseline, InSciEd Out and IPPE improved students’ unprompted knowledge of behaviors to prevent influenza, as reflected by talking drawings. This novel metric may be more sensitive in capturing knowledge

  4. HIV prevention altruism and sexual risk behavior in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Brennan L; Rosser, B R Simon; Miner, Michael H; Jacoby, Scott M

    2008-09-01

    An understanding of men's motivations to avoid risk behavior is needed to create efficacious HIV prevention programs for HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). This study investigates the relationship between sexual risk behavior and HIV prevention altruism, which is defined as the values, motivations, and practices of caretaking towards one's sexual partners to prevent the transmission of HIV. In a sample of 637 HIV-positive MSM, HIV prevention altruism significantly protects against serodiscordant unprotected anal intercourse (SDUAI) in crude analysis, but not after adjustment for drug use and compulsive sexual behavior. HIV prevention altruism is also related to not engaging in anal intercourse, but is not related to serodisclosure to secondary partners. Lack of altruism appears related to sexual risk behavior in HIV-positive MSM, although other psychological and contextual factors play significant roles. The promotion of HIV prevention altruism may provide a formidable new direction for HIV prevention programs.

  5. Parents as health promoters: a theory of planned behavior perspective on the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kyle R; Silk, Kami S; Eneli, Ihuoma U

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States. A number of communication campaigns and interventions have been conducted to combat the problem, with parents being recognized as an important target audience. A critical aspect of involving parents in such campaigns is formative research on parents' perceptions of their role in preventing childhood obesity. To facilitate this process, a study was conducted in which parents (N = 201) responded to Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) survey items as they relate to providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods for their children. Results indicated support for TPB predictions. Additionally, the degree to which parents viewed providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods as effective in preventing obesity (response efficacy) was predictive of parent tracking of children's unhealthy eating behavior. Finally, parent TV viewing behavior was related to perceived response efficacy of limiting children's TV viewing hours. Practical implications for communication practitioners are discussed.

  6. Spirituality within the Family and the Prevention of Health Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A; Byrnes, Hilary F; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K; Rosati, Michael J; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A; Chookhare, Warunee

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the influences of a family's spiritual beliefs and practices on substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adolescents 13 to 14 years old in Bangkok, Thailand. Independent predictor variables are the parents' and teens' spiritual beliefs and practices in Buddhism and parental monitoring behaviors. The study uses data from the 2007 Baseline Survey of the Thai Family Matters Project, which adapted a U.S. based family prevention program for Thai culture. A representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens from the Bangkok metropolitan area was recruited to participate in the study. Structural equation models indicate that positive direct and indirect associations of the spirituality of parents and teens within a family and the prevention of adolescent risk behaviors are significant and consistent. PMID:20926170

  7. Measuring Bystander Behavior in the Context of Sexual Violence Prevention: Lessons Learned and New Directions.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sarah; Palmer, Jane E; Banyard, Victoria; Murphy, Megan; Gidycz, Christine A

    2015-07-05

    Bystander intervention is receiving increased attention as a potential sexual violence prevention strategy, especially to address campus sexual assault. Rather than focusing on potential perpetrators or victims, the bystander approach engages all members of a community to take action. A growing body of evaluative work demonstrates that bystander intervention education programs yield increased positive attitudes and behaviors related to sexual violence and greater willingness to intervene in pro-social ways. Future program outcome studies, however, would benefit from more refined measures of bystander action as it is a key variable that prevention education programs attempt to influence. The purpose of the current article is to present key issues, identified by four different research teams, on the measurement of bystander behavior related to sexual violence in the context of college campuses. Comparisons among the methods are made to suggest both lessons learned and new directions for bystander behavior measurement using self-report surveys in program evaluation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. [Effects of dementia knowledge, self-efficacy and depression on dementia preventive behavior in elderly couples: dyadic data analysis].

    PubMed

    Ko, Suk Jeong; Shin, Sung Hee

    2013-04-01

    This study was done to examine actor and partner effect of dementia knowledge, self-efficacy and depression on dementia preventive behavior in elderly couples. Participants were 115 couples aged 60 years or over who met eligibility criteria. All measures were self-administered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0 program. Dementia knowledge in elderly couples showed actor and partner effect on dementia preventive behavior. Self-efficacy in the wife did not have direct effects on dementia preventive behavior, but showed indirect effects through dementia knowledge. Self-efficacy in the husband showed direct effects on dementia preventive behavior and indirect effects through dementia knowledge. Wife's depression had direct actor effect on dementia preventive behavior and indirect effect through self-efficacy and dementia knowledge. Husband's depression did not have direct actor effect on dementia preventive behavior, but indirect effect through self-efficacy and dementia knowledge. Effect size of wives' dementia knowledge, self-efficacy and depression on dementia preventive behavior was larger than that of husbands'. Dementia preventive behavior, dementia knowledge and depression had a mutual effect. Results indicate that to promote dementia preventive activity in elderly couples, programs should be conducted for both of the couple, but focused differently for wife and husband.

  9. Maximizing the potential of early childhood education to prevent externalizing behavior problems: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Holly S; Kholoptseva, Jenya; Oh, Soojin S; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine A; Shonkoff, Jack P

    2015-06-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) programs offer a promising mechanism for preventing early externalizing behavior problems and later antisocial behavior; yet, questions remain about how to best maximize ECE's potential. Using a meta-analytic database of 31 studies, we examined the overall effect of ECE on externalizing behavior problems and the differential effects of 3 levels of practice, each with increasing specificity and intensity aimed at children's social and emotional development. In short, we found that each successive level of programs did a better job than the prior level at reducing externalizing behavior problems. Level 1 programs, or those without a clear focus on social and emotional development, had no significant effects on externalizing behavior problems relative to control groups (ES=.13 SD, p<.10). On the other hand, level 2 programs, or those with a clear but broad focus on social and emotional development, were significantly associated with modest decreases in externalizing behavior problems relative to control groups (ES=-.10 SD, p<.05). Hence, level 2 programs were significantly better at reducing externalizing behavior problems than level 1 programs (ES=-.23 SD, p<.01). Level 3 programs, or those that more intensively targeted children's social and emotional development, were associated with additional significant reductions in externalizing behavior problems relative to level 2 programs (ES=-.26 SD, p<.05). The most promising effects came from level 3 child social skills training programs, which reduced externalizing behavior problems half of a standard deviation more than level 2 programs (ES=-.50 SD, p<.05).

  10. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E

    2015-04-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed.

  11. Behavior change to prevent or delay Type 2 diabetes: Psychology in action.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Elizabeth M

    2016-10-01

    Self-management is critical for the prevention and control of chronic health conditions. Research shows that dietary and physical activity behaviors related to obesity are inextricably linked to the development, course, and outcomes of Type 2 diabetes and its comorbidities. Therefore, a compelling case has been made for behavioral lifestyle intervention as the first-line approach. Academic psychologists and other behavioral scientists have contributed to all stages of obesity and diabetes prevention research and practice. They have made seminal contributions to the evidence-based science of health behavior change with the National Institutes of Health funded Diabetes Prevention Program randomized clinical trial and subsequent translation and dissemination efforts as exemplars. Beginning with social-cognitive learning theory and behavior modification for obesity, research psychologists have elucidated the critical elements associated with treatment efficacy and have demonstrated the benefits of identifying individuals at elevated risk and providing early intervention. Most often, the psychologist's role has been to design and evaluate programs based on behavioral principles, or supervise, train, and facilitate adherence to interventions, rather than function as the primary provider. Lifestyle interventions have made a strong public health impact, but pressing challenges remain. Issues include difficulties with long-term weight loss maintenance, heterogeneity of treatment response, pragmatic translation and dissemination concerns such as optimal training and delivery formats, scalability of lifestyle intervention programs, reimbursement, and a need for environmental and policy approaches that promote healthy lifestyle norms and behaviors for all communities. Health psychology should be at the forefront in addressing all of these concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Lithium prevents long-term neural and behavioral pathology induced by early alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Sadrian, B; Subbanna, S; Wilson, D A; Basavarajappa, B S; Saito, M

    2012-03-29

    Fetal alcohol exposure can cause developmental defects in offspring known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD symptoms range from obvious facial deformities to changes in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology that disrupt normal brain function and behavior. Ethanol exposure at postnatal day 7 in C57BL/6 mice induces neuronal cell death and long-lasting neurobehavioral dysfunction. Previous work has demonstrated that early ethanol exposure impairs spatial memory task performance into adulthood and perturbs local and interregional brain circuit integrity in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway. Here we pursue these findings to examine whether lithium prevents anatomical, neurophysiological, and behavioral pathologies that result from early ethanol exposure. Lithium has neuroprotective properties that have been shown to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. Here we show that mice co-treated with lithium on the same day as ethanol exposure exhibit dramatically reduced acute neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and retain hippocampal-dependent spatial memory as adults. Lithium co-treatment also blocked ethanol-induced disruption in synaptic plasticity in slice recordings of hippocampal CA1 in the adult mouse brain. Moreover, long-lasting dysfunctions caused by ethanol in olfacto-hippocampal networks, including sensory-evoked oscillations and resting state coherence, were prevented in mice co-treated with lithium. Together, these results provide behavioral and physiological evidence that lithium is capable of preventing or reducing immediate and long-term deleterious consequences of early ethanol exposure on brain function. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-efficacy for AIDS preventive behaviors among tenth grade students.

    PubMed

    Kasen, S; Vaughan, R D; Walter, H J

    1992-01-01

    To guide acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention program planning, 181 tenth grade students residing in or near an AIDS epicenter completed a survey measuring past year involvement in sexual intercourse and condom use, beliefs about self-efficacy for AIDS preventive behaviors, and beliefs about susceptibility to and severity of AIDS, and outcome efficacy of AIDS preventive actions. A degree of uncertainty existed for all areas of self-efficacy surveyed: refusing sexual intercourse under a variety of circumstances, questioning sex partners about past risky behaviors, and correct and consistent condom use. Students were most uncertain of their ability to refuse sex with a desirable partner, under pressure, or after drinking alcohol or using marijuana; to purchase condoms, or use them consistently after drinking alcohol or using marijuana; and to question partners about past homosexual history. Those students with lower self-efficacy for refusing sex were twice as likely to have had sexual intercourse. Similarly, those students with lower self-efficacy for correct, consistent condom use were five times less likely to have used condoms consistently. These associations remained even after adjusting for the influence of other AIDS-related beliefs. Implications of these findings focus on exploiting the link between self-efficacy and behavior by building a prevention program that emphasizes skills-building rather than the traditional knowledge-only approach.

  14. Parent-Centered Prevention of Risky Behaviors Among Hispanic Youths in Florida.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Yannine; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Huang, Shi; Tapia, Maria I; Velázquez, Maria-Rosa; Martinez, Marcos J; Pantin, Hilda; Ocasio, Manuel A; Vidot, Denise C; Molleda, Lourdes; Villamar, Juan; Stepanenko, Bryan A; Brown, C Hendricks; Prado, Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an evidence-based, parent-centered intervention, Familias Unidas, delivered by nonresearch personnel, in preventing substance use (alcohol, illicit drugs) and sex without a condom among Hispanic adolescents. A randomized controlled trial (n = 746) evaluated the effectiveness of Familias Unidas among Hispanic eighth graders (age range = 12-16 years), relative to prevention as usual, within a public school system. School personnel, including social workers and mental health counselors, were trained to deliver the evidence-based intervention. Participant recruitment, intervention delivery, and follow-up ran from September 2010 through June 2014 in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Familias Unidas was effective in preventing drug use from increasing and prevented greater increases in sex without a condom 30 months after baseline, relative to prevention as usual. Familias Unidas also had a positive impact on family functioning and parental monitoring of peers at 6 months after baseline. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of a parent-centered preventive intervention program in preventing risky behaviors among Hispanic youths. Findings highlight the feasibility of training nonresearch personnel on effectively delivering a manualized intervention in a real-world setting.

  15. Rational versus unreasonable persuasion in doctor-patient communication: a normative account.

    PubMed

    Rubinelli, Sara

    2013-09-01

    Persuasion plays a critical role in doctor-patient communication. The relevant literature tends to equate persuasion to manipulation as a suboptimal form of interaction. The objective of this paper is to distinguish among different types of persuasion processes and to highlight when their use can be beneficial or risky from the perspective of the patient's autonomy. This paper presents a conceptual analysis of persuasion based on the analytical and normative frameworks of argumentation theory. Persuasion is a generic term that refers to at least four main forms of persuasion: rational persuasion, unintentional unreasonable persuasion, intentional (without deception) unreasonable persuasion and intentional (with deception) unreasonable persuasion (i.e., manipulation). Rational persuasion can be a process of value for the medical encounter. The other forms of persuasion can negatively impact patients' decision making. They are suboptimal for different reasons that are partly due to the quality of communication, and partly due to ethics of the medical conduct. This paper offers a basis for developing training opportunities that foster deeper understanding of different forms and uses of persuasion. Also, it can inspire the development of educational material for patients targeted to the enhancement of their critical health literacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Is autism a preventable disorder of verbal behavior? A response to five commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a response to five commentaries on our article An Analysis of Autism as a Contingency-Shaped Disorder of Verbal Behavior (Drash & Tudor, 2004). One of the principal objectives of that article is to provide the behavior analysis community and the autism community with a conceptual basis for analyzing autism as a behavioral disorder rather than a neurological disorder. This analysis provides a logical and testable behavioral answer to the question of the etiology of autism, a question that has baffled scientists and researchers for more than half a century. Elements of the original article with which reviewers expressed concern include: need for more data, need for greater emphasis on neurological and epidemiological factors in autism, the relative importance of verbal behavior as a core deficit of autism, and disruptive and avoidant behavior as a primary variable in the etiology of autism. We provide a behavioral response to each of these concerns. We also show how our analysis will provide a conceptual foundation for behavior analysis to begin developing urgently needed programs for prevention and earlier intervention in autism. PMID:22477289

  17. Child social skills training in developmental crime prevention: effects on antisocial behavior and social competence.

    PubMed

    Beelmann, Andreas; Lösel, Friedrich

    2006-08-01

    Social skills training for children is becoming increasingly popular as a measure for developmental crime prevention. Although previous reviews of such programs have shown positive effects, they have also revealed problems of research design, outcome measures, and long-term follow up. Accordingly, this article reports on a recent meta-analysis of randomized evaluations of the effect of social skills training in preventing antisocial behavior and promoting social competence. Of 841 retrievable references, 84 research reports with a total of 136 treatment-control comparisons fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Results showed a small but significant overall positive effect of d = .39 at post-intervention and d = .28 at follow-up (3 months and later). Effect sizes were somewhat greater for outcome measures of social competence than for measures of antisocial behavior, particularly when delinquency was assessed. Cognitive-behavioral programs revealed the best results in terms of generalization over time and on outcome criteria. In addition, prevention measures indicated for children and adolescents who already manifested some behavioral problems had higher effect sizes than universal approaches. Because most studies dealt with small sample sizes, non-official outcome data, and measurements after less than one year, the results should be interpreted with caution. Further high-quality studies with long-term empirical outcome criteria are needed, particularly outside the United States.

  18. Community Trial on Heat Related-Illness Prevention Behaviors and Knowledge for the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Noriko; Nakao, Rieko; Ueda, Kayo; Ono, Masaji; Kondo, Masahide; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore whether broadcasting heat health warnings (HHWs), to every household and whether the additional home delivery of bottled water labeled with messages will be effective in improving the behaviors and knowledge of elderly people to prevent heat-related illness. A community trial on heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors and knowledge for people aged between 65 and 84 years was conducted in Nagasaki, Japan. Five hundred eight subjects were selected randomly from three groups: heat health warning (HHW), HHW and water delivery (HHW+W), and control groups. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires were conducted in June and September 2012, respectively. Of the 1524 selected subjects, the 1072 that completed both questionnaires were analyzed. The HHW+W group showed improvements in nighttime AC use (p = 0.047), water intake (p = 0.003), cooling body (p = 0.002) and reduced activities in heat (p = 0.047) compared with the control, while the HHW group improved hat or parasol use (p = 0.008). An additional effect of household water delivery was observed in water intake (p = 0.067) and cooling body (p = 0.095) behaviors. HHW and household bottled water delivery improved heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors. The results indicate that home water delivery in addition to a HHW may be needed to raise awareness of the elderly. PMID:25789456

  19. Principles of Sustainable Prevention: Designing Scale-Up of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support to Promote Durable Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Filter, Kevin J.; Bennett, Joanna L.; Ryan, Charlotte; Sugai, George

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), an approach to building protective school cultures and preventing the development of problem behavior through instruction, environmental redesign, and attention to systems-level variables. We define the critical features of SWPBS within a prevention science…

  20. Principles of Sustainable Prevention: Designing Scale-Up of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support to Promote Durable Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Filter, Kevin J.; Bennett, Joanna L.; Ryan, Charlotte; Sugai, George

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), an approach to building protective school cultures and preventing the development of problem behavior through instruction, environmental redesign, and attention to systems-level variables. We define the critical features of SWPBS within a prevention science…

  1. Assessing the Possibility of Leadership Education as Psychosocial-Based Problem Behavior Prevention for Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputi, Theodore L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine theoretical connections between adolescent leadership education and problem behavior prevention. Both the problem behavior prevention literature and the leadership education literature were reviewed for studies pertaining to the development of psychosocial traits. In the leadership education literature this…

  2. Assessing the Possibility of Leadership Education as Psychosocial-Based Problem Behavior Prevention for Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputi, Theodore L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine theoretical connections between adolescent leadership education and problem behavior prevention. Both the problem behavior prevention literature and the leadership education literature were reviewed for studies pertaining to the development of psychosocial traits. In the leadership education literature this…

  3. Aggression-preventive supervisor behavior: Implications for workplace climate and employee outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu-Qin; Caughlin, David E

    2017-01-01

    Workplace aggression remains a serious and costly issue for organizations; thus, it is imperative to understand ways to reduce workplace aggression. To address this need, we used 2 independent samples with varied study designs, one at the employee level and the other at both employee and unit levels, to examine the role of aggression-preventive supervisor behavior (APSB) in aggression-prevention processes. In Sample 1 (237 nurses), we used structural equation modeling to examine the role of individual observations of APSB. First, we found that individual employees' observations of APSB positively related to their individual violence-prevention climate (VPC) perceptions. Further, VPC perceptions mediated the relations between APSB and employees' exposure to coworker aggression, job attitudes, and physical symptoms. In Sample 2 (337 nurses), we used multilevel regression analysis to examine the positive role of APSB in managing the aggression process. First, we established further support for many of the findings in Sample 1. In addition, we found that shared unit-level VPC mediated the relations of unit-level APSB with employees' exposure to aggression from coworkers, their physical symptoms, and turnover intention. Finally, evidence from Sample 2 supported favorable, direct relations of individual- or unit-level APSB with employees' aggression-prevention compliance and turnover intention. Implications for studying context-specific leadership behavior and designing aggression-prevention interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Self-preventive oral behavior in an Italian university student population.

    PubMed

    Rimondini, L; Zolfanelli, B; Bernardi, F; Bez, C

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the oral hygiene attitude and the professional preventive examination compliance in Italian university students. A sample of 202 students attending the University of Bologna was randomly selected and interviewed about their preventive oral health attitude and compliance. All students reported using toothpaste and most of them (92.1%) brushed their teeth at least 2x a day using artificial, medium stiffness bristles. The toothbrush was generally (81.6%) replaced within 3 months. Few subjects (14.9%) said they used dental floss daily or utilized other devices. A majority of subjects (59.9%) had a dental examination within the year previous to the interview. Cluster analysis was performed. 4 groups were identified with homogeneous oral hygiene behavior and compliance toward professional preventive examination. Only one cluster, representing 33.6% of the sample, showed consistent frequency and modalities of oral hygiene habits. The other clusters seemed to be defective with interproximal cleaning procedures and compliance toward professional preventive care. Since the sample was characterized by a young, urbanized, homogeneous group with a high educational level and frequently from an upper middle class social status, the analysis probably gives a supra-estimation of the positive behavior. It is rational to suppose that strategies to promote dental service utilization, patients' compliance and a professional style oriented toward prevention may be useful to improve the oral health condition in the young adult Italian population.

  5. Preventing disruptive behavior in elementary schoolchildren: impact of a universal classroom-based intervention.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Pol A C; Muthén, Bengt O; van der Sar, Ria M; Crijnen, Alfons A M

    2004-06-01

    A population-based, randomized universal classroom intervention trial for the prevention of disruptive behavior (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems, oppositional defiant problems, and conduct problems) is described. Impact on developmental trajectories in young elementary schoolchildren was studied. Three trajectories were identified in children with high, intermediate, or low levels of problems on all 3 disruptive behaviors at baseline. The intervention had a positive impact on the development of all disruptive behavior problems in children with intermediate levels of these problems at baseline. Effect sizes of mean difference at outcome were medium or small. In children with the highest levels of disruptive behavior at baseline, a positive impact of the intervention was found for conduct problems.

  6. Longitudinal study of relapse from AIDS-preventive behavior among homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Graham, R P; Kirscht, J P; Kessler, R C; Graham, S

    1998-10-01

    There is no viable alternative to the control of AIDS besides prevention; factors contributing to relapse from behaviors presumed to reduce risk of that disease were investigated. The authors studied 524 homosexual men who had refrained from or used condoms during receptive or insertive anal sex (RAS and IAS, respectively) for at least 12 months, contacting them at 6-month intervals thereafter to ascertain current practices. They determined, via interviews, personal traits, appraised stress of maintaining safer sex, mental health, life events, and efforts to cope with potential infection. Negative life events, personal control beliefs, problem-solving abilities, and coping via problem-focused (e.g., seeking a monogamous union) rather than emotion-focused (e.g., "when I need a cure, they will have one") behaviors were associated with RAS, but less so with IAS safer sex behaviors. These findings provide a basis for individual and community-level interventions to change behavior and reduce AIDS risk.

  7. Using Vicarious Experience and Verbal Persuasion to Enhance Self-Efficacy in Pre-Service Teachers: "Priming the Pump" for Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Kenneth M.; Gutkin, Terry B.; Wilson, Caryll Palmer; Oats, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates whether self-efficacy perceptions pertaining to working with difficult-to-teach children could be increased for preservice teachers using vicarious experience and verbal persuasion. Experimental group viewed a videotape demonstrating behavior management procedures while the control group viewed a placebo video. Experimental group…

  8. Using Vicarious Experience and Verbal Persuasion to Enhance Self-Efficacy in Pre-Service Teachers: "Priming the Pump" for Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Kenneth M.; Gutkin, Terry B.; Wilson, Caryll Palmer; Oats, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates whether self-efficacy perceptions pertaining to working with difficult-to-teach children could be increased for preservice teachers using vicarious experience and verbal persuasion. Experimental group viewed a videotape demonstrating behavior management procedures while the control group viewed a placebo video. Experimental group…

  9. “The Bitter Laughter”. When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion

    PubMed Central

    D’Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called “just a joke effect” (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a “bitter laughter.” The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between “surface” and “deep” parody (Poggi and D’Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician’s gender. PMID:27555825

  10. Persuasive performance feedback: the effect of framing on self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Choe, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Bongshin; Munson, Sean; Pratt, Wanda; Kientz, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Self-monitoring technologies have proliferated in recent years as they offer excellent potential for promoting healthy behaviors. Although these technologies have varied ways of providing real-time feedback on a user's current progress, we have a dearth of knowledge of the framing effects on the performance feedback these tools provide. With an aim to create influential, persuasive performance feedback that will nudge people toward healthy behaviors, we conducted an online experiment to investigate the effect of framing on an individual's self-efficacy. We identified 3 different types of framing that can be applicable in presenting performance feedback: (1) the valence of performance (remaining vs. achieved framing), (2) presentation type (text-only vs. text with visual), and (3) data unit (raw vs. percentage). Results show that the achieved framing could lead to an increased perception of individual's performance capabilities. This work provides empirical guidance for creating persuasive performance feedback, thereby helping people designing self-monitoring technologies to promote healthy behaviors.

  11. The development of effective message content for suicide intervention: theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Shemanski Aldrich, Rosalie; Cerel, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Each year there are over 31,000 suicides in the United States, constituting a significant problem in every respect. It is important for research efforts to focus on the communication elements involved in suicide prevention because the messages produced by individuals close to those who have suicidal thoughts have the potential to save a life. The current manuscript presents the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a foundation to increase understanding of what message content would be most effective to convince an individual to intervene when someone is suicidal. Suicide and suicidal behaviors are briefly reviewed, as is the TPB. Then it is argued how and why TPB can help construct persuasive messages. The authors suggest that TPB guide the content of persuasive messages. Messages created in combination of persuasive theories with TPB are likely to encourage an individual to intervene when someone is suicidal. A key element to suicide prevention is intervention by close others. Use of TPB provides an increased understanding of how to persuade close individuals to intervene when an individual is suicidal.

  12. The Past, Present, and Future of HIV Prevention: Integrating Behavioral, Biomedical, and Structural Intervention Strategies for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chovnick, Gary

    2010-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the field of HIV prevention research has been transformed repeatedly. Today, effective HIV prevention requires a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies. Risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV is reduced by consistent male and female-condom use, reductions in concurrent and/or sequential sexual and needle-sharing partners, male circumcision, and treatment with antiretroviral medications. At least 144 behavioral prevention programs have been found effective in reducing HIV transmission acts; however, scale up of these programs has not occurred outside of the United States. A series of recent failures of HIV-prevention efficacy trials for biomedical innovations such as HIV vaccines, treating herpes simplex 2 and other sexually transmitted infections, and diaphragm and microbicide barriers highlights the need for behavioral strategies to accompany biomedical strategies. This challenges prevention researchers to reconceptualize how cost-effective, useful, realistic, and sustainable prevention programs will be designed, delivered, tested, and diffused. The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines. PMID:19327028

  13. Grape powder treatment prevents anxiety-like behavior in a rat model of aging.

    PubMed

    Patki, Gaurav; Ali, Quaisar; Pokkunuri, Indira; Asghar, Mohammad; Salim, Samina

    2015-06-01

    Earlier, we have reported that grape powder (GP) treatment prevented pharmacologic and psychological stress-induced anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment in rats. Protective effects of GP were attributed to its antioxidant effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that age-associated behavioral and cognitive deficits such as anxiety and memory impairment will be ameliorated with GP treatment. Using a National Institute of Aging recommended rodent model of aging, we examined a potentially protective role of antioxidant-rich GP in age-associated anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups: young rats (3 months old) provided with tap water or with 15 g/L GP dissolved in tap water for 3 weeks, aged rats (21 months old) provided with tap water or with GP-treated tap water for 3 weeks (AG-GP). Anxiety-like behavior was significantly greater in aged rats compared with young rats, GP-treated young rats, or aged control rats (P < .05). Also, GP treatment prevented age-induced anxiety-like behavior in AG-GP rats (P < .05). Neither short-term nor long-term age-associated memory deficits improved with GP treatment in AG-GP rats. Furthermore, aged rats showed increased level of physiological stress (corticosterone) and increased oxidative stress in the plasma (8-isoprostane) as well as in selected brain areas (protein carbonylation). Grape powder treatment prevented age-induced increase in corticosterone levels and plasma 8-isoprostane levels in aged rats (P < .05), whereas protein carbonylation was recovered in the amygdala region only (P < .05). Grape powder by regulating oxidative stress ameliorates age-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats, whereas age-associated memory deficits seem unaffected with GP treatment.

  14. Text messaging as a tool for behavior change in disease prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2010-01-01

    Mobile phone text messaging is a potentially powerful tool for behavior change because it is widely available, inexpensive, and instant. This systematic review provides an overview of behavior change interventions for disease management and prevention delivered through text messaging. Evidence on behavior change and clinical outcomes was compiled from randomized or quasi-experimental controlled trials of text message interventions published in peer-reviewed journals by June 2009. Only those interventions using text message as the primary mode of communication were included. Study quality was assessed by using a standardized measure. Seventeen articles representing 12 studies (5 disease prevention and 7 disease management) were included. Intervention length ranged from 3 months to 12 months, none had long-term follow-up, and message frequency varied. Of 9 sufficiently powered studies, 8 found evidence to support text messaging as a tool for behavior change. Effects exist across age, minority status, and nationality. Nine countries are represented in this review, but it is problematic that only one is a developing country, given potential benefits of such a widely accessible, relatively inexpensive tool for health behavior change. Methodological issues and gaps in the literature are highlighted, and recommendations for future studies are provided.

  15. Text Messaging as a Tool for Behavior Change in Disease Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phone text messaging is a potentially powerful tool for behavior change because it is widely available, inexpensive, and instant. This systematic review provides an overview of behavior change interventions for disease management and prevention delivered through text messaging. Evidence on behavior change and clinical outcomes was compiled from randomized or quasi-experimental controlled trials of text message interventions published in peer-reviewed journals by June 2009. Only those interventions using text message as the primary mode of communication were included. Study quality was assessed by using a standardized measure. Seventeen articles representing 12 studies (5 disease prevention and 7 disease management) were included. Intervention length ranged from 3 months to 12 months, none had long-term follow-up, and message frequency varied. Of 9 sufficiently powered studies, 8 found evidence to support text messaging as a tool for behavior change. Effects exist across age, minority status, and nationality. Nine countries are represented in this review, but it is problematic that only one is a developing country, given potential benefits of such a widely accessible, relatively inexpensive tool for health behavior change. Methodological issues and gaps in the literature are highlighted, and recommendations for future studies are provided. PMID:20354039

  16. Preventive effect of estrogen on depression-like behavior induced by chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Qing-Jiao; An, Shu-Cheng

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the roles of estrogen and kalirin-7 in chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced depression and the pathophysiological mechanism of depression. Healthy female mice from Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, CRS group, and estrogen + CRS group. CRS was used to establish the animal model of depression. Forced swimming test and immunohistochemistry method were utilized to investigate the animal behavior and kalirin-7 expression in the hippocampus, respectively. Compared with the control group, the CRS mice displayed depression-like behaviors, including a significant reduction in body weight, a significant increase in immobility time in forced swimming test, and a dramatic decrease in kalirin-7 expression in the hippocampus. However, administration of estrogen attenuated the CRS-induced negative behaviors, and simultaneously increased kalirin-7 expression. Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) could prevent CRS-induced depression-like behaviors in female ICR mice. Besides, kalirin-7 also plays a role in preventing CRS-induced depression-like behaviors.

  17. Persuasion from an Eighteen-Year-Old's Perspective: Perry and Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinitz, Sue; Kiedaisch, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Looks at how the theories of William Perry and Jean Piaget explain choices students made in writing persuasive essays. Examines the implications of their theories for teaching persuasion to eighteen-year olds. (SR)

  18. Persuasion from an Eighteen-Year-Old's Perspective: Perry and Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinitz, Sue; Kiedaisch, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Looks at how the theories of William Perry and Jean Piaget explain choices students made in writing persuasive essays. Examines the implications of their theories for teaching persuasion to eighteen-year olds. (SR)

  19. Sources of health information related to preventive health behaviors in a national study.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Nicole; Baer, Heather J; Clark, Cheryl R; Lipsitz, Stuart; Hicks, LeRoi S

    2010-06-01

    Current literature suggests that certain sources of information are used in varying degrees among different socioeconomic and demographic groups; therefore, it is important to determine if specific classes of health information sources are more effective than others in promoting health behaviors. This study aims to determine if interpersonal versus mass media sources of health information are associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors (nonsmoking, fruit/vegetable intake, and exercise) and cancer screening. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship of health information sources (mass media sources including print, TV, Internet; and interpersonal sources including friends and family, community organizations, and healthcare providers) with meeting recommendations for healthy behaviors and cancer screening in the 2005 and 2007 Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS). Analyses were conducted in 2009. In the 2005 HINTS, participants reporting use of print media and community organizations as sources of health information over the past year were mostly likely to meet recommendations for health behaviors. In the 2007 HINTS, utilization of healthcare providers for health information was associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors, particularly cancer screening. Use of print media and interpersonal sources of health information are most consistently associated with self-reported health behaviors. Additional research should explore the relationship of health information sources to clinical outcomes. Social network interventions to promote adoption of health behaviors should be further developed. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevention des Toxicomanies Aupres des Filles avec des Problemes de Comportement: Effets a Court Terme (Prevention of Drug Addiction in Girls with Behavior Problems: Short-Term Effects).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article, written in French, describes and evaluates the first phase of a program to prevent drug addiction among 110 fifth-grade girls with behavior problems in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Evaluation of the instructional program showed positive results for student knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors and supported program continuation…