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Sample records for preventive hormon theraphy

  1. Weight control, endocrine hormones and cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    King, Brenee; Jiang, Yu; Su, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianteng; Xie, Linglin; Standard, Joseph; Wang, Weiqun

    2013-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing which becomes worrisome due to its association with several diseases and certain types of cancers. While weight control through dietary caloric restriction and/or physical activity protects against cancer in animal models, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Weight loss due to negative energy balance is associated with alterations of multiple growth factors and endocrine hormones. The altered hormones and hormone-related functions appear to be responsible for anti-cancer mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the recent studies related to weight loss and the altered endocrine hormones, focusing on the reduced levels of the mitogenic insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and adipokine leptin as well as the raised levels of adiponectin and glucocorticoids. The potential molecular targets of these hormone-dependent signalling pathways are also discussed. Considering the increasing trends of obesity throughout the world, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms between body weight, endocrine hormones and cancer risk may lead to novel approaches to cancer prevention and treatment.

  2. Hormone Therapy Not Advised for Preventing Disease After Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165628.html Hormone Therapy Not Advised for Preventing Disease After Menopause Benefits ... 2017 TUESDAY, May 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Using hormone therapy to prevent chronic health issues, such as heart ...

  3. Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, Darcy V; Pike, Malcolm C

    2000-01-01

    The cyclic production of estrogen and progesterone by the premenopausal ovary accounts for the steep rise in breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. These hormones are breast cell mitogens. By reducing exposure to these ovarian hormones, agonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) given to suppress ovarian function may prove useful in cancer prevention. To prevent deleterious effects of hypoestrogenemia, the addition of low-dose hormone replacement to the LHRH agonist appears necessary. Pilot data with such an approach indicates it is feasible and reduces mammographic densities. PMID:11250719

  4. Preventing leaf identity theft with hormones.

    PubMed

    Lumba, Shelley; McCourt, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Genetic analysis of plant development has begun to demonstrate the importance of hormone synthesis and transport in regulating morphogenesis. In the case of leaf development, for example, auxin pooling determines where a primordium will emerge and leads to the activation of transcription factors, which determine leaf identities by modulating abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) concentrations. Signal transduction studies suggest that negative regulation of transcription factors through protein turnover is commonly used as a mechanism of hormone action. Together, these findings suggest that auxin might degrade a repressor that allows the activation of genes that modulate ABA/GA ratios in emerging leaves. With our increased understanding of the molecular basis of hormone signaling, it is becoming possible to overlay important regulators onto signaling modules that determine morphological outputs.

  5. Steroid Sex Hormones, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin, and Diabetes Incidence in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Mather, K J; Kim, C; Christophi, C A; Aroda, V R; Knowler, W C; Edelstein, S E; Florez, J C; Labrie, F; Kahn, S E; Goldberg, R B; Barrett-Connor, E

    2015-10-01

    Steroid sex hormones and SHBG may modify metabolism and diabetes risk, with implications for sex-specific diabetes risk and effects of prevention interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships of steroid sex hormones, SHBG and SHBG single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with diabetes risk factors and with progression to diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial involving 27 U.S. academic institutions. The study included 2898 DPP participants: 969 men, 948 premenopausal women not taking exogenous sex hormones, 550 postmenopausal women not taking exogenous sex hormones, and 431 postmenopausal women taking exogenous sex hormones. Participants were randomized to receive intensive lifestyle intervention, metformin, or placebo. Associations of steroid sex hormones, SHBG, and SHBG SNPs with glycemia and diabetes risk factors, and with incident diabetes over median 3.0 years (maximum, 5.0 y). T and DHT were inversely associated with fasting glucose in men, and estrone sulfate was directly associated with 2-hour post-challenge glucose in men and premenopausal women. SHBG was associated with fasting glucose in premenopausal women not taking exogenous sex hormones, and in postmenopausal women taking exogenous sex hormones, but not in the other groups. Diabetes incidence was directly associated with estrone and estradiol and inversely with T in men; the association with T was lost after adjustment for waist circumference. Sex steroids were not associated with diabetes outcomes in women. SHBG and SHBG SNPs did not predict incident diabetes in the DPP population. Estrogens and T predicted diabetes risk in men but not in women. SHBG and its polymorphisms did not predict risk in men or women. Diabetes risk is more potently determined by obesity and glycemia than by sex hormones.

  6. Hormone Abuse Prevention and What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs ... Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs ...

  7. D-hormones for prevention of bone loss after organ transplant.

    PubMed

    Sambrook, Philip N

    2005-09-01

    In addition to bisphosphonates, D-hormones appear to be effective agents in the prevention of post-transplant osteoporosis. In this article studies on D-hormone agents for prevention of post-transplant bone loss are reviewed. Potential reduction in immunosuppressive requirements with D-hormone is an additional consideration. Based upon available evidence, prophylaxis should involve a bisphosphonate, with D-hormone considered as adjunctive or alternative therapy.

  8. Hormone replacement therapy and the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Gambacciani, Marco; Levancini, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Fracture prevention is one of the public health priorities worldwide. Estrogen deficiency is the major factor in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease. Different effective treatments for osteoporosis are available. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at different doses rapidly normalizes turnover, preserves bone mineral density (BMD) at all skeletal sites, leading to a significant, reduction in vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. Tibolone, a selective tissue estrogenic activity regulator (STEAR), is effective in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms, vaginal atrophy and prevention/treatment of osteoporosis with a clinical efficacy similar to that of conventional HRT. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as raloxifene and bazedoxifene reduce turnover and maintain or increase vertebral and femoral BMD and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. The combination of bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogens, defined as tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC), is able to reduce climacteric symptoms, reduce bone turnover and preserve BMD. In conclusion, osteoporosis prevention can actually be considered as a major additional benefit in climacteric women who use HRT for treatment of climacteric symptoms. The use of a standard dose of HRT for osteoporosis prevention is based on biology, epidemiology, animal and preclinical data, observational studies and randomized, clinical trials. The antifracture effect of a lower dose HRT or TSEC is supported by the data on BMD and turnover, with compelling scientific evidence.

  9. Preventing Growth Hormone Abuse: An Emerging Health Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Facts about growth hormone abuse should be incorporated into substance abuse components of health education curriculums. Sources, uses, and dangers associated with human growth hormones are discussed. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  10. The Hormone Ghrelin Prevents Traumatic Brain Injury Induced Intestinal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Vishal; Ryu, Seok Yong; Blow, Chelsea; Costantini, Todd; Loomis, William; Eliceiri, Brian; Baird, Andrew; Wolf, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Intestinal barrier breakdown following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by increased intestinal permeability, leading to bacterial translocation, and inflammation. The hormone ghrelin may prevent intestinal injury and have anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that exogenous ghrelin prevents intestinal injury following TBI. A weight-drop model created severe TBI in three groups of anesthetized Balb/c mice. Group TBI: animals underwent TBI only; Group TBI/ghrelin: animals were given 10 μg of ghrelin intraperitoneally prior and 1 h following TBI; Group sham: no TBI or ghrelin injection. Intestinal permeability was measured 6 h following TBI by detecting serum levels of FITC-Dextran after injection into the intact ileum. The terminal ileum was harvested for histology, expression of the tight junction protein MLCK and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Permeability increased in the TBI group compared to the sham group (109.7 ± 21.8 μg/mL vs. 32.2 ± 10.1 μg/mL; p < 0.002). Ghrelin prevented TBI-induced permeability (28.3 ± 4.2 μg/mL vs. 109.7 ± 21.8 μg/mL; p < 0.001). The intestines of the TBI group showed blunting and necrosis of villi compared to the sham group, while ghrelin injection preserved intestinal architecture. Intestinal MLCK increased 73% compared to the sham group (p < 0.03). Ghrelin prevented TBI-induced MLCK expression to sham levels. Intestinal TNF-α increased following TBI compared to the sham group (46.2 ± 7.1 pg/mL vs. 24.4 ± 2.2 pg/mL p < 0.001). Ghrelin reduced TNF-α to sham levels (29.2 ± 5.0 pg/mL; p = NS). We therefore conclude that ghrelin prevents TBI-induced injury, as determined by intestinal permeability, histology, and intestinal levels of TNF-α. The mechanism for ghrelin mediating intestinal protection is likely multifactorial, and further studies are needed to delineate these possibilities. PMID:20858122

  11. Superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in the treatment of the chronic, infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Białoszewski, Dariusz; Kowalewski, Michał

    2003-10-30

    Background. Ozone therapy - i.e. the treatment of patients by a mixture of oxygen and ozone - has been used for many years as a method ancillary to basic treatment, especially in those cases in which traditional treatment methods do not give satisfactory results, e.g. skin loss in non-healing wounds, ulcers, pressure sores, fistulae, etc. Material and methods. In the Department of Phisiotherapy of the Medical Faculty and the Department of the Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Locomotor System at the Medical University of Warsaw in the period from January 2001 until November 2002, 23 patients with heavy,chronic, antibiotic resistants septic complications after trauma, surgical procedures and secundary skin infetions were treated with ozone. The ozone therapy was administered using an authorial technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone application. Results. In the wounds of the all experienced patients the inhibition of septic processes and wound healing was much faster than normal. Conclusions. Our data confirm the advantages wich result from the technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in combined treatment for septic complications in the soft tissue, especially in the locomotor system. These technique makes posttraumatic infections and promotes quicker healing of post-surgical and post-traumal complications - chronic septic infections. This method also lowers the cost of antibiotic therapy and is sometimes the only available auxiliary technique to support surgical procedures.

  12. Hormones, vitamins, and growth factors in cancer treatment and prevention. A critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Lupulescu, A P

    1996-12-01

    Hormones, hormone agonists, hormone antagonists, vitamins and their synthetic analogues, and growth factors are currently the most widely used anticancer drugs. Although in many cases they provide dramatic results, in other cases their effects are conflicting. A critical appraisal of the effects of these drugs is needed. To evaluate the potential therapeutic and preventive roles of these drugs as well as their areas of controversy, data published in the literature in the last two decades are reviewed in this article, and the author's personal findings are also reviewed. Hormones, hormone agonists, hormone antagonists, vitamins and their synthetic analogues, growth factors, and cytokines are replacing conventional cancer therapies (chemotherapy, surgical therapy, and radiation therapy) for many purposes, and recently became the "fourth arm" of cancer treatment. However, their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated. This article critically reviews the mechanisms of their action on cancer cells (specifically, DNA, RNA, oncogenes, and antioncogenes); their role in cancer cell division, cell cycle, apoptosis, and angiogenesis; and their relation to human cancers. Since hormones, vitamins, growth factors (GFs), and GF receptors play a cardinal role in multistage carcinogenesis, using monoclonal antibodies to develop novel hormone antagonists, vitamin synthetic analogues, and GF inhibitors will be of paramount significance for neoadjuvant systemic therapy and cancer prevention. It is hoped that the data presented in this review regarding the role of hormones, hormone agonists, hormone antagonists, vitamins, growth factors, and growth factor inhibitors will provide a rationale for designing effective new cancer chemoprevention strategies and clinical trials.

  13. Menopausal hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2013-01-01

    Update of the 2005 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement on hormone therapy for the prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women. The USPSTF commissioned a review of the literature to update evidence about the benefits and harms of using menopausal hormone therapy to prevent chronic conditions, as well as whether the benefits and harms of hormone therapy differ by population subgroups defined by age; the presence of comorbid medical conditions; and the type, dose, and method of hormonal delivery. This recommendation applies to postmenopausal women who are considering hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic medical conditions. It does not apply to women who are considering hormone therapy for the management of menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes or vaginal dryness. It also does not apply to women younger than 50 years who have had surgical menopause. The USPSTF recommends against the use of combined estrogen and progestin for the prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women. (Grade D recommendation).The USPSTF recommends against the use of estrogen for the prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women who have had a hysterectomy. (Grade D recommendation).

  14. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  15. Growth hormone prevents neuronal loss in the aged rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Azcoitia, Iñigo; Perez-Martin, Margarita; Salazar, Veronica; Castillo, Carmen; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2005-05-01

    Decline of growth hormone (GH) with aging is associated to memory and cognitive alterations. In this study, the number of neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus has been assessed in male and female Wistar rats at 3, 6, 12, 14, 18, 22 and 24 months of age, using the optical fractionator method. Male rats had more neurons than females at all the ages studied. Significant neuronal loss was observed in both sexes between 22 and 24 months of age. In a second experiment, 22 month-old male and female rats were treated for 10 weeks with 2 mg/kg/day of GH or saline. At 24 months of age, animals treated with GH had more neurons in the hilus than animals treated with saline. These findings indicate that GH is neuroprotective in old animals and that its administration may ameliorate neuronal alterations associated to aging.

  16. The role of thyroid hormone signaling in the prevention of digestive system cancers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adam R; Simmen, Rosalia C M; Simmen, Frank A

    2013-08-06

    Thyroid hormones play a critical role in the growth and development of the alimentary tract in vertebrates. Their effects are mediated by nuclear receptors as well as the cell surface receptor integrin αVβ3. Systemic thyroid hormone levels are controlled via activation and deactivation by iodothyronine deiodinases in the liver and other tissues. Given that thyroid hormone signaling has been characterized as a major effector of digestive system growth and homeostasis, numerous investigations have examined its role in the occurrence and progression of cancers in various tissues of this organ system. The present review summarizes current findings regarding the effects of thyroid hormone signaling on cancers of the esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, and colon. Particular attention is given to the roles of different thyroid hormone receptor isoforms, the novel integrin αVβ3 receptor, and thyroid hormone-related nutrients as possible protective agents and therapeutic targets. Future investigations geared towards a better understanding of thyroid hormone signaling in digestive system cancers may provide preventive or therapeutic strategies to diminish risk, improve outcome and avert recurrence in afflicted individuals.

  17. Prevention of breast cancer skeletal metastases with parathyroid hormone

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Srilatha; Johnson, Joshua; Bettinson, Lance A.; Kimura, Takaharu; Zhu, Hui; Albertelli, Megan A.; Johnson, Rachelle W.; Wu, Joy Y.

    2017-01-01

    Advanced breast cancer is frequently associated with skeletal metastases and accelerated bone loss. Recombinant parathyroid hormone [teriparatide, PTH(1-34)] is the first anabolic agent approved in the US for treatment of osteoporosis. While signaling through the PTH receptor in the osteoblast lineage regulates bone marrow hematopoietic niches, the effects of anabolic PTH on the skeletal metastatic niche are unknown. Here, we demonstrate, using orthotopic and intratibial models of 4T1 murine and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer tumors, that anabolic PTH decreases both tumor engraftment and the incidence of spontaneous skeletal metastasis in mice. Microcomputed tomography and histomorphometric analyses revealed that PTH increases bone volume and reduces tumor engraftment and volume. Transwell migration assays with murine and human breast cancer cells revealed that PTH alters the gene expression profile of the metastatic niche, in particular VCAM-1, to inhibit recruitment of cancer cells. While PTH did not affect growth or migration of the primary tumor, it elicited several changes in the tumor gene expression profile resulting in a less metastatic phenotype. In conclusion, PTH treatment in mice alters the bone microenvironment, resulting in decreased cancer cell engraftment, reduced incidence of metastases, preservation of bone microarchitecture and prolonged survival. PMID:28878134

  18. Growth hormone prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ricardo; Kakabadse, Dimitri; Juarranz, Yasmina; Gomariz, Rosa P; Martínez-A, Carlos; Mellado, Mario

    2013-11-26

    Evidence supports a relationship between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems. Data from mice that overexpress or are deficient in growth hormone (GH) indicate that GH stimulates T and B-cell proliferation and Ig synthesis, and enhances maturation of myeloid progenitor cells. The effect of GH on autoimmune pathologies has nonetheless been little studied. Using a murine model of type 1 diabetes, a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by immune cell infiltration of pancreatic islets and destruction of insulin-producing β-cells, we observed that sustained GH expression reduced prodromal disease symptoms and eliminated progression to overt diabetes. The effect involves several GH-mediated mechanisms; GH altered the cytokine environment, triggered anti-inflammatory macrophage (M2) polarization, maintained activity of the suppressor T-cell population, and limited Th17 cell plasticity. In addition, GH reduced apoptosis and/or increased the proliferative rate of β-cells. These results support a role for GH in immune response regulation and identify a unique target for therapeutic intervention in type 1 diabetes.

  19. Growth hormone prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Villares, Ricardo; Kakabadse, Dimitri; Juarranz, Yasmina; Gomariz, Rosa P.; Martínez-A, Carlos; Mellado, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Evidence supports a relationship between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems. Data from mice that overexpress or are deficient in growth hormone (GH) indicate that GH stimulates T and B-cell proliferation and Ig synthesis, and enhances maturation of myeloid progenitor cells. The effect of GH on autoimmune pathologies has nonetheless been little studied. Using a murine model of type 1 diabetes, a T-cell–mediated autoimmune disease characterized by immune cell infiltration of pancreatic islets and destruction of insulin-producing β-cells, we observed that sustained GH expression reduced prodromal disease symptoms and eliminated progression to overt diabetes. The effect involves several GH-mediated mechanisms; GH altered the cytokine environment, triggered anti-inflammatory macrophage (M2) polarization, maintained activity of the suppressor T-cell population, and limited Th17 cell plasticity. In addition, GH reduced apoptosis and/or increased the proliferative rate of β-cells. These results support a role for GH in immune response regulation and identify a unique target for therapeutic intervention in type 1 diabetes. PMID:24218587

  20. [Hormone replacement therapy in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis and prevention of fracture risk].

    PubMed

    Ribot, Claude; Trémollières, Florence

    2006-10-01

    The consequences to the bone of estrogen deficiency are early and irreversible. Effective prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis at the individual level requires early screening of women at risk of fractures and their early treatment. Hormone treatment prevents bone loss and has been proven effective in preventing fractures, even in situations of low risk. The benefit/risk ratio of hormone treatment can be optimized by the choice of the 'right moment' and the 'right treatment'. HRT, administered early and for a limited period, must be integrated into a strategy of long-term osteoporosis prevention that includes using the (drug and nondrug) means most appropriate to the patient's age and clinical condition and choosing the 'right moment' and 'right treatment.'

  1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention does not diminish the pregnancy prevention effectiveness of hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Murnane, Pamela M; Heffron, Renee; Ronald, Allan; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Donnell, Deborah; Mugo, Nelly R; Were, Edwin; Mujugira, Andrew; Kiarie, James; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2014-07-31

    For women at risk of HIV-1, effective contraception and effective HIV-1 prevention are global priorities. In a clinical trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1 prevention in HIV-1-serodiscordant couples, we estimated the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives (oral contraceptive pills, injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and hormonal implants) for pregnancy prevention relative to no contraception among 1785 HIV-1-uninfected women followed up to 36 months. We compared the effectiveness of each method among women assigned PrEP versus placebo. Contraception was not required for participation, but was offered on-site and was recorded monthly; incident pregnancy was determined by monthly urine testing. For women using no contraception, overall pregnancy incidence was 15.4% per year. Women reporting oral contraceptive use had comparable pregnancy incidence to women using no contraception, and this lack of contraceptive effectiveness was similar for those assigned PrEP and placebo (17.7 and 10.0% incidence per year, respectively; P-value for difference in effect by PrEP use = 0.24). Women reporting injectable contraception had reduced pregnancy incidence compared to those reporting no contraception, which did not differ by arm (PrEP 5.1%, placebo 5.3% per year; P-value for difference = 0.47). Contraceptive effectiveness was highest among women using implants (pregnancy incidence <1% per year in both arms). PrEP had no adverse impact on hormonal contraceptive effectiveness for pregnancy prevention. As seen previously in similar populations, women reporting contraceptive pill use had little protection from pregnancy, possibly due to poor adherence. Injectable or implantable hormonal contraception and PrEP provide effective prevention for pregnancy and HIV-1.

  2. Is radiation-induced ovarian failure in rhesus monkeys preventable by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists?: Preliminary observations

    SciTech Connect

    Ataya, K.; Pydyn, E.; Ramahi-Ataya

    1995-03-01

    With the advent of cancer therapy, increasing numbers of cancer patients are achieving long term survival. Impaired ovarian function after radiation therapy has been reported in several studies. Some investigators have suggested that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) can prevent radiation-induced ovarian injury in rodents. Adult female rhesus monkeys were given either vehicle or Leuprolide acetate before, during, and after radiation. Radiation was given in a dose of 200 rads/day for a total of 4000 rads to the ovaries. Frequent serum samples were assayed for estradiol (E{sub 2}) and FSH. Ovariectomy was performed later. Ovaries were processed and serially sectioned. Follicle count and size distribution were determined. Shortly after radiation started, E{sub 2} dropped to low levels, at which it remained, whereas serum FSH level, which was low before radiation, rose soon after starting radiation. In monkeys treated with a combination of LHRHa and radiation, FSH started rising soon after the LHRHa-loaded minipump was removed (after the end of radiation). Serum E{sub 2} increased after the end of LHRHa treatment in the non-irradiated monkey, but not in the irradiated monkey. Follicle counts were not preserved in the LHRHa-treated monkeys that received radiation. The data demonstrated no protective effect of LHRHa treatment against radiation-induced ovarian injury in this rhesus monkey model. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. [Role of hormone-replacement therapy for prevention of coronary artery disease in women].

    PubMed

    Gohlke-Bärwolf, C; von Schacky, C

    2005-01-01

    The postmenopausal increase in the incidence of coronary artery disease implied a protective effect of estrogens. Nonrandomized, clinical and experimental studies have supported this notion. In the first randomized study (HERS 1998) no protective effect on prognosis of postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease was demonstrated. Also, in healthy postmenopausal women no beneficial effect of a hormone-replacement therapy on coronary events was shown (WHI-Study 2002, 2004). Therefore, hormone-replacement therapy is not recommended for prophylaxis of cardiovascular disease in healthy women or in women with documented coronary artery disease (Recommendation class I, evidence-level A). The continuation or the start of a hormone- replacement therapy is only justified for therapy of severe menopausal symptoms. Women should be informed that changes in lifestyle including not smoking, a heart healthy diet, and regular exercise are the most important measures to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Hormonal Contraceptives for Endometrial Cancer Prevention in Obese and High-Risk Women in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Horst, Kyle E; Modesitt, Susan C

    2016-10-01

    Endometrial cancer remains the fourth most common malignancy among US women, and hormonal contraceptives drastically reduce this risk. The study objectives were to assess the prescribing patterns, counseling practices, and knowledge of family physicians and obstetrician/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) regarding hormonal contraceptives, obesity, and cancer prevention. A 25-question survey was mailed to 4600 OB/GYNs and family practitioners licensed in Virginia to assess self-reported hormonal contraceptive prescription practices, patient evaluation and counseling, and gynecologic oncology knowledge. χ(2) and t tests were used to assess for differences across groups. P < 0.05 was deemed significant. In total, 392 (9%) surveys were returned, with 256 (6%) being complete for analysis. The mean physician age was 53.6 years, 50.2% were men, and 92.6% of physicians prescribed hormonal contraception. Most physicians recognized decreased endometrial cancer risk associated with oral contraceptive pills (73.0%) and increased risk with obesity (95.3%), but only 36.7% consistently counseled patients on obesity-associated cancer risk. Compared with family physicians, OB/GYNs were more likely to cite endometrial cancer prevention as an indication for hormonal contraceptives (53.3% vs 10.9%, P < 0.0001); more often counseled patients on obesity-related cancer risk (P = 0.003); and were more likely to correctly identify Lynch syndrome (69.4% vs 22.5%, P < 0.0001), diabetes mellitus (85.2% vs 38.8%, P < 0.0001), and hypertension (41.7% vs 10.1%, P < 0.0001) as risk factors for endometrial cancer. Endometrial or ovarian cancer prevention factored into <2% of total hormonal contraception prescriptions; however, OB/GYN physicians were more likely to prescribe for those indications than family physicians (P = 0.005 and P < 0.001, respectively). Family physicians and OB/GYNs could improve their knowledge of endometrial cancer risk factors and the use of hormonal contraception for

  5. Human growth hormone prevents the protein catabolic side effects of prednisone in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Horber, F F; Haymond, M W

    1990-01-01

    Prednisone treatment causes protein wasting and adds additional risks to a patient, whereas human growth hormone (hGH) treatment causes positive nitrogen balance. To determine whether concomitant administration of hGH prevents the protein catabolic effects of prednisone, four groups of eight healthy volunteers each were studied using isotope dilution and nitrogen balance techniques after 7 d of placebo, hGH alone (0.1 mg.kg-1.d-1), prednisone alone (0.8 mg.kg-1.d-1), or prednisone plus hGH (n = 8 in each group). Whether protein balance was calculated from the leucine kinetic data or nitrogen balance values, prednisone alone induced protein wasting (P less than 0.001), whereas hGH alone resulted in positive (P less than 0.001) protein balance, when compared to the placebo-treated subjects. When hGH was added to prednisone therapy, the glucocorticoid-induced protein catabolism was prevented. Using leucine kinetic data, negative protein balance during prednisone was due to increased (P less than 0.05) proteolysis, whereas hGH had no effect on proteolysis and increased (P less than 0.01) whole body protein synthesis. During combined treatment, estimates of proteolysis and protein synthesis were similar to those observed in the placebo treated control group. In conclusion, human growth hormone may have a distinct role in preventing the protein losses associated with the administration of pharmacologic doses of glucocorticosteroids in humans. PMID:2195062

  6. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology

    PubMed Central

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery. PMID:28197165

  7. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  8. Protein synthesis inhibitors prevent both spontaneous and hormone-dependent maturation of isolated mouse oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, S.M. )

    1990-11-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the role of protein synthesis in mouse oocyte maturation in vitro. In the first part of this study, the effects of cycloheximide (CX) were tested on spontaneous meiotic maturation when oocytes were cultured in inhibitor-free medium. CX reversibly suppressed maturation of oocytes as long as maturation was either initially prevented by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), or delayed by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In the second part of this study, the actions of protein synthesis inhibitors were tested on hormone-induced maturation. CEO were maintained in meiotic arrest for 21-22 h with hypoxanthine, and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) was induced with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Three different protein synthesis inhibitors (CX, emetine (EM), and puromycin (PUR)) each prevented the stimulatory action of FSH on GVB in a dose-dependent fashion. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent suppression of 3H-leucine incorporation by oocyte-cumulus cell complexes. The action of these inhibitors on FSH- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced GVB was next compared. All three drugs lowered the frequency of GVB in the FSH-treated groups, below even that of the controls (drug + hypoxanthine); the drugs maintained meiotic arrest at the control frequencies in the EGF-treated groups. Puromycin aminonucleoside, an analog of PUR with no inhibitory action on protein synthesis, had no effect. The three inhibitors also suppressed the stimulatory action of FSH on oocyte maturation when meiotic arrest was maintained with the cAMP analog, dbcAMP.

  9. Naringenin and 17beta-estradiol coadministration prevents hormone-induced human cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Bulzomi, Pamela; Bolli, Alessandro; Galluzzo, Paola; Leone, Stefano; Acconcia, Filippo; Marino, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Flavonoids have been described as health-promoting, disease-preventing dietary components. In vivo and in vitro experiments also support a protective effect of flavonoids to reduce the incidence of certain hormone-responsive cancers. In particular, our previous results indicate that the flavanone naringenin (Nar), decoupling estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) action mechanisms, drives cancer cells to apoptosis. Because these studies were conducted in the absence of the endogenous hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2), the physiological relevance of these findings is not clear. We investigate whether the antiproliferative Nar effect persists in the presence of physiological E2 concentration (i.e. 10 nM), using both ERalpha-transfected (HeLa cells) and ERalpha-containing (HepG2 cells) cancer cell lines. Ligand saturation experiments indicate that Nar decreases the binding of E2 to ERalpha without impairing the estrogen response element (ERE)-driven reporter plasmid activity. In contrast, Nar stimulation prevents E2-induced extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and AKT activation and still induces the activation of p38, the proapoptotic member of mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) family. As a consequence, Nar stimulation impedes the E2-induced transcription of cyclin D1 promoter and reverts the E2-induced cell proliferation, driving cancer cell to apoptosis. Thus, these results suggest that coexposure to this low-affinity, low-potency ligand for ERalpha specifically antagonizes the E2-induced ERalpha-dependent rapid signals by reducing the effect of the endogenous hormone in promoting cellular proliferation. As a whole, these data indicate that Nar is an excellent candidate as a chemopreventive agent in E2-dependent cancers.

  10. Hormone replacement therapy and prevention of osteoporosis: risk assessment and practical advice.

    PubMed

    Balogh, A; Bettembuk, P

    1997-02-01

    A review of the Debrecen Regional Osteoporosis Program (DROP) in Hungary is given, with special reference to the detection of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) and its treatment by hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The new definition of osteoporosis by focusing on bone mineral density (BMD) measurements has the major advantage of practical usefulness. The algorithm of managing osteoporotic patients can be easily constructed from the result of bone densitometry as the primary diagnostic tool. The DROP serves a total population of 550,000, is equipped with a DXA bone densitometer, a bone metabolism laboratory and backed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians from gynecology, radiology, rheumatology, internal medicine, and orthopedic surgery. In 1995 the total number of patients undergoing densitometry was 3170. In 2045 patients T scores of -1 or below were found. From this total number, 348 patients received HRT for 1 year or longer. The results of the treatment showed a positive response (i.e. no bone loss, or net gain) in 65%, while half of the 'non responders' proved in fact non compliant. The contradiction between risk assessment and early diagnosis is explained and replacing 'risk assessment' by 'selection criteria for bone densitometry' is proposed. 'Prevention of osteoporosis' is also to be replaced by 'prevention of complications', i.e. osteoporotic fractures. One of these measures is HRT. Its rational use in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and its relation to other treatment methods in the authors' own experience is discussed.

  11. Menopause and Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... use hormone therapy to prevent memory loss or Alzheimer’s disease? No, do not use hormone therapy to prevent memory loss or Alzheimer’s disease. Do hormones protect against aging and wrinkles ...

  12. [The role of thyroid hormones in prevention of disorders of myocardial contractile function and antioxidant activity during heat stress].

    PubMed

    Bozhko, A P; Gorodetskaia, I V

    1998-03-01

    The stress of heat under conditions of immobilisation induced an obvious depression of the cardiodynamic parameters. This correlated well with intensification of lipoperoxydation and a drop in the myocardial antioxydant activity. Small doses of thyroid hormones prevented the decline of the parameters, normalisied myocardial free-radical homeostasis in result of activation of superoxyddysmutase, catalase, and general antioxydant activity.

  13. The prevention of preterm labour -- corticotropin releasing hormone type 1 receptors as a target for drug design and development.

    PubMed

    Keller, P A; Kirkwood, K; Morgan, J; Westcott, S; McCluskey, A

    2003-06-01

    The role of the corticotropin releasing hormone in the onset of labour and the subsequent medicinal chemistry implications of CRH antagonists for the prevention of premature birth, and identification of the CRH type 1 receptor as the target for this drug design, are reviewed here.

  14. Does hormone therapy affect blood pressure changes in the Diabetes Prevention Program?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Golden, Sherita H.; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Mather, Kieren J.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether blood pressure reductions differ by estrogen use among overweight glucose-intolerant women. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of postmenopausal Diabetes Prevention Program participants who used oral estrogen with or without progestogen at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (n=324) vs. those who did not use at either time point (n=382). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) changes were examined by randomization arm (intensive lifestyle change (ILS), metformin 850 mg twice daily, or placebo). Associations between changes in blood pressure with changes in sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were also examined. Results Estrogen users and non-users had similar prevalences of baseline hypertension (33% vs. 34%, p=0.82) and use of blood pressure medications at baseline (p=0.25) and follow-up (p=0.10). Estrogen users and non-users randomized to ILS had similar decreases in SBP (-3.3 vs. -4.7 mmHg, p=0.45) and DBP (-3.1 vs. -4.7 mmHg, p=0.16). Among estrogen users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in SBP (p=0.016) and DBP (p=0.009) vs. placebo. Among non-users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in DBP (p=0.001) vs. placebo, but declines in SBP were not significant (p=0.11). Metformin was not associated with blood pressure reductions vs. placebo regardless of estrogen therapy. Blood pressure changes were not associated with changes in sex hormones regardless of estrogen therapy. Conclusions Among overweight women with dysglycemia, the magnitude of blood pressure reductions after ILS was unrelated to postmenopausal estrogen use. PMID:23942251

  15. Choristoneura fumiferana entomopoxvirus prevents metamorphosis and modulates juvenile hormone and ecdysteroid titers.

    PubMed

    Palli, S R; Ladd, T R; Tomkins, W L; Shu, S; Ramaswamy, S B; Tanaka, Y; Arif, B; Retnakaran, A

    2000-01-01

    Larvae of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, infected with C. fumiferana entomopoxvirus (CfEPV) continue to feed and grow without undergoing metamorphosis and die as moribund larvae. The lethal dose (LD(50)) and lethal time (LT(50)) values for fourth instar larvae are 2.4 spheroids and 25.2 days, respectively. One hundred percent of the control fourth instar larvae, which were fed water instead of virus, pupated by 18 days post feeding (PF). Only 30% of the larvae that were fed the LD(50) dose and none of the larvae that were fed the LD(95) dose pupated by 18 days PF. Of the control larvae, 95% became adults by 24 days PF, whereas in the treated group only 2% of larvae that were fed the LD(50) dose and none of the larvae that were fed the LD(95) dose became adults by 24 days PF. Some of the virus-treated larvae died as either larval/pupal or pupal/adult intermediates. These phenotypic effects were similar to the larval/pupal and pupal/adult intermediates, resulting from treating larvae with juvenile hormone (JH) or its analogs, which suggests that EPV may cause such abnormalities by modulating JH and/or ecdysteroid titers. In untreated sixth instar larvae the JH titer decreased to low levels by 24 h after ecdysis and remained low throughout larval life. EPV-fed sixth instar larvae had 2112 pg/ml on day 0, 477 pg/ml on day 1 and 875 pg/ml on day 8 of the sixth instar. Control larvae contained 860 ng of ecdysteroids per ml hemolymph on day 8 of the sixth instar, whereas EPV-treated larvae of the same age (30 days PF) had only 107 ng of ecdysteroids per ml of hemolymph. Thus, EPV infection results in increased JH titer and decreased ecdysteroid titer. Northern hybridization analysis was performed using RNA isolated from control and EPV-fed larvae and cDNA probes for (i) juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), which is JH inducible, (ii) Choristoneura hormone receptor 3 (CHR3), which is ecdysteroid inducible, and (iii) larval specific diapause associated protein 1

  16. [Hormone replacement and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS) in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Pfeilschifter, J

    2001-07-01

    For many years, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been regarded as one of the most reliable means of prophylaxis and treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. As HRT ameliorates menopausal symptoms, it is widely prescribed among early postmenopausal women. A variety of different modes of replacement that suit each individual requirement are available in terms of schedule (cyclic or combined application of gestagens) and route of application (oral or transdermal). HRT effectively prevents spinal bone loss and delays bone loss at the hip up to a very old age. With continued use after menopause, HRT might theoretically halve the incidence of vertebral and hip fractures. However, long-term use or use of HRT in old age is rarely practiced, and the actual benefit of a transient use for future fracture prevention remains unclear. Raloxifene is the first member of the novel class of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) that has been approved for the prophylaxis and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. It combines the positive effects of estrogen on the skeleton with estrogen-antagonistic effects on sex tissues. Thus, raloxifene maintains bone mass and decreases the incidence of vertebral fractures in osteoporotic women, but avoids many of the side effects that are responsible for the poor long-term compliance to HRT such as resumption or continuation of regular menses, breast tenderness, or breast cancer. It even markedly reduces the risk of breast cancer. Both estrogen and raloxifene are characterized by a large number of extraskeletal effects that have to be taken into account when counseling postmenopausal women on the use of these agents for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis.

  17. Hormone replacement therapy for preventing cardiovascular disease in post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Rafael Gabriel; Sanchez Gomez, Luis Maria; Carmona, Loreto; Figuls, Marta Roqué i; Cosp, Xavier Bonfill

    2014-01-01

    Background There is apparently compelling evidence, from observational studies, that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may have benefits in reducing cardiovascular events in post-menopausal women. However, these observational data are subject to biases and confounding and require support from formally designed randomised controlled trials of the effects of HRT on cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives To assess the effects of HRT for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in post-menopausal women. Search methods We searched MEDLINE (1998 to December 2002)), EMBASE (1998 to December 2002), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR) (Issue 4 2002), the National Research Register (1998 to present), ClinicalTrials.gov (1998 to present), and the database of Spanish Clinical Trials (1998 to present) and reference lists of articles. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing HRT with controls (placebo or no treatment) with a minimum follow up of 6 months for treating or preventing cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women with or without cardiovascular disease. Data collection and analysis Three independent reviewers extracted information from the articles, solving discrepancies by consensus. All outcomes studied were dichotomous. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for each study and plotted. Random effects meta-analysis was used in efficacy outcomes (cardiovascular events) and fixed-effects meta-analysis in variables regarding side effects (deep venous thrombosis). Main results No protective effect of HRT was seen for any of the cardiovascular outcomes assessed: all cause mortality, cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, venous thromboemboli or stroke. Higher risks of venous thromboembolic events (Relative risk (RR) 2.15, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.86), pulmonary embolus (RR 2.15, 95% CI 1.41 to 3.28), and stroke (RR 1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.89) was found in those randomised to HRT compared with placebo. No

  18. GABAergic agents prevent alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone induced anxiety and anorexia in rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, T Lakshmi; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Sarkar, Sumit; Khisti, Rahul T; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Subhedar, Nishikant

    2003-12-01

    Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a hypothalamic peptide believed to play a tonic inhibitory role in feeding and energy homeostasis. Systemic administration of alpha-MSH is known to produce anorexia and anxiety. Since synaptic contacts between gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic terminals and alpha-MSH neurons in the hypothalamus have been reported, the present work was undertaken to refine our knowledge on the role of GABAergic systems in anxiety and anorexia induced by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of alpha-MSH in rats. The anxiety was assessed by elevated plus maze, and spontaneous food consumption was monitored during dark cycle. Prior administration of diazepam and muscimol that promote the function of GABA(A) receptors reversed the anxiogenic response and decreased food intake elicited by alpha-MSH. In contrast, bicuculline, the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, not only enhanced the effects of alpha-MSH but also prevented the influence of GABAergic drugs on alpha-MSH-induced anorexia and anxiety. These findings suggest that alpha-MSH-induced anxiety and anorexia are due to its negative influence on GABAergic system.

  19. Preventive effects of chronic exogenous growth hormone levels on diet-induced hepatic steatosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by hepatic steatosis, can be reversed by early treatment. Several case reports have indicated that the administration of recombinant growth hormone (GH) could improve fatty liver in GH-deficient patients. Here, we investigated whether chronic exogenous GH levels could improve hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in rats, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Results High-fat diet-fed rats developed abdominal obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Chronic exogenous GH improved fatty liver, by reversing dyslipidaemia, fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Exogenous GH also reduced serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels, and ameliorated hepatic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Hepatic fat deposition was also reduced by exogenous GH levels, as was the expression of adipocyte-derived adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin), which might improve lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Exogenous GH seems to improve fatty liver by reducing fat weight, improving insulin sensitivity and correcting oxidative stress, which may be achieved through phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of a group of signal transducers and activators of hepatic signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Chronic exogenous GH has positive effects on fatty liver and may be a potential clinical application in the prevention or reversal of fatty liver. However, chronic secretion of exogenous GH, even at a low level, may increase serum glucose and insulin levels in rats fed a standard diet, and thus increase the risk of insulin resistance. PMID:20653983

  20. Human parathyroid hormone 1-34 prevents bone loss in experimental biliary cirrhosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Dresner-Pollak, Rivka; Gabet, Yankel; Steimatzky, Arza; Hamdani, Gilad; Bab, Itai; Ackerman, Zvi; Weinreb, Miron

    2008-01-01

    Reduced bone mass and increased fracture rate are complications of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The effect of intermittent administration of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) 1-34 on bone mass and architecture in bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats was studied. Six-month-old male rats were subjected to BDL or sham operation (SO) and were treated from the second postoperative week intermittently with either hPTH 1-34 40 microg/kg per day, 80 microg/kg per day, or a vehicle for 4 weeks. Femoral and tibial bones were evaluated ex vivo by dual x-ray absorptiometry, microcomputed tomography, and histomorphometry. Serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline cross-links (DPD) were determined. BDL rats had decreased bone mass compared with SO rats as indicated by a 6% decrease in femoral and tibial bone mineral density (BMD), 18% reduction in femoral trabecular bone volume (bone volume/total volume [BV/TV]), 17% decrease in trabecular thickness, and 10% decrease in tibial cortical thickness. The administration of hPTH 1-34 at 40 microg/kg per day increased femoral and tibial BMD (9% and 9%), femoral trabecular BV/TV (50%), trabecular thickness (50%), tibial cortical thickness (17%), and serum osteocalcin (82%). On the other hand, hPTH 1-34 80 microg/kg per day had no effect on BMD and tibial cortical thickness, was associated with a smaller increase in trabecular BV/TV (24%), and had a higher osteoclast number and DPD compared with untreated BDL rats and the lower hPTH 1-34 dose treatment group. BDL rats exhibit loss of bone mass and structure, which can be prevented by the intermittent administration of hPTH 1-34, a potential therapy for osteoporosis in PBC.

  1. Colorectal cancer incidence and postmenopausal hormone use by type, recency, and duration in cancer prevention study II.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Janet S; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T; McCullough, Marjorie L; Teras, Lauren R; Thun, Michael J; Gapstur, Susan M

    2009-11-01

    The Women's Health Initiative randomized trials showed a reduction in colorectal cancer risk with the use of estrogen plus progesterone (E + P), but not with estrogen alone (E-only), after intervention periods <7 years. Using data from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, we examined associations of colorectal cancer risk with E-only and E + P, including analyses by recency and duration of hormone use. During 13.2 years of follow-up, 776 cases of invasive colorectal cancer occurred among 67,412 postmenopausal women participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of colorectal cancer for current and former hormone users according to hormone type and duration of use. Relative to women who never used postmenopausal hormones, current, but not former, use of E-only was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer (RR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.97). Among current E-only users, duration of use was inversely and linearly associated with risk (P(trend) = 0.01). Use of E-only for <5 years was not associated with reduced risk, whereas use for >or=20 years was associated with a 45% reduction in risk (RR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36-0.86). There were no statistically significant associations between E + P and colorectal cancer risk. Our results suggest a strong inverse association of long-term use of E-only with colorectal cancer risk, underscoring the importance of collecting data on duration of hormone use in epidemiologic studies of postmenopausal hormones and risk of disease.

  2. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage: possible roles for hormonal and non-hormonal attenuating agents.

    PubMed

    Roness, Hadassa; Kalich-Philosoph, Lital; Meirow, Dror

    2014-01-01

    Current options for female fertility preservation in the face of cytotoxic treatments include embryo, oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. However these methods are limited by the patient age, status or available timeframe before treatment and they necessitate invasive procedures. Agents which can prevent or attenuate the ovotoxic effects of treatment would provide significant advantages over the existing fertility preservation techniques, and would allow patients to retain their natural fertility without the necessity for costly, invasive and risky procedures. Recent studies have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in cytotoxicity-induced ovarian follicle loss and highlight a number of agents that may be able to prevent or reduce this loss. This paper reviews the relevant literature (research articles published in English up to December 2013) on the mechanisms of cytotoxic-induced ovarian damage and the implications for fertility preservation. We present a comprehensive discussion of the potential agents that have been shown to preserve the ovarian follicle reserve in the face of cytotoxic treatments, including an analysis of their respective advantages and risks, and mechanisms of action. Multiple molecular pathways are involved in the cellular response to cytotoxic treatments, and specific cellular reactions depend on variables including the drug class and dose, cell type, and cell stage. A number of agents acting on different elements of these pathways have demonstrated potential for preventing or reducing ovarian follicle loss, although in most cases, the studies are still very preliminary. Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and pathways involved in both cytotoxic ovarian damage and follicle growth and development have opened up new directions for fertility preservation. In order to bring these agents from the lab to the clinic, it will be vital to accurately evaluate the efficacy of each agent and additionally to

  3. 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone analog prevent precocious metamorphosis in recessive trimolter mutants of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Bing; Ali, Saheb Md; Moriyama, Minoru; Iwanaga, Masashi; Kawasaki, Hideki

    2012-02-01

    The trimolter mutants of Bombyx mori have four instead of five larval instars of normal tetramolters. Here, we show that the tetramolter was induced in the recessive trimolter European No.7 mutant (rt-E7) by application of either the juvenile hormone analog (JHA) or 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). However, treatments with JHA or 20E did not change the number of larval instars of the dominant trimolter Si Chuan mutant (DT-SC). Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is an early JH-response gene that mediates the anti-metamorphic action of JH. In the wing disc of tetramolter B. mori, Kr-h1 RNAs decreased shortly after ecdysis to the fifth instar, while pupal specifier gene, Broad Complex Z1 (BR-Z1) RNAs slightly increased and coincided with the onset of metamorphic competence of wing discs. Analysis of the developmental profile of Kr-h1 in the wing disc of rt-E7 showed that its transcript slightly increased from 12 to 24 h and gradually decreased between 24 and 72 h in the fourth (last) larval instar, while Kr-h1 mRNA decreased rapidly between 12 and 72 h in DT-SC. In addition, the expression of BR-Z1 in DT-SC during the early fourth (last) larval instar is relatively higher than that in rt-E7. These results indicated that the occurrence of pupal commitment of the wing disc in DT-SC was much earlier than that in rt-E7. In the early fourth larval instar of rt-E7, feeding on 20E or treatments with exogenous JHA caused up-regulation of Kr-h1, suppressed premature induction of BR-Z1, and then induced an additional larval instar. By contrast, in DT-SC mutant, since pupal commitment immediately occurred after third ecdysis, precocious metamorphosis was not successfully rescued. The results suggest that Kr-h1 and BR-Z1 involved in the prevention of precocious metamorphosis in recessive trimolter mutants by application of 20E and JHA. The result indicated that Kr-h1 and BR-Z1 expression reflected larval-pupal transition of the recessive trimolter of B. mori. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd

  4. The history of hormone therapy use and recent controversy related to heart disease and breast cancer arising from prevention trial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Ivy M

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for hormone therapy use have changed dramatically over time from being very popular for the purpose of preserving youth in women to menopause-related symptom management, disease prevention, and now back to menopause-related symptom management. Over time, several important risks associated with the use of hormone therapy have become evident, causing dramatic reductions in the use of hormone therapy for periods of time following identification of these risks. Most recently, randomized controlled prevention trials that evaluated hormone therapy for the purpose of reducing or preventing coronary heart disease among women have found that hormone therapy is associated with increased rather than decreased risks for coronary heart disease. The most recent of these trials again identified increased risks for breast cancer associated with estrogen plus progestogen therapy. The evolving evidence base from these randomized controlled prevention trials is complicated and in some cases contradictory. Specifically, the data suggest that the timing of when hormone therapy is initiated once a woman is postmenopausal may influence her risk for developing heart disease and breast cancer. In this article, contradictory evidence is carefully sifted so risks and benefits can be weighed by clinicians when partnering with women to individualize decisions about using hormone therapy. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  5. [The effect of osteopenia prevention in very small premature infants on hormonal parameters of calcium metabolism and bone mineralization].

    PubMed

    Reinken, L; Obladen, M; Dockx-Reinken, F; Lindemann, C

    1989-01-01

    In 23 very low birth weight infants the influence of mineral supplementation with 0.4 mmol calciumgluconate and 0.2 mmol glucose-1-phosphate/dl human milk on concentrations of 25-OH-D3, parathyroid hormone, calcitonine, calcium, phosphorus and activity of alkaline phosphatase was studied on days 3, 8, 28 and 56. On days 28 and 56 respectively, degree of bone mineralisation was classified. 8 preterm infants received supplementation before day 28, 7 infants after day 28, 8 infants had no supplementation. All preterm infants received beginning with day 7 vitamin D3 1000 IU/day. In all preterms mean concentrations of 25-OH-D3 were normal and increasing with age. Concentrations of parathyroid hormone and calcitonine were first of all increased and decreased with age, especially in supplemented infants. Light metabolic bone disease without fractures occurred in 4 infants of supplemented groups. Non-supplemented group contains 5 infants with severe metabolic bone disease without fractures. Results indicate intact metabolism and secretion of 25-OH-D3, parathyroid hormone and calcitonine. Decrease of calcitonine concentration in mineral supplemented preterms is a reference to a better mineral supply. Mineral supplementation is followed by an increase in bone mineralisation with prevention of severe metabolic bone disease.

  6. Postoperative hormonal therapy prevents recovery of neurological damage after surgery in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Sato, Chiho; Matsudaira, Izumi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawai, Masaaki; Tada, Hiroshi; Ishida, Takanori; Taki, Yasuyuki; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Cancer survivors are exposed to several risk factors for cognitive dysfunction, such as general anesthesia, surgical trauma, and adjuvant therapies. In our recent study we showed that thalamic volume reduction and attentional dysfunction occurred shortly after surgery. Here, we examined the 6-month prognosis of the 20 patients with breast cancer who underwent surgery. Seven patients did not receive any adjuvant therapy after the surgery and 13 patients received a hormonal therapy after the surgery. We assessed their attentional functions, and thalamic volumes shortly after and 6 months after surgery. We found a significant group x time interaction in the attentional functions (p = 0.033) and the right thalamus (p <  0.05, small volume correction), suggesting the thalamic volume reduction and attentional dysfunction recovered in patients without adjuvant therapy. Our findings provide a better understanding of the potential role of hormonal therapy in relation to the cognitive dysfunction of cancer survivors. PMID:27708377

  7. Juvenile Hormone Prevents 20-Hydroxyecdysone-induced Metamorphosis by Regulating the Phosphorylation of a Newly Identified Broad Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5′-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. PMID:25096576

  8. Juvenile hormone prevents 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced metamorphosis by regulating the phosphorylation of a newly identified broad protein.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-09-19

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5'-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Decreased ovarian hormones during a soya diet: implications for breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Lu, L J; Anderson, K E; Grady, J J; Kohen, F; Nagamani, M

    2000-08-01

    Ovarian hormones are biomarkers for breast cancer risk. Soybean consumption may be responsible in part for lower levels of ovarian hormones and decreased rates of breast cancer in women in Asia compared with Western populations. Soybeans contain a significant amount of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, which are weak estrogens. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soya feeding decreases circulating levels of ovarian hormones and gonadotropins. Ten healthy, regularly cycling women consumed a constant soya-containing diet on a metabolic unit, starting on day 2 of a menstrual cycle until day 2 of the next cycle. Blood and urine samples were obtained daily for one menstrual cycle before and during soy feeding. The diet was calculated to maintain constant body weight, included 400 kilocalories from a 36-ounce portion of soymilk, and provided 113-207 mg/day (154.0+/-8.4 mg/day, mean +/- SE) of total isoflavones. For the group, the soya diet provided more carbohydrate and less protein than the home diets. Daily consumption of the soya diet reduced circulating levels of 17beta-estradiol by 25% (P<0.01, Wilcoxon signed rank test, two-tailed) and of progesterone by 45% (P<0.0001) compared with levels during the home diet period but had no effect on luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone. Mean menstrual cycle length did not change during the soya diet; a slight decrease in mean luteal cycle length was marginally statistically significant (P = 0.06). Urinary excretion of isoflavones was 33.8+/-5.3 mg/day (mean +/- SE) and when expressed as percentage of intake, varied substantially (21.9+/-3.3% of intake; range, 9.1-36.7%) among the subjects. Mean daily serum levels of daidzein and genistein (free and conjugated forms) 15 h after soymilk were 2.89+/-0.53 microg/ml and 0.85+/-0.22 microg/ml, respectively, indicating systemic bioavailability of these substances. Secondary analyses by multiple regression showed that decreases in follicular and

  10. Experiences of a long-term randomized controlled prevention trial in a maiden environment: Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, Sirpa-Liisa; Veerus, Piret; Rahu, Mati; Hemminki, Elina

    2008-01-01

    Background Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in a long-term randomized controlled trial and discuss the impact and consequences of changes in the research environment. Methods The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial (EPHT), originally planned to continue for five years, was planned in co-operation with the Women's International Study of Long-Duration Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM) in the UK. In addition to health outcomes, EPHT was specifically designed to study the impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on health services utilization. Results After EPHT recruited in 1999–2001 the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in the USA decided to stop the estrogen-progestin trial after a mean of 5.2 years in July 2002 because of increased risk of breast cancer and later in 2004 the estrogen-only trial because HT increased the risk of stroke, decreased the risk of hip fracture, and did not affect coronary heart disease incidence. WISDOM was halted in autumn 2002. These decisions had a major influence on EPHT. Conclusion Changes in Estonian society challenged EPHT to find a balance between the needs of achieving responses to the trial aims with a limited budget and simultaneously maintaining the safety of trial participants. Flexibility was the main key for success. Rapid changes are not limited only to transiting societies but are true also in developed countries and the risk must be included in planning all long-term trials. The role of ethical and data monitoring committees in situations with emerging new data from other studies needs specification. Longer funding for preventive trials and more flexibility in budgeting are mandatory. Who should prove the effectiveness of an (old) drug for a new preventive indication? In preventive drug trials companies may donate drugs but they take a

  11. Prevention of suckling improves postpartum reproductive responses to hormone treatments in Pelibuey ewes.

    PubMed

    Ronquillo, Julio César Camacho; Martínez, Arturo Pró; Pérez, Carlos Miguel Becerril; Sandoval, Benjamín Figueroa; Martin, Graeme B; Valencia, Javier; Gallegos Sánchez, Jaime

    2008-08-01

    To determine the effects of suckling on postpartum (pp) reproductive efficiency in Pelibuey ewes, two experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, 112 ewes were randomly assigned to one of two groups at parturition: Without restriction of suckling (WRS) 24 h day(-1) for 60 days (n=56), and Weaned Ewes (WE), weaned at 40 days pp (n=56). On Day 30 pp, all ewes were given Prostaglandin (PGF2alpha) and one of four treatments (n=14): T1, intravaginal progestagen (FGA; 40 mg) for 12 days from day 30 pp+equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; 300 UI) until 2 days before removing FGA; T2, FGA was applied for 12 days; T3, a second application of PGF2alpha was given on day 40 pp+eCG on the same day; T4, a second injection of PGF2alpha was applied on day 40 pp only. In all the analyzed characteristics, the best results were obtained in WE. Within the WE group, the best treatment (P<0.05) was T1 with 85.7% of the ewes in oestrus, 71.4% pregnant and a prolificacy of 1.9. Within the WRS group the best results were observed in T1. In both groups, the lowest results (P<0.05) were obtained in T4. In Experiment 2, 75 ewes were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n=25) immediately after parturition: Group 1, Without restriction of suckling (WRS, as in Experiment 1); Group 2, with restriction of suckling (RS; suckling for 30 min day(-1)); Group 3, Early Weaning (EW: at 7 days pp). All ewes were given PGF2alpha at 30 days pp and the same hormonal treatment, FGA for 12 days+PGF2alpha and eCG 2 days before removing FGA. No differences were observed (P>0.05) between RS and EW for the presentation of oestrus (96% vs. 92%), pregnancy (72% vs. 76%) or prolificacy (1.9 vs. 1.9), although group WRS did not perform (P<0.05) as well as groups RS and EW for any measure of performance. In conclusion, the combination of hormonal treatment (FGA plus eCG) with weaning at 7 or 40 days pp, or restricted suckling, improves postpartum reproductive efficiency in Pelibuey ewes, demonstrating the

  12. Testosterone Replacement Therapy Prevents Alterations of Coronary Vascular Reactivity Caused by Hormone Deficiency Induced by Castration.

    PubMed

    Rouver, Wender Nascimento; Delgado, Nathalie Tristão Banhos; Menezes, Jussara Bezerra; Santos, Roger Lyrio; Moyses, Margareth Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of chronic treatment with different doses of testosterone on endothelium-dependent coronary vascular reactivity in male rats. Adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: control (SHAM), castrated (CAST), castrated and immediately treated subcutaneously with a physiological dose (0.5 mg/kg/day, PHYSIO group) or supraphysiological dose (2.5 mg/kg/day, SUPRA group) of testosterone for 15 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was assessed at the end of treatment through tail plethysmography. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and coronary vascular reactivity was assessed using the Langendorff retrograde perfusion technique. A dose-response curve for bradykinin (BK) was constructed, followed by inhibition with 100 μM L-NAME, 2.8 μM indomethacin (INDO), L-NAME + INDO, or L-NAME + INDO + 0.75 μM clotrimazole (CLOT). We observed significant endothelium-dependent, BK-induced coronary vasodilation, which was abolished in the castrated group and restored in the PHYSIO and SUPRA groups. Furthermore, castration modulated the lipid and hormonal profiles and decreased body weight, and testosterone therapy restored all of these parameters. Our results revealed an increase in SBP in the SUPRA group. In addition, our data led us to conclude that physiological concentrations of testosterone may play a beneficial role in the cardiovascular system by maintaining an environment that is favourable for the activity of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator without increasing SBP.

  13. Cardiac-specific elevations in thyroid hormone enhance contractility and prevent pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Trivieri, Maria Giovanna; Oudit, Gavin Y.; Sah, Rajan; Kerfant, Benoit-Gilles; Sun, Hui; Gramolini, Anthony O.; Pan, Yan; Wickenden, Alan D.; Croteau, Walburga; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Pekhletski, Roman; St. Germain, Donald; MacLennan, David H.; Backx, Peter H.

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical for cardiac development and heart function. In heart disease, TH metabolism is abnormal, and many biochemical and functional alterations mirror hypothyroidism. Although TH therapy has been advocated for treating heart disease, a clear benefit of TH has yet to be established, possibly because of peripheral actions of TH. To assess the potential efficacy of TH in treating heart disease, type 2 deiodinase (D2), which converts the prohormone thyroxine to active triiodothyronine (T3), was expressed transiently in mouse hearts by using the tetracycline transactivator system. Increased cardiac D2 activity led to elevated cardiac T3 levels and to enhanced myocardial contractility, accompanied by increased Ca2+ transients and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ uptake. These phenotypic changes were associated with up-regulation of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) 2a expression as well as decreased Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, β-myosin heavy chain, and sarcolipin (SLN) expression. In pressure overload, targeted increases in D2 activity could not block hypertrophy but could completely prevent impaired contractility and SR Ca2+ cycling as well as altered expression patterns of SERCA2a, SLN, and other markers of pathological hypertrophy. Our results establish that elevated D2 activity in the heart increases T3 levels and enhances cardiac contractile function while preventing deterioration of cardiac function and altered gene expression after pressure overload. PMID:16595628

  14. The Association of Elective Hormone Therapy with Changes in Lipids Among Glucose Intolerant Postmenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Sherita H.; Kim, Catherine; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Nan, Bin; Kong, Shengchun; Goldberg, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Objective It is unclear how lipids change in response to lifestyle modification or metformin among postmenopausal glucose intolerant women using and not using hormone therapy (HT). We examined the one-year changes in lipids among postmenopausal, prediabetic women in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), and whether changes were mediated by sex hormones. Materials/Methods We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of 342 women who used HT at baseline and year 1 and 382 women who did not use HT at either time point. Interventions included intensive lifestyle (ILS) with goals of weight reduction of at least 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, or metformin or placebo administered 850 mg up to twice a day. Women were not randomized to HT. Main outcome measures were changes between baseline and study year 1 in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides. Results Compared to placebo, both ILS and metformin significantly reduced LDL-C and raised HDL-C among HT users, changes partially explained by change in estradiol and testosterone but independent of changes in waist circumference and 1/fasting insulin. In contrast, DPP interventions had no effect on LDL-C and HDL-C among non-HT users. ILS significantly lowered triglycerides among non-users but did not significantly change triglycerides among HT users. Metformin did not significantly change triglycerides among non-users but increased triglycerides among HT users. Conclusions The beneficial effects of ILS and metformin on lowering LDL-C and raising HDL-C differ depending upon concurrent HT use. PMID:23660512

  15. The association of elective hormone therapy with changes in lipids among glucose intolerant postmenopausal women in the diabetes prevention program.

    PubMed

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Kim, Catherine; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Nan, Bin; Kong, Shengchun; Goldberg, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    It is unclear how lipids change in response to lifestyle modification or metformin among postmenopausal glucose intolerant women using and not using hormone therapy (HT). We examined the one-year changes in lipids among postmenopausal, prediabetic women in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), and whether changes were mediated by sex hormones. We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of 342 women who used HT at baseline and year 1 and 382 women who did not use HT at either time point. Interventions included intensive lifestyle (ILS) with goals of weight reduction of at least 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, or metformin or placebo administered 850 mg up to twice a day. Women were not randomized to HT. Main outcome measures were changes between baseline and study year 1 in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides. Compared to placebo, both ILS and metformin significantly reduced LDL-C and raised HDL-C among HT users, changes partially explained by change in estradiol and testosterone but independent of changes in waist circumference and 1/fasting insulin. In contrast, DPP interventions had no effect on LDL-C and HDL-C among non-HT users. ILS significantly lowered triglycerides among non-users but did not significantly change triglycerides among HT users. Metformin did not significantly change triglycerides among non-users but increased triglycerides among HT users. The beneficial effects of ILS and metformin on lowering LDL-C and raising HDL-C differ depending upon concurrent HT use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical activity in the prevention and amelioration of osteoporosis in women : interaction of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Borer, Katarina T

    2005-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious health problem that diminishes quality of life and levies a financial burden on those who fear and experience bone fractures. Physical activity as a way to prevent osteoporosis is based on evidence that it can regulate bone maintenance and stimulate bone formation including the accumulation of mineral, in addition to strengthening muscles, improving balance, and thus reducing the overall risk of falls and fractures. Currently, our understanding of how to use exercise effectively in the prevention of osteoporosis is incomplete. It is uncertain whether exercise will help accumulate more overall peak bone mass during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Also, the consistent effectiveness of exercise to increase bone mass, or at least arrest the loss of bone mass after menopause, is also in question. Within this framework, section 1 introduces mechanical characteristics of bones to assist the reader in understanding their responses to physical activity. Section 2 reviews hormonal, nutritional and mechanical factors necessary for the growth of bones in length, width and mineral content that produce peak bone mass in the course of childhood and adolescence using a large sample of healthy Caucasian girls and female adolescents for reference. Effectiveness of exercise is evaluated throughout using absolute changes in bone with the underlying assumption that useful exercise should produce changes that approximate or exceed the absolute magnitude of bone parameters in a healthy reference population. Physical activity increases growth in width and mineral content of bones in girls and adolescent females, particularly when it is initiated before puberty, carried out in volumes and at intensities seen in athletes, and accompanied by adequate caloric and calcium intakes. Similar increases are seen in young women following the termination of statural growth in response to athletic training, but not to more limited levels of physical activity

  17. Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and Sex Steroids Among Premenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Stentz, Frankie B.; Murphy, Mary Beth; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Kitabchi, Abbas E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: It is unknown whether intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin changes sex steroids among premenopausal women without a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Objectives: We examined 1-year intervention impact on sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione [A4]) and SHBG and differences by race/ethnicity. Participants: A subgroup of Diabetes Prevention Program participants who were premenopausal, not using estrogen, without a history of PCOS or irregular menses, and who reported non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, or African-American race/ethnicity (n = 301). Interventions: Randomization arms were 1) ILS with the goals of weight reduction of 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, 2) metformin 850 mg twice a day, or 3) placebo. Results: Neither intervention changed sex steroids compared to placebo. ILS, but not metformin, increased median SHBG by 3.1 nmol/L (∼11%) compared to decreases of 1.1 nmol/L in the placebo arm (P < .05). This comparison remained significant after adjustment for changes in covariates including waist circumference. However, associations with glucose were not significant. Median baseline A4 was lower in Hispanics compared to NHWs (5.7 nmol/L vs 6.5 nmol/L, P < .05) and increases in A4 were greater in Hispanics compared to NHWs (3.0 nmol/ vs 1.2 nmol/L, P < .05), and these differences did not differ significantly by intervention arm. No other racial/ethnic differences were significant. Conclusions: Among premenopausal glucose-intolerant women, no intervention changed sex steroids. ILS increased SHBG, although associations with glucose were not significant. SHBG and sex steroids were similar by race/ethnicity, with the possible exception of lower baseline A4 levels in Hispanics compared to NHWs. PMID:23709655

  18. The what, why and how of aromatase inhibitors: hormonal agents for treatment and prevention of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, C J

    2007-01-01

    The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) anastrozole, exemestane and letrozole have largely replaced tamoxifen as the preferred treatment for hormone receptor – positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Approximately 185,000 new cases of invasive breast cancer are diagnosed yearly, and at least half of these women are both postmenopausal and eligible for adjuvant therapy with AIs. In addition, AIs are currently being tested as primary prevention therapy in large randomised trials involving tens of thousands of women at increased risk for breast cancer. Given the volume of use, internists will increasingly see postmenopausal women who are taking or considering treatment with AIs. Physicians need to be able to: (i) briefly discuss the pros and cons of using a selective estrogen receptor modulator such as tamoxifen or raloxifene vs. an AI for risk reduction and (ii) recognise and manage AI-associated adverse events. The primary purpose of this review is to help internists with these two tasks. Review Criteria Expert opinion based on review of literature on relevant clinical trials. Message for the Clinic Both tamoxifen and AIs are effective for the adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment of postmenopausal breast cancer; the optimal choice of drug is dependent on the characteristics of the patient and tumour. Adverse events with both drug classes are manageable. Adverse events associated with tamoxifen include increased risk of uterine cancers and thromboembolic events vs. an increased incidence of vaginal dryness, loss of libido, musculoskeletal pain and bone mineral density loss with AIs. Promising studies of AIs in the breast cancer prevention setting are ongoing. PMID:17892469

  19. Intermittent Administration of Parathyroid Hormone [1–34] Prevents Particle-Induced Periprosthetic Osteolysis in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Fanggang; Shi, Zhongli; Zhou, Chenhe; Liu, An; Shen, Yue; Yan, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone [1–34] (PTH[1–34]; 60 μg/kg/day) can prevent the negative effects of titanium (Ti) particles on implant fixation and periprosthetic osteolysis in a rat model. Eighteen adult male rats (12 weeks old, bones still growing) received intramedullary Ti implants in their bilateral femurs; 6 rats from the blank group received vehicle injections, and 12 rats from the control group and PTH treatment group received Ti particle injections at the time of operation and intra-articular injections 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively. Six of the rats that received Ti particles from the PTH group also received PTH[1–34] treatment. Six weeks postoperatively, all specimens were collected for assessment by X-ray, micro-CT, biomechanical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and dynamic histomorphometry. A lower BMD, BV/TV, Tb.N, maximal fixation strength, and mineral apposition rate were observed in the control group compared to the blank group, demonstrating that a periprosthetic osteolysis model had been successfully established. Administration of PTH[1–34] significantly increased the bone mineral density of the distal femur, BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp, Con.D, SMI, and maximal fixation strength in the PTH group compared to that in the control group. SEM revealed higher bone–implant contact, thicker lamellar bone, and larger trabecular bone area in the PTH group than in the control group. A higher mineral apposition rate was observed in the PTH group compared to both the blank and control groups. These findings imply that intermittent administration of PTH[1–34] prevents periprosthetic osteolysis by promoting bone formation. The effects of PTH[1–34] were evaluated at a suprapharmacological dosage to the human equivalent in rats; therefore, additional studies are required to demonstrate its therapeutic potential in periprosthetic osteolysis. PMID:26441073

  20. Intermittent Administration of Parathyroid Hormone [1-34] Prevents Particle-Induced Periprosthetic Osteolysis in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Bi, Fanggang; Shi, Zhongli; Zhou, Chenhe; Liu, An; Shen, Yue; Yan, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone [1-34] (PTH[1-34]; 60 μg/kg/day) can prevent the negative effects of titanium (Ti) particles on implant fixation and periprosthetic osteolysis in a rat model. Eighteen adult male rats (12 weeks old, bones still growing) received intramedullary Ti implants in their bilateral femurs; 6 rats from the blank group received vehicle injections, and 12 rats from the control group and PTH treatment group received Ti particle injections at the time of operation and intra-articular injections 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively. Six of the rats that received Ti particles from the PTH group also received PTH[1-34] treatment. Six weeks postoperatively, all specimens were collected for assessment by X-ray, micro-CT, biomechanical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and dynamic histomorphometry. A lower BMD, BV/TV, Tb.N, maximal fixation strength, and mineral apposition rate were observed in the control group compared to the blank group, demonstrating that a periprosthetic osteolysis model had been successfully established. Administration of PTH[1-34] significantly increased the bone mineral density of the distal femur, BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp, Con.D, SMI, and maximal fixation strength in the PTH group compared to that in the control group. SEM revealed higher bone-implant contact, thicker lamellar bone, and larger trabecular bone area in the PTH group than in the control group. A higher mineral apposition rate was observed in the PTH group compared to both the blank and control groups. These findings imply that intermittent administration of PTH[1-34] prevents periprosthetic osteolysis by promoting bone formation. The effects of PTH[1-34] were evaluated at a suprapharmacological dosage to the human equivalent in rats; therefore, additional studies are required to demonstrate its therapeutic potential in periprosthetic osteolysis.

  1. Growth hormone replacement therapy prevents sarcopenia by a dual mechanism: improvement of protein balance and of antioxidant defenses.

    PubMed

    Brioche, T; Kireev, R A; Cuesta, S; Gratas-Delamarche, A; Tresguerres, J A; Gomez-Cabrera, M C; Viña, J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our study was to elucidate the role of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in three of the main mechanisms involved in sarcopenia: alterations in mitochondrial biogenesis, increase in oxidative stress, and alterations in protein balance. We used young and old Wistar rats that received either placebo or low doses of GH to reach normal insulin-like growth factor-1 values observed in the young group. We found an increase in lean body mass and plasma and hepatic insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in the old animals treated with GH. We also found a lowering of age-associated oxidative damage and an induction of antioxidant enzymes in the skeletal muscle of the treated animals. GH replacement therapy resulted in an increase in the skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis pathways. This was paralleled by a lowering of inhibitory factors in skeletal muscle regeneration and in protein degradation. GH replacement therapy prevents sarcopenia by acting as a double-edged sword, antioxidant and hypertrophic. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Prevention and treatment of bone loss in patients with nonmetastatic breast or prostate cancer who receive hormonal ablation therapy.

    PubMed

    Limburg, Connie; Maxwell, Cathy; Mautner, Beatrice

    2014-04-01

    Hormone ablation therapy is a mainstay in the treatment of breast and prostate cancers. However, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) used in postmenopausal women with breast cancer and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) used in men with prostate cancer contribute to substantial bone loss, thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Evidence-based guidelines, therefore, urge oncology practices to screen these patients for bone loss and, if needed, provide treatment to maintain bone health. In addition to lifestyle modification and calcium or vitamin D supplementation, bone protection strategies include treatment with bisphosphonates and denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against RANK ligand. Identification of patients at greater risk for bone loss and fracture and proper interventions can reduce fracture rates. Oncology nurses can play an important role in screening these patients. The purpose of this article is to inform oncology nurses about the effects of cancer treatment on bone health, review current prevention and treatment options for cancer treatment-induced bone loss, and discuss recommendations for identifying high-risk individuals.

  3. Molecular mechanisms involved in the hormonal prevention of aging in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Jesús A F; Kireev, Roman; Tresguerres, Ana F; Borras, Consuelo; Vara, Elena; Ariznavarreta, Carmen

    2008-02-01

    Previous data from our group have provided support for the role of GH, melatonin and estrogens in the prevention of aging of several physiological parameters from bone, liver metabolism, vascular activity, the central nervous system (CNS), the immune system and the skin. In the present work data on the molecular mechanisms involved are presented. A total of 140 male and female rats have been submitted to different treatments over 10 weeks, between 22 and 24 months of age. Males have been treated with GH and melatonin. Females were divided in two groups: intact and castrated at 12 months of age. The first group was treated with GH and melatonin and the second with the two latter compounds and additionally with estradiol and Phytosoya. Aging was associated with a reduction in the number of neurons of the hylus of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and with a reduction of neurogenesis. GH treatment increased the number of neurons but did not increase neurogenesis thus suggesting a reduction of apoptosis. This was supported by the reduction in nucleosomes and the increase in Bcl2 observed in cerebral homogenates together with an increase in sirtuin2 and a reduction of caspases 9 and 3. Melatonin, estrogen and Phytosoya treatments increased neurogenesis but did not enhance the total number of neurons. Aging induced a significant increase in mitochondrial nitric oxide in the hepatocytes, together with a reduction in the mitochondrial fraction content in cytochrome C and an increase of this compound in the cytosolic fraction. Reductions of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase were also detected, thus indicating oxidative stress and possibly apoptosis. Treatment for 2.5 months of old rats with GH and melatonin were able to significantly and favourably affect age-induced deteriorations, thus reducing oxidative damage. Keratinocytes obtained from old rats in primary culture showed an increase in lipoperoxides, caspases 8 and 3 as well as a reduction in Bcl2

  4. Postoperative levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system versus oral contraceptives after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment for preventing endometrioma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sihyun; Jung, Ji Ann; Lee, Yousun; Kim, Hye Yeon; Seo, Seok Kyo; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Byung Seok

    2014-01-01

    Although the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is effective in reducing the recurrence of endometriosis-associated pain, its efficacy in preventing endometrioma recurrence is questionable. We compared the efficacy of postoperative use of LNG-IUS with oral contraceptives (OC) for preventing endometrioma recurrence. A retrospective cohort study. Medical university hospital. Ninety-nine women with endometriomas. A chart review was performed of women of reproductive age who had undergone laparoscopic surgery for endometrioma followed by three cycles of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (leuprolide acetate) treatment. Women were categorized into two groups: a group that had postoperative LNG-IUS placement (n = 42) and a group that received postoperative, cyclic, low-dose, monophasic, OCs (n = 57). Main outcome measures. Endometrioma recurrence was analyzed according to several clinical variables and postoperative treatment modalities. During the follow-up period (median 17 months), recurrent endometriomas were detected in eight women (8.1%). Patients with LNG-IUS had a recurrence rate of 4.8% (2/42), whereas women receiving OC had a recurrence rate of 10.5% (6/57). Cumulative recurrence-free survival assessment revealed that mean disease-free survival times for both groups were similar, but that for LNG-IUS was slightly longer than that for OC, with statistical significance (34.4 ± 1.0 months, 95% confidence interval 32.3–36.5, vs. 33.4 ± 1.3 months, 95% confidence interval 30.8–36.0, p = 0.045). Univariate analysis revealed a hazard ratio of 0.178 (95% confidence interval 0.029–1.075) (p = 0.060) for postoperative LNG-IUS use and endometrioma recurrence. However, for the multivariate regression analysis, only postoperative serum CA 125 levels were significantly associated with endometrioma recurrence (hazard ratio 1.012, p = 0.010). Postoperative LNG-IUS use seemed to be comparable to the use of cyclic OC in preventing endometrioma

  5. Use of growth-hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) for the prevention of multiple organ failure.

    PubMed

    Cibrián, Danay; Ajamieh, Hussam; Berlanga, Jorge; León, Olga S; Alba, Jose S; Kim, Micheal J-T; Marchbank, Tania; Boyle, Joseph J; Freyre, Freya; Garcia Del Barco, Diana; Lopez-Saura, Pedro; Guillen, Gerardo; Ghosh, Subrata; Goodlad, Robert A; Playford, Raymond J

    2006-05-01

    Novel therapies for the treatment of MOF (multiple organ failure) are required. In the present study, we examined the effect of synthetic GHRP-6 (growth hormone-releasing peptide-6) on cell migration and proliferation using rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) and human colonic cancer (HT29) cells as in vitro models of injury. In addition, we examined its efficacy when given alone and in combination with the potent protective factor EGF (epidermal growth factor) in an in vivo model of MOF (using two hepatic vessel ischaemia/reperfusion protocols; 45 min of ischaemia and 45 min of reperfusion or 90 min of ischaemia and 120 min of reperfusion). In vitro studies showed that GHRP-6 directly influenced gut epithelial function as its addition caused a 3-fold increase in the rate of cell migration of IEC-6 and HT29 cells (P<0.01), but did not increase proliferation ([3H]thymidine incorporation). In vivo studies showed that, compared with baseline values, ischaemia/reperfusion caused marked hepatic and intestinal damage (histological scoring), neutrophilic infiltration (myeloperoxidase assay; 5-fold increase) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde assay; 4-fold increase). Pre-treatment with GHRP-6 (120 microg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneally) alone truncated these effects by 50-85% (all P<0.05) and an additional benefit was seen when GHRP-6 was used in combination with EGF (1 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneally). Lung and renal injuries were also reduced by these pre-treatments. In conclusion, administration of GHRP-6, given alone or in combination with EGF to enhance its effects, may provide a novel simple approach for the prevention and treatment of MOF and other injuries of the gastrointestinal tract. In view of these findings, further studies appear justified.

  6. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  7. Prevention of estradiol 17β-d-glucuronide–induced canalicular transporter internalization by hormonal modulation of cAMP in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zucchetti, Andrés E.; Barosso, Ismael R.; Boaglio, Andrea; Pellegrino, José M.; Ochoa, Elena J.; Roma, Marcelo G.; Crocenzi, Fernando A.; Sánchez Pozzi, Enrique J.

    2011-01-01

    In estradiol 17β-d-glucuronide (E17G)–induced cholestasis, the canalicular hepatocellular transporters bile salt export pump (Abcb11) and multidrug-resistance associated protein 2 (Abcc2) undergo endocytic internalization. cAMP stimulates the trafficking of transporter-containing vesicles to the apical membrane and is able to prevent internalization of these transporters in estrogen-induced cholestasis. Hepatocyte levels of cAMP are regulated by hormones such as glucagon and adrenaline (via the β2 receptor). We analyzed the effects of glucagon and salbutamol (a β2 adrenergic agonist) on function and localization of Abcb11 and Abcc2 in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets exposed to E17G and compared the mechanistic bases of their effects. Glucagon and salbutamol partially prevented the impairment in Abcb11 and Abcc2 transport capacity. E17G also induced endocytic internalization of Abcb11 and Abcc2, which partially colocalized with the endosomal marker Rab11a. This effect was completely prevented by salbutamol, whereas some transporter-containing vesicles remained internalized and mainly colocalizing with Rab11a in the perinuclear region after incubation with glucagon. Glucagon prevention was dependent on cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and independent of exchange proteins activated directly by cAMP (Epac) and microtubules. In contrast, salbutamol prevention was PKA independent and Epac/MEK and microtubule dependent. Anticholestatic effects of glucagon and salbutamol were additive in nature. Our results show that increases in cAMP could activate different anticholestatic signaling pathways, depending on the hormonal mediator involved. PMID:21865596

  8. Dietary prevention of hormone refractory prostate cancer in Lobund-Wistar rats: a review of studies in a relevant animal model.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Morris; Suckow, Mark A

    2006-12-01

    Lobund-Wistar (LW) rats, which have high testosterone levels, are predisposed to develop hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) spontaneously and by methylnitrosourea (MNU) induction, and the development of HRPC progresses through 2 stages. This paper reviews several studies in which LW rats were placed on soy-containing diets and were evaluated for development of either spontaneous or MNU-induced prostate cancer. The premalignant, testosterone-dependent stage is inhibited by testosterone deprivation. In the absence of testosterone deprivation, tumorigenesis progresses spontaneously to the testosterone-independent refractory stage. In LW rats: moderate caloric restriction prevented development of spontaneous prostate cancer; dietary 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide prevented MNU-induced prostate cancer; and dietary supplementation with soy protein isolate with high isoflavones prevented spontaneous and induced tumors and led to moderate reduction of serum testosterone. In rats 12 mo of age and younger, changing from the control diet to the soy+isoflavone diet significantly prevented progression of spontaneous tumors to the refractory stage of disease. Tumors that developed spontaneously and after MNU induction showed similar developmental stages and morphology, but MNU-induced tumors had shorter latency periods before development. The accumulated data indicate that soy-based diets are effective in the prevention of prostate cancer.

  9. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist trigger and freeze-all strategy does not prevent severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Ali Sami; Gode, Funda; Ozcimen, Necati; Isik, Ahmet Zeki

    2014-11-01

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the most serious iatrogenic complication of IVF cycles. Although the development of effective treatment strategies for this syndrome is important, preventing OHSS is more crucial. Triggering ovulation with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist is one method used to avoid OHSS. In this paper, three patients who developed severe OHSS after undergoing GnRH agonist triggering and freezing of all embryos in a GnRH antagonist protocol are described. A review of the literature is also provided. This report highlights the ongoing risk of severe OHSS even after GnRH agonist triggering combined with freezing all embryos in GnRH antagonist cycles. Other prevention strategies might be considered for extreme hyper-responders.

  10. Failure of thyroid hormone treatment to prevent inflammation-induced white matter injury in the immature brain

    PubMed Central

    Schang, Anne-Laure; Van Steenwinckel, Juliette; Chevenne, Didier; Alkmark, Marten; Hagberg, Henrik; Gressens, Pierre; Fleiss, Bobbi

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is very strongly associated with maternal/foetal inflammation and leads to permanent neurological deficits. These deficits correlate with the severity of white matter injury, including maturational arrest of oligodendrocytes and hypomyelination. Preterm birth and exposure to inflammation causes hypothyroxinemia. As such, supplementation with thyroxine (T4) seems a good candidate therapy for reducing white matter damage in preterm infants as oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination is regulated by thyroid hormones. We report on a model of preterm inflammation-induced white matter damage, in which induction of systemic inflammation by exposure from P1 to P5 to interleukin-1β (IL-1β) causes oligodendrocyte maturational arrest and hypomyelination. This model identified transient hypothyroidism and wide-ranging dysfunction in thyroid hormone signalling pathways. To test whether a clinically relevant dose of T4 could reduce inflammation-induced white matter damage we concurrently treated mice exposed to IL-1β from P1 to P5 with T4 (20 μg/kg/day). At P10, we isolated O4-positive pre-oligodendrocytes and gene expression analysis revealed that T4 treatment did not recover the IL-1β-induced blockade of oligodendrocyte maturation. Moreover, at P10 and P30 immunohistochemistry for markers of oligodendrocyte lineage (NG2, PDGFRα and APC) and myelin (MBP) similarly indicated that T4 treatment did not recover IL-1β-induced deficits in the white matter. In summary, in this model of preterm inflammation-induced white matter injury, a clinical dose of T4 had no therapeutic efficacy. We suggest that additional pre-clinical trials with T4 covering the breadth and scope of causes and outcomes of perinatal brain injury are required before we can correctly evaluate clinical trials data and understand the potential for thyroid hormone as a widely implementable clinical therapy. PMID:24240022

  11. Juvenile hormone counteracts the bHLH-PAS transcription factors MET and GCE to prevent caspase-dependent programmed cell death in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Sheng, Zhentao; Liu, Hanhan; Wen, Di; He, Qianyu; Wang, Sheng; Shao, Wei; Jiang, Rong-Jing; An, Shiheng; Sun, Yaning; Bendena, William G; Wang, Jian; Gilbert, Lawrence I; Wilson, Thomas G; Song, Qisheng; Li, Sheng

    2009-06-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates many developmental and physiological events in insects, but its molecular mechanism remains conjectural. Here we report that genetic ablation of the corpus allatum cells of the Drosophila ring gland (the JH source) resulted in JH deficiency, pupal lethality and precocious and enhanced programmed cell death (PCD) of the larval fat body. In the fat body of the JH-deficient animals, Dronc and Drice, two caspase genes that are crucial for PCD induced by the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), were significantly upregulated. These results demonstrated that JH antagonizes 20E-induced PCD by restricting the mRNA levels of Dronc and Drice. The antagonizing effect of JH on 20E-induced PCD in the fat body was further confirmed in the JH-deficient animals by 20E treatment and RNA interference of the 20E receptor EcR. Moreover, MET and GCE, the bHLH-PAS transcription factors involved in JH action, were shown to induce PCD by upregulating Dronc and Drice. In the Met- and gce-deficient animals, Dronc and Drice were downregulated, whereas in the Met-overexpression fat body, Dronc and Drice were significantly upregulated leading to precocious and enhanced PCD, and this upregulation could be suppressed by application of the JH agonist methoprene. For the first time, we demonstrate that JH counteracts MET and GCE to prevent caspase-dependent PCD in controlling fat body remodeling and larval-pupal metamorphosis in Drosophila.

  12. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitor Gefitinib Reduces but Does Not Prevent Tumorigenesis in Chemical and Hormonal Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Ribback, Silvia; Sailer, Verena; Böhning, Enrico; Günther, Julia; Merz, Jaqueline; Steinmüller, Frauke; Utpatel, Kirsten; Cigliano, Antonio; Peters, Kristin; Pilo, Maria G.; Evert, Matthias; Calvisi, Diego F.; Dombrowski, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway promotes the development of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and carcinoma (HCC). The selective EGFR inhibitor Gefitinib was found to prevent hepatocarcinogenesis in rat cirrhotic livers. Thus, Gefitinib might reduce progression of pre-neoplastic liver lesions to HCC. In short- and long-term experiments, administration of N-Nitrosomorpholine (NNM) or intrahepatic transplantation of pancreatic islets in diabetic (PTx), thyroid follicles in thyroidectomized (TTx) and ovarian fragments in ovariectomized (OTx) rats was conducted for the induction of foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH). Gefitinib was administered for two weeks (20 mg/kg) or three and nine months (10 mg/kg). In NNM-treated rats, Gefitinib administration decreased the amount of FAH when compared to controls. The amount of HCA and HCC was decreased, but development was not prevented. Upon all transplantation models, proliferative activity of FAH was lower after administration of Gefitinib in short-term experiments. Nevertheless, the burden of HCA and HCC was not changed in later stages. Thus, EGFR inhibition by Gefitinib diminishes chemical and hormonal also induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the initiation stage in the non-cirrhotic liver. However, progression to malignant hepatocellular tumors was not prevented, indicating only a limited relevance of the EGFR signaling cascade in later stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:27669229

  13. Growth hormone and melatonin prevent age-related alteration in apoptosis processes in the dentate gyrus of male rats.

    PubMed

    Kireev, R A; Vara, E; Tresguerres, J A F

    2013-08-01

    It has been suggested that the age-related decrease in the number of neurons in the hippocampus that leads to alterations in brain function, may be associated with an increase in apoptosis due to the reduced secretion of growth hormone (GH) and/or melatonin in old animals. In order to investigate this possibility, male Wistar rats of 22 months of age were divided into three groups. One group remained untreated and acted as the control group. The second was treated with growth hormone (hGH) for 10 weeks (2 mg/kg/d sc) and the third was subjected to melatonin treatment (1 mg/kg/d) in the drinking water for the same time. A group of 2-months-old male rats was used as young controls. All rats were killed by decapitation at more than 24 month of age and dentate gyri of the hippocampi were collected. Aging in the dentate gyrus was associated with an increase in apoptosis promoting markers (Bax, Bad and AIF) and with the reduction of some anti-apoptotic ones (XIAP, NIAP, Mcl-1). Expressions of sirtuin 1 and 2 (SIRT1 and 2) as well as levels of HSP 70 were decreased in the dentate gyrus of old rats. GH treatment was able to reduce the pro/anti-apoptotic ratio to levels observed in young animals and also to increase SIRT2. Melatonin reduced also expression of pro-apoptotic genes and proteins (Bax, Bad and AIF), and increased levels of myeloid cell leukemia-1 proteins and SIRT1. Both treatments were able to reduce apoptosis and to enhance survival markers in this part of the hippocampus.

  14. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  15. Postoperative Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System Insertion After Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Treatment for Preventing Endometriotic Cyst Recurrence: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Chon, Seung Joo; Lee, Jae Hoon; Yun, Bo Hyon; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok; Seo, Seok Kyo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) insertion after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) treatment for preventing endometriotic cyst recurrence. The LNG-IUS was applied to 28 women who had undergone surgery for endometriosis followed by 6 cycles of GnRH-a treatment. Clinical characteristics, endometriosis recurrence, and adverse effects were analyzed. Student t test was performed for analysis. Before surgery, 20 (71.4%) patients had dysmenorrhea, and the mean pain score (visual analog scale [VAS]) was 4.26. The numbers of women diagnosed with stage III endometriosis and stage IV endometriosis were 15 (53.6%) and 13 (46.4%), respectively, according to the revised American Fertility Society scoring system. The mean cancer antigen 125 levels and VAS scores were significantly lower after treatment than before treatment (11.61 vs 75.66 U/mL, P < .0001 and 0.50 vs 4.26 U/mL, P < .0001, respectively). Of the 28 patients, 13 (46.4%) simultaneously had adenomyosis, and 2 (7.1%) underwent LNG-IUS removal because of unresolved vaginal bleeding and dysmenorrhea. Recurrence was noted in 2 (7.1%) women. Postoperative LNG-IUS insertion after GnRH-a treatment is an effective approach for preventing endometriotic cyst recurrence, especially in women who do not desire to conceive.

  16. Associations Between Macronutrient Intake and Self-reported Appetite and Fasting Levels of Appetite Hormones: Results From the Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial to Prevent Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ange, Brett A.; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Miller, Edgar R.; Erlinger, Thomas P.; Holbrook, Janet T.; Sacks, Frank M.; Appel, Lawrence J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors compared effects of macronutrients on self-reported appetite and selected fasting hormone levels. The Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial to Prevent Heart Disease (OMNI-Heart) (2003–2005) was a randomized, 3-period, crossover feeding trial (n = 164) comparing the effects of 3 diets, each rich in a different macronutrient. Percentages of kilocalories of carbohydrate, fat, and protein were 48, 27, and 25, respectively, for the protein-rich diet; 58, 27, and 15, for the carbohydrate-rich diet; and 48, 37, and 15 for the diet rich in unsaturated fat. Food and drink were provided for each isocaloric 6-week period. Appetite was measured by visual analog scales. Pairwise differences between diets were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Compared with the protein diet, premeal appetite was 14% higher on the carbohydrate (P = 0.01) and unsaturated-fat (P = 0.003) diets. Geometric mean leptin was 8% lower on the protein diet than on the carbohydrate diet (P = 0.003). Obestatin levels were 7% and 6% lower on the protein diet than on the carbohydrate (P = 0.02) and unsaturated-fat (P = 0.004) diets, respectively. There were no between-diet differences for ghrelin. A diet rich in protein from lean meat and vegetables reduces self-reported appetite compared with diets rich in carbohydrate and unsaturated fat and can be recommended in a weight-stable setting. The observed pattern of hormone changes does not explain the inverse association between protein intake and appetite. PMID:19224977

  17. Is homosexuality hormonally determined?

    PubMed

    Birke, L I

    1981-01-01

    This paper suggest there is insufficient evidence to conclude that homosexuality has endocrine bases. The search for hormonal correlates occurs within a model that views homosexuality as a medical problem requiring biological explanations and a program of treatment or prevention. This search is heavily rooted in popular conceptions of gender-appropriate behavior, as well as in naive concepts of the significance of hormonal changes. Two kinds of hormonal study are considered here. Researchers may either (a) investigate hormone levels in adult populations or (b) investigate hypotheses of behavioral determination by prenatal hormones. Much of the latter information derives from animal studies, commonly on the laboratory rat. This paper questions the validity of assumptions underlying these studies--assumptions about the behavior of the laboratory rat itself and, more importantly, about the legitimacy of this animal as a model for human behavior. It is suggested that, although such hypotheses are naive, their current popularity arises from their potential role in "controlling" homosexuality.

  18. Prevention

    Treesearch

    Kerry Britton; Barbara Illman; Gary Man

    2010-01-01

    Prevention is considered the most cost-effective element of the Forest Service Invasive Species Strategy (USDA Forest Service 2004). What makes prevention difficult is the desire to maximize free trade and the resulting benefits to society while, at the same time, protecting natural resources. The role of science is to first identify which commodities pose an...

  19. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal methods prevent ...

  20. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal methods prevent pregnancy? • ...

  1. Treatment and prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia with PTH-CBD, a collagen-targeted parathyroid hormone analog, in a non-depilated mouse model.

    PubMed

    Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Matsushita, Osamu; Sakon, Joshua; Gensure, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a psychologically devastating complication of chemotherapy for which there is currently no effective therapy. PTH-CBD is a collagen-targeted parathyroid hormone analog that has shown promise as a therapy for alopecia disorders. This study compared the efficacy of prophylactic versus therapeutic administration of PTH-CBD in chemotherapy-induced alopecia using a mouse model that mimics the cyclic chemotherapy dosing used clinically. C57BL/6J mice were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of PTH-CBD (320 mcg/kg) or vehicle control before or after hair loss developing from three courses of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy (50-150 mg/kg/week). Mice receiving chemotherapy alone developed hair loss and depigmentation over 6-12 months. Mice pretreated with PTH-CBD did not develop these changes and maintained a normal-appearing coat. Mice treated with PTH-CBD after development of hair loss showed a partial recovery. Observations of hair loss were confirmed quantitatively by gray scale analysis. Histological examination showed that in mice receiving chemotherapy alone, there were small, dystrophic hair follicles mostly in the catagen phase. Mice receiving PTH-CBD before chemotherapy showed a mix of normal-appearing telogen and anagen hair follicles with no evidence of dystrophy. Mice receiving PTH-CBD therapy after chemotherapy showed intermediate histological features. PTH-CBD was effective in both the prevention and the treatment of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in mice, but pretreatment appears to result in a better cosmetic outcome. PTH-CBD shows promise as an agent in the prevention of this complication of chemotherapy and improving the quality of life for cancer patients.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy for fracture prevention in young postmenopausal women: an economic analysis based on a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fleurence, R; Torgerson, D J; Reid, D M

    2002-08-01

    A recent systematic review of randomized controlled trials has shown that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) prevents fractures when taken soon after the menopause. HRT for treatment of menopausal symptoms is relatively cost-effective, but whether its use for prevention of perimenopausal fractures is economically efficient is unknown. We undertook a 6-year follow-up of 3645 perimenopausal women who had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement with recommendation to use HRT if low BMD was present. Data were collected on incident fractures and costs. After an average of 6.2 years of follow-up HRT use significantly reduced incident fractures by 52% (95% CI: 67% to 18%). However, costs were increased by an average of pounds sterling 275 (95% CI: pounds sterling 228 to pounds sterling 330) for the group as a whole; for hysterectomized women costs were increased less (pounds sterling 138), but this was still significantly greater than for non-HRT users (95% CI: pounds sterling 6 to pounds sterling 275). The cost per averted fracture was about pounds sterling 11 000 (95% CI: pounds sterling 8625 to pounds sterling 13 872) for the whole group and for hysterectomized women the corresponding figure was substantially less (pounds sterling 1784; 95% CI: pounds sterling 59 to pounds sterling 3532). HRT given to women at or shortly after the menopause is therefore associated with a halving of fracture incidence. Such a policy for hysterectomized women without menopausal symptoms may be cost-effective as such women are at elevated risk of fracture and need cheaper, unopposed, estrogens.

  3. Treatment and prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia with PTH-CBD, a collagen-targeted parathyroid hormone analog, in a non-depilated mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Matsushita, Osamu; Sakon, Joshua; Gensure, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a psychologically devastating complication of chemotherapy for which there is currently no effective therapy. PTH-CBD is a collagen-targeted parathyroid hormone analog that has shown promise as a therapy for alopecia disorders. To compare the efficacy of prophylactic versus therapeutic administration of PTH-CBD in chemotherapy-induced alopecia using a mouse model that mimics the cyclic chemotherapy dosing used clinically. C57BL/6J mice were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of PTH-CBD (320 mcg/kg) or vehicle control before or after hair loss developing from three courses of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy (50–150 mg/kg/week). Mice receiving chemotherapy alone developed hair loss and depigmentation over 6–12 months. Mice pretreated with PTH-CBD did not develop these changes and maintained a normal-appearing coat. Mice treated with PTH-CBD after development of hair loss showed a partial recovery. Observations of hair loss were confirmed quantitatively by gray scale analysis. Histological examination showed that in mice receiving chemotherapy alone, there were small, dystrophic hair follicles mostly in the catagen phase. Mice receiving PTH-CBD before chemotherapy showed a mix of normal-appearing telogen and anagen hair follicles with no evidence of dystrophy. Mice receiving PTH-CBD therapy after chemotherapy showed intermediate histological features. PTH-CBD was effective in both the prevention and the treatment of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in mice, but pretreatment appears to result in a better cosmetic outcome. PTH-CBD shows promise as an agent in the prevention of this complication of chemotherapy and improving the quality of life for cancer patients. PMID:24025564

  4. Prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a rat model: comparison of the efficacy of tocilizumab with that of ranibizumab, cabergoline, and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Mine Islimye; Topcu, Onur; Yay, Arzu; Erken, Gulten; Balcioğlu, Esra; Adali, Ertan; Hismiogulları, Adnan Adil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) blocker tocilizumab in a hyperstimulated rat model and compare it with ranibizumab, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHA), and cabergoline. Forty-seven rats were randomly divided into the following seven groups: Group 1: OHS; Group 2: OHS+ GnRHA; Group 3: OHS + ranibizumab; Group 4: OHS + cabergoline; Group 5: OHS + low-dose tocilizumab (TL); Group 6: OHS + high-dose tocilizumab (TH); Group 7: sham. Ovarian weight was significantly lower only in the ranibizumab group than in the OHS group. Estrogen levels were significantly lower in the GnRHA group than in the OHS and the treatment groups. Progesterone levels were significantly lower in the ranibizumab, cabergoline, and TL groups than in the OHS group. Among the treatment groups, corpus luteum counts were lower than in the OHS group. Corpus luteum counts were lowest in the tocilizumab groups. IL-6 intensity was lower in all treatment groups than in the OHS group. In the ranibizumab group IL-6 intensity was the lowest. The TL group did not significantly differ from the GnRHA and cabergoline groups regarding IL-6 expression. Ovarian VEGF expression was significantly lower in all treatment groups. For the TL, ranibizumab, and cabergoline groups VEGF intensity was similar. Tocilizumab may be a new strategy for preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome by inhibition of IL-6.

  5. Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of estrogen , a hormone that helps control the menstrual cycle . Changing estrogen levels can bring on symptoms such ... of two hormones—estrogen and progesterone —control your menstrual cycle. These hormones are made by the ovaries . Estrogen ...

  6. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ...

  7. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs ... Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs ...

  8. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome prevention strategies: oral contraceptive pills-dual gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist suppression with step-down gonadotropin protocols.

    PubMed

    Damario, Mark A

    2010-11-01

    The identification of patients at high risk for excessive responses to ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer is essential in the tailoring of safe and effective treatment strategies. Known factors associated with increased sensitivity to gonadotropins include polycystic ovary syndrome, young age, prior ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), high baseline antral follicle count, and high baseline ovarian volume. Although several treatment strategies have been proposed for these patients, this report describes the experience using the dual suppression with gonadotropin step-down protocol. This protocol uses oral contraceptive pretreatment in combination with a long gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist followed by a programmed step-down in gonadotropin dosing. Hormonal characteristics of dual suppression include an improved luteinizing hormone-to-follicle-stimulating hormone ratio and lower serum androgens, particularly dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Clinical characteristics of the protocol include a lower cancellation rate and favorable clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates per initiated cycle while mitigating the risk of OHSS.

  9. Original Research: Atorvastatin prevents rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by parathyroid hormone 1-34 associated with the Ras-ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaogang; Zou, Chunbo; Yu, Chengyuan; Xie, Rujuan; Sui, Manshu; Mu, Suhong; Li, Li; Zhao, Shilei

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the effects of atorvastatin (Ator) on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (CMH) induced by rat parathyroid hormone 1-34 (PTH1-34) and Ras-extracellular signal regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Rat cardiomyocytes were randomly divided into seven groups: normal controls (NC), PTH1-34 (10(-7) mol/L), Ator (10(-5) mol/L), farnesyl transferase inhibitors-276 (FTI-276, 4 × 10(-5) mol/L), PTH1-34 + Ator, PTH1-34 + FTI-276 and PTH1-34 + Ator + mevalonic acid (MVA, 10(-4) mol/L). After treatment, the hypertrophic responses of cardiomyocytes were assessed by measuring cell diameter, detecting protein synthesis, and single-cell protein content. The concentrations of hypertrophic markers such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured by ELISA. Protein expressions of ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and Ras were detected by western blotting. The results showed that compared with the PTH1-34 group, cellular diameter, 3H-leucine incorporation, single-cell protein content, ANP and BNP concentration decreased by 12.07 µm, 1622 cpm/well, 84.34 pg, 7.13 ng/L and 20.04 µg/L, respectively, and the expressions of Ras and p-ERK1/2 were downregulated in PTH1-34 + Ator group (P < 0.05). Compared to the PTH1-34 + Ator group, the corresponding hypertrophic responses and hypertrophic markers increased by 4.95 µm, 750 cpm/well, 49.08 pg, 3.12 ng/L and 9.35 µg/L, respectively, and the expressions of Ras and p-ERK1/2 were upregulated in the PTH1-34 + Ator + MVA group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Ator prevents neonatal rat CMH induced by PTH1-34 and Ras-ERK signaling may be involved in this process.

  10. Exercise training in obese older adults prevents increase in bone turnover and attenuates decrease in hip BMD induced by weight loss despite decline in bone-active hormones*

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Krupa; Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Parimi, Nehu; Chode, Suresh; Sinacore, David R.; Hilton, Tiffany N.; Napoli, Nicola; Qualls, Clifford; Villareal, Dennis T.

    2011-01-01

    Weight-loss therapy to improve health in obese older adults is controversial because it causes further bone loss. Therefore, it is recommended that weight-loss therapy should include an intervention to minimize bone loss such as exercise training (ET). The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and ET on bone metabolism in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) in obese older adults. One-hundred-seven older (age >65 yrs) obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) adults were randomly assigned to a control group, diet group, exercise group, and diet-exercise group for 1 year. Body weight decreased in the diet (−9.6%) and diet-exercise (−9.4%) groups, not in the exercise (−1%) and control (−0.2%) groups (between-group P<.001). However, despite comparable weight loss, bone loss at the total hip was relatively less in the diet-exercise group (−1.1%) than in the diet group (−2.6%), whereas BMD increased in the exercise group (1.5%) (between-group P<.001) Serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and osteocalcin concentrations increased in the diet group (31% and 24%) while they decreased in the exercise group (−13% and −15%) (between-group P<.001). In contrast, similar to the control group, serum CTX and osteocalcin concentrations did not change in the diet-exercise group. Serum procollagen propeptide concentrations decreased in the exercise group (−15%) compared with the diet group (9%) (P=.04). Serum leptin and estradiol concentrations decreased in the diet (−25% and −15%) and diet-exercise (−38% and −13%) groups, not in the exercise and control groups (between-group P=.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that changes in lean body mass (β=.33), serum osteocalcin (β= −.24), and 1-RM strength (β=.23) were independent predictors of changes in hip BMD (all P<.05). In conclusion, the addition of ET to weight-loss therapy among obese older adults prevents weight-loss-induced increase in bone turnover and attenuates

  11. [Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones].

    PubMed

    Fukai, Shiho; Akishita, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    The ability to maintain active and independent living as long as possible is crucial for the healthy longevity. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with aging are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), melatonin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormones and thyroid hormones. These hormonal changes are associated with changes in body composition, visceral obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. With the prolongation of life expectancy, both men and women today live the latter third life with endocrine deficiencies. Hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing or delaying some aspects of aging.

  12. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol ... take HT for symptom relief.) What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  13. Growth Hormone

    MedlinePlus

    ... to help diagnose and monitor the treatment of acromegaly and gigantism . Growth hormone is essential for normal ... signs and symptoms of GH excess ( gigantism and acromegaly ). Suppression testing may be done when a pituitary ...

  14. Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Brito, Milena Bastos; Nobre, Fernando; Vieira, Carolina Sales

    2011-04-01

    Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

  15. Hormone impostors

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  16. Types of hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone ... Menopause symptoms include: Hot flashes Night sweats Sleep problems Vaginal dryness Anxiety Moodiness Less interest in sex ...

  17. Dronedarone administration prevents body weight gain and increases tolerance of the heart to ischemic stress: a possible involvement of thyroid hormone receptor alpha1.

    PubMed

    Pantos, Constantinos; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Malliopoulou, Vassiliki; Paizis, Ioannis; Tzeis, Stylianos; Moraitis, Panagiotis; Sfakianoudis, Konstantinos; Varonos, Dennis D; Cokkinos, Dennis V

    2005-01-01

    Hypothyroid heart displays a phenotype of cardioprotection against ischemia and this study investigated whether administration of dronedarone, an amiodarone-like compound that has been shown to preferentially antagonize thyroid hormone binding to thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 (TRalpha1), results in a similar effect. Dronedarone was given in Wistar rats (90 mg/kg, once daily (od) for 2 weeks) (DRON), while untreated animals served as controls (CONT). Hypothyroidism (HYPO) was induced by propylthiouracil administration. Isolated rat hearts were perfused in Langendorff mode and subjected to 20 minutes of zero-flow global ischemia (I) followed by 45 minutes of reperfusion (R). 3,5,3' Triiodothyronine remained unchanged while body weight and food intake were reduced. alpha-Myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC) decreased in DRON while beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) expression (SERCA) was similar to CONT. In HYPO, alpha-MHC and SERCA were decreased while beta-MHC was increased. Myocardial glycogen content was increased in both DRON and HYPO. In DRON, resting heart rate and contractility were reduced and ischemic contracture was significantly suppressed while postischemic left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and lactate dehydrogenase release (IU/L min) after I/R were significantly decreased. In conclusion, dronedarone treatment results in cardioprotection by selectively mimicking hypothyroidism. This is accompanied by a reduction in body weight because of the suppression of food intake. TRs might prove novel pharmacologic targets for the treatment of cardiovascular illnesses.

  18. Proliferation and ovarian hormone signaling are impaired in normal breast tissues from women with BRCA1 mutations: benefit of a progesterone receptor modulator treatment as a breast cancer preventive strategy in women with inherited BRCA1 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Communal, Laudine; Courtin, Aurélie; Mourra, Najat; Lahlou, Najiba; Le Guillou, Morwenna; de Jotemps, Muriel Perrault; Chauvet, Marie-Pierre; Chaouat, Marc; Pujol, Pascal; Feunteun, Jean; Delaloge, Suzette; Forgez, Patricia; Gompel, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Women with inherited BRCA1 mutations have an elevated risk (40-80%) for developing breast and ovarian cancers. Reproductive history has been reported to alter this risk, suggesting a relationship between ovarian hormone signaling and BRCA1-related tumor development. BRCA1 interactions with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) signaling were previously described in human breast cancer cell lines and mouse models. However, few studies have examined the effect of ovarian hormone regulation in normal human breast tissues bearing a heterozygous BRCA1 mutation. This study compares the proliferation level (Ki67) and the expression of ER, PR, and of the PR target gene, fatty acid synthase (FASN), in histologically normal breast tissues from women with BRCA1 mutations (BRCA1+/mut, n=23) or without BRCA1 mutations (BRCA1+/+, n=28). BRCA1+/mut tissues showed an increased proliferation and impaired hormone receptor expression with a marked loss of the PR isoform, PR-B. Responses to estradiol and progesterone treatments in BRCA1+/mut and BRCA1+/+ breast tissues were studied in a mouse xenograft model, and showed that PR and FASN expression were deregulated in BRCA1+/mut breast tissues. Progesterone added to estradiol treatment increased the proliferation in a subset of BRCA1+/mut breast tissues. The PR inhibitor, ulipristal acetate (UPA), was able to reverse this aberrant progesterone-induced proliferation. This study suggests that a subset of women with BRCA1 mutations could be candidates for a UPA treatment as a preventive breast cancer strategy. PMID:27246982

  19. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Integrating HIV Prevention and Treatment with Cross-Sex Hormone Therapy for Transgender Women in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; McLean, Sarah A; Lama, Javier R; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Huerta, Leyla; Sanchez, Jorge; Clark, Jesse L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-04-18

    Transgender women (TW) represent a vulnerable population at increased risk for HIV infection in Peru. A mixed-methods study with 48 TW and 19 healthcare professionals was conducted between January and February 2015 to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing a model of care that integrates HIV services with gender-affirmative medical care (i.e., hormone therapy) in Lima, Peru. Perceived acceptability of the integrated care model was high among TW and healthcare professionals alike. Barriers included stigma, lack of provider training or Peruvian guidelines regarding optimal TW care, and service delivery obstacles (e.g., legal documents, spatial placement of clinics, hours of operation). The hiring of TW staff was identified as a key facilitator for engagement in health care. Working in partnership with local TW and healthcare provider organizations is critical to overcoming existing barriers to successful implementation of an integrated HIV services and gender-affirmative medical care model for this key population in Peru.

  20. Reconciliation of the paradox that testosterone replacement prevents the postcastration hypersecretion of follicle-stimulating hormone in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with an intact central nervous system but not in hypothalamic-lesioned, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-replaced animals.

    PubMed

    Abeyawardene, S A; Plant, T M

    1989-03-01

    Testosterone (T) replacement suppresses the postcastraction hypersection of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in monkeys with an intact central nervous system (CNS), but not in hypothalamic-lesioned animals in which the pituitary-testicular axis is driven by an i.v. infusion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). One possible explanation for this finding is that T replacement markedly reduces the frequency of pulsatile GnRH release in CNS-intact animals. Under such a state of compromised hypophysiotropic drive to the gonadotropes, removal of a specific FSH-inhibiting factor would not be expected to lead to a hypersecretion of FSH. To test this hypothesis indirectly, adult monkeys were orchidectomized and immediately implanted with T-containing Silastic capsules to maintain circulating T concentrations in the upper physiological range, thereby preventing the postcastration hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and FSH. An intermittent i.v. infusion of GnRH, identical to that used in studies with the hypothalamic-lesioned, GnRH-replaced model (1 microgram/min for 3 min every 3 h), was initiated 1 wk after castration and T replacement; subsequently, plasma LH and FSH concentrations were determined on Days 8 and 16-18 of GnRH treatment in samples collected every 20 min for 9 h. This GnRH stimulus resulted in a striking elevation in FSH concentrations from 5.2 +/- 1.5 ng/ml (mean +/- SE) before GnRH treatment to 62.6 +/- 20.8 and 118.3 +/- 33.1 ng/ml on Days 8 and 16-18 of GnRH treatment, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Specific involvement of gonadal hormones in the functional maturation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons.

    PubMed

    Gouty-Colomer, Laurie-Anne; Méry, Pierre-François; Storme, Emilie; Gavois, Elodie; Robinson, Iain C; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Mollard, Patrice; Desarménien, Michel G

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the key hormone involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism, two functions that are highly modulated during infancy. GH secretion, controlled mainly by GH releasing hormone (GHRH), has a characteristic pattern during postnatal development that results in peaks of blood concentration at birth and puberty. A detailed knowledge of the electrophysiology of the GHRH neurons is necessary to understand the mechanisms regulating postnatal GH secretion. Here, we describe the unique postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of GHRH neurons and their regulation by gonadal hormones. Using GHRH-eGFP mice, we demonstrate that already at birth, GHRH neurons receive numerous synaptic inputs and fire large and fast action potentials (APs), consistent with effective GH secretion. Concomitant with the GH secretion peak occurring at puberty, these neurons display modifications of synaptic input properties, decrease in AP duration, and increase in a transient voltage-dependant potassium current. Furthermore, the modulation of both the AP duration and voltage-dependent potassium current are specifically controlled by gonadal hormones because gonadectomy prevented the maturation of these active properties and hormonal treatment restored it. Thus, GHRH neurons undergo specific developmental modulations of their electrical properties over the first six postnatal weeks, in accordance with hormonal demand. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between the somatotrope and gonadotrope axes during the establishment of adapted neuroendocrine functions.

  2. Mail-Based Intervention for Sarcopenia Prevention Increased Anabolic Hormone and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Community-Dwelling Japanese Older Adults: The INE (Intervention by Nutrition and Exercise) Study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Minoru; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Aoyama, Tomoki; Arai, Hidenori

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the Intervention by Nutrition and Exercise (INE) study was to investigate the effects of a mail-based intervention for sarcopenia prevention on muscle mass and anabolic hormones in community-dwelling older adults. A cluster-randomized controlled trial. This trial recruited community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older in Japan. The 227 participants were cluster randomized into a walking and nutrition (W/N) group (n = 79), a walking (W) group (n = 71), and a control (C) group (n = 77). We analyzed the physical and biochemical measurements in this substudy. Six months of mail-based intervention (a pedometer-based walking program and nutritional supplementation). The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) using the bioelectrical impedance data acquisition system, biochemical measurements, such as those of insulinlike growth factor (IGF-1), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D), as well as frailty, were assessed by the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. Participants in the W/N and W groups had significantly greater improvements in SMI, IGF-1, and 25(OH)D (P < .05) than those in the C group. Participants in the W/N group had significantly greater improvements in DHEA-S (P < .05) than in the other groups. These effects were more pronounced in frail, older adults. These results suggest that the mail-based walking intervention of the remote monitoring type for sarcopenia prevention can increase anabolic hormone levels and SMI in community-dwelling older adults, particularly in those who are frail. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ...

  4. [Incretin hormones].

    PubMed

    Cáp, J

    2011-04-01

    Incretin hormones are peptides that are secreted from endocrine cell of gastrointestinal tract after nutrient ingestion and stimulate insulin secretion. Glucosodependent Insulinotropic Peptide--GIP is released from K-cells of duodenum and proximal jejunum, recently GIP synthesis has been proved in pancreatic alpha cells. Besides the incretin effect causes GIP increased lipogenesis and decreased lipolysis in fat tissue, increased bone formation and decreased resorption and has protective and proliferative effect on CNS neurons. Both GIP agonists (to treat diabetes) and antagonist (to treat obesity) are being studied. Another incretin hormone is derived in intestinal I-cells by posttranslational processing of proglucagon--glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2). GLP-1 stimulates insuline production and inhibits glucagon secretion, exerts proliferative and antiapoptotic effect on beta-cells. Via receptors on vagal nerve and central mechanisms decreases food intake and decreases body weight. By deceleration of gastric emptying it attenuates increases in meal-associated blood glucose levels. It exerts cardioprotective effects. GLP-1 receptors have been proved in liver recently but decreased liver glucose production and increased glucose uptake by liver and muscle are mediated indirectly by altering insulin and glucagons levels. GLP-2 stimulates enterocytes proliferation, up-regulates intestinal nutrient transport, improves intestinal barrier function, and inhibits gastric and intestinal motility. GLP-2 also reduces bone resorption.

  5. Interleukin-1β-induced memory reconsolidation impairment is mediated by a reduction in glutamate release and zif268 expression and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone prevented these effects.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ivana; Gonzalez, Patricia V; Vilcaes, Alejandro; Carniglia, Lila; Schiöth, Helgi B; Lasaga, Mercedes; Scimonelli, Teresa N

    2015-05-01

    The immune system is an important modulator of learning, memory and neural plasticity. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, significantly affects several cognitive processes. Previous studies by our group have demonstrated that intrahippocampal administration of IL-1β impairs reconsolidation of contextual fear memory. This effect was reversed by the melanocortin alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). The mechanisms underlying the effect of IL-1β on memory reconsolidation have not yet been established. Therefore, we examined the effect of IL-1β on glutamate release, ERK phosphorylation and the activation of the transcription factor zinc finger- 268 (zif268) during reconsolidation. Our results demonstrated that IL-1β induced a significant decrease of glutamate release after reactivation of the fear memory and this effect was related to calcium concentration in hippocampal synaptosomes. IL-1β also reduced ERK phosphorylation and zif268 expression in the hippocampus. Central administration of α-MSH prevented the decrease in glutamate release, ERK phosphorylation and zif268 expression induced by IL-1β. Our results establish possible mechanisms involved in the detrimental effect of IL-1β on memory reconsolidation and also indicate that α-MSH may exert a beneficial modulatory role in preventing IL-1β effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thyroid hormone resistance: a novel mutation in thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene - case report.

    PubMed

    Işık, Emregül; Beck Peccoz, Paolo; Campi, Irene; Özön, Alev; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Gönç, Nazlı; Kandemir, Nurgün

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone resistance (THR) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormones. It is usually caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene. In the present report, we describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics and genetic analysis of patients with a novel THRB gene mutation. The index patient had been misdiagnosed as hyperthyroidism and treated with antithyroid drugs since eight days of age. Thyroid hormone results showed that thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) was never suppressed despite elevated thyroid hormone levels, and there was no symptom suggesting hyperthyroidism. A heterozygous mutation at codon 350 located in exon 9 of the THRB gene was detected in all the affected members of the family. It is important to consider thyroid hormone levels in association with TSH levels to prevent inappropriate treatment and the potential complications, such as clinical hypothyroidism or an increase in goiter size.

  7. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePlus

    Growth hormone deficiency means the pituitary gland does not make enough growth hormone. ... The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain. This gland controls the body's balance of hormones. It ...

  8. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  9. Deciding about hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - deciding

  10. Sitagliptin prevents the development of metabolic and hormonal disturbances, increased β-cell apoptosis and liver steatosis induced by a fructose-rich diet in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Maiztegui, Bárbara; Borelli, María I; Madrid, Viviana G; Del Zotto, Héctor; Raschia, María A; Francini, Flavio; Massa, María L; Flores, Luis E; Rebolledo, Oscar R; Gagliardino, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the effect of sitagliptin and exendin-4 upon metabolic alterations, β-cell mass decrease and hepatic steatosis induced by F (fructose) in rats. Normal adult male Wistar rats received a standard commercial diet without (C) or with 10% (w/v) F in the drinking water (F) for 3 weeks; animals from each group were randomly divided into three subgroups: untreated (C and F) and simultaneously receiving either sitagliptin (CS and FS; 115.2 mg/day per rat) or exendin-4 (CE and FE; 0.35 nmol/kg of body weight, intraperitoneally). Water and food intake, oral glucose tolerance, plasma glucose, triacylglycerol (triglyceride), insulin and fructosamine concentration, HOMA-IR [HOMA (homoeostasis model assessment) for insulin resistance], HOMA-β (HOMA for β-cell function) and liver triacylglycerol content were measured. Pancreas immunomorphometric analyses were also performed. IGT (impaired glucose tolerance), plasma triacylglycerol, fructosamine and insulin levels, HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indexes, and liver triacylglycerol content were significantly higher in F rats. Islet β-cell mass was significantly lower in these rats, due to an increase in the percentage of apoptosis. The administration of exendin-4 and sitagliptin to F animals prevented the development of all the metabolic disturbances and the changes in β-cell mass and fatty liver. Thus these compounds, useful in treating Type 2 diabetes, would also prevent/delay the progression of early metabolic and tissue markers of this disease.

  11. Medroxyprogesterone acetate is an effective oral alternative for preventing premature luteinizing hormone surges in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yanping; Chen, Qiuju; Fu, Yonglun; Wang, Yun; Hong, Qingqing; Lyu, Qifeng; Ai, Ai; Shoham, Zeev

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the use of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to prevent LH surge during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) and to compare cycle characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in subsequently frozen-thawed ET (FET) cycles. A prospective controlled study. Tertiary-care academic medical center. Three hundred patients undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment. In the study group, hMG and MPA were administered simultaneously beginning on cycle day 3. Ovulation was induced with a GnRH agonist or cotriggered by a GnRH agonist and hCG when dominant follicles matured. A short protocol was used in the control group. Viable embryos were cryopreserved for later transfer in both protocols. The primary outcome measure was the number of oocytes retrieved. Secondary outcomes included the number of mature oocytes, the incidence of premature LH surge, and clinical pregnancy outcomes from FETs. The number of oocytes retrieved in the study group was similar to those in the controls (9.9 ± 6.7 vs. 9.0 ± 6.0), and higher doses of hMG were administered. In the study group, LH suppression persisted during ovarian stimulation, and the incidence of premature LH surge was 0.7% (1/150). No statistically significant differences were found in the clinical pregnancy rates (47.8% vs. 43.3%), implantation rates (31.9% vs. 27.7%), and live-birth rates (42.6% vs. 35.5%) in the study group and controls. The results show that MPA is an effective oral alternative for the prevention of premature LH surge in woman undergoing COH. This finding will help establish a new regimen for ovarian stimulation in combination with embryo cryopreservation. ChiCTR-ONRC-14004419. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Hormonal dysnatremia].

    PubMed

    Karaca, P; Desailloud, R

    2013-10-01

    Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms. Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of ADH production: it is a euvolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia. The most frequent etiology is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH), a diagnostic of exclusion which is made after eliminating corticotropin deficiency and hypothyroidism. In case of brain injury the differential diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has to be discussed, because its treatment is perfusion of isotonic saline whereas in SIADH, the treatment consists in administration of hypertonic saline if hyponatremia is acute and/or severe. If not, fluid restriction demeclocycline or vaptans (antagonists of V2 receptors) can be used in some European countries. Four types of SIADH exist; 10 % of cases represent not SIADH but SIAD (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis) due to a constitutive activation of vasopressin receptor that produces water excess. c 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. GH-Releasing Hormone Promotes Survival and Prevents TNF-α-Induced Apoptosis and Atrophy in C2C12 Myotubes.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Davide; Gesmundo, Iacopo; Trovato, Letizia; Pera, Giulia; Gargantini, Eleonora; Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Ghigo, Ezio; Granata, Riccarda

    2015-09-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a consequence of different chronic diseases, including cancer, heart failure, and diabetes, and also occurs in aging and genetic myopathies. It results from an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes, and inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, have been found elevated in muscle atrophy and implicated in its pathogenesis. GHRH, in addition to stimulating GH secretion from the pituitary, exerts survival and antiapoptotic effects in different cell types. Moreover, we and others have recently shown that GHRH displays antiapoptotic effects in isolated cardiac myocytes and protects the isolated heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction in vivo. On these bases, we investigated the effects of GHRH on survival and apoptosis of TNF-α-treated C2C12 myotubes along with the underlying mechanisms. GHRH increased myotube survival and prevented TNF-α-induced apoptosis through GHRH receptor-mediated mechanisms. These effects involved activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, whereas mammalian target of rapamycin was unaffected. GHRH also increased the expression of myosin heavy chain and the myogenic transcription factor myogenin, which were both reduced by the cytokine. Furthermore, GHRH inhibited TNF-α-induced expression of nuclear factor-κB, calpain, and muscle ring finger1, which are all involved in muscle protein degradation. In summary, these results indicate that GHRH exerts survival and antiapoptotic effects in skeletal muscle cells through the activation of anabolic pathways and the inhibition of proteolytic routes. Overall, our findings suggest a novel therapeutic role for GHRH in the treatment of muscle atrophy-associated diseases.

  14. Hormone therapy in acne.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  15. Influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on the effect of chemotherapy upon ovarian cancer and the prevention of chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage: an experimental study with nu/nu athymic mice*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiong-yan; Wang, Yi-feng; Weng, Hui-nan; Sheng, Xiu-jie; Jiang, Qing-ping; Yang, Zhi-ying

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in the regulation of ovarian function and ovarian cancer cell growth. In this study, we determined whether administration of the GnRH agonist (GnRHa), triporelin, prior to cisplatin treatment affects cisplatin and/or prevents cisplatin-induced ovarian damage. Methods: nu/nu mice were injected with ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 cells intraperitoneally. After two weeks, the mice were treated with saline (control), cisplatin, GnRHa, or cisplatin plus GnRHa for four weeks. At the end of the experimental protocol, blood, tumor, ovary, and uterine tissues were resected for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemical analyses of Ki67, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and caspase-3, transmission electron microscopy of apoptosis, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). Results: Cisplatin treatment effectively inhibited tumor growth in mice treated with human ovarian cancer cells; however the treatment also induced considerable toxicity. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that Ki67 expression was reduced in cisplatin-treated mice compared to control (P<0.05), but there was no statistically significant differences between cisplatin-treated mice and cisplatin plus GnRHa-treated mice (P>0.05), while expressions of NF-κB and caspase-3 were reduced and induced, respectively, in cisplatin-treated mice and cisplatin plus GnRHa-treated mice. Apoptosis occurred in the GnRHa, cisplatin, and cisplatin plus GnRHa-treated mice, but not in control mice. Ovaries exposed to GnRHa in both GnRHa mice and cisplatin-treated mice (combination group) had significantly more primordial and growth follicles and serum levels of AMH than those in the control mice and cisplatin-treated mice (P<0.05). Conclusions: Administration of GnRHa to mice significantly decreased the extent of ovarian damage induced by cisplatin, but did not affect the anti-tumor activity of

  16. Oral hormone therapy with 17beta-estradiol and 17beta-estradiol in combination with norethindrone acetate in the prevention of bone loss in early postmenopausal women: dose-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Maria W; Gluck, Oscar S; Lang, Eva; Rakov, Viatcheslav

    2005-01-01

    A 2-year multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study examined the efficacy and safety of different doses of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) alone and continuous-combined oral formulations of E(2) and norethindrone acetate (NETA) versus placebo in the prevention of bone loss in newly menopausal women. Patients were randomized to one of seven groups: placebo, E(2) 0.25 mg, E2 0.5 mg, E(2) 1 mg, E(2) 1 mg/NETA 0.25 mg, E(2) 1 mg/NETA 0.5 mg, or E(2) 2 mg/NETA 1 mg. Treatment was a once-daily tablet taken for 26 months. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, at screening and at 13, 19, and 26 months. BMD changes at the femoral neck and trochanter were also assessed. Biochemical markers of bone metabolism were measured at baseline, and at 3, 6, 13, 19, and 26 months. Histological diagnoses of endometrial samples were tabulated for each treatment group. A total of 327 women were randomized and 189 women completed the 2-year trial. BMD at the lumbar spine decreased 2.3% in the placebo group. The lowest dose of unopposed E(2) prevented bone loss at the spine and hip. Significant increases in spine BMD compared with placebo occurred in all groups of treatment with E(2) and were more pronounced in the combination groups. Compared with placebo, women receiving active treatment experienced greater reductions in bone resorption markers. The effects were evident by 6 months and generally remained stable thereafter. Adverse events, primarily associated with the endometrium, were the most common reasons for discontinuation. There is a dose-dependent effect of E(2) on BMD. The addition of NETA seems to enhance the response in BMD observed with E(2). Low doses of E(2) (1 mg and lower) can be considered for the prevention of osteoporosis, while titrating the hormone dose to individual patient's needs.

  17. [Hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Prilepskaia, V N

    1991-12-01

    Effective contraceptives contribute to the regulation of births, protect the health of women, reduce maternal and perinatal mortality and gynecological diseases, and prevent abortion-related complications. Complications after abortion average 30%, and among primigravidas the rate reaches 45%. Abortion can result in sterility and in the inability to carry out the pregnancy. Oral contraceptives (OCs) are used by 150 million globally. In new preparations ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) are the most common components. In the 2-phase and 3-phase preparations Sequilar, Anteovin, and lipid profile safe Triquilar the gestagen component was reduced 40%. Continuin and Famulen are minipills, and Postinor is a postcoital contraceptive. Absolute contraindications of OCs include thromboembolytic diseases, severe cardiovascular system diseases, liver disorders, cirrhosis, cerebral vascular diseases, grave diabetes, jaundice, and malignant tumors of the mammae and sexual organs. Rigevidon, Triquilar, and Trisiston have high steroid content with minimal side effects. The protective effect of OCs are: 2-3 times lower risk of inflammation of the small pelvis, lower risk of malignant and benign ovarian tumors that lasts even after discontinuation, uterine cancer prevention (antiproliferation effect on the endometrium and inhibition of mitotic activity of the myometrium), and reduced risk of benign breast neoplasms. The finding that estrogen-induced risk of breast cancer increases with longterm contraceptive use in young nulliparas has not been persuasively proven. The optimal duration of uninterrupted OC use is 1-1.5 years. Monophasic estrogen-gestagen preparations include Bisecurin, Non-Ovlon, Ovidon, Rigevidon, Minisiston, and Demulen with low dosages of EE, LNG, norethisterone acetate, and diacetate ethonodiol. Norplant is a subdermal silastic capsule with effectiveness for up to 5 years.

  18. Overview of the landscape of HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Haase, Ashley T

    2014-06-01

    In this introductory essay on the landscape of HIV prevention, my intent is to provide context for the subsequent topics discussed at the Symposium on Hormone Regulation of the Mucosal Environment in the female reproductive tract (FRT) and the Prevention of HIV infection: FRT immunity, mucosal microenvironment and HIV prevention, and the risk and impact of hormonal contraceptives on HIV transmission.

  19. Effects of hormones on skin wrinkles and rigidity vary by race/ethnicity: four-year follow-up from the ancillary skin study of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Owen, Carter M; Pal, Lubna; Mumford, Sunni L; Freeman, Ruth; Isaac, Barbara; McDonald, Linda; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S; Wolff, Erin F

    2016-10-01

    To measure skin wrinkles and rigidity in menopausal women of varying race/ethnicity with or without hormone therapy (HT) for up to four years. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Academic medical centers. Women (42-58 years of age) within 36 months of last menstrual period and enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Treatment with 0.45 mg oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), transdermal E2 (50 μg/d) with micronized P (200 mg daily), or placebo for 4 years. Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck, and skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek at baseline and yearly for 4 years. Neither total wrinkle score nor total rigidity score was significantly different at baseline or over the 4-year follow-up among patients randomized to CEE, E2, or placebo. Skin wrinkle and rigidity scores were primarily affected by race/ethnicity, with scores being significantly different between races for almost all of the wrinkle parameters and for all of the rigidity measures. There was no association between race and response to HT for total wrinkle or rigidity scores. Black women had the lowest wrinkle scores compared with white women across all 4 years. In general, skin rigidity decreased in all groups over time, but black women had significantly reduced total facial rigidity compared with white women after 4 years. Race is the strongest predictor of the advancement of skin aging in the 4 years following menopause. HT does not appear to affect skin wrinkles or rigidity at most facial locations. NCT00154180. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... for luteinizing hormone (LH), a hormone associated with reproduction and the stimulation of the release of an ... LH and FSH with the development of secondary sexual characteristics at an unusually young age are an ...

  1. Hormone Health Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3D Patient Education mobile app The Hormone Health Network helps you and your health care provider have ... Copyright Endocrine Society. All rights reserved. Terms & Policies Network Partners The Hormone Health Network partners with other ...

  2. Hormonal effects in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies ...

  3. [Thyroid hormone resistance syndromes].

    PubMed

    Bernal, Juan

    2011-04-01

    Thyroid hormone resistance syndromes are a group of genetic conditions characterized by decreased tissue sensitivity to thyroid hormones. Three syndromes, in which resistance to hormone action is respectively due to mutations in the gene encoding for thyroid hormone receptor TRβ, impaired T4 and T3 transport, and impaired conversion of T4 to T3 mediated by deiodinases. An updated review of each of these forms of resistance is provided, and their pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical approaches are discussed.

  4. Hormone treatment of depression

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between alterations of various hormonal systems and psychiatric disorders, both in endocrine and psychiatric patients. This has led to clinical and research studies examining the efficacy of the different hormones for treatment of depression. These data will be reviewed with particular regard to the thyroid, gonadal, pineal, and adrenal cortex hormones. The data generally provide limited, but varying evidence for the antidepressant efficacy of these hormones. PMID:21485752

  5. [Growth hormone treatment update].

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Short stature in children is a common cause for referral to pediatric endocrinologists, corresponding most times to normal variants of growth. Initially growth hormone therapy was circumscribed to children presenting growth hormone deficiency. Since the production of recombinant human hormone its use had spread to other pathologies.

  6. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePlus

    The endocrine system is made up of organs and tissues that produce hormones. Hormones are natural chemicals produced in one ... hormones that control the other structures in the endocrine system. The amount of these regulating hormones stays about ...

  7. [Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)--youth hormone?].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Z; Kesik, S

    2001-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated metabolite (DHEA-S) are endogenous steroid hormones, synthesized by the adrenal cortex, gonads and CNS. The secretion profile changes with age and depends on the sex. Human DHEA and DHEA-S levels decline linearly and systematically with age and suggest the potential importance of that parameter as a biomarker of ageing. The counteraction of DHEA against atherosclerotic disease, cancer growth, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, obesity and the influence on immunological functions are observed in researches. DHEA influences the condition of mind, cognition functions, memory and well-being. DHEA hormonal replacement therapy is expected to lengthen human life by the stoppage of physiological degeneration changes and prevention of age-related clinical disorders.

  8. [Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Magdalena Maria; Łacka, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that thyroid hormones affect the cardiovascular system through genomic and nongenomic actions. TRalpha1 is the major thyroid hormone receptor in the heart. T3 suppresses increased mitotic activity of stimulated cardiomyocytes. Hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state, which is associated with enhanced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and the chronotropic and inotropic properties of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism, however, is characterized by opposite changes. In addition, thyroid hormones decrease peripheral vascular resistance, influence the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS), and increase blood volume and erythropoetin secretion with subsequent increased preload and cardiac output. Thyroid hormones play an important role in cardiac electrophysiology and have both pro- and anti-arrhytmic potential. Thyroid hormone deficiency is associated with a less favorable lipid profile. Selective modulation of the TRbeta1 receptor is considered as a potential therapeutic target to treat dyslipidemia without cardiac side effects. Thyroid hormones have a beneficial effect on limiting myocardial ischemic injury, preventing and reversing cardiac remodeling and improving cardiac hemodynamics in endstage heart failure. This is crucial because a low T3 syndrome accompanies both acute and chronic cardiac diseases.

  9. Postmenopausal hormone therapy in clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J

    2007-01-01

    Although many of the risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy are known, only recently has the magnitude of these effects and their perspective to other therapies become more fully understood. Careful review of randomized controlled trials indicates that the risks of postmenopausal hormone therapy including breast cancer, stroke and venous thromboembolism are similar to other commonly used agents. Overall, these risks are rare (less than 1 event per 1,000 women) and even rarer when initiated in women less than 60 years of age or within 10 years of menopause. In addition, the literature indicates similar benefit of postmenopausal hormone therapy, in women who initiate hormone therapy in close proximity to menopause, to other medications used for the primary prevention of coronory heart disease in women.

  10. Effects of oral versus transdermal menopausal hormone treatments on self-reported sleep domains and their association with vasomotor symptoms in recently menopausal women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS).

    PubMed

    Cintron, Dahima; Lahr, Brian D; Bailey, Kent R; Santoro, Nanette; Lloyd, Robin; Manson, JoAnn E; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Pal, Lubna; Taylor, Hugh S; Wharton, Whitney; Naftolin, Fredrick; Harman, S Mitchell; Miller, Virginia M

    2017-08-21

    This study determined whether two different formulations of hormone therapy (HT): oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE; 0.45 mg/d, n = 209), transdermal 17β-estradiol (t-E2; 50 μg/d, n = 201) plus cyclic progesterone (Prometrium, 200 mg) or placebo (PBO, n = 243) affected sleep domains in participants of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at baseline and during the intervention at 6, 18, 36, and 48 months. Global sleep quality and individual sleep domain scores were compared between treatments using analysis of covariance, and correlated with vasomotor symptom (VMS) scores using Spearman correlation coefficients. Global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores (mean 6.3; 24% with score >8) were similar across groups at baseline and were reduced (improved sleep quality) by both HT (average change -1.27 [o-CEE] and -1.32 [t-E2]) when compared with PBO (-0.60; P = 0.001 [o-CEE vs PBO] and P = 0.002 [t-E2 vs PBO]). Domain scores for sleep satisfaction and latency improved with both HT. The domain score for sleep disturbances improved more with t-E2 than o-CEE or PBO. Global sleep scores significantly correlated with VMS severity (rs = 0.170, P < 0.001 for hot flashes; rs = 0.177, P < 0.001 for night sweats). Change in scores for all domains except sleep latency and sleep efficiency correlated with change in severity of VMS. Poor sleep quality is common in recently menopausal women. Sleep quality improved with both HT formulations. The relationship of VMS with domains of sleep suggests that assessing severity of symptoms and domains of sleep may help direct therapy to improve sleep for postmenopausal women.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http

  11. Renewal of the air-water interface as a critical system parameter of protein stability: aggregation of the human growth hormone and its prevention by surface-active compounds.

    PubMed

    Wiesbauer, Johanna; Prassl, Ruth; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2013-12-10

    Soluble proteins are often highly unstable under mixing conditions that involve dynamic contacting between the main liquid phase and a gas phase. The recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was recently shown to undergo aggregation into micrometer-sized solid particles composed of non-native (mis- or unfolded) protein, once its solutions were stirred or shaken to generate a continuously renewed air-water interface. To gain deepened understanding and improved quantification of the air-water interface effect on rhGH stability, we analyzed the protein's aggregation rate (r(agg)) at controlled specific air-water surface areas (a(G/L)) established by stirring or bubble aeration. We show that in spite of comparable time-averaged values for a(G/L) (≈ 100 m(2)/m(3)), aeration gave a 40-fold higher r(agg) than stirring. The enhanced r(agg) under aeration was ascribed to faster macroscopic regeneration of free a(G/L) during aeration as compared to stirring. We also show that r(agg) was independent of the rhGH concentration in the range 0.67 - 6.7 mg/mL, and that it increased linearly dependent on the available a(G/L). The nonionic surfactant Pluronic F-68, added in 1.6-fold molar excess over rhGH present, resulted in complete suppression of r(agg). Foam formation was not a factor influencing r(agg). Using analysis by circular dichroism spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering, we show that in the presence of Pluronic F-68 under both stirring and aeration, the soluble protein retained its original fold, featuring native-like relative composition of secondary structural elements. We further provide evidence that the efficacy of Pluronic F-68 resulted from direct, probably hydrophobic protein-surfactant interactions that prevented rhGH from becoming attached to the air-water interface. Surface-induced aggregation of rhGH is suggested to involve desorption of non-native protein from the air-water interface as the key limiting step. Proteins or protein aggregates released

  12. Exercise training in obese older adults prevents increase in bone turnover and attenuates decrease in hip bone mineral density induced by weight loss despite decline in bone-active hormones.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Parimi, Nehu; Chode, Suresh; Sinacore, David R; Hilton, Tiffany N; Napoli, Nicola; Qualls, Clifford; Villareal, Dennis T

    2011-12-01

    0.05). In conclusion, the addition of ET to weight loss therapy among obese older adults prevents weight loss-induced increase in bone turnover and attenuates weight loss-induced reduction in hip BMD despite weight loss-induced decrease in bone-active hormones. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Vitamins as hormones.

    PubMed

    Reichrath, J; Lehmann, B; Carlberg, C; Varani, J; Zouboulis, C C

    2007-02-01

    system is documented by the fact that the skin is both the site of vitamin D (3)- and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (3) [1, 25(OH) (2)D (3)]-synthesis and a target organ for 1,25(OH) (2)D (3). 1,25(OH) (2)D (3) is not only essential for mineral homeostasis and bone integrity, but also for numerous further physiologic functions including regulation of growth and differentiation in a broad variety of normal and malignant tissues, including cells derived from prostate, breast and bone. In keratinocytes and other cell types, 1,25(OH) (2)D (3) regulates growth and differentiation. Consequently, vitamin D analogues have been introduced for the treatment of the hyperproliferative skin disease psoriasis. Other newly detected functions of vitamin D analogues include profound effects on the immune system as well as protection against cancer and other diseases, including autoimmune and infectious diseases, in various tissues. Current investigation of the biological effects of vitamin D analogues are likely to lead to new therapeutic applications that, besides cancer prevention, may include the prevention and treatment of infectious as well as of inflammatory skin diseases. This review summarizes existing knowledge on vitamins A and D, the major vitamin-hormones of the skin.

  14. Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ186 CONTRACEPTION Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection • What is progestin? • How effective are progestin-only pills and the birth control injection in preventing pregnancy? • What are progestin- ...

  15. Inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone in infants with respiratory infections.

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, R P; Forsling, M L; Olver, R P

    1981-01-01

    Four infants in whom excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone was associated with pulmonary infections are reported. Severe hyponatraemia was noted in 3 of them; in the fourth, fluid restriction may have prevented this complication. PMID:7259256

  16. The hormonal pathway to cognitive impairment in older men.

    PubMed

    Maggio, M; Dall'Aglio, E; Lauretani, F; Cattabiani, C; Ceresini, G; Caffarra, P; Valenti, G; Volpi, R; Vignali, A; Schiavi, G; Ceda, G P

    2012-01-01

    In older men there is a multiple hormonal dysregulation with a relative prevalence of catabolic hormones such as thyroid hormones and cortisol and a decline in anabolic hormones such as dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone and insulin like growth factor 1 levels. Many studies suggest that this catabolic milieu is an important predictor of frailty and mortality in older persons. There is a close relationship between frailty and cognitive impairment with studies suggesting that development of frailty is consequence of cognitive impairment and others pointing out that physical frailty is a determinant of cognitive decline. Decline in cognitive function, typically memory, is a major symptom of dementia. The "preclinical phase" of cognitive impairment occurs many years before the onset of dementia. The identification of relevant modifiable factors, including the hormonal dysregulation, may lead to therapeutic strategies for preventing the cognitive dysfunction. There are several mechanisms by which anabolic hormones play a role in neuroprotection and neuromodulation. These hormones facilitate recovery after brain injury and attenuate the neuronal loss. In contrast, elevated thyroid hormones may increase oxidative stress and apoptosis, leading to neuronal damage or death. In this mini review we will address the relationship between low levels of anabolic hormones, changes in thyroid hormones and cognitive function in older men. Then, giving the contradictory data of the literature and the multi-factorial origin of dementia, we will introduce the hypothesis of multiple hormonal derangement as a better determinant of cognitive decline in older men.

  17. Standardization of hormone determinations.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hormones and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blackstein, Martin Elliot

    1984-01-01

    Hormonal therapy is the first systemic therapy to have been used successfully in the treatment of cancer. Developments in steroid hormone receptor assays in the last decade have resulted in the first predictable assays for cancer therapy. The role of hormones, in both the development and treatment of breast, prostate and uterine cancer, is reviewed. Because hormonal therapy is generally a less toxic palliative treatment than other treatments (e.g., chemotherapy and radiation), it has been used for malignancies such as malignant melanoma, hypernephroma, and carcinoid. PMID:21278945

  19. Interrelationships of Prenatal and Postnatal Growth, Hormones, Diet, and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    higher albumin and sex hormone binding globulin among Chinese women could decrease the bioavailability of oestrogens . This may partially explain the...Kohen F, and Nagamani M: De- creased ovarian hormones during a soya diet: implications for breast cancer prevention. Cancer Res 60, 4112–4121, 2000. 22...1-0340 TITLE: Interrelationships of Prenatal and Postnatal Growth, Hormones , Diet, and Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL

  20. Drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kavita; Stuart, Gretchen S; Robinson, Jennifer; Gray, Andrew L; Tepper, Naomi K; Gaffield, Mary E

    2017-04-24

    To summarize published evidence on drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals. Systematic review of the published literature. We searched PubMed, POPLINE, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications of studies (in any language) from inception to 21 September 2015. We included studies of women using hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals concurrently. Outcomes of interest were effectiveness of either therapy, toxicity, or pharmacokinetics. We used standard abstraction forms to summarize and assess strengths and weaknesses. Fifty reports from 46 studies were included. Most antiretrovirals whether used for therapy or prevention, have limited interactions with hormonal contraceptive methods, with the exception of efavirenz. Although depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is not affected, limited data on implants and combined oral contraceptive pills suggest that efavirenz-containing combination antiretroviral therapy may compromise contraceptive effectiveness of these methods. However, implants remain very effective despite such drug interactions. Antiretroviral plasma concentrations and effectiveness are generally not affected by hormonal contraceptives. Women taking antiretrovirals, for treatment or prevention, should not be denied access to the full range of hormonal contraceptive options, but should be counseled on the expected rates of unplanned pregnancy associated with all contraceptive methods, in order to make their own informed choices.

  1. Drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Kavita; Stuart, Gretchen S.; Robinson, Jennifer; Gray, Andrew L.; Tepper, Naomi K.; Gaffield, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To summarize published evidence on drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals. Design: Systematic review of the published literature. Methods: We searched PubMed, POPLINE, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications of studies (in any language) from inception to 21 September 2015. We included studies of women using hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals concurrently. Outcomes of interest were effectiveness of either therapy, toxicity, or pharmacokinetics. We used standard abstraction forms to summarize and assess strengths and weaknesses. Results: Fifty reports from 46 studies were included. Most antiretrovirals whether used for therapy or prevention, have limited interactions with hormonal contraceptive methods, with the exception of efavirenz. Although depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is not affected, limited data on implants and combined oral contraceptive pills suggest that efavirenz-containing combination antiretroviral therapy may compromise contraceptive effectiveness of these methods. However, implants remain very effective despite such drug interactions. Antiretroviral plasma concentrations and effectiveness are generally not affected by hormonal contraceptives. Conclusion: Women taking antiretrovirals, for treatment or prevention, should not be denied access to the full range of hormonal contraceptive options, but should be counseled on the expected rates of unplanned pregnancy associated with all contraceptive methods, in order to make their own informed choices. PMID:28060009

  2. Hormones and cytokines in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Nur; Erdur, Baris; Aydin, Adem

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is a growing worldwide health problem affecting both adults and children. Effective prevention and treatment modalities can be achieved by understanding the pathogenesis of obesity better. This review addresses some of the issues related to the hormones and cytokines taking part in the pathogenesis of obesity, energy balance and inflammation. We reviewed current literature on this broad subject especially concentrating on the functions of the hormones and cytokines taking part in the pathogenesis of the childhood obesity. Using the key words obesity, children, hormones, cytokines publications and cross references were evaluated from PubMed database between 1957 and 2009. In children, leptin and ghrelin are two hormones which have major influence on energy balance. Leptin is responsible from long term regulation of energy balance and ghrelin functions as an appetite stimulatory signal. In contrast to ghrelin, obestatin acts as an anorexigenic hormone by suppressing food intake. Adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are the key regulators of inflammation in obesity. Increased TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels but decreased levels of adiponectin and IL-10 are associated with increased inflammation, tissue injury and complications of obesity. Development, pathogenesis and complications of childhood obesity consist of complex mechanisms including numerous cytokines and hormones. New treatment modalities depend on understanding these complex mechanisms.

  3. Parathyroid Hormone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body does not produce enough parathyroid hormone [PTH; a natural substance needed to control the amount ... Parathyroid hormone injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: tingling, tickling, or ...

  4. Hormonal contraception and migraine: clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Casey, Petra M; Shuster, Lynne T

    2012-10-01

    Migraine is highly prevalent in women, particularly in the reproductive years when contraception may be needed. Preventive strategies are known to be underutilized for migraine. Women of reproductive age may not only benefit from the use of hormonal contraceptives for contraception, but also for the purpose of reducing the burden of menstrual-related migraine. Although migraine is associated with an increased risk of stroke, the use of low-dose hormonal contraceptives in otherwise healthy women does not appear to confer additional risk.

  5. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. Testosterone is one ...

  6. Anti-Müllerian Hormone

    MedlinePlus

    ... and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Anti-Müllerian Hormone Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: AMH; AMH Hormone Test; Müllerian-inhibiting Hormone; MIH; Müllerian Inhibiting Factor; ...

  7. c-JUN Dimerization Protein 2 (JDP2) Is a Transcriptional Repressor of Follicle-stimulating Hormone β (FSHβ) and Is Required for Preventing Premature Reproductive Senescence in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Jonak, Carrie R; Lainez, Nancy M; Roybal, Lacey L; Williamson, Alexa D; Coss, Djurdjica

    2017-02-17

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) regulates follicular growth and stimulates estrogen synthesis in the ovaries. FSH is a heterodimer consisting of an α subunit, also present in luteinizing hormone, and a unique β subunit, which is transcriptionally regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH). Because most FSH is constitutively secreted, tight transcriptional regulation is critical for maintaining FSH levels within a narrow physiological range. Previously, we reported that GNRH induces FSHβ (Fshb) transcription via induction of the AP-1 transcription factor, a heterodimer of c-FOS and c-JUN. Herein, we identify c-JUN-dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) as a novel repressor of GNRH-mediated Fshb induction. JDP2 exhibited high basal expression and bound the Fshb promoter at an AP-1-binding site in a complex with c-JUN. GNRH treatment induced c-FOS to replace JDP2 as a c-JUN binding partner, forming transcriptionally active AP-1. Subsequently, rapid c-FOS degradation enabled reformation of the JDP2 complex. In vivo studies revealed that JDP2 null male mice have normal reproductive function, as expected from a negative regulator of the FSH hormone. Female JDP2 null mice, however, exhibited early puberty, observed as early vaginal opening, larger litters, and early reproductive senescence. JDP2 null females had increased levels of circulating FSH and higher expression of the Fshb subunit in the pituitary, resulting in elevated serum estrogen and higher numbers of large ovarian follicles. Disruption of JDP2 function therefore appears to cause early cessation of reproductive function, a condition that has been associated with elevated FSH in women.

  8. [Hormonal treatment for menopause and arterial risk].

    PubMed

    Gueyffier, François; Cornu, Catherine

    2005-02-28

    Is hormonal atmosphere before menopause the cause of the lower risk of coronary heart disease in women? Big clinical trials do not validate this hypothesis, however simple and attractive: in 5 primary or secondary prevention trials, estrogens alone or in association with progestatives to near 32000 women after menopause, do not leave hope for a significant reduction of coronary risk, and show in contrast an 30% increase of stroke risk. These results highlight the crucial importance of clinical trials to validate therapeutic models. The remaining hypotheses on the nature of hormonal treatments and the administration route must follow the same validation process. The prescription of hormonal treatment for menopause illustrates the importance of informed decision including individualised estimate of the risk to benefit ratio.

  9. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormone for the body’s needs. This is called Hypothyroidism and may be caused by a non-functioning ... or by a non-functioning pituitary gland (see Hypothyroidism Brochure ). Hypothyroidism, is the most common reason for ...

  10. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy (a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a doctor’s instructions). ... that bioidentical hormones, whether prepared by a compounding pharmacy or pharmaceutical company, are safer to use than ...

  11. Growth hormone test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called acromegaly . In children it is called gigantism . Too little growth hormone can cause a slow ... growth due to excess GH during childhood, called gigantism. (A special test is done to confirm this ...

  12. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fridlyand, Leonid E.; Tamarina, Natalia A.; Schally, Andrew V.; Philipson, Louis H.

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR) has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types, including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggest that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications. PMID:27777568

  13. Role of hormones and neurosteroids in epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the emerging evidence of hormonal influence on epileptogenesis, which is a process whereby a brain becomes progressively epileptic due to an initial precipitating event of diverse origin such as brain injury, stroke, infection, or prolonged seizures. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of epilepsy are poorly understood. Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration appear to trigger epileptogenesis. There is an intense search for drugs that truly prevent the development of epilepsy in people at risk. Hormones play an important role in children and adults with epilepsy. Corticosteroids, progesterone, estrogens, and neurosteroids have been shown to affect seizure activity in animal models and in clinical studies. However, the impact of hormones on epileptogenesis has not been investigated widely. There is emerging new evidence that progesterone, neurosteroids, and endogenous hormones may play a role in regulating the epileptogenesis. Corticosterone has excitatory effects and triggers epileptogenesis in animal models. Progesterone has disease-modifying activity in epileptogenic models. The antiepileptogenic effect of progesterone has been attributed to its conversion to neurosteroids, which binds to GABA-A receptors and enhances phasic and tonic inhibition in the brain. Neurosteroids are robust anticonvulsants. There is pilot evidence that neurosteroids may have antiepileptogenic properties. Future studies may generate new insight on the disease-modifying potential of hormonal agents and neurosteroids in epileptogenesis. PMID:23914154

  14. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tuncel, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases. PMID:28117293

  15. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Murat

    2016-01-05

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  16. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  17. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cognition.

    PubMed

    McCarrey, Anna C; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Prior to the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) was used to prevent age-related disease, especially cardiovascular disease, and to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and sleep disruptions. Some observational studies of HT in midlife and aging women suggested that HT might also benefit cognitive function, but randomized clinical trials have produced mixed findings in terms of health and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on hormone effects on cognition and risk for dementia in naturally menopausal women as well as surgically induced menopause, and highlights findings from the large-scale WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) which, contrary to expectation, showed increased dementia risk and poorer cognitive outcomes in older postmenopausal women randomized to HT versus placebo. We consider the 'critical window hypothesis', which suggests that a window of opportunity may exist shortly after menopause during which estrogen treatments are most effective. In addition, we highlight emerging evidence that potential adverse effects of HT on cognition are most pronounced in women who have other health risks, such as lower global cognition or diabetes. Lastly, we point towards implications for future research and clinical treatments.

  18. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cognition

    PubMed Central

    McCarrey, Anna C.; Resnick, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the publication of findings from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) was used to prevent age-related disease, especially cardiovascular disease, and to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and sleep disruptions. Some observational studies of HT in midlife and aging women suggested that HT might also benefit cognitive function, but randomized clinical trials have produced mixed findings in terms of health and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on hormone effects on cognition and risk for dementia in naturally menopausal women as well as surgically induced menopause, and highlights findings from the large-scale WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) which, contrary to expectation, showed increased dementia risk and poorer cognitive outcomes in older postmenopausal women randomized to HT versus placebo. We consider the ‘critical window hypothesis’, which suggests that a window of opportunity may exist shortly after menopause during which estrogen treatments are most effective. In addition, we highlight emerging evidence that potential adverse effects of HT on cognition are most pronounced in women who have other health risks, such as cerebrovascular disease or diabetes. Lastly, we point towards implications for future research and clinical treatments. PMID:25935728

  19. Exogenous Hormone Use: Oral Contraceptives, Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy, and Health Outcomes in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Grodstein, Francine; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to our understanding of the complex relationship between exogenous hormones and health outcomes in women. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II from 1976 to 2016. Results. Oral contraceptive and postmenopausal hormone use were studied in relation to major health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Current or recent oral contraceptive use is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (mainly among smokers), melanoma, and breast cancer, and a lower risk of colorectal and ovarian cancer. Although hormone therapy is not indicated primarily for chronic disease prevention, findings from the NHS and a recent analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative indicate that younger women who are closer to menopause onset have a more favorable risk–benefit profile than do older women from use of hormone therapy for relief of vasomotor symptoms. Conclusions. With updated information on hormone use, lifestyle factors, and other variables, the NHS and NHS II continue to contribute to our understanding of the complex relationship between exogenous hormones and health outcomes in women. PMID:27459451

  20. Hormonal Responses to Synthetic Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Man

    PubMed Central

    Besser, G. M.; McNeilly, A. S.; Anderson, D. C.; Marshall, J. C.; Harsoulis, P.; Hall, R.; Ormston, B. J.; Alexander, L.; Collins, W. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, synthetic decapeptide luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone-releasing hormone (LH/FSH-RH), have been studied in 18 normal men and five women in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Rapid and dose-dependent (25 to 100 μg) increases in serum immunoreactive LH were seen, which reached a peak 20 to 30 minutes after a rapid intravenous injection. Similar but much smaller increases in serum immunoreactive FSH were seen. These conclusions have been validated by using two different immunoassay systems for each hormone. The LH/FSH-RH therefore causes both LH and FSH release in man as in animals but does not affect growth hormone, thyrotrophin, or ACTH. The gonadotrophin responses were the same in the women as in the men but were insufficient in the men to cause statistically significant changes in the serum levels of the gonadal steroid hormones, testosterone or oestradiol, or in their precursors 17 α-hydroxyprogesterone or progesterone. In the women, however, there was a rise in oestradiol after the 100-μg doses. The use of LH/FSH-RH will provide an important test to define the level of the lesion in hypogonadal patients and also should be valuable in the treatment of some types of male and female infertility. A simple and clinically useful LH/FSH-RH test of pituitary function is described (100 μg given intravenously), and the provisional normal responses of LH and FSH at 20 and 60 minutes are given. PMID:4339974

  1. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably constitutes another point at which intervention may promote efficient digestion and nutrient uptake. In recent decades, gut hormones have come to occupy a central place in the complex neuroendocrine interactions that underlie the regulation of energy balance. Many gut peptides have been shown to influence energy intake. The most well studied in this regard are cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin and ghrelin. With the exception of ghrelin, these hormones act to increase satiety and decrease food intake. The mechanisms by which gut hormones modify feeding are the subject of ongoing investigation. Local effects such as the inhibition of gastric emptying might contribute to the decrease in energy intake. Activation of mechanoreceptors as a result of gastric distension may inhibit further food intake via neural reflex arcs. Circulating gut hormones have also been shown to act directly on neurons in hypothalamic and brainstem centres of appetite control. The median eminence and area postrema are characterized by a deficiency of the blood–brain barrier. Some investigators argue that this renders neighbouring structures, such as the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the brainstem, susceptible to influence by circulating factors. Extensive reciprocal connections exist between these areas and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and other energy-regulating centres of the

  2. Thyroid hormone transporter defects.

    PubMed

    Grüters, Annette

    2007-01-01

    In in vitro experiments, active transport of thyroid hormones had been repeatedly demonstrated. The membrane transporters for thyroid hormones which have been identified include the organic anion transporting polypeptide, heterodimeric amino acid transporters and the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) which are the focus of this chapter. The gene encoding MCT8 which was identified as a specific thyroid hormone transporter is located on chromosome Xq13.2. The expression pattern of MCT8 indicates that MCT8 plays an important role in the development of the central nervous system by transporting thyroid hormone into neurons as its main target cells. Mutational analysis of the MCT8 gene revealed mutations or deletions in the MCT8 gene in unrelated male patients with severe psychomotor retardation and biochemical findings consistent with thyroid hormone resistance. Indeed, thyroid function tests in patients with MCT8 mutations demonstrated marked elevations of serum T3 (in the thyrotoxic range), a significant decrease in serum T4 or fT4 and normal to elevated TSH levels.

  3. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  4. Obesity: the hormonal milieu.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Anne; Diamond, Frank B

    2008-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions throughout the world and poses significant health and economic burdens to both developed and developing societies. Most recent data from the NHANES study (2003-2004) report that 17.1% of US children are overweight and 32.2% of adults are obese, a significant increase compared with data obtained only 6 years earlier. The neurohormonal control of appetite, body composition, and glucose homeostasis is mediated by hormones secreted from adipose tissue, endocrine glands, and enteroendocrine cells, which converge at the vagus nerve, brainstem and hypothalamus to modulate complex interactions of neurotransmitters and central appetite-regulating peptides. These hormonal signals are tightly regulated to maintain body weight/adiposity within a narrow, individually defined range that may be further impacted by variables such as ingested calories, meal composition, and lifestyle. Clinical manifestations of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and impaired glucose tolerance reflect biochemical alterations in a complex hormonal milieu. Elucidation of these hormonal perturbations in obese patients has already provided novel pharmacologic treatments to improve weight management and address the metabolic sequelae of obesity. The remarkable redundancy of these hormones, however, and their interactions make a monopharmaceutical approach unlikely to be successful.

  5. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  6. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions.

  7. Male hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Amory, J K

    2006-06-01

    Efforts are underway to develop additional forms of contraception for men. The most promising approach to male contraceptive development involves the administration of exogenous testosterone (T). When administered to a man, T functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary, thereby depriving the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis. After 2-3 months of treatment, low levels of these gonadotropins lead to markedly decreased sperm counts and effective contraception in a majority of men. Hormonal contraception with exogenous T has proven to be free from serious adverse effects and is well tolerated by men. In addition, sperm counts uniformly normalize when the exogenous T is discontinued. Thus, male hormonal is safe, effective and reversible; however, spermatogenesis is not suppressed to zero in all men, meaning that some diminished potential for fertility persists. Because of this recent studies have combined T with progestogens and/or gonadotropin-releasing antagonists to further suppress pituitary gonadotropins and optimize contraceptive efficacy. Current combinations of T and progestogens completely suppress spermatogenesis without severe side effects in 80-90% of men, with significant suppression in the remainder of individuals. Recent trials with newer, long-acting forms of injectable T, which can be administered every 8 weeks, combined with progestogens, administered either orally or by long-acting implant, have yielded promising results and may soon result in the marketing of a safe, reversible and effective hormonal contraceptive for men.

  8. [Growth hormone signaling pathways].

    PubMed

    Zych, Sławomir; Szatkowska, Iwona; Czerniawska-Piatkowska, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The substantial improvement in the studies on a very complicated mechanism-- growth hormone signaling in a cell, has been noted in last decade. GH-induced signaling is characterized by activation of several pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the signal transducer and activator of transcription and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3) pathways. This review shows a current model of the growth hormone receptor dimerization, rotation of subunits and JAK2 kinase activation as the initial steps in the cascade of events. In the next stages of the signaling process, the GH-(GHR)2-(JAK2)2 complex may activate signaling molecules such as Stat, IRS-1 and IRS-2, and particularly all cascade proteins that activate MAP kinase. These pathways regulate basal cellular functions including target gene transcription, enzymatic activity and metabolite transport. Therefore growth hormone is considered as a major regulator of postnatal growth and metabolism, probably for mammary gland growth and development too.

  9. [Hormonal perturbations in fibromyalgia].

    PubMed

    Schlienger, J L; Perrin, A E; Grunenberger, F; Goichot, B

    2001-12-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain and fatigue without biological detectable disturbances. The mechanisms of this disease are unknown. It has been postulated that it can be the consequence of a chronic stress mediated mainly through the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. These fields have been extensively studied. Results were scattered and non convincing. A reduction of growth hormone and IGF-1 levels described in a third of patients has led to a double blind random clinical trial with biogenetic growth hormone. Results were equivocal . Other hormonal systems are grossly normals and circadian rhythms are unaltered. Despite some arguments in favour of a CRH neurons hyperactivity, these results are not able to consolide a particular physiopathological mechanism and to argument for a new therapeutic approach. Many of the abnormalities may be the consequence of psychological disturbances.

  10. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    PubMed

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  11. Hormones and tendinopathies: the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Francesco; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Berardi, Anna C; Frizziero, Antonio; Tarantino, Umberto; Maffulli, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Tendinopathies negatively affect the quality of life of millions of people, but we still do not know the factors involved in the development of tendon conditions. Published articles in English in PubMed and Google Scholar up to June 2015 about hormonal influence on tendinopathies onset. One hundred and two papers were included following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In vitro and in vivo, tenocytes showed changes in their morphology and in their functional properties according to hormonal imbalances. Genetic pattern, sex, age and comorbidities can influence the hormonal effect on tendons. The increasing prevalence of metabolic disorders prompts to investigate the possible connection between metabolic problems and musculoskeletal diseases. The influence of hormones on tendon structure and metabolism needs to be further investigated. If found to be significant, multidisciplinary preventive and therapeutic strategies should then be developed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Menopause, hormone therapy and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stuenkel, C A

    2017-02-01

    Over the past three decades, the prevalence of diabetes has increased four-fold. Coupled with the global obesity epidemic and aging of the world's population, a perfect metabolic storm is brewing. The influence of menopause and exogenous estrogen and progestogens must be included in this equation. In this review, criteria for diagnosing diabetes and recommendations for screening are described. The reported effects of menopause on diabetes risk in healthy women are reviewed as well as the relationship between established diabetes and the timing of menopause. The effects of menopausal hormone therapies (MHT) on glucose control in women with diabetes and the effect of MHT on diabetes risk in menopausal women without diabetes are described. Evidence-based strategies to prevent diabetes in midlife women are highlighted. The augmenting effect of diabetes on chronic health concerns of aging women, such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer, along with current recommendations for screening and prevention are presented. Given the current demographics of today's world, the content of this review may apply to as many as one-third of the average practitioner's postmenopausal patient population.

  13. The potential use of hormone-based therapeutics for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jenna C; Rosario, Emily R

    2012-01-01

    In both men and women, age-related loss of sex steroid hormones has been linked to an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The primary female hormone estrogen, and the primary male hormone testosterone have numerous protective effects in the brain relevant to the prevention of AD such as the promotion of neuron viability, reduction of β- amyloid accumulation and alleviation of tau hyperphosphorylation. Therefore it has been hypothesized that the precipitous loss of these hormones either through menopause or normal aging, can increase susceptibility to AD pathogenesis. This review will discuss the basic science research and epidemiological evidence largely supporting this hypothesis, as well as the estrogen-based hormone therapy clinical findings that have recently shed doubt on this theory. The complications associated with estrogen-based hormone therapy such as the inclusion of a progestogen, hormone responsiveness with age, and natural vs. synthetic hormones will be discussed. Further, we will outline the cancer risks facing both estrogen and testosterone-based hormone therapy. Most importantly, this review will discuss the present and future strategies to translate the neuroprotective properties of sex steroid hormones into safe and efficacious treatments for AD. One of the most promising translational tools thus far may be the development of selective estrogen and androgen receptor modulators. However, additional research is needed to optimize these and other translational tools towards the successful use of hormone therapies in both men and women to delay, prevent, and or treat AD.

  14. Ovarian hormones and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Zachariasen, R D

    1991-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of the ovarian hormones--estrogen and progestins--during pregnancy, puberty, the menstrual cycle, and oral contraceptive (OC) use are associated with an increased incidence of gingival inflammation and exudate. Gingivitis is induced by the micro- organisms that compose subgingival plaque, particularly anaerobic organisms. The ovarian hormones both stimulate bacterial growth and promote the inflammatory process. In the presence of sex hormones, the metabolic breakdown of folate is increased, leading to a folate deficiency that enhances the inflammatory destruction of oral tissue. Gingivitis occurs in an estimated 60-75% of pregnancy women, but the numbers of gingivitis-producing bacteria decrease toward the end of pregnancy and the gingival tissues return to their previous state. In OC users, on the other hand, inflammation of the gingiva is chronic and may increase over time. If gingivitis is already present at the onset of pregnancy or OC use, the inflammation will become progressively more severe. Although these effects cannot be avoided, ovarian hormone- induced gingivitis can be substantially minimized of low plaque levels exist at the beginning of pregnancy or pill initiation.

  15. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    MedlinePlus

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  16. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  17. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  18. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  19. Hormone Profiling in Plant Tissues.

    PubMed

    Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Plant hormones are for a long time known to act as chemical messengers in the regulation of physiological processes during a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence. Furthermore, plant hormones simultaneously coordinate physiological responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To study the hormonal regulation of physiological processes, three main approaches have been used (1) exogenous application of hormones, (2) correlative studies through measurements of endogenous hormone levels, and (3) use of transgenic and/or mutant plants altered in hormone metabolism or signaling. A plant hormone profiling method is useful to unravel cross talk between hormones and help unravel the hormonal regulation of physiological processes in studies using any of the aforementioned approaches. However, hormone profiling is still particularly challenging due to their very low abundance in plant tissues. In this chapter, a sensitive, rapid, and accurate method to quantify all the five "classic" classes of plant hormones plus other plant growth regulators, such as jasmonates, salicylic acid, melatonin, and brassinosteroids is described. The method includes a fast and simple extraction procedure without time consuming steps as purification or derivatization, followed by optimized ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. This protocol facilitates the high-throughput analysis of hormone profiling and is applicable to different plant tissues.

  20. Bioidentical Hormones for Menopausal Hormone Therapy: Variation on a Theme

    PubMed Central

    Bythrow, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Progesterone creams and natural or bioidentical compounded estrogen preparations are being promoted to consumers as safe alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy and as health-promoting tonics. No reliable data support these claims. SAFETY Natural hormones, including estradiol, estriol, estrone, and progesterone, can be expected to have the same adverse event profile as conventional menopausal hormone regimens. SALIVARY HORMONE TESTS Salivary tests may be used to persuade asymptomatic consumers to use hormones (or symptomatic patients to use higher doses than those needed to mitigate symptoms), a practice that can be expected to result in adverse events. PMID:17549577

  1. Overtraining: consequences and prevention.

    PubMed

    Eichner, E R

    1995-01-01

    Overtraining refers to prolonged fatigue and reduced performance despite increased training. Its roots include muscle damage, cytokine actions, the acute phase response, improper nutrition, mood disturbances, and diverse consequences of stress hormone responses. The clinical features are varied, non-specific, anecdotal and legion. No single test is diagnostic. The best treatment is prevention, which means (1) balancing training and rest, (2) monitoring mood, fatigue, symptoms and performance, (3) reducing distress and (4) ensuring optimal nutrition, especially total energy and carbohydrate intake.

  2. [Rational hormonal diagnosis of oligomenorrhea].

    PubMed

    Weise, H C; Moltz, L; Bispink, G; Leidenberger, F

    1989-08-01

    In a study, conducted by two clinics in Berlin and Hamburg, specializing in reproductive endocrinology, the anamnestic, clinical, and laboratory data of 170 oligomenorrheic patients (menstrual intervals between 35 and 90 days) were evaluated in order to determine the frequency of possible causes of oligomenorrhea. Pathological hormone levels were found in two thirds of all patients. The order of frequency of abnormal hormone levels was as follows: hyperandrogenemia (testosterone and/or DHEA-sulfate) in 41.8%, hyperprolactinemia in 25.9%, abnormal thyroid function (TSH and/or TRH-induced TSH) in 21.7%, and hypergonadotropic FSH levels in 3.5% of all patients. There was an overlap of between two or more pathological conditions in one third of all patients. This study confirms results of a previous study in amenorrheic patients (Moltz et al., 1987 - see reference list), documenting hyperandrogenemia as the most frequent abnormality found in this group, followed by hyperprolactinemia. As can be expected, the percentage of women with no discernible abnormality was higher in oligomenorrheic patients when compared with the amenorrheic group (32.3% vs 7.7%). Furthermore, overweight patients were overrepresented in the oligomenorrheic group, while underweight patients were seen more frequently in the amenorrheic group. In view of these results of our study we recommend a detailed diagnostic follow-up in all younger patients with ovarian disorders who need to preserve their reproductive potential. This follow-up should include hyperprolactinemia, hypo-/hyperthyroidism, hyperandrogenemic and hypoestrogenemic states and exclusion of primary ovarian failure. In contrast to recommendations of WHO, issued in 1976, such diagnostic work allows an etiology oriented therapy decision and a therapy risk assessment in subgroups of patients, such as hyperandrogenemic patients, who receive clomiphene or gonadotropin treatment. Furthermore, it permits prophylactic considerations, for

  3. Hormone replacement therapy: the need for reconsideration.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L

    1993-12-01

    Millions of menopausal women are taking hormone supplements. Observational studies suggest that unopposed estrogens reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and fractures and increase the risk of endometrial cancer and, possibly, breast cancer. In the absence of information from randomized trials, how much of the apparent beneficial effect on heart disease is due to the tendency of healthier women to use these drugs is unknown. The effect on the cardiovascular system of estrogen taken with a progestin is unknown, and this regimen may increase the risk of breast cancer. An approach to health and illness that focuses on a single cause or preventive and on single organ systems is severely limited. Alternative ways to improve cardiovascular and skeletal health that do not increase the risk of cancer are available. A reconsideration of the appropriate use of hormone supplements is needed.

  4. Selected hormonal and neurotransmitter mechanisms regulating feed intake in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sartin, J L; Daniel, J A; Whitlock, B K; Wilborn, R R

    2010-11-01

    Appetite control is a major issue in normal growth and in suboptimal growth performance settings. A number of hormones, in particular leptin, activate or inhibit orexigenic or anorexigenic neurotransmitters within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, where feed intake regulation is integrated. Examples of appetite regulatory neurotransmitters are the stimulatory neurotransmitters neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone and the inhibitory neurotransmitter, melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Examination of messenger RNA (using in situ hybridization and real-time PCR) and proteins (using immunohistochemistry) for these neurotransmitters in ruminants has indicated that physiological regulation occurs in response to fasting for several of these critical genes and proteins, especially AgRP and NPY. Moreover, intracerebroventricular injection of each of the four stimulatory neurotransmitters can increase feed intake in sheep and may also regulate either growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, cortisol or other hormones. In contrast, both leptin and MSH are inhibitory to feed intake in ruminants. Interestingly, the natural melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) antagonist, AgRP, as well as NPY can prevent the inhibition of feed intake after injection of endotoxin (to model disease suppression of appetite). Thus, knowledge of the mechanisms regulating feed intake in the hypothalamus may lead to mechanisms to increase feed intake in normal growing animals and prevent the wasting effects of severe disease in animals.

  5. The wound hormone jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J.K.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant tissues are highly vulnerable to injury by herbivores, pathogens, mechanical stress, and other environmental insults. Optimal plant fitness in the face of these threats relies on complex signal transduction networks that link damage-associated signals to appropriate changes in metabolism, growth, and development. Many of these wound-induced adaptive responses are triggered by de novo synthesis of the plant hormone jasmonate (JA). Recent studies provide evidence that JA mediates systemic wound responses through distinct cell autonomous and nonautonomous pathways. In both pathways, bioactive JAs are recognized by an F-box protein-based receptor system that couples hormone binding to ubiquitin-dependent degradation of transcriptional repressor proteins. These results provide a new framework for understanding how plants recognize and respond to tissue injury. PMID:19695649

  6. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP17 and COMT Genes--relation to bone mass and longitudinal bone changes in postmenopausal women with or without hormone replacement therapy. The Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Tofteng, C L; Abrahamsen, B; Jensen, J E B; Petersen, S; Teilmann, J; Kindmark, A; Vestergaard, P; Gram, J; Langdahl, B L; Mosekilde, L

    2004-08-01

    Sex steroids are important physiologic regulators of bone mass, and genes regulating sex steroid production and metabolism are obvious as candidate genes for osteoporosis susceptibility. We present data from a study of 1795 recent postmenopausal women, assigned to either hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or no treatment and followed for 5 years. The association between bone mass measurements and two single nucleotide polymorphisms, a T (A1) to C (A2) transition in the 5'-UTR of the cytochrome P450c17alpha (CYP17) gene and a G (Val) to A (Met) transition in exon 4 of the catechol- O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, was evaluated. Association with CYP17 genotype was modified by body mass index (BMI). In lean women, individuals homozygous for the CYP17 A2 allele were 1 cm shorter and had lower baseline BMD (bone mineral density), BMC, and CSA (cross sectional area) in the spine and femoral neck than did other women (BMD spine A2A2: 0.975 g/cm2 versus 1.011 g/cm2 in A1A1 + A1A2, P = 0.002). Conversely, an adverse association with A2A2 and bone loss over 5 years seemed present only in overweight women, but differences were small. Response to HRT was not dependent on CYP17 genotype. COMT genotype was not associated with bone mass at baseline, bone loss in untreated women, or response to HRT. In conclusion, the A2 allele of the CYP17 T(27)-C polymorphism is associated with reduced bone mass and bone size in lean perimenopausal women, whereas high BMI protects against this negative association. The COMT G(1947)-A polymorphism is not associated with bone parameters in this study.

  7. Temporal aspects of copper homeostasis and its crosstalk with hormones

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrubia, Lola; Romero, Paco; Carrió-Seguí, Angela; Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Moreno, Joaquín; Sanz, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    To cope with the dual nature of copper as being essential and toxic for cells, plants temporarily adapt the expression of copper homeostasis components to assure its delivery to cuproproteins while avoiding the interference of potential oxidative damage derived from both copper uptake and photosynthetic reactions during light hours. The circadian clock participates in the temporal organization of coordination of plant nutrition adapting metabolic responses to the daily oscillations. This timely control improves plant fitness and reproduction and holds biotechnological potential to drive increased crop yields. Hormonal pathways, including those of abscisic acid, gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, and jasmonates are also under direct clock and light control, both in mono and dicotyledons. In this review, we focus on copper transport in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa and the presumable role of hormones in metal homeostasis matching nutrient availability to growth requirements and preventing metal toxicity. The presence of putative hormone-dependent regulatory elements in the promoters of copper transporters genes suggests hormonal regulation to match special copper requirements during plant development. Spatial and temporal processes that can be affected by hormones include the regulation of copper uptake into roots, intracellular trafficking and compartmentalization, and long-distance transport to developing vegetative and reproductive tissues. In turn, hormone biosynthesis and signaling are also influenced by copper availability, which suggests reciprocal regulation subjected to temporal control by the central oscillator of the circadian clock. This transcriptional regulatory network, coordinates environmental and hormonal signaling with developmental pathways to allow enhanced micronutrient acquisition efficiency. PMID:25941529

  8. Hormones and Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    OHE 1 hypothesis are cancer patients and lacto- vegetarians . The evidence is rather clear that certain sparse. Schneider and co-workers used a Both of... Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Giske Ursin, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Southern California School of Medicine Los Angeles...TYPE AND DATES COVERED I October 1997 Final (30 Sep 94 - 29 Sep 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hormones and Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J

  9. [Acne and hormones].

    PubMed

    Faure, Michel

    2002-04-15

    Androgens stimulate sebum production which is necessary for the development of acne. Acne in women may thus be considered as a manifestation of cutaneous androgenization. Most of acnes may be related to an idiopathic skin hyperandrogenism due to in situ enzyme activity and androgen receptor hypersensitivity, as also noted in idiopathic hirsutism. Some acne may correspond to elevated ovarian or adrenal androgen secretion. The presence of acne in women may lead to a diagnosis of functional hyperandrogenism, either polycysticovary syndrome or nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Plasma level assays for testosterone, delta 4 androstenedione and 17-OH progesterone and ovarian echography are necessary to determine the possibility for an ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenism, but not to better treat acne. The goal of hormonal therapy in acne is to oppose the effects of androgens on the sebaceous gland. Hormones may be used in female acne in the absence of endocrine abnormalities. Antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate or aldactone) may be useful in severe acne, hormonal contraceptives with cyproterone acetate or non androgenic progestins in mild or common acne often in association with other anti-acneic drugs. Glucocorticoids have to be administered in acne fulminans and other forms of acute, severe, inflammatory acne, for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  10. Sex hormones and acne.

    PubMed

    Ju, Qiang; Tao, Tao; Hu, Tingting; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap; Al-Khuzaei, Safaa; Chen, WenChieh

    The skin is an endocrine organ with the expression of metabolizing enzymes and hormone receptors for diverse hormones. The sebaceous gland is the main site of hormone biosynthesis, especially for androgens, and acne is the classical androgen-mediated dermatosis. In sebocytes, conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone directly to dihydrotestosterone bypassing testosterone has been demonstrated, while type II 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase can inactivate the action of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The androgen receptor-dependent genomic effect of dihydrotestosterone on sebocytes is confirmed. Further evidence supports the PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1/mTOR signaling in the involvement of the interplay between androgens, insulin, insulin-like growth factor, and hyperglycemic diet in acne. Androgens not only regulate embryology and lipogenesis/sebum synthesis in sebocytes but also influence inflammation in acne. Genetic studies indicate that regulation of the androgen receptor is an important factor in severe acne. Further studies are required to understand the effect of estrogen and progesterone on sebaceous gland and comedogenesis, considering the change of acne in pregnancy and postmenopausal acne. Special attention should be paid to nonobese patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome and hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome. In spite of extensive gynecologic experience in the use of combined oral contraceptives for acne, evidence based on dermatologic observation should be intensified.

  11. [Hormones and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Lacka, Katarzyna; Czyzyk, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Hormones have an influence on many tissues and organs, including the cardio-vascular system (CVS). Depending on their activity on CVS, they can be divided into 4 groups: having hypertensive or hypotensive influence and chronotropic positive or negative action. Endocrine regulation in CVS may occur in many ways. Apart from hormones usually connected with CVS regulation, other more recently, discovered ones can act on it. A few of these act directly through specific receptors in heart or vessel wall cells, whereas some act indirectly - stimulating other neuroendocrine factors. Additionally, novel mechanisms of signal transduction have been discovered for steroid and thyroid hormones, which are independent of gene transcription regulation and are - known as "nongenomic". Hormones which increase blood pressure include: urotensin II, endothelins, angiotensin II, catecholamines, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and leptin. On the other hand, blood pressure can be decreased by: natriuretic peptides, the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family, angiotensin 1-7, substance P, neurokinin A, ghrelin, Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), oxytocin, and, sex hormones. Hormones which when appearing in excess increase the heart rate are: catecholamines, endothelins, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, leptin and PTHrP. Those which decrease the heart rate include: natriuretic peptides, substance P, neurokinin A, oxytocin, angiotensin 1-7. This paper describes the contemporary view of the functions of hormones which act on the vessel tree and heart. The particular effect of mediator depends on many circumstances i.e.: hormone concentration, receptor type. It may also undergo contraregulation. The majority of those hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of CVS diseases', which can result in the development of new medicines.

  12. Drug insight: Recent advances in male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Amory, John K; Page, Stephanie T; Bremner, William J

    2006-01-01

    As there are limitations to current methods of male contraception, research has been undertaken to develop hormonal contraceptives for men, analogous to the methods for women based on estrogen and progestogens. When testosterone is administered to a man, it functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland. Since these hormones are the main stimulatory signals for spermatogenesis, low levels of LH and FSH markedly impair sperm production. After 3-4 months of testosterone treatment, 60-70% of men no longer have sperm in their ejaculate, and most other men exhibit markedly diminished sperm counts. Male hormonal contraception is well tolerated, free of serious adverse side effects, and 95% effective in the prevention of pregnancy. Importantly, male hormonal contraception is reversible, with sperm counts usually recovering within 4 months of the discontinuation of hormone treatment. Because exogenous testosterone administration alone does not completely suppress sperm production in all men, researchers have combined testosterone with second agents, such as progestogens or gonadotropin-releasing-hormone antagonists, to further suppress secretion of LH and FSH and improve suppression of spermatogenesis. Recent trials have used combinations of long-acting injectable or implantable forms of testosterone with progestogens, which can be administered orally, by injection or by a long-acting implant. Such combinations suppress spermatogenesis to zero without severe side effects in 80-90% of men, with near-complete suppression in the remainder of individuals. One of these testosterone and progestogen combination regimens might soon bring the promise of male hormonal contraception to fruition.

  13. Perspectives in hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Kenemans, P; van Unnik, G A; Mijatovic, V; van der Mooren, M J

    2001-06-15

    Estrogens have been convincingly shown to be highly effective in preventing and reversing menopause-related conditions, such as hot flushes, urogenital complaints, and postmenopausal bone loss. Observational studies report that long-term, estrogen-containing, postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) leads to a substantial reduction in hip fractures, myocardial infarction, and possibly colonic cancer, with important consequences for health and quality of life. Estrogen replacement may postpone the onset of Alzheimer's disease and extend life. While many of these effects are biologically plausible, with a variety of cellular mechanisms being involved, only ongoing and future large-scale randomized clinical trials can and should define the effects of HRT more precisely. Long-term compliance is a key issue for long-term benefits, and offering women a choice of administration routes and regimens can only be beneficial in this respect. Pills, patches, gels, and implants are all widely prescribed. Intravaginal or intranasal forms of administration, which are very easy to use and adaptable on an individual level, are among the new options which could improve long-term continuation of HRT use. Fear of breast cancer and recurrence of vaginal bleeding are real concerns for many women considering HRT. This has led to research into lower-dose, estrogen-containing regimens, into continuous combined regimens, and into the potential of estrogen receptor alpha or beta binding molecules that may help to prevent such problems from arising. The prospects for safe and effective postmenopausal HRT with either estrogens or estrogen-like drugs are very promising when these drugs are used in a patient-tailored, risk profile-based manner.

  14. Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ186 CONTRACEPTION Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection • What is progestin? • How effective are progestin-only pills and the birth control injection in preventing pregnancy? • What are progestin-only ...

  15. Institution of combined treatment with testosterone and charcoal-extracted porcine follicular fluid immediately after orchidectomy prevents the postcastration hypersecretion of follicle-stimulating hormone in the hypothalamus-lesioned rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) receiving an invariant intravenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone infusion.

    PubMed

    Abeyawardene, S A; Plant, T M

    1989-03-01

    In the male rhesus monkey, the negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin secretion by the gonad involves a specific inhibitory action of a testicular hormone on FSH release at the level of the anterior pituitary gland. Neither circulating testosterone (T) nor estradiol appears to be able to account for the testicular inhibition of FSH in this species. The purpose of the present study was to begin to examine the role of gonadal peptides in this regard. To this end, an episodic pattern of activity in the pituitary-Leydig cell axis was restored in seven hypothalamus-lesioned male rhesus monkeys with a chronic and unchanging intermittent iv infusion of GnRH (0.1 microgram/min for 3 min every 3 h). This preparation, known as the hypophysiotropic clamp, has been described in detail previously. Charcoal-extracted porcine follicular fluid (pFF) was used as the source of gonadal peptides. In five animals, initiation of combined T replacement and pFF treatment (10-15 ml, sc, every 12 h for 8 days) maintained circulating FSH at concentrations similar to those observed before gonadectomy. Withdrawal of pFF treatment for 8 days while maintaining T replacement resulted in a progressive and dramatic rise in plasma FSH concentrations. Reinitiation of pFF treatment resulted in a return of circulating FSH concentrations toward precastration control values. Changes in LH secretion throughout the experiment were unremarkable. In an attempt to assess any nonspecific effects of porcine protein on gonadotropin secretion, the remaining two animals received charcoal-extracted pig serum instead of pFF. In these animals circulating FSH concentrations rose 7- to 8-fold during the 8 days of combined T replacement and pig serum treatment. These findings provide evidence to support the view that a testicular peptide, most probably inhibin, plays a major role in the negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin secretion in the monkey by exerting an inhibitory action on FSH secretion directly

  16. Hormonal regulation of energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F

    2000-06-01

    A loop system exists between hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peripheral adipose tissue leptin to maintain normal body homeostasis. When hypothalamic NPY levels are increased by fasting or by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion, food intake and body weight increase. NPY has genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It increases insulin and corticosterone secretion relative to controls. These hormonal changes, acting singly or combined, favor adipose tissue lipogenic activity, while producing muscle insulin resistance. They also promote leptin release from adipose tissue. When infused i.c.v. to normal rats to mimic its central effects, leptin decreases NPY levels, thus food intake and body weight. Leptin i.c.v. has also genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It decreases insulinemia and adipose tissue storage ability, enhancing glucose disposal. Leptin increases the expression of uncoupling proteins (UCP-1, -2, -3) and thus energy dissipation. Leptin-induced changes favor oxidation at the expense of storage. Circadian fluctuations of NPY and leptin levels maintain normal body homeostasis. In animal obesity, defective hypothalamic leptin receptor activation prevent leptin from acting, with resulting obesity, insulin and leptin resistance.

  17. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing.

    PubMed

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-07-01

    Fracture healing is a complex process, and a significant number of fractures are complicated by impaired healing and non-union. Impaired healing is prevalent in certain risk groups, such as the elderly, osteoporotics, people with malnutrition, and women after menopause. Currently, no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial in the treatment of fractures and could thus be a potentially new treatment option for induction of fracture healing in humans. Furthermore, fractures in animals with experimental conditions of impaired healing such as aging, estrogen withdrawal, and malnutrition can heal in an expedited manner after PTH treatment. Interestingly, fractures occurring at both cancellous and cortical sites can be treated successfully, indicating that both osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic fractures can be the target of PTH-induced healing. Finally, the data suggest that PTH partly prevents the delay in fracture healing caused by aging. Recently, the first randomized, controlled clinical trial investigating the effect of PTH on fracture healing was published, indicating a possible clinical benefit of PTH treatment in inducing fracture healing. The aim of this article is therefore to review the evidence for the potential of PTH in bone healing, including the underlying mechanisms for this, and to provide recommendations for the clinical testing and use of PTH in the treatment of impaired fracture healing in humans.

  18. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    PubMed

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone.

  19. [Hormone replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Nozue, E

    1994-03-01

    Hormone replacement therapy after menopause has shown so many advantages, such as reduction in risk of coronary artery disease and osteoporotic fracture besides treatment for climacteric symptoms, yet disadvantage such as a probability of an increase in the risk of breast cancer with long-term use still remains. In Japan HRT is now at the starting point. We must try to make more effort to accumulate data on the safety of HRT during-and-after menopause. It is our hope that doctors, not only gynecologists, but also doctors of other specialties will join our program for the health and happiness of women after menopause.

  20. Frailty, sarcopenia, and hormones.

    PubMed

    Morley, John E; Malmstrom, Theodore K

    2013-06-01

    Frailty is now a definable clinical syndrome with a simple screening test. Age-related changes in hormones play a major role in the development of frailty by reducing muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia). Selective Androgen Receptor Molecules and ghrelin agonists are being developed to treat sarcopenia. The role of Activin Type IIB soluble receptors and Follistatin-like 3 mimetics is less certain because of side effects. Exercise (resistance and aerobic), vitamin D and protein supplementation, and reduction of polypharmacy are keys to the treatment of frailty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0553 TITLE: Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jennifer K. Simpson Francemary Modugno...NUMBER Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0553 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) has

  2. Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0553 TITLE: Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jennifer K. Simpson, R.N. Francesmary...August 2004 Annual Summary (I Aug 2003 - 31 Jul 2004) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density DAMD17-02...proprietary or confidential information) Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) has been shown to increase breast cancer risk as well as to increase breast

  3. Mammalian sex hormones in plants.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Anna; Skoczowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17beta-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube growth and callus proliferation. The regulatory abilities of mammalian sex hormones in plants makes possible their use in practice, especially in plant in vitro culture.

  4. Thyroid Hormones and Methylmercury Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    O’Mara, Daniel M.; Aschner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for cellular metabolism, growth, and development. In particular, an adequate supply of thyroid hormones is critical for fetal neurodevelopment. Thyroid hormone tissue activation and inactivation in brain, liver, and other tissues is controlled by the deiodinases through the removal of iodine atoms. Selenium, an essential element critical for deiodinase activity, is sensitive to mercury and, therefore, when its availability is reduced, brain development might be altered. This review addresses the possibility that high exposures to the organometal, methylmercury (MeHg), may perturb neurodevelopmental processes by selectively affecting thyroid hormone homeostasis and function. PMID:18716716

  5. Hormone therapy in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    Steroid hormones are deeply involved in the pathophysiology of immune-mediated rheumatic diseases and used for their treatment. Purpose of the review is to update on recent roles and mechanisms of action of important steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids, estrogens, and D hormone (vitamin D) in order to optimize their therapeutical use. Endogenous glucocorticoids are characterized by a circadian rhythm of production that must be respected in case of exogenous low-dose long-term glucocorticoid replacement therapy of rheumatic diseases. Estrogens are enhancers of the humoral immune response and increase cell proliferation. Therefore, estrogens represent a risk factor for the development of autoimmunity and their therapeutical use must be avoided in patients with active immune-mediated diseases. Vitamin D, as synthesized in the skin from cholesterol, is a real steroid hormone (D hormone). The immunosuppressive activities of D hormone are reduced in chronic rheumatic diseases, as low plasma levels of the hormone are evident and justify its therapeutical use. The optimization of the therapeutical use of steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids, estrogens or D hormone is now possible following recent basic and clinical research achievements.

  6. Hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Scharbo-Dehaan, M

    1996-12-01

    More than 40 million women in the United States are now going through or are past menopause. Another 3.5 million or more will reach midlife in the next decade. As their life expectancy increases (mean life expectancy of women is now approximately 84 years), so does the need for therapeutic regimens related to reproductive function and aging in woman. Few medical treatments available to menopausal and postmenopausal women have as much potential benefit as well as possible health risks as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Despite the increasing amount of scientific data available regarding the benefits of HRT, a degree of uncertainty still remains, both in the minds of some women, and with some health professionals, regarding the risks associated with long-term therapy. Even though the literature is voluminous, contradictory, and unclear, health providers must be able to keep abreast of current knowledge about the benefits, risks, and unknowns of these drugs. The purpose of this article is to provide a review and an update on the types of hormones available for HRT, their pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, and their risks, benefits, and contraindications. Newer products, specially compounded formulas, new regimens, and new modes of delivery that offer women alternatives and allow care to be individualized are described. In addition, some of the ongoing management dilemmas that practitioners face with the woman who chooses HRT are presented with practical solutions and suggestions.

  7. Individualized Hormone Adjustment in the Treatment of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions.

    PubMed

    Shang, Wei; Wang, Aiming; Lv, Libo; Zhang, Lei; Shu, Mingming; Zhao, Yong; Hui, Shang

    2015-07-01

    Our goal was to develop a safe, efficient, and practical clinical plan for successful pregnancies for patients with recurrent spontaneous miscarriages by adjustment of their hormone levels after ovulation. We treated 61 patients with recurrent miscarriages and 110 patients with two miscarriages. All patients had miscarriages before or during the 12th week of pregnancy, and unsuccessfully underwent progesterone therapy. We measured their hormone levels and administered appropriate doses of estrogen, progesterone, and luteinizing hormones to attain normal levels (respectively, 150 pg/ml, 16 ng/ml, and 6 mIU/ml). The hormone doses were reduced upon detection of fetal heart beating, and the treatment continued until the 12th week of pregnancy. The patients were followed up by phone after the child birth. In patients with recurrent miscarriages, these were prevented in 57/61 (93.44 %). In patients with two miscarriages, successful pregnancies were in 106/110 (96.4 %) patients. The vast majority of patients in both groups gave birth to healthy babies. There was only one case per each group of induced labor due to trisomy 21 (patient with a history of recurrent miscarriages) or trisomy 17 (patient with two previous miscarriages). Individualized adjustment of hormone levels after ovulation prevents miscarriages and improves the pregnancy success rates.

  8. [How corticoids, growth hormone and oestrogens influence lipids and atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Marek, J; Hána, V; Krsek, M

    2007-04-01

    The hormones with a strong influence on the lipid spectrum and the development of atherosclerosis include cortisol, growth hormone and oestrogens. Cortisol accelerates atherosclerosis both through dyslipidemia and through an increase in visceral fat, hypertension, increased insulin resistance and the development of reduced glucose tolerance which may result in diabetes mellitus. Even when a cortisol excess disappears, as is the case of patients cured of Cushing syndrome, arterial walls remain permanently vulnerable to the atherosclerotic process. In conditions involving a lack of growth hormone, dyslipidemia develops and increases the burden on the cardiovascular system if not treated in a timely manner by the substitution of growth hormone. Oestrogens have a double effect: they have an anti-atherogenic effect on artery walls that are not yet damaged by an atherosclerotic process, but where atherosclerosis has already developed they have a prothrombotic effect and destabilise the atheromatous plaques. If oestrogen is to be used as protection against the onset of atherogenesis, it is necessary to start in a period when the atherosclerotic process has not yet begun to damage the woman's arterial walls and it is best to use natural hormones (estradiol) and to prevent endometriosis it should be combined with crystalline progesterone applied locally--inravaginally. Oestrogens should be given in small doses, preferably parenterally. Even this will not prevent genetic oestrogen effects though.

  9. Prevention of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Scalco, Monica Zavaloni; van Reekum, Robert

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the evidence regarding prevention of Alzheimer disease (AD) in order to highlight the role of family medicine. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Most of the evidence relating to prevention of AD is derived from observational (cross-sectional, case-control, or longitudinal) studies. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is available only for blood pressure control and for hormone replacement therapy for menopausal women. MAIN MESSAGE Many preventive approaches to AD have been identified, but no RCTs support their efficacy. Evidence from RCTs supports the effectiveness of blood pressure control in reducing incidence of AD, but demonstrates that postmenopausal women’s use of estrogen is ineffective in reducing it. Observational studies suggest that some preventive approaches, such as healthy lifestyle, ongoing education, regular physical activity, and cholesterol control, play a role in prevention of AD. These approaches can and should be used for every patient because they carry no significant risk. Currently, no effective pharmacologic interventions have been researched enough to support their use in prevention of AD. CONCLUSION Health professionals should educate patients, especially patients at higher risk of AD, about preventive strategies and potentially modifiable risk factors. PMID:16529393

  10. Lymphocyte activation and capping of hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, L Y; Jy, W; Majercik, M H; Bourguignon, G J

    1988-06-01

    In this study both a ligand-dependent treatment [concanavalin A (Con A)] and a ligand-independent treatment [high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation (HVPGS)] have been used to initiate lymphocyte activation via a transmembrane signaling process. Our results show that both treatments cause the exposure of two different hormone [insulin and interleukin-2 (IL-2)] receptors within the first 5 min of stimulation. When either insulin or IL-2 is present in the culture medium, the stimulated lymphocytes undergo the following responses: (1) increased free intracellular Ca2+ activity; (2) aggregation of insulin or IL-2 receptors into patch/cap structures; (3) tyrosine-kinase-specific phosphorylation of a 32-kd membrane protein; and finally (4) induction of DNA synthesis. Further analysis indicates that hormone receptor capping is inhibited by (1) cytochalasin D, suggesting the involvement of microfilaments; (2) sodium azide, indicating a requirement for ATP production; and (3) W-5, W-7, and W-12 drugs, implying a need for Ca2+/calmodulin activity. Treatment with these metabolic or cytoskeletal inhibitors also prevents both the tyrosine-kinase-specific protein phosphorylation and DNA synthesis which normally follow hormone receptor capping. Double immunofluorescence staining shows that actomyosin, Ca2+/calmodulin, and myosin light-chain kinase are all closely associated with the insulin and IL-2 receptor cap structures. These findings strongly suggest that an actomyosin-mediated contractile system (regulated by Ca2+, calmodulin, and myosin light-chain kinase in an energy-dependent manner) is required not only for the collection of insulin and IL-2 receptors into patch and cap structures but also for the subsequent activation of tyrosine kinase and the initiation of DNA synthesis. We, therefore, propose that the exposure and subsequent patching/capping of at least one hormone receptor are required for the activation of mouse splenic T-lymphocytes.

  11. Changes in serum growth hormone and prolactin levels, and in hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and somatostatin content, after superior cervical sympathectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Cardinalí, D P; Esquifino, A I; Arce, A; Vara, E; Ariznavarreta, C; Tresguerres, J A

    1994-01-01

    After bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx) of adult male rats, norepinephrine (NE) content of the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) decreased significantly by 39-47% from 16 h to 7 days after surgery. During this time the levels of serum growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) and of MBH GH-releasing hormone (GRH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and somatostatin were measured by RIA. In sham-operated controls, serum PRL increased and serum GH decreased 16-24 h after surgery, attaining pre-surgical levels later on. In SCGx rats, significantly lower serum GH and PRL and higher MBH GRH and TRH content as compared to controls was observed 16-24 h after surgery, during the wallerian degeneration phase after SCGx. MBH somatostatin concentration decreased in SCGx rats 20 h after surgery. Two injections of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker prazosin 45 and 90 min before sacrifice, alone or together with the beta-blocker propranolol, prevented the changes in MBH hypophysiotropic hormone content, as well as in serum GH and PRL levels, found in SCGx rats 20 h after surgery. Propranolol treatment did not affect hormone levels. Neither drug modified the decrease in MBH NE content observed after SCGx. The results argue in favor of the existence of physiologically relevant projections from superior cervical ganglion neurons to the MBH controlling hypophysiotropic hormone release.

  12. Thyroid hormone and the heart.

    PubMed

    Moolman, J A

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid hormone has important cardiovascular effects, and abnormalities of its production cause cardiovascular morbidity. The role of both excessive and insufficient thyroid hormone production in the pathogenesis of clinical cardiac diseases can be deduced from thyroid hormone-induced molecular changes. Thyroid hormone regulates the expression of myocardial genes regulating the handling of calcium, which affects both systolic and diastolic myocardial function. Thyroid hormone also has indirect and direct effects on peripheral vascular smooth muscle tone, and alters the coupling of the left ventricle and arterial system. Excessive production of thyroid hormone results in an increased cardiac output as well as increased cardiac work efficiency, but reduced cardiac reserve. Amiodarone therapy for cardiac rhythm can cause both hyper- and hypothyroidism. Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) can be due to either excessive thyroid hormone production (type I AIT) or thyroid hormone release due to an inflammatory condition (type II AIT). Classification of AIT is helpful in guiding therapy. Amiodarone causes changes in the thyroid function tests of euthyroid patients on therapy--it inhibits the conversion of T(4) and T(3), which results in decreased T(3) and slightly increased T(4) serum levels in euthyroid patients. Baseline thyroid functions should therefore be determined before starting amiodarone therapy, and at 6-monthly intervals thereafter.

  13. Hormonal Programming Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tobet, Stuart A; Lara, Hernan E; Lucion, Aldo B; Wilson, Melinda E; Recabarren, Sergio E; Paredes, Alfonso H

    2013-01-01

    Hormones influence countless biological processes across the lifespan, and during developmental sensitive periods hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous critical periods in development wherein different targets are affected. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be a mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. During development of the ovary, exposure to excess gonadal hormones leads to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased sympathetic nerve activity and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function. PMID:22700441

  14. Growth hormone stimulation test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... test is usually performed to identify if hGH (human growth hormone) is deficient. The test is performed by administering the amino acid arginine in a vein to raise hGH levels. The test measures the ability of the pituitary to secrete growth hormone in ...

  15. Effects of hormones on sleep.

    PubMed

    Steiger, A; Antonijevic, I A; Bohlhalter, S; Frieboes, R M; Friess, E; Murck, H

    1998-01-01

    Administration of hormones to humans and animals results in specific effects on the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal hormone secretion. Studies with pulsatile administration of various neuropeptides in young and old normal controls and in patients with depression suggest they play a key role in sleep-endocrine regulation. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulates GH and slow wave sleep (SWS) and inhibits cortisol, whereas corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) exerts opposite effects. Changes in the GHRH:CRH ratio contribute to sleep-endocrine aberrations during normal ageing and acute depression. In addition, galanin and neuropeptide Y promote sleep, whereas, in the elderly, somatostatin impairs sleep. The rapid eye movement (REM)-nonREM cycle is modulated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Cortisol stimulates SWS and GH, probably by feedback inhibition of CRH. Neuroactive steroids exert specific effects on the sleep EEG, which can be explained by gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor modulation.

  16. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?

    PubMed

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, Petr; Turečková, Veronika; Grúz, Jiří; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-07-01

    Plant hormones act as chemical messengers in the regulation of myriads of physiological processes that occur in plants. To date, nine groups of plant hormones have been identified and more will probably be discovered. Furthermore, members of each group may participate in the regulation of physiological responses in planta both alone and in concert with members of either the same group or other groups. The ideal way to study biochemical processes involving these signalling molecules is 'hormone profiling', i.e. quantification of not only the hormones themselves, but also their biosynthetic precursors and metabolites in plant tissues. However, this is highly challenging since trace amounts of all of these substances are present in highly complex plant matrices. Here, we review advances, current trends and future perspectives in the analysis of all currently known plant hormones and the associated problems of extracting them from plant tissues and separating them from the numerous potentially interfering compounds.

  17. Hormone therapy for transgender patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many transgender men and women seek hormone therapy as part of the transition process. Exogenous testosterone is used in transgender men to induce virilization and suppress feminizing characteristics. In transgender women, exogenous estrogen is used to help feminize patients, and anti-androgens are used as adjuncts to help suppress masculinizing features. Guidelines exist to help providers choose appropriate candidates for hormone therapy, and act as a framework for choosing treatment regimens and managing surveillance in these patients. Cross-sex hormone therapy has been shown to have positive physical and psychological effects on the transitioning individual and is considered a mainstay treatment for many patients. Bone and cardiovascular health are important considerations in transgender patients on long-term hormones, and care should be taken to monitor certain metabolic indices while patients are on cross-sex hormone therapy. PMID:28078219

  18. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  19. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  20. Triiodothyronine stimulates specifically growth hormone mRNA in rat pituitary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, H; Vassart, G; Brocas, H; Refetoff, S

    1977-05-01

    In a cell-free protein-synthesizing system from a rabbit reticulocyte lysate, total RNA extracted from cultured rat pituitary tumor (GH3) cells directed, in a dose-related manner, the synthesis of proteins that were precipitated by antisera specific to rat growth hormone (somatotropin) and rat prolactin. A marked decrease in growth hormone secretion and growth hormone mRNA activity was observed when cells were grown in a medium deficient in thyroid hormone. Addition of triiodothyronine in physiologic amounts both prevented and completely reversed this effect within 48 hr. Thyroid hormone had no effect on prolactin secretion or prolactin mRNA activity. These data suggest that thyroid hormone may stimulate synthesis of growth hormone through induction of transcriptional activity. The possibility of an additional effect at the posttranscriptional level has not been excluded. Although thyroid hormone is believed to have a general effect on a variety of metabolic processes, some effects, at the molecular level, may be quite selective, as indicated by the observed changes in growth hormone but not prolactin mRNA activity. The GH3 cell model is useful in the study of triiodothyronine action because of independence from secondary hormonal effects caused by hypothyroidism and because simultaneous measurement of prolactin mRNA activity serves as a unique internal control.

  1. Autoinduction of nuclear hormone receptors during metamorphosis and its significance.

    PubMed

    Tata, J R

    2000-01-01

    Metamorphosis is a most dramatic example of hormonally regulated genetic reprogramming during postembryonic development. The initiation and sustenance of the process are under the control of ecdysteroids in invertebrates and thyroid hormone, 3,3', 5-triiodothyronine, in oviparous vertebrates. Their actions are inhibited or potentiated by other endogenous or exogenous hormones - juvenile hormone in invertebrates and prolactin and glucocorticoids in vertebrates. The nuclear receptors for ecdysteroids and thyroid hormone are the most closely related members of the steroid/retinoid/thyroid hormone receptor supergene family. In many pre-metamorphic amphibia and insects, the onset of natural metamorphosis and the administration of the exogenous hormones to the early larvae are characterized by a substantial and rapid autoinduction of the respective nuclear receptors. This review will largely deal with the phenomenon of receptor autoinduction during amphibian metamorphosis, although many of its features resemble those in insect metamorphosis. In the frog Xenopus, thyroid hormone receptor autoinduction has been shown to be brought about by the direct interaction between the receptor protein and the thyroid-responsive elements in the promoter of its own gene. Three lines of evidence point towards the involvement of receptor autoinduction in the process of initiation of amphibian metamorphosis: (1) a close association between the extent of inhibition or potentiation by prolactin and glucocorticoid, respectively, and metamorphic response in whole tadpoles and in organ and cell cultures; (2) thyroid hormone fails to upregulate the expression of its own receptor in obligatorily neotenic amphibia but does so in facultatively neotenic amphibia; and (3) dominant-negative receptors known to block hormonal response prevent the autoinduction of wild-type Xenopus receptors in vivo and in cell lines. Autoinduction is not restricted to insect and amphibian metamorphic hormones but is

  2. SoyCaP: Soy and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer. The hypothesis is that...alteration of endogenous hormones is a mechanism by which soy phytoestrogens prevent prostate cancer. A randomized parallel arm study is being...evaluation of serum hormones and prostate specific antigen, as well as urinary estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolites. At 0 and 12 mo, prostate

  3. Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Avais; Pingitore, Alessandro; Pearce, Simon H S; Zaman, Azfar; Iervasi, Giorgio; Razvi, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial and vascular endothelial tissues have receptors for thyroid hormones and are sensitive to changes in the concentrations of circulating thyroid hormones. The importance of thyroid hormones in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis can be deduced from clinical and experimental data showing that even subtle changes in thyroid hormone concentrations - such as those observed in subclinical hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, and low triiodothyronine syndrome - adversely influence the cardiovascular system. Some potential mechanisms linking the two conditions are dyslipidaemia, endothelial dysfunction, blood pressure changes, and direct effects of thyroid hormones on the myocardium. Several interventional trials showed that treatment of subclinical thyroid diseases improves cardiovascular risk factors, which implies potential benefits for reducing cardiovascular events. Over the past 2 decades, accumulating evidence supports the association between abnormal thyroid function at the time of an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and subsequent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Furthermore, experimental studies showed that thyroid hormones can have an important therapeutic role in reducing infarct size and improving myocardial function after acute MI. In this Review, we summarize the literature on thyroid function in cardiovascular diseases, both as a risk factor as well as in the setting of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure or acute MI, and outline the effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  4. Plant hormone signaling lightens up: integrators of light and hormones.

    PubMed

    Lau, On Sun; Deng, Xing Wang

    2010-10-01

    Light is an important environmental signal that regulates diverse growth and developmental processes in plants. In these light-regulated processes, multiple hormonal pathways are often modulated by light to mediate the developmental changes. Conversely, hormone levels in plants also serve as endogenous cues in influencing light responsiveness. Although interactions between light and hormone signaling pathways have long been observed, recent studies have advanced our understanding by identifying signaling integrators that connect the pathways. These integrators, namely PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3), PIF4, PIF3-LIKE 5 (PIL5)/PIF1 and LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), are key light signaling components and they link light signals to the signaling of phytohormones, such as gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), auxin and cytokinin, in regulating seedling photomorphogenesis and seed germination. This review focuses on these integrators in illustrating how light and hormone interact.

  5. Rape prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc.gov/ ...

  6. Postmenopausal hormone replacement and cardiovascular disease: incorporating research into practice.

    PubMed

    Chase, Susan K; Youngkin, Ellis Quinn

    2004-01-01

    The long-standing practice of prescribing hormones to postmenopausal women was based in part on the observation that following menopause, women's incidence of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and cerebral vascular accident increased. Recent large-scale research has shown an increase in cardiovascular events for postmenopausal women receiving estrogen replacement in oral form. This article examines research on positive effects of hormone replacement therapy, discusses what is known about the development of cardiovascular disease in women, and evaluates recent research that has shown increased cardiovascular risk in women receiving hormone replacement. It concludes with recommendations for preventing cardiovascular disease in women. This is essential information for nurses, who need to be informed of ways to maintain their own health while serving as sources of health information for the public at large.

  7. Hormone replacement therapy and longevity.

    PubMed

    Comhaire, F

    2016-02-01

    To assess whether hormone replacement therapy influences longevity, an analysis was made of published life tables allowing for the calculation of the relative benefit of hormone replacement therapy on longevity in men with late onset hypogonadism and in post-menopausal women. It was found that testosterone replacement therapy of men suffering from late onset hypogonadism increased survival rate by 9-10% in 5 years, similar to that of eugonadal, non-LOH men with normal endogenous testosterone secretion. Oestrogen replacement therapy resulted in increased survival by 2.6% in 5 years. It is concluded that hormone replacement therapy increases longevity.

  8. Hormonal Signaling in the Gut*

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Clémence D.; Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Rasmussen, Brittany A.; Duca, Frank A.; Lam, Tony K. T.

    2014-01-01

    The gut is anatomically positioned to play a critical role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, providing negative feedback via nutrient sensing and local hormonal signaling. Gut hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are released following a meal and act on local receptors to regulate glycemia via a neuronal gut-brain axis. Additionally, jejunal nutrient sensing and leptin action are demonstrated to suppress glucose production, and both are required for the rapid antidiabetic effect of duodenal jejunal bypass surgery. Strategies aimed at targeting local gut hormonal signaling pathways may prove to be efficacious therapeutic options to improve glucose control in diabetes. PMID:24577102

  9. Hormonal signaling in the gut.

    PubMed

    Côté, Clémence D; Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Rasmussen, Brittany A; Duca, Frank A; Lam, Tony K T

    2014-04-25

    The gut is anatomically positioned to play a critical role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, providing negative feedback via nutrient sensing and local hormonal signaling. Gut hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are released following a meal and act on local receptors to regulate glycemia via a neuronal gut-brain axis. Additionally, jejunal nutrient sensing and leptin action are demonstrated to suppress glucose production, and both are required for the rapid antidiabetic effect of duodenal jejunal bypass surgery. Strategies aimed at targeting local gut hormonal signaling pathways may prove to be efficacious therapeutic options to improve glucose control in diabetes.

  10. Hormone signaling in plant development.

    PubMed

    Durbak, Amanda; Yao, Hong; McSteen, Paula

    2012-02-01

    Hormone signaling plays diverse and critical roles during plant development. In particular, hormone interactions regulate meristem function and therefore control formation of all organs in the plant. Recent advances have dissected commonalities and differences in the interaction of auxin and cytokinin in the regulation of shoot and root apical meristem function. In addition, brassinosteroid hormones have recently been discovered to regulate root apical meristem size. Further insights have also been made into our understanding of the mechanism of crosstalk among auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone in axillary meristems.

  11. Calciotropic hormones during reproduction.

    PubMed

    Verhaeghe, J; Bouillon, R

    1992-03-01

    This review summarizes the reported effects of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and lactation on serum concentration of the calciotropic hormones PTH and 1,25(OH)2D. A midcycle rise in PTH and 1,25(OH)2D has been observed, but in the majority of studies there was no change in PTH and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations throughout the menstrual cycle. Both total and free 1,25(OH)2D levels are increased during pregnancy. The renal 1,25(OH)2D production is stimulated, and there is some evidence of 1,25(OH)2D production by decidua/placenta and fetal kidney in vitro; the decidual/placental production should not be overestimated in vivo. The increased renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity is possibly mediated by estrogens and PTH, although the effect of pregnancy on PTH remains uncertain. Increased serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations probably result in a rise of intestinal calcium absorption during pregnancy. There is a postdelivery drop in PTH and 1,25(OH)2D levels, but they are increased when lactation is prolonged, or in mothers nursing twins. The l alpha-hydroxylase activity during lactation may be stimulated by PTH, but also by prolactin.

  12. Steroid hormones and BDNF.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, N; Russo, M; Santoro, A N; Litta, P; Cela, V; Genazzani, A R

    2013-06-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin abundantly expressed in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to induce a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy, to enhance specific learning and memory processes. BDNF is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity and it affects cognitive deficit associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies have shown an altered BDNF production and secretion in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also in mood disorders like depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. Plasma BDNF is also a biomarker of impaired memory and general cognitive function in aging women. Gonadal steroids are involved in the regulation of several CNS processes, specifically mood, affective and cognitive functions during fertile life and reproductive aging. These observations lead many scientists to investigate a putative co-regulation between BDNF and gonadal and/or adrenal steroids and their relationship with gender difference in the incidence of mental diseases. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the correlation between BDNF expression/function and both gonadal (progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone) and adrenal hormones (mainly cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) with relevance in clinical application.

  13. Network Identification of Hormonal Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vis, Daniel J.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Greef, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment. PMID:24852517

  14. Hormonal Regulation of Leaf Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, William P.

    1968-01-01

    A review is given of the progress made during the last 6 years in elucidating the nature, locus of action, and transport properties of the endogenous hormones that control leaf abscission. PMID:16657014

  15. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3-4):251-258. [PubMed Abstract] Lee RJ, Smith MR. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer. In: Chabner ... 1, 2014. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1405095 Ryan CJ, Smith MR, Fizazi K, et al. Abiraterone acetate plus ...

  16. Adrenal gland hormone secretion (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal gland secretes steroid hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. It also makes precursors that can be converted to ... steroids (androgen, estrogen). A different part of the adrenal gland makes adrenaline (epinephrine). When the glands produce more ...

  17. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mood swings Depression Loss of interest in sex Drug Side Effects The side effects of hormone therapy depend on the drug. Common side effects include hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness . ...

  18. Hormonal regulation of focal adhesions in bovine adrenocortical cells: induction of paxillin dephosphorylation by adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Vilgrain, I; Chinn, A; Gaillard, I; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1998-01-01

    A study of bovine adrenocortical cell shape on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge showed that the cells round up and develop arborized processes. This effect was found to be (1) specific for ACTH because angiotensin II and basic fibroblast growth factor have no effect; (2) mediated by a cAMP-dependent pathway because forskolin reproduces the effect of the hormone; (3) inhibited by sodium orthovanadate, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, but unchanged by okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor; and (4) correlated with a complete loss of focal adhesions. Biochemical studies of the focal-adhesion-associated proteins showed that pp125fak, vinculin (110 kDa) and paxillin (70 kDa) were detected in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction from adrenocortical cells. During cell adhesion on fibronectin as substratum, two major phosphotyrosine-containing proteins of molecular masses 125 and 68 kDa were immunodetected in the same fraction. A dramatic decrease in the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins was observed within 60 min after treatment with ACTH. No change in pp125fak tyrosine phosphorylation nor in Src activity was detected. In contrast, paxillin was found to be tyrosine-dephosphorylated in a time-dependent manner in ACTH-treated cells. Sodium orthovanadate completely prevented the effect of ACTH. These observations suggest a possible role for phosphotyrosine phosphatases in hormone-dependent cellular regulatory processes. PMID:9601084

  19. Hormonal regulation of focal adhesions in bovine adrenocortical cells: induction of paxillin dephosphorylation by adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Vilgrain, I; Chinn, A; Gaillard, I; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1998-06-01

    A study of bovine adrenocortical cell shape on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge showed that the cells round up and develop arborized processes. This effect was found to be (1) specific for ACTH because angiotensin II and basic fibroblast growth factor have no effect; (2) mediated by a cAMP-dependent pathway because forskolin reproduces the effect of the hormone; (3) inhibited by sodium orthovanadate, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, but unchanged by okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor; and (4) correlated with a complete loss of focal adhesions. Biochemical studies of the focal-adhesion-associated proteins showed that pp125fak, vinculin (110 kDa) and paxillin (70 kDa) were detected in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction from adrenocortical cells. During cell adhesion on fibronectin as substratum, two major phosphotyrosine-containing proteins of molecular masses 125 and 68 kDa were immunodetected in the same fraction. A dramatic decrease in the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins was observed within 60 min after treatment with ACTH. No change in pp125fak tyrosine phosphorylation nor in Src activity was detected. In contrast, paxillin was found to be tyrosine-dephosphorylated in a time-dependent manner in ACTH-treated cells. Sodium orthovanadate completely prevented the effect of ACTH. These observations suggest a possible role for phosphotyrosine phosphatases in hormone-dependent cellular regulatory processes.

  20. Thyroid hormone transporters--functions and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Juan; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana; Morte, Beatriz

    2015-07-01

    The cellular influx and efflux of thyroid hormones are facilitated by transmembrane protein transporters. Of these transporters, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is the only one specific for the transport of thyroid hormones and some of their derivatives. Mutations in SLC16A2, the gene that encodes MCT8, lead to an X-linked syndrome with severe neurological impairment and altered concentrations of thyroid hormones. Histopathological analysis of brain tissue from patients who have impaired MCT8 function indicates that brain lesions start prenatally, and are most probably the result of cerebral hypothyroidism. A Slc16a2 knockout mouse model has revealed that Mct8 is an important mediator of thyroid hormone transport, especially T3, through the blood-brain barrier. However, unlike humans with an MCT8 deficiency, these mice do not have neurological impairment. One explanation for this discrepancy could be differences in expression of the T4 transporter OATP1C1 in the blood-brain barrier; OATP1C1 is more abundant in rodents than in primates and permits the passage of T4 in the absence of T3 transport, thus preventing full cerebral hypothyroidism. In this Review, we discuss the relevance of thyroid hormone transporters in health and disease, with a particular focus on the pathophysiology of MCT8 mutations.

  1. Stress-Induced Hormones Cortisol and Epinephrine Impair Wound Epithelization.

    PubMed

    Stojadinovic, Olivera; Gordon, Katherine A; Lebrun, Elizabeth; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2012-02-01

    Stress-induced disruption of hormonal balance in animals and humans has a detrimental effect on wound healing. After the injury, keratinocytes migrate over the wound bed to repair a wound. However, their nonmigratory phenotype plays a role in pathogenesis of chronic wounds. Despite many therapeutic approaches, there is a dearth of treatments targeting the molecular mechanisms mediated by stress that prevent epithelization. Recent studies show that epidermal keratinocytes synthesize stress hormones. During acute wound healing, cortisol synthesis in the epidermis is tightly controlled. Further, a key intermediate molecule in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), can bind glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and activate GR. Additionally, keratinocytes express beta-2-adrenergic-receptor (β2AR), a receptor for the stress hormone epinephrine. Importantly, migratory rates of keratinocytes are reduced by cortisol, FPP, epinephrine, and other β2AR agonists, thus indicating their role in the inhibition of epithelization. Topical inhibition of local glucocorticoid and FPP synthesis, as well as treatment with β2AR antagonists promotes wound epithelization. Modulation of local stress hormone production may represent an important therapeutic target for wound healing disorders. Topical administration of inhibitors of cortisol synthesis, statins, β2AR antagonists, and systemic beta-blockers can decrease cortisol synthesis, FPP, and epinephrine levels, respectively, thus restoring keratinocyte migration capacity. These treatment modalities could represent a novel therapeutic approach for wound healing disorders. Attenuation of the local stress-induced hormonal imbalance in epidermis may advance therapeutic modalities, thereby leading to enhanced epithelization and improved wound healing.

  2. Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Juan

    2007-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are important during development of the mammalian brain, acting on migration and differentiation of neural cells, synaptogenesis, and myelination. The actions of thyroid hormones are mediated through nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) and regulation of gene expression. The purpose of this article is to review the role of TRs in brain maturation. In developing humans maternal and fetal thyroid glands provide thyroid hormones to the fetal brain, but the timing of receptor ontogeny agrees with clinical data on the importance of the maternal thyroid gland before midgestation. Several TR isoforms, which are encoded by the THRA and THRB genes, are expressed in the brain, with the most common being TRalpha1. Deletion of TRalpha1 in rodents is not, however, equivalent to hormone deprivation and, paradoxically, even prevents the effects of hypothyroidism. Unliganded receptor activity is, therefore, probably an important factor in causing the harmful effects of hypothyroidism. Accordingly, expression of a mutant receptor with impaired triiodothyronine (T(3)) binding and dominant negative activity affected cerebellar development and motor performance. TRs are also involved in adult brain function. TRalpha1 deletion, or expression of a dominant negative mutant receptor, induces consistent behavioral changes in adult mice, leading to severe anxiety and morphological changes in the hippocampus.

  3. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  4. Simple hormones but complex signalling.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Hannes; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2003-02-01

    It has not been easy to make sense of the pleiotropic effects of plant hormones, especially of auxins; but now, it has become possible to study these effects within the framework of what we know about signal transduction in general. Changes in local auxin concentrations, perhaps even actively maintained auxin gradients, signal to networks of transcription factors, which in turn signal to downstream effectors. Transcription factors can also signal back to hormone biosynthetic pathways.

  5. Risk Assessment of Growth Hormones and Antimicrobial Residues in Meat

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sang-Hee; Kang, Daejin; Lim, Myung-Woon; Kang, Chang Soo

    2010-01-01

    Growth promoters including hormonal substances and antibiotics are used legally and illegally in food producing animals for the growth promotion of livestock animals. Hormonal substances still under debate in terms of their human health impacts are estradiol-17β, progesterone, testosterone, zeranol, trenbolone, and melengestrol acetate (MGA) . Many of the risk assessment results of natural steroid hormones have presented negligible impacts when they are used under good veterinary practices. For synthetic hormonelike substances, ADIs and MRLs have been established for food safety along with the approval of animal treatment. Small amounts of antibiotics added to feedstuff present growth promotion effects via the prevention of infectious diseases at doses lower than therapeutic dose. The induction of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and the disruption of normal human intestinal flora are major concerns in terms of human health impact. Regulatory guidance such as ADIs and MRLs fully reflect the impact on human gastrointestinal microflora. However, before deciding on any risk management options, risk assessments of antimicrobial resistance require large-scale evidence regarding the relationship between antimicrobial use in food-producing animals and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens. In this article, the risk profiles of hormonal and antibacterial growth promoters are provided based on recent toxicity and human exposure information, and recommendations for risk management to prevent human health impacts by the use of growth promoters are also presented. PMID:24278538

  6. Risk assessment of growth hormones and antimicrobial residues in meat.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang-Hee; Kang, Daejin; Lim, Myung-Woon; Kang, Chang Soo; Sung, Ha Jung

    2010-12-01

    Growth promoters including hormonal substances and antibiotics are used legally and illegally in food producing animals for the growth promotion of livestock animals. Hormonal substances still under debate in terms of their human health impacts are estradiol-17β, progesterone, testosterone, zeranol, trenbolone, and melengestrol acetate (MGA) . Many of the risk assessment results of natural steroid hormones have presented negligible impacts when they are used under good veterinary practices. For synthetic hormonelike substances, ADIs and MRLs have been established for food safety along with the approval of animal treatment. Small amounts of antibiotics added to feedstuff present growth promotion effects via the prevention of infectious diseases at doses lower than therapeutic dose. The induction of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and the disruption of normal human intestinal flora are major concerns in terms of human health impact. Regulatory guidance such as ADIs and MRLs fully reflect the impact on human gastrointestinal microflora. However, before deciding on any risk management options, risk assessments of antimicrobial resistance require large-scale evidence regarding the relationship between antimicrobial use in food-producing animals and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens. In this article, the risk profiles of hormonal and antibacterial growth promoters are provided based on recent toxicity and human exposure information, and recommendations for risk management to prevent human health impacts by the use of growth promoters are also presented.

  7. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  8. Hormones and Borderline Personality Features

    PubMed Central

    Evardone, Milagros; Alexander, Gerianne M.; Morey, Leslie C.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality is diagnosed in clinical settings three times more often in women than in men, and symptom severity in women appears sensitive to circulating sex steroid levels. In non-human mammals, prenatal hormones contribute to the development of sex-linked behavior and their responsiveness to postnatal hormones. Therefore, this study examined the hypothesis that prenatal hormones may influence the development of borderline personality traits by measuring a marker of perinatal androgen action, the 2D:4D ratio, and salivary hormone levels in 58 men and 52 women. Participants completed the Borderline Features Subscales (BOR) of the Personality Assessment Inventory, gender role questionnaires, and four sex-linked cognitive tasks. Digit ratios were a significant predictor of the affective component of borderline personality, such that in both sexes 2D:4D ratios suggestive of weaker perinatal androgen action contributed to greater borderline personality features overall and greater affective instability. In addition, women reporting greater affective instability showed larger changes in estradiol across the session, consistent with the influence of stress and emotional reactivity on hormonal function. These findings are consistent with an increasing body of research suggesting that hormonal factors associated with the expression of typical gender-linked behavior may also contribute to the expression of gender-linked maladaptive behavior. PMID:19554197

  9. Hormones and Borderline Personality Features.

    PubMed

    Evardone, Milagros; Alexander, Gerianne M; Morey, Leslie C

    2008-01-01

    Borderline personality is diagnosed in clinical settings three times more often in women than in men, and symptom severity in women appears sensitive to circulating sex steroid levels. In non-human mammals, prenatal hormones contribute to the development of sex-linked behavior and their responsiveness to postnatal hormones. Therefore, this study examined the hypothesis that prenatal hormones may influence the development of borderline personality traits by measuring a marker of perinatal androgen action, the 2D:4D ratio, and salivary hormone levels in 58 men and 52 women. Participants completed the Borderline Features Subscales (BOR) of the Personality Assessment Inventory, gender role questionnaires, and four sex-linked cognitive tasks. Digit ratios were a significant predictor of the affective component of borderline personality, such that in both sexes 2D:4D ratios suggestive of weaker perinatal androgen action contributed to greater borderline personality features overall and greater affective instability. In addition, women reporting greater affective instability showed larger changes in estradiol across the session, consistent with the influence of stress and emotional reactivity on hormonal function. These findings are consistent with an increasing body of research suggesting that hormonal factors associated with the expression of typical gender-linked behavior may also contribute to the expression of gender-linked maladaptive behavior.

  10. The evolution of peptide hormones.

    PubMed

    Niall, H D

    1982-01-01

    Despite limitations in our present knowledge it is already possible to discern the main features of peptide hormone evolution, since the same mechanisms (and indeed the same hormone molecules) function in many different ways. This underlying unity of organization has its basis in the tendency of biochemical networks, once established, to survive and diversify. The most surprising recent findings in endocrinology have been the discovery of vertebrate peptide hormones in multiple sites within the same organism, and the reports, persuasive but requiring confirmation, of vertebrate hormones in primitive unicellular organisms (20, 20a). Perhaps the major challenge for the future is to define the roles and interactions of the many peptide hormones identified in brain (18). The most primitive bacteria and the human brain, though an enormous evolutionary distance apart, may have more in common than we have recognized until now. As Axelrod & Hamilton have pointed out in a recent provocative article, "The Evolution of Cooperation" (1), bacteria, though lacking a brain, are capable of adaptive behavior that can be analysed in terms of game theory. It is clear that we can learn a great deal about the whole evolutionary process from a study of the versatile and durable peptide hormones molecules.

  11. A rapid interference between glucocorticoids and cAMP-activated signalling in hypothalamic neurones prevents binding of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein and glucocorticoid receptor at the CRE-Like and composite GRE sites of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gallardo, M Y; Cote-Vélez, A; Charli, J L; Joseph-Bravo, P

    2010-04-01

    Glucocorticoids or cAMP increase, within minutes, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) transcription in hypothalamic primary cultures, although this effect is prevented if cells are simultaneously incubated with both drugs. Rat TRH promoter contains a CRE site at -101/-94 bp and a composite GRE element (cGRE) at -218/-197 bp. Nuclear extracts of hypothalamic cells incubated with 8Br-cAMP or dexamethasone, and not their combination, bind to oligonucleotides containing the CRE or cGRE sequences. Adjacent to CRE are Sp/Krüppel response elements, and flanking the GRE half site, two AP1 binding sites. The present study aimed to identify the hypothalamic transcription factors that bind to these sites. We verified that the effects of glucocorticoid were not mimicked by corticosterone-bovine serum albumin. Footprinting and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to examine the interaction of cAMP- and glucocorticoid-mediated regulation of TRH transcription at the CRE and cGRE regions of the TRH promoter. Nuclear extracts from hypothalamic cells incubated for 1 h with cAMP or glucocorticoids protected CRE. The GRE half site was recognised by nuclear proteins from cells stimulated with glucocorticoids and, for the adjacent AP-1 sites, by nuclear proteins from cells stimulated with cAMP or phorbol esters. Protection of CRE or cGRE was lost if cells were coincubated with dexamethasone and 8Br-cAMP. ChIP assays revealed phospho-CREB, c-Jun, Sp1, c-Fos and GR antibodies bound the TRH promoter of cells treated with cAMP or glucocorticoids; anti:RNA-polymerase II immunoprecipitated TRH promoter in a similar proportion as anti:pCREB or anti:GR. Recruitment of pCREB, SP1 or GR was lost when cells were exposed simultaneously to 8Br-cAMP and glucocorticoids. The data show that while pCREB and Sp1 bind to CRE-2, or GR to cGRE of the TRH promoter, the mutual antagonism between cAMP and glucocorticoid signalling, which prevent their binding to TRH promoter, could serve as

  12. Menopausal Hormone Therapy for the Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... younger than age 50 who have had a hysterectomy (surgery to remove the uterus) that resulted in ... and vaginal dryness. Women who have had a hysterectomy and are going through menopause take estrogen by ...

  13. Growth hormone signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Carter-Su, Christin; Schwartz, Jessica; Argetsinger, Lawrence S

    2016-06-01

    Over 20years ago, our laboratory showed that growth hormone (GH) signals through the GH receptor-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2. We showed that GH binding to its membrane-bound receptor enhances binding of JAK2 to the GHR, activates JAK2, and stimulates tyrosyl phosphorylation of both JAK2 and GHR. The activated JAK2/GHR complex recruits a variety of signaling proteins, thereby initiating multiple signaling pathways and cellular responses. These proteins and pathways include: 1) Stat transcription factors implicated in the expression of multiple genes, including the gene encoding insulin-like growth factor 1; 2) Shc adapter proteins that lead to activation of the grb2-SOS-Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1,2 pathway; 3) insulin receptor substrate proteins implicated in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Akt pathway; 4) signal regulatory protein α, a transmembrane scaffold protein that recruits proteins including the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2; and 5) SH2B1, a scaffold protein that can activate JAK2 and enhance GH regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Our recent work has focused on the function of SH2B1. We have shown that SH2B1β is recruited to and phosphorylated by JAK2 in response to GH. SH2B1 localizes to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and focal adhesions; it also cycles through the nucleus. SH2B1 regulates the actin cytoskeleton and promotes GH-dependent motility of RAW264.7 macrophages. Mutations in SH2B1 have been found in humans exhibiting severe early-onset childhood obesity and insulin resistance. These mutations impair SH2B1 enhancement of GH-induced macrophage motility. As SH2B1 is expressed ubiquitously and is also recruited to a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases, our results raise the possibility that effects of SH2B1 on the actin cytoskeleton in various cell types, including neurons, may play a role in regulating body weight.

  14. Proinsulin: From Hormonal Precursor to Neuroprotective Factor

    PubMed Central

    de la Rosa, Enrique J.; de Pablo, Flora

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, non-canonical functions have been described for several molecules with hormone-like activities in different stages of vertebrate development. Since its purification in the 1960s, proinsulin has been one of the best described hormonal precursors, though it has been overwhelmingly studied in the context of insulin, the mature protein secreted by the pancreas. Beginning with our discovery of the presence and precise regulation of proinsulin mRNA in early neurulation and neurogenesis, we uncovered a role for proinsulin in cell survival in the developing nervous system. We subsequently demonstrated the ability of proinsulin to prevent pathological cell death and delay photoreceptor degeneration in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. In this review, we focus on the evolution of proinsulin/insulin, beginning with insulin-like peptides expressed in mainly the neurosecretory cells of some invertebrates. We summarize findings related to the regulation of proinsulin expression during development and discuss the possible effects of proinsulin in neural cells or tissue, and its potential as a neuroprotective molecule. PMID:21949502

  15. Physical and hormonal evaluation of transsexual patients during hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, W J; Finkelstein, J W; Stuart, C A; Webb, A; Smith, E R; Payer, A F; Walker, P A

    1981-08-01

    The optimal hormonal therapy for transsexual patients is not known. The physical and hormonal characteristics of 38 noncastrate male-to-female transsexuals and 14 noncastrate female-to-male transsexuals have been measured before and/or during therapy with various forms and dosages of hormonal therapy. All patients were hormonally and physically normal prior to therapy. Ethinyl estradiol was superior to conjugated estrogen in suppression of testosterone and gonadotropins but equal in effecting breast growth. The changes in physical and hormonal characteristics were the same for 0.1 mg/d and 0.5 mg/d of ethinyl estradiol. The female-to-male transsexuals were well managed with a dose of intramuscular testosterone cypionate of 400 mg/month, usually given 200 mg every two weeks. The maximal clitoral length reached was usually 4 cm. Higher doses of testosterone did not further increase clitoral length or suppression of gonadotropins; lower doses did not suppress the gonadotropins. Based on the information found in this study, we recommend 0.1 mg/d of ethinyl estradiol for the noncastrate male-to-female transsexual and 200 mg of intramuscular testosterone cypionate every two weeks for the noncastrate female-to-male transsexual.

  16. Lipoprotein (a) Management: Lifestyle and Hormones.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Leon-Acuna, Ana; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Martinez, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the first cause of mortality in developed countries. Moreover, far from diminishing, the cardiovascular risk factors leading towards the development of CVD are on the rise. Therefore, the preventive and therapeutic management which is currently in place is clearly not enough to stop this pandemic. In this context, a major resurgence in interest in lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] has occurred in light of its association with CVD. This series aims to review the basic and clinical aspects of Lp(a) biology. Specifically, the present review considers the current situation regarding the influence of lifestyle, hormones and other physiological or pathological conditions on Lp(a) plasma concentrations which might mitigate the harmful effects of this lipoprotein. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Vitamin D: a pleiotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Verstuyf, Annemieke; Carmeliet, Geert; Bouillon, Roger; Mathieu, Chantal

    2010-07-01

    The secosteroid hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) is the natural ligand for the vitamin D receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Upon binding of the ligand, the vitamin D receptor heterodimerizes with the retinoid X receptor and binds to vitamin D response elements in the promoter region of target genes to induce/repress their expression. The target genes that have been identified so far are heterogeneous in nature and reflect the great spectrum of biological activities of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Within the last two decades, the receptor has been shown to be present not only in classical target tissues such as bone, kidney, and intestine, but also in many other nonclassical tissues, for example, in the immune system (T and B cells, macrophages, and monocytes), in the reproductive system (uterus, testis, ovary, prostate, placenta, and mammary glands), in the endocrine system (pancreas, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal cortex), in muscles (skeletal, smooth, and heart muscles), and in brain, skin, and liver. Besides the almost universal presence of vitamin D receptors, different cell types (for example, keratinocytes, monocytes, bone, placenta) are capable of metabolizing 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) by the enzyme 25(OH)D(3)-1alpha-hydroxylase, encoded by CYP27B1. The combined presence of CYP27B1 and the specific receptor in several tissues introduced the idea of a paracrine/autocrine role for 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Moreover, it has been demonstrated that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can induce differentiation and inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk for nearly all major human diseases such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. In addition to the treatment of bone disorders with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), these newly discovered functions open perspectives for the use of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) as an immune modulator (for example, for the

  18. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Casula, Sabina; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2012-01-01

    Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin fold-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4) to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i) they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii) could play a role in modulating cell proliferation – in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)-13 cells is threefold to fourfold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh)-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a fivefold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma, and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches. PMID:22675319

  19. Disorders of antidiuretic hormone.

    PubMed

    Vokes, T J; Robertson, G L

    1988-06-01

    Disorders of thirst and vasopressin secretion present clinically in one of three ways: as hypotonic polyuria (DI), as hypodipsic hyponatremia, and as hyponatremia. In evaluating a patient with DI, the major challenge is to differentiate between primary polydipsia and neurogenic and nephrogenic DI. This is best accomplished through a series of steps that start with simple clinical observation, and progress, as necessary, to more complicated diagnostic procedures (Fig. 1). If the diagnosis is not clear from the clinical setting and the patient's history, the first step is to measure plasma osmolality and sodium under conditions of ad libitum fluid intake. If the results are clearly above the upper limit of normal range, primary polydipsia is excluded and the work-up can proceed directly to administration of vasopressin or DDAVP and/or a measurement of plasma vasopressin levels to differentiate between neurogenic and nephrogenic DI. If basal plasma osmolality and sodium fall within normal range, the standard dehydration test should be performed. If urine osmolality does not increase above that of plasma despite evident dehydration, primary polydipsia is excluded and the effect of vasopressin or DDAVP on urine osmolality should be examined to differentiate between neurogenic and nephrogenic DI. If administration of antidiuretic hormone increases urine osmolality by more than 50 per cent, the patient has severe neurogenic DI. If the increase in urine osmolality is less than 50 per cent, the patient has nephrogenic DI. In patients who do not concentrate urine above that of plasma in response to dehydration, the best approach is to measure plasma vasopressin, osmolality, and sodium after the latter have been increased above normal range by dehydration and/or infusion of hypertonic saline. When these results are plotted on a suitable nomogram (Fig. 2), neurogenic DI can be clearly diagnosed from the relative deficiency of vasopressin. In patients with normal vasopressin

  20. Postoperative hormonal therapy after surgical excision of deep endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Somigliana, Edgardo; Busnelli, Andrea; Benaglia, Laura; Viganò, Paola; Leonardi, Marta; Paffoni, Alessio; Vercellini, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    The clinical management of women with deep peritoneal endometriosis remains controversial. The debate focuses mainly on the precise role of hormonal medical treatment and surgery and on the most suitable surgical technique to be used. In particular, considering the risks of second-line surgery, prevention of recurrences after first-line surgery is a priority in this context. Post-surgical medical therapy has been advocated to improve the effectiveness of surgery and prevent recurrences. However, adjuvant therapy, i.e. a short course of 3-6 months of hormonal therapy after surgery, has been proven to be of limited or no benefit for endometriosis in general and for deep peritoneal endometriosis in particular. On the other hand, two cohort studies suggest a beneficial effect of prolonged hormonal therapy after surgery for deep endometriosis. Even if this evidence is too weak to confidently advocate systematic administration of prolonged medical therapy after surgery, we argue in favour of this approach because of the strong association of deep endometriosis with other disease forms. In fact, women operated on for deep endometriosis may also face recurrences of endometriomas, superficial peritoneal lesions and pelvic pain in general. The demonstrated high effectiveness of prolonged postoperative therapy for the prevention of endometriomas' formation and dysmenorrhea recurrence should thus receive utmost consideration in the decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists in premenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sing-Huang; Wolff, Antonio C

    2007-02-01

    Ovarian function suppression for the treatment of premenopausal breast cancer was first used in the late 19th century. Traditionally, ovarian function suppression had been accomplished irreversibly via irradiation or surgery, but analogues of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) have emerged as reliable and reversible agents for this purpose, especially the LH-RH agonists. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists are in earlier stages of development in breast cancer and are not currently in clinical use. Luteinizing hormonereleasing hormone agonists act by pituitary desensitization and receptor downregulation, thereby suppressing gonadotrophin release. Limited information is available comparing the efficacies of the depot preparations of various agonists, but pharmacodynamic studies have shown comparable suppressive capabilities on estradiol and luteinizing hormone. At present, only monthly goserelin is Food and Drug Administration-approved for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive, premenopausal metastatic breast cancer in the United States. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists have proven to be as effective as surgical oophorectomy in premenopausal advanced breast cancer. They offer similar outcomes compared with tamoxifen, but the endocrine combination appears to be more effective than LH-RH agonists alone. In the adjuvant setting, LH-RH agonists versus no therapy reduce the annual odds of recurrence and death in women aged>50 years with estrogen receptor-positive tumors. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists alone or in combination with tamoxifen have shown disease-free survival rates similar to chemotherapy with CMF (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/5-fluorouracil). Outcomes of chemotherapy with or without LH-RH agonists are comparable, though a few trials favor the combination in young premenopausal women (aged<40 years). Adjuvant LH-RH agonists with or without tamoxifen might be as efficacious as tamoxifen alone

  2. Hormonal therapies for individuals with intersex conditions: protocol for use.

    PubMed

    Warne, Garry L; Grover, Sonia; Zajac, Jeffrey D

    2005-01-01

    Hormonal therapy forms part of the treatment of every intersex condition. For some conditions, such as salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hormonal replacement therapy is life saving because hormones necessary for survival (cortisol and aldosterone) are replaced. In contrast, other hormones such as androgens or mineralocorticoids are secreted in excessive amounts in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to an enzyme imbalance, and the role of hormonal therapy is to suppress the unwanted hormone excess by exerting negative feedback. For patients with one of the many causes of hypogonadism, sex hormone replacement therapy may be prescribed to stimulate sexual development: growth of a hypoplastic penis in a young boy, pubertal changes (male or female), psychosexual development, and adult sexual behavior. It has equally important and highly beneficial effects on bone mineral density. Hormonal therapy is also used to treat the unborn child. For the last 20 years, prenatal dexamethasone treatment administered to the pregnant woman has been used to prevent the development of ambiguous genitalia in females with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Outcome studies show this treatment to be well tolerated and, in general, efficacious. Intersex conditions are, however, difficult to treat because they may intrinsically perturb complex aspects of the person's gender identity, gender-role behavior, sexual orientation, sexual functioning, and psychologic adjustment. Furthermore, decisions made about the sex of an infant by doctors and parents do not always turn out to be correct; the person may grow up feeling uncertain about his or her gender identity, or worse still, harbor a sense of outrage about their life and treatment experiences. Such a person will have definite views about hormonal therapy when the time comes and skillful counseling will be needed. A vigorous debate about ethical aspects of current medical practices relating to intersex conditions has been waged for the last

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of methylsulfonylnitrobenzamides (MSNBAs) as inhibitors of the thyroid hormone receptor-coactivator interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jong Yeon; Attia, Ramy R.; Carrillo, Angela K.; Connelly, Michele C.; Guy, R. Kiplin

    2013-01-01

    We previously identified the methylsulfonylnitrobenzoates (MSNBs) that block the interaction of the thyroid hormone receptor with its obligate transcriptional coactivators and prevent thyroid hormone signaling. As part of our lead optimization work we demonstrated that sulfonylnitrophenylthiazoles (SNPTs), which replace the ester linkage of MSNBs with a thiazole, also inhibited coactivator binding to TR. Here we report that replacement of the ester with an amide (methylsulfonylnitrobenzamides, MSNBA) also provides active TR antagonists. PMID:23414840

  4. Prevention of diseases after menopause.

    PubMed

    Lobo, R A; Davis, S R; De Villiers, T J; Gompel, A; Henderson, V W; Hodis, H N; Lumsden, M A; Mack, W J; Shapiro, S; Baber, R J

    2014-10-01

    Women may expect to spend more than a third of their lives after menopause. Beginning in the sixth decade, many chronic diseases will begin to emerge, which will affect both the quality and quantity of a woman's life. Thus, the onset of menopause heralds an opportunity for prevention strategies to improve the quality of life and enhance longevity. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, cognitive decline, dementia and depression, and cancer are the major diseases of concern. Prevention strategies at menopause have to begin with screening and careful assessment for risk factors, which should also include molecular and genetic diagnostics, as these become available. Identification of certain risks will then allow directed therapy. Evidence-based prevention for the diseases noted above include lifestyle management, cessation of smoking, curtailing excessive alcohol consumption, a healthy diet and moderate exercise, as well as mentally stimulating activities. Although the most recent publications from the follow-up studies of the Women's Health Initiative do not recommend menopause hormonal therapy as a prevention strategy, these conclusions may not be fully valid for midlife women, on the basis of the existing data. For healthy women aged 50-59 years, estrogen therapy decreases coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality; this interpretation is entirely consistent with results from other randomized, controlled trials and observational studies. Thus. as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic disease after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered as part of the armamentarium.

  5. Choking Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & ... Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Sports Injuries ... Children > Health Issues > Injuries & Emergencies > Choking Prevention Health Issues Listen ...

  6. Drowning Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & ... Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Sports Injuries Vaccine ... Children > Health Issues > Injuries & Emergencies > Drowning Prevention: Information for Parents ...

  7. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  8. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: involvement of novel arachidonic acid metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, G D; Capdevila, J; Chacos, N; Manna, S; Falck, J R

    1983-01-01

    Anterior pituitary cells were incubated in the presence of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and one of three inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism:indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase system; nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an antioxidant that inhibits lipoxygenase; and icosatetraynoic acid, an acetylenic analogue of arachidonic acid that blocks all known pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. Indomethacin was ineffective in blocking luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid was only marginally capable of inhibiting luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion. Icosatetraynoic acid at 10 microM completely inhibited stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion. Addition of several epoxygenated arachidonic acid metabolites to cells in vitro resulted in secretion of luteinizing hormone equal to or greater than that induced by 10 nM luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. The half-maximal effective dose for these compounds was approximately 50 nM. The 5,6-epoxyicosatrienoic acid was the most potent of the compounds tested. These studies suggest that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone release is closely coupled with the production of oxidized arachidonic acid metabolites. Moreover, one or more of the epoxygenated arachidonic acid metabolites might be a component of the cascade of reactions initiated by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone that ultimately results in secretion of luteinizing hormone. PMID:6344087

  9. [Women, immunity and sexual hormones].

    PubMed

    Denenberg, R

    1995-01-01

    How a weakened immune system affects the female's reproductive system is explained. The female's endocrine system controls the menstrual and reproductive systems, and the immune system attacks harmful substances and organisms. The hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to produce the hormones FSH and LH, which in turn signal the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone. These hormones cause a mature egg to be released. If fertilized, the egg remains within the uterus; if not, menstruation occurs. HIV-positive females often complain of menstrual cycle changes, such as irregular periods, depression, or pain. The virus, other complications, or medications, such as AZT, may cause these symptoms. Estrogen therapy may help those with suppressed immune systems who have premature menopause. Oral contraceptives offer protection against pregnancy, but not HIV. It is not known if the pill reacts adversely with AIDS treatment drugs. Lists are provided showing the pros and cons of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy.

  10. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    PubMed

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hormonal effects of soy in premenopausal women and men.

    PubMed

    Kurzer, Mindy S

    2002-03-01

    Over the past few years, there has been increasing interest in the possible hormonal effects of soy and soy isoflavone consumption in both women and men. Soy consumption has been suggested to exert potentially cancer-preventive effects in premenopausal women, such as increased menstrual cycle length and sex hormone-binding globulin levels and decreased estrogen levels. There has been some concern that consumption of phytoestrogens might exert adverse effects on men's fertility, such as lowered testosterone levels and semen quality. The studies in women have provided modest support for beneficial effects. One cross-sectional study showed serum estrogens to be inversely associated with soy intake. Seven soy intervention studies controlled for phase of menstrual cycle. These studies provided 32-200 mg/d of isoflavones and generally showed decreased midcycle plasma gonadotropins and trends toward increased menstrual cycle length and decreased blood concentrations of estradiol, progesterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. A few studies also showed decreased urinary estrogens and increased ratios of urinary 2-(OH) to 16alpha-(OH) and 2-(OH) to 4-(OH) estrogens. Soy and isoflavone consumption does not seem to affect the endometrium in premenopausal women, although there have been weak estrogenic effects reported in the breast. Thus, studies in women have mostly been consistent with beneficial effects, although the magnitude of the effects is quite small and of uncertain significance. Only three intervention studies reported hormonal effects of soy isoflavones in men. These recent studies in men consuming soyfoods or supplements containing 40--70 mg/d of soy isoflavones showed few effects on plasma hormones or semen quality. These data do not support concerns about effects on reproductive hormones and semen quality.

  12. Hormones and prostate cancer: what's next?

    PubMed

    Hsing, A W

    2001-01-01

    In summary, the hormonal hypothesis remains one of the most important hypotheses in prostate cancer etiology. Although epidemiologic data regarding the role of hormones are still inconclusive, there are many intriguing leads. Armed with more complete methodological data, state-of-the-art hormone assays, sound epidemiologic design, and a more thorough analytical approach, a new generation of studies should yield critical data and insights to help clarify further the role of hormones in prostate cancer. These new studies may determine ultimately whether racial/ethnic differences in hormonal levels and in genetic susceptibility to hormone-metabolizing genes can help explain the very large racial/ethnic differences in prostate cancer risk.

  13. Relationship between estrogen levels, use of hormone replacement therapy, and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Colditz, G A

    1998-06-03

    We sought to determine the strength of the evidence suggesting that estrogen and postmenopausal replacement hormones play a role in the development of breast cancer. We reviewed the existing English language literature in MEDLINE on hormones and breast cancer, including reports on cell proliferation and endogenous hormone levels, as well as epidemiologic studies of the relationship between the use of postmenopausal hormones and the risk of breast cancer in women. A factor that increases the probability that cancer will develop in an individual has been defined as a cancer cause. The Hill criteria for demonstrating a link between environmental factors and disease were used to review the evidence for a causal relationship between female hormones and breast cancer. We found evidence of a causal relationship between these hormones and breast cancer, based on the following criteria: consistency, dose-response pattern, biologic plausibility, temporality, strength of association, and coherence. The magnitude of the increase in breast cancer risk per year of hormone use is comparable to that associated with delaying menopause by a year. The positive relationship between endogenous hormone levels in postmenopausal women and risk of breast cancer supports a biologic mechanism for the relationship between use of hormones and increased risk of this disease. The finding that the increase in risk of breast cancer associated with increasing duration of hormone use does not vary substantially across studies offers further evidence for a causal relationship. We conclude that existing evidence supports a causal relationship between use of estrogens and progestins, levels of endogenous estrogens, and breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women. Hormones may act to promote the late stages of carcinogenesis among postmenopausal women and to facilitate the proliferation of malignant cells. Strategies that do not cause breast cancer are urgently needed for the relief of menopausal

  14. [Premenstrual asthma: relation to hormones].

    PubMed

    Hernández Colin, D; Zárate Treviño, A; Martínez Cairo Cueto, S

    1997-01-01

    Exacerbation of asthmatic symptoms just before or at the time of menstruation documented in some women with asthma has been called "premenstrual asthma" (PMA). The effect of sex hormones on airway function has not been well studied in spite of much evidence to suggest, therefore about relationships between the sex hormones and airway. The investigations of (PMA) have been based on studies of asthmatics already aware of a deterioration of asthma premenstrually. Little is known, therefore, about relationships between the menstrual cycle with asthma and (PMA) subjects. Although the mechanism of PMA remains unclear.

  15. [Historical perspective of hormone replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Chanson, Philippe

    2005-02-28

    Clinical manifestations of menopause are partly related to estrogen deficiency. Estrogen replacement was long believed to reverse not only climacteric symptoms but also other chronic conditions associated with menopause such as osteoporosis, cognitive disorders or cardiovascular risk. However, it rapidly became obvious that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and venous thrombo-embolic events. Until the end of the 1990's, based on cohort studies, HRT was thought to prevent cardiovascular complications of atherosclerosis. Risk/benefit ratio was thus considered as in favor of HRT, explaining its very wide prescription, after specific contra-indications have been ruled out. In 1998, the publication of HERS, the first randomized controlled study evaluating the effects of HRT in secondary cardiovascular prevention, allowed the scientific community to be conscious of the fact that HRT, not only did not prevent cardiovascular risk but also, probably, aggravated it. In 2002, the premature interruption of WHI study, by confirming that this was also true for primary prevention, has profoundly altered the common beliefs about HRT. Indeed, if HRT was associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, the benefits/risks ratio became unfavorable. Since that time, less women are treated and some of them have stopped their HRT. Recent recommendations have been published about indications of HRT, mainly based on the presence of climacteric symptoms. The potential interest of transdermic route for administration of estrogens needs to be confirmed. The potential deleterious effect of progestins needs to be explored. The difficult story of HRT had, at least, the merit to show, one more time, that in medicine, scientific evidence is always better than beliefs.

  16. Principles and pitfalls of free hormone measurements.

    PubMed

    Faix, James D

    2013-10-01

    The free hormone hypothesis states that a hormone's physiological effects depend on the free hormone concentration, not the total hormone concentration. Although the in vivo relationship between free hormone and protein-bound hormone is complex, most experts have applied this view to the design of assays used to assess the free hormone concentration in the blood sampled for testing in vitro. The history of the measurement of free thyroxine, probably the most frequently requested free hormone determination, offers a good example of the approaches that have been taken. Methods that require physical separation of the free hormone from the protein-bound hormone must address both the potential disturbance in the equilibrium between the two, as well as the challenge of quantifying small levels of hormone accurately and precisely. The implementation of mass spectrometry in the clinical laboratory has helped to develop proposed reference measurement procedures. These must be utilized to standardize the variety of immunoassay approaches that currently represent options commercially available to the routine clinical laboratory. Practicing endocrinologists should discuss the details of the free hormone assays offered by the clinical laboratory they utilize for patient result reporting, and clinical laboratories should implement the recommendations of published guidelines to ensure that free hormone results using commercially available immunoassays are as accurate and precise as possible.

  17. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain. In children, GH is essential for normal growth, muscle and bone strength, and distribution of body fat. ... Delayed puberty What are the side effects of growth hormone therapy? Mild to moderate side ... Muscle or joint pain • Mildly underactive thyroid gland • Swelling ...

  18. Growth Hormone: Use and Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... GH helps children grow taller (also called linear growth), increases muscle mass, and decreases body fat. In both children ... syndrome In adults, GH is used to treat • Growth hormone deficiency • Muscle wasting (loss of muscle tissue) from HIV • Short ...

  19. Anabolic steroids and growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Haupt, H A

    1993-01-01

    Athletes are generally well educated regarding substances that they may use as ergogenic aids. This includes anabolic steroids and growth hormone. Fortunately, the abuse of growth hormone is limited by its cost and the fact that anabolic steroids are simply more enticing to the athlete. There are, however, significant potential adverse effects regarding its use that can be best understood by studying known growth hormone excess, as demonstrated in the acromegalic syndrome. Many athletes are unfamiliar with this syndrome and education of the potential consequences of growth hormone excess is important in counseling athletes considering its use. While athletes contemplating the use of anabolic steroids may correctly perceive their risks for significant physiologic effects to be small if they use the steroids for brief periods of time, many of these same athletes are unaware of the potential for habituation to the use of anabolic steroids. The result may be incessant use of steroids by an athlete who previously considered only short-term use. As we see athletes taking anabolic steroids for more prolonged periods, we are likely to see more severe medical consequences. Those who eventually do discontinue the steroids are dismayed to find that the improvements made with the steroids generally disappear and they have little to show for hours or even years of intense training beyond the psychological scars inherent with steroid use. Counseling of these athletes should focus on the potential adverse psychological consequences of anabolic steroid use and the significant risk for habituation.

  20. FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a hormone associated with reproduction and the development of eggs in women and ... FSH and LH with the development of secondary sexual characteristics at an unusually young age are an ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetic Testing (4 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Ateleiotic dwarfism Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal dominant isolated somatotropin deficiency ... in my area? Other Names for This Condition dwarfism, growth hormone deficiency dwarfism, pituitary growth hormone deficiency ...

  2. The concept of multiple hormonal dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; Cattabiani, Chiara; Lauretani, Fulvio; Ferrucci, Luigi; Luci, Michele; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceda, Gianpaolo

    2010-01-01

    Aging process is accompanied by hormonal changes characterized by an imbalance between catabolic hormones that remain stable and anabolic hormones (testosterone, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), that decrease with age. Despite the multiple hormonal dysregulation occurring with age, the prevalent line of research in the last decades has tried to explain many age-related phenomena as consequence of one single hormonal derangement with disappointing results. In this review we will list the relationship between hormonal anabolic deficiency and frailty and mortality in older population, providing evidence to the notion that multiple hormonal dysregulation rather than change in single anabolic hormone is a powerful marker of poor health status and mortality.

  3. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-RP) test measures the level of a ...

  4. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand potential risks to your heart and whether hormone therapy is right for you. By Mayo Clinic Staff ...

  5. 'Love Hormone' Helps Dads and Babies Bond

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163657.html 'Love Hormone' Helps Dads and Babies Bond Brain scans show ... FRIDAY, Feb. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The "love hormone" oxytocin may program fathers to bond with their ...

  6. Thyroid Hormones as Renal Cell Cancer Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Matak, Damian; Bartnik, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary; Czarnecka, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that thyroid hormone is an important regulator of cancer development and metastasis. What is more, changes across the genome, as well as alternative splicing, may affect the activity of the thyroid hormone receptors. Mechanism of action of the thyroid hormone is different in every cancer; therefore in this review thyroid hormone and its receptor are presented as a regulator of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27034829

  7. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... outcomes: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P–2 trial. JAMA 2006; 295(23):2727– ... and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 Trial: Preventing breast cancer. Cancer Prevention ...

  8. Role of chemotherapy in combination with hormonal therapy in first-line treatment of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ceresoli, G L; De Vincenzo, F; Sauta, M G; Bonomi, M; Zucali, P A

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is a heterogeneous disease, whose growth is driven by androgens and androgen receptors. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard treatment of hormone-naïve metastatic disease. The majority of patients are treated with medical castration with GnRH agonists or antagonists, which usually determines a profound PSA decline and a radiological and clinical benefit. However, essentially all patients experience progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and overall prognosis remains disappointing. Early targeting of cells that survive hormonal therapy may potentially prevent the development of CRPC. Several trials have explored the use of combination therapy with ADT and chemotherapy, targeting both the androgen dependent and independent cells simultaneously. Docetaxel was administered in combination with ADT to men with hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer, in the attempt to improve the duration and quality of patient survival. Three large randomized trials (the GETUG-15, CHAARTED and more recently the STAMPEDE study) have assessed these endpoints, with partially conflicting results. Overall, the results from these trials seem to support the use of early docetaxel combined with ADT in selected hormone-naïve metastatic PC patients. Full publication of the results of all studies, with longer follow-up, and the results of other ongoing trials in this setting will hopefully further define the role and the indications of this therapeutic strategy.

  9. Non-Contraceptive Benefits of Oral Hormonal Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Adolf E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is becoming evident that oral hormonal contraceptives-besides being well established contraceptives-seem to become important medications for many functional or organic disturbances. So far, clinical effectiveness has been shown for treatment as well as prevention of menstrual bleeding disorders and menstrual-related pain symptoms. Also this is true for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual disphoric disorder (PMDD). Particular oral contraceptives (OCs) containing anti-androgenic progestogens were shown to be effective medications for treatment of androgenisation symptoms (seborrhea, acne, hirsutism, alopecia). Through perfect suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis OCs have proven to be effective in elimination of persistent follicular cysts. Endometriosis/adenomyosis related pain symptoms are well handled similar to other drugs like Gonadotropine Releasing Hormone agonists but are less expensive, with less side effects, and possibility to be used for longer periods of time. This is also true for myoma. Pelvic inflammatory disease, rheumatoid arthritis, menstrual migraine, and onset of multiple sclerosis are prevented or delayed. Bone density is preserved and asthma symptoms improved. Endometrial hyperplasia and benign breast disease can be controlled. There is definitely a significant impact on risk reduction regarding endometrial, ovarian, and colon cancers. In conclusion, it needs to be recognized that oral combined hormonal contraceptives (estrogen/ progestogen combination) are - besides being reliable forms of contraception - are cost-effective medications for many medical disorders in women. Therefore, these contraceptives drugs are important for female and global health and should be used in clinical practice. PMID:23853619

  10. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  11. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  12. Ecdysis triggering hormone ensures proper timing of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-11-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and play a key role in insect development. A decrease of JH titer in the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again "competent" to synthesize JH, which would play an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. In the present study, we provide evidence that ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), a key endocrine factor involved in ecdysis control, acts as an allatotropic regulator of JH biosynthesis, controlling the exact timing of CA activation in the pharate adult mosquito. Analysis of the expression of Aedes aegypti ETH receptors (AeaETHRs) revealed that they are present in the CA and the corpora cardiaca (CC), and their expression peaks 4 h before eclosion. In vitro stimulation of the pupal CA glands with ETH resulted in an increase in JH synthesis. Consistent with this finding, silencing AeaETHRs by RNA interference (RNAi) in pupa resulted in reduced JH synthesis by the CA of one day-old adult females. Stimulation with ETH resulted in increases in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT), a key JH biosynthetic enzyme. Furthermore, inhibition of IP3R-operated mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores prevented the ETH-dependent increases of JH biosynthesis and JHAMT activity. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that ETH acts as a regulatory peptide that ensures proper developmental timing of JH synthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes.

  13. Ecdysis triggering hormone ensures proper timing of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and play a key role in insect development. A decrease of JH titer in the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again “competent” to synthesize JH, which would play an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. In the present study, we provide evidence that ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), a key endocrine factor involved in ecdysis control, acts as an allatotropic regulator of JH biosynthesis, controlling the exact timing of CA activation in the pharate adult mosquito. Analysis of the expression of Aedes aegypti ETH receptors (AeaETHRs) revealed that they are present in the CA and the corpora cardiaca (CC), and their expression peaks 4 h before eclosion. In vitro stimulation of the pupal CA glands with ETH resulted in an increase in JH synthesis. Consistent with this finding, silencing AeaETHRs by RNA interference (RNAi) in pupa resulted in reduced JH synthesis by the CA of one day-old adult females. Stimulation with ETH resulted in increases in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT), a key JH biosynthetic enzyme. Furthermore, inhibition of IP3R-operated mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores prevented the ETH-dependent increases of JH biosynthesis and JHAMT activity. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that ETH acts as a regulatory peptide that ensures proper developmental timing of JH synthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes. PMID:25257939

  14. Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor that Progressed to Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Syndrome with Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH) Production

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Rie; Sato, Shotaro; Otsuka, Fumiko; Ueno, Makoto; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Katakami, Hideki; Taniyama, Matsuo; Nagasaka, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 61-year-old woman who had a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with lymph node metastasis. After 15 months of octreotide treatment, glucose control deteriorated and pigmentation of the tongue and moon face developed, leading to the diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. An abnormal secretion of growth hormone (GH) was identified, and the plasma growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) level was elevated. A tumor biopsy specimen positively immunostained for ACTH and GHRH. Ectopic hormone secretion seems to have evolved along with the progression of the PNET. PMID:27746436

  15. Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor that Progressed to Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Syndrome with Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH) Production.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Rie; Sato, Shotaro; Otsuka, Fumiko; Ueno, Makoto; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Katakami, Hideki; Taniyama, Matsuo; Nagasaka, Shoichiro

    The patient was a 61-year-old woman who had a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with lymph node metastasis. After 15 months of octreotide treatment, glucose control deteriorated and pigmentation of the tongue and moon face developed, leading to the diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. An abnormal secretion of growth hormone (GH) was identified, and the plasma growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) level was elevated. A tumor biopsy specimen positively immunostained for ACTH and GHRH. Ectopic hormone secretion seems to have evolved along with the progression of the PNET.

  16. Osteoporosis: diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, G A; Moss, M M

    1998-11-01

    Osteoporosis affects about 8 million Americans, mostly women. The incidence and cost of the disease are rising as the population and its life expectancy increase. Each year 1.5 million individuals with osteoporosis suffer debilitating fractures of the spine, hip, or forearm. The primary health care provider is positioned to detect osteoporosis and its risk factors before signs and symptoms occur. Early detection can be achieved through any one of several diagnostic modalities, including bone mineral density tests and the use of biochemical markers. Once a clinician determines that a patient has many risk factors, bone mineral density testing should be performed. If the test results confirm the clinician's suspicion, therapeutic options should be discussed. Although treatment options exist, the most effective method of dealing with osteoporosis is prevention, including modification of risk factors (for example, diet and lifestyle) and the use of hormone replacement therapy, raloxifene, or alendronate therapy.

  17. Peripheral activities of growth hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Granata, R

    2016-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates GH synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition to its endocrine role, GHRH exerts a wide range of extrapituitary effects which include stimulation of cell proliferation, survival and differentiation, and inhibition of apoptosis. Accordingly, expression of GHRH, as well as the receptor GHRH-R and its splice variants, has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types. Among the direct peripheral activities, GHRH regulates pancreatic islet and β-cell survival and function and endometrial cell proliferation, promotes cardioprotection and wound healing, influences the immune and reproductive systems, reduces inflammation, indirectly increases lifespan and adiposity and acts on skeletal muscle cells to inhibit cell death and atrophy. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly clear that GHRH exerts important extrapituitary functions, suggesting potential therapeutic use of the peptide and its analogs in a wide range of medical settings.

  18. Social and behavioural influences on the uptake of hormone replacement therapy among younger women.

    PubMed

    Kuh, D; Hardy, R; Wadsworth, M

    2000-06-01

    To describe the social and behavioural influences on the uptake of hormone replacement therapy before the age of 50. Nationally representative birth cohort study with detailed hormone replacement therapy histories and prospective data on health, social and behavioural factors collected throughout life. England, Scotland and Wales. General population sample of 1,572 women followed to the age of 50 years. Age at first hormone replacement therapy use By the age of 50 years, 45% of women had tried hormone replacement therapy and one third were current users. Over two-fifths of users had tried more than one preparation and over one quarter had episodic use. For the vast majority, prescribing conformed to current guidelines. More educated women took hormone replacement therapy for long term prevention compared with their less educated peers. Hysterectomy increased the chances of taking hormone replacement therapy, particularly where an oophorectomy had also been performed, and was associated with longer and more continuous use. Results of a Cox's proportional hazards model showed that the age at which first hormone replacement therapy is used by women who have not had a hysterectomy was influenced by previous contact with health services for menstrual disorders, previous use of oral contraception and cigarettes, past reporting of health problems and low social class. The relation between smoking and low social class with early use of hormone replacement therapy may be due to their association with early menopause. The trend over the last two decades towards greater use of hormone replacement therapy has continued unabated for younger women. So far, hormone replacement therapy users in this generation have had less healthy lifestyles and social advantages than nonusers, in contrast to many older mainly American studies based on earlier generations. This may have long term implications for health and health care as the postwar baby boom generation ages.

  19. [Effects of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone metabolism].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2014-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) as well as insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are essential hormones to maintain homeostasis of bone turnover by activating osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Results from GH replacement therapy for primary osteoporosis and adult-onset GH deficiency (AGHD) suggest that one year or more treatment period by this agent is required to gain bone mineral density (BMD) over the basal level after compensating BMD loss caused by dominant increase in bone resorption which was observed at early phase of GH treatment. A recent meta-analysis demonstrates the efficacy of GH replacement therapy on increases in BMD in male patients with AGHD. Additional analyses are needed to draw firm conclusions in female patients with AGHD, because insufficient amounts of GH might be administrated to them without considerations of influence of estrogen replacement therapy on IGF-1 production. Further observational studies are needed to clarify whether GH replacement therapy prevent fracture risk in these patients.

  20. Stroke in women - oral contraception, pregnancy, and hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Kirsi; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating disease affecting millions of people worldwide every year. Female stroke victims have higher mortality rates and they do not re-cover as well as men. Women's longevity and different vascular risk factor burden like a larger prevalence of atrial fibrillation play a role. Women also have unique risk factors such as oral contraception, pregnancy, estrogen decrease after the menopause and hormone replacement therapy, which should all be evaluated and taken into consideration in treatment decisions both in the acute phase of stroke and in secondary prevention. In this review, the evidence regarding these hormonal aspects and the risk of stroke in women are evaluated. The relevant guidelines are studied and research gaps identified. Future topics for research are recommended and current treatment possibilities and their risks discussed.

  1. Human stanniocalcin: a possible hormonal regulator of mineral metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, H S; Cepeda, M A; Zhang, Q Q; Rosen, C A; Vozzolo, B L

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a human cDNA clone encoding the mammalian homolog of stanniocalcin (STC), a calcium- and phosphate-regulating hormone that was first described in fishes where it functions in preventing hypercalcemia. STC has a unique amino acid sequence and, until now, has remained one of the few polypeptide hormones never described in higher vertebrates. Human STC (hSTC) was found to be 247 amino acids long and to share 73% amino acid sequence similarity with fish STC. Polyclonal antibodies to recombinant hSTC localized to a distinct cell type in the nephron tubule, suggesting kidney as a possible site of synthesis. Recombinant hSTC inhibited the gill transport of calcium when administered to fish and stimulated renal phosphate reabsorption in the rat. The evidence suggests that mammalian STC, like its piscine counterpart, is a regulator of mineral homeostasis. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8700837

  2. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy Is Not Associated With Risk of All-Cause Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Jacqueline; Jackson, John W.; Grodstein, Francine; Blacker, Deborah; Weuve, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The relationship of postmenopausal hormone therapy with all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia has been controversial. Given continued interest in the role of hormone therapy in chronic disease prevention and the emergence of more prospective studies, we conducted a systematic review to identify all epidemiologic studies meeting prespecified criteria reporting on postmenopausal hormone therapy use and risk of Alzheimer's disease or dementia. A systematic search of Medline and Embase through December 31, 2012, returned 15 articles meeting our criteria. Our meta-analysis of any versus never use did not support the hypothesis that hormone therapy reduces risk of Alzheimer's disease (summary estimate = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.66, 1.16). Exclusion of trial findings did not change this estimate. There were not enough all-cause dementia results for a separate meta-analysis, but when we combined all-cause dementia results (n = 3) with Alzheimer's disease results (n = 7), the summary estimate remained null (summary estimate = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.26). The limited explorations of timing of use—both duration and early initiation—did not yield consistent findings. Our findings support current recommendations that hormone therapy should not be used for dementia prevention. We discuss trends in hormone therapy research that could explain our novel findings and highlight areas where additional data are needed. PMID:24042430

  3. Postmenopausal hormone therapy is not associated with risk of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jacqueline; Jackson, John W; Grodstein, Francine; Blacker, Deborah; Weuve, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The relationship of postmenopausal hormone therapy with all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia has been controversial. Given continued interest in the role of hormone therapy in chronic disease prevention and the emergence of more prospective studies, we conducted a systematic review to identify all epidemiologic studies meeting prespecified criteria reporting on postmenopausal hormone therapy use and risk of Alzheimer's disease or dementia. A systematic search of Medline and Embase through December 31, 2012, returned 15 articles meeting our criteria. Our meta-analysis of any versus never use did not support the hypothesis that hormone therapy reduces risk of Alzheimer's disease (summary estimate = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.66, 1.16). Exclusion of trial findings did not change this estimate. There were not enough all-cause dementia results for a separate meta-analysis, but when we combined all-cause dementia results (n = 3) with Alzheimer's disease results (n = 7), the summary estimate remained null (summary estimate = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.26). The limited explorations of timing of use-both duration and early initiation-did not yield consistent findings. Our findings support current recommendations that hormone therapy should not be used for dementia prevention. We discuss trends in hormone therapy research that could explain our novel findings and highlight areas where additional data are needed.

  4. Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

  5. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    PubMed Central

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  6. Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

  7. [What's new in hormone replacement therapy of postmenopausal women? II. Risks of hormone replacement therapy (HRT)].

    PubMed

    Martin-Du Pan, R C; Luzuy, F

    2000-06-01

    A 50 year old woman has a 10% lifetime risk of developing a breast cancer. Depending on the duration of the treatment, HRT can increase this risk by 30 to 45%. The risk of endometrial cancer, which affects 2.3% of women, is increased even if sequential progestogens are given together with estrogens. The risk of venous thrombosis is increased 3 times. The occurrence of ictus is not modified by HRT. On the other hand estrogens may prevent the abdominal deposit of fat. The cancer risks associated with HRT must be balanced against their protective effects on cardio-vascular (C-V)diseases. In untreated women, mortality due to C-V disease is 39% whereas mortality due to breast cancer is 3% and only 0.3% for endometrial cancer. This article discusses also the possibility of HRT and of non hormonal treatments in patients with previous breast cancer.

  8. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  9. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  10. Preventive Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozwiak, Dick

    1998-01-01

    Argues the importance of regularly inspecting thermoplastic roofs to avoid costly repairs. Preventive measures such as access restriction and the use of protective mats and pads to prevent third-party accidents are discussed as is the importance of checking for drain blockages. (GR)

  11. Thyroid hormone and dehydroepiandrosterone permit gluconeogenic hormone responses in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kneer, N; Lardy, H

    2000-03-01

    The importance of the sn-glycerol- 3-phosphate (G-3-P) electron transfer shuttle in hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis was examined in hepatocytes from rats with decreased mitochondrial G-3-P dehydrogenase activity (thyroidectomized) or increased G-3-P dehydrogenase activity [triiodothyronine (T(3)) or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treated]. Rates of glucose formation from 10 mM lactate, 10 mM pyruvate, or 2.5 mM dihydroxyacetone were somewhat less in hypothyroid cells than in cells from normal rats but gluconeogenic responses to calcium addition and to norepinephrine (NE), glucagon (G), or vasopressin (VP) were similar to the responses observed in cells from normal rats. However, with 2. 5 mM glycerol or 2.5 mM sorbitol, substrates that must be oxidized in the cytosol before conversion to glucose, basal gluconeogenesis was not appreciably altered by hypothyroidism but responses to calcium and to the calcium-mobilizing hormones were abolished. Injecting thyroidectomized rats with T(3) 2 days before preparing the hepatocytes greatly enhanced gluconeogenesis from glyc erol and restored the response to Ca(2+) and gluconeogenic hormones. Feeding dehydroepiandrosterone for 6 days depressed gluconeogenesis from lactate or pyruvate but substantially increased glucose production from glycerol in euthyroid cells and restored responses to Ca(2+) in hypothyroid cells metabolizing glycerol. Euthyroid cells metabolizing glycerol or sorbitol use the G-3-P and malate/aspartate shuttles to oxidize excess NADH generated in the cytosol. The transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetate (AOA) decreased gluconeogenesis from glycerol 40%, but had little effect on responses to Ca(2+) and NE. However, in hypothyroid cells, with minimal G-3-P dehydrogenase, AOA decreased gluconeogenesis from glycerol more than 90%. Thus, the basal rate of gluconeogenesis from glycerol in the euthyroid cells is only partly dependent on electron transport from cytosol to mitochondria via the malate

  12. Physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraception: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Naomi K; Curtis, Kathryn M; Steenland, Maria W; Marchbanks, Polly A

    2013-05-01

    Provision of contraception is often linked with physical examination, including clinical breast examination (CBE) and pelvic examination. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence regarding outcomes among women with and without physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The PubMed database was searched from database inception through March 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles in any language concerning CBE and pelvic examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The quality of each study was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. The search did not identify any evidence regarding outcomes among women screened versus not screened with CBE prior to initiation of hormonal contraceptives. The search identified two case-control studies of fair quality which compared women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating oral contraceptives (OCs) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). No differences in risk factors for cervical neoplasia, incidence of sexually transmitted infections, incidence of abnormal Pap smears or incidence of abnormal wet mount findings were observed. Although women with breast cancer should not use hormonal contraceptives, there is little utility in screening prior to initiation, due to the low incidence of breast cancer and uncertain value of CBE among women of reproductive age. Two fair quality studies demonstrated no differences between women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating OCs or DMPA with respect to risk factors or clinical outcomes. In addition, pelvic examination is not likely to detect any conditions for which hormonal contraceptives would be unsafe. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Stress-Induced Hormones Cortisol and Epinephrine Impair Wound Epithelization

    PubMed Central

    Stojadinovic, Olivera; Gordon, Katherine A.; Lebrun, Elizabeth; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2012-01-01

    Background Stress-induced disruption of hormonal balance in animals and humans has a detrimental effect on wound healing. The Problem After the injury, keratinocytes migrate over the wound bed to repair a wound. However, their nonmigratory phenotype plays a role in pathogenesis of chronic wounds. Despite many therapeutic approaches, there is a dearth of treatments targeting the molecular mechanisms mediated by stress that prevent epithelization. Basic/Clinical Science Advances Recent studies show that epidermal keratinocytes synthesize stress hormones. During acute wound healing, cortisol synthesis in the epidermis is tightly controlled. Further, a key intermediate molecule in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), can bind glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and activate GR. Additionally, keratinocytes express beta-2-adrenergic-receptor (β2AR), a receptor for the stress hormone epinephrine. Importantly, migratory rates of keratinocytes are reduced by cortisol, FPP, epinephrine, and other β2AR agonists, thus indicating their role in the inhibition of epithelization. Topical inhibition of local glucocorticoid and FPP synthesis, as well as treatment with β2AR antagonists promotes wound epithelization. Clinical Care Relevance Modulation of local stress hormone production may represent an important therapeutic target for wound healing disorders. Topical administration of inhibitors of cortisol synthesis, statins, β2AR antagonists, and systemic beta-blockers can decrease cortisol synthesis, FPP, and epinephrine levels, respectively, thus restoring keratinocyte migration capacity. These treatment modalities could represent a novel therapeutic approach for wound healing disorders. Conclusion Attenuation of the local stress-induced hormonal imbalance in epidermis may advance therapeutic modalities, thereby leading to enhanced epithelization and improved wound healing. PMID:24527275

  14. Parathyroid hormone therapy for hypoparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Cusano, Natalie E.; Rubin, Mishaela R.; Bilezikian, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disease characterized by hypocalcemia and insufficient parathyroid hormone (PTH). It is a rare disorder that has been given an orphan disease designation in the United States and European Union. Hypoparathyroidism is the only endocrine deficiency disease for which the missing hormone, PTH, is not yet an approved therapy. Conventional therapy includes calcium and active vitamin D supplementation, often in large doses. Although serum calcium can be controlled with conventional therapy, it can be a challenge and, moreover, does not address other aspects of the disease, such as abnormal skeletal features and reduced quality of life. This review focuses on PTH replacement therapy in hypoparathyroidism, utilizing the full-length molecule PTH(1–84) as well as the fully active but truncated form PTH(1–34). PTH therapy addresses some aspects of the disease not ameliorated with conventional therapy. PMID:25617172

  15. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  16. Thyroid hormone disorders and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Yu, Zhui; Li, Yinping

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with high mortality, which results from severe infection and can lead to secondary organ dysfunction. It is one of the most common cause of death in intensive care unit. Clinical reports have shown that sepsis was often accompanied by thyroid dysfunction, which is called "low triiodothyronine (T3)" syndrome and characterized by decreased blood total T3 and free T3, and by normal or decreased thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This syndrome may greatly affect the prognosis of patients with sepsis. The main purpose of this review is to illustrate the role of thyroid hormone disorder in the development and prognosis of sepsis.

  17. Ovarian hormones and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior.

  18. Modelling hormonal response and development.

    PubMed

    Voß, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; Farcot, Etienne; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2014-05-01

    As our knowledge of the complexity of hormone homeostasis, transport, perception, and response increases, and their outputs become less intuitive, modelling is set to become more important. Initial modelling efforts have focused on hormone transport and response pathways. However, we now need to move beyond the network scales and use multicellular and multiscale modelling approaches to predict emergent properties at different scales. Here we review some examples where such approaches have been successful, for example, auxin-cytokinin crosstalk regulating root vascular development or a study of lateral root emergence where an iterative cycle of modelling and experiments lead to the identification of an overlooked role for PIN3. Finally, we discuss some of the remaining biological and technical challenges. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

  20. A Simulated Growth Hormone Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Mary

    1996-08-01

    Growth hormone is a drug that is sometimes abused by amateur or professional athletes for performance-enhancement. This laboratory is a semimicroscale simulation analysis of a sample of "urine" to detect proteins of two very different molecular weights. Gel filtration uses a 10 mL disposable pipette packed with Sephadex. Students analyze the fractions from the filtration by comparing colors of the Brilliant Blue Coomassie Dye as it interacts with the proteins in the sample to a standard set of known concentration of protein with the dye. The simulated analysis of growth hormone is intended to be included in a unit on organic chemistry or in the second year of high school chemistry.

  1. Progestogens in menopausal hormone therapy

    PubMed Central

    Woroń, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Progestogens share one common effect: the ability to convert proliferative endometrium to its secretory form. In contrast, their biological activity is varied, depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and different potency of action. Progestogens are widely used in the treatment of menstrual cycle disturbances, various gynaecological conditions, contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. The administration of progestogen in menopausal hormone therapy is essential in women with an intact uterus to protect against endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Progestogen selection should be based on the characteristics available for each progestogen type, relying on the assessment of relative potency of action in experimental models and animal models, and on the indirect knowledge brought by studies of the clinical use of different progestogen formulations. The choice of progestogen should involve the conscious use of knowledge of its benefits, with a focus on minimizing potential side effects. Unfortunately, there are no direct clinical studies comparing the metabolic effects of different progestogens. PMID:26327902

  2. Hormone interactions during lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Fukaki, Hidehiro; Tasaka, Masao

    2009-03-01

    Lateral root (LR) formation, the production of new roots from parent roots, is a hormone- and environmentally-regulated developmental process in higher plants. Physiological and genetic studies using Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species have revealed the roles of several plant hormones in LR formation, particularly the role of auxin in LR initiation and primordium development, resulting in much progress toward understanding the mechanisms of auxin-mediated LR formation. However, hormone interactions during LR formation have been relatively underexamined. Recent studies have shown that the plant hormones, cytokinin and abscisic acid negatively regulate LR formation whereas brassinosteroids positively regulate LR formation. On the other hand, ethylene has positive and negative roles during LR formation. This review summarizes recent findings on hormone-regulated LR formation in higher plants, focusing on auxin as a trigger and on the other hormones in LR formation, and discusses the possible interactions among plant hormones in this developmental process.

  3. [Hormones and hair growth in man].

    PubMed

    Moretti, G; Rampini, E; Rebora, A

    1977-12-01

    A literature review tries to diminish the ambiguity between hormones and hairs. Therefore the hormonal action in general (regulation of the protein synthesis indirectly by enzymatical regulation of the AMP-system or directly by hormones as active metabolites) and the methods to explore hormones-hair-interaction are discussed. Hormones pertaining to the pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axis are regarded as the paramount hormones; therefore the results of research in testosterone, 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, estrogens, progesterone, glucocorticoids, the hypophysis and its tropins are recapitulated. The main disorders of hair-growth, pattern baldness and "idiopathic" hirsutism, which would be dependent on a similar disturbance of androgen metabolism, are discussed. Pathology in hair-growth may arise in any point of the cascade of hormone action.

  4. Hormonal Treatment Effects on the Cross-sectional Area of Pubococcygeus Muscle Fibers After Denervation and Castration in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Lara-García, Miguel; Alvarado, Mayvi; Cuevas, Estela; Lara-García, Omar; Sengelaub, Dale R; Pacheco, Pablo

    2017-02-08

    We explore the interaction of muscle innervation and gonadal hormone action in the pubococcygeus muscle (Pcm) after castration and hormone replacement. Male Wistar rats were castrated and the Pcm was unilaterally denervated; after 2 or 6 weeks, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of Pcm fibers was assessed. Additional groups of castrated rats were used to examine the effects of hormone replacement. At 2 weeks post surgeries, rats were implanted with Silastic capsules containing either dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol benzoate (EB) or both hormones, and the CSA of Pcm fibers was assessed after 4 weeks of hormone treatment. At 2 weeks post surgeries, gonadectomy without hormone replacement resulted in reductions in the CSA of Pcm fibers, and denervation combined with castration increased the magnitude of this effect; further reductions in CSA were present at 6 weeks post surgeries, but again denervation combined with castration increased the magnitude of this effect. Hormone replacement with DHT resulted in hypertrophy in the CSA of nondenervated muscles compared to those of intact normal males, but this effect was attenuated in denervated muscles. Hormone replacement with EB treatment prevented further castration-induced reductions in CSA of nondenervated muscles, but denervation prevented this effect. Similar to that seen with treatment with EB alone, combined treatment with both DHT and EB prevented further reductions in CSA of Pcm fibers in nondenervated muscles, but again denervation attenuated this effect. Thus, while hormone replacement can reverse or prevent further castration-induced atrophy of Pcm fibers, these effects are dependent on muscle innervation. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Using the failure mode and effects analysis model to improve parathyroid hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone testing

    PubMed Central

    Magnezi, Racheli; Hemi, Asaf; Hemi, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk management in health care systems applies to all hospital employees and directors as they deal with human life and emergency routines. There is a constant need to decrease risk and increase patient safety in the hospital environment. The purpose of this article is to review the laboratory testing procedures for parathyroid hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (which are characterized by short half-lives) and to track failure modes and risks, and offer solutions to prevent them. During a routine quality improvement review at the Endocrine Laboratory in Tel Hashomer Hospital, we discovered these tests are frequently repeated unnecessarily due to multiple failures. The repetition of the tests inconveniences patients and leads to extra work for the laboratory and logistics personnel as well as the nurses and doctors who have to perform many tasks with limited resources. Methods A team of eight staff members accompanied by the Head of the Endocrine Laboratory formed the team for analysis. The failure mode and effects analysis model (FMEA) was used to analyze the laboratory testing procedure and was designed to simplify the process steps and indicate and rank possible failures. Results A total of 23 failure modes were found within the process, 19 of which were ranked by level of severity. The FMEA model prioritizes failures by their risk priority number (RPN). For example, the most serious failure was the delay after the samples were collected from the department (RPN =226.1). Conclusion This model helped us to visualize the process in a simple way. After analyzing the information, solutions were proposed to prevent failures, and a method to completely avoid the top four problems was also developed. PMID:27980440

  6. Using the failure mode and effects analysis model to improve parathyroid hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone testing.

    PubMed

    Magnezi, Racheli; Hemi, Asaf; Hemi, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Risk management in health care systems applies to all hospital employees and directors as they deal with human life and emergency routines. There is a constant need to decrease risk and increase patient safety in the hospital environment. The purpose of this article is to review the laboratory testing procedures for parathyroid hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (which are characterized by short half-lives) and to track failure modes and risks, and offer solutions to prevent them. During a routine quality improvement review at the Endocrine Laboratory in Tel Hashomer Hospital, we discovered these tests are frequently repeated unnecessarily due to multiple failures. The repetition of the tests inconveniences patients and leads to extra work for the laboratory and logistics personnel as well as the nurses and doctors who have to perform many tasks with limited resources. A team of eight staff members accompanied by the Head of the Endocrine Laboratory formed the team for analysis. The failure mode and effects analysis model (FMEA) was used to analyze the laboratory testing procedure and was designed to simplify the process steps and indicate and rank possible failures. A total of 23 failure modes were found within the process, 19 of which were ranked by level of severity. The FMEA model prioritizes failures by their risk priority number (RPN). For example, the most serious failure was the delay after the samples were collected from the department (RPN =226.1). This model helped us to visualize the process in a simple way. After analyzing the information, solutions were proposed to prevent failures, and a method to completely avoid the top four problems was also developed.

  7. Effects of ovarian hormones on manifestation of purulent endometritis in rat uteruses infected with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Y; Baba, T

    1985-01-01

    To assess the influence of hormones on uterine infections, Escherichia coli was infused into uterine lumens of ovariectomized or adrenoovariectomized rats receiving exogenous administration of various doses of ovarian hormones. Large numbers of E. coli were recovered from the rat uterine lumens, irrespective of hormonal influences. The number of leukocytes in the uterine flushings, representing the magnitude of purulent inflammation, differed significantly depending upon the hormonal regimen given to each host. Purulent endometritis was induced by E. coli in ovariectomized rats receiving progesterone or corn oil (hormone vehicle). Infections were asymptomatic in rats receiving estradiol, but promethazine-treated uterine horns were susceptible to infection. When progesterone was administered along with estradiol, purulent inflammation was caused by E. coli, but the number of leukocytes in the uterine lumens was significantly less than that obtained from the rats treated with progesterone or corn oil. These effects of ovarian hormones on uterine infections were observed in adrenoovariectomized rats as well as in ovariectomized rats. It is suggested that estradiol alters the nature of endometrial epithelium and prevent manifestation of purulent endometritis; progesterone antagonizes estradiol. Adrenal hormones appear not to participate in the pathogenesis of endometritis induced by E. coli.

  8. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5′-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

  9. Ghrelin and obestatin modulate growth hormone-releasing hormone release and synaptic inputs onto growth hormone-releasing hormone neurons.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan D; Yang, Seung-Kwon; Loudes, Catherine; Simon, Axelle; Al-Sarraf, Tamara; Culler, Michael; Alvear-Perez, Rodrigo; Llorens-Cortes, Catherine; Chen, Chen; Epelbaum, Jacques; Gardette, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Ghrelin, a natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is synthesized in the stomach but may also be expressed in lesser quantity in the hypothalamus where the GHS-R is located on growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons. Obestatin, a peptide derived from the same precursor as ghrelin, is able to antagonize the ghrelin-induced increase of growth hormone (GH) secretion in vivo but not from pituitary explants in vitro. Thus, the blockade of ghrelin-induced GH release by obestatin could be mediated at the hypothalamic level by the neuronal network that controls pituitary GH secretion. Ghrelin increased GHRH and decreased somatostatin (somatotropin-releasing inhibitory factor) release from hypothalamic explants, whereas obestatin only reduced the ghrelin-induced increase of GHRH release, thus indicating that the effect of ghrelin and obestatin is targeted to GHRH neurons. Patch-clamp recordings on mouse GHRH-enhanced green fluorescent protein neurons indicated that ghrelin and obestatin had no significant effects on glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Ghrelin decreased GABAergic synaptic transmission in 44% of the recorded neurons, an effect blocked in the presence of the GHS-R antagonist BIM28163, and stimulated the firing rate of 78% of GHRH neurons. Obestatin blocked the effects of ghrelin by acting on a receptor different from the GHS-R. These data suggest that: (i) ghrelin increases GHRH neuron excitability by increasing their action potential firing rate and decreasing the strength of GABA inhibitory inputs, thereby leading to an enhanced GHRH release; and (ii) obestatin counteracts ghrelin actions. Such interactions on GHRH neurons probably participate in the control of GH secretion.

  10. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  11. Growth hormone therapy in progeria.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Nejad, Ab; Demmer, Laurie

    2007-05-01

    Catabolic processes seen in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria resemble those of normal aging and, in the affected children, usually result in death at an early age. In addition to its growth promoting effects, growth hormone (GH) has potent anabolic properties. Administration of GH ameliorates some of the catabolic effects of normal aging. We report the results of GH treatment in a young child with progeria.

  12. Hormone therapy and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Pauline M.; Sundermann, Erin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Clinical trials yield discrepant information about the impact of hormone therapy on verbal memory and executive function. This issue is clinically relevant because declines in verbal memory are the earliest predictor of Alzheimer's disease and declines in executive function are central to some theories of normal, age-related changes in cognition. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials of hormone therapy (i.e. oral, transdermal, i.m.) and verbal memory, distinguishing studies in younger (i.e. ≤65 years of age; n = 9) versus older (i.e. >65 years; n = 7) women and studies involving estrogen alone versus estrogen plus progestogen. Out of 32 placebo-controlled trials, 17 were included (13 had no verbal memory measures and 2 involved cholinergic manipulations). We also provide a narrative review of 25 studies of executive function (two trials), since there are insufficient clinical trial data for systematic review. RESULTS There is some evidence for a beneficial effect of estrogen alone on verbal memory in younger naturally post-menopausal women and more consistent evidence from small-n studies of surgically post-menopausal women. There is stronger evidence of a detrimental effect of conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate on verbal memory in younger and older post-menopausal women. Observational studies and pharmacological models of menopause provide initial evidence of improvements in executive function with hormone therapy. CONCLUSIONS Future studies should include measures of executive function and should address pressing clinical questions; including what formulation of combination hormone therapy is cognitively neutral/beneficial, yet effective in treating hot flashes in the early post-menopause. PMID:19468050

  13. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  14. How do sex hormones modify arrhythmogenesis in long QT syndrome? Sex hormone effects on arrhythmogenic substrate and triggered activity.

    PubMed

    Odening, Katja E; Koren, Gideon

    2014-11-01

    Gender differences in cardiac repolarization and the arrhythmogenic risk of patients with inherited and acquired long QT syndromes are well appreciated clinically. Enhancing our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these differences is critical to improve our therapeutic strategies for preventing sudden cardiac death in such patients. This review summarizes the effects of sex hormones on the expression and function of ion channels that control cardiac cell excitation and repolarization as well as key proteins that regulate Ca(2+) dynamics at the cellular level. Moreover, it examines the role of sex hormones in modifying the dynamic spatiotemporal (regional and transmural) heterogeneities in action potential duration (eg, the arrhythmogenic substrate) and the susceptibility to (sympathetic) triggered activity at the tissue, organ, and whole animal levels. Finally, it explores the implications of these effects on the management of patients with LQTS.

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation and pretreatment with (D-Leu6,des-Gly10) luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide on developing rat ovarian follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.; Barr, R.; O'Connell, G.; Belbeck, L.

    1987-10-01

    To assess the effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, (D-Leu6,des-Gly10) luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide, in ameliorating the damage caused by ionizing radiation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was administered to rats from day 22 to 37 of age in doses of 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 microgram/day or vehicle and the rats were sacrificed on day 44 of age. There were no effects on estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing, or follicle-stimulating hormone, nor an effect on ovarian follicle numbers or development. In separate experiments, rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in doses of 0.04, 0.1, 0.4, or 1.0 microgram/day were either irradiated or sham irradiated on day 30 and all groups sacrificed on day 44 of age. Irradiation produced a reduction in ovarian weight and an increase in ovarian follicular atresia. Pretreatment with the agonist prevented the reduction in ovarian weight and numbers of primordial and preantral follicles but not healthy or atretic antral follicles. Such putative radioprotection should be tested on actual reproductive performance.

  16. Synthesis and chemical reactions of the steroidal hormone 17α-methyltestosterone.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, El-Sayed Ibrahim; Reyad, Mahmoud; Afsah, Elsayed Mohammed; Dawidar, Abdel-Aziz Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Structural modifications of natural products with complex structures like steroids require great synthetic effort. A review of literature is presented on the chemistry of the steroidal hormone 17α-methyltestosterone that is approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States as an androgen for estrogen-androgen hormone replacement therapy treatment. The analog also offers special possibilities for the prevention/treatment of hormone-sensitive cancers. The testosterone skeleton has important functionalities in the molecule that can act as a carbonyl component, an active methylene compound, α,β-unsaturated enone and tertiary hydroxyl group in various chemical reactions to access stereoisomeric steroidal compounds with potent activity. In addition, microbiological methods of synthesis and transformation of this hormone are presented.

  17. Thyroid hormone deiodination in birds.

    PubMed

    Darras, Veerle M; Verhoelst, Carla H J; Reyns, Geert E; Kühn, Eduard R; Van der Geyten, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Because the avian thyroid gland secretes almost exclusively thyroxine (T4), the availability of receptor-active 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) has to be regulated in the extrathyroidal tissues, essentially by deiodination. Like mammals and most other vertebrates, birds possess three types of iodothyronine deiodinases (D1, D2, and D3) that closely resemble their mammalian counterparts, as shown by biochemical characterization studies in several avian species and by cDNA cloning of the three enzymes in chicken. The tissue distribution of these deiodinases has been studied in detail in chicken at the level of activity and mRNA expression. More recently specific antibodies were used to study cellular localization at the protein level. The abundance and distribution of the different deiodinases shows substantial variation during embryonic development and postnatal life. Deiodination in birds is subject to regulation by hormones from several endocrine axes, including thyroid hormones, growth hormone and glucocorticoids. In addition, deiodination is also influenced by external parameters, such as nutrition, temperature, light and also a number of environmental pollutants. The balance between the outer and inner ring deiodination resulting from the impact of all these factors ultimately controls T3 availability.

  18. Growth hormone deficiency: an update.

    PubMed

    Audí, L; Fernández-Cancio, M; Camats, N; Carrascosa, A

    2013-03-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in humans manifests differently according to the individual developmental stage (early after birth, during childhood, at puberty or in adulthood), the cause or mechanism (genetic, acquired or idiopathic), deficiency intensity and whether it is the only pituitary-affected hormone or is combined with that of other pituitary hormones or forms part of a complex syndrome. Growing knowledge of the genetic basis of GH deficiency continues to provide us with useful information to further characterise mutation types and mechanisms for previously described and new candidate genes. Despite these advances, a high proportion of GH deficiencies with no recognisable acquired basis continue to be labelled as idiopathic, although less frequently when they are congenital and/or familial. The clinical and biochemical diagnoses continue to be a conundrum despite efforts to harmonise biochemical assays for GH and IGF-1 analysis, probably because the diagnosis based on the so-called GH secretion stimulation tests will prove to be of limited usefulness for predicting therapy indications.

  19. Are female sex hormones teratogenic?

    PubMed

    Wilson, J G; Brent, R L

    1981-11-01

    An analysis of available epidemiologic data leads the present reviewers to conclude that the use of exogenous hormones during human pregnancy has not been proved to cause developmental abnormality in nongenital organs and tissues. This conclusion is further supported by the animal laboratory data. The preponderance of evidence at this writing indicates a lack of causal association between hormonal use during pregnancy and nongenital malformation of the offspring. The quality of the epidemiologic data does not, at this time, permit a definitive conclusion that sex hormones during pregnancy may not, under as yet to be defined conditions, have some adverse effect on human prenatal development. If there are increased risks of nongenital malformations associated with the administration of certain sex steroids, the risks are very small, may not be causal, and are substantially below the spontaneous risk of malformations. In spite of the present degree of uncertainty, the clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data do permit the formulation of a rational approach to handling problems related to sex steroid usage and exposure in pregnant women.

  20. Sex Hormones and Macronutrient Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

  1. [Thyroid hormone action beyond classical concepts. The priority programme "Thyroid Trans Act" (SPP 1629) of the German Research Foundation].

    PubMed

    Führer, D; Brix, K; Biebermann, H

    2014-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are of crucial importance for the function of nearly all organ systems. In case of dysfunction of thyroid hormone production and function many organ systems may be affected. The estimation of normal thyroid function is based on determination of TSH and the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. However, international conventions about the normal TSH range are still lacking which bears consequences for patient`s treatment. Hence not unexpected, many patients complain although their thyroid hormone status is in the normal range by clinical estimation. Here, more precise parameters are needed for a better definition of the healthy thyroid status of an individual. Recently, new key players in the system of thyroid hormone action were detected, like specific transporters for uptake of thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone derivatives. DFG, the German Research Foundation supports the priority program Thyroid Trans Act to find answers to the main question: what defines the healthy thyroid status of an individual. The overall aim of this interdisciplinary research consortium is to specify physiological and pathophysiological functions of thyroid hormone transporters and thyroid hormone derivative as new players in thyroid regulation in order to better evaluate, treat, and prevent thyroid-related disease.

  2. Growth hormone ameliorates adipose dysfunction during oxidative stress and inflammation and improves glucose tolerance in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, M; Okamoto, Y; Katsumata, H; Ishikawa, M; Ishii, S; Okamoto, M; Minami, S

    2014-08-01

    Patients with adult growth hormone deficiency exhibit visceral fat accumulation, which gives rise to a cluster of metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia. Plasma growth hormone levels are lower in obese patients with metabolic syndrome than in healthy subjects. Here we examined the hypothesis that exogenous growth hormone administration regulates function of adipose tissue to improve glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Twelve-week-old obese male C57BL/6 J mice received bovine growth hormone daily for 6 weeks. In epididymal fat, growth hormone treatment antagonized diet-induced changes in the gene expression of adiponectin, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and significantly increased the gene expression of interleukin-10 and CD206. Growth hormone also suppressed the accumulation of oxidative stress marker, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, in the epididymal fat and enhanced the gene expression of anti-oxidant enzymes. Moreover, growth hormone significantly restored glucose tolerance in obese mice. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, growth hormone prevented the decline in adiponectin gene expression in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that growth hormone administration ameliorates glucose intolerance in obese mice presumably by decreasing adipose mass, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation in the visceral fat. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Thyroid hormone receptors bind to defined regions of the growth hormone and placental lactogen genes.

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, J W; Voz, M L; Eliard, P H; Mathy-Harter, M; De Nayer, P; Economidis, I V; Belayew, A; Martial, J A; Rousseau, G G

    1986-01-01

    The intracellular receptor for thyroid hormone is a protein found in chromatin. Since thyroid hormone stimulates transcription of the growth hormone gene through an unknown mechanism, the hypothesis that the thyroid hormone-receptor complex interacts with defined regions of this gene has been investigated in a cell-free system. Nuclear extracts from human lymphoblastoid IM-9 cells containing thyroid hormone receptors were incubated with L-3,5,3'-tri[125I]iodothyronine and calf thymus DNA-cellulose. Restriction fragments of the human growth hormone gene were added to determine their ability to inhibit labeled receptor binding to DNA-cellulose. These fragments encompassed nucleotide sequences from about three kilobase pairs upstream to about four kilobase pairs downstream from the transcription initiation site. The thyroid hormone-receptor complex bound preferentially to the 5'-flanking sequences of the growth hormone gene in a region between nucleotide coordinates -290 and -129. The receptor also bound to an analogous promoter region in the human placental lactogen gene, which has 92% nucleotide sequence homology with the growth hormone gene. These binding regions appear to be distinct from those that are recognized by the receptor for glucocorticoids, which stimulate growth hormone gene expression synergistically with thyroid hormone. The presence of thyroid hormone was required for binding of its receptor to the growth hormone gene promoter, suggesting that thyroid hormone renders the receptor capable of recognizing specific gene regions. PMID:3466175

  4. Thyroid hormone receptors bind to defined regions of the growth hormone and placental lactogen genes.

    PubMed

    Barlow, J W; Voz, M L; Eliard, P H; Mathy-Harter, M; De Nayer, P; Economidis, I V; Belayew, A; Martial, J A; Rousseau, G G

    1986-12-01

    The intracellular receptor for thyroid hormone is a protein found in chromatin. Since thyroid hormone stimulates transcription of the growth hormone gene through an unknown mechanism, the hypothesis that the thyroid hormone-receptor complex interacts with defined regions of this gene has been investigated in a cell-free system. Nuclear extracts from human lymphoblastoid IM-9 cells containing thyroid hormone receptors were incubated with L-3,5,3'-tri[125I]iodothyronine and calf thymus DNA-cellulose. Restriction fragments of the human growth hormone gene were added to determine their ability to inhibit labeled receptor binding to DNA-cellulose. These fragments encompassed nucleotide sequences from about three kilobase pairs upstream to about four kilobase pairs downstream from the transcription initiation site. The thyroid hormone-receptor complex bound preferentially to the 5'-flanking sequences of the growth hormone gene in a region between nucleotide coordinates -290 and -129. The receptor also bound to an analogous promoter region in the human placental lactogen gene, which has 92% nucleotide sequence homology with the growth hormone gene. These binding regions appear to be distinct from those that are recognized by the receptor for glucocorticoids, which stimulate growth hormone gene expression synergistically with thyroid hormone. The presence of thyroid hormone was required for binding of its receptor to the growth hormone gene promoter, suggesting that thyroid hormone renders the receptor capable of recognizing specific gene regions.

  5. KEEPS: The Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Harman, S M; Brinton, E A; Cedars, M; Lobo, R; Manson, J E; Merriam, G R; Miller, V M; Naftolin, F; Santoro, N

    2005-03-01

    Observational studies have indicated that hormone therapy given at or after menopause is linked to substantial reduction in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. Recent findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial, however, indicate that combined estrogen plus progestin hormone therapy, as well as estrogen-alone hormone therapy (given to women without a uterus), is ineffective in preventing the new onset of cardiac events in previously healthy late menopausal women. Further, the secondary prevention trial, the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), also failed to demonstrate any benefit of initiation of hormone therapy in women with established coronary heart disease. In light of these results, a hypothesis has arisen that early initiation of hormone therapy, in women who are at the inception of their menopause, will delay the onset of subclinical cardiovascular disease in women. The rationale that earlier intervention than that performed in the WHI and HERS trials will provide cardiovascular benefit to women is the driving force behind the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study, or KEEPS. KEEPS is a multicenter, 5-year clinical trial that will evaluate the effectiveness of 0.45 mg of conjugated equine estrogens, 50 microg weekly transdermal estradiol (both in combination with cyclic oral, micronized progesterone, 200 mg for 12 days each month), and placebo in preventing progression of carotid intimal medial thickness and the accrual of coronary calcium in women aged 42-58 years who are within 36 months of their final menstrual period. A total of 720 women are planned to be enrolled in 2005, with an anticipated close-out of the trial in 2010. This overview summarizes the recruitment and methodology of the KEEPS trial.

  6. Hormonal and lactational responses to growth hormone-releasing hormone treatment in lactating Japanese Black cows.

    PubMed

    Shingu, H; Hodate, K; Kushibiki, S; Ueda, Y; Touno, E; Shinoda, M; Ohashi, S

    2004-06-01

    Ten multiparous lactating Japanese Black cows (beef breed) were used to evaluate the effects of bovine growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) analog on milk yield and profiles of plasma hormones and metabolites. The cows received 2 consecutive 21-d treatments (a daily s.c. injection of 3-mg GHRH analog or saline) in a 2 (group) x 2 (period) Latin square crossover design. The 5 cows in group A received GHRH analog during period 1 (from d 22 to 42 postpartum) and saline during period 2 (from d 57 to 77 postpartum), and those in group B received saline and GHRH analog during periods 1 and 2, respectively. Mean milk yield decreased in saline treated compared with that during the 1-wk period before treatment 7.4 and 19.1% during periods 1 (group B) and 2 (group A), respectively. Treatment with GHRH analog increased milk yield 17.4% (period 1, group A) and 6.3% (period 2, group B). Treatment with GHRH analog induced higher basal plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin, and glucose compared with saline-treated cows. In glucose challenge, the GHRH analog-treated beef cows had greater insulin secretion than the saline-treated beef cows. In insulin challenge, however, there were no significant differences in the areas surrounded by hypothetical lines of basal glucose concentrations and glucose response curves between GHRH analog- and saline-treated cows. These results demonstrate that GHRH analog treatment facilitates endogenous GH secretion in lactating Japanese Black cows, leading to increases in milk yield and plasma concentrations of IGF-1, insulin, and glucose.

  7. Dietary regulation of adiponectin by direct and indirect lipid activators of nuclear hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Rühl, R; Landrier, J F

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine mainly secreted by adipocytes that presents antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic functions. Therefore, modulation of adiponectin expression represents a promising target for prevention or treatment of several diseases including insulin resistance and type II diabetes. Pharmacological agents such as the nuclear hormone receptor synthetic agonists like peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ agonists are of particular interest in therapeutic strategies due to their ability to increase the plasma adiponectin concentration. Nutritional approaches are also of particular interest, especially in primary prevention, since some active compounds of our diet (notably vitamins, carotenoids, or other essential nutrients) are direct or indirect lipid-activators of nuclear hormone receptors and are modifiers of adiponectin expression and secretion. The aim of the present review is to summarize current knowledge about the nutritional regulation of adiponectin by derivatives of active compounds naturally present in the diet acting as indirect or direct activators of nuclear hormone receptors.

  8. Hormone symphony during root growth and development.

    PubMed

    Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; De La Paz Sánchez, María; García-Ponce, Berenice; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2012-12-01

    Hormones regulate plant growth and development in response to external environmental stimuli via complex signal transduction pathways, which in turn form complex networks of interaction. Several classes of hormones have been reported, and their activity depends on their biosynthesis, transport, conjugation, accumulation in the vacuole, and degradation. However, the activity of a given hormone is also dependent on its interaction with other hormones. Indeed, there is a complex crosstalk between hormones that regulates their biosynthesis, transport, and/or signaling functionality, although some hormones have overlapping or opposite functions. The plant root is a particularly useful system in which to study the complex role of plant hormones in the plastic control of plant development. Physiological, cellular, and molecular genetic approaches have been used to study the role of plant hormones in root meristem homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the synthesis, signaling, transport of hormones and role during root development and examine the role of hormone crosstalk in maintaining homeostasis in the apical root meristem. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sex hormones and the genesis of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Lindsay S

    2006-03-01

    The sexually dimorphic prevalence of autoimmune disease remains one of the most intriguing clinical observations among this group of disorders. While sex hormones have long been recognized for their roles in reproductive functions, within the past 2 decades scientists have found that sex hormones are integral signaling modulators of the mammalian immune system. Sex hormones have definitive roles in lymphocyte maturation, activation, and synthesis of antibodies and cytokines. Sex hormone expression is altered among patients with autoimmune disease, and this variation of expression contributes to immune dysregulation. English-language literature from the last 10 years was reviewed to examine the relationship between sex hormones and the function of the mammalian immune system. Approximately 50 publications were included in this review, and the majority were controlled trials with investigator blinding that compared both male and female diseased and normal subjects. The review provided basic knowledge regarding the broad impact of sex hormones on the immune system and how abnormal sex hormone expression contributes to the development and maintenance of autoimmune phenomena, with a focus on systemic lupus erythematosus, as models of "lupus-prone" mice are readily available. Sex hormones affect the function of the mammalian immune system, and sex hormone expression is different in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus than in healthy subjects. Sex hormones play a role in the genesis of autoimmunity. Future research may provide a therapeutic approach that is capable of altering disease pathogenesis, rather than targeting disease sequelae.

  10. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation.

    PubMed

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-06-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization or differentiated posttranslational maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and cerebral or peripheral neurons but others also in other cell types. The extraintestinal cells may release different bioactive fragments of the same prohormone due to cell-specific processing pathways. Moreover, endocrine cells, neurons, cancer cells and, for instance, spermatozoa secrete gut peptides in different ways, so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research.

  11. Preventing Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread in respiratory droplets distributed by coughing and sneezing, they readily spread from person to person. Additionally, ... and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing, you may help prevent those around you from ...

  12. Prevent Cyberbullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policies & Laws | Español Search Stopbullying.gov WHAT IS BULLYING Definition The Roles Kids Play Other Types of Aggressive Behavior CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ...

  13. Sex hormone activity in alcohol addiction: integrating organizational and activational effects.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Bernd; Müller, Christian P; Stoessel, Christina; Sperling, Wolfgang; Biermann, Teresa; Hillemacher, Thomas; Bleich, Stefan; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    There are well-known sex differences in the epidemiology and etiopathology of alcohol dependence. Male gender is a crucial risk factor for the onset of alcohol addiction. A directly modifying role of testosterone in alcohol addiction-related behavior is well established. Sex hormones exert both permanent (organizational) and transient (activational) effects on the human brain. The sensitive period for these effects lasts throughout life. In this article, we present a novel early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction. We propose that early exposure to sex hormones triggers structural (organizational) neuroadaptations. These neuroadaptations affect cellular and behavioral responses to adult sex hormones, sensitize the brain's reward system to the reinforcing properties of alcohol and modulate alcohol addictive behavior later in life. This review outlines clinical findings related to the early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction (handedness, the second-to-fourth-finger length ratio, and the androgen receptor and aromatase) and includes clinical and preclinical literature regarding the activational effects of sex hormones in alcohol drinking behavior. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axes and the opioid system in mediating the relationship between sex hormone activity and alcohol dependence. We conclude that a combination of exposure to sex hormones in utero and during early development contributes to the risk of alcohol addiction later in life. The early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex steroid hormone levels in breast adipose tissue and serum in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Falk, Roni T; Gentzschein, Elisabet; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D; Ioffe, Olga B; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A; Sherman, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of circulating estrogens and androgens are linked to higher breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women; however, little is known about hormone levels within the breast. Hormone concentrations within the breast may not be reflected in the blood and are likely important contributors to breast carcinogenesis. We used a previously validated method to measure levels of estrone, estradiol, androstenedione, and testosterone in adipose tissue removed as part of breast excisions performed for cancer in 100 postmenopausal women (69 ER/PR +/+ and 31 ER/PR -/-) participating in a breast cancer case-control study. We also measured the same steroid hormones, as well as estrone sulfate, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in serum from these patients and 100 controls matched on ages at blood collection and on menopause. Overall, concentrations of serum hormones did not vary significantly between controls and cases. However, women with ER-/PR- breast cancers had lower circulating levels of all measured sex steroid hormones and higher SHBG levels than women with ER+/PR+ breast cancers and controls. Similarly, hormone concentrations in breast adipose tissue were higher among women with ER+/PR+ compared to ER-/PR- breast cancer, although differences were only significant for testosterone. These data demonstrate that high sex steroid concentrations in both serum and adipose tissues are more strongly related to ER+/PR+ than ER-/PR- breast cancers. Measurement of sex hormones in serum and in the microenvironment may help in understanding the hormonal etiology of breast cancer, suggest methods for prevention, and have value in gauging treatment response and prognosis.

  15. Brief Report: Dapivirine Vaginal Ring Use Does Not Diminish the Effectiveness of Hormonal Contraception.

    PubMed

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Reddy, Krishnaveni; Siva, Samantha; Harkoo, Ishana; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Kintu, Kenneth; Nair, Gonasangrie; Chappell, Catherine; Kiweewa, Flavia Matovu; Kabwigu, Samuel; Naidoo, Logashvari; Jeenarain, Nitesha; Marzinke, Mark; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Brown, Elizabeth R; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the potential for a clinically relevant drug-drug interaction with concomitant use of a dapivirine vaginal ring, a novel antiretroviral-based HIV-1 prevention strategy, and hormonal contraception by examining contraceptive efficacies with and without dapivirine ring use. A secondary analysis of women participating in MTN-020/ASPIRE, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV-1 prevention. Use of a highly effective method of contraception was an eligibility criterion for study participation. Urine pregnancy tests were performed monthly. Pregnancy incidence by arm was calculated separately for each hormonal contraceptive method and compared using an Andersen-Gill proportional hazards model stratified by site and censored at HIV-1 infection. Of 2629 women enrolled, 2310 women returned for follow-up and reported using a hormonal contraceptive method at any point during study participation (1139 in the dapivirine arm and 1171 in the placebo arm). Pregnancy incidence in the dapivirine arm versus placebo among women using injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate was 0.43% vs. 0.54%, among women using injectable norethisterone enanthate was 1.15% vs. 0%, among women using hormonal implants was 0.22% vs. 0.69%, and among women using oral contraceptive pills was 32.26% vs. 28.01%. Pregnancy incidence did not differ by study arm for any of the hormonal contraceptive methods. Use of the dapivirine ring does not reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives for pregnancy prevention. Oral contraceptive pill use was associated with high pregnancy incidence, potentially because of poor pill adherence. Injectable and implantable methods were highly effective in preventing pregnancy.

  16. The acute effects of preoperative ozone theraphy on surgical wound healing.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Hasan; Simsek, Tuncer; Turkon, Hakan; Kalkan, Yıldıray; Ozkul, Faruk; Ozkan, M Turgut Alper; Erbas, Mesut; Altinisik, Ugur; Demiraran, Yavuz

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of preoperative rectal ozone insufflation on surgical wound healing over the proinflammatory cytokines and histopathological changes. Twenty one rabbits were divided into 3 groups. Sham, surgical wound, and ozone applied (6 sessions, every other day 70 µg/mL in 12 mL O2-O3 mixture rectally) surgical wound groups were created. TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels from all rabbits were studied at the basal, 24th hour, and 72nd hour. The histopathological examination was done by removing the surgical scar tissue at the end of 72nd hour. TNF-alfa and IL-6 levels were significantly lower compared to the control group, in the rabbits treated with ozone. The increase in angiogenesis, the decrease in the number of inflammatory cells, epidermal and dermal regeneration, better collagen deposition, and increased keratinisation in stratum corneum were observed in the histopathological examination. It was determined that the wound healing noticeably accelerated in the ozone group. Preoperative rectal ozone insufflation had a positive effect on surgical wound healing in acute period.

  17. [Extended voriconazole theraphy and long term survival of a patient with invasive central aspergillosis causing stroke].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Tomoko; Shiraishi, Shoichi; Iwasa, Naoki; Kitamura, Emi; Mizutani, Tetsu; Hanada, Yukiko; Yanagihara, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis with stroke has a high mortality and poor prognosis generally. We report a 78-years-old woman with diabetes mellitus, who developed invasive paranasal sinus aspergillosis with the orbital apex syndrome on the right side and cerebral infarction caused by intracranial occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. Based on the presence of a mass lesion in the ethmoid sinus extending to the orbital apex on the right side with cranial CT, the mass lesion was surgically removed and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed aspergillus mold. Immediately after surgery, we initiated treatment with voriconazole 200 mg × 2/day intravenously for 38 days, and then via feeding tube for 86 days until the galactomannan-aspergillus antigen level in the cerebrospinal fluid became negative at 132 days. She is alive now for almost two years without relapse of aspergillosis. There is no definitive guideline for management of patients with CNS aspergillosis concerning the length of drug treatment and the method for monitoring the response for treatment. We believe that measurement of the galactomannan-aspergillus antigen level in the cerebrospinal fluid might be a useful way of monitoring the efficacy of treatment for CNS aspergillosis.

  18. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Tuppurainen, Marjo; Rikkonen, Toni; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka; Kröger, Heikki; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore the association between postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: Twenty-year follow-up data from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study cohort were used. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to all women aged 47–56 years, residing in Kuopio Province starting in 1989 until 2009, every 5th year. Register-based information on HT prescriptions was available since 1995. Probable AD cases, based on DSM-IV and National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke–Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria, were identified from the special reimbursement register (1999–2009). The study population included 8,195 women (227 cases of incident AD). Results: Postmenopausal estrogen use was not associated with AD risk in register-based or self-reported data (hazard ratio/95% confidence interval 0.92/0.68–1.2, 0.99/0.75–1.3, respectively). Long-term self-reported postmenopausal HT was associated with reduced AD risk (0.53/0.31–0.91). Similar results were obtained with any dementia diagnosis in the hospital discharge register as an outcome. Conclusions: Our results do not provide strong evidence for a protective association between postmenopausal HT use and AD or dementia, although we observed a reduced AD risk among those with long-term self-reported HT use. PMID:28202700

  19. Expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in fibroadenomas of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lenicek, Tanja; Kasumović, Dino; Stajduhar, Emil; Dzombeta, Tihana; Jukić, Zoran; Kruslin, Bozo

    2013-06-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most prevalent benign breast tumor. It consists of epithelial and stromal components. In general, breast tumors are highly hormonally dependent and growth hormone by its physiology may have a possible oncogenic potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in epithelial and stromal components of fibroadenomas. Study group included 30 randomly chosen fibroadenomas from female patients aged between 18 and 69 years. The expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor was defined in both histologic components of fibroadenomas. Growth hormone was expressed in 96.7% of both epithelial and stromal components of fibroadenomas, with stronger expression in the stromal component. The same percentage of positive reaction (96.7%) was obtained in the epithelial component of fibroadenomas for growth hormone receptor expression. Only 6.7% of stromal components tested for growth hormone receptor were positive. The high expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in fibroadenoma tissue indicates their possible role in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Follow up of patients with high expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor may be suggested.

  20. Evaluating the function of putative hormone transporters

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Burkhard; Murphy, Angus S

    2009-01-01

    Hormones typically serve as long distance signaling molecules. To reach their site of action, hormones need to be transported from the sites of synthesis. Many plant hormones are mobile, thus requiring specific transport systems for the export from their source cells as well as subsequent import into target cells. Hormone transport in general is still poorly understood. Auxin is probably the most intensively studied plant hormone concerning transport in the moment. To advance our understanding of hormone transport we need two principal data sets: information on the properties of the transport systems including substrate specificity and kinetics, and we need to identify candidate genes for the respective transporters. Physiological transport data can provide an important basis for identifying and characterizing candidate transporters and to define their in vivo role. A recent publication in Plant Physiology highlights how kinetic and specificity studies may help to identify cytokinin transporters.1 PMID:19649195

  1. Evaluating the function of putative hormone transporters.

    PubMed

    Frommer, Wolf B; Schulz, Burkhard; Murphy, Angus S

    2009-02-01

    Hormones typically serve as long distance signaling molecules. To reach their site of action, hormones need to be transported from the sites of synthesis. Many plant hormones are mobile, thus requiring specific transport systems for the export from their source cells as well as subsequent import into target cells. Hormone transport in general is still poorly understood. Auxin is probably the most intensively studied plant hormone concerning transport in the moment. To advance our understanding of hormone transport we need two principal data sets: information on the properties of the transport systems including substrate specificity and kinetics, and we need to identify candidate genes for the respective transporters. Physiological transport data can provide an important basis for identifying and characterizing candidate transporters and to define their in vivo role. A recent publication in Plant Physiology highlights how kinetic and specificity studies may help to identify cytokinin transporters.

  2. Thyroid hormone resistance and its management

    PubMed Central

    Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    The syndrome of impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone, also known as syndrome of thyroid hormone resistance, is an inherited condition that occurs in 1 of 40,000 live births characterized by a reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone due to mutations on the thyroid hormone receptor. Patients can present with symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. They usually have elevated thyroid hormones and a normal or elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. Due to their nonspecific symptomatic presentation, these patients can be misdiagnosed if the primary care physician is not familiar with the condition. This can result in frustration for the patient and sometimes unnecessary invasive treatment such as radioactive iodine ablation, as in the case presented herein. PMID:27034574

  3. Do hormones influence melanoma? Facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amie; Driscoll, Marcia S

    2010-01-01

    The issue of whether hormones influence malignant melanoma (MM) has been controversial for many years. Although early case reports demonstrated a negative effect of hormones, recent evidence has not supported a potential role for hormones in MM. We address whether exogenous and endogenous hormones influence a woman's risk for MM or affect her prognosis if diagnosed with MM. Multiple epidemiologic studies show the use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy does not appear to increase a woman's risk for MM. Pregnancy does not appear to influence a woman's risk of MM, nor does pregnancy appear to affect prognosis in the woman diagnosed with MM. When counseling the woman who is diagnosed with MM during pregnancy or during the childbearing years, future use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy is not contraindicated; counseling concerning future pregnancies should be done on a case-by-case basis, with emphasis placed on established prognostic factors for MM.

  4. Hormones and sexual orientation: a questionable link.

    PubMed

    Banks, A; Gartrell, N K

    1995-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the studies which explore a possible causal relationship between sex hormones and the development of sexual orientation. Early studies focused on hormone measurements in adult men and women. While definitive interpretations are hindered by methodological problems, the studies as a whole do not support a causal relationship between postnatal hormone levels and sexual orientation. More recently, a theory that prenatal hormone levels produce varying degrees of brain androgenization and subsequent dimorphic sex role behavior has consistently been supported by studies in lower mammals. Attempts to generalize the causes of sexual orientation from animals to humans have been controversial. Efforts to measure the estrogen feedback as an indication of brain androgenization have produced inconsistent results. Studies of men and women who experienced defect in hormone metabolism (i.e., CAH and testicular feminization) have not found a concurrent increase in homosexual behavior. Overall, the data do not support a causal connection between hormones and human sexual orientation.

  5. Endocrine disruptors and thyroid hormone physiology.

    PubMed

    Jugan, Mary-Line; Levi, Yves; Blondeau, Jean-Paul

    2010-04-01

    Endocrine disruptors are man-made chemicals that can disrupt the synthesis, circulating levels, and peripheral action of hormones. The disruption of sex hormones was subject of intensive research, but thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling are now also recognized as important targets of endocrine disruptors. The neurological development of mammals is largely dependent on normal thyroid hormone homeostasis, and it is likely to be particularly sensitive to disruption of the thyroid axis. Here, we survey the main thyroid-disrupting chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, perchlorates, and brominated flame-retardants, that are characteristic disruptors of thyroid hormone homeostasis, and look at their suspected relationships to impaired development of the human central nervous system. The review then focuses on disrupting mechanisms known to be directly or indirectly related to the transcriptional activity of the thyroid hormone receptors.

  6. Gut hormones and obesity: physiology and therapies.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rebecca; Tan, Tricia; Bloom, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, it has been established that hormones produced by the gut, pancreas, and adipose tissue are key players in the control of body weight. These hormones act through a complex neuroendocrine system, including the hypothalamus, to regulate metabolism and energy homeostasis. In obesity, this homeostatic balance is disrupted, either through alterations in the levels of these hormones or through resistance to their actions. Alterations in gut hormone secretion following gastric bypass surgery are likely to underlie the dramatic and persistent loss of weight following this procedure, as well as the observed amelioration in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Medications based on the gut hormone GLP-1 are currently in clinical use to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus and have been shown to produce weight loss. Further therapies for obesity based on other gut hormones are currently in development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia

    SciTech Connect

    Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

  8. Hormonal regulation of fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, C; Le Bouc, Y

    2006-01-01

    Fetal growth is a complex process depending on the genetics of the fetus, the availability of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, maternal nutrition and various growth factors and hormones of maternal, fetal and placental origin. Hormones play a central role in regulating fetal growth and development. They act as maturational and nutritional signals in utero and control tissue development and differentiation according to the prevailing environmental conditions in the fetus. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, and IGF-I and IGF-II in particular, plays a critical role in fetal and placental growth throughout gestation. Disruption of the IGF1, IGF2 or IGF1R gene retards fetal growth, whereas disruption of IGF2R or overexpression of IGF2 enhances fetal growth. IGF-I stimulates fetal growth when nutrients are available, thereby ensuring that fetal growth is appropriate for the nutrient supply. The production of IGF-I is particularly sensitive to undernutrition. IGF-II plays a key role in placental growth and nutrient transfer. Several key hormone genes involved in embryonic and fetal growth are imprinted. Disruption of this imprinting causes disorders involving growth defects, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, which is associated with fetal overgrowth, or Silver-Russell syndrome, which is associated with intrauterine growth retardation. Optimal fetal growth is essential for perinatal survival and has long-term consequences extending into adulthood. Given the high incidence of intrauterine growth retardation and the high risk of metabolic and cardiovascular complications in later life, further clinical and basic research is needed to develop accurate early diagnosis of aberrant fetal growth and novel therapeutic strategies.

  9. Hormonal therapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Labrie, Fernand

    2010-01-01

    Of all cancers, prostate cancer is the most sensitive to hormones: it is thus very important to take advantage of this unique property and to always use optimal androgen blockade when hormone therapy is the appropriate treatment. A fundamental observation is that the serum testosterone concentration only reflects the amount of testosterone of testicular origin which is released in the blood from which it reaches all tissues. Recent data show, however, that an approximately equal amount of testosterone is made from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) directly in the peripheral tissues, including the prostate, and does not appear in the blood. Consequently, after castration, the 95-97% fall in serum testosterone does not reflect the 40-50% testosterone (testo) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) made locally in the prostate from DHEA of adrenal origin. In fact, while elimination of testicular androgens by castration alone has never been shown to prolong life in metastatic prostate cancer, combination of castration (surgical or medical with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist) with a pure anti-androgen has been the first treatment shown to prolong life. Most importantly, when applied at the localized stage, the same combined androgen blockade (CAB) can provide long-term control or cure of the disease in more than 90% of cases. Obviously, since prostate cancer usually grows and metastasizes without signs or symptoms, screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is absolutely needed to diagnose prostate cancer at an 'early' stage before metastasis occurs and the cancer becomes non-curable. While the role of androgens was believed to have become non-significant in cancer progressing under any form of androgen blockade, recent data have shown increased expression of the androgen receptor (AR) in treatment-resistant disease with a benefit of further androgen blockade. Since the available anti-androgens have low affinity for AR and cannot block androgen action completely

  10. Inhibitors of plant hormone transport.

    PubMed

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Zažímalová, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Here we present an overview of what is known about endogenous plant compounds that act as inhibitors of hormonal transport processes in plants, about their identity and mechanism of action. We have also summarized commonly and less commonly used compounds of non-plant origin and synthetic drugs that show at least partial 'specificity' to transport or transporters of particular phytohormones. Our main attention is focused on the inhibitors of auxin transport. The urgent need to understand precisely the molecular mechanism of action of these inhibitors is highlighted.

  11. [Hormonal therapy in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Espinós, J; Reyna, C; de la Cruz, S; Oiler, C; Hernández, A; Fernández Hidalgo, O; Santisteban, M; García Foncillas, J

    2008-01-01

    Hormonal therapy has been the first systemic treatment against breast cancer. Up to now Tamoxifen and ovarian supression/ablation were the best optionts we had to treat early breast cancer as advancer disease. The advent of aromatase inhibitors, new SERMS and antistrogen Fulvestrant have supoused a great advance in the treatment of this disease and at the same time have complicated the election of the optimal drug for each patient. This article tries to review the aviable treatment options insiting on its indications.

  12. Sexual hormone fluctuation in chinchillas.

    PubMed

    Celiberti, Simone; Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Peric, Tanja; Melillo, Alessandro; Robbe, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The data about chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger) reproduction are limited and in some cases discordant. The aim of this study was to monitor the sexual hormone fluctuation by fecal progesterone level and colpocytology analysis by vaginal smears in order to evaluate the different phases of the oestrus cycle. Twenty-four non pregnant chinchillas aged from 1 to 4 years old and subdivided in three groups were monitored. In contrast with findings reported in other study, the high values of progesterone recorded in autumn suggested the presence of a ciclicity also in this period. The data indicate that chinchilla presents a continuous cycle.

  13. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdulkareem, I H; Zurmi, I B

    2012-01-01

    This critical review focuses on the role of steroid hormones and their receptors in the development and treatment of breast cancer, with special reference to estrogen receptors, as well as mechanisms of receptor-ligand interactions, response or resistance to hormonal therapy against breast cancer, in conjunction with other modalities like surgery and chemotherapy. Tamoxifen is used in hormonal treatment of breast cancer for up to five years, depending on the presentation. However, there have been recent developments in hormonal therapy of breast cancer in the last ten years, with the introduction of many different alternative therapies for this condition. A critical review of published articles in Pubmed/Medline, Athens, AJOL, NHS Evidence, Science Direct and Google, relating to hormonal treatment of breast cancer, was undertaken, in order to evaluate the mechanisms of estrogen receptor-ligand interactions, their involvement in the etio-pathogenesis of breast cancer, resistance of breast cancer cells to anti-hormonal agents, as well as ways of treating breast cancer using anti-hormone drugs like tamoxifen. Although tamoxifen is the established drug for hormonal treatment of breast cancer, cases of hormone resistance breast cancer have been described recently in the literature. This can happen from the beginning, or during treatment. Therefore, we aim to examine the causes of resistance to hormonal treatment with a view to understand the options of tackling this problem, and suggest other novel alternative hormonal therapies that can be tried, which may overtake tamoxifen in the future. We also seek to emphasize that hormonal therapy has a definite place in the treatment of breast cancer along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as the disease is often considered to be multi-systemic even from the beginning.

  14. Steroid Hormones in NF1 Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    hypothesis is that human neurofibroma (and/or MPNST ) Schwann cells have increased hormone response compared to normal Schwann cells, leading to tumor...growth. Specific Aim 1 will determine steroid hormone receptor expression in human normal, NFl neurofibroma and MPNST Schwann cells. Real-time PCR has...and rat Schwann cells, as well as an MPNST line so far (which showed no proliferative response) Specific Aim 3 involves in vivo hormone response of

  15. Isolated growth hormone deficiency type 2: from gene to therapy.

    PubMed

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Lochmatter, Didier; Pektovic, Vibor; Mullis, Primus-E

    2012-01-01

    Isolated growth hormone deficiency type-2 (IGHD-2), the autosomal-dominant form of GH deficiency, is mainly caused by specific splicing mutations in the human growth hormone (hGH) gene (GH-1). These mutations, occurring in and around exon 3, cause complete exon 3 skipping and produce a dominant-negative 17.5 kD GH isoform that reduces the accumulation and secretion of wild type-GH (wt-GH). At present, patients suffering from IGHD-2 are treated with daily injections of recombinant human GH (rhGH) in order to reach normal height. However, this type of replacement therapy, although effective in terms of growth, does not prevent toxic effects of the 17.5-kD mutant on the pituitary gland, which can eventually lead to other hormonal deficiencies. Considering a well-known correlation between the clinical severity observed in IGHD-2 patients and the increased expression of the 17.5-kD isoform, therapies that specifically target this isoform may be useful in patients with GH-1 splicing defects. This chapter focuses on molecular strategies that could represent future directions for IGHD-2 treatment.

  16. Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly.

    PubMed

    Herman, W S; Tatar, M

    2001-12-22

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to March while their summer counterparts are likely to live less than two months as adults. Migrant adults persist during a state of reproductive diapause in which both male and female reproductive development is arrested as a consequence of suppressed synthesis of juvenile hormone. Here, we describe survival in monarch butterflies as a function of the migrant syndrome. We show that migrant adults are longer lived than summer adults when each are maintained under standard laboratory conditions, that the longevity of migrant adults is curtailed by treatment with juvenile hormone and that the longevity of summer adults is increased by 100% when juvenile hormone synthesis is prevented by surgical removal of its source, the corpora allatum. Thus, monarch butterfly persistence through a long winter season is ensured in part by reduced ageing that is under endocrine regulation, as well as by the unique environmental properties of their winter roost sites. Phenotypic plasticity for ageing is an integral component of the monarch butterflies' migration-diapause syndrome.

  17. Basic understanding of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-agonist triggering.

    PubMed

    Casper, Robert F

    2015-04-01

    A single bolus of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at midcycle has been the gold standard for triggering final oocyte maturation and ovulation in assisted reproductive technology cycles. More recently, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-agonist (GnRH-a) triggering has been introduced. The GnRH-a trigger may allow a more physiologic surge of both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone, although whether the combined surge will result in improved oocyte and embryo quality remains to be seen. However, the short duration of the LH surge with the GnRH-a trigger (approximately 34 hours) has been shown to be beneficial for preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in GnRH antagonist in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles when compared with the prolonged elevation of hCG (≥6 days) after exposure to an hCG bolus. This review discusses the physiologic basis for the use of a GnRH-a trigger in IVF cycles.

  18. The effect of hormones on the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dudley; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Cardozo, Linda

    2013-12-01

    The female genital and lower urinary tracts share a common embryological origin, arising from the urogenital sinus and both are sensitive to the effects of the female sex steroid hormones throughout life. Estrogen is known to have an important role in the function of the lower urinary tract and estrogen and progesterone receptors have been demonstrated in the vagina, urethra, bladder and pelvic floor musculature. In addition estrogen deficiency occurring following the menopause is known to cause atrophic change and may be associated with lower urinary tract symptoms such as frequency, urgency, nocturia, urgency incontinence and recurrent infection. These may also co-exist with symptoms of urogenital atrophy such as dyspareunia, itching, vaginal burning and dryness. Epidemiological studies have implicated estrogen deficiency in the aetiology of lower urinary tract symptoms with 70% of women relating the onset of urinary incontinence to their final menstrual period. Whilst for many years systemic and vaginal estrogen therapy was felt to be beneficial in the treatment of lower urinary and genital tract symptoms this evidence has recently been challenged by large epidemiological studies investigating the use of systemic hormone replacement therapy as primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of the sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on the lower urinary tract and to review the current evidence regarding the role of systemic and vaginal estrogens in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms and urogenital atrophy.

  19. [Delirium Prevention].

    PubMed

    Restrepo Bernal, Diana; Niño García, Jorge Andrés; Ortiz Estévez, Daniel Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Delirium is the most prevalent neuropsychiatric syndrome in the general hospital. Its presence is a marker of poor prognosis for patients. Its prevention could be the most effective strategy for reducing its frequency and its complications. To review recent findings and strategies for the prevention of delirium. A non-systematic review of scientific articles published in the last ten years in Spanish and English. A search was made in databases such as MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, Ovid, and ScienceDirect, for articles that included the terms, delirium and prevention. Identification of predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium and a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the onset of delirium have enabled the implementation of various pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies in patients at high risk to develop hospital delirium. The studies to prevent delirium have focused on surgical patients. The current evidence supports the daily implementation of non-pharmacological measures to prevent delirium, as they are easy and cost effective. The available evidence is still limited to recommend the daily use of pharmacological strategies in delirium prophylaxis, and there is a consensus against the modest use of antipsychotic drugs in surgical patients and dexmedetomidine in patients in intensive care. New high-quality clinical trials and studies involving non-surgical patients are needed to provide more evidence about this subject. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effect of combined hormonal oral contraception on the somatic and psychic status of women of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Vertkin, A L; Nosova, A V

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the topical problem of maintaining somatic and psychic health of the women of reproductive age by rational pregnancy planning and prevention of abortions by modern methods of contraception including combined oral hormonal contraception. Unfortunately, this approach is rarely employed in this country (5-6%). Results of retrospective analysis of medical documentation, clinical efficacy and safety of modern combined oral hormonal contraception are presented.

  1. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

    PubMed Central

    Litsas, George

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the regulation of bone remodeling, muscle enhancement and tooth development. In this paper the influence of growth hormone on oral tissues is reviewed. PMID:25674165

  2. Thyroid hormone transporters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takehiro; Abe, Takaaki

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid hormone plays an essential role in proper mammalian development of the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Lack of sufficient thyroid hormone results in abnormal development of virtually all organ systems, a syndrome termed cretinism. In particular, hypothyroidism in the neonatal period causes serious damage to neural cells and leads to mental retardation. Although thyroxine is the major product secreted by the thyroid follicular cells, the action of thyroid hormone is mediated mainly through the deiodination of T(4) to the biologically active form 3,3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine, followed by the binding of T(3) to a specific nuclear receptor. Before reaching the intracellular targets, thyroid hormone must cross the plasma membrane. Because of the lipophilic nature of thyroid hormone, it was thought that they traversed the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. However, in the past decade, a membrane transport system for thyroid hormone has been postulated to exist in various tissues. Several classes of transporters, organic anion transporter polypeptide (oatp) family, Na(+)/Taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (ntcp) and amino acid transporters have been reported to transport thyroid hormones. Monocarboxylate transporter8 (MCT8) has recently been identified as an active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Mutations in MCT8 are associated with severe X-linked psycomotor retardation and strongly elevated serum T3 levels in young male patients. Several other molecules should be contributed to exert the role of thyroid hormone in the central nervous system.

  3. Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2012-03-01

    Thyroid hormone has profound effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. This article describes the cellular mechanisms by which thyroid hormone acts at the level of the cardiac myocyte and the vascular smooth muscle cell to alter phenotype and physiology. Because it is well established that thyroid hormone, specifically T(3), acts on almost every cell and organ in the body, studies on the regulation of thyroid hormone transport into cardiac and vascular tissue have added clinical significance. The characteristic changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics and metabolism that accompany thyroid disease states can then be best understood at the cellular level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hormone cross-talk during seed germination.

    PubMed

    Gazzarrini, Sonia; Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Hormones are chemical substances that can affect many cellular and developmental processes at low concentrations. Plant hormones co-ordinate growth and development at almost all stages of the plant's life cycle by integrating endogenous signals and environmental cues. Much debate in hormone biology revolves around specificity and redundancy of hormone signalling. Genetic and molecular studies have shown that these small molecules can affect a given process through a signalling pathway that is specific for each hormone. However, classical physiological and genetic studies have also demonstrated that the same biological process can be regulated by many hormones through independent pathways (co-regulation) or shared pathways (cross-talk or cross-regulation). Interactions between hormone pathways are spatiotemporally controlled and thus can vary depending on the stage of development or the organ being considered. In this chapter we discuss interactions between abscisic acid, gibberellic acid and ethylene in the regulation of seed germination as an example of hormone cross-talk. We also consider hormone interactions in response to environmental signals, in particular light and temperature. We focus our discussion on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  5. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie

    2015-03-01

    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  6. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  7. Long-term medical management of endometriosis with dienogest and with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and add-back hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Bedaiwy, Mohamed A; Allaire, Catherine; Alfaraj, Sukinah

    2017-03-01

    Endometriosis can recur after either surgical or medical therapy. Long-term medical therapy is implemented to treat symptoms or prevent recurrence. Dienogest and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues with hormone add-back therapy seem to be equally effective for long-term treatment of pain symptoms associated with endometriosis. There is insufficient evidence to support the superiority of one therapy over the other. However, add-back hormone therapy (HT) is recommended for patients using GnRH agonists. The treatment selection depends on therapeutic effectiveness, tolerability, drug cost, the physician's experience, and expected patient compliance. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  9. Thyroid hormone deiodination in fish.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Aurea; Valverde-R, Carlos

    2005-08-01

    We review the experimental evidence accumulated within the past decade regarding the physiologic, biochemical, and molecular characterization of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs) in piscine species. Agnathans, chondrichthyes, and teleosts express the three isotypes of IDs: ID1, ID2, and ID3, which are responsible for the peripheral fine-tuning of thyroid hormone (TH) bioactivity. At the molecular and operational level, fish IDs share properties with their corresponding vertebrate counterparts. However, fish IDs also exhibit discrete features that seem to be distinctive for piscine species. Indeed, teleostean ID1 is conspicuously resistant to propylthiouracil (PTU) inhibition, and its response to thyroidal status differs from that exhibited by other ID1s. Moreover, both the high level of ID2 activity and its expression in the liver of teleosts are unique among vertebrates. The physiologic role of iodothyronine deiodination in functions regulated by TH in fish is not entirely clear. Nevertheless, current experimental evidence suggests that IDs may coordinate and facilitate, in a tissue-specific fashion, the action of iodothyronines and other hormones involved in such processes.

  10. Natriuretic Hormones in Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Hodes, Anastasia; Lichtstein, David

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic hormones (NH) include three groups of compounds: the natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP), the gastrointestinal peptides (guanylin and uroguanylin), and endogenous cardiac steroids. These substances induce the kidney to excrete sodium and therefore participate in the regulation of sodium and water homeostasis, blood volume, and blood pressure (BP). In addition to their peripheral functions, these hormones act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain. In this review, the established information on the biosynthesis, release and function of NH is discussed, with particular focus on their role in brain function. The available literature on the expression patterns of each of the NH and their receptors in the brain is summarized, followed by the evidence for their roles in modulating brain function. Although numerous open questions exist regarding this issue, the available data support the notion that NH participate in the central regulation of BP, neuroprotection, satiety, and various psychiatric conditions, including anxiety, addiction, and depressive disorders. In addition, the interactions between the different NH in the periphery and the brain are discussed. PMID:25506340

  11. Thyroid hormone biosynthesis and release.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Denise P; Dupuy, Corinne

    2017-01-31

    Thyroid hormones (TH) 3,5,3',5'- tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'- triiodothyronine (T3) contain iodine atoms as part of their structure, and their synthesis occur in the unique structures called thyroid follicles. Iodide reaches thyroid cells through the bloodstream that supplies the basolateral plasma membrane of thyrocytes, where it is avidly taken up through the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). Thyrocytes are also specialized in the secretion of the high molecular weight protein thyroglobulin (TG) in the follicular lumen. The iodination of the tyrosyl residues of TG preceeds TH biosynthesis, which depends on the interaction of iodide, TG, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) at the apical plasma membrane of thyrocytes. Thyroid hormone biosynthesis is under the tonic control of thyrotropin (TSH), while the iodide recycling ability is very important for normal thyroid function. We discuss herein the biochemical aspects of TH biosynthesis and release, highlighting the novel molecules involved in the process.

  12. [Hormones and parturition in primates].

    PubMed

    Germain, G; Ferre, F

    1987-01-01

    In primates, the endocrine signals which correlate with the end of gestation, i.e. account for fetal maturity, and initiate the parturition, i.e. trigger the myometrium contractility, remain unknown. Direct and indirect evidence supports the view that, as with domestic mammals, progesterone (or the estrogen/-progesterone ratio) plays a prominent role in inhibiting the contractility of the pregnant uterus. In the past few years an increasing number of endocrine factors have been identified in the placenta. They may contribute to the control of local or systemic steroid production but their effects are extraordinarily intermingled and it is impossible today to state whether any of them are relevant to the mechanism of parturition. The trophoblast and the myometrium establish close contact in the primate pregnancy. This is evidenced by histological studies and also by the influence of the proximity of the placenta on tissue steroid concentrations and the mechanisms of hormone coupling in the myometrium. Specific types or subtypes of myometrium hormone receptors are now well identified (e.g. to oxytocin, to catecholamines) and this now permits a better understanding of the role of their endogenous agonists in the course of parturition. However, such data are still lacking for other factors (e.g. prostanoids, VIP, relaxin...) involved to varying degrees in this process.

  13. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta C; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F

    2010-09-12

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation.

  14. Bromine and thyroid hormone activity.

    PubMed Central

    Allain, P; Berre, S; Krari, N; Laine, P; Barbot, N; Rohmer, V; Bigorgne, J C

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To examine the possible consequences of high plasma concentrations of bromine on thyroid hormone. METHODS--Bromine was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the plasma of 799 patients consulting for thyroid disorders. Because the mean (SD) bromine concentration in the plasma of healthy subjects is 4 (1) mg/l, concentrations above 6 mg/l were regarded as outside the normal range. Bromine, free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) values were compared. RESULTS--The percentage of patients with normal, low, and high FT4 and TSH plasma activities, measured separately, did not differ between patients with low and high bromine concentrations. The percentage of patients with high TSH but normal FT4 values was significantly higher in the group with bromine values of more than 6 mg/l than in the group with bromine concentrations below this (p < 0.02). CONCLUSION--An increase in plasma bromine could potentiate an increase in plasma TSH concentration, probably as a consequence of a minor inhibitory effect on thyroid activity. PMID:8320326

  15. Alligators, contaminants and steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Guillette, Louis J; Edwards, Thea M; Moore, Brandon C

    2007-01-01

    Steroids are essential for successful reproduction in all vertebrate species. Over the last several decades, extensive research has indicated that exposure to various environmental pollutants can disrupt steroidogenesis and steroid signaling. Although steroidogenesis is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, it is also modified by various paracrine and autocrine factors. Furthermore, the classical two-cell model of steroidogenesis in the developing ovarian follicle, involving the granulosa and theca cells in mammals, may not be universal. Instead, birds and probably reptiles use the two thecal compartments (theca interna and theca externa) as sites of steroid production. We have documented that embryonic or juvenile exposure to a complex mixture of contaminants from agricultural and storm water runoff leads to altered steroid hormone profiles in American alligators. Our observations suggest that alterations in plasma steroid hormone concentrations are due in part to altered gene expression, modified hepatic biotransformation and altered gonadal steroidogenesis. Future studies must examine the interplay between endocrine and paracrine regulation in the development and expression of gonadal steroidogenesis in individuals exposed to endocrine disrupting contaminants at various life stages if we are to fully understand potential detrimental outcomes.

  16. Hormones as doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

  17. Interrelationship between feeding level and the metabolic hormones leptin, ghrelin and obestatin in control of chicken egg laying and release of ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Grossmann, Roland

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present experiment is to examine the role of nutritional status, metabolic hormones and their interrelationships in the control of chicken ovarian ovulatory and secretory activity. For this purpose, we identified the effect of food restriction, administration of leptin, ghrelin 1-18, obestatin and combinations of food restriction with these hormones for 3days on chicken ovulation (egg laying) rate and ovarian hormone release. The release of progesterone (P), testosterone (T), estradiol (E) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by isolated and cultured ovarian fragments was determined by EIA. It was observed that food restriction significantly reduced the egg-laying rate, T, E and AVT release and promoted P output by ovarian fragments. Leptin, administrated to ad libitum-fed chickens, did not change these parameters besides promoting E release. Nevertheless, administration of leptin was able to prevent the effect of food restriction on ovulation, T and E (but not P or AVT) release. Ghrelin 1-18 administration to ad libitum-fed birds did not affect the measured parameters besides a reduction in P release. Ghrelin 1-18 administration prevented the food restriction-induced decrease in ovarian T, E and AVT, but it did not change P output or egg laying. Obestatin administrated to control chicken promoted their ovarian P, E and inhibited ovarian AVT release but did not affect egg laying. It was able to promote the effect of food restriction on P, T and AVT, but not E release or egg laying. Our results (1) confirm an inhibitory effect of food restriction on chicken ovulation rate; (2) shows that food restriction-induced reduction in egg laying is associated with a decrease in ovarian T, E and AVT and an increase in ovarian P release; (3) confirm the involvement of metabolic hormones leptin, ghrelin and obestatin in the control of chicken ovarian hormones output; and (4) the ability of metabolic hormones to mimic/antagonize or prevent/promote the effects of food

  18. Topographical localization of the receptors for luteinizing hormone- releasing hormone on the surface of dissociated pituitary cells

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    A derivative of the hypothalamic peptide luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) has been coupled to ferritin and the conjugate purified by gel chromatography. In its ability to stimulate the secretion of luteinizing hormone from pituitary cells in vitro, the conjugate has the same potency and specificity as the native peptide. When dissociated pituitary cells maintained in short-term culture are lightly fixed with formaldehyde and then incubated with the conjugate, examination in the electron microscope shows an even distribution of ferritin particles over the free cell surface of the gonadotrophin cells. This binding appears to be specific for the LHRH receptor since it is prevented by a 10-fold excess of native peptide. In addition to the gonadotrophin cells, some somatotrophin and thyrotrophin cells bind conjugate on their free surfaces under similar conditions. If living cells are incubated with the conjugate for 15 min, the bound conjugate becomes aggregated and then concentrated in one localized area of the cell surface. In this area, which lies immediately above the juxtanuclear Golgi complex, the plasma membrane is frequently invaginated in a manner which suggests that the bound, aggregated conjugate is internalized by endocytosis. PMID:233747

  19. [Concentrations of adrenal steroids and sex hormones in postmenopausal women suffering from coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Sablik, Zbigniew; Samborska-Sablik, Anna; Goch, Jan Henryk

    2008-10-01

    The lack of the benefits in the prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) from the hormonal substitution with preparations of estradiol (E2) suggests that higher frequency of CAD in postmenopausal women (PMW) may be influenced by a hormonal mechanism different from the postmenopausal hypoestrogenism. Due to the fact adrenal glands are the important source of steroids in PMW the aim of our research was the assessment of the concentrations of the adrenal hormones and their possible relations with CAD. W-CAD group--31 PMW at the age of 66 +/- 9 years with angiographically proven CAD; 3/4 of them suffered from myocardial infarction. W-H group--17 healthy women at the age of 59 +/- 7 years. Common clinical and biochemical risk factors were searched for in each and every of the PMW. In the venous blood samples taken from them by means of immunological methods the concentrations of the hormones were assessed: starving insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), E2, progesterone, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol, aldosterone, androstenedione, folliculotropic hormone and luteinising hormone. The levels of the hormones were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to discover possible relations among the clinical and hormonal parameters and CAD. In W-CAD mean concentration of DHEAS was lower than in W-H, close to the significant value (75 +/- 76 vs 102 +/- 79 microg/dl, p<0,08). In PMW with CAD mean concentration of cortisol (18 +/- 5 vs 15 +/- 6 microg/dl, p<0,07) and ACTH was higher, but mean concentration of aldosterone was more than twice as small as in the healthy ones. The levels of the rest aforementioned hormones were similar in the groups. In the univariate model created by logistic regression analysis DHEAS was the only hormone that revealed the significant relation between its level and the occurrence of CAD. In PMW diminished concentration of DHEAS is correlated with occurrence of CAD. The differences of

  20. Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Seigfried M.

    1993-01-01

    This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

  1. Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Seigfried M.

    1993-01-01

    This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

  2. Hormonal and developmental influences on adolescent suicide: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Manceaux, Pauline; Jacques, Denis; Zdanowicz, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Teen suicide is a major public health problem. In the United States, it is the third cause of death among the 10-24 year olds. Adolescence involves numerous changes, whether physical, social, emotional or hormonal. At a neurobiological level, a teenager's nervous system is also affected and undergoes significant modifications. We conducted a systematic review of electronic literature published between January 1990 and August 2014 via MEDLINE, PubMED and PsychINFO to list articles concerning the risk of teen depression and suicide risks in adolescents as well as those relating to the adolescent's neuro-anatomical brain and the effect that puberty has on it. When analyzing the various studies, it is clear that all support the idea that adolescence is a special period, both at neuroanatomical and biological levels. The risk of impulsiveness and depression is explained, anatomically, by a faster maturation of the limbic system, and biologically, by a higher sensitivity of the serotoninergic system and to glucocorticoids, which themselves are influenced by the specific hormonal environment during this period. Moreover and above all, adolescence is a vulnerable time for many reasons: physical, hormonal, social, cognitive, and emotional changes, self-development, etc. We should not restrict it to structural neurological changes without taking into account the other factors or compartmentalize young people into a reductive model based on determinism. Adolescence is a time of change, transformation, and adaptation. The hormonal events that occur during this period have significant effects on brain development, neuro-cerebral chemistry, adolescent behavior and risks of depression. It is important to try to prevent suicide and depression in adolescents considering its entirety and complexity but also by paying attention to neuro-biological factors even if, at present, many research projects are currently underway to develop an appropriate drug therapy strategy.

  3. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE) study

    PubMed Central

    Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Peeters, Petra HM; Schuit, Albertine J

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s) underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE) study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects. Methods/Design In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50–69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strenght training exercise programme. Partcipants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors. Discussion This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Trial registration NCT00359060 PMID:17767724

  4. Calcitonin, the forgotten hormone: does it deserve to be forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Felsenfeld, Arnold J.; Levine, Barton S.

    2015-01-01

    Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland. Calcitonin has been preserved during the transition from ocean-based life to land dwellers and is phylogenetically older than parathyroid hormone. Calcitonin secretion is stimulated by increases in the serum calcium concentration and calcitonin protects against the development of hypercalcemia. Calcitonin is also stimulated by gastrointestinal hormones such as gastrin. This has led to the unproven hypothesis that postprandial calcitonin stimulation could play a role in the deposition of calcium and phosphate in bone after feeding. However, no bone or other abnormalities have been described in states of calcitonin deficiency or excess except for diarrhea in a few patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Calcitonin is known to stimulate renal 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D (1,25D) production at a site in the proximal tubule different from parathyroid hormone and hypophosphatemia. During pregnancy and lactation, both calcitonin and 1,25D are increased. The increases in calcitonin and 1,25D may be important in the transfer of maternal calcium to the fetus/infant and in the prevention and recovery of maternal bone loss. Calcitonin has an immediate effect on decreasing osteoclast activity and has been used for treatment of hypercalcemia. Recent studies in the calcitonin gene knockout mouse have shown increases in bone mass and bone formation. This last result together with the presence of calcitonin receptors on the osteocyte suggests that calcitonin could possibly affect osteocyte products which affect bone formation. In summary, a precise role for calcitonin remains elusive more than 50 years after its discovery. PMID:25815174

  5. Hormonal modulation of the heat shock response: insights from fish with divergent cortisol stress responses.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Currie, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Acute temperature stress in animals results in increases in heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress hormones. There is evidence that stress hormones influence the magnitude of the heat shock response; however, their role is equivocal. To determine whether and how stress hormones may affect the heat shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout. We found that HR fish have significantly higher increases in both catecholamines and cortisol compared with LR fish, and LR fish had no appreciable stress hormone response to heat shock. This unexpected finding prevented further interpretation of the hormonal modulation of the heat shock response but provided insight into stress-coping styles and environmental stress. HR fish also had a significantly greater and faster heat shock response and less oxidative protein damage than LR fish. Despite these clear differences in the physiological and cellular responses to heat shock, there were no differences in the thermal tolerance of HR and LR fish. Our results support the hypothesis that responsiveness to environmental change underpins the physiological differences in stress-coping styles. Here, we demonstrate that the heat shock response is a distinguishing feature of the HR and LR lines and suggest that it may have been coselected with the hormonal responses to stress.

  6. Impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy on cardiovascular events and cancer: pooled data from clinical trials.

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, E.; McPherson, K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancer from published clinical trials that studied other outcomes of postmenopausal hormone therapy as some surveys have suggested that it may decrease the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and increase the incidence of hormone dependent cancers. DESIGN: Trials that compared hormone therapy with placebo, no therapy, or vitamins and minerals in comparable groups of postmenopausal women and reported cardiovascular or cancer outcomes were searched from the literature. SUBJECTS: 22 trials with 4124 women were identified. In each group, the numbers of women with cardiovascular and cancer events were summed and divided by the numbers of women originally allocated to the groups. RESULTS: Data on cardiovascular events and cancer were usually given incidentally, either as a reason for dropping out of a study or in a list of adverse effects. The calculated odds ratios for women taking hormones versus those not taking hormones was 1.39 (95% confidence interval 0.48 to 3.95) for cardiovascular events without pulmonary embolus and deep vein thrombosis and 1.64 (0.55 to 4.18) with them. It is unlikely that such results would have occurred if the true odds ratio were 0.7 or less. For cancers, the numbers of reported events were too low for a useful conclusion. CONCLUSIONS: The results of these pooled data do not support the notion that postmenopausal hormone therapy prevents cardiovascular events. PMID:9251544

  7. Do steroid hormones play a role in the etiology of glioma?

    PubMed

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Etgen, Anne M; Rohan, Thomas E

    2010-10-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor and have a very poor prognosis. Little is known, however, about the etiology of these tumors. Evidence from a number of sources suggests that endogenous steroid hormones may play a role in the development of gliomas. First, the descriptive epidemiology of glioma suggests a relative protection of females compared with males, particularly during the premenopausal years. Second, some gliomas and glioblastomas express estrogen receptors (ER), especially ERβ, as well as aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of testosterone to estradiol, and possibly other steroid hormone receptors. Third, experimental studies indicate that glioblastomas transplanted into animals grow at a slower rate in females compared with males. Finally, experimental studies show that estradiol, 2-methoxyestradiol, and a number of selective estrogen receptor modulators inhibit proliferation of gliomas and induce cell death. These hormonal agonists and antagonists may act either through classical steroid hormone receptors or independently of such receptors. In view of these findings, further clinical, experimental, and epidemiologic studies are needed to elucidate the role of steroid hormone agonists and antagonists in the development and proliferation of glioma. If hormonal pathways are involved in gliomagenesis, this could eventually lead to the design of preventive strategies.

  8. Alcohol inhibits luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release by activating the endocannabinoid system

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Solari, Javier; Scorticati, Camila; Mohn, Claudia; De Laurentiis, Andrea; Billi, Silvia; Franchi, Ana; McCann, Samuel M.; Rettori, Valeria

    2004-01-01

    We hypothesized that ethanol (EtOH) might act through the endocannabinoid system to inhibit luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) release. Therefore, we examined the mechanism by which EtOH and anandamide (AEA), an endogenous cannabinoid, inhibit LHRH release from incubated medial basal hypothalamic explants. In previous work, we demonstrated that EtOH inhibits the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid-stimulated release of LHRH by increasing the release of two neurotransmitters: β-endorphin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In the present work, bicuculline, a GABAergic antagonist, completely prevented the inhibition of AEA (10-9M) on N-methyl-d-aspartic acid-induced LHRH release, but naltrexone, a μ-opioid receptor antagonist, had no effect. AEA also significantly increased GABA release but had no effect on β-endorphin release. Therefore, AEA could inhibit LHRH release by increasing GABA but not β-endorphin release. Because EtOH and AEA acted similarly to inhibit LHRH release, we investigated whether both substances would affect the adenylate cyclase activity acting through the same GTP-coupled receptors, the cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1-rs). AEA and EtOH (10-1M) reduced the forskolin-stimulated accumulation of cAMP, but AM251, a specific antagonist of CB1-r, significantly blocked that inhibition. Additionally we investigated whether CB1-r is involved in the inhibition of LHRH by EtOH and AEA. AEA and EtOH reduced forskolin-stimulated LHRH release, but AM251 significantly blocked that inhibition. Also, we demonstrated that EtOH did not act by increasing AEA synthase activity to inhibit LHRH release in our experimental conditions. Therefore, our results indicate that EtOH inhibits the release of LHRH acting through the endocannabinoid system. PMID:14981261

  9. Cancer incidence attributable to the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grevers, Xin; Grundy, Anne; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; Feldman, Matthew; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies are classified as carcinogenic to humans (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We sought to estimate the proportion and total number of cancers attributable to the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta in 2012. Methods: Population attributable risks were used to estimate the proportion of attributable cases for each associated cancer site. Relative risk estimates were obtained from the most relevant and recent epidemiologic literature. Prevalences of the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta were collected from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Specific cancer incidence data were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry for the year 2012. Results: Overall, 6.3% of breast cancers (n = 135) diagnosed in Alberta in 2012 were estimated to be attributable to the use of oral contraceptives, and the exposure potentially prevented about 57.3% of endometrial cancers (n = 276) and 29.1% of ovarian cancers (n = 52). About 15.5% of breast cancers (n = 258) and 8.9% of ovarian cancers (n = 13) were estimated to be attributable to the use of hormone therapy, whereas 11.3% of endometrial cancers (n = 48) were possibly prevented by the exposure. Interpretation: Based on our estimates, oral contraceptive use resulted in a net protective effect among the cancer sites studied, thus reducing the cancer burden in Alberta in 2012. The use of hormone therapy was estimated to increase the cancer burden in the province, therefore the risk and benefit of hormone therapy should be carefully considered before use. PMID:28018891

  10. [Intracellular calcium channels, hormone receptors and intercellular calcium waves].

    PubMed

    Tordjmann, T; Tran, D; Berthon, B; Jacquemin, E; Guillon, G; Combettes, L; Claret, M

    1998-01-01

    The hormone-mediated intercellular Ca2+ waves were analyzed in multiplets of rat hepatocytes by video imaging of fura2 fluorescence. These multicellular systems are composed of groups of several cells (doublets to quintuplets) issued from the liver cell plate, a one cell-thick cord of about 20 hepatocytes long between portal and centrolobular veins. When the multiplets were homogeneously bathed with the glycogenolytic agonists vasopressin, noradrenaline, angiotensin II and ATP, they showed highly organized Ca2+ signals. Surprisingly, for a given agonist, the primary rises in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) originated invariably in the same hepatocyte, then was propagated in a sequential manner to the nearest connected cells (cell 2, then 3, cell 4 in a quadruplet, for example). The sequential activation of the cells appeared to be an intrinsic property of multiplets of rat hepatocytes. The same sequence was observed at each train of oscillations occurring between cells. The order of [Ca2+]i responses was modified neither by repeated additions of hormones nor by the hormonal dose. The mechanical disruption of an intermediate cell did not prevent the activation of the next cell. These results suggest that each hepatocyte in the multiplet displays its own sensitivity to the hormone and that a gradient of sensitivity between each cell could be responsible for directing the intercellular Ca2+ wave. To test this hypothesis, we selectively isolated rat hepatocytes from periportal (PP) and perivenous (PV) areas of the liver cell plate. Periportal (PP) and perivenous (PV) rat hepatocyte suspensions were loaded with quin2/AM and hormonal responses were studied in a spectrofluorimeter. Noradrenaline, angiotensin II, and vasopressin-induced [Ca2+]i rises were greater in PV than in PP hepatocytes. In contrast, PP cells were more responsive than PV cells to ATP. The function of the InsP3 receptor (InsP3R) was also studied by measuring the InsP3-mediated 45Ca2+ release

  11. Progestogens to Prevent Preterm Birth: A Review of the Research about Progestogens for Women at Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... the use of hormones called “progestogens” (pronounced pro-JES-toe-jenz) to prevent preterm birth and want ... Understanding Progestogens What is progestogen? Progestogens (pronounced pro-JES-toe-jenz) have two forms: The natural progesterone ( ...

  12. Shoplifting Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhardt, Richard M.

    The retailers' concern about shoplifting and shoplifting losses provided impetus for the development of this programed text. The self-instructional booklet is designed for all retail employees as an aid to preventing financial losses to the store caused by shoplifting. The common characteristics of shoplifters, methods used by shoplifters, and a…

  13. Preventing Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    The Navajo supervisor in the Office of Environmental Health in New Mexico identifies diseases and their risk factors, administers an injury prevention program, and ensures compliance with various health-related codes. She assists in the planning and direction of environmental health programs and public health education for local Navajo…

  14. Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  15. HIV Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  16. Injury Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Dramatic Rise, Including Bath Salts Household (and Child & Elderly) Injuries Avoiding Household Burns Do I Need A Tetanus Shot? Falls Are The Leading Injury-Related Cause of ER Visits Prevent Poison! ACEP Observes ... on Children Swallowing Objects Like Magnets, Coins or Batteries School & ...

  17. Building a better hormone therapy?: How understanding the rapid effects of sex steroid hormones could lead to new therapeutics for age-related memory decline

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of data collected in recent decades has demonstrated that ovarian sex-steroid hormones, particularly 17β-estradiol (E2), are important trophic factors that regulate the function of cognitive regions of the brain such as the hippocampus. The loss of hormone cycling at menopause is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in women, and the onset of memory decline in animal models. However, hormone therapy is not currently recommended to prevent or treat cognitive decline, in part because of its detrimental side effects. In this article, it is proposed that investigations of the rapid effects of E2 on hippocampal function be used to further the design of new drugs that mimic the beneficial effects of E2 on memory without the side effects of current therapies. A conceptual model is presented for elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms through which sex-steroid hormones modulate memory, and a specific hypothesis is proposed to account for the rapid memory-enhancing effects of E2. Empirical support for this hypothesis is discussed as a means of stimulating the consideration of new directions for the development of hormone-based therapies to preserve memory function in menopausal women. PMID:22289043

  18. Building a better hormone therapy? How understanding the rapid effects of sex steroid hormones could lead to new therapeutics for age-related memory decline.

    PubMed

    Frick, Karyn M

    2012-02-01

    A wealth of data collected in recent decades has demonstrated that ovarian sex-steroid hormones, particularly 17β-estradiol (E2), are important trophic factors that regulate the function of cognitive regions of the brain such as the hippocampus. The loss of hormone cycling at menopause is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in women, and the onset of memory decline in animal models. However, hormone therapy is not currently recommended to prevent or treat cognitive decline, in part because of its detrimental side effects. In this article, it is proposed that investigations of the rapid effects of E2 on hippocampal function be used to further the design of new drugs that mimic the beneficial effects of E2 on memory without the side effects of current therapies. A conceptual model is presented for elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms through which sex-steroid hormones modulate memory, and a specific hypothesis is proposed to account for the rapid memory-enhancing effects of E2. Empirical support for this hypothesis is discussed as a means of stimulating the consideration of new directions for the development of hormone-based therapies to preserve memory function in menopausal women.

  19. Nutrient Sensing Overrides Somatostatin and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone to Control Pulsatile Growth Hormone Release.

    PubMed

    Steyn, F J

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacological studies reveal that interactions between hypothalamic inhibitory somatostatin and stimulatory growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) govern pulsatile GH release. However, in vivo analysis of somatostatin and GHRH release into the pituitary portal vasculature and peripheral GH output demonstrates that the withdrawal of somatostatin or the appearance of GHRH into pituitary portal blood does not reliably dictate GH release. Consequently, additional intermediates acting at the level of the hypothalamus and within the anterior pituitary gland are likely to contribute to the release of GH, entraining GH secretory patterns to meet physiological demand. The identification and validation of the actions of such intermediates is particularly important, given that the pattern of GH release defines several of the physiological actions of GH. This review highlights the actions of neuropeptide Y in regulating GH release. It is acknowledged that pulsatile GH release may not occur selectively in response to hypothalamic control of pituitary function. As such, interactions between somatotroph networks, the median eminence and pituitary microvasculature and blood flow, and the emerging role of tanycytes and pericytes as critical regulators of pulsatility are considered. It is argued that collective interactions between the hypothalamus, the median eminence and pituitary vasculature, and structural components within the pituitary gland dictate somatotroph function and thereby pulsatile GH release. These interactions may override hypothalamic somatostatin and GHRH-mediated GH release, and modify pulsatile GH release relative to the peripheral glucose supply, and thereby physiological demand.

  20. Gender in childhood obesity: family environment, hormones, and genes.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Amy B; Chernausek, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children in the United States represents a pool of latent morbidity. Though the prevalence of obesity has increased in both boys and girls, the causes and consequences differ between the sexes. Thus, interventions proposed to treat and prevent childhood obesity will need to account for these differences. This review examines gender differences in the presentation of obesity in children and describes environmental, hormonal, and genetic factors that contribute to observed gender differences. A search of peer-reviewed, published literature was performed with PubMed for articles published from January 1974 through October 2008. Search terms used were obesity, sex, gender, hormones, family environment, body composition, adiposity, and genes. Studies of children aged 0 to 18 years were included, and only articles published in English were reviewed for consideration. Articles that illustrated gender differences in either the presentation or underlying mechanisms of obesity in children were reviewed for content, and their bibliographies were used to identify other relevant literature. Gender differences in childhood obesity have been understudied partially because of how we define the categories of overweight and obesity. Close examination of studies revealed that gender differences were common, both before and during puberty. Boys and girls differ in body composition, patterns of weight gain, hormone biology, and the susceptibility to certain social, ethnic, genetic, and environmental factors. Our understanding of how gender differences in pediatric populations relate to the pathogenesis of obesity and the subsequent development of associated comorbid states is critical to developing and implementing both therapeutic and preventive interventions.

  1. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) as a diagnostic and research tool in gynecologic endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Taymor, M L; Thompson, I E; Berger, M J; Patton, W

    1974-11-15

    A study is reported on the effects of 150 mcg. of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), administered iv to 48 women with 5 types of secondary oligoamenorrhea, on the serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) Levels. At Time 0, patients with pituitary disease showed a markedly diminished LH response and patients with polycystic ovarian disease with enlarged ovaries showed a brisk, elevated LH response. FSH levels in patients with pituitary disease and polycystic ovarian disease showed a negligible rise at Time 0. 9 of 10 patients with pituitary disease and 5 of 9 patients with dietary amenorrhea had a low LH response 30 minutes after LH-RH administration. FSH response 60 minutes after injection in patients with pituitary disease and polycystic ovarian disease seemed to be lowered though too much overlap prevented a complete diagnosis. The conclusion of this initial study is that through baseline determinations of FSH and LH, along with a LH-RH stimulation test, useful data are provided for determining whether amenorrhea is due to ovarian or pituitary failure. A 2nd study evaluated the effects of 150 mcg of LH-RH administered iv before and after the im administration of various dosages of estrogen and progesterone to anovulatory women. A vigorous response in pituitary gonadotropin, particularly LH, was observed with LH-RH administered only. The effect with estrogen and progesterone was diminished pituitary response in terms of LH production. It is concluded that estrogen and progesterone exert a negative feedback effect on gonadotropin secretion at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels.

  2. Experimental benefits of sex hormones on vascular function and the outcome of hormone therapy in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ross, Reagan L; Serock, Michelle R; Khalil, Raouf A

    2008-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in men and postmenopausal women than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of female sex hormones. Experimental data have shown beneficial vascular effects of estrogen including stimulation of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide, prostacyclin and hyperpolarizing factor-mediated vascular relaxation. However, the experimental evidence did not translate into vascular benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women, and HERS, HERS-II and WHI clinical trials demonstrated adverse cardiovascular events with HRT. The lack of vascular benefits of HRT could be related to the hormone used, the vascular estrogen receptor (ER), and the subject's age and preexisting cardiovascular condition. Natural and phytoestrogens in small doses may be more beneficial than synthetic estrogen. Specific estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) could maximize the vascular benefits, with little side effects on breast cancer. Transdermal estrogens avoid the first-pass liver metabolism associated with the oral route. Postmenopausal decrease and genetic polymorphism in vascular ER and post-receptor signaling mechanisms could also modify the effects of HRT. Variants of cytosolic/nuclear ER mediate transcriptional genomic effects that stimulate endothelial cell growth, but inhibit vascular smooth muscle (VSM) proliferation. Also, plasma membrane ERs trigger not only non-genomic stimulation of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, but also inhibition of [Ca(2+)]i, protein kinase C and Rho kinase-dependent VSM contraction. HRT could also be more effective in the perimenopausal period than in older postmenopausal women, and may prevent the development, while worsening preexisting CVD. Lastly, progesterone may modify the vascular effects of estrogen, and modulators of estrogen/testosterone ratio could provide alternative HRT combinations. Thus, the type, dose, route of administration and the timing/duration of HRT should be

  3. Experimental Benefits of Sex Hormones on Vascular Function and the Outcome of Hormone Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Reagan L; Serock, Michelle R; Khalil, Raouf A

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in men and postmenopausal women than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of female sex hormones. Experimental data have shown beneficial vascular effects of estrogen including stimulation of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide, prostacyclin and hyperpolarizing factor-mediated vascular relaxation. However, the experimental evidence did not translate into vascular benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women, and HERS, HERS-II and WHI clinical trials demonstrated adverse cardiovascular events with HRT. The lack of vascular benefits of HRT could be related to the hormone used, the vascular estrogen receptor (ER), and the subject’s age and preexisting cardiovascular condition. Natural and phytoestrogens in small doses may be more beneficial than synthetic estrogen. Specific estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) could maximize the vascular benefits, with little side effects on breast cancer. Transdermal estrogens avoid the first-pass liver metabolism associated with the oral route. Postmenopausal decrease and genetic polymorphism in vascular ER and post-receptor signaling mechanisms could also modify the effects of HRT. Variants of cytosolic/nuclear ER mediate transcriptional genomic effects that stimulate endothelial cell growth, but inhibit vascular smooth muscle (VSM) proliferation. Also, plasma membrane ERs trigger not only non-genomic stimulation of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, but also inhibition of [Ca2+]i, protein kinase C and Rho kinase-dependent VSM contraction. HRT could also be more effective in the perimenopausal period than in older postmenopausal women, and may prevent the development, while worsening preexisting CVD. Lastly, progesterone may modify the vascular effects of estrogen, and modulators of estrogen/testosterone ratio could provide alternative HRT combinations. Thus, the type, dose, route of administration and the timing/duration of HRT should be

  4. Growth hormone reduces mortality and bacterial translocation in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Gómez-de-Segura, I A; Prieto, I; Grande, A G; García, P; Guerra, A; Mendez, J; De Miguel, E

    1998-01-01

    Growth hormone stimulates the growth of intestinal mucosa and may reduce the severity of injury caused by radiation. Male Wistar rats underwent abdominal irradiation (12 Gy) and were treated with either human growth hormone (hGH) or saline, and sacrificed at day 4 or 7 post-irradiation. Bacterial translocation, and the ileal mucosal thickness, proliferation, and disaccharidase activity were assessed. Mortality was 65% in irradiated animals, whereas hGH caused a decrement (29%, p < 0.05). Bacterial translocation was also reduced by hGH (p < 0.05). Treating irradiated rats with hGH prevented body weight loss (p < 0.05). Mucosal thickness increased faster in irradiated hGH-treated animals. The proliferative index showed an increment in hGH-treated animals (p < 0.05). Giving hGH to irradiated rats prevented decrease in sucrose activity, and increment in lactase activity. In conclusion, giving hGH to irradiated rats promotes the adaptative process of the intestine and acute radiation-related negative effects, including mortality, bacterial translocation, and weight loss.

  5. Minireview: Pathophysiological importance of thyroid hormone transporters.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Heike; Visser, Theo J

    2009-03-01

    Thyroid hormone metabolism and action are largely intracellular events that require transport of iodothyronines across the plasma membrane. It has been assumed for a long time that this occurs by passive diffusion, but it has become increasingly clear that cellular uptake and efflux of thyroid hormone is mediated by transporter proteins. Recently, several active and specific thyroid hormone transporters have been identified, including monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), MCT10, and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1C1 (OATP1C1). The latter is expressed predominantly in brain capillaries and transports preferentially T(4), whereas MCT8 and MCT10 are expressed in multiple tissues and are capable of transporting different iodothyronines. The pathophysiological importance of thyroid hormone transporters has been established by the demonstration of MCT8 mutations in patients with severe psychomotor retardation and elevated serum T(3) levels. MCT8 appears to play an important role in the transport of thyroid hormone in the brain, which is essential for the crucial action of the hormone during brain development. It is expected that more specific thyroid hormone transporters will be discovered in the near future, which will lead to a better understanding of the tissue-specific regulation of thyroid hormone bioavailability.

  6. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  7. Thyroid Hormone Function in the Rat Testis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are emerging regulators of testicular function since Sertoli, germ, and Leydig cells are found to express thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). These testicular cells also express deiodinases, which are capable of converting the pro-hormone T4 to the active thyroid hormone T3, or inactivating T3 or T4 to a non-biologically active form. Furthermore, thyroid hormone transporters are also found in the testis. Thus, the testis is equipped with the transporters and the enzymes necessary to maintain the optimal level of thyroid hormone in the seminiferous epithelium, as well as the specific TRs to execute thyroid hormone action in response to different stages of the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Studies using genetic models and/or goitrogens (e.g., propylthiouracil) have illustrated a tight physiological relationship between thyroid hormone and testicular function, in particular, Sertoli cell differentiation status, mitotic activity, gap junction function, and blood–testis barrier assembly. These findings are briefly summarized and discussed herein. PMID:25414694

  8. Insect Control (II): Hormones and Viruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research in the use of hormones and viruses to control insect populations. Although entomologists do not think that pheromones, hormones, and viruses will completely replace more conventional chemical insecticides, they will become increasingly important and will reduce our dependence on traditional insecticides. (JR)

  9. The Hormonal Control of Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Coll, Anthony P.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Numerous circulating peptides and steroids produced in the body influence appetite through their actions on the hypothalamus, the brain stem, and the autonomic nervous system. These hormones come from three major sites—fat cells, the gastrointestinal tract, and the pancreas. In this Review we provide a synthesis of recent evidence concerning the actions of these hormones on food intake. PMID:17448988

  10. Collective hormonal profiles predict group performance

    PubMed Central

    Akinola, Modupe; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Mehta, Pranjal H.; Lu, Jackson G.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has shown that an individual’s hormonal profile can influence the individual’s social standing within a group. We introduce a different construct—a collective hormonal profile—which describes a group’s hormonal make-up. We test whether a group’s collective hormonal profile is related to its performance. Analysis of 370 individuals randomly assigned to work in 74 groups of three to six individuals revealed that group-level concentrations of testosterone and cortisol interact to predict a group’s standing across groups. Groups with a collective hormonal profile characterized by high testosterone and low cortisol exhibited the highest performance. These collective hormonal level results remained reliable when controlling for personality traits and group-level variability in hormones. These findings support the hypothesis that groups with a biological propensity toward status pursuit (high testosterone) coupled with reduced stress-axis activity (low cortisol) engage in profit-maximizing decision-making. The current work extends the dual-hormone hypothesis to the collective level and provides a neurobiological perspective on the factors that determine who rises to the top across, not just within, social hierarchies. PMID:27528679

  11. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones.

    PubMed

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  12. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  13. Insect Control (II): Hormones and Viruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research in the use of hormones and viruses to control insect populations. Although entomologists do not think that pheromones, hormones, and viruses will completely replace more conventional chemical insecticides, they will become increasingly important and will reduce our dependence on traditional insecticides. (JR)

  14. Ubiquitin, hormones and biotic stress in plants.

    PubMed

    Dreher, Kate; Callis, Judy

    2007-05-01

    The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate protein changes its fate. Notably, proteins typically tagged with a lysine48-linked polyubiquitin chain become substrates for degradation by the 26S proteasome. In recent years many experiments have been performed to characterize the proteins involved in the ubiquitylation process and to identify their substrates, in order to understand better the mechanisms that link specific protein degradation events to regulation of plant growth and development. This review focuses on the role that ubiquitin plays in hormone synthesis, hormonal signalling cascades and plant defence mechanisms. Several examples are given of how targeted degradation of proteins affects downstream transcriptional regulation of hormone-responsive genes in the auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, ethylene and jasmonate signalling pathways. Additional experiments suggest that ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis may also act upstream of the hormonal signalling cascades by regulating hormone biosynthesis, transport and perception. Moreover, several experiments demonstrate that hormonal cross-talk can occur at the level of proteolysis. The more recently established role of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in defence against biotic threats is also reviewed. The UPS has been implicated in the regulation of almost every developmental process in plants, from embryogenesis to floral organ production probably through its central role in many hormone pathways. More recent evidence provides molecular mechanisms for hormonal cross-talk and links the UPS system to biotic defence responses.

  15. Hormonal and nutritional drivers of intrauterine growth.

    PubMed

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; Vaughan, Owen R; Forhead, Alison J; Fowden, Abigail L

    2013-05-01

    Size at birth is critical in determining life expectancy with both small and large neonates at risk of shortened life spans. This review examines the hormonal and nutritional drivers of intrauterine growth with emphasis on the role of foetal hormones as nutritional signals in utero. Nutrients drive intrauterine growth by providing substrate for tissue accretion, whereas hormones regulate nutrient distribution between foetal oxidative metabolism and mass accumulation. The main hormonal drivers of intrauterine growth are insulin, insulin-like growth factors and thyroid hormones. Together with leptin and cortisol, these hormones control cellular nutrient uptake and the balance between accretion and differentiation in regulating tissue growth. They also act indirectly via the placenta to alter the materno-foetal supply of nutrients and oxygen. By responding to nutrient and oxygen availability, foetal hormones optimize the survival and growth of the foetus with respect to its genetic potential, particularly during adverse conditions. However, changes in the intrauterine growth of individual tissues may alter their function permanently. In both normal and compromised pregnancies, intrauterine growth is determined by multiple hormonal and nutritional drivers which interact to produce a specific pattern of intrauterine development with potential lifelong consequences for health.

  16. Multiple hormonal resistances: Diagnosis, evaluation and therapy.

    PubMed

    Linglart, Agnès; Silve, Caroline; Rothenbuhler, Anya

    2015-05-01

    Molecular alterations of cAMP-mediated signaling affect primarily the signaling of the PTH/PTHrp receptor, and, with different severities the signaling of other hormones, including TSH. The identification of PTH and other hormonal resistances implies to look for the genetic disorder supporting the metabolic disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Development: Pubertal Hormones Meet the Adolescent Brain.

    PubMed

    Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-07-24

    At the onset of puberty, ovarian hormones increase inhibitory tone in the prefrontal cortex. Inhibitory maturation is a hallmark of the initiation of developmental windows of neural plasticity; pubertal hormones may trigger the opening of an adolescent critical period for experience-dependent rewiring of circuits underlying executive function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canalis, Ernesto

    1985-01-01

    Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  19. The Barrier Within: Endothelial Transport of Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Kolka, Cathryn M.; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease. PMID:22875454

  20. Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canalis, Ernesto

    1985-01-01

    Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  1. Ubiquitin, Hormones and Biotic Stress in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Dreher, Kate; Callis, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate protein changes its fate. Notably, proteins typically tagged with a lysine48-linked polyubiquitin chain become substrates for degradation by the 26S proteasome. In recent years many experiments have been performed to characterize the proteins involved in the ubiquitylation process and to identify their substrates, in order to understand better the mechanisms that link specific protein degradation events to regulation of plant growth and development. Scope This review focuses on the role that ubiquitin plays in hormone synthesis, hormonal signalling cascades and plant defence mechanisms. Several examples are given of how targeted degradation of proteins affects downstream transcriptional regulation of hormone-responsive genes in the auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, ethylene and jasmonate signalling pathways. Additional experiments suggest that ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis may also act upstream of the hormonal signalling cascades by regulating hormone biosynthesis, transport and perception. Moreover, several experiments demonstrate that hormonal cross-talk can occur at the level of proteolysis. The more recently established role of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in defence against biotic threats is also reviewed. Conclusions The UPS has been implicated in the regulation of almost every developmental process in plants, from embryogenesis to floral organ production probably through its central role in many hormone pathways. More recent evidence provides molecular mechanisms for hormonal cross-talk and links the UPS system to biotic defence responses. PMID:17220175

  2. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  3. Juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila aging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Juvenile hormone (JH) has been demonstrated to control adult lifespan in a number of non-model insects where surgical removal of the corpora allata eliminates the hormone’s source. In contrast, little is known about how juvenile hormone affects adult Drosophila melanogaster. Previous work suggests that insulin signaling may modulate Drosophila aging in part through its impact on juvenile hormone titer, but no data yet address whether reduction of juvenile hormone is sufficient to control Drosophila life span. Here we adapt a genetic approach to knock out the corpora allata in adult Drosophila melanogaster and characterize adult life history phenotypes produced by reduction of juvenile hormone. With this system we test potential explanations for how juvenile hormone modulates aging. Results A tissue specific driver inducing an inhibitor of a protein phosphatase was used to ablate the corpora allata while permitting normal development of adult flies. Corpora allata knockout adults had greatly reduced fecundity, inhibited oogenesis, impaired adult fat body development and extended lifespan. Treating these adults with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene restored all traits toward wildtype. Knockout females remained relatively long-lived even when crossed into a genotype that blocked all egg production. Dietary restriction further extended the lifespan of knockout females. In an analysis of expression profiles of knockout females in fertile and sterile backgrounds, about 100 genes changed in response to loss of juvenile hormone independent of reproductive state. Conclusions Reduced juvenile hormone alone is sufficient to extend the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. Reduced juvenile hormone limits reproduction by inhibiting the production of yolked eggs, and this may arise because juvenile hormone is required for the post-eclosion development of the vitellogenin-producing adult fat body. Our data do not support a mechanism for juvenile hormone control

  4. Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, and Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Analyses of secretion of parathyroid hormone during tests of stimulation and suppression of hormone-secretory activity using infusions of EDTA and calcium, respectively, have established that, in contrast to previous views, secretion of the hormone is not autonomous in many patients that have adenomatous hyperparathyroidism, but is responsive to changes in blood-calcium concentration. These findings have led to a new understanding of the pathophysiology of hormone production in hyperparathy-roidism. A related application of the diagnostic use of the radioimmunoassay is the preoperative localization of parathyroid tumors and the distinction between adenomas and chief-cell hyperplasia. Work involving catheterization and radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from the subclavin and innominate veins and the venae cavae, led to localization in a high percentage of patients. However, this procedure has been adopted recently to detect hormone concentration in the small veins directly draining the parathyroid glands.

  5. Thyroid hormone and the growth plate.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yvonne Y; Wang, Lai; Ballock, R Tracy

    2006-12-01

    Thyroid hormone was first identified as a potent regulator of skeletal maturation at the growth plate more than forty years ago. Since that time, many in vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed that thyroid hormone regulates the critical transition between cell proliferation and terminal differentiation in the growth plate, specifically the maturation of growth plate chondrocytes into hypertrophic cells. However these studies have neither identified the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal maturation by thyroid hormone, nor demonstrated how the systemic actions of thyroid hormone interface with the local regulatory milieu of the growth plate. This article will review our current understanding of the role of thyroid hormone in regulating the process of endochondral ossification at the growth plate, as well as what is currently known about the molecular mechanisms involved in this regulation.

  6. Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, and Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Analyses of secretion of parathyroid hormone during tests of stimulation and suppression of hormone-secretory activity using infusions of EDTA and calcium, respectively, have established that, in contrast to previous views, secretion of the hormone is not autonomous in many patients that have adenomatous hyperparathyroidism, but is responsive to changes in blood-calcium concentration. These findings have led to a new understanding of the pathophysiology of hormone production in hyperparathy-roidism. A related application of the diagnostic use of the radioimmunoassay is the preoperative localization of parathyroid tumors and the distinction between adenomas and chief-cell hyperplasia. Work involving catheterization and radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from the subclavin and innominate veins and the venae cavae, led to localization in a high percentage of patients. However, this procedure has been adopted recently to detect hormone concentration in the small veins directly draining the parathyroid glands.

  7. Growth hormone doping: a review

    PubMed Central

    Erotokritou-Mulligan, Ioulietta; Holt, Richard IG; Sönksen, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    The use of growth hormone (GH) as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse. PMID:24198576

  8. Thyroid hormones and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Felipe

    2016-07-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem and its relationship to thyroid dysfunction has been increasingly investigated in recent years. Since it has been demonstrated that thyroid hormones (TH) and mainly T3 have cardioprotective effects, it is easy to understand that in the scenario of thyroid disorder, cardiac function may be damaged, and inversely in cardiac dysfunction thyroid dysregulation may be seen. The increase in plasma TH produces a clear neurohormonal activation which impacts negatively on cardiac function. In hypothyroidism, and in addition to extracardiac dysfunction, myocardial and vascular remodelling is altered and they contribute to cardiac failure. Abnormal low plasma TSH has also been shown to be a risk factor for developing HF in several recent studies, and they suggest that TSH is an independent predictor of clinical outcome including death and cardiac hospitalizations. Therefore, physicians should consider all these concepts when managing a patient with heart failure, not only for a clear diagnosis, but also for better and accurate treatment.

  9. Hormonal changes in antiorthostatic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, V.; Popovic, P.; Honeycutt, C.

    1982-01-01

    Hypokinesia, especially hypokinesia with negative tilt ('antiorthostatic hypokinesia'), mimics some of the effects of weightlessness. It is shown that cardiac output is increased during early exposure of rats to antiorthostatic hypokinesia. The increase of the stroke volume and of the cardiac output observed in the antiorthostatic hypokinetic rats is probably the consequence of a blood volume shift toward the chest brought forth by head-down positioning of the animals. It is also possible that struggling of the animals to escape from the harness and an increased metabolism contribute to the elevation of cardiac output. In order to study this hypothesis 'stress hormones' were measured in the antiorthostatic rats. Plasma levels of ACTH, corticosterone and prolactin were measured in the arterial blood (0.3 ml) sampled before, during and after hypokinesia from chronic aortic cannulas of the rats.

  10. Hormonal contraception in the male.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R A

    2000-01-01

    The hormonal approach to male contraception is based on the suppression of gonadotrophin secretion with secondary suppression of spermatogenesis. This can be achieved by administration of testosterone or other androgen alone, but combined administration with a progestogen or GnRH analogue allows the dose of testosterone to be reduced to physiological replacement doses. This approach has been investigated for many years but without identification of a regimen which results in sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis to provide ensured contraception in all men, safely and conveniently. The reasons for this are discussed, and recent developments towards a regimen that fulfills all these criteria are described. Crucial to development of any new product is that it will be used: surveys of both men and women indicate firmly positive attitudes towards a 'male pill'. There are, therefore, grounds for cautious optimism that the next decade may see the introduction of the first novel male contraceptive for several hundred years.

  11. Growth hormone and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Birzniece, Vita; Nelson, Anne E; Ho, Ken K Y

    2011-05-01

    There has been limited research and evidence that GH enhances physical performance in healthy adults or in trained athletes. Even so, human growth hormone (GH) is widely abused by athletes. In healthy adults, GH increases lean body mass, although it is possible that fluid retention contributes to this effect. The most recent data indicate that GH does not enhance muscle strength, power, or aerobic exercise capacity, but improves anaerobic exercise capacity. In fact, there are adverse effects of long-term GH excess such that sustained abuse of GH can lead to a state mimicking acromegaly, a condition with increased morbidity and mortality. This review will examine GH effects on body composition and physical performance in health and disease.

  12. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  13. Hormone Replacement Therapy: Can It Cause Vaginal Bleeding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can it cause vaginal bleeding? I'm taking hormone therapy for menopause symptoms, and my monthly menstrual periods ... Laughlin-Tommaso, M.D. Some forms of menopause hormone therapy may cause monthly bleeding. This includes cyclic hormone ...

  14. Hormones and pheromones in regulation of insect behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both pheromones and hormones are well recognized regulators of insect biology. However, the interactions between hormones and pheromones in coordinating insect biology are less well understood. We have studied the interactions between juvenile hormone, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and pheromon...

  15. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  16. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. “Brite” or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT

  17. Sexual Desire and Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Boozalis, Amanda; Tutlam, Nhial T.; Robbins, Camaryn Chrisman; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of hormonal contraception on sexual desire. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,938 of the 9,256 participants enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. This subset included participants enrolled between April and September 2011 who completed a baseline and six-month telephone survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between contraceptive method and report of lacking interest in sex, controlling for potential confounding variables. Results More than one in five participants (23.9%) reported lacking interest in sex at 6 months after initiating a new contraceptive method. Of 262 copper IUD users (referent group), 18.3% reported lacking interest in sex. Our primary outcome was more prevalent in women who are young (<18 years: adjusted odds ratio (ORadj)=2.04), black (ORadj=1.78), and married or living with a partner (ORadj=1.82). Compared to copper IUD users, participants using depot medroxyprogesterone (ORadj=2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47-4.61), the vaginal ring (ORadj=2.53, 95% CI=1.37-4.69), and the implant (ORadj=1.60, 95% CI=1.03-2.49) more commonly reported lack of interest in sex. We found no association between use of the hormonal IUD, oral contraceptive pill, and patch and lack of interest in sex. Conclusion CHOICE participants using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, the contraceptive ring, and implant were more likely to report a lack of interest in sex compared to copper IUD users. Future research should confirm these findings and their possible physiological basis. Clinicians should be reassured that most women do not experience reduced sex drive with the use of most contraceptive methods. PMID:26855094

  18. Lymphotoxin prevention of diethylnitrosamine carcinogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ransom, J H; Evans, C H; DiPaolo, J A

    1982-09-01

    Development of intervention measures to control cancer would be facilitated by being able to monitor in vivo carcinogenesis by in vitro quantitation of early indices of neoplastic transformation to assess the in vivo effectiveness of preventive-therapeutic measures. Pregnant Syrian golden hamsters were used in an in vivo-in vitro transplacental model of carcinogenesis to determine the extent that in vivo administration of immunologic hormone preparations along with chemical carcinogen would prevent morphologic transformation assessed in vitro. Pregnant hamsters at 10-11 days of gestation were given injections ip of 3 mg diethylnitrosamine (DENA)/100 g body weight and were killed 2 days later when fetal cells were seeded for colony formation. The frequency of morphologically transformed colonies was assessed after 7 days of growth. Cloning efficiency and mean transformation frequency after DENA exposure were 3.6% and 1 X 10(-4) per cell seeded, respectively. The ip injection of an immunologic hormone preparation reduced the transformation frequency by 46%. The hormone preparation, containing 10,000 U of lymphotoxin but no detectable interferon, was the ultrafiltered lymphokines (greater than 10,000 mol wt) from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated hamster peritoneal leukocytes. The effect of lymphotoxin on cocarcinogenic exposure of fetal cells to DENA in vivo followed by X-irradiation in vitro was also determined. Cells exposed to 250 rad in vitro had a cloning efficiency of 0.5% and a transformation frequency of 0.4 X 10(-4) per cell seeded. After DENA injection and X-irradiation, the transformation frequency increased to 1 X 10(-4) and was inhibited 64% by lymphotoxin in vivo. Thus immunologic hormones (e.g., lymphotoxin) can prevent carcinogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro quantitation of transformation is a rapid means for evaluating therapeutic and autochthonous effector mechanisms for their ability to prevent or otherwise modulate carcinogenesis in vivo.

  19. Lymphotoxin prevention of diethylnitrosamine carcinogenesis in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, J.H.; Evans, C.H.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    Development of intervention measures to control cancer would be facilitated by being able to monitor in vivo carcinogenesis by in vitro quantitation of early indices of neoplastic transformation to assess the in vivo effectiveness of preventive-therapeutic measures. Pregnant Syrian golden hamsters were used in an in vivo-in vitro transplacental model of carcinogenesis to determine the extent that in vivo administration of immunologic hormone preparations along with chemical carcinogen would prevent morphologic transformation assessed in vitro. Pregnant hamsters at 10-11 days of gestation were given injections ip of 3 mg diethylnitrosamine (DENA)/100 g body weight and were killed 2 days later when fetal cells were seeded for colony formation. The frequency of morphologically transformed colonies was assessed after 7 days of growth. Cloning efficiency and mean transformation frequency after DENA exposure were 3.6% and 1 X 10(-4) per cell seeded, respectively. The ip injection of an immunologic hormone preparation reduced the transformation frequency by 46%. The hormone preparation, containing 10,000 U of lymphotoxin but no detectable interferon, was the ultrafiltered lymphokines (greater than 10,000 mol wt) from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated hamster peritoneal leukocytes. The effect of lymphotoxin on cocarcinogenic exposure of fetal cells to DENA in vivo followed by X-irradiation in vitro was also determined. Cells exposed to 250 rad in vitro had a cloning efficiency of 0.5% and a transformation frequency of 0.4 X 10(-4) per cell seeded. After DENA injection and X-irradiation, the transformation frequency increased to 1 X 10(-4) and was inhibited 64% by lymphotoxin in vivo. Thus immunologic hormones (e.g., lymphotoxin) can prevent carcinogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro quantitation of transformation is a rapid means for evaluating therapeutic and autochthonous effector mechanisms for their ability to prevent or otherwise modulate carcinogenesis in vivo.

  20. Hormone abuse in sports: the antidoping perspective.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Osquel; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Since ancient times, unethical athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A list of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A substance or method might be included in the List if it fulfills at least two of the following criteria: enhances sports performance; represents a risk to the athlete's health; or violates the spirit of sports. This list, constantly updated to reflect new developments in the pharmaceutical industry as well as doping trends, enumerates the drug types and methods prohibited in and out of competition. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, beta2-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. From all these, hormones constitute by far the highest number of adverse analytical findings reported by antidoping laboratories. Although to date most are due to anabolic steroids, the advent of molecular biology techniques has made recombinant peptide hormones readily available. These substances are gradually changing the landscape of doping trends. Peptide hormones like erythropoietin (EPO), human growth hormone (hGH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are presumed to be widely abused for performance enhancement. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of techniques suitable for their detection, peptide hormones are all the more attractive to dishonest athletes. This article will overview the use of hormones as doping substances in sports, focusing mainly on peptide hormones as they represent a pressing challenge to the current fight against doping. Hormones and hormones modulators being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, which could emerge as new doping substances, are also discussed. 2008, Asian

  1. Receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and thyroid hormones in the macaque uterus: effects of long-term sex hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Hulchiy, Mariana; Zhang, Hua; Cline, J Mark; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Sahlin, Lena

    2012-11-01

    Thyroid gland dysfunction is associated with menstrual cycle disturbances, infertility, and increased risk of miscarriage, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. However, little is known about the regulation of these receptors in the uterus. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term treatment with steroid hormones on the expression, distribution, and regulation of the receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRHR) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHR), thyroid hormone receptor α1/α2 (THRα1/α2), and THRβ1 in the uterus of surgically menopausal monkeys. Eighty-eight cynomolgus macaques were ovariectomized and treated orally with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; n = 20), a combination of CEE and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; n = 20), or tibolone (n = 28) for 2 years. The control group (OvxC; n = 20) received no treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the protein expression and distribution of the receptors in luminal epithelium, glands, stroma, and myometrium of the uterus. Immunostaining of TRHR, TSHR, and THRs was detected in all uterine compartments. Epithelial immunostaining of TRHR was down-regulated in the CEE + MPA group, whereas in stroma, both TRHR and TSHR were increased by CEE + MPA treatment as compared with OvxC. TRHR immunoreactivity was up-regulated, but THRα and THRβ were down-regulated, in the myometrium of the CEE and CEE + MPA groups. The thyroid-stimulating hormone level was higher in the CEE and tibolone groups as compared with OvxC, but the level of free thyroxin did not differ between groups. All receptors involved in thyroid hormone function are expressed in monkey uterus, and they are all regulated by long-term steroid hormone treatment. These findings suggest that there is a possibility of direct actions of thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone on uterine function.

  2. Preeclampsia prevention

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Pineda, Lucia M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is the main complication of pregnancy in developing countries. Calcium starting at 14 weeks of pregnancy is indicated to prevent the disease. Recent advances in prevention of preeclampsia endorse the addition of conjugated linoleic acid. Objective: To estimate the protective effect from calcium alone, compared to calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid in nulliparous women at risk of preeclampsia. Methods: A case-control design nested in the cohort of nulliparous women attending antenatal care from 2010 to 2014. The clinical histories of 387 cases of preeclampsia were compared with 1,054 normotensive controls. The exposure was prescriptions for calcium alone, the first period, or calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid, the second period, from 12 to 16 weeks of gestational age to labor. Confounding variables were controlled, allowing only nulliparous women into the study and stratifying by age, education and ethnic group. Results: The average age was 26.4 yrs old (range= 13-45), 85% from mixed ethnic backgrounds and with high school education. There were no differences between women who received calcium carbonate and those who did not (OR= 0.96; 95% CI= 0.73-1.27). The group of adolescents (13 to 18 years old) in the calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid was protected for preeclampsia (OR= 0.00; 95% CI= 0.00-0.44) independent of the confounder variables. Conclusions: 1. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy did not have preventive effects on preeclampsia. 2. Calcium plus Conjugated Linoleic acid provided to adolescents was observed to have preventive effect on Preeclampsia. PMID:26848195

  3. Growth hormone-releasing hormone is produced by adipocytes and regulates lipolysis through growth hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pacheco, F; Gutierrez-Repiso, C; García-Serrano, S; Ho-Plagaro, A; Gómez-Zumaquero, J M; Valdes, S; Gonzalo, M; Rivas-Becerra, J; Montiel-Casado, C; Rojo-Martínez, G; García-Escobar, E; García-Fuentes, E

    2017-10-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) has a crucial role in growth hormone (GH) secretion, but little is known about its production by adipocytes and its involvement in adipocyte metabolism. To determine whether GHRH and its receptor (GHRH-R) are present in human adipocytes and to study their levels in obesity. Also, to analyze the effects of GHRH on human adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis. GHRH/GHRH-R and GH/GH-R mRNA expression levels were analyzed in human mature adipocytes from non-obese and morbidly obese subjects. Human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSC) were differentiated to adipocytes with GHRH (10(-14)-10(-8) M). Adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and gene expression were measured and the effect of GH-R silencing was determined. Mature adipocytes from morbidly obese subjects showed a higher expression of GHRH and GH-R, and a lower expression of GHRH-R and GH than non-obese subjects (P<0.05). A total of 10(-14)-10(-10) M GHRH induced an inhibition of lipid accumulation and PPAR-γ expression (P<0.05), and an increase in glycerol release and HSL expression (P<0.05) in human differentiated adipocytes. A total of 10(-12)-10(-8) M GHRH decreased GHRH-R expression in human differentiated adipocytes (P<0.05). A total of 10(-10)-10(-8) M GHRH increased GH and GH-R expression in human differentiated adipocytes (P<0.05). The effects of GHRH at 10(-10) M on adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis were blocked when GH-R expression was silenced. GHRH and GHRH-R are expressed in human adipocytes and are negatively associated. GHRH at low doses may exert an anti-obesity effect by inhibiting HMSC differentiation in adipocytes and by increasing adipocyte lipolysis in an autocrine or paracrine pathway. These effects are mediated by GH and GH-R.

  4. Preventing suicide.

    PubMed

    Reid, William H

    2010-03-01

    About 35,000 people commit suicide every year in the United States. Almost all are seriously, but treatably, mentally ill. Most come to the attention of a physician, in an emergency room, primary practice setting, or psychiatric hospital or office, during the days, weeks or months before they die. Since 1995, suicide has been the second most commonly reported of all Joint Commission hospital sentinel events (not just psychiatric events). Suicide is involved in the majority of psychiatric malpractice lawsuits. It takes life from patients, parents from children, children from families, and valuable people from society. Suicide is a terrible way to lose a relative or friend, leaving much greater damage than most natural or accidental death. This paper discusses four points to be considered by those who want to improve this situation: 1) Suicide is rarely "voluntary" in any clinical sense of the term; 2) A great many suicides are preventable once a clinician becomes involved; 3) Suicide is worth preventing; 4) There are practical approaches to prevention that work.

  5. Prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Hallworth, R B

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of the review is to outline the interventions, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, available to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) and treat the established disease. Current suggested guidelines for the most cost-effective treatment and prophylactic strategies are included following a consideration of the available options. As life expectancy has increased so has the incidence of PMO which has major quality of life implications for the sufferers and economic implications for the authorities responsible for their treatment. PMO represents a significant public health problem and although more effective treatments are becoming available prevention of the disease by taking account of existing risk factors is preferable. Indeed, a population approach to prevention may be more cost effective than screening for the disease. Attention to dietary calcium intake and exercise regimes have been shown to be effective prophylactic measures premenopausally, while the treatment of choice is hormone replacement therapy (HRT). HRT treats other postmenopausal symptoms in addition to PMO and is available in many presentations, containing different hormones, at different doses intended for different routes of administration. The optimum treatment duration is controversial and may contribute to some of the risks associated with HRT such as endometrial and breast carcinoma and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Newer effective treatments include the bisphosphonates and novel formulations of calcitonin, but older approaches such as vitamin D, anabolic steroids and fluoride are still utilised in some circumstances. However, most promise has been shown by synthetic hormonal modulators currently being trialled.

  6. Thyroid hormone and the developing hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Alkemade, Anneke

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) plays an essential role in normal brain development and function. Both TH excess and insufficiency during development lead to structural brain abnormalities. Proper TH signaling is dependent on active transport of the prohormone thyroxine (T4) across the blood-brain-barrier and into brain cells. In the brain T4 undergoes local deiodination into the more active 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3), which binds to nuclear TH receptors (TRs). TRs are already expressed during the first trimester of pregnancy, even before the fetal thyroid becomes functional. Throughout pregnancy, the fetus is largely dependent on the maternal TH supply. Recent studies in mice have shown that normal hypothalamic development requires intact TH signaling. In addition, the development of the human lateral hypothalamic zone coincides with a strong increase in T3 and TR mRNA concentrations in the brain. During this time the fetal hypothalamus already shows evidence for TH signaling. Expression of components crucial for central TH signaling show a specific developmental timing in the human hypothalamus. A coordinated expression of deiodinases in combination with TH transporters suggests that TH concentrations are regulated to prevent untimely maturation of brain cells. Even though the fetus depends on the maternal TH supply, there is evidence suggesting a role for the fetal hypothalamus in the regulation of TH serum concentrations. A decrease in expression of proteins involved in TH signaling towards the end of pregnancy may indicate a lower fetal TH demand. This may be relevant for the thyrotropin (TSH) surge that is usually observed after birth, and supports a role for the hypothalamus in the regulation of TH concentrations during the fetal period anticipating birth. PMID:25750617

  7. Effects of hormone therapy on brain structure

    PubMed Central

    Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Zuk, Samantha M.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Gleason, Carey E.; Wharton, Whitney; Dowling, N. Maritza; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Senjem, Matthew L.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bailey, Kent R.; Rocca, Walter A.; Jack, Clifford R.; Asthana, Sanjay; Miller, Virginia M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of hormone therapy on brain structure in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in recently postmenopausal women. Methods: Participants (aged 42–56 years, within 5–36 months past menopause) in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study were randomized to (1) 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), (2) 50 μg/d transdermal 17β-estradiol, or (3) placebo pills and patch for 48 months. Oral progesterone (200 mg/d) was given to active treatment groups for 12 days each month. MRI and cognitive testing were performed in a subset of participants at baseline, and at 18, 36, and 48 months of randomization (n = 95). Changes in whole brain, ventricular, and white matter hyperintensity volumes, and in global cognitive function, were measured. Results: Higher rates of ventricular expansion were observed in both the CEE and the 17β-estradiol groups compared to placebo; however, the difference was significant only in the CEE group (p = 0.01). Rates of ventricular expansion correlated with rates of decrease in brain volume (r = −0.58; p ≤ 0.001) and with rates of increase in white matter hyperintensity volume (r = 0.27; p = 0.01) after adjusting for age. The changes were not different between the CEE and 17β-estradiol groups for any of the MRI measures. The change in global cognitive function was not different across the groups. Conclusions: Ventricular volumes increased to a greater extent in recently menopausal women who received CEE compared to placebo but without changes in cognitive performance. Because the sample size was small and the follow-up limited to 4 years, the findings should be interpreted with caution and need confirmation. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that brain ventricular volume increased to a greater extent in recently menopausal women who received oral CEE compared to placebo. PMID:27473135

  8. The revolution in insect neuropeptides illustrated by the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family of peptides.

    PubMed

    Gäde, G

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has seen a surge in the knowledge on primary structures of insect neuropeptides. Particularly successful were isolations and sequence determinations of more than 30 members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family of peptides. This brief overview describes the techniques used to obtain data on purification and structure such as high performance liquid chromatography, Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry. Moreover, a short account on the precursors and on the multiple functions of the peptides of the AKH/RPCH family in various crustacean and insect species is given.

  9. Prevent and cure disuse bone loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, Webster S. S.

    1994-01-01

    Anabolic agents like parathyroid hormone and postagladin E-like substances were studied in dogs and rats to determine their effectiveness in the prevention and cure of bone loss due to immobilization. It was determined that postagladin E2 administration prevented immobilization while at the same time it added extra bone in a dose responsive manner. Although bone mass returns, poor trabecular architecture remains after normal ambulation recovery from immobilization. Disuse related bone loss and poor trabecular architecture were cured by post-immobilization postagladin E2 treatment.

  10. Anabolic hormone profiles in elite military men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Kviatkovsky, Shiloah A; Hernández, Lisa M; Sargent, Paul; Segal, Sabrina; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-06-01

    We recently characterized the awakening responses and daily profiles of the catabolic stress hormone cortisol in elite military men. Anabolic hormones follow a similar daily pattern and may counteract the catabolic effects of cortisol. This companion report is the first to characterize daily profiles of anabolic hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone in this population. Overall, the men in this study displayed anabolic hormone profiles comparable to that of healthy, athletic populations. Consistent with the cortisol findings in our prior report, summary parameters of magnitude (hormone output) within the first hour after awakening displayed superior stability versus summary parameters of pattern for both DHEA (r range: 0.77-0.82) and testosterone (r range: 0.62-0.69). Summary parameters of evening function were stable for the two hormones (both p<0.001), while the absolute decrease in testosterone across the day was a stable proxy of diurnal function (p<0.001). Removal of noncompliant subjects did not appreciably affect concentration estimates for either hormone at any time point, nor did it alter the repeatability of any summary parameter. The first of its kind, this report enables accurate estimations of anabolic balance and resultant effects upon health and human performance in this highly resilient yet chronically stressed population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Hormonal modulation of endothelial NO production.

    PubMed

    Duckles, Sue P; Miller, Virginia M

    2010-05-01

    Since the discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and the subsequent identification of nitric oxide (NO) as the primary mediator of endothelium-dependent relaxations, research has focused on chemical and physical stimuli that modulate NO levels. Hormones represent a class of soluble, widely circulating chemical factors that impact production of NO both by rapid effects on the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through phosphorylation of the enzyme and longer term modulation through changes in amount of eNOS protein. Hormones that increase NO production including estrogen, progesterone, insulin, and growth hormone do so through both of these common mechanisms. In contrast, some hormones, including glucocorticoids, progesterone, and prolactin, decrease NO bioavailability. Mechanisms involved include binding to repressor response elements on the eNOS gene, competing for co-regulators common to hormones with positive genomic actions, regulating eNOS co-factors, decreasing substrate for eNOS, and increasing production of oxygen-derived free radicals. Feedback regulation by the hormones themselves as well as the ability of NO to regulate hormonal release provides a second level of complexity that can also contribute to changes in NO levels. These effects on eNOS and changes in NO production may contribute to variability in risk factors, presentation of and treatment for cardiovascular disease associated with aging, pregnancy, stress, and metabolic disorders in men and women.

  12. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  13. Hormonal Factors and Disturbances in Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Culbert, Kristen M; Racine, Sarah E; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-07-01

    This review summarizes the current state of the literature regarding hormonal correlates of, and etiologic influences on, eating pathology. Several hormones (e.g., ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, PYY, leptin, oxytocin, cortisol) are disrupted during the ill state of eating disorders and likely contribute to the maintenance of core symptoms (e.g., dietary restriction, binge eating) and/or co-occurring features (e.g., mood symptoms, attentional biases). Some of these hormones (e.g., ghrelin, cortisol) may also be related to eating pathology via links with psychological stress. Despite these effects, the role of hormonal factors in the etiology of eating disorders remains unknown. The strongest evidence for etiologic effects has emerged for ovarian hormones, as changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in phenotypic and genetic influences on disordered eating. Future studies would benefit from utilizing etiologically informative designs (e.g., high risk, behavioral genetic) and continuing to explore factors (e.g., psychological, neural responsivity) that may impact hormonal influences on eating pathology.

  14. Hormonal modulation of endothelial NO production

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Virginia M.

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and the subsequent identification of nitric oxide (NO) as the primary mediator of endothelium-dependent relaxations, research has focused on chemical and physical stimuli that modulate NO levels. Hormones represent a class of soluble, widely circulating chemical factors that impact production of NO both by rapid effects on the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through phosphorylation of the enzyme and longer term modulation through changes in amount of eNOS protein. Hormones that increase NO production including estrogen, progesterone, insulin, and growth hormone do so through both of these common mechanisms. In contrast, some hormones, including glucocorticoids, progesterone, and prolactin, decrease NO bioavailability. Mechanisms involved include binding to repressor response elements on the eNOS gene, competing for co-regulators common to hormones with positive genomic actions, regulating eNOS co-factors, decreasing substrate for eNOS, and increasing production of oxygen-derived free radicals. Feedback regulation by the hormones themselves as well as the ability of NO to regulate hormonal release provides a second level of complexity that can also contribute to changes in NO levels. These effects on eNOS and changes in NO production may contribute to variability in risk factors, presentation of and treatment for cardiovascular disease associated with aging, pregnancy, stress, and metabolic disorders in men and women. PMID:20213497

  15. Cholera Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention ... basics of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention Control Topics Six Basic Cholera Prevention Messages I ...

  16. A cross-sectional study of hormone treatment and hippocampal volume in postmenopausal women: Evidence for a limited window of opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Voss, Michelle W.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Chaddock, Laura; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of hormone treatment on brain and cognition in postmenopausal women has been a controversial topic. Contradictory patterns of results have prompted speculation that a critical period, or a limited window of opportunity, exists for hormone treatment to protect against cognitive and neural decline in older women. Consistent with this hypothesis, studies in both humans and rodents indicate that the latency between the time of menopause and the initiation of hormone treatment is an important factor in determining whether hormone treatment will prevent or exacerbate cognitive impairment. In this cross-sectional study of 102 postmenopausal women, we examined whether hippocampal, amygdala, or caudate nucleus volumes and spatial memory performance were related to the interval between menopause and the initiation of hormone treatment. Consistent with a critical period hypothesis, we found that shorter intervals between menopause and the initiation of hormone treatment, as determined by self-report, were associated with larger hippocampal volumes compared with longer intervals between menopause and treatment initiation. Initiation of hormone treatment at the time of menopause was also associated with larger hippocampal volumes when compared to peers who had never used hormone treatment. Furthermore, these effects were independent from potentially confounding factors such as age, years of education, the duration of hormone treatment, current or past use of hormone therapy, the type of therapy, and the age at menopause. Larger hippocampal volumes in women who initiated hormone treatment at the time of menopause failed to translate to improved spatial memory performance. There was no relationship between the timing of hormone initiation, spatial memory performance, and amygdala or caudate nucleus volume. Our results provide support for the idea that there is a limited window of opportunity at the time of menopause for hormone treatment to influence hippocampal

  17. Arabidopsis Hormone Database: a comprehensive genetic and phenotypic information database for plant hormone research in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhi-yu; Zhou, Xin; Li, Linchuan; Yu, Xiangchun; Li, Hongjiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Guangyu; Bai, Mingyi; Wang, Xingchun; Jiang, Caifu; Lu, Haibin; Hou, Xianhui; Qu, Lijia; Wang, Zhiyong; Zuo, Jianru; Fu, Xiangdong; Su, Zhen; Li, Songgang; Guo, Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Plant hormones are small organic molecules that influence almost every aspect of plant growth and development. Genetic and molecular studies have revealed a large number of genes that are involved in responses to numerous plant hormones, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and brassinosteroid. Here, we develop an Arabidopsis hormone database, which aims to provide a systematic and comprehensive view of genes participating in plant hormonal regulation, as well as morphological phenotypes controlled by plant hormones. Based on data from mutant studies, transgenic analysis and gene ontology (GO) annotation, we have identified a total of 1026 genes in the Arabidopsis genome that participate in plant hormone functions. Meanwhile, a phenotype ontology is developed to precisely describe myriad hormone-regulated morphological processes with standardized vocabularies. A web interface (http://ahd.cbi.pku.edu.cn) would allow users to quickly get access to information about these hormone-related genes, including sequences, functional category, mutant information, phenotypic description, microarray data and linked publications. Several applications of this database in studying plant hormonal regulation and hormone cross-talk will be presented and discussed. PMID:19015126

  18. Arabidopsis Hormone Database: a comprehensive genetic and phenotypic information database for plant hormone research in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhi-yu; Zhou, Xin; Li, Linchuan; Yu, Xiangchun; Li, Hongjiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Guangyu; Bai, Mingyi; Wang, Xingchun; Jiang, Caifu; Lu, Haibin; Hou, Xianhui; Qu, Lijia; Wang, Zhiyong; Zuo, Jianru; Fu, Xiangdong; Su, Zhen; Li, Songgang; Guo, Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Plant hormones are small organic molecules that influence almost every aspect of plant growth and development. Genetic and molecular studies have revealed a large number of genes that are involved in responses to numerous plant hormones, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and brassinosteroid. Here, we develop an Arabidopsis hormone database, which aims to provide a systematic and comprehensive view of genes participating in plant hormonal regulation, as well as morphological phenotypes controlled by plant hormones. Based on data from mutant studies, transgenic analysis and gene ontology (GO) annotation, we have identified a total of 1026 genes in the Arabidopsis genome that participate in plant hormone functions. Meanwhile, a phenotype ontology is developed to precisely describe myriad hormone-regulated morphological processes with standardized vocabularies. A web interface (http://ahd.cbi.pku.edu.cn) would allow users to quickly get access to information about these hormone-related genes, including sequences, functional category, mutant information, phenotypic description, microarray data and linked publications. Several applications of this database in studying plant hormonal regulation and hormone cross-talk will be presented and discussed.

  19. Informing women about hormone replacement therapy: the consensus conference statement

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Paola; Donati, Serena; Colombo, Cinzia; Mele, Alfonso; Liberati, Alessandro; Satolli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Background The risks/benefits balance of hormone replacement therapy is controversial. Information can influence consumers' knowledge and behavior; research findings about hormone replacement therapy are uncertain and the messages provided by the media are of poor quality and incomplete, preventing a fully informed decision making process. We therefore felt that an explicit, rigorous and structured assessment of the information needs on this issue was urgent and we opted for the organisation of a national consensus conference (CC) to assess the current status of the quality of information on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and re-visit recent research findings on its risks/benefits. Methods We chose a structured approach based on the traditional CC method combined with a structured preparatory work supervised by an organising committee (OC) and a scientific board (SB). The OC and SB chose the members of the CC's jury and appointed three multidisciplinary working groups (MWG) which were asked to review clinical issues and different aspects of the quality of information. Before the CC, the three MWGs carried out: a literature review on the risk/benefit profile of HRT and two surveys on the quality of information on lay press and booklets targeted to women. A population survey on women's knowledge, attitude and practice was also carried out. The jury received the documents in advance, listened the presentations during the two-day meeting of the CCs, met immediately after in a closed-door meeting and prepared the final document. Participants were researchers, clinicians, journalists as well as consumers' representatives. Results Key messages in the CC's deliberation were: a) women need to be fully informed about the transient nature of menopausal symptoms, about HRT risks and benefits and about the availability of non-pharmacological interventions; b) HRT is not recommended to prevent menopausal symptoms; c) the term "HRT" is misleading and "post menopausal hormone

  20. Allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  1. Effects of ghrelin, growth hormone-releasing peptide-6, and growth hormone-releasing hormone on growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol release in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Larissa Bianca Paiva Cunha; Nascif, Sergio Oliva; Correa-Silva, Silvia Regina; Molica, Patricia; Vieira, José Gilberto Henriques; Dib, Sergio Atala; Lengyel, Ana-Maria Judith

    2010-10-01

    In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), growth hormone (GH) responses to provocative stimuli are normal or exaggerated, whereas the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has been less studied. Ghrelin is a GH secretagogue that also increases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, similarly to GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6). Ghrelin's effects in patients with T1DM have not been evaluated. We therefore studied GH, ACTH, and cortisol responses to ghrelin and GHRP-6 in 9 patients with T1DM and 9 control subjects. The GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-induced GH release was also evaluated. Mean fasting GH levels (micrograms per liter) were higher in T1DM (3.5 ± 1.2) than in controls (0.6 ± 0.3). In both groups, ghrelin-induced GH release was higher than that after GHRP-6 and GHRH. When analyzing Δ area under the curve (ΔAUC) GH values after ghrelin, GHRP-6, and GHRH, no significant differences were observed in T1DM compared with controls. There was a trend (P = .055) to higher mean basal cortisol values (micrograms per deciliter) in T1DM (11.7 ± 1.5) compared with controls (8.2 ± 0.8). No significant differences were seen in ΔAUC cortisol values in both groups after ghrelin and GHRP-6. Mean fasting ACTH values were similar in T1DM and controls. No differences were seen in ΔAUC ACTH levels in both groups after ghrelin and GHRP-6. In summary, patients with T1DM have normal GH responsiveness to ghrelin, GHRP-6, and GHRH. The ACTH and cortisol release after ghrelin and GHRP-6 is also similar to controls. Our results suggest that chronic hyperglycemia of T1DM does not interfere with GH-, ACTH-, and cortisol-releasing mechanisms stimulated by these peptides.

  2. Growth hormone and nutrition as protective agents against methotrexate induced enteritis.

    PubMed

    Ortega, M; de Segura, I A; Vázquez, I; López, J M; De Miguel, E

    2001-03-01

    To determine whether exogenously administered growth hormone can reduce or prevent chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucosa injury. The expected results will allow to consider its potential clinical use. Experimental and randomized study. Experimental Surgery Service, La Paz University Hospital. Adult Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g. A chemotherapy protocol with methotrexate (MTX) (120 mg/kg) was employed. Animals fed either with a normoproteic or a hyperproteic liquid diet were treated with either saline or growth hormone (1 mg/kg/day) since three days before until four days after chemotherapy. Animals were sacrificed seven days after MTX administration for tissue sampling. Co-administration of growth hormone and a hyperproteic diet increased intestinal crypt proliferation and reduced MTX-induced apoptosis. Jejunal mucosal structure (morphometry), proliferation (Ki-67) and apoptosis (TUNNEL) were assessed.

  3. Effects of different fixatives on demonstrating epinephrine and ACTH hormones in Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Kovács, P; Pállinger, E

    2009-12-01

    The unicellular Tetrahymena produces, contains, and secretes many hormones characteristic of higher animals. We tested three fixatives, formaldehyde, N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC), and glutaraldehyde for suitability for immunocytochemical demonstration of epinephrine and adrenocorticotropic harmone (ACTH) in Tetrahymena. Using flow cytometric immunocytochemistry, staining of ACTH was highest after EDAC fixation and that of epinephrine after glutaraldehyde fixation. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, formaldehyde fixation prevented staining. Glutaraldehyde fixation produced high autofluorescence, which obscured specific staining. After EDAC fixation, ACTH was localized in the ciliary row; however, demonstration of epinephrine was not improved. Our results show that there is no "fixative for any hormone." Different fixatives are needed to demonstrate different hormones in Tetrahymena.

  4. Hormonal contraception and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Saleh, A A; Ginsburg, K A; Duchon, T A; Dorey, L G; Hirata, J; Alshameeri, R S; Dombrowski, M P; Mammen, E F

    1995-05-15

    73 healthy women (29 controls, 25 using OCs, and 19 using Norplant) were selected from the clinic population at North Oakland Medical Center for inclusion in this study after obtaining informed consent. Age, race, height, weight, blood pressure, and cigarette smoking were recorded for each subject. 12 patients were on monophasic OCs while 13 were on triphasic preparations. Both hormonal contraceptive groups had used their particular contraceptive for at least 3 months prior to blood drawing. Platelet tests were performed within 2 hours of sample collection: platelet counts (PLC) and mean platelet volume (MPV) were determined on an Automated Platelet Counter (Baker 810 Platelet Analyzer). Whole blood aggregation was performed on a platelet aggregometer (Chrono-Log, Model 550) using both ADP (ADP, 5 mM) and collagen (COLL, 2 mcg/ml) as inducing agents. Demographic differences were not significant (p 0.05) among the 3 treatment groups, whose average age was 25.3-25.8 years old. Furthermore, no significant differences (p 0.05) in platelet function were detected among controls or subjects receiving either oral contraceptives or Norplant, compared to control patients. The mean platelet counts (X 10/9/L) were 223 for OC users, 231 for Norplant users, and 232 for controls. The respective platelet aggregation (ADP, ohms) values were 12.5, 18.0, and 19.2 as well as (COLL, ohms) 35.6, 40.7, and 39.0. These results demonstrated that there is no evidence for altered platelet function, with the testing methods employed, in women using either Norplant or combination low dose oral contraceptives. To date, several studies have examined this issue, with contradictory reports about the effects of hormonal contraceptives in platelet function. After controlling for differences between various steroid preparations and other such confounding variables, some of these conflicting conclusions could be the result of a lack of uniformity among the methods used to evaluate platelet aggregation

  5. History of growth hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Blizzard, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    The first human to receive GH therapy was in 1956; it was of bovine origin and was given for 3 wk for metabolic balance studies revealing no effects. By 1958, three separate laboratories utilizing different extraction methods retrieved hGH from human pituitaries, purified it and used for clinical investigation. By 1959 presumed GHD patients were being given native hGH collected and extracted by various methods. Since 1 mg of hGH was needed to treat one patient per day, >360 human pituitaries were needed per patient per year. Thus, the availability of hGH was limited and was awarded on the basis of clinical research protocols approved by the National Pituitary Agency (NPA) established in 1961. hGH was dispensed and injected on a milligram weight basis with varied concentrations between batches from 0.5 units/mg to 2.0 units/mg of hGH. By 1977 a centralized laboratory was established to extract all human pituitaries in the US, this markedly improved the yield of hGH obtained and most remarkably, hGH of this laboratory was never associated with Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (CJD) resulting from the injection of apparently prior- contaminated hGH produced years earlier. However, widespread rhGH use was not possible even if a pituitary from each autopsy performed in the US was collected, this would only permit therapy for about 4,000 patients. Thus, the mass production of rhGH required the identification of the gene structure of the hormone, methodology that began in 1976 to make insulin by recombinant technology. Serendipity was manifest in 1985 when patients who had received hGH years previously were reported to have died of CJD. This led to the discontinuation of the distribution and use of hGH, at a time when a synthetic rhGH became available for clinical use. The creation of a synthetic rhGH was accompanied by unlimited supplies of hGH for investigation and therapy. However, the appropriate use and the potential abuse of this hormone are to be dealt with. The

  6. Positioning the nodule, the hormone dictum

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yiliang

    2009-01-01

    The formation of a nitrogen-fixing nodule involves two diverse developmental processes in the legume root: infection thread initiation in epidermal cells and nodule primordia formation in the cortex. Several plant hormones have been reported to positively or negatively regulate nodulation. These hormones function at different stages in the nodulation process and may facilitate the coordinated development of the epidermal and cortical developmental programs that are necessary to allow bacterial infection into the developing nodule. In this paper, we review and discuss how the tissue specific nature of hormonal action dictates where, when and how a nodule is formed. PMID:19649179

  7. Sleep and hormonal changes in aging.

    PubMed

    Copinschi, Georges; Caufriez, Anne

    2013-06-01

    Age-related sleep and endocrinometabolic alterations frequently interact with each other. For many hormones, sleep curtailment in young healthy subjects results in alterations strikingly similar to those observed in healthy old subjects not submitted to sleep restriction. Thus, recurrent sleep restriction, which is currently experienced by a substantial and rapidly growing proportion of children and young adults, might contribute to accelerate the senescence of endocrine and metabolic function. The mechanisms of sleep-hormonal interactions, and therefore the endocrinometabolic consequences of age-related sleep alterations, which markedly differ from one hormone to another, are reviewed in this article.

  8. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  9. The Radioimmunoassay of Fluid and Electrolyte Hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Lanny C.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of the paper will be the assay of fluid/electrolyte hormones. ADH (antidiuretic hormone also referred to as vasopressin) reduces fluid loss by increasing water reabsorption by the kidney. The stimuli for its release from the pituitary are loss of blood, dehydration, or increased salt intake. Angiotensin II is the next hormone of interest. It is "generated" from a blood protein by the release of renin from the kidney. One of its functions is to stimulate the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal gland. Release of renin is also stimulated by volume and sodium loss.

  10. Hormonal component of tumor photodynamic therapy response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones in the response of the treatment of solid tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) comes from the induction of acute phase response by this modality. This adrenal gland activity is orchestrated through the engagement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal axis incited by stress signals emanating from the PDT-treated tumor. Glucocorticoid hormone activity engendered within the context of PDT-induced acute phase response performs multiple important functions; among other involvements they beget acute phase reactant production, systemic neutrophil mobilization, and control the production of inflammation-modulating and immunoregulatory proteins.

  11. The Radioimmunoassay of Fluid and Electrolyte Hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Lanny C.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of the paper will be the assay of fluid/electrolyte hormones. ADH (antidiuretic hormone also referred to as vasopressin) reduces fluid loss by increasing water reabsorption by the kidney. The stimuli for its release from the pituitary are loss of blood, dehydration, or increased salt intake. Angiotensin II is the next hormone of interest. It is "generated" from a blood protein by the release of renin from the kidney. One of its functions is to stimulate the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal gland. Release of renin is also stimulated by volume and sodium loss.

  12. Bowels control brain: gut hormones and obesity.

    PubMed

    Bewick, Gavin A

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones are released from the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrients and communicate information regarding the current state of energy balance to the brain. These hormones regulate appetite, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. They can act either via the circulation at target peripheral tissues, by activation of the vagus nerve or by acting on key brain regions implicated in energy homeostasis such as the hypothalamus and brainstem. This review gives an overview of the main gut hormones implicated in the regulation of food intake and how some of these are being targeted to develop anti obesity treatments.

  13. Bowels control brain: gut hormones and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Bewick, Gavin A.

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones are released from the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrients and communicate information regarding the current state of energy balance to the brain. These hormones regulate appetite, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. They can act either via the circulation at target peripheral tissues, by activation of the vagus nerve or by acting on key brain regions implicated in energy homeostasis such as the hypothalamus and brainstem. This review gives an overview of the main gut hormones implicated in the regulation of food intake and how some of these are being targeted to develop anti obesity treatments. PMID:23092061

  14. A Hormonally Active Malignant Struma Ovarii

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Carolina; Salame, Latife; Padilla-Longoria, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Struma ovarii is a rare monodermal variant of ovarian teratoma that contains at least 50% thyroid tissue. Less than 8% of struma ovarii cases present with clinical and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis due to ectopic production of thyroid hormone and only 5% undergo malignant transformation into a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Only isolated cases of hormonally active papillary thyroid carcinoma developing within a struma ovarii have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism as well as a left adnexal mass, which proved to be a thyroid hormone-producing, malignant struma ovarii. PMID:27882257

  15. A Hormonally Active Malignant Struma Ovarii.

    PubMed

    Lara, Carolina; Cuenca, Dalia; Salame, Latife; Padilla-Longoria, Rafael; Mercado, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    Struma ovarii is a rare monodermal variant of ovarian teratoma that contains at least 50% thyroid tissue. Less than 8% of struma ovarii cases present with clinical and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis due to ectopic production of thyroid hormone and only 5% undergo malignant transformation into a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Only isolated cases of hormonally active papillary thyroid carcinoma developing within a struma ovarii have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism as well as a left adnexal mass, which proved to be a thyroid hormone-producing, malignant struma ovarii.

  16. [Benefits and risks of growth hormone in adults with growth hormone deficiency].

    PubMed

    Díez, Juan J; Cordido, Fernando

    2014-10-21

    Adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency is a well-recognized clinical syndrome with adverse health consequences. Many of these may improve after replacement therapy with recombinant GH. This treatment induces an increase in lean body mass and a decrease in fat mass. In long-term studies, bone mineral density increases and muscle strength improves. Health-related quality of life tends to increase after treatment with GH. Lipid profile and markers of cardiovascular risk also improve with therapy. Nevertheless, GH replacement therapy is not without risk. According to some studies, GH increases blood glucose, body mass index and waist circumference and may promote long-term development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Risk of neoplasia does not appear to be increased in adults treated with GH, but there are some high-risk subgroups. Methodological shortcomings and difficulties inherent to long-term studies prevent definitive conclusions about the relationship between GH and survival. Therefore, research in this field should remain active. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemosignals, hormones, and amphibian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Woodley, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Amphibians are often thought of as relatively simple animals especially when compared to mammals. Yet the chemosignaling systems used by amphibians are varied and complex. Amphibian chemosignals are particularly important in reproduction, in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Chemosignaling is most evident in salamanders and newts, but increasing evidence indicates that chemical communication facilitates reproduction in frogs and toads as well. Reproductive hormones shape the production, dissemination, detection, and responsiveness to chemosignals. A large variety of chemosignals have been identified, ranging from simple, invariant chemosignals to complex, variable blends of chemosignals. Although some chemosignals elicit straightforward responses, others have relatively subtle effects. Review of amphibian chemosignaling reveals a number of issues to be resolved, including: 1) the significance of the complex, individually variable blends of courtship chemosignals found in some salamanders, 2) the behavioral and/or physiological functions of chemosignals found in anuran "breeding glands", 3) the ligands for amphibian V2Rs, especially V2Rs expressed in the main olfactory epithelium, and 4) the mechanism whereby transdermal delivery of chemosignals influences behavior. To date, only a handful of the more than 7000 species of amphibians has been examined. Further study of amphibians should provide additional insight to the role of chemosignals in reproduction.

  18. Thyroid Hormone and Seasonal Rhythmicity

    PubMed Central

    Dardente, Hugues; Hazlerigg, David G.; Ebling, Francis J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation, and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone (TH) conversion. Here, we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of TH signaling within the medio-basal hypothalamus (MBH) through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, TH might also be involved in longer-term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the MBH, in seasonal rhythmicity. PMID:24616714

  19. Nuclear hormone receptors in chordates.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Stéphanie; Belgacem, Mohamed R; Escriva, Hector

    2011-03-01

    In order to understand evolution of the endocrine systems in chordates, study of the evolution of the nuclear receptors (NRs), which mediate the cellular responses to several key hormones, is of major interest. Thanks to the sequencing of several complete genomes of different species in the three chordate phyla, we now have a global view of the evolution of the nuclear receptors gene content in this lineage. The challenge is now to understand how the function of the different receptors evolved during the invertebrate-chordate to vertebrate transition by studying the functional properties of the NRs using comparative approaches in different species. The best available model system to answer this question is the cephalochordate amphioxus which has a NR gene complement close to that of the chordate ancestor. Here we review the available data concerning the function of the amphioxus NRs, and we discuss some evolutionary scenarios that can be drawn from these results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Extrapituitary growth hormone and growth?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Steve; Baudet, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    While growth hormone (GH) is obligatory for postnatal growth, it is not required for a number of growth-without-GH syndromes, such as early embryonic or fetal growth. Instead, these syndromes are thought to be dependent upon local growth factors, rather than pituitary GH. The GH gene is, however, also expressed in many extrapituitary tissues, particularly during early development and extrapituitary GH may be one of the local growth factors responsible for embryonic or fetal growth. Moreover, as the expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene mirrors that of GH in extrapituitary tissues the actions of GH in early development are likely to be mediated by local autocrine or paracrine mechanisms, especially as extrapituitary GH expression occurs prior to the ontogeny of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of GH in embryos has also been shown to be of functional relevance in a number of species, since the immunoneutralization of endogenous GH or the blockade of GH production is accompanied by growth impairment or cellular apoptosis. The extrapituitary expression of the GH gene also persists in some central and peripheral tissues postnatally, which may reflect its continued functional importance and physiological or pathophysiological significance. The expression and functional relevance of extrapituitary GH, particularly during embryonic growth, is the focus of this brief review.