Science.gov

Sample records for price trackers inspired

  1. INSPIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Bill; Pine, Bill

    2003-01-01

    INSPIRE (Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment - http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/inspire) is a non-profit scientific, educational organization whose objective is to bring the excitement of observing natural and manmade radio waves in the audio region to high school students and others. The project consists of building an audio frequency radio receiver kit, making observations of natural and manmade radio waves and analyzing the data. Students also learn about NASA and our natural environment through the study of lightning, the source of many of the audio frequency waves, the atmosphere, the ionosphere, and the magnetosphere where the waves travel.

  2. Eye tracker.

    PubMed

    Pruehsner, W; Enderle, J D

    1999-01-01

    A device that records saccadic eye movements, the Eye Tracker, is presented in this paper. The Eye Tracker utilizes infra-red technology mounted on fully adjustable goggles to follow eye movements targeted by either a goggles mounted HUD type display or a wall mounted light bank. Output from the goggles is remotely sent to a PC type computer, which leads to device portability. The goggles can also maintain output data in an internal memory for latter download. The user interface is Windows based with the output from the goggles represented as a trace map or plotted points. This output can also be saved or printed for future reference. The user interface can be used on any PC type computer. The device is designed with reference to standard ISO design methodology. Safety in design and final product usage has also been addressed with reference to standard ISO type procedures. Device accuracy is maintained by precise construction of the IR units in the goggles and tight control of cross talk between each IR device plus filtering of ambient light signals. Also, a reset feature is included to maintain equal baseline control. An automatic switching device is included in the goggles to allow the Eye Tracker to "warm up," assuring that equal IR power is delivered for each subject tested. The IR units in the goggles are also modular in case replacement is required. PMID:11143354

  3. Tracker Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Steven J.; Palacios, David M.

    2013-01-01

    This software can track multiple moving objects within a video stream simultaneously, use visual features to aid in the tracking, and initiate tracks based on object detection in a subregion. A simple programmatic interface allows plugging into larger image chain modeling suites. It extracts unique visual features for aid in tracking and later analysis, and includes sub-functionality for extracting visual features about an object identified within an image frame. Tracker Toolkit utilizes a feature extraction algorithm to tag each object with metadata features about its size, shape, color, and movement. Its functionality is independent of the scale of objects within a scene. The only assumption made on the tracked objects is that they move. There are no constraints on size within the scene, shape, or type of movement. The Tracker Toolkit is also capable of following an arbitrary number of objects in the same scene, identifying and propagating the track of each object from frame to frame. Target objects may be specified for tracking beforehand, or may be dynamically discovered within a tripwire region. Initialization of the Tracker Toolkit algorithm includes two steps: Initializing the data structures for tracked target objects, including targets preselected for tracking; and initializing the tripwire region. If no tripwire region is desired, this step is skipped. The tripwire region is an area within the frames that is always checked for new objects, and all new objects discovered within the region will be tracked until lost (by leaving the frame, stopping, or blending in to the background).

  4. Silicon Tracker Design for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.; /SLAC

    2005-07-27

    The task of tracking charged particles in energy frontier collider experiments has been largely taken over by solid-state detectors. While silicon microstrip trackers offer many advantages in this environment, large silicon trackers are generally much more massive than their gaseous counterparts. Because of the properties of the machine itself, much of the material that comprises a typical silicon microstrip tracker can be eliminated from a design for the ILC. This realization is the inspiration for a tracker design using lightweight, short, mass-producible modules to tile closed, nested cylinders with silicon microstrips. This design relies upon a few key technologies to provide excellent performance with low cost and complexity. The details of this concept are discussed, along with the performance and status of the design effort.

  5. Interacting Multiview Tracker.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju Hong; Yang, Ming-Hsuan; Yoon, Kuk-Jin

    2016-05-01

    A robust algorithm is proposed for tracking a target object in dynamic conditions including motion blurs, illumination changes, pose variations, and occlusions. To cope with these challenging factors, multiple trackers based on different feature representations are integrated within a probabilistic framework. Each view of the proposed multiview (multi-channel) feature learning algorithm is concerned with one particular feature representation of a target object from which a tracker is developed with different levels of reliability. With the multiple trackers, the proposed algorithm exploits tracker interaction and selection for robust tracking performance. In the tracker interaction, a transition probability matrix is used to estimate dependencies between trackers. Multiple trackers communicate with each other by sharing information of sample distributions. The tracker selection process determines the most reliable tracker with the highest probability. To account for object appearance changes, the transition probability matrix and tracker probability are updated in a recursive Bayesian framework by reflecting the tracker reliability measured by a robust tracker likelihood function that learns to account for both transient and stable appearance changes. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed interacting multiview algorithm performs robustly and favorably against state-of-the-art methods in terms of several quantitative metrics. PMID:26336117

  6. ORNL SunTracker

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, Robert Wesley

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screen that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.

  7. Writing Inspired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  8. Miniature Laser Tracker

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2003-09-09

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  9. ORNL SunTracker

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screenmore » that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.« less

  10. LHCb Silicon Tracker infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermoline, Yuri

    2004-02-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is a vital part of the experiment. It consists of four planar stations: one trigger and three inner tracking stations. The operation of the Silicon Tracker detectors and electronics is provided by its infrastructure: cooling system, high- and low-voltage power supply systems, temperature and radiation monitoring systems. Several components of these systems are located in the experimental hall and subjected to radiation. This paper mainly concentrates on the recent development: requirements definition, evaluation of possible implementation scenarios, component choice and component radiation tests.

  11. Sun-Relative Pointing for Dual-Axis Solar Trackers Employing Azimuth and Elevation Rotations

    DOE PAGES

    Riley, Daniel; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2014-12-30

    Dual axis trackers employing azimuth and elevation rotations are common in the field of photovoltaic (PV) energy generation. Accurate sun-tracking algorithms are widely available. However, a steering algorithm has not been available to accurately point the tracker away from the sun such that a vector projection of the sun beam onto the tracker face falls along a desired path relative to the tracker face. We have developed an algorithm which produces the appropriate azimuth and elevation angles for a dual axis tracker when given the sun position, desired angle of incidence, and the desired projection of the sun beam ontomore » the tracker face. Development of this algorithm was inspired by the need to accurately steer a tracker to desired sun-relative positions in order to better characterize the electro-optical properties of PV and CPV modules.« less

  12. Sun-Relative Pointing for Dual-Axis Solar Trackers Employing Azimuth and Elevation Rotations

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Daniel; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2014-12-30

    Dual axis trackers employing azimuth and elevation rotations are common in the field of photovoltaic (PV) energy generation. Accurate sun-tracking algorithms are widely available. However, a steering algorithm has not been available to accurately point the tracker away from the sun such that a vector projection of the sun beam onto the tracker face falls along a desired path relative to the tracker face. We have developed an algorithm which produces the appropriate azimuth and elevation angles for a dual axis tracker when given the sun position, desired angle of incidence, and the desired projection of the sun beam onto the tracker face. Development of this algorithm was inspired by the need to accurately steer a tracker to desired sun-relative positions in order to better characterize the electro-optical properties of PV and CPV modules.

  13. Line-focus sun trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, R.

    1980-05-01

    Sun trackers have been a troublesome component for line-focus concentrating collector systems. The problems have included poor accuracy, component failures, false locks on clouds, and restricted tracker operating ranges. In response to these tracking difficulties, a variety of improved sun trackers have been developed. A testing program is underway at SERI to determine the tracking accuracy of this new generation of sun trackers. The three major types of trackers are defined, some recent sun tracker developments are described, and the testing that is underway is outlined.

  14. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  15. Rotational Dynamics with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadkhong, T.; Rajsadorn, R.; Jannual, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia ("I") of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction ("b") for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive…

  16. Inspired Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Carol Frederick

    2011-01-01

    In terms of teacher quality, Steele believes the best teachers have reached a stage she terms inspired, and that teachers move progressively through the stages of unaware, aware, and capable until the most reflective teachers finally reach the inspired level. Inspired teachers have a wide repertoire of teaching and class management techniques and…

  17. MediaTracker system

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D. M.; Strittmatter, R. B.; Abeyta, J. D.; Brown, J.; Marks, T. , Jr.; Martinez, B. J.; Jones, D. B.; Hsue, W.

    2004-01-01

    The initial objectives of this effort were to provide a hardware and software platform that can address the requirements for the accountability of classified removable electronic media and vault access logging. The Media Tracker system software assists classified media custodian in managing vault access logging and Media Tracking to prevent the inadvertent violation of rules or policies for the access to a restricted area and the movement and use of tracked items. The MediaTracker system includes the software tools to track and account for high consequence security assets and high value items. The overall benefits include: (1) real-time access to the disposition of all Classified Removable Electronic Media (CREM), (2) streamlined security procedures and requirements, (3) removal of ambiguity and managerial inconsistencies, (4) prevention of incidents that can and should be prevented, (5) alignment with the DOE's initiative to achieve improvements in security and facility operations through technology deployment, and (6) enhanced individual responsibility by providing a consistent method of dealing with daily responsibilities. In response to initiatives to enhance the control of classified removable electronic media (CREM), the Media Tracker software suite was developed, piloted and implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in July 2000. The Media Tracker software suite assists in the accountability and tracking of CREM and other high-value assets. One component of the MediaTracker software suite provides a Laboratory-approved media tracking system. Using commercial touch screen and bar code technology, the MediaTracker (MT) component of the MediaTracker software suite provides an efficient and effective means to meet current Laboratory requirements and provides new-engineered controls to help assure compliance with those requirements. It also establishes a computer infrastructure at vault entrances for vault access logging, and can accommodate

  18. The Tevatron Chromaticity tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    The Tevatron chromaticity tracker (CT) has been successfully commissioned and is now operational. The basic idea behind the CT is that when the phase of the Tevatron RF is slowly modulated, the beam momentum is also modulated. This momentum modulation is coupled transversely via chromaticity to manifest as a phase modulation on the betatron tune. Thus by phase demodulating the betatron tune, the chromaticity can be recovered. However, for the phase demodulation to be successful, it is critical that the betatron tune be a coherent signal that can be easily picked up by a phase detector. This is easily done because the Tevatron has a phase locked loop (PLL) based tune tracker which coherently excites the beam at the betatron tune.

  19. Tracker 300 Software

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, R. Wes

    2006-01-12

    The Tracker300 software is downloaded to an off-the-shelf product called RCM3400/RCM3410 made by Rabbit Semiconductor. The software is a closed loop control which computes the sun's position and provides stability compensation. Using the RCM3400/RCM3410 module, the software stores and retrieves parameters from the onboard flash. The software also allows for communication with a host. It will allow the parameters to be downloaded or uploaded, it will show the status of the controller, it will provide real-time feedback, and it will send command acknowledgements. The software will capture the GPS response and ensure the internal clock is set correctly.

  20. CMS tracker visualization tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennea, M. S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-08-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  1. Silicon tracker data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Large particle physics experiments are making increasing technological demands on the design and implementation of real-time data acquisition systems. The LHC will have bunch crossing intervals of 25 nanoseconds and detectors, such as CMS, will contain over 10 million electronic channels. Readout systems will need to cope with 100 kHz rates of 1 MByte-sized events. Over 70% of this voluminous flow will stem from silicon tracker and MSGC devices. This paper describes the techniques currently being harnessed from ASIC devices through to modular microprocessor-based architectures around standards such as VMEbus and PCI. In particular, the experiences gained at the HERA H1 experiment are highlighted where many of the key technological concepts have already been im implemented.

  2. Tracker 300 Software

    2006-01-12

    The Tracker300 software is downloaded to an off-the-shelf product called RCM3400/RCM3410 made by Rabbit Semiconductor. The software is a closed loop control which computes the sun's position and provides stability compensation. Using the RCM3400/RCM3410 module, the software stores and retrieves parameters from the onboard flash. The software also allows for communication with a host. It will allow the parameters to be downloaded or uploaded, it will show the status of the controller, it will providemore » real-time feedback, and it will send command acknowledgements. The software will capture the GPS response and ensure the internal clock is set correctly.« less

  3. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to the study of heavy flavour physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The primary goal of the experiment is to search for indirect evidence of new physics via measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The LHCb detector has a large-area silicon micro-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet, and three tracking stations with silicon micro-strip detectors in the innermost region downstream of the magnet. These two sub-detectors form the LHCb Silicon Tracker (ST). This paper gives an overview of the performance and operation of the ST during LHC Run 1. Measurements of the observed radiation damage are shown and compared to the expectation from simulation.

  4. WFOV star tracker camera

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, I.T. ); Ledebuhr, A.G.; Axelrod, T.S.; Kordas, J.F.; Hills, R.F. )

    1991-04-01

    A prototype wide-field-of-view (WFOV) star tracker camera has been fabricated and tested for use in spacecraft navigation. The most unique feature of this device is its 28{degrees} {times} 44{degrees} FOV, which views a large enough sector of the sky to ensure the existence of at least 5 stars of m{sub v} = 4.5 or brighter in all viewing directions. The WFOV requirement and the need to maximize both collection aperture (F/1.28) and spectral input band (0.4 to 1.1 {mu}m) to meet the light gathering needs for the dimmest star have dictated the use of a novel concentric optical design, which employs a fiber optic faceplate field flattener. The main advantage of the WFOV configuration is the smaller star map required for position processing, which results in less processing power and faster matching. Additionally, a size and mass benefit is seen with a larger FOV/smaller effective focal length (efl) sensor. Prototype hardware versions have included both image intensified and un-intensified CCD cameras. Integration times of {le} 50 msec have been demonstrated with both the intensified and un-intensified versions. 3 refs., 16 figs.

  5. WGM Temperature Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    This software implements digital control of a WGM (whispering-gallerymode) resonator temperature based on the dual-mode approach. It comprises one acquisition (dual-channel) and three control modules. The interaction of the proportional-integral loops is designed in the original way, preventing the loops from fighting. The data processing is organized in parallel with the acquisition, which allows the computational overhead time to be suppressed or often completely avoided. WGM resonators potentially provide excellent optical references for metrology, clocks, spectroscopy, and other applications. However, extremely accurate (below micro-Kelvin) temperature stabilization is required. This software allows one specifically advantageous method of such stabilization to be implemented, which is immune to a variety of effects that mask the temperature variation. WGM Temperature Tracker 2.3 (see figure) is a LabVIEW code developed for dual-mode temperature stabilization of WGM resonators. It has allowed for the temperature stabilization at the level of 200 nK with one-second integration time, and 6 nK with 10,000-second integration time, with the above room-temperature set point. This software, in conjunction with the appropriate hardware, can be used as a noncryogenic temperature sensor/ controller with sub-micro-Kelvin sensitivity, which at the time of this reporting considerably outperforms the state of the art.

  6. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  7. Head tracker evaluation utilizing the dynamic tracker test fixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Moure Shattuck, Judson, III; Parisi, Vincent M., II; Smerdon, Arryn J.

    2007-04-01

    In military aviation, head tracker technologies have become increasingly important to track the pilot's head position and orientation, allowing the user to quickly interact with the operational environment. This technology allows the pilot to quickly acquire items of interest and see Fighter Data Link type information. Acquiring the target on a helmet-mounted tracker/display which can automatically slew a weapon's seeker is far more efficient than having to point at the target with the nose of the aircraft as previously required for the heads-up display (HUD) type of target acquisition. The United States Air Force (USAF) has used and evaluated a variety of helmet-mounted trackers for incorporation into their high performance aircrafts. The Dynamic Tracker Test Fixture (DTTF) was designed by the Helmet-Mounted Sensory Technology (HMST) laboratory to accurately measure rotation in one plane both static and dynamic conditions for the purpose of evaluating the accuracy of head trackers, including magnetic, inertial, and optical trackers. This paper describes the design, construction, capabilities, limitations, and performance of the DTTF.

  8. Inspired Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Robert; Spruch, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    It has been nearly 400 years since Harvard College was created, and since then, thousands of colleges and universities have been built across the United States. From the classically inspired lines of Thomas Jefferson's University of Virginia to the Spanish architecture at Stanford University, every campus has its own personality. It's not unusual,…

  9. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  10. Space Shuttle Star Tracker Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    The space shuttle fleet of avionics was originally designed in the 1970's. Many of the subsystems have been upgraded and replaced, however some original hardware continues to fly. Not only fly, but has proven to be the best design available to perform its designated task. The shuttle star tracker system is currently flying as a mixture of old and new designs, each with a unique purpose to fill for the mission. Orbiter missions have tackled many varied missions in space over the years. As the orbiters began flying to the International Space Station (ISS), new challenges were discovered and overcome as new trusses and modules were added. For the star tracker subsystem, the growing ISS posed an unusual problem, bright light. With two star trackers on board, the 1970's vintage image dissector tube (IDT) star trackers track the ISS, while the new solid state design is used for dim star tracking. This presentation focuses on the challenges and solutions used to ensure star trackers can complete the shuttle missions successfully. Topics include KSC team and industry partner methods used to correct pressurized case failures and track system performance.

  11. TacNet Tracker Software

    SciTech Connect

    WISEMAN, JAMES; & STEVENS, JAMES

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. The purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.

  12. TacNet Tracker Software

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. Themore » purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.« less

  13. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  14. Introduction to Mini Muon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, Konstantin N.

    2012-08-13

    Using a mini muon tracker developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory we performed experiments of simple landscapes of various materials, including TNT, 9501, lead, tungsten, aluminium, and water. Most common scenes are four two inches thick step wedges of different dimensions: 12-inch x 12-inch, 12-inch x 9-inch, 12-inch x 6-inch, and 12-inch x 3-inch; and a one three inches thick hemisphere of lead with spherical hollow, and a similar full lead sphere.

  15. Activity trackers: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The wearable consumer health devices can be mainly divided into activity trackers, sleep trackers, and stress management devices. These devices are widely advertised to provide positive effects on the user's daily behaviours and overall heath. However, objective evidence supporting these claims appears to be missing. The goal of this study was to review available evidence pertaining to performance of activity trackers. A comprehensive review of available information has been conducted for seven representative devices and the validity of marketing claims was assessed. The device assessment was based on availability of verified output metrics, theoretical frameworks, systematic evaluation, and FDA clearance. The review identified critical absence of supporting evidence of advertised functions and benefits for the majority of the devices. Six out of seven devices did not provide any information on sensor accuracy and output validity at all. Possible underestimation or overestimation of specific health indicators reported to consumers was not clearly disclosed to the public. Furthermore, significant limitations of these devices which can be categorized into user restrictions, user responsibilities and company disclaimers could not be easily found or comprehended by unsophisticated users and may represent a serious health hazard.

  16. The CDF silicon vertex tracker

    SciTech Connect

    A. Cerri et al.

    2000-10-10

    Real time pattern recognition is becoming a key issue in many position sensitive detector applications. The CDF collaboration is building SVT: a specialized electronic device designed to perform real time track reconstruction using the silicon vertex detector (SVX II). This will strongly improve the CDF capability of triggering on events containing b quarks, usually characterized by the presence of a secondary vertex. SVT is designed to reconstruct in real time charged particles trajectories using data coming from the Silicon Vertex detector and the Central Outer Tracker drift chamber. The SVT architecture and algorithm have been specially tuned to minimize processing time without degrading parameter resolution.

  17. Optical filtering for star trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The optimization of optical filtering was investigated for tracking faint stars, down to the fifth magnitude. The effective wavelength and bandwidth for tracking pre-selected guide stars are discussed along with the results of an all-electronic tracker with a star tracking photomultiplier, which was tested with a simulated second magnitude star. Tables which give the sum of zodiacal light and galactic background light over the entire sky for intervals of five degrees in declination, and twenty minutes in right ascension are included.

  18. Progress on the MICE Tracker Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.; Lau, W.; Yang, Stephanie Q.

    2006-06-10

    This report describes the 400 mm warm bore tracker solenoid for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The 2.923 m long tracker solenoid module includes the radiation shutter between the end absorber focus coil modules and the tracker as well as the 2.735 m long magnet cryostat vacuum vessel. The 2.554 m long tracker solenoid cold mass consists of two sections, a three-coil spectrometer magnet and a two-coil matching section that matches the uniform field 4 T spectrometer solenoid into the MICE cooling channel. The two tracker magnets are used to provide a uniform magnetic field for the fiber detectors that are used to measure the muon beam emittance at the two ends of the cooling channel. This paper describes the design for the tracker magnet coils and the 4.2 K cryogenic coolers that are used to cool the superconducting magnet. Interfaces between the magnet and the detectors are discussed.

  19. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  20. Star tracker for the Apollo telescope mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    The star tracker for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) has been designed specifically to meet the requirements of the Skylab vehicle and mission. The functions of the star tracker are presented, as well as descriptions of the optical-mechanical assembly (OMA) and the star tracker electronics (STE). Also included are the electronic and mechanical specifications, interface and operational requirements, support equipment and test requirements, and occultation information. Laboratory functional tests, environmental qualification tests, and life tests have provided a high confidence factor in the performance of the star tracker in the laboratory and on the Skylab mission.

  1. The Clubbers' Guide: "Be Inspired, Inspire Others"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Liz

    2012-01-01

    "Be inspired, inspire others" is this author's school motto and also something she aims to achieve by running the Science Club at The Warwick School in Redhill, Surrey, UK, an 11-16 specialist technology comprehensive. The Science Club is part of an extensive science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programme that has developed…

  2. Silicon photomultipliers for scintillating trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabaioli, S.; Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Bonvicini, V.; Bosisio, L.; Ciano, S.; Iugovaz, D.; Lietti, D.; Penzo, A.; Prest, M.; Rashevskaya, I.; Reia, S.; Stoppani, L.; Vallazza, E.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have been proposed as a new kind of readout device for scintillating detectors in many experiments. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected pixels, which are independent photon counters working in Geiger mode with very high gain (∼106). This contribution presents the use of an array of eight SiPMs (manufactured by FBK-irst) for the readout of a scintillating bar tracker (a small size prototype of the Electron Muon Ranger detector for the MICE experiment). The performances of the SiPMs in terms of signal to noise ratio, efficiency and time resolution will be compared to the ones of a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) connected to the same bars. Both the SiPMs and the MAPMT are interfaced to a VME system through a 64 channel MAROC ASIC.

  3. Ruby on Rails Issue Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Juan Jared

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the tasks accomplished as a NASA NIFS intern for the summer 2014 session. This internship opportunity is to develop an issue tracker Ruby on Rails web application to improve the communication of developmental anomalies between the Support Software Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) teams, System Build and Information Architecture. As many may know software development is an arduous, time consuming, collaborative effort. It involves nearly as much work designing, planning, collaborating, discussing, and resolving issues as effort expended in actual development. This internship opportunity was put in place to help alleviate the amount of time spent discussing issues such as bugs, missing tests, new requirements, and usability concerns that arise during development and throughout the life cycle of software applications once in production.

  4. Surface metrology using laser trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enriquez, Rogerio; Sampieri, Cesar E.

    2005-02-01

    During the process of manufacture or measuring large components, position and orientation are needed thus; a method based in surveying the surface can be used to describe them. This method requires an ensemble of measurements of fixed points whose coordinates are unknown. Afterwards resulting observations are manipulated to determinate objects position in order to apply surface metrology. In this work, a methodology to reduce uncertainties in surface measuring is presented. When measuring large surfaces, numerical methods can reduce uncertainties in the measures, and this can be done with instruments as such as the Laser Tracker (LT). Calculations use range and angles measures, in order to determinate the coordinates of tridimensional unknown positions from differents surveying points. The purpose of this work, is to solve problems of surface metrology with given tolerances; with advantages in resources and results, instead of making time sacrifices. Here, a hybrid methodology is developed, combining Laser Tracker with GPS theories and analysis. Such a measuring position system can be used in applications where the use of others systems are unpractical, mainly because this kind of measuring instruments are portables and capable to track and report results in real-time, it can be used in virtually anyplace. Simulations to measure panels for the Large Millimetric Telescope (LMT/GTM) in Mexico were done. A first benefit from using this method is that instrument is not isolated from its measuring environment. Instead, the system is thought as a whole with operator, measuring environment and targets. This solution provides an effective way, and a more precise measurement, because it does optimize the use of the instrument and uses additional information to strength the solution.

  5. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  6. The Chesapeake Laser Tracker in Industrial Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-16

    In the summer of 1992, the survey and alignment team at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center acquired a CMS3000 laser tracker manufactured by Chesapeake Laser Systems in Lanham, Maryland. This paper gives a description of the principles of operation and calibration of the tracker. Several applications are explained and the results shared.

  7. A Rollercoaster Viewed through Motion Tracker Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Rodjegard, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A motion tracker measures acceleration and rotation in three dimensions, sufficient for a complete determination of the motion. In this article, a rollercoaster ride is analysed with reference to motion tracker data. The use of this type of data in education is discussed as a way to deepen students' understanding of concepts related to force and…

  8. The Inspirational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Hughes, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Amid the focus on improved standardized test scores, differentiated instruction, value-added initiatives and improved teacher evaluation, one must not ignore an education leader's need to inspire and be inspired. But how do education leaders inspire their students and teachers during some of the most difficult economic times the nation has ever…

  9. A heuristic multiple target tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaupre, J. C. F.; Farooq, M.; Roy, J. M. J.

    1992-04-01

    The potential of applying recent developments in expert systems to multiple target tracking (MTT) is investigated. Standard MTT algorithms can generate relatively unreliable target state estimates. The multiple hypotheses tracker (MHT) is a very powerful algorithm, and demanding in computer resources, which can handle difficult situations by differing the formulation of hard decisions and which forms hypothetical tracks with associated probability values. It is proposed that heuristics can be formulated to improve MHT performance. These rules act on the tracks, hypotheses, and corresponding probability values to decide which hypotheses are most representative of reality. In effect, the MHT algorithm is modified to accept and process knowledge of the context or environment in which it operates and on its own strengths and weaknesses. To evaluate the performance of this concept, a prototype has been built which simulates the environment of a small military flight training school as viewed through the returns of a modified area surveillance radar. In a scenario involving nine targets behaving within regulated directives, the tracking prototype successfully displays timely, accurate, and dependable information.

  10. Personal Activity Trackers and the Quantified Self.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Personal activity trackers are an inexpensive and easy way for people to record their physical activity and simple biometric data. As these devices have increased in availability and sophistication, their use in daily life and in medicine has grown. This column will briefly explore what these devices are, what types of data they can track, and how that data can be used. It will also discuss potential problems with trackers and how librarians can help patients and physicians manage and protect activity data. A brief list of currently available activity trackers is also included.

  11. The LHCb silicon tracker: running experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saornil Gamarra, S.

    2013-02-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is part of the main tracking system of the LHCb detector at the LHC. It measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. It covers the full acceptance angle in front of the dipole magnet in the Tracker Turicensis station and the innermost part around the beam axis in the three Inner Tracker stations downstream of the magnet. The Silicon Tracker covers a sensitive area of 12 m2 using silicon micro-strip sensors with very long readout strips. We report on running experience for the experiment. Focussing on electronic and hardware issues we describe some of the lessons learned and pitfalls encountered after three years of successful operation.

  12. My Game Plan: Food and Activity Tracker

    MedlinePlus

    ... MY GAME PLAN THIS WEEK… FOR CUTTING FAT GRAMS: FOR CUTTING CALORIES: FOR GETTING MORE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: ... FOOD AND DRINK TRACKER AMOUNT /NAME /DESCRIPTION FAT GRAMS CALORIES 1/2 cup oatmeal 1 73 1 ...

  13. Power distribution studies for CMS forward tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  14. Power Studies for the CMS Pixel Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  15. Technology transfer: Imaging tracker to robotic controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otaguro, M. S.; Kesler, L. O.; Land, Ken; Erwin, Harry; Rhoades, Don

    1988-01-01

    The transformation of an imaging tracker to a robotic controller is described. A multimode tracker was developed for fire and forget missile systems. The tracker locks on to target images within an acquisition window using multiple image tracking algorithms to provide guidance commands to missile control systems. This basic tracker technology is used with the addition of a ranging algorithm based on sizing a cooperative target to perform autonomous guidance and control of a platform for an Advanced Development Project on automation and robotics. A ranging tracker is required to provide the positioning necessary for robotic control. A simple functional demonstration of the feasibility of this approach was performed and described. More realistic demonstrations are under way at NASA-JSC. In particular, this modified tracker, or robotic controller, will be used to autonomously guide the Man Maneuvering Unit (MMU) to targets such as disabled astronauts or tools as part of the EVA Retriever efforts. It will also be used to control the orbiter's Remote Manipulator Systems (RMS) in autonomous approach and positioning demonstrations. These efforts will also be discussed.

  16. Inspire Your Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, William E.; Taylor, William W. L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a science project, Interactive Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiments (INSPIRE), that allows students to work with physicists to address unanswered questions about the physics of space. (ZWH)

  17. Clay Bells: Edo Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…

  18. The Inspirational Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuey, Gary; Moore, Lonnie

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss the sequential nature of becoming a teacher of the highest caliber, an "inspirational" teacher, by creating a personal mission statement, classroom mission statement, modeling, respecting listening and building relationships. The first level of inspirational teaching is the creation of a personal mission statement. Great…

  19. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, Sunil; Kille, Natalie; Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Thomson, David; Hannigan, James; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometers, making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The integrated system allows the tracker to operate autonomously while the mobile laboratory is in motion. Mobile direct sun differential optical absorption spectroscopy (mobile DS-DOAS) observations using this tracker were conducted during summer 2014 as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) in Colorado, USA. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052° (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile DS-DOAS spectra. The high photon flux from direct sun observation enables measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant columns with high temporal resolution and reveals spatial detail in the variations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). The NO2 VCD from DS-DOAS is compared with a co-located MAX-DOAS instrument. Overall good agreement is observed amid a highly heterogeneous air mass.

  20. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, S.; Kille, N.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Thomson, D.; Hannigan, J.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-11-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometers making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The integrated system allows the tracker to operate autonomously while the mobile laboratory is in motion. Mobile direct sun Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mobile DS-DOAS) observations using this tracker were conducted during summer 2014 as part of the Front Range Photochemistry and Pollution Experiment (FRAPPE) in Colorado, USA. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052° (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives, and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile DS-DOAS spectra. The high photon flux from direct sun observation enables measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant columns with high temporal resolution, and reveals spatial detail in the variations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). The NO2 VCD from DS-DOAS is compared with a co-located MAX-DOAS instrument. Overall good agreement is observed amid a highly heterogeneous air mass.

  1. Star Tracker Performance Estimate with IMU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Swank, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A software tool for estimating cross-boresight error of a star tracker combined with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was developed to support trade studies for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication project (iROC) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center. Typical laser communication systems, such as the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) and the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD), use a beacon to locate ground stations. iROC is investigating the use of beaconless precision laser pointing to enable laser communication at Mars orbits and beyond. Precision attitude knowledge is essential to the iROC mission to enable high-speed steering of the optical link. The preliminary concept to achieve this precision attitude knowledge is to use star trackers combined with an IMU. The Star Tracker Accuracy (STAcc) software was developed to rapidly assess the capabilities of star tracker and IMU configurations. STAcc determines the overall cross-boresight error of a star tracker with an IMU given the characteristic parameters: quantum efficiency, aperture, apparent star magnitude, exposure time, field of view, photon spread, detector pixels, spacecraft slew rate, maximum stars used for quaternion estimation, and IMU angular random walk. This paper discusses the supporting theory used to construct STAcc, verification of the program and sample results.

  2. SimTracker, Version 5.0

    2004-08-27

    SimTracker is a product of the Metadata Tools subproject under the ASC Scientific Data Management effort. SimTracker is an extensible web-based application that provides the capability to view and organize large volumes of simulation data. SimTracker automatically generates metadata summaries that provide a quick overview and index to the archived results of simulations. The summaries provide access to the data sets and associated data analysis tools. They include graphical snapshots, pointers to associated simulation inputmore » and output files, and assorted annotations. The ability to add personal annotations to simulation data sets is supported. All metadata is stored in XML files suitable for searching by the generator of the data or other scientists.« less

  3. Quintessence reconstructed: New constraints and tracker viability

    SciTech Connect

    Sahlen, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David

    2007-01-15

    We update and extend our previous work reconstructing the potential of a quintessence field from current observational data. We extend the cosmological data set to include new supernova data, plus information from the cosmic microwave background and from baryon acoustic oscillations. We extend the modeling by considering Pade approximant expansions as well as Taylor series, and by using observations to assess the viability of the tracker hypothesis. We find that parameter constraints have improved by a factor of 2, with a strengthening of the preference of the cosmological constant over evolving quintessence models. Present data show some signs, though inconclusive, of favoring tracker models over nontracker models under our assumptions.

  4. Optical contacting for gravity probe star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. J.; Zissa, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A star-tracker telescope, constructed entirely of fused silica elements optically contacted together, has been proposed to provide submilliarc-second pointing accuracy for Gravity Probe. A bibliography and discussion on optical contacting (the bonding of very flat, highly polished surfaces without the use of adhesives) are presented. Then results from preliminary experiments on the strength of optical contacts including a tensile strength test in liquid helium are discussed. Suggestions are made for further study to verify an optical contacting method for the Gravity Probe star-tracker telescope.

  5. A microprocessor-controlled CCD star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, P. M.; Goss, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The STELLAR (Star Tracker for Economical Long Life Attitude Reference) utilizes an image sensing Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) operating under microprocessor control. This approach results in a new type of high-accuracy star tracker which can be adapted to a wide variety of different space flight applications through software changes only. The STELLAR determines two-axis star positions by computing the element and the interelement interpolated centroid positions of the star images. As many as 10 stars may be tracked simultaneously, providing significantly increased stability and accuracy. A detailed description of the STELLAR is presented along with measurements of system performance obtained from an operating breadboard model.

  6. Results from the MSGC tracker at SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballintijn, M. K.; van den Berg, F. D.; van Dantzig, R.; Gracia, G.; de Groot, N.; Hartjes, F. G.; Horisberger, R.; Kaandorp, D.; Ketel, T. J.; Litmaath, M. F.; Niessink, J. J.; Ogawa, A.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Udo, F.; de Winter, A. R.

    1995-11-01

    A tracker consisting of 16 MSGCs has been installed in the high intensity muon beam of the SMC experiment[1] at CERN. Each MSGC has an active surface of 10 × 10 cm 2, covered by 496 anode strips. As a front-end amplifier the APC 64 is used. Results are presented about the efficiency, both at a high rate and at a low rate, and the position resolution. Using the data of the MSGC tracker the definition of the beam tracks in SMC significantly improved.

  7. Online Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, Nancy; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The first of four articles describes the move by the European Space Agency to eliminate connect time charges on its online retrieval system. The remaining articles describe the pricing structure of DIALOG, compare the two pricing schemes, and discuss online pricing from the user's point of view. (CLB)

  8. Progress with the MICE scintillating fiber trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overton, Edward

    2013-12-01

    The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a proof of principle demonstration of ionization cooling, for application in a future neutrino factory or muon collider. MICE is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK), where a dedicated beam line has been commissioned to transport particles produced inside the ISIS accelerator facility. The beam emittance will be measured using two scintillating fiber trackers on each side of the cooling channel, which will be mounted inside a 4 T solenoid. As particles pass through the tracker, their position will be measured at 5 stations, each of which provides a position resolution of less than 0.5 mm. The fiber trackers have been validated using cosmic ray tests, which have allowed the light yield to be found. In addition, a spare tracking station was exposed to the MICE beam, which has enabled the tracker readout to be integrated with the MICE DAQ for the first time. This test required the integration gate on the D0 AFE-IIt readout boards to be synchronized with particle arrival by using diagnostic signals from the ISIS accelerator.

  9. Sun Tracker Operates a Year Between Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low-cost modification of Sun tracker automatically compensates equation of time and seasonal variations in declination of Sun. Output of Scotch Yoke drive mechanism adjusted through proper sizing of crank, yoke and other components and through choice of gear ratios to approximate seasonal northand south motion of Sun. Used for industrial solar-energy monitoring and in remote meteorological stations.

  10. jTracker and Monte Carlo Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selensky, Lauren; SeaQuest/E906 Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    SeaQuest is designed to observe the characteristics and behavior of `sea-quarks' in a proton by reconstructing them from the subatomic particles produced in a collision. The 120 GeV beam from the main injector collides with a fixed target and then passes through a series of detectors which records information about the particles produced in the collision. However, this data becomes meaningful only after it has been processed, stored, analyzed, and interpreted. Several programs are involved in this process. jTracker (sqerp) reads wire or hodoscope hits and reconstructs the tracks of potential dimuon pairs from a run, and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulates dimuon production and background noise from the beam. During track reconstruction, an event must meet the criteria set by the tracker to be considered a viable dimuon pair; this ensures that relevant data is retained. As a check, a comparison between a new version of jTracker and Monte Carlo was made in order to see how accurately jTracker could reconstruct the events created by Monte Carlo. In this presentation, the results of the inquest and their potential effects on the programming will be shown. This work is supported by U.S. DOE MENP Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  11. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  12. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  13. Priced Out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-White, Daniel R.; Radcliffe, Peter M.; Lorenz, Linda M.; Soria, Krista M.

    2014-01-01

    While the literature on postsecondary student success identifies important academic and social factors associated with student outcomes, one question that persists concerns the influence of financial aid. We use the National Student Clearinghouse's StudentTracker service to develop a more complete model of student success that accommodates…

  14. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers.

    PubMed

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J; Flagel, Shelly B; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers. PMID:24954026

  15. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers.

    PubMed

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J; Flagel, Shelly B; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers.

  16. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers

    PubMed Central

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J.; Flagel, Shelly B.; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers. PMID:24954026

  17. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  18. Performance of the LHCb Outer Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5 × 6 m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. The detector with its services are described together with the commissioning and calibration procedures. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance of the readout electronics and the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 μm. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  19. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Borozdin, K. N.; Durham, J. M.; Fuzita, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Izumi, M.; Nakayama, K.; Saltus, M.; Sugita, T.; Takakura, K.; Yoshioka, K.

    2016-09-01

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. The system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m2 area. Each muon tracker consists of 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when the core is imaged from outside the reactor building.

  20. Equation of state of tracker fields

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takeshi

    2010-01-15

    We derive the equation of state of tracker fields, which are typical examples of freezing quintessence (quintessence with the equation of state approaching toward -1), taking into account of the late-time departure from the tracker solution due to the nonzero density parameter of dark energy {Omega}{sub {phi}.} We calculate the equation of state as a function of {Omega}{sub {phi}}for constant {Gamma}=VV{sup ''}/(V{sup '}){sup 2} (during matter era) models. The derived equation of state contains a single parameter, w{sub (0)}, which parametrizes the equation of state during the matter-dominated epoch. We derive observational constraints on w{sub (0)} and find that observational data are consistent with the cosmological constant: -1.11

  1. Optical model and calibration of a sun tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Sergei N.; Samokhvalov, Ignatii V.; Cheong, Hai Du; Kim, Dukhyeon

    2016-09-01

    Sun trackers are widely used to investigate scattering and absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. We present a method for optimization of the optical altazimuth sun tracker model with output radiation direction aligned with the axis of a stationary spectrometer. The method solves the problem of stability loss in tracker pointing at the Sun near the zenith. An optimal method for tracker calibration at the measurement site is proposed in the present work. A method of moving calibration is suggested for mobile applications in the presence of large temperature differences and errors in the alignment of the optical system of the tracker.

  2. Upgrade of the Upstream Tracker at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Jason; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded to allow it operate at higher collider luminosity without the need for a hardware trigger stage. Flavor enriched events will be selected in a software based, high level trigger, using fully reconstructed events. This presentation will describe the design, optimization and the expected performance of the Upstream Tracker (UT), which has a critical role in high level trigger scheme.

  3. ILC Vertex Tracker R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Marco; Bussat, Jean-Marie; Contarato, Devis; Denes,Peter; Glesener, Lindsay; Greiner, Leo; Hooberman, Benjamin; Shuman,Derek; Tompkins, Lauren; Vu, Chinh; Bisello, Dario; Giubilato, Piero; Pantano, Devis; Costa, Marco; La Rosa, Alessandro; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Children, Isaac

    2007-10-01

    This document summarizes past achievements, current activities and future goals of the R&D program aimed at the design, prototyping and characterization of a full detector module, equipped with monolithic pixel sensors, matching the requirements for the Vertex Tracker at the ILC. We provide a plan of activities to obtain a demonstrator multi-layered vertex tracker equipped with sensors matching the ILC requirements and realistic lightweight ladders in FY11, under the assumption that ILC detector proto-collaborations will be choosing technologies and designs for the Vertex Tracker by that time. The R&D program discussed here started at LBNL in 2004, supported by a Laboratory Directed R&D (LDRD) grant and by funding allocated from the core budget of the LBNL Physics Division and from the Department of Physics at UC Berkeley. Subsequently additional funding has been awarded under the NSF-DOE LCRD program and also personnel have become available through collaborative research with other groups. The aim of the R&D program carried out by our collaboration is to provide a well-integrated, inclusive research effort starting from physics requirements for the ILC Vertex Tracker and addressing Si sensor design and characterization, engineered ladder design, module system issues, tracking and vertex performances and beam test validation. The broad scope of this program is made possible by important synergies with existing know-how and concurrent programs both at LBNL and at the other collaborating institutions. In particular, significant overlaps with LHC detector design, SLHC R&D as well as prototyping for the STAR upgrade have been exploited to optimize the cost per deliverable of our program. This activity is carried out as a collaborative effort together with Accelerator and Fusion Research, the Engineering and the Nuclear Science Divisions at LBNL, INFN and the Department of Physics in Padova, Italy, INFN and the Department of Physics in Torino, Italy and the Department

  4. The CMS Tracker Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousaf Shah, S.; Tsirou, Andromachi; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Hartmann, Frank; Masetti, Lorenzo; Dirkes, Guido H.; Stringer, Robert; Fahrer, Manuel

    2009-06-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid DCS (CMS) Silicon Strip Tracker is by far the largest detector ever built in micro-strip technology. It has an active surface area of 198 m 2 consisting of 15,148 silicon modules with 9,316,352 readout channels read via 75,376 Analog Pipeline Voltage (APV) front-end chips and a total of 24,244 sensors. The Detector Control System (DCS) for the Tracker is a distributed control system that operates ˜2000 power supplies for the silicon modules and also monitors its environmental sensors. The DCS receives information from about 10 3 environmental probes (temperature and humidity sensors) located inside the detector's volume and values from these probes are driven through the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) of the Detector Safety System (DSS). A total of 10 5 parameters are read out from the dedicated chips in the front-end electronics of the detector via the data acquisition system, and a total of 10 5 parameters are read from the power supply modules. All these parameters are monitored, evaluated and correlated with the detector layout; actions are taken under specific conditions. The hardware for DCS consists of 10 PCs and 10 PLC systems that are continuously running the necessary control and safety routines. The DCS is a fundamental tool for the Tracker operation and its safety.

  5. Autonomous star tracker based on active pixel sensors (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, U.

    2004-06-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used onboard of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years, star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The Jena-Optronik GmbH is active in the field of opto-electronic sensors like star trackers since the early 80-ties. Today, with the product family ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15, all marked segments like earth observation, scientific applications and geo-telecom are supplied to European and Overseas customers. A new generation of star trackers can be designed based on the APS detector technical features. The measurement performance of the current CCD based star trackers can be maintained, the star tracker functionality, reliability and robustness can be increased while the unit costs are saved.

  6. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  7. Summer Reading That Inspires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    Why did you decide on science as a career? For many, it was the inspiration of a mentor or model--an explorer who could communicate excitement and a sense of adventure to others. During the school year, teachers take on that role of motivator for students. But as they recharge over summer break, it is great to treat themselves again to the stories…

  8. Nature as Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tank, Kristina; Moore, Tamara; Strnat, Meg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the final lesson within a seven-day STEM and literacy unit that is part of the Picture STEM curriculum (pictureSTEM. org) and uses engineering to integrate science and mathematics learning in a meaningful way (Tank and Moore 2013). For this engineering challenge, students used nature as a source of inspiration for designs to…

  9. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  10. Laptops and Inspired Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Arada, Kathleen; Zheng, Binbin

    2010-01-01

    Can daily access to laptop computers help students become better writers? Are such programs affordable? Evidence from the Inspired Writing program in Littleton Public Schools, Colorado, USA, provides a resounding yes to both questions. The program employs student netbooks, open-source software, cloud computing, and social media to help students in…

  11. An eye for inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    The discovery that the eye of a particular mantis shrimp has an achromatic quarter-waveplate that is superior to modern-day devices could be a source of inspiration to those designing optical components. Nature Photonics spoke to Nicholas Roberts, one of the researchers involved in the study.

  12. Inspired by Nevelson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egenes, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Louise Nevelson's circular assemblage, "Collegiate School" (1972), was the inspiration for an art class with the preschoolers at the Kent Children's Center. Nevelson (1899-1988) was the ultimate "found art" artist. Finding interesting throwaway objects, in and out of trash bins, she constructed assemblages that completely changed their former use.…

  13. Inspired by Oceans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Several years ago, the school system discussed in this article, agreed on a five-year cycle of nature themes to integrate instruction across disciplines. Last year, students studied artists and artworks inspired by oceans. Students also explored the theme with their own artistic expressions. Teachers began the year with lessons based on sea…

  14. Robust visual tracking with dual spatio-temporal context trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shiyan; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Visual tracking is a challenging problem in computer vision. Recent years, significant numbers of trackers have been proposed. Among these trackers, tracking with dense spatio-temporal context has been proved to be an efficient and accurate method. Other than trackers with online trained classifier that struggle to meet the requirement of real-time tracking task, a tracker with spatio-temporal context can run at hundreds of frames per second with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Nevertheless, the performance of the tracker with Spatio-temporal context relies heavily on the learning rate of the context, which restricts the robustness of the tracker. In this paper, we proposed a tracking method with dual spatio-temporal context trackers that hold different learning rate during tracking. The tracker with high learning rate could track the target smoothly when the appearance of target changes, while the tracker with low learning rate could percepts the occlusion occurring and continues to track when the target starts to emerge again. To find the target among the candidates from these two trackers, we adopt Normalized Correlation Coefficient (NCC) to evaluate the confidence of each sample. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs robustly against several state-of-the-art tracking methods.

  15. The upstream tracker for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkamp, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    The LHCb collaboration is planning a comprehensive upgrade of the experiment for the long shutdown of the LHC in 2019/20. As part of this upgrade, the tracking station in front of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by a new planar four-layer silicon micro-strip detector with 40 MHz readout and silicon sensors with finer granularity and improved radiation hardness. Key design aspects of this new Upstream Tracker are described and a brief overview of the status of the project is given.

  16. Data specifications for INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portele, Clemens; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    In Europe a major recent development has been the entering in force of the INSPIRE Directive in May 2007, establishing an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe to support Community environmental policies, and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment. INSPIRE is based on the infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by the 27 Member States of the European Union. The Directive addresses 34 spatial data themes needed for environmental applications, with key components specified through technical implementing rules. This makes INSPIRE a unique example of a legislative "regional" approach. One of the requirements of the INSPIRE Directive is to make existing spatial data sets with relevance for one of the spatial data themes available in an interoperable way, i.e. where the spatial data from different sources in Europe can be combined to a coherent result. Since INSPIRE covers a wide range of spatial data themes, the first step has been the development of a modelling framework that provides a common foundation for all themes. This framework is largely based on the ISO 19100 series of standards. The use of common generic spatial modelling concepts across all themes is an important enabler for interoperability. As a second step, data specifications for the first set of themes has been developed based on the modelling framework. The themes include addresses, transport networks, protected sites, hydrography, administrative areas and others. The data specifications were developed by selected experts nominated by stakeholders from all over Europe. For each theme a working group was established in early 2008 working on their specific theme and collaborating with the other working groups on cross-theme issues. After a public review of the draft specifications starting in December 2008, an open testing process and thorough comment resolution process, the draft technical implementing rules for these themes have been

  17. Inspiral into Gargantua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Hughes, Scott A.; Warburton, Niels

    2016-08-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact object into a more massive black hole rotating very near the theoretical maximum. We find that once the body enters the near-horizon regime the gravitational radiation is characterized by a constant frequency, equal to (twice) the horizon frequency, with an exponentially damped profile. This contrasts with the usual ‘chirping’ behavior and, if detected, would constitute a ‘smoking gun’ for a near-extremal black hole in nature.

  18. Optimization Method for Solution Model of Laser Tracker Multilateration Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongfang; Tan, Zhi; Shi, Zhaoyao; Song, Huixu; Yan, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Multilateration measurement using laser trackers suffers from a cumbersome solution method for high-precision measurements. Errors are induced by the self-calibration routines of the laser tracker software. This paper describes an optimization solution model for laser tracker multilateration measurement, which effectively inhibits the negative effect of this self-calibration, and further, analyzes the accuracy of the singular value decomposition for the described solution model. Experimental verification for the solution model based on laser tracker and coordinate measuring machine (CMM) was performed. The experiment results show that the described optimization model for laser tracker multilateration measurement has good accuracy control, and has potentially broad application in the field of laser tracker spatial localization.

  19. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  20. Astronomy. Inspiration. Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanic, N.

    2008-10-01

    This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazić (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maletić (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djukić, Nenad Jeremić, Olivera Obradović, Romana Vujasinović, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.

  1. Quantum-Inspired Maximizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

  2. Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) star tracker performance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, David J.

    1992-08-01

    Two major technological developments have benefited stars sensors in recent years: the charge-coupled device (CCD) detector and the microprocessor. The ASTRA-1 star tracker developed by Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, Inc. (HDOS) is a CCD, microprocessor-based replacement for the NASA Standard Fixed Head Star Tracker. This paper will provide an overview of the measured performance of the ASTRA-1 star trackers delivered to Fairchild Space Company for use on the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission scheduled for July 1992.

  3. The precision tracker of the OPERA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, R.; Ebert, J.; Hagner, C.; Koppitz, B.; Saveliev, V.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Sewing, J.; Zaitsev, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The Precision Tracker of the muon spectrometer of the OPERA detector consists of ˜10000 aluminum drift tubes of 8 m length. They have an outer diameter of 38 mm and a wall thickness of 0.85 mm. The challenge of the detector design originates from the 8 m length of the drift tubes, a detector length, which has not been used before. Tight mechanical tolerances for positioning and alignment of the signal wires are required in order to make a significant measurement of the sign of the muon charge. The detector is manufactured in modules, which are 50 cm wide, each consisting of four adjacent drift tube planes. This guarantees high efficiency and complete rejection of the left-right ambiguity. The details of the novel mechanical design are described in this paper. For safety reasons, the drift tubes are operated with an Argon/CO2 gas mixture. The gas volume of the drift tubes is entirely sealed with O-rings, in order to avoid ageing problems. The total gas volume amounts to about 80 m3. The front end electronics of the drift tubes consist of a bootstrap amplifier followed by a commercial ultrafast comparator. Thus only digital LVDS signals are transmitted over large distances. We report on the development and performance of the first two prototype modules of the precision tracker including test measurements of the resolution and efficiency obtained.

  4. A multi-hypothesis tracker for clicking whales.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a tracker specially designed to track clicking beaked whales using widely spaced bottom-mounted hydrophones, although it can be adapted to different species and sensors. The input to the tracker is a sequence of static localization solutions obtained using time difference of arrival information at widely spaced hydrophones. To effectively handle input localizations with high ambiguity, the tracker is based on multi-hypothesis tracker concepts, so it considers all potential association hypotheses and keeps a large number of potential tracks in memory. The method is demonstrated on actual data and shown to successfully track multiple beaked whales at depth.

  5. Inspirals into Gargantua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, Niels; Gralla, Samuel; Hughes, Scott

    2016-03-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact, stellar mass object into a massive black hole rotating at or just below the theoretical maximum. We find that once the compact object enters the near-horizon regime the gravitational radiation is characterized by a constant frequency, equal to the horizon frequency, with an exponentially damped profile. This contrasts with the usual `chirping' behaviour of a black hole binary system and were such a waveform observed it would constitute a `smoking gun' for a (near) extremal black hole in nature.

  6. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses. PMID:27314359

  7. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-06-15

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.

  8. 3D technology for intelligent trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Ronald

    2010-10-01

    At Super-LHC luminosity it is expected that the standard suite of level 1 triggers for CMS will saturate. Information from the tracker will be needed to reduce trigger rates to satisfy the level 1 bandwidth. Tracking trigger modules which correlate information from closely-spaced sensor layers to form an on-detector momentum filter are being developed by several groups. We report on a trigger module design which utilizes three dimensional integrated circuit technology incorporating chips which are connected both to the top and bottom sensor, providing the ability to filter information locally. A demonstration chip, the VICTR, has been submitted to the Chartered/Tezzaron two-tier 3D run coordinated by Fermilab. We report on the 3D design concept, the status of the VICTR chip and associated sensor integration utilizing oxide bonding.

  9. 3D Technology for intelligent trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    At Super-LHC luminosity it is expected that the standard suite of level 1 triggers for CMS will saturate. Information from the tracker will be needed to reduce trigger rates to satisfy the level 1 bandwidth. Tracking trigger modules which correlate information from closely-spaced sensor layers to form an on-detector momentum filter are being developed by several groups. We report on a trigger module design which utilizes three dimensional integrated circuit technology incorporating chips which are connected both to the top and bottom sensor, providing the ability to filter information locally. A demonstration chip, the VICTR, has been submitted to the Chartered/Tezzaron two-tier 3D run coordinated by Fermilab. We report on the 3D design concept, the status of the VICTR chip and associated sensor integration utilizing oxide bonding.

  10. Infrared tracker for a portable missile launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.

    1993-07-13

    An infrared beam tracker is described for arrangement to a housing that is unitary with a portable missile launcher, comprising: a rotating beam splitter positioned to intercept the infrared beam passing a first portion of the beam through the beam splitter along a first direction and reflecting the remaining portion along a different direction; a first infrared detector for receiving the beam reflected portion from the beam splitter and produce electric signals responsive thereto; a second infrared detector for receiving the beam portion that passes through the beam splitter and providing electric signals responsive thereto; and means interconnected to the first and second infrared detectors and responsive to the electric signals generated by said detectors for determining errors in missile flight direction and communicating course correction information to the missile.

  11. Generic evaluation tracker database for OTH radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, Lorraine E.; Hartnett, Michael P.; Vannicola, Vincent C.

    1999-10-01

    This paper provides a real world target and clutter model for evaluation of radar signal processing algorithms. The procedure is given for target and clutter data collection which is then followed by the equalization and superposition method. We show how the model allows one to vary the target signal to clutter noise ratio so that system performance may be assessed over a wide range of target amplitudes, i.e. detection probability versus target signal to noise ratio. Three candidate pre-track algorithms are evaluated and compared using this model as input in conjunction with an advanced tracker algorithm as a post processor. Data used for the model represents airborne traffic operating over the body of water bounded by North, Central, and South America. The processors relate to the deployment of Over the Horizon Radar for drug interdiction. All the components of this work, model as well as the processors, are in software.

  12. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses. PMID:27314359

  13. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, C.; Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Levine, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Xu, Z.; Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Cendejas, R.; Huang, H.; Sakai, S.; Whitten, C.; Joseph, J.; Keane, D.; Margetis, S.; Rykov, V.; Zhang, W.M.; Bystersky, M.; Kapitan, J.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Baudot, J.; Hu-Guo, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Winter, M.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Plesko, M.; Redwine, R.; Simon, F.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Anderssen, E.; Dong, X.; Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Morgan, S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Singh, R.P.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Thomas, J.H.; Tram, V.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Xu, N.; Hirsch, A.; Srivastava, B.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Bichsel, H.

    2008-02-25

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector,the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APSsensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay.

  14. Optical alignment of the Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) star trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, Samuel; Osgood, Dean; McMann, Joe; Roberts, Viki; Gill, James; McLean, Kyle

    2013-09-01

    The optical alignment of the star trackers on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core spacecraft at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was challenging due to the layout and structural design of the GPM Lower Bus Structure (LBS) in which the star trackers are mounted as well as the presence of the star tracker shades that blocked line-of-sight to the primary star tracker optical references. The initial solution was to negotiate minor changes in the original LBS design to allow for the installation of a removable item of ground support equipment (GSE) that could be installed whenever measurements of the star tracker optical references were needed. However, this GSE could only be used to measure secondary optical reference cube faces not used by the star tracker vendor to obtain the relationship information and matrix transformations necessary to determine star tracker alignment. Unfortunately, due to unexpectedly large orthogonality errors between the measured secondary adjacent cube faces and the lack of cube calibration data, we required a method that could be used to measure the same reference cube faces as originally measured by the vendor. We describe an alternative technique to theodolite autocollimation for measurement of an optical reference mirror pointing direction when normal incidence measurements are not possible. This technique was used to successfully align the GPM star trackers and has been used on a number of other NASA flight projects. We also discuss alignment theory as well as a GSFC-developed theodolite data analysis package used to analyze angular metrology data.

  15. Laser tracker error determination using a network measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Ben; Forbes, Alistair; Lewis, Andrew; Sun, Wenjuan; Veal, Dan; Nasr, Karim

    2011-04-01

    We report on a fast, easily implemented method to determine all the geometrical alignment errors of a laser tracker, to high precision. The technique requires no specialist equipment and can be performed in less than an hour. The technique is based on the determination of parameters of a geometric model of the laser tracker, using measurements of a set of fixed target locations, from multiple locations of the tracker. After fitting of the model parameters to the observed data, the model can be used to perform error correction of the raw laser tracker data or to derive correction parameters in the format of the tracker manufacturer's internal error map. In addition to determination of the model parameters, the method also determines the uncertainties and correlations associated with the parameters. We have tested the technique on a commercial laser tracker in the following way. We disabled the tracker's internal error compensation, and used a five-position, fifteen-target network to estimate all the geometric errors of the instrument. Using the error map generated from this network test, the tracker was able to pass a full performance validation test, conducted according to a recognized specification standard (ASME B89.4.19-2006). We conclude that the error correction determined from the network test is as effective as the manufacturer's own error correction methodologies.

  16. Visible-spectrum remote eye tracker for gaze communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imabuchi, Takashi; Prima, Oky Dicky A.; Kikuchi, Hikaru; Horie, Yusuke; Ito, Hisayoshi

    2015-03-01

    Many approaches have been proposed to create an eye tracker based on visible-spectrum. These efforts provide a possibility to create inexpensive eye tracker capable to operate outdoor. Although the resulted tracking accuracy is acceptable for a visible-spectrum head-mounted eye tracker, there are many limitations of these approaches to create a remote eye tracker. In this study, we propose a high-accuracy remote eye tracker that uses visible-spectrum imaging and several gaze communication interfaces suited to the tracker. The gaze communication interfaces are designed to assist people with motor disability. Our results show that the proposed eye tracker achieved an average accuracy of 0.77° and a frame rate of 28 fps with a personal computer. With a tablet device, the proposed eye tracker achieved an average accuracy of 0.82° and a frame rate of 25 fps. The proposed gaze communication interfaces enable users to type a complete sentence containing eleven Japanese characters in about a minute.

  17. Performance of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe AST-201 Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, David K.; vanBezooijen, Roelof; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was launched to create a full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background. MAP incorporates two modified Lockheed Martin AST-201 (Autonomous Star Tracker) star trackers. The AST-201 employs an eight element radiation hardened lens assembly which is used to focus an image on a charge coupled device (CCD). The CCD image is then processed by a star identification algorithm which outputs a three-axis attitude. A CCD-shift algorithm called Time Delayed Integration (TDI) was also included in each star tracker. In order to provide some radiation effect filtering during MAP's three to five phasing loop passes through the Van Allen radiation belts, a simple pixel filtering scheme was implemented, rather than using a more complex, but more robust windowing algorithm. The trackers also include a fiber optic data interface. This paper details the ground testing that was accomplished on the MAP trackers.

  18. Flight performance of TOPEX/POSEIDON star trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, David J.; Fowski, Walter J.; Kia, Tooraj

    1993-09-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON spacecraft was launched on August 10, 1992. This paper presents data on the measured performance of the ASTRA Star Trackers supplied by Hughes Danbury Optical Systems (HDOS) for this satellite. The HDOS ASTRA Star Tracker is a charge coupled device (CCD), microprocessor based replacement for the NASA Standard Fixed Head Star Tracker. The position and magnitude accuracy of the star trackers computed from measured flight data are compared with ground measurements and system models. The performance of novel transient rejection algorithms implemented in the ASTRA Star Tracker which allows uninterrupted operation in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) where the sensor is subjected to high proton flux levels, also are presented.

  19. The Design Parameters for the MICE Tracker Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Chen, C.Y.; Juang, Tiki; Lau, Wing W.; Taylor,Clyde; Virostek, Steve P.; Wahrer, Robert; Wang, S.T.; Witte, Holger; Yang, Stephanie Q.

    2006-08-20

    The first superconducting magnets to be installed in the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) will be the tracker solenoids. The tracker solenoid module is a five coil superconducting solenoid with a 400 mm diameter warm bore that is used to provide a 4 T magnetic field for the experiment tracker module. Three of the coils are used to produce a uniform field (up to 4 T with better than 1 percent uniformity) in a region that is 300 mm in diameter and 1000 mm long. The other two coils are used to match the muon beam into the MICE cooling channel. Two 2.94-meter long superconducting tracker solenoid modules have been ordered for MICE. The tracker solenoid will be cooled using two-coolers that produce 1.5 W each at 4.2 K. The magnet system is described. The decisions that drive the magnet design will be discussed in this report.

  20. Biogenetically Inspired Synthesis of Lingzhiol.

    PubMed

    Sharmah Gautam, Krishna; Birman, Vladimir B

    2016-04-01

    A concise stereo- and enantioselective synthesis of lingzhiol has been achieved featuring a biogenetically inspired Brønsted acid catalyzed semipinacol rearrangement of a glycidyl alcohol intermediate.

  1. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  2. Laboratory assessment of a miniature electromagnetic tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Johann; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Figl, Michael; Haider, C.; Hanel, Rudolf A.; Bergmann, Helmar

    2002-05-01

    With the invention of miniaturized electromagnetic digitizers comes a variety of potential clinical applications for computer aided interventions using flexible instruments; it has become possible to track endoscopes or catheters within the body. To evaluate the reliability of a new commercial tracking system, we measured the systematic distortions induced by various materials such as closed metallic loops, wire guides, catheters and ultrasound scan heads. The system under evaluation was the electromagnetic tracking system Aurora (Mednetix/CH, NDI/Can); data were acquired using the serial port of a PC running SuSE Linux 7.1 (SuSE, Gmbh, Nuernberg). The objects suspected to cause distortions were brought into the digitizer volume. Beside this, we evaluated the influence of a C-arm fluoroscopy unit. To quantify the reliability of the system, the miniaturized sensor was mounted on a nonmetallic measurement rack while the transmitter was fixed at three different distances within the digitizer range. The tracker is more sensitive to distortions caused by materials close to the emitter (average value 13.6 mm +/- 16.6mm) for wire loops positioned at a distance between 100 mm and 200 mm from the emitter). Distortions caused by materials near the sensor (distances smaller than 100 mm) are small (typical error: 2.2 mm +/- 1.9 mm) in comparison to the errors of other electromagnetic systems published in an earlier study of our group where we found an average error of 3.4 mm. Considerable distortions are caused by the C-arm fluoroscopy unit and limits the reliability of the tracker (error: 18.6 mm +/- 24.9 mm). The US scan head was found to cause significant distortions only at a distance between the emitter and the scan head less than 100 mm from the emitter in contrast to the average error of 3.8 mm +/- 6.3 mm at distances greater than 100 mm. Taking into account that significant distortions only occur in the presence of metallic objects close to the emitter, these results

  3. SDC conceptual design: Scintillating fiber outer tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Baumbaugh, A.; Bird, F.; SDC Collaboration

    1992-01-22

    The authors propose an all-scintillating fiber detector for the purpose of outer tracking for the SDC. The objectives of this tracking system are to: (1) provide a first level trigger for {vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} < 2.3 with sharp p{sub T} threshold with the ability to resolve individual beam crossings; (2) provide pattern recognition capability and momentum resolution which complements and extends the capabilities of the inner silicon tracking system; (3) provide three dimensional linkage with outer detection systems including the shower maximum detector, muon detectors, and calorimetry; (4) provide robust tracking and track-triggering at the highest luminosities expected at the SSC. The many attractive features of a fiber tracker include good position resolution, low occupancy, low mass in the active volume, and excellent resistance to radiation damage. An additional important feature, especially at the SSC, is the intrinsically prompt response time of a scintillating fiber. This property is exploited in the construction of a level 1 trigger sensitive to individual beam crossings.

  4. Advanced electro-optical tracker/ranger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. A.; Defoe, D. N.

    1980-06-01

    The preliminary engineering design study of an Advanced Electro-Optical Tracker/Ranger (AEOTR) to provide passive target tracking and rangefinding for air to air gun fire control is described. Area correlation processing is used in the comparison of stereo image pairs for stereometric ranging and in the comparison of successive images for tracking. The application of these techniques to the AEOTR, the limitations imposed by packaging, environmental and state-of-the-art sensor and processing hardware constraints, and the projected performance are evaluated. Principal emphasis is given to the use of AEOTR in the gun director engagement mode in which target track and range data is provided to a gun fire control computer. The feasibility of use of the AEOTR to provide target video as an aid to visual target identification, and to provide automatic airborne target detection, is also evaluated. The necessary functions and subsystems are defined and integrated into a preliminary design, whose performance is estimated and compared with the program goals. In addition, a preliminary mounting location study for the F-15, F-16 and F-18 advanced fighters is included. CAI-built hardware was used to successfully demonstrate the feasibility of the ranging and tracking concepts employed in the AEOTR.

  5. The DAMPE silicon-tungsten tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzarello, P.; Ambrosi, G.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Bernardini, P.; Bertucci, B.; Bolognini, A.; Cadoux, F.; Caprai, M.; De Mitri, I.; Domenjoz, M.; Dong, Y.; Duranti, M.; Fan, R.; Fusco, P.; Gallo, V.; Gargano, F.; Gong, K.; Guo, D.; Husi, C.; Ionica, M.; La Marra, D.; Loparco, F.; Marsella, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mesa, J.; Nardinocchi, A.; Nicola, L.; Pelleriti, G.; Peng, W.; Pohl, M.; Postolache, V.; Qiao, R.; Surdo, A.; Tykhonov, A.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Wu, D.; Wu, X.; Zhang, F.

    2016-09-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a spaceborne astroparticle physics experiment, launched on 17 December 2015. DAMPE will identify possible dark matter signatures by detecting electrons and photons in the 5 GeV-10 TeV energy range. It will also measure the flux of nuclei up to 100 TeV, for the study of the high energy cosmic ray origin and propagation mechanisms. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon-tungsten tracker-converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is composed of six tracking planes of 2 orthogonal layers of single-sided micro-strip detectors, for a total detector surface of ca. 7 m2. The STK has been extensively tested for space qualification. Also, numerous beam tests at CERN have been done to study particle detection at silicon module level, and at full detector level. After description of the DAMPE payload and its scientific mission, we will describe the STK characteristics and assembly. We will then focus on some results of single ladder performance tests done with particle beams at CERN.

  6. High Energy Astronomy Observatory star tracker search program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a control system to accommodate the scientific payload of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) is discussed. One of the critical elements of the system is the star tracker subsystem, which defines an accurate three-axis attitude reference. A digital computer program has been developed to evaluate the ability of a particular star tracker configuration to meet the requirements for attitude reference at various vehicle orientations. Used in conjuction with an adequate star catalog, the computer program provides information on availability of stars for each tracker and on the ability of the system to maintain three-axis attitude reference throughout a representative sequence of vehicle orientations.

  7. A low-cost, CCD solid state star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielowski, M.; Wynne, D.

    1992-01-01

    Applied Research Corporation (ARC) has developed an engineering model of a multi-star CCD-based tracker for space applications requiring radiation hardness, high reliability and low power consumption. The engineering unit compared favorably in functional performance tests to the standard NASA single-star tracker. Characteristics of the ARC star tracker are: field of view = 10 deg x 7.5 deg, sensitivity range of -1 to +5 star magnitude, NEA = 3 in x 3 in, linearity = 5 in x 5 in, and power consumption of 1-3 W (operating mode dependent). The software is upgradable through a remote link. The hardware-limited acquisition rate is 1-5 Hz for stars of +2 to +5 magnitude and 10-30 Hz for -1 to +2 magnitude stars. Mechanical and electrical interfaces are identical to the standard NASA star tracker.

  8. D0 layer 0 innermost layer of silicon microstrip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A new inner layer silicon strip detector has been built and will be installed in the existing silicon microstrip tracker in D0. They report on the motivation, design, and performance of this new detector.

  9. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  10. Microflyers: inspiration from nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirohi, Jayant

    2013-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been considerable interest in miniaturizing aircraft to create a class of extremely small, robotic vehicles with a gross mass on the order of tens of grams and a dimension on the order of tens of centimeters. These are collectively refered to as micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) or microflyers. Because the size of microflyers is on the same order as that of small birds and large insects, engineers are turning to nature for inspiration. Bioinspired concepts make use of structural or aerodynamic mechanisms that are observed in insects and birds, such as elastic energy storage and unsteady aerodynamics. Biomimetic concepts attempt to replicate the form and function of natural flyers, such as flapping-wing propulsion and external appearance. This paper reviews recent developments in the area of man-made microflyers. The design space for microflyers will be described, along with fundamental physical limits to miniaturization. Key aerodynamic phenomena at the scale of microflyers will be highlighted. Because the focus is on bioinspiration and biomimetics, scaled-down versions of conventional aircraft, such as fixed wing micro air vehicles and microhelicopters will not be addressed. A few representative bioinspired and biomimetic microflyer concepts developed by researchers will be described in detail. Finally, some of the sensing mechanisms used by natural flyers that are being implemented in man-made microflyers will be discussed.

  11. HETDEX tracker control system design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beno, Joseph H.; Hayes, Richard; Leck, Ron; Penney, Charles; Soukup, Ian

    2012-09-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics and McDonald Observatory developed a precision tracker and control system - an 18,000 kg robot to position a 3,100 kg payload within 10 microns of a desired dynamic track. Performance requirements to meet science needs and safety requirements that emerged from detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis resulted in a system of 13 precision controlled actuators and 100 additional analog and digital devices (primarily sensors and safety limit switches). Due to this complexity, demanding accuracy requirements, and stringent safety requirements, two independent control systems were developed. First, a versatile and easily configurable centralized control system that links with modeling and simulation tools during the hardware and software design process was deemed essential for normal operation including motion control. A second, parallel, control system, the Hardware Fault Controller (HFC) provides independent monitoring and fault control through a dedicated microcontroller to force a safe, controlled shutdown of the entire system in the event a fault is detected. Motion controls were developed in a Matlab-Simulink simulation environment, and coupled with dSPACE controller hardware. The dSPACE real-time operating system collects sensor information; motor commands are transmitted over a PROFIBUS network to servo amplifiers and drive motor status is received over the same network. To interface the dSPACE controller directly to absolute Heidenhain sensors with EnDat 2.2 protocol, a custom communication board was developed. This paper covers details of operational control software, the HFC, algorithms, tuning, debugging, testing, and lessons learned.

  12. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Complete data from a test program designed to evaluate the performance of a star tracker, a breadboard tracker system, is presented in tabular form. All data presented was normalized to the pixel dimension of 20 micrometers. Data from determination of maximum spatial noise as it applies to the coarse and fine acquisition modes is presented. Pointing accuracy test data, raw pixel data for the track cycle, and data from equipment related tests is also presented.

  13. Optical Alignment of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetherington, Samuel; Osgood, Dean; McMann, Joe; Roberts, Viki; Gill, James; Mclean, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    The optical alignment of the star trackers on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core spacecraft at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was challenging due to the layout and structural design of the GPM Lower Bus Structure (LBS) in which the star trackers are mounted as well as the presence of the star tracker shades that blocked line-of-sight to the primary star tracker optical references. The initial solution was to negotiate minor changes in the original LBS design to allow for the installation of a removable item of ground support equipment (GSE) that could be installed whenever measurements of the star tracker optical references were needed. However, this GSE could only be used to measure secondary optical reference cube faces not used by the star tracker vendor to obtain the relationship information and matrix transformations necessary to determine star tracker alignment. Unfortunately, due to unexpectedly large orthogonality errors between the measured secondary adjacent cube faces and the lack of cube calibration data, we required a method that could be used to measure the same reference cube faces as originally measured by the vendor. We describe an alternative technique to theodolite auto-collimation for measurement of an optical reference mirror pointing direction when normal incidence measurements are not possible. This technique was used to successfully align the GPM star trackers and has been used on a number of other NASA flight projects. We also discuss alignment theory as well as a GSFC-developed theodolite data analysis package used to analyze angular metrology data.

  14. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollodge, J. C.; Hubbard, M. W.; Jain, S.; Schons, C. A.

    1981-08-01

    The performance of a star tracker equipped with a focal plane detector was evaluated. The CID board is an array of 256 x 256 pixels which are 20 x 20 micrometers in dimension. The tracker used for test was a breadboard tracker system developed by BASD. Unique acquisition and tracking algorithms are employed to enhance performance. A pattern recognition process is used to test for proper image spread function and to avoid false acquisition on noise. A very linear, high gain, interpixel transfer function is derived for interpolating star position. The lens used in the tracker has an EFL of 100 mm. The tracker has an FOV of 2.93 degrees resulting in a pixel angular subtense of 41.253 arc sec in each axis. The test procedure used for the program presented a star to the tracker in a circular pattern of positions; the pattern was formed by projecting a simulated star through a rotatable deviation wedge. Further tests determined readout noise, Noise Equivalent Displacement during track, and spatial noise during acquisition by taking related data and reducing it.

  15. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollodge, J. C.; Hubbard, M. W.; Jain, S.; Schons, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of a star tracker equipped with a focal plane detector was evaluated. The CID board is an array of 256 x 256 pixels which are 20 x 20 micrometers in dimension. The tracker used for test was a breadboard tracker system developed by BASD. Unique acquisition and tracking algorithms are employed to enhance performance. A pattern recognition process is used to test for proper image spread function and to avoid false acquisition on noise. A very linear, high gain, interpixel transfer function is derived for interpolating star position. The lens used in the tracker has an EFL of 100 mm. The tracker has an FOV of 2.93 degrees resulting in a pixel angular subtense of 41.253 arc sec in each axis. The test procedure used for the program presented a star to the tracker in a circular pattern of positions; the pattern was formed by projecting a simulated star through a rotatable deviation wedge. Further tests determined readout noise, Noise Equivalent Displacement during track, and spatial noise during acquisition by taking related data and reducing it.

  16. Multi-expert tracking algorithm based on improved compressive tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yachun; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Object tracking is a challenging task in computer vision. Most state-of-the-art methods maintain an object model and update the object model by using new examples obtained incoming frames in order to deal with the variation in the appearance. It will inevitably introduce the model drift problem into the object model updating frame-by-frame without any censorship mechanism. In this paper, we adopt a multi-expert tracking framework, which is able to correct the effect of bad updates after they happened such as the bad updates caused by the severe occlusion. Hence, the proposed framework exactly has the ability which a robust tracking method should process. The expert ensemble is constructed of a base tracker and its formal snapshot. The tracking result is produced by the current tracker that is selected by means of a simple loss function. We adopt an improved compressive tracker as the base tracker in our work and modify it to fit the multi-expert framework. The proposed multi-expert tracking algorithm significantly improves the robustness of the base tracker, especially in the scenes with frequent occlusions and illumination variations. Experiments on challenging video sequences with comparisons to several state-of-the-art trackers demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and our tracking algorithm can run at real-time.

  17. EMC Diagnosis and Corrective Actions for Silicon Strip Tracker Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Arteche, F.; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2006-06-06

    The tracker sub-system is one of the five sub-detectors of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment under construction at CERN for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The tracker subdetector is designed to reconstruct tracks of charged sub-atomic particles generated after collisions. The tracker system processes analogue signals from 10 million channels distributed across 14000 silicon micro-strip detectors. It is designed to process signals of a few nA and digitize them at 40 MHz. The overall sub-detector is embedded in a high particle radiation environment and a magnetic field of 4 Tesla. The evaluation of the electromagnetic immunity of the system is very important to optimize the performance of the tracker sub-detector and the whole CMS experiment. This paper presents the EMC diagnosis of the CMS silicon tracker sub-detector. Immunity tests were performed using the final prototype of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) system to estimate the sensitivity of the system to conducted noise, evaluate the weakest areas of the system and take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector. This paper shows the results of one of those tests, that is the measurement and analysis of the immunity to CM external conducted noise perturbations.

  18. Bio-inspired vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  19. Price controls and international petroleum product prices

    SciTech Connect

    Deacon, R.T.; Mead, W.J.; Agarwal, V.B.

    1980-02-01

    The effects of Federal refined-product price controls upon the price of motor gasoline in the United States through 1977 are examined. A comparison of domestic and foreign gasoline prices is made, based on the prices of products actually moving in international trade. There is also an effort to ascribe US/foreign market price differentials to identifiable cost factors. Primary emphasis is on price comparisons at the wholesale level, although some retail comparisons are presented. The study also examines the extent to which product price controls are binding, and attempts to estimate what the price of motor gasoline would have been in the absence of controls. The time period under consideration is from 1969 through 1977, with primary focus on price relationships in 1970-1971 (just before US controls) and 1976-1977. The foreign-domestic comparisons are made with respect to four major US cities, namely, Boston, New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles. 20 figures, 14 tables.

  20. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

    2011-12-01

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  1. Human factor requirements of helmet trackers for HMDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Gary L.; Havig, Paul R.; Post, David L.; Reis, George A.; Simpson, Matthew A.

    2003-09-01

    A helmet tracker is a critical element in the path that delivers targeting and other sensor data to the user of a helmet-mounted display (HMD) in a military aircraft. The original purpose of an HMD was to serve as a helmet-mounted sight and provide a means to fully utilize the capabilities of off-boresight munitions. Recently, the role of the HMD has evolved from being strictly a targeting tool to providing detailed flight path and situation awareness information. These changes, however, have placed even greater value on the visual information that is transferred through the helmet tracker to the HMD. Specifically, the timeliness and accuracy of the information, which is of critical importance when the HMD is used as a targeting aid, is of even greater importance when the HMD is used to display flight reference information. This is especially relevant since it has been proposed to build new military aircraft without a physical head-up display (HUD) and display HUD information virtually with an HMD. In this paper, we review the current state of helmet tracker technology with respect to use in military aviation. We also identify the parameters of helmet trackers that offer the greatest risk when using an HMD to provide information beyond targeting data to the user. Finally, we discuss the human factors limitations of helmet tracker systems for delivering both targeting and flight reference information to a military pilot.

  2. Construction and commissioning of the SuperNEMO detector tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascella, Michele

    2016-07-01

    The SuperNEMO detector will search for neutrinoless double beta decay at the Modane Underground Laboratory; the detector design allows complete topological reconstruction of the decay event enabling excellent levels of background rejection and, in the event of a discovery, the ability to determine the nature of the lepton number violating process. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the full experiment, we are building a Demonstrator Module containing 7 kg of 82Se, with an expected sensitivity of |mββ | < 0.2 - 0.4 eV after 2.5 yr. The demonstrator tracker is currently being assembled in the UK; the main challenge in the tracker design is the high radiopurity required to limit the background. For this reason the cell wiring is automated and every step of the tracker assembly happens in a clean environment. All components are carefully screened for radiopurity and each section of the tracker, once assembled, is sealed and checked for Radon emanation. We present the detector design, the current status of the construction and present the first results from the surface commissioning of one section of the Demonstrator Module tracker.

  3. Exposure time optimization for highly dynamic star trackers.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinguo; Tan, Wei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-03-11

    Under highly dynamic conditions, the star-spots on the image sensor of a star tracker move across many pixels during the exposure time, which will reduce star detection sensitivity and increase star location errors. However, this kind of effect can be compensated well by setting an appropriate exposure time. This paper focuses on how exposure time affects the star tracker under highly dynamic conditions and how to determine the most appropriate exposure time for this case. Firstly, the effect of exposure time on star detection sensitivity is analyzed by establishing the dynamic star-spot imaging model. Then the star location error is deduced based on the error analysis of the sub-pixel centroiding algorithm. Combining these analyses, the effect of exposure time on attitude accuracy is finally determined. Some simulations are carried out to validate these effects, and the results show that there are different optimal exposure times for different angular velocities of a star tracker with a given configuration. In addition, the results of night sky experiments using a real star tracker agree with the simulation results. The summarized regularities in this paper should prove helpful in the system design and dynamic performance evaluation of the highly dynamic star trackers.

  4. Pointing knowledge accuracy of the star tracker based ATP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shinhak; Ortiz, Gerardo G.; Alexander, James W.

    2005-04-01

    The pointing knowledge for the deep space optical communications should be accurate and the estimate update rate needs to be sufficiently higher to compensate the spacecraft vibration. Our objective is to meet these two requirements, high accuracy and update rate, using the combinations of star trackers and inertial sensors. Star trackers are very accurate and provide absolute pointing knowledge with low update rate depending on the star magnitude. On the other hand, inertial sensors provide relative pointing knowledge with high update rates. In this paper, we describe how the star tracker and inertial sensor measurements are combined to reduce the pointing knowledge jitter. This method is based on the 'iterative averaging' of the star tracker and gyro measurements. Angle sensor measurements are to fill in between the two gyro measurements for higher update rate and the total RMS error (or jitter) increases in RSS (Root-Sum-Squared) sense. The estimated pointing jitter is on the order of 150 nrad which is well below the typical requirements of the deep space optical communications. This 150 nrad jitter can be achieved with 8 cm diameter of telescope aperture. Additional expectations include 1/25 pixel accuracy per star, SIRTF class gyros (ARW = 0.0001 deg/root-hr), 5 Hz star trackers with ~5.0 degree FOV, detector of 1000 by 1000 pixels, and stars of roughly 9 to 9.5 magnitudes.

  5. The Reconstruction Software for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, A.; Long, K.; Santos, E.; Adey, D.; Hanlet, P.; Heidt, C.

    2014-06-01

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionization cooling, for application to a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. In order to measure the change in emittance, MICE is equipped with a pair of high precision scintillating fibre trackers. The trackers are required to measure a 10% change in emittance to 1% accuracy (giving an overall precision of 0.1%). This paper describes the tracker reconstruction software, as a part of the overall MICE software framework, MAUS. Channel clustering is described, proceeding to the formation of space-points, which are then associated with particle tracks using pattern recognition algorithms. Finally a full custom Kalman track fit is performed, to account for energy loss and multiple scattering. Exemplar results are shown for Monte Carlo data.

  6. The tracker systems for the muon ionization cooling experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, C.

    2013-08-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will be the first experiment to demonstrate muon ionization cooling in the momentum range of 140-240 MeV/c. The experiment is a single-particle experiment where the input and output beam emittances are constructed from an ensemble of selected single-muon candidates. The fiber trackers are placed in a solenoidal field of 4 T (one before and one after the cooling channel) to measure the muon 4-momentum and provide the basic information for determining the emittances. This paper gives a brief overview of MICE and then describes the details of the fiber tracker assemblies, the unique construction technique used (which for the first time used 350 μm diameter scintillating fiber), the readout electronics and performance with respect to light yield, hit resolution and tracking efficiency as measured in a recent cosmic-ray test of the two final tracker systems.

  7. Laser Tracker Test Facility at SLAC - Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, G.L.; Ruland, R.E.; /SLAC

    2008-02-22

    Physics experiments at SLAC require high accuracy positioning, e. g. 100 {micro}m over a distance of 150 m or 25 {micro}m in a 10 x 10 x 3 meter volume. Laser Tracker measurement systems have become one of the most important tools for achieving these accuracies when mapping components. In order to improve and get a better understanding of laser tracker measurement tolerances we extended our laboratory with a rotary calibration table (Kugler GmbH) providing an accuracy of better than 0.2 arcsec. This paper gives an overview of the calibration table and its evaluation. Results of tests on two of our Laser Trackers utilizing the new rotary table as well as the SLAC interferometer bench are presented.

  8. The Reconstruction Software for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, A.; Long, K.; Santos, E.; Adey, D.; Hanlet, P.; Heidt, C.

    2014-01-01

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionization cooling, for application to a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. In order to measure the change in emittance, MICE is equipped with a pair of high precision scintillating fibre trackers. The trackers are required to measure a 10% change in emittance to 1% accuracy (giving an overall precision of 0.1%). This paper describes the tracker reconstruction software, as a part of the overall MICE software framework, MAUS. Channel clustering is described, proceeding to the formation of space-points, which are then associated with particle tracks using pattern recognition algorithms. Finally a full custom Kalman track fit is performed, to account for energy loss and multiple scattering. Exemplar results are shown for Monte Carlo data.

  9. Combinations of 148 navigation stars and the star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R.

    1980-01-01

    The angular separation of all star combinations for 148 nav star on the onboard software for space transportation system-3 flight and following missions is presented as well as the separation of each pair that satisfies the viewing constraints of using both star trackers simultaneously. Tables show (1) shuttle star catalog 1980 star position in M 1950 coordinates; (2) two star combination of 148 nav stars; and (3) summary of two star-combinations of the star tracker 5 deg filter. These 148 stars present 10,875 combinations. For the star tracker filters of plus or minus 5 deg, there are 875 combinations. Formalhaut (nav star 26) has the best number of combinations, which is 33.

  10. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy. PMID:10121318

  11. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy.

  12. Improving the measurement quality of small satellite star trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzamba, Tom

    Recent demand from the small satellite community has led to the development of a new series of star trackers that are specifically designed for small satellites. These units represent substantial improvements in mass, power consumption and cost over traditional star trackers, but suffer slightly in terms of accuracy and availability performance. The primary factors inhibiting their performance are the use of significantly smaller optics, and commercial off the shelf components (COTS). This thesis presents a series of strategies for improving the performance of small satellite star trackers (SSSTs). These goals are realized through the development of offline calibration procedures, flight software, validation tests, and optical trade studies to guide future development. This thesis begins with the development of a target-based focusing procedure that enables precision control over the focus of the sensor optics. This improves the detection performance for dim stars, and ultimately increases the availability of the attitude solution. Flight software is developed to compensate for the effects of electronic rolling shutters, which reside on most COTS image detectors. Combined with a developed camera calibration procedure, these tools reduce the uncertainty with which a star tracker can measure the direction vectors to stars in view, ultimately increasing sensor accuracy. Integrated tests are performed to validate detection performance in dynamic conditions. These tests specifically examine the effect of slew rate on star tracker detection, and availability performance. Lastly, this thesis presents a series of optical trades studies that seek to identify design requirements for high performance SSSTs. The trends in availability and accuracy performance are examined as a function of different lens/detector configurations as well dual/triple-head sensor configurations. Together, these strategies represent tools that aim to improve small satellite star tracker performance

  13. Simulation of the GEM silicon central tracker using GEANT

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, M.L.; Kinnison, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    The silicon central tracker of the GEM detector has been simulated using the high energy physics simulations code GEANT. This paper will describe the level of detail of the geometry of the tracker that is in the code, including the silicon detectors themselves as well as all non-sensitive volumes such as support structures; the digitization, or detector response to particles, of the silicon detectors; the coordinate reconstruction from the digitizations, and some of the results of the simulations regarding the detector performance.

  14. Application analysis of enhanced video tracker in space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Xuhua; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhao, Haishan; Zhang, Zhiping

    2011-06-01

    Relay mirror is used to track ground-based beacon accurately in space optical communication. It is unreliable to track the beam by the ordinary quadrant. DBA video tracker applies avalanche photo diode quadrant to enhance, which can improve the performance of the relay mirror tracking system. However, the sight line disturbance followed is unacceptable. By the continuous designs we present the scheme of enhanced video tracker with high-passed high bandwidth quadrant, and it is proved that it is successful for the relay mirror experiment.

  15. Environmental testing results over a tracker drive train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, María; Calvo-Parra, Gustavo; Gil, Eduardo; de la Rubia, Oscar; Hillebrand, Mario; Rubio, Francisca; Aipperspach, Wolfgang; Gombert, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Environmental testing following the draft of the IEC62817 standard has been carried out at ISFOC using a Soitec Solar tracker drive. The objective of this work is twofold; first to assure that the tracker design can perform under varying conditions and survive under extreme conditions and secondly to test the viability and usefulness of the tests described in the standard. After some changes in the device under test (specifically, gear-box oil) the drive system produced satisfactory results, assuring its performance under operational temperatures. Therefore, this work has demonstrated that the tests described in the standard are useful for detecting early failures.

  16. Detector production for the R3B Si-tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borri, M.; Lemmon, R.; Thornhill, J.; Bate, R.; Chartier, M.; Clague, N.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Labiche, M.; Lindsay, S.; Nolan, P.; Pearce, F.; Powell, W.; Wells, D.

    2016-11-01

    R3B is a fixed target experiment which will study reactions with relativistic radioactive beams at FAIR. Its Si-tracker will surround the target volume and it will detect light charged-particles like protons. The detector technology in use consists of double-sided silicon strip sensors wire bonded to the custom made R3B-ASIC. The tracker allows for a maximum of two outer layers and one inner layer. This paper reports on the production of detectors necessary to build the minimum tracking configuration: one inner layer and one outer layer.

  17. Environmental Tests of the Flight GLAST LAT Tracker Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Angelis, A.De; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Goodman, J.; Himel, T.

    2008-03-12

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space telescope (GLAST) is a gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in 2008. Before the assembly of the Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of GLAST, every component (tray) and module (tower) has been subjected to extensive ground testing required to ensure successful launch and on-orbit operation. This paper describes the sequence and results of the environmental tests performed on an engineering model and all the flight hardware of the GLAST LAT Tracker. Environmental tests include vibration testing, thermal cycles and thermal-vacuum cycles of every tray and tower as well as the verification of their electrical performance.

  18. Characterization of the Ecosole HCPV tracker and single module inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpanelli, Maurizio; Borelli, Gianni; Verdilio, Daniele; De Nardis, Davide; Migali, Fabrizio; Cancro, Carmine; Graditi, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    BECAR, the Beghelli group's R&D company, is leading ECOSOLE (Elevated COncentration SOlar Energy), one of the largest European Demonstration projects in solar photovoltaic. ECOSOLE, started in 2012, is focused on the study, design, and realization of new HCPV generator made of high efficiency PV modules equipped with SoG (Silicone on Glass) fresnel lenses and III-V solar cells, and a low cost matched solar tracker with distributed inverters approach. The project also regards the study and demonstration of new high throughput methods for the industrial large scale productions, at very low manufacturing costs. This work reports the description of the characterization of the tracker and single module.

  19. Simulations of silicon vertex tracker for star experiment at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Odyniec, G.; Cebra, D.; Christie, W.; Naudet, C.; Schroeder, L.; Wilson, W.; Liko, D.; Cramer, J.; Prindle, D.; Trainor, T.; Braithwaite, W.

    1991-12-31

    The first computer simulations to optimize the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) designed for the STAR experiment at RHIC are presented. The physics goals and the expected complexity of the events at RHIC dictate the design of a tracking system for the STAR experiment. The proposed tracking system will consist of a silicon vertex tracker (SVT) to locate the primary interaction and secondary decay vertices and to improve the momentum resolution, and a time projection chamber (TPC), positioned inside a solenoidal magnet, for continuous tracking.

  20. Retroreflector field tracker. [noncontact optical position sensor for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargocki, F. E.; Ray, A. J.; Hall, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    An electrooptical position-measuring instrument, the Retroreflector Field Tracker or RFT, is described. It is part of the Dynamic Augmentation Experiment - a part of the payload of Space Shuttle flight 41-D in Summer 1984. The tracker measures and outputs the position of 23 reflective targets placed on a 32-m solar array to provide data for determination of the dynamics of the lightweight structure. The sensor uses a 256 x 256 pixel CID detector; the processor electronics include three Z-80 microprocessors. A pulsed laser diode illuminator is used.

  1. System and method for calibrating inter-star-tracker misalignments in a stellar inertial attitude determination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rongsheng (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Hein, Douglas H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining star tracker misalignments is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of defining a defining a reference frame for the star tracker assembly according to a boresight of the primary star tracker and a boresight of a second star tracker wherein the boresight of the primary star tracker and a plane spanned by the boresight of the primary star tracker and the boresight of the second star tracker at least partially define a datum for the reference frame for the star tracker assembly; and determining the misalignment of the at least one star tracker as a rotation of the defined reference frame.

  2. Characterizing limit order prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon

    2013-11-01

    A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.

  3. Project Inspire: Vocational Guidance Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Businessmen, Washington, DC.

    Two introductory speeches suggest the general social and interracial climate in the United States. It is against this backdrop that Project Inspire is described. Its purpose is the development of a vocational guidance component within the broader school curriculum. Its major objective is elevating the awareness level of students to the work world…

  4. Inspiring Teachers: Perspectives and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Kington, Alison; Lindorff-Vijayendran, Ariel; Ortega, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    This research study investigates the notion of "inspiring" teaching through case studies of a purposive sample of 17 primary and secondary school teachers in England. The research was commissioned by CfBT Education Trust as part of a collaborative professional development initiative involving its schools. It arose from headteachers'…

  5. Inspiring the Best in Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Students' success in school and later in life is highly dependent on their ability to 1) regulate their emotions and control their behavior and 2) get along with their teachers and peers. In this book, the author wants to teach you how to inspire students to learn, behave responsibly, and improve their relationships with themselves, other…

  6. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop had much to…

  7. Inspiring Student Self-Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackett, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    While normally appreciative of the invitation to join colleagues in a discussion of pedagogy and what "works" in the classroom, the author has in most instances reluctantly participated in discussion of student motivation. She dips her toe into this philosophical quagmire only if permitted license to substitute the phrase student "inspiration" in…

  8. Novel locomotion via biological inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Roger D.; Boxerbaum, Alexander; Palmer, Luther; Chiel, Hillel; Diller, Eric; Hunt, Alexander; Bachmann, Richard

    2011-05-01

    Animal behavioral, physiological and neurobiological studies are providing a wealth of inspirational data for robot design and control. Several very different biologically inspired mobile robots will be reviewed. A robot called DIGbot is being developed that moves independent of the direction of gravity using Distributed Inward Gripping (DIG) as a rapid and robust attachment mechanism observed in climbing animals. DIGbot is an 18 degree of freedom hexapod with onboard power and control systems. Passive compliance in its feet, which is inspired by the flexible tarsus of the cockroach, increases the robustness of the adhesion strategy and enables DIGbot to execute large steps and stationary turns while walking on mesh screens. A Whegs™ robot, inspired by insect locomotion principles, is being developed that can be rapidly reconfigured between tracks and wheel-legs and carry GeoSystems Zipper Mast. The mechanisms that cause it to passively change its gait on irregular terrain have been integrated into its hubs for a compact and modular design. The robot is designed to move smoothly on moderately rugged terrain using its tracks and run on irregular terrain and stairs using its wheel-legs. We are also developing soft bodied robots that use peristalsis, the same method of locomotion earthworms use. We present a technique of using a braided mesh exterior to produce fluid waves of motion along the body of the robot that increase the robot's speed relative to previous designs. The concept is highly scalable, for endoscopes to water, oil or gas line inspection.

  9. INSPIRED High School Computing Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerschuk, Peggy; Liu, Jiangjiang; Mann, Judith

    2011-01-01

    If we are to attract more women and minorities to computing we must engage students at an early age. As part of its mission to increase participation of women and underrepresented minorities in computing, the Increasing Student Participation in Research Development Program (INSPIRED) conducts computing academies for high school students. The…

  10. Inversion exercises inspired by mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2016-02-01

    An elementary calculus transform, inspired by the centroid and gyration radius, is introduced as a prelude to the study of more advanced transforms. Analysis of the transform, including its inversion, makes use of several key concepts from basic calculus and exercises in the application and inversion of the transform provide practice in the use of technology in calculus.

  11. London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

  12. CMS tracker performance and readiness for LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viliani, L.

    2016-07-01

    The CMS tracker performance during LHC Run I is reviewed. The latest results of both pixel and strip detectors following the first LHC Long Shutdown (LS1) are then presented. Results from detector calibration and commissioning, together with a description of operations and repairs done during LS1, will be shown.

  13. Star tracker operation in a high density proton field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklus, Kenneth J.; Kissh, Frank; Flynn, David J.

    1993-02-01

    Algorithms that reject transient signals due to proton effects on charge coupled device (CCD) sensors have been implemented in the HDOS ASTRA-l Star Trackers to be flown on the TOPEX mission scheduled for launch in July 1992. A unique technique for simulating a proton-rich environment to test trackers is described, as well as the test results obtained. Solar flares or an orbit that passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly can subject the vehicle to very high proton flux levels. There are three ways in which spurious proton generated signals can impact tracker performance: the many false signals can prevent or extend the time to acquire a star; a proton-generated signal can compromise the accuracy of the star's reported magnitude and position; and the tracked star can be lost, requiring reacquisition. Tests simulating a proton-rich environment were performed on two ASTRA-1 Star Trackers utilizing these new algorithms. There were no false acquisitions, no lost stars, and a significant reduction in reported position errors due to these improvements.

  14. Star tracker operation in a high density proton field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miklus, Kenneth J.; Kissh, Frank; Flynn, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Algorithms that reject transient signals due to proton effects on charge coupled device (CCD) sensors have been implemented in the HDOS ASTRA-l Star Trackers to be flown on the TOPEX mission scheduled for launch in July 1992. A unique technique for simulating a proton-rich environment to test trackers is described, as well as the test results obtained. Solar flares or an orbit that passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly can subject the vehicle to very high proton flux levels. There are three ways in which spurious proton generated signals can impact tracker performance: the many false signals can prevent or extend the time to acquire a star; a proton-generated signal can compromise the accuracy of the star's reported magnitude and position; and the tracked star can be lost, requiring reacquisition. Tests simulating a proton-rich environment were performed on two ASTRA-1 Star Trackers utilizing these new algorithms. There were no false acquisitions, no lost stars, and a significant reduction in reported position errors due to these improvements.

  15. The CDF II eXtremely fast tracker upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Ohio State U. /Baylor U. /UC, Davis /Athens Natl. Capodistrian U. /Purdue U. /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    The CDF II Extremely Fast Tracker is the trigger track processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the CDF II central outer tracking chamber. The system is now being upgraded to perform a three dimensional track reconstruction. A review of the upgrade is presented here.

  16. Using "Tracker" to Prove the Simple Harmonic Motion Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, John

    2016-01-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; "Tracker", we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  17. Using Tracker to prove the simple harmonic motion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinchin, John

    2016-09-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; Tracker, we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  18. Neutrino Induced Coherent ρ Production in a Fine Grained Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Libo; Kullenberg, Christpher; Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib; LBNE Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    We present simulation of neutrino induced coherent ρ-meson production in charged and neutral current interactions. Sensitivity studies of this process is presented in a fine grain tracker, a near detector option for LBNE. Measurements of coherent ρ0 and ρ+ production in NOMAD are reported.

  19. Opportunity Science Using the Juno Magnetometer Investigation Star Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joergensen, J. L.; Connerney, J. E.; Bang, A. M.; Denver, T.; Oliversen, R. J.; Benn, M.; Lawton, P.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetometer experiment onboard Juno is equipped with four non-magnetic star tracker camera heads, two of which reside on each of the magnetometer sensor optical benches. These are located 10 and 12 m from the spacecraft body at the end of one of the three solar panel wings. The star tracker, collectively referred to as the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), provides high accuracy attitude information for the magnetometer sensors throughout science operations. The star tracker camera heads are pointed +/- 13 deg off the spin vector, in the anti-sun direction, imaging a 13 x 20 deg field of view every ¼ second as Juno rotates at 1 or 2 rpm. The ASC is a fully autonomous star tracker, producing a time series of attitude quaternions for each camera head, utilizing a suite of internal support functions. These include imaging capabilities, autonomous object tracking, automatic dark-sky monitoring, and related capabilities; these internal functions may be accessed via telecommand. During Juno's cruise phase, this capability can be tapped to provide unique science and engineering data available along the Juno trajectory. We present a few examples of the JUNO ASC opportunity science here. As the Juno spacecraft approached the Earth-Moon system for the close encounter with the Earth on October 9, 2013, one of the ASC camera heads obtained imagery of the Earth-Moon system while the other three remained in full science (attitude determination) operation. This enabled the first movie of the Earth and Moon obtained by a spacecraft flying past the Earth in gravity assist. We also use the many artificial satellites in orbit about the Earth as calibration targets for the autonomous asteroid detection system inherent to the ASC autonomous star tracker. We shall also profile the zodiacal dust disk, using the interstellar image data, and present the outlook for small asteroid body detection and distribution being performed during Juno's passage from Earth flyby to Jovian orbit

  20. A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, Heath B.; /Fermilab

    2010-04-01

    The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

  1. A Tony Thomas-inspired guide to INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Heath B.

    2010-07-01

    The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

  2. Long-range active retroreflector to measure the rotational orientation in conjunction with a laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofherr, O.; Wachten, Christian; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2014-11-01

    High precision optical non-contact position measurement is a key technology in modern engineering. Laser trackers (LT) accurately determine x-y-z coordinates of passive retroreflectors. Next-generation systems answer the need to measure an object`s rotational orientation (pitch, yaw, roll). So far, these devices are based either on photogrammetry or on enhanced retroreflectors. Here we present a new method to measure all six degrees of freedom in conjunction with a LT. The basic principle is to analyze the orientation to the LT's beam path by coupling-out laser radiation. The optical design is inspired by a cat's eye retroreflector equipped with an integrated beam splitter layer. The optical spherical aberration is compensated, which reduces the divergence angle for the reflected beam by one order of magnitude compared to an uncompensated standard system of the same size. The wave front distortion is reduced to less than 0.1 λ @ 633 nm for beam diameters up to 8 mm. Our active retroreflector is suitable for long-range measurements for a distance > 10 m.

  3. Jellyfish inspired underwater unmanned vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Alex; Bresser, Scott; Chung, Sanghun; Tadesse, Yonas; Priya, Shashank

    2009-03-01

    An unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) was designed inspired by the form and functionality of a Jellyfish. These natural organisms were chosen as bio-inspiration for a multitude of reasons including: efficiency of locomotion, lack of natural predators, proper form and shape to incorporate payload, and varying range of sizes. The structure consists of a hub body surrounded by bell segments and microcontroller based drive system. The locomotion of UUV was achieved by shape memory alloy "Biometal Fiber" actuation which possesses large strain and blocking force with adequate response time. The main criterion in design of UUV was the use of low-profile shape memory alloy actuators which act as artificial muscles. In this manuscript, we discuss the design of two Jellyfish prototypes and present experimental results illustrating the performance and power consumption.

  4. Binary Inspiral in Quadratic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Quadratic gravity is a general class of quantum-gravity-inspired theories, where the Einstein-Hilbert action is extended through the addition of all terms quadratic in the curvature tensor coupled to a scalar field. In this article, we focus on the scalar Gauss- Bonnet (sGB) theory and consider the black hole binary inspiral in this theory. By applying the post-Newtonian (PN) formalism, we found that there is a scalar dipole radiation which leads to -1PN correction in the energy flux relative to gravitational radiation in general relativity. From the orbital decay rate of a low-mass X-ray binary A0600-20, we obtain the bound that is six orders of magnitude stronger than the current solar system bound. Furthermore, we show that the excess in the orbital decay rate of XTE J1118+480 can be explained by the scalar radiation in sGB theory.

  5. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    The purpose of this study and its succeeding editions is to report higher education price information on a continuing basis until a more formal effort in this direction is initiated by the federal government or by interested private organizations. Consideration is given to the uses and limitations of price indexes, expenditure grouping for pricing…

  6. Biologically inspired dynamic material systems.

    PubMed

    Studart, André R

    2015-03-01

    Numerous examples of material systems that dynamically interact with and adapt to the surrounding environment are found in nature, from hair-based mechanoreceptors in animals to self-shaping seed dispersal units in plants to remodeling bone in vertebrates. Inspired by such fascinating biological structures, a wide range of synthetic material systems have been created to replicate the design concepts of dynamic natural architectures. Examples of biological structures and their man-made counterparts are herein revisited to illustrate how dynamic and adaptive responses emerge from the intimate microscale combination of building blocks with intrinsic nanoscale properties. By using top-down photolithographic methods and bottom-up assembly approaches, biologically inspired dynamic material systems have been created 1) to sense liquid flow with hair-inspired microelectromechanical systems, 2) to autonomously change shape by utilizing plantlike heterogeneous architectures, 3) to homeostatically influence the surrounding environment through self-regulating adaptive surfaces, and 4) to spatially concentrate chemical species by using synthetic microcompartments. The ever-increasing complexity and remarkable functionalities of such synthetic systems offer an encouraging perspective to the rich set of dynamic and adaptive properties that can potentially be implemented in future man-made material systems.

  7. Innovation Inspiration School Grant Program Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Tim [D-OH-13

    2013-03-18

    04/23/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Innovation Inspiration School Grant Program Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Tim [D-OH-17

    2011-06-21

    09/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Tracker: Image-Processing and Object-Tracking System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Theodore W.

    1999-01-01

    Tracker is an object-tracking and image-processing program designed and developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to help with the analysis of images generated by microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments. Experiments are often recorded on film or videotape for analysis later. Tracker automates the process of examining each frame of the recorded experiment, performing image-processing operations to bring out the desired detail, and recording the positions of the objects of interest. It can load sequences of images from disk files or acquire images (via a frame grabber) from film transports, videotape, laser disks, or a live camera. Tracker controls the image source to automatically advance to the next frame. It can employ a large array of image-processing operations to enhance the detail of the acquired images and can analyze an arbitrarily large number of objects simultaneously. Several different tracking algorithms are available, including conventional threshold and correlation-based techniques, and more esoteric procedures such as "snake" tracking and automated recognition of character data in the image. The Tracker software was written to be operated by researchers, thus every attempt was made to make the software as user friendly and self-explanatory as possible. Tracker is used by most of the microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments performed by Lewis, and by visiting researchers. This includes experiments performed on the space shuttles, Mir, sounding rockets, zero-g research airplanes, drop towers, and ground-based laboratories. This software automates the analysis of the flame or liquid s physical parameters such as position, velocity, acceleration, size, shape, intensity characteristics, color, and centroid, as well as a number of other measurements. It can perform these operations on multiple objects simultaneously. Another key feature of Tracker is that it performs optical character recognition (OCR). This feature is useful in

  10. Detailed performance of the Outer Tracker at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuning, N.

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5 × 6 m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance in terms of the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. Details on the ionization length and subtle effects regarding signal reflections and the subsequent time-walk correction are given. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 μm, depending on the detailed implementation of the internal alignment of individual detector modules. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  11. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-04-13

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  12. TMT tertiary mirror axis calibration with laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Qi-chang; Zhang, Jing-xu; Yang, Fei; Sun, Jing-wei

    2015-03-01

    To calibrate the tracing performance of the thirty meter telescope (TMT) tertiary mirror, for the special requirement of the TMT, the laser tracker is used to verify the motion. Firstly, the deviation is divided into two parts, namely, the repeatable error and the unrepeatable part. Then, based on the laser tracker, the mearturement and evalutation methods of the rigid body motion for the mirror are established, and the Monte Carol method is used to determine the accuracy of the mothod. Lastly, the mothod is applied to the turn table of a classical telescope and the residual error is about 4 arc second. The work of this paper will guide the next desgin and construction work of the thirty meter telescope tertiary mirror.

  13. Measurement uncertainty analysis on laser tracker combined with articulated CMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui-ning; Yu, Lian-dong; Du, Yun; Zhang, Hai-yan

    2013-10-01

    The combined measurement technology plays an increasingly important role in the digitalized assembly. This paper introduces a combined measurement system consists of a Laser tracker and a FACMM,with the applications in the inspection of the position of the inner parts in a large-scale device. When these measurement instruments are combined, the resulting coordinate data set contains uncertainties that are a function of the base data sets and complex interactions between the measurement sets. Combined with the characteristics of Laser Tracker and Flexible Articulated Coordinate Measuring Machine (FACMM),Monte-Claro simulation mothed is employed in the uncertainty evaluation of combined measurement systems. A case study is given to demonstrate the practical applications of this research.

  14. Simulating Price-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Lucas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a price-takers' market simulation geared toward principles-level students. This simulation demonstrates that price-taking behavior is a natural result of the conditions that create perfect competition. In trials, there is a significant degree of price convergence in just three or four rounds. Students find this…

  15. Price Estimation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Aster, R. W.; Firnett, P. J.; Miller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG4, program provides comparatively simple, yet relatively accurate estimate of price of manufactured product. IPEG4 processes user supplied input data to determine estimate of price per unit of production. Input data include equipment cost, space required, labor cost, materials and supplies cost, utility expenses, and production volume on industry wide or process wide basis.

  16. The Frozen Price Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Lori

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…

  17. Clementine Star Tracker Stellar Compass: Final report part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, R.E.; Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.

    1995-07-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star stracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 x 384 focal plane array and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 m{sub v}, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 {mu}rad pitch and yaw and 450 {mu}rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights. Documentation generated during the design, analysis, build, test and characterization of the star tracker cameras are presented. Collectively, this documentation represents a small library of information for this camera, and may be used as a framework for producing copy units by commercial enterprises, and therefore satisfies a Department of Defense and Department of Energy goal to transfer technology to industry. However, the considerable knowledge gained from the experience of the individuals involved in the system trades, design, analysis, production, testing and characterization of the star tracker stellar compass is not contained in this documentation.

  18. Resonance interaction in LBNE fine-grained-tracker near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Duyang, Hongyue; Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib R.

    2015-10-15

    This talk is devoted to resonance interaction (RES) in the proposed fine-grained tracker detector (FGT) for LBNE experiment. We use fast MC to study the sensitivity of FGT to RES, and use this measurement as a handle to constrain nuclear effects. Similar analysis is performed on NOMAD data for validation and better understanding. Preliminary RES measurement result using NOMAD data will be reported.

  19. ASTROS - A sub-arcsec CCD star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, R. H.; Alexander, J. W.; Dennison, E. W.; Glavich, T. A.; Salomon, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design and application of ASTROS (Advanced Star and Target Reference Optical Sensor) are described, with emphasis on performance test results acquired with a prototype system. The ASTROS tracker provides extremely precise measurements of star image coordinates as inputs to the Image Motion Compensation (IMC) system used to stabilize the science instrument focal planes. Performance levels achieved are dramatic improvements over the levels achieved with image dissector designs with comparable fields of view.

  20. Resonance interaction in LBNE fine-grained-tracker near detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyang, Hongyue; Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib R.

    2015-10-01

    This talk is devoted to resonance interaction (RES) in the proposed fine-grained tracker detector (FGT) for LBNE experiment. We use fast MC to study the sensitivity of FGT to RES, and use this measurement as a handle to constrain nuclear effects. Similar analysis is performed on NOMAD data for validation and better understanding. Preliminary RES measurement result using NOMAD data will be reported.

  1. The D0 silicon micro-strip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael S.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The D0 silicon micro-strip tracker (SMT) is part of the D0 upgrade for the Tevatron RunII at Fermilab. The detector has been running successfully since the start of the RunII physics data taking. The tracking and vertexing performance match the expectation from Monte-Carlo studies. An additional inner layer (Layer0) of silicon sensors at R = 1.6cm will be installed in 2005.

  2. A new silicon tracker for proton imaging and dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. T.; Waltham, C.; Price, T.; Allinson, N. M.; Allport, P. P.; Casse, G. L.; Kacperek, A.; Manger, S.; Smith, N. A.; Tsurin, I.

    2016-09-01

    For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today. The Proton Radiotherapy, Verification and Dosimetry Applications (PRaVDA) consortium are developing instrumentation for particle therapy based upon technology from high-energy physics. The characteristics of a new silicon micro-strip tracker for particle therapy will be presented. The array uses specifically designed, large area sensors with technology choices that follow closely those taken for the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC. These detectors will be arranged into four units each with three layers in an x-u-v configuration to be suitable for fast proton tracking with minimal ambiguities. The sensors will form a tracker capable of tracing the path of ~200 MeV protons entering and exiting a patient allowing a new mode of imaging known as proton computed tomography (pCT). This will aid the accurate delivery of treatment doses and in addition, the tracker will also be used to monitor the beam profile and total dose delivered during the high fluences used for treatment. We present here details of the design, construction and assembly of one of the four units that will make up the complete tracker along with its characterisation using radiation tests carried out using a 90Sr source in the laboratory and a 60 MeV proton beam at the Clatterbridge Cancer Centre.

  3. Inspiring a STEMester of Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abravanel, Susan; Guy, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    For the past two years, eighth graders at Lincoln Middle School have been participating in the STEMester of Service program, which uses the science, math, and language arts curricula to help students improve the environment. More than 70% of Lincoln students receive free and reduced-price lunch, and the school is diverse because it hosts the…

  4. Star tracker stellar compass for the Clementine mission

    SciTech Connect

    Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.; Wilson, B.A.

    1995-04-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star tracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 x 384 FPA and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 m{sub v}, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 {micro}rad pitch and yaw and 450 {micro}rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  5. Star tracker stellar compass for the Clementine mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordas, Joseph F.; Lewis, Isabella T.; Wilson, Bruce A.; Nielsen, Darron P.; Park, Hye-Sook; Priest, Robert E.; Hills, Robert F.; Shannon, Michael J.; Ledebuhr, Arno G.; Pleasance, Lyn D.

    1995-06-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared region. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star tracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served as a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 X 384 FPA and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 mv, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 (mu) rad pitch and yaw and 450 (mu) rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission's primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  6. Calculating proper transfer prices

    SciTech Connect

    Dorkey, F.C. ); Jarrell, G.A. )

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  7. Natural photonics for industrial inspiration.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew R

    2009-05-13

    There are two considerations for optical biomimetics: the diversity of submicrometre architectures found in the natural world, and the industrial manufacture of these. A review exists on the latter subject, where current engineering methods are considered along with those of the natural cells. Here, on the other hand, I will provide a modern review of the different categories of reflectors and antireflectors found in animals, including their optical characterization. The purpose of this is to inspire designers within the $2 billion annual optics industry.

  8. STS pricing policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  9. Thermal/Optical analysis of optical system of star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Si-yu; Huang, Yi-fan

    2011-08-01

    Spacecraft would be expected to encounter diverse extreme environmental (EE) conditions throughout their mission phases. These EE conditions are often coupled. Star tracker is a high accurate 3-axis attitude measuring instrument used in various spacecrafts. In this paper, an effective scheme to the thermal/optical analysis in optical system of star sensor was described and the concept of thermal optical analysis of star tracker optical system was introduced in detail. Using finite element analysis (FEA) and ray tracing, we can study the relationship of optical properties of optical systems and optical system's temperature distribution . A lens system configuration having six uncemented elements was discussed. The lens system was a 56mm EFL, which was different from common lens used in imaging system that this lens system was required to have a high resolving power in design thoughts. It was designed to determine the attitude of space platform by detecting and mapping the geometric pattern of stars. Based on this system, the FEA models of the optical system were established for temperature distribution calculation and for thermal-elastic structural deformation analysis respectively. Using the models, the steady-state temperature distributions of the tracker were simulated. The rigid body displacements of the optical components under homogeneous temperature changes and certain temperature distributions were derived out. It is convenient to use Zernike polynomials as the data transmission between optical and structural analysis programs. Here, Zernike polynomials and their fitting method are used as an example to determine the thermal induced optical degradations of the optical system.

  10. Inverse sparse tracker with a locally weighted distance metric.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Huchuan; Xiao, Ziyang; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2015-09-01

    Sparse representation has been recently extensively studied for visual tracking and generally facilitates more accurate tracking results than classic methods. In this paper, we propose a sparsity-based tracking algorithm that is featured with two components: 1) an inverse sparse representation formulation and 2) a locally weighted distance metric. In the inverse sparse representation formulation, the target template is reconstructed with particles, which enables the tracker to compute the weights of all particles by solving only one l1 optimization problem and thereby provides a quite efficient model. This is in direct contrast to most previous sparse trackers that entail solving one optimization problem for each particle. However, we notice that this formulation with normal Euclidean distance metric is sensitive to partial noise like occlusion and illumination changes. To this end, we design a locally weighted distance metric to replace the Euclidean one. Similar ideas of using local features appear in other works, but only being supported by popular assumptions like local models could handle partial noise better than holistic models, without any solid theoretical analysis. In this paper, we attempt to explicitly explain it from a mathematical view. On that basis, we further propose a method to assign local weights by exploiting the temporal and spatial continuity. In the proposed method, appearance changes caused by partial occlusion and shape deformation are carefully considered, thereby facilitating accurate similarity measurement and model update. The experimental validation is conducted from two aspects: 1) self validation on key components and 2) comparison with other state-of-the-art algorithms. Results over 15 challenging sequences show that the proposed tracking algorithm performs favorably against the existing sparsity-based trackers and the other state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25935033

  11. Monitoring with Trackers Based on Semi-Quantitative Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    In three years of NASA-sponsored research preceding this project, we successfully developed a technology for: (1) building qualitative and semi-quantitative models from libraries of model-fragments, (2) simulating these models to predict future behaviors with the guarantee that all possible behaviors are covered, (3) assimilating observations into behaviors, shrinking uncertainty so that incorrect models are eventually refuted and correct models make stronger predictions for the future. In our object-oriented framework, a tracker is an object which embodies the hypothesis that the available observation stream is consistent with a particular behavior of a particular model. The tracker maintains its own status (consistent, superceded, or refuted), and answers questions about its explanation for past observations and its predictions for the future. In the MIMIC approach to monitoring of continuous systems, a number of trackers are active in parallel, representing alternate hypotheses about the behavior of a system. This approach is motivated by the need to avoid 'system accidents' [Perrow, 1985] due to operator fixation on a single hypothesis, as for example at Three Mile Island. As we began to address these issues, we focused on three major research directions that we planned to pursue over a three-year project: (1) tractable qualitative simulation, (2) semiquantitative inference, and (3) tracking set management. Unfortunately, funding limitations made it impossible to continue past year one. Nonetheless, we made major progress in the first two of these areas. Progress in the third area as slower because the graduate student working on that aspect of the project decided to leave school and take a job in industry. I enclosed a set of abstract of selected papers on the work describe below. Several papers that draw on the research supported during this period appeared in print after the grant period ended.

  12. Microprocessor-controlled laser tracker for atmospheric sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.; Webster, C. R.; Menzies, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    An optical tracking system comprising a visible HeNe laser, an imaging detector, and a microprocessor-controlled mirror, has been designed to track a moving retroreflector located up to 500 m away from an atmospheric instrument and simultaneously direct spectrally tunable infrared laser radiation to the retroreflector for double-ended, long-path absorption measurements of atmospheric species. The tracker has been tested during the recent flight of a balloon-borne tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer which monitors the concentrations of stratospheric species within a volume defined by a 0.14-m-diameter retroreflector lowered 500 m below the instrument gondola.

  13. CO2 cooling for the CMS tracker at SLHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Merz, J.; Wlochal, M.

    2011-01-01

    For a new CMS tracker at SLHC cooling of the silicon sensors and their electronics is a crucial issue. Currently under investigation is an evaporative CO2 cooling system, being able to provide more cooling power at a lower mass than a mono-phase liquid system. Furthermore carbon dioxide could allow for lower operating temperatures, which are beneficial for the sensor performance and lifetime. The CO2 cooling test system at RWTH Aachen University is being presented. First measurements and results are shown, demonstrating the functionality of the system.

  14. Physics sensitivity studies of Fine-Grained Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Hongyue, Duyang

    2015-10-15

    The reference design of the near detector for the LBNE experiment is a high-resolution Fine-Grained Tracker (FGT). We performed sensitivity studies – critical to constraining the systematics in oscillation searches – of measurements of (1) the absolute neutrino flux, (2) neutrino-nucleon quasi-elastic (QE) and (3) resonance (Res) interactions. In QE and Res emphasis is laid in identifying in situ measurables that help constrain nuclear effects such as initial state pair wise correlations and final state interactions.

  15. Estimating Prices of Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.; Chamberlain, R. G.; Zendejas, S. C.; Lee, T. S.; Malhotra, S.

    1986-01-01

    Company-wide or process-wide production simulated. Price Estimation Guidelines (IPEG) program provides simple, accurate estimates of prices of manufactured products. Simplification of SAMIS allows analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform greater number of sensitivity studies. Although developed for photovoltaic industry, readily adaptable to standard assembly-line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG program estimates annual production price per unit. IPEG/PC program written in TURBO PASCAL.

  16. Food price volatility

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C. L.; Morgan, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    The high food prices experienced over recent years have led to the widespread view that food price volatility has increased. However, volatility has generally been lower over the two most recent decades than previously. Variability over the most recent period has been high but, with the important exception of rice, not out of line with historical experience. There is weak evidence that grains price volatility more generally may be increasing but it is too early to say. PMID:20713400

  17. Maitotoxin: An Inspiration for Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Aversa, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Maitotoxin holds a special place in the annals of natural products chemistry as the largest and most toxic secondary metabolite known to date. Its fascinating, ladder-like, polyether molecular structure and diverse spectrum of biological activities elicited keen interest from chemists and biologists who recognized its uniqueness and potential as a probe and inspiration for research in chemistry and biology. Synthetic studies in the area benefited from methodologies and strategies that were developed as part of chemical synthesis programs directed toward the total synthesis of some of the less complex members of the polyether marine biotoxin class, of which maitotoxin is the flagship. This account focuses on progress made in the authors’ laboratories in the synthesis of large maitotoxin domains with emphasis on methodology development, strategy design, and structural comparisons of the synthesized molecules with the corresponding regions of the natural product. The article concludes with an overview of maitotoxin’s biological profile and future perspectives. PMID:21709816

  18. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    PubMed

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions.

  19. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    PubMed

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions. PMID:23307357

  20. An Exploration of Design Students' Inspiration Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dazkir, Sibel S.; Mower, Jennifer M.; Reddy-Best, Kelly L.; Pedersen, Elaine L.

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to explore how different sources of inspiration influenced two groups of students' inspiration process and their attitudes toward their design projects. Assigned sources of inspiration and instructor's assistance in the search for inspiration varied for two groups of students completing a small culture inspired product…

  1. ASTRA1 solid state star trackers for Martin Marietta's modular attitude control system module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullapalli, Sarma N.; Flynn, David J.; Kissh, Frank J.; Gauthier, Albert G.; Kenney, Thomas M.

    1993-09-01

    The HD-1002 (also known as MACS) solid state star trackers being built by Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, Inc. (HDOS) for Martin Marietta Astro Space Division for use in their Modular Attitude Control Systems (MACS) Module are improved and modified versions of the ASTRA1 star trackers now in use on board the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite. The ASTRA1 design was based on the pioneering work accomplished at HDOS over the past decade. Along with the set of trackers being built by HDOS for Space Station Freedom, these trackers answer a variety of application requirements for spacecraft attitude control systems. This paper addresses the main features of the MACS trackers, their role in the MACS Module, and summarizes the excellent preliminary performance results of the tracker, as supported by measured test data.

  2. Decrypting SO (10)-inspired leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bari, Pasquale; Marzola, Luca; Re Fiorentin, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of SO (10)-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that it is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry NB-Lp,i, the strong thermal (ST) condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the ST- SO (10)-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analytical lower bound on the effective neutrino-less double beta decay neutrino mass, mee ≳ 8 meV, for NB-Lp,i =10-3, testable with next generation experiments. This, in combination with an upper bound on the atmospheric mixing angle, necessarily in the first octant, forces the lightest neutrino mass within a narrow range m1 ≃ (10- 30) meV (corresponding to ∑imi ≃ (75- 125) meV). We also show why the solution could correctly predict a non-vanishing reactor neutrino mixing angle and requires the Dirac phase to be in the fourth quadrant, implying sin ⁡ δ (and JCP) negative as hinted by current global analyses. Many of the analytical results presented (expressions for the orthogonal matrix, RH neutrino mixing matrix, masses and phases) can have applications beyond leptogenesis.

  3. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  4. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  5. Inspiring Teachers: Perspectives and Practices. Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Kington, Alison; Lindorff-Vijayendran, Ariel; Ortega, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the notion of "inspiring" teaching. The research was commissioned by CfBT as part of a collaborative professional development initiative involving its schools. It arose from headteachers' suggestions that schools nominate a number of "inspiring" teachers so that their practice could be studied and…

  6. Inspiring a Life Full of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasse, Saul

    2010-01-01

    After being appointed as Controller of BBC Learning, this author reflected on how the BBC had inspired his own love of learning. He realised that unlocking the learning potential of the full range of BBC outputs would be the key to inspiring a "life full of learning" for all its audiences. In this article, the author describes four new programme…

  7. Highly eccentric inspirals into a black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, Thomas; Warburton, Niels; Evans, Charles R.

    2016-03-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact stellar-mass object into a massive nonrotating black hole including all dissipative and conservative first-order-in-the-mass-ratio effects on the orbital motion. The techniques we develop allow inspirals with initial eccentricities as high as e ˜0.8 and initial separations as large as p ˜50 to be evolved through many thousands of orbits up to the onset of the plunge into the black hole. The inspiral is computed using an osculating elements scheme driven by a hybridized self-force model, which combines Lorenz-gauge self-force results with highly accurate flux data from a Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli code. The high accuracy of our hybrid self-force model allows the orbital phase of the inspirals to be tracked to within ˜0.1 radians or better. The difference between self-force models and inspirals computed in the radiative approximation is quantified.

  8. Solar kinetics` photovoltaic concentrator module and tracker development

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Howell, B.

    1995-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc., has been developing a point-focus concentrating photovoltaic module and tracker system under contract to Sandia National Laboratories. The primary focus of the contract was to achieve a module design that was manufacturable and passed Sandia`s environmental testing. Nine modules of two variations were assembled, tested, and characterized in Phase 1, and results of these tests were promising, with module efficiency approaching the theoretical limit achievable with the components used. The module efficiency was 11.9% at a solar irradiance of 850 W/m{sup 2} and an extrapolated cell temperature of 25{degrees}C. Improvements in module performance are anticipated as cell efficiencies meet their expectations. A 2-kW tracker and controller accommodating 20 modules was designed, built, installed, and operated at Solar Kinetics` test site. The drive used many commercially available components in an innovative arrangement to reduce cost and increase reliability. Backlash and bearing play were controlled by use of preloaded, low slip-stick, synthetic slide bearings. The controller design used a standard industrial programmable logic controller to perform ephemeris calculations, operate the actuators, and monitor encoders.

  9. An adaptive tracker for ShipIR/NTCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.

    2015-05-01

    A key component in any image-based tracking system is the adaptive tracking algorithm used to segment the image into potential targets, rank-and-select the best candidate target, and the gating of the selected target to further improve tracker performance. This paper will describe a new adaptive tracker algorithm added to the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature model (ShipIR). The new adaptive tracking algorithm is an optional feature used with any of the existing internal NTCS or user-defined seeker algorithms (e.g., binary centroid, intensity centroid, and threshold intensity centroid). The algorithm segments the detected pixels into clusters, and the smallest set of clusters that meet the detection criterion is obtained by using a knapsack algorithm to identify the set of clusters that should not be used. The rectangular area containing the chosen clusters defines an inner boundary, from which a weighted centroid is calculated as the aim-point. A track-gate is then positioned around the clusters, taking into account the rate of change of the bounding area and compensating for any gimbal displacement. A sequence of scenarios is used to test the new tracking algorithm on a generic unclassified DDG ShipIR model, with and without flares, and demonstrate how some of the key seeker signals are impacted by both the ship and flare intrinsic signatures.

  10. The AMS-02 Silicon Tracker:. Status and Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, D.

    2012-08-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a space based high energy physics experiment operating on the International Space Station (ISS) since May. AMS-02 will measure the different cosmic radiation components allowing the search of primordial antimatter and dark matter annihilation products. Exploiting a large acceptance and a data taking of at least 10 years, AMS-02 will detect more than 1010 charged particles in the GV-TV rigidity range. The tracking device is composed by 2 planes at the ends of the apparatus and 7 layers of silicon sensors in the permanent magnet (0.15T) bore. The measurement of the curvature radius of the charged particles bent trajectories allows the estimation of particle rigidity and charge sign. The tracker is composed by 2264 double-sided silicon sensors (72×41 mm2, 300 μm thick) assembled in 192 read-out units, for a total of ≈ 200.000 read-out channels. The status of the AMS-02 tracker, after these first months of data taking in space, its performances and potentialities will be presented.

  11. Low-background tracker development for SuperNEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, James; Collaboration: SuperNEMO Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The SuperNEMO experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) with a target sensitivity of T{sub 1/2}(0ν) > 10{sup 26} years, corresponding to an effective neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. At its heart there is a low-background gaseous tracking detector which allows for extremely efficient background rejection and, if 0νββ is observed, may provide important insights into the mechanism via which it may be mediated. Radon inside the tracker, which can mimic rare ββ events, is one of the most dangerous backgrounds for SuperNEMO. To reach the target sensitivity the radon concentration inside the tracking volume must be < 0.15 mBq/m{sup 3}. To reach this challengingly-low level of radon, a considerable program of R and D has been undertaken. This includes automation of the tracker-wiring process, development of a dedicated setup to measure radon diffusion and a 'radon concentration line' which will be able to measure levels of radon in the μBq/m{sup 3} range.

  12. Research and development of the laser tracker measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Zhou, W. H.; Lao, D. B.; Yuan, J.; Dong, D. F. F.; Ji, R. Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The working principle and system design of the laser tracker measurement system are introduced, as well as the key technologies and solutions in the implementation of the system. The design and implementation of the hardware and configuration of the software are mainly researched. The components of the hardware include distance measuring unit, angle measuring unit, tracking and servo control unit and electronic control unit. The distance measuring devices include the relative distance measuring device (IFM) and the absolute distance measuring device (ADM). The main component of the angle measuring device, the precision rotating stage, is mainly comprised of the precision axis and the encoders which are both set in the tracking head. The data processing unit, tracking and control unit and power supply unit are all set in the control box. The software module is comprised of the communication module, calibration and error compensation module, data analysis module, database management module, 3D display module and the man-machine interface module. The prototype of the laser tracker system has been accomplished and experiments have been carried out to verify the proposed strategies of the hardware and software modules. The experiments showed that the IFM distance measuring error is within 0.15mm, the ADM distance measuring error is within 3.5mm and the angle measuring error is within 3〞which demonstrates that the preliminary prototype can realize fundamental measurement tasks.

  13. Dynamic imaging model and parameter optimization for a star tracker.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinyun; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-03-21

    Under dynamic conditions, star spots move across the image plane of a star tracker and form a smeared star image. This smearing effect increases errors in star position estimation and degrades attitude accuracy. First, an analytical energy distribution model of a smeared star spot is established based on a line segment spread function because the dynamic imaging process of a star tracker is equivalent to the static imaging process of linear light sources. The proposed model, which has a clear physical meaning, explicitly reflects the key parameters of the imaging process, including incident flux, exposure time, velocity of a star spot in an image plane, and Gaussian radius. Furthermore, an analytical expression of the centroiding error of the smeared star spot is derived using the proposed model. An accurate and comprehensive evaluation of centroiding accuracy is obtained based on the expression. Moreover, analytical solutions of the optimal parameters are derived to achieve the best performance in centroid estimation. Finally, we perform numerical simulations and a night sky experiment to validate the correctness of the dynamic imaging model, the centroiding error expression, and the optimal parameters.

  14. Data correction for seven activity trackers based on regression models.

    PubMed

    Andalibi, Vafa; Honko, Harri; Christophe, Francois; Viik, Jari

    2015-08-01

    Using an activity tracker for measuring activity-related parameters, e.g. steps and energy expenditure (EE), can be very helpful in assisting a person's fitness improvement. Unlike the measuring of number of steps, an accurate EE estimation requires additional personal information as well as accurate velocity of movement, which is hard to achieve due to inaccuracy of sensors. In this paper, we have evaluated regression-based models to improve the precision for both steps and EE estimation. For this purpose, data of seven activity trackers and two reference devices was collected from 20 young adult volunteers wearing all devices at once in three different tests, namely 60-minute office work, 6-hour overall activity and 60-minute walking. Reference data is used to create regression models for each device and relative percentage errors of adjusted values are then statistically compared to that of original values. The effectiveness of regression models are determined based on the result of a statistical test. During a walking period, EE measurement was improved in all devices. The step measurement was also improved in five of them. The results show that improvement of EE estimation is possible only with low-cost implementation of fitting model over the collected data e.g. in the app or in corresponding service back-end. PMID:26736578

  15. Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) system design and analysis: Single-axis gimbal star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility is evaluated of an evolutionary development for use of a single-axis gimbal star tracker from prior two-axis gimbal star tracker based system applications. Detailed evaluation of the star tracker gimbal encoder is considered. A brief system description is given including the aspects of tracker evolution and encoder evaluation. System analysis includes evaluation of star availability and mounting constraints for the geosynchronous orbit application, and a covariance simulation analysis to evaluate performance potential. Star availability and covariance analysis digital computer programs are included.

  16. Inspiring the Next Space Pioneers, Innovators, Researchers, and Explorers (INSPIRE) Women Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Comstock, Barbara [R-VA-10

    2016-03-16

    09/21/2016 Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Ordered to be reported without amendment favorably. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., rounded to the nearest cent, shall be the protein price per pound times 3.1 plus the other solids price... cents and multiplying the result by 0.99. (n) Protein price. The protein price per pound, rounded to the... one-hundredth cent, shall be the U.S. average NASS dry whey survey price reported by the...

  18. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., rounded to the nearest cent, shall be the protein price per pound times 3.1 plus the other solids price... cents and multiplying the result by 0.99. (n) Protein price. The protein price per pound, rounded to the... one-hundredth cent, shall be the U.S. average NASS dry whey survey price reported by the...

  19. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., rounded to the nearest cent, shall be the protein price per pound times 3.1 plus the other solids price... cents and multiplying the result by 0.99. (n) Protein price. The protein price per pound, rounded to the... one-hundredth cent, shall be the U.S. average NASS dry whey survey price reported by the...

  20. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., rounded to the nearest cent, shall be the protein price per pound times 3.1 plus the other solids price... cents and multiplying the result by 0.99. (n) Protein price. The protein price per pound, rounded to the... one-hundredth cent, shall be the U.S. average NASS dry whey survey price reported by the...

  1. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., rounded to the nearest cent, shall be the protein price per pound times 3.1 plus the other solids price... cents and multiplying the result by 0.99. (n) Protein price. The protein price per pound, rounded to the... one-hundredth cent, shall be the U.S. average NASS dry whey survey price reported by the...

  2. Mind your pricing cues.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eric; Simester, Duncan

    2003-09-01

    For most of the items they buy, consumers don't have an accurate sense of what the price should be. Ask them to guess how much a four-pack of 35-mm film costs, and you'll get a variety of wrong answers: Most people will underestimate; many will only shrug. Research shows that consumers' knowledge of the market is so far from perfect that it hardly deserves to be called knowledge at all. Yet people happily buy film and other products every day. Is this because they don't care what kind of deal they're getting? No. Remarkably, it's because they rely on retailers to tell them whether they're getting a good price. In subtle and not-so-subtle ways, retailers send signals to customers, telling them whether a given price is relatively high or low. In this article, the authors review several common pricing cues retailers use--"sale" signs, prices that end in 9, signpost items, and price-matching guarantees. They also offer some surprising facts about how--and how well--those cues work. For instance, the authors' tests with several mail-order catalogs reveal that including the word "sale" beside a price can increase demand by more than 50%. The practice of using a 9 at the end of a price to denote a bargain is so common, you'd think customers would be numb to it. Yet in a study the authors did involving a women's clothing catalog, they increased demand by a third just by changing the price of a dress from $34 to $39. Pricing cues are powerful tools for guiding customers' purchasing decisions, but they must be applied judiciously. Used inappropriately, the cues may breach customers' trust, reduce brand equity, and give rise to lawsuits. PMID:12964397

  3. 2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria

    2006-01-01

    A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems

  4. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.

    PubMed

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded.

  5. Biologically Inspired Phosphino Platinum Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Avijita; Helm, Monte L.; Linehan, John C.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2012-08-01

    Platinum complexes containing phosphino amino acid and amino acid ester ligands, built upon the PPhNR’2 platform, have been synthesized and characterized (PPhNR’2= [1,3-diaza]-5-phenyl phosphacyclohexane, R’=glycine or glycine ester). These complexes were characterized by 31P, 13C, 1H, 195Pt NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the complexes, [PtCl2(PPhNGlyester 2)2], is also reported. These biologically inspired ligands have potential use in homogeneous catalysis, with special applications in chiral chemistry and water soluble chemistry. These complexes also provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached, to allow the introduction of enzyme-like features onto small molecule catalysts. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  6. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.

    PubMed

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded. PMID:24684339

  7. Pricing of new vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  8. Six Sigma pricing.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, ManMohan S; Sodhi, Navdeep S

    2005-05-01

    Many companies are now good at managing costs and wringing out manufacturing efficiencies. The TQM movement and the disciplines of Six Sigma have seen to that. But the discipline so often brought to the cost side of the business equation is found far less commonly on the revenue side. The authors describe how a global manufacturer of industrial equipment, which they call Acme Incorporated, recently applied Six Sigma to one major revenue related activity--the price-setting process. It seemed to Acme's executives that pricing closely resembled many manufacturing processes. So, with the help of a Six Sigma black belt from manufacturing, a manager from Acme's pricing division recruited a team to carry out the five Six Sigma steps: Define what constitutes a defect. At Acme, a defect was an item sold at an unauthorized price. Gather data and prepare it for analysis. That involved mapping out the existing pricing-agreement process. Analyze the data. The team identified the ways in which people failed to carry out or assert effective control at each stage. Recommend modifications to the existing process. The team sought to decrease the number of unapproved prices without creating an onerous approval apparatus. Create controls. This step enabled Acme to sustain and extend the improvements in its pricing procedures. As a result of the changes, Acme earned dollar 6 million in additional revenue on one product line alone in the six months following implementation--money that went straight to the bottom line. At the same time, the company removed much of the organizational friction that had long bedeviled its pricing process. Other companies can benefit from Acme's experience as they look for ways to exercise price control without alienating customers. PMID:15929409

  9. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  10. Six Sigma pricing.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, ManMohan S; Sodhi, Navdeep S

    2005-05-01

    Many companies are now good at managing costs and wringing out manufacturing efficiencies. The TQM movement and the disciplines of Six Sigma have seen to that. But the discipline so often brought to the cost side of the business equation is found far less commonly on the revenue side. The authors describe how a global manufacturer of industrial equipment, which they call Acme Incorporated, recently applied Six Sigma to one major revenue related activity--the price-setting process. It seemed to Acme's executives that pricing closely resembled many manufacturing processes. So, with the help of a Six Sigma black belt from manufacturing, a manager from Acme's pricing division recruited a team to carry out the five Six Sigma steps: Define what constitutes a defect. At Acme, a defect was an item sold at an unauthorized price. Gather data and prepare it for analysis. That involved mapping out the existing pricing-agreement process. Analyze the data. The team identified the ways in which people failed to carry out or assert effective control at each stage. Recommend modifications to the existing process. The team sought to decrease the number of unapproved prices without creating an onerous approval apparatus. Create controls. This step enabled Acme to sustain and extend the improvements in its pricing procedures. As a result of the changes, Acme earned dollar 6 million in additional revenue on one product line alone in the six months following implementation--money that went straight to the bottom line. At the same time, the company removed much of the organizational friction that had long bedeviled its pricing process. Other companies can benefit from Acme's experience as they look for ways to exercise price control without alienating customers.

  11. Circumnutation Tracker: novel software for investigation of circumnutation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An endogenous, helical plant organ movement named circumnutation is ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. Plant shoots, stems, tendrils, leaves, and roots commonly circumnutate but their appearance is still poorly described. To support such investigations, novel software Circumnutation Tracker (CT) for spatial-temporal analysis of circumnutation has been developed. Results CT works on time-lapse video and collected circumnutation parameters: period, length, rate, shape, angle, and clockwise- and counterclockwise directions. The CT combines a filtering algorithm with a graph-based method to describe the parameters of circumnutation. The parameters of circumnutation of Helianthus annuus hypocotyls and the relationship between cotyledon arrangement and circumnutation geometry are presented here to demonstrate the CT options. Conclusions We have established that CT facilitates and accelerates analysis of circumnutation. In combination with the physiological, molecular, and genetic methods, this software may be a powerful tool also for investigations of gravitropism, biological clock, and membrane transport, i.e. processes involved in the mechanism of circumnutation.

  12. Standard metrics for a plug-and-play tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonisse, Jim; Young, Darrell

    2012-06-01

    The Motion Imagery Standards Board (MISB) has previously established a metadata "micro-architecture" for standards-based tracking. The intent of this work is to facilitate both the collaborative development of competent tracking systems, and the potentially distributed and dispersed execution of tracker system components in real-world execution environments. The approach standardizes a set of five quasi-sequential modules in image-based tracking. However, in order to make the plug-and-play architecture truly useful we need metrics associated with each module (so that, for instance, a researcher who "plugs in" a new component can ascertain whether he/she did better or worse with the component). This paper proposes the choice of a new, unifying set of metrics based on an informationtheoretic approach to tracking, which the MISB is nominating as DoD/IC/NATO standards.

  13. LoyalTracker: Visualizing Loyalty Dynamics in Search Engines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Conglei; Wu, Yingcai; Liu, Shixia; Zhou, Hong; Qu, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    The huge amount of user log data collected by search engine providers creates new opportunities to understand user loyalty and defection behavior at an unprecedented scale. However, this also poses a great challenge to analyze the behavior and glean insights into the complex, large data. In this paper, we introduce LoyalTracker, a visual analytics system to track user loyalty and switching behavior towards multiple search engines from the vast amount of user log data. We propose a new interactive visualization technique (flow view) based on a flow metaphor, which conveys a proper visual summary of the dynamics of user loyalty of thousands of users over time. Two other visualization techniques, a density map and a word cloud, are integrated to enable analysts to gain further insights into the patterns identified by the flow view. Case studies and the interview with domain experts are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of our technique in understanding user loyalty and switching behavior in search engines.

  14. The Tevatron tune tracker pll - theory, implementation and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The Tevatron tune tracker is based on the idea that the transverse phase response of the beam can be measured quickly and accurately enough to allow us to track the betatron tune with a phase locked loop (PLL). The goal of this paper is to show the progress of the PLL project at Fermilab. We will divide this paper into three parts: theory, implementation and measurements. In the theory section, we will use a simple linear model to show that our design will track the betatron tune under conditions that occur in the Tevatron. In the implementation section we will break down and examine each part of the PLL and in some cases calculate the actual PLL parameters used in our system from beam measurements. And finally in the measurements section we will show the results of the PLL performance.

  15. Two-axis tracker for solar panels and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Henry H.

    2013-04-16

    A tracker including an outer post having elongated bore and a lower end mounted on a sub-structure, an inner pole rotatably received in the elongated bore, a lower bearing in the bore adjacent a lower end of the outer post and attached thereto to be constrained from lateral movement and mounted on the sub-structure such that a lower end of the inner pole rests on and is supported by the lower bearing, an upper bearing near an upper end of the outer post, a circumferential drive supported on the outer post for rotating the inner pole relative to the outer post, such that substantially a full weight of a load on the inner pole is directly transmitted to the sub-structure and lateral force and torque leverage are placed on a full length of the outer post by way of the upper and lower bearing.

  16. How do we see art: an eye-tracker study.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Pedreira, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We describe the pattern of fixations of subjects looking at figurative and abstract paintings from different artists (Molina, Mondrian, Rembrandt, della Francesca) and at modified versions in which different aspects of these art pieces were altered with simple digital manipulations. We show that the fixations of the subjects followed some general common principles (e.g., being attracted to saliency regions) but with a large variability for the figurative paintings, according to the subject's personal appreciation and knowledge. In particular, we found different gazing patterns depending on whether the subject saw the original or the modified version of the painting first. We conclude that the study of gazing patterns obtained by using the eye-tracker technology gives a useful approach to quantify how subjects observe art.

  17. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    SciTech Connect

    Antonioli, Mary Ann; Boiarinov, Serguie; Bonneau, Peter R.; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eng, Brian J.; Gotra, Yuri N.; Kurbatov, Evgeny O.; Leffel, Mindy A.; Mandal, Saptarshi; McMullen, Marc E.; Merkin, Mikhail M.; Raydo, Benjamin J.; Teachey, Robert W,; Tucker, Ross J.; Ungaro, Maurizio; Yegneswaran, Amrit S.; Ziegler, Veronique

    2013-12-01

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156{micro}m, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements.

  18. Design and Performance of the Keck Angle Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Samuel L.; Ragland, S.; Booth, A.; Colavita, M. M.; Hovland, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Keck Angle Tracker (KAT) is a key subsystem in the NASA-funded Keck Interferometer at the Keck Observatory on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii. KAT, which has been in operation since the achievement of first fringes in March 2001, senses the tilt of the stellar wavefront for each of the beams from the interferometer telescopes and provides tilt error signals to fast tip/tilt mirrors for high-bandwidth, wavefront tilt correction. In addition, KAT passes low-bandwidth, desaturation offsets to the adaptive optics system of the Keck telescopes to correct for slow pointing drifts. We present an overview of the instrument design and recent performance of KAT in support of the V2 science and nulling observing modes of the Keck Interferometer.

  19. Higher throughput high resolution multi-worm tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javer, Avelino; Li, Kezhi; Gyenes, Bertalan; Brown, Andre; Behavioural Genomics Team

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a high throughput imaging system for tracking multiple nematode worms at high resolution. The tracker consists of 6 cameras mounted on a motorized gantry so that up to 48 plates (each with approximately 30 worms) can be imaged without user intervention. To deal with the high data rate of the cameras we use real time processing to find worms and only save the immediately surrounding pixels. The system is also equipped with automatic oxygen and carbon dioxide control for observing stimulus response behaviour. We will describe the design and performance of the new system, some of the challenges of truly high throughput behaviour recording, and report preliminary results on inter-individual variation in behaviour as well as a quantitative analysis of C. elegans response to hypoxia, oxygen reperfusion, and carbon dioxide. Funding provided by the Medical Research Council.

  20. DAMPE silicon tracker on-board data compression algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Fei; Qiao, Rui; Peng, Wen-Xi; Fan, Rui-Rui; Gong, Ke; Wu, Di; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2015-11-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is an upcoming scientific satellite mission for high energy gamma-ray, electron and cosmic ray detection. The silicon tracker (STK) is a subdetector of the DAMPE payload. It has excellent position resolution (readout pitch of 242 μm), and measures the incident direction of particles as well as charge. The STK consists of 12 layers of Silicon Micro-strip Detector (SMD), equivalent to a total silicon area of 6.5 m2. The total number of readout channels of the STK is 73728, which leads to a huge amount of raw data to be processed. In this paper, we focus on the on-board data compression algorithm and procedure in the STK, and show the results of initial verification by cosmic-ray measurements. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA040402) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (1111403027)

  1. On-Orbit Performance of Autonomous Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Airapetian, V.; Sedlak, J.; Hashmall, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a performance study of the autonomous star trackers (ASTs) on the IMAGE and the EO-1 spacecraft. IMAGE is a spinning spacecraft without gyros or redundant precision attitude sensors, so the statistical properties of the AST are estimated simply by comparing the output observed quaternions with a rigid rotator model with constant angular momentum. The initial conditions are determined by a least-squares fit to minimize the AST residuals. An additional fit is used to remove the remaining systematic error and to obtain the inherent sensor noise. Gyro rate data are available for the EO-1 mission, so the AST noise statistics are obtained from the residuals after solving for an epoch attitude and gyro bias also using a least-squares method.

  2. Echo tracker/range finder for radars and sonars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, N. J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An echo tracker/range finder or altimeter is described. The pulse repetition frequency (PFR) of a predetermined plurality of transmitted pulses is adjusted so that echo pulses received from a reflecting object are positioned between transmitted pulses and divided their interpulse time interval into two time intervals having a predetermined ratio with respect to each other. The invention described provides a means whereby the arrival time of a plurality of echo pulses is defined as the time at which a composite echo pulse formed of a sum of the individual echo pulses has the highest amplitude. The invention is applicable to radar systems, sonar systems, or any other kind of system in which pulses are transmitted and echoes received therefrom.

  3. Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine Calibration by Laser Tracker Multilateration

    PubMed Central

    Majarena, Ana C.; Brau, Agustín; Velázquez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision. PMID:24688418

  4. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, M. A.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonneau, P.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eng, B.; Gotra, Y.; Kurbatov, E.; Leffel, M.; Mandal, S.; McMullen, M.; Merkin, M.; Raydo, B.; Teachey, W.; Tucker, R.; Ungaro, M.; Yegneswaran, A.; Ziegler, V.

    2013-12-01

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156 μm, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements.

  5. The alcohol tracker application: an initial evaluation of user preferences

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ward, John; Ying, John J B; Pan, Fang; Ho, Roger C M

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of at-risk drinking and alcohol use disorders is increasing. Advances in technology have resulted in numerous smartphone applications for this disorder. However, there are still concerns about the evidence base of previously developed alcohol applications. Objective The following study aims to illustrate how the authors have made use of innovative methodologies to overcome the issues relating to the accuracy of tracking the amount of alcohol one has consumed; it also aims to determine user perceptions about the innovative tracker and various other features of an alcohol self-management application among a group of individuals from the general population of a developed country (Canada). Methodology A native alcohol self-management application was developed. In order to determine user perspectives towards this new innovative application, the authors took advantage and made use of crowdsourcing to acquire user perspectives. Results Our results showed that smartphone ownership is highest among the age group of 35–44 years (91%) and lowest for those aged between 55 and 64 (58%). Our analysis also showed that 25–34-year-olds and 35–44-year-olds drink more frequently than the other groups. Results suggest that notification and information were the two most useful functions, with psychotherapy expected to be the least useful. Females indicated that notification service was the most useful function, while males preferred the information component. Conclusions This study has demonstrated how the authors have made use of innovative technologies to overcome the existing concerns pertaining to the utilisation of the blood alcohol concentration levels as a tracker. In addition, the authors have managed to highlight user preferences with regard to an alcohol application. PMID:27019744

  6. Laser Tracker Calibration - Testing the Angle Measurement System -

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, Georg; Ruland, Robert; /SLAC

    2008-12-05

    Physics experiments at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) usually require high accuracy positioning, e. g. 100 {micro}m over a distance of 150 m or 25 {micro}m in a 10 x 10 x 3 meter volume. Laser tracker measurement systems have become one of the most important tools for achieving these accuracies when mapping components. The accuracy of these measurements is related to the manufacturing tolerances of various individual components, the resolutions of measurement systems, the overall precision of the assembly, and how well imperfections can be modeled. As with theodolites and total stations, one can remove the effects of most assembly and calibration errors by measuring targets in both direct and reverse positions and computing the mean to obtain the result. However, this approach does not compensate for errors originating from the encoder system. In order to improve and gain a better understanding of laser tracker angle measurement tolerances we extended our laboratory's capabilities with the addition of a horizontal angle calibration test stand. This setup is based on the use of a high precision rotary table providing an angular accuracy of better than 0.2 arcsec. Presently, our setup permits only tests of the horizontal angle measurement system. A test stand for vertical angle calibration is under construction. Distance measurements (LECOCQ & FUSS, 2000) are compared to an interferometer bench for distances of up to 32 m. Together both tests provide a better understanding of the instrument and how it should be operated. The observations also provide a reasonable estimate of covariance information of the measurements according to their actual performance for network adjustments.

  7. Adaptive Neural Star Tracker Calibration for Precision Spacecraft Pointing and Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.

    1996-01-01

    The Star Tracker is an essential sensor for precision pointing and tracking in most 3-axis stabilized spacecraft. In the interest (of) improving pointing performance by taking advantage of dramatic increases in flight computer power and memory anticipated over the next decade, this paper investigates the use of a neural net for adaptive in-flight calibration of the Star Tracker.

  8. Lightweight dual-axis tracker designs for dish-based HCPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Roger; Cuerden, Brian; Whiteside, Andy

    2014-09-01

    Dish-based HCPV holds the promise of solar electricity at lower cost than for flat panel PV, provided that the dual-axis tracker cost can be minimized. Here we outline first and second generation lightweight tracker designs that include supports for a rectangular array of square dish mirrors and receivers located at their foci.

  9. Design of an upgraded D0 silicon microstrip tracker for Run IIb at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    The D0 collaboration planned to upgrade the Silicon Tracker to withstand the radiation dose corresponding to above 2 fb{sup -1} of data. This new detector was designed to be functional up to at least 15 fb{sup -1}. The authors report on the design of the new Silicon Tracker with details of the innermost layer.

  10. Silicon photomultiplier choice for the scintillating fibre tracker in second generation proton computed tomography scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, A.; Johnson, E.; Medvedev, V.; Ronzhin, A.; Rykalin, V.; Rubinov, P.; Sleptcov, V.; /Unlisted, RU

    2012-03-01

    Scintillating fibers are capable of charged particle tracking with high position resolution, as demonstrated by the central fiber tracker of the D0 experiment. The charged particles will deposit less energy in the polystyrene scintillating fibers as opposed to a typical silicon tracker of the same thickness, while SiPM's are highly efficient at detecting photons created by the passage of the charged particle through the fibers. The current prototype of the Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) tracker uses groups of three 0.5 mm green polystyrene based scintillating fibers connected to a single SiPM, while first generation prototype tracker used Silicon strip detectors. The results of R&D for the Scintillating Fiber Tracker (SFT) as part of the pCT detector are outlined, and the premise for the selection of SiPM is discussed.

  11. Alignment of the CMS silicon strip tracker during stand-alone commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-07-01

    The results of the CMS tracker alignment analysis are presented using the data from cosmic tracks, optical survey information, and the laser alignment system at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. During several months of operation in the spring and summer of 2007, about five million cosmic track events were collected with a partially active CMS Tracker. This allowed us to perform first alignment of the active silicon modules with the cosmic tracks using three different statistical approaches; validate the survey and laser alignment system performance; and test the stability of Tracker structures under various stresses and temperatures ranging from +15C to -15C. Comparison with simulation shows that the achieved alignment precision in the barrel part of the tracker leads to residual distributions similar to those obtained with a random misalignment of 50 (80) microns in the outer (inner) part of the barrel.

  12. Engaging Students through Astronomically Inspired Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a lesson outline in which astronomically inspired musical compositions are used to teach astronomical concepts via an introductory activity, close listening, and critical/creative reflection.

  13. Biologically Inspired Technology Using Electroactive Polymers (EAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    Evolution allowed nature to introduce highly effective biological mechanisms that are incredible inspiration for innovation. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature's inventions and we are increasingly making advances that it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. This brought us to the ability to create technology that is far beyond the simple mimicking of nature. Having better tools to understand and to implement nature's principles we are now equipped like never before to be inspired by nature and to employ our tools in far superior ways. Effectively, by bio-inspiration we can have a better view and value of nature capability while studying its models to learn what can be extracted, copied or adapted. Using electroactive polymers (EAP) as artificial muscles is adding an important element to the development of biologically inspired technologies.

  14. NASA Celebrates Atlantis as Pioneer, Inspiration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts and senior NASA management noted the contributions of space shuttle Atlantis as they signed the spacecraft over for a new mission of inspiration as it goes on public display at the Kenne...

  15. Towards gecko-feet-inspired bandages.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    2009-01-01

    A novel bandage inspired by gecko feet might one day be used during emergencies and internal surgeries. The bandage uses a combination of nanofabricated structures, biodegradable materials and adhesive surface chemistry that allows adhesion onto even wet, moving tissue.

  16. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  17. Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

  18. Transient resonances in the inspirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinderer, Tanja; Flanagan, Eanna

    2009-05-01

    We show that the two body problem in general relativity in the highly relativistic regime has a qualitatively new feature: the occurence of transient resonances. The resonances occur when the ratio of polar and radial orbital frequencies, which is slowly evolving under the influence of gravitational radiation reaction, passes through a low order rational number. The resonances make the orbit more sensitive to changes in the initial data (though not quite chaotic), and are genuine non-perturbative effects that are not seen at any order in the standard post-Newtonian expansion used for two body systems at large separation. Our results directly apply to an important potential source of gravitational waves, namely the gradual inspiral of compact objects into much more massive black holes. Exploiting observations of these gravitational waves to map the spacetime geometry of black holes is contingent upon accurate theoretical models (templates) of the binary dynamics. At present, only the leading order in the mass ratio gravitational waveforms can be computed. Corrections to the waveform's phase due to resonance effects scale as the square root of the inverse of the mass ratio and are characterized by sudden jumps in the time derivatives of the phase. We numerically estimate the net size of these corrections and find indications that the phase error is of order a few cycles for mass ratios ˜10^- 3 but will be significant (of order tens of cycles) for mass ratios ˜10-6. Computations of these corrections will require the computation of pieces of the forcing terms in the equations of motion which are currently unknown.

  19. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  20. Pricing and Fee Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    Defines key terms and discusses things to consider when setting fees for a continuing education program. These include (1) the organization's philosophy and mission, (2) certain key variables, (3) pricing strategy options, and (4) the test of reasonableness. (CH)

  1. Price percolation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Yasuhiro; Abe, Keiji; Seki, Yoichi

    2015-06-01

    We propose a price percolation model to reproduce the price distribution of components used in industrial finished goods. The intent is to show, using the price percolation model and a component category as an example, that percolation behaviors, which exist in the matter system, the ecosystem, and human society, also exist in abstract, random phenomena satisfying the power law. First, we discretize the total potential demand for a component category, considering it a random field. Second, we assume that the discretized potential demand corresponding to a function of a finished good turns into actual demand if the difficulty of function realization is less than the maximum difficulty of the realization. The simulations using this model suggest that changes in a component category's price distribution are due to changes in the total potential demand corresponding to the lattice size and the maximum difficulty of realization, which is an occupation probability. The results are verified using electronic components' sales data.

  2. Endogenous Biologically Inspired Art of Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haru; Wakefield, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007, Graham Wakefield and Haru Ji have looked to nature for inspiration as they have created a series of "artificial natures," or interactive visualizations of biologically inspired complex systems that can evoke nature-like aesthetic experiences within mixed-reality art installations. This article describes how they have applied visualization, sonification, and interaction design in their work with artificial ecosystems and organisms using specific examples from their exhibited installations.

  3. Quantum diffusion of prices and profits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sładkowski, Jan

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the time evolution of quotations of stocks and commodities and show that corrections to the orthodox Bachelier model inspired by quantum mechanical time evolution of particles may be important. Our analysis shows that traders tactics can interfere as waves do and trader's strategies can be reproduced from the corresponding Wigner functions. The proposed interpretation of the chaotic movement of market prices imply that the Bachelier behaviour follows from short-time interference of tactics adopted (paths followed) by the rest of the world considered as a single trader and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck corrections to the Bachelier model should qualitatively matter only for large time scales. The famous smithonian invisible hand is interpreted as a short-time tactics of whole the market considered as a single opponent. We also propose a solution to the currency preference paradox.

  4. The price of anarchy in basketball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Brian

    2010-03-01

    Optimizing the performance of a basketball offense may be viewed as a network problem, wherein each play represents a ``pathway'' through which the ball and players may move from origin (the in-bounds pass) to goal (the basket). Effective field goal percentages from the resulting shot attempts can be used to characterize the efficiency of each pathway. Inspired by recent discussions of the ``price of anarchy'' in traffic networks, this paper makes a formal analogy between a basketball offense and a simplified traffic network. The analysis suggests that there may be a significant difference between taking the highest-percentage shot each time down the court and playing the most efficient possible game. There may also be an analogue of Braess's Paradox in basketball, such that removing a key player from a team can result in the improvement of the team's offensive efficiency.

  5. Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated cost-of-service pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers?

  6. Observations and Measurements Design Patterns within INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleidt, K.; Cox, S.; Grellet, S.; Lowe, D.; Lutz, M.; Portele, C.; Sarretta, A.; Ventouras, S.

    2012-04-01

    Several INSPIRE spatial data themes have been specified so that their scope, in addition to classical geographic information, includes measured, modelled or simulated data. The FprEN ISO 19156 standard on Observations and Measurements (O&M) was designed for the explicit purpose of creating application schemas for such data, and thus shall be used in INSPIRE as a basis for developing data models for these themes. The following INSPIRE themes have identified O&M as integrally relevant to their thematic domain and are including elements of O&M in their data specifications: • Geology • Oceanographic geographical features • Atmospheric conditions and Meteorological geographical features • Environmental monitoring facilities • Soil In addition to these themes, several other INSPIRE themes have been identified to which observational information, while not at the core of the data specification, is relevant. Some examples of this are the INSPIRE theme "Species distribution", where primary occurrence data could be provided together with the aggregate distribution, as well as "Industrial and production facilities", where the provision of emissions data on such facilities would be useful for various environmental reporting obligations. While the O&M standard provides a generic framework for the provision of measurement data, it is also kept very abstract, and there are many ways of implementing the core structures in specific application schemas. In order to assure the consistent application of the O&M classes and properties across different INSPIRE themes, a cross-thematic working group on the use of O&M in INSPIRE has been convened. This group has analysed the requirements towards O&M within INSPIRE, identified the types of O&M design patterns required in INSPIRE and developed both additional classes identified as necessary within INSPIRE as well as guidelines detailing how this standard is to be used within INSPIRE. Some examples for these additional classes are

  7. The ethics of dynamic pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2010-07-15

    Dynamic pricing has garnered much interest among regulators and utilities, since it has the potential for lowering energy costs for society. But the deployment of dynamic pricing has been remarkably tepid. The underlying premise is that dynamic pricing is unfair. But the presumption of unfairness in dynamic pricing rests on an assumption of fairness in today's tariffs. (author)

  8. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  9. The ATLAS semiconductor tracker end-cap module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdesselam, A.; Adkin, P. J.; Allport, P. P.; Alonso, J.; Andricek, L.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonov, A. A.; Apsimon, R. J.; Atkinson, T.; Batchelor, L. E.; Bates, R. L.; Beck, G.; Becker, H.; Bell, P.; Bell, W.; Beneš, P.; Bernabeu, J.; Bethke, S.; Bizzell, J. P.; Blocki, J.; Broklová, Z.; Brož, J.; Bohm, J.; Booker, P.; Bright, G.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Bruckman, P.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Campabadal, F.; Campbell, D.; Carpentieri, C.; Carroll, J. L.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Casse, G. L.; Čermák, P.; Chamizo, M.; Charlton, D. G.; Cheplakov, A.; Chesi, E.; Chilingarov, A.; Chouridou, S.; Chren, D.; Christinet, A.; Chu, M. L.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Civera, J. V.; Clark, A.; Colijn, A. P.; Cooke, P. A.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Dabrowski, W.; Danielsen, K. M.; Davies, V. R.; Dawson, I.; de Jong, P.; Dervan, P.; Doherty, F.; Doležal, Z.; Donega, M.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorholt, O.; Drásal, Z.; Dowell, J. D.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Easton, J. M.; Eckert, S.; Eklund, L.; Escobar, C.; Fadeyev, V.; Fasching, D.; Feld, L.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrere, D.; Fleta, C.; Fortin, R.; Foster, J. M.; Fowler, C.; Fox, H.; Freestone, J.; French, R. S.; Fuster, J.; Gadomski, S.; Gallop, B. J.; García, C.; García-Navarro, J. E.; Gibson, S.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Gonzalez, F.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorisek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Greenall, A.; Greenfield, D.; Gregory, S.; Grigorieva, I. G.; Grillo, A. A.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gryska, C.; Guipet, A.; Haber, C.; Hara, K.; Hartjes, F. G.; Hauff, D.; Haywood, S. J.; Hegeman, S. J.; Heinzinger, K.; Hessey, N. P.; Heusch, C.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, J. C.; Hodgkinson, M.; Hodgson, P.; Horažďovský, T.; Hollins, T. I.; Hou, L. S.; Hou, S.; Hughes, G.; Huse, T.; Ibbotson, M.; Iglesias, M.; Ikegami, Y.; Ilyashenko, I.; Issever, C.; Jackson, J. N.; Jakobs, K.; Jared, R. C.; Jarron, P.; Johansson, P.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Joos, D.; Joseph, J.; Jovanovic, P.; Jusko, O.; Jusko, V.; Kaplon, J.; Kazi, S.; Ketterer, Ch.; Kholodenko, A. G.; King, B. T.; Kodyš, P.; Koffeman, E.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Kondo, T.; Koperny, S.; Koukol, H.; Král, V.; Kramberger, G.; Kubík, P.; Kudlaty, J.; Lacasta, C.; Lagouri, T.; Lee, S. C.; Leney, K.; Lenz, S.; Lester, C. G.; Liebicher, K.; Limper, M.; Lindsay, S.; Linhart, V.; LLosá, G.; Loebinger, F. K.; Lozano, M.; Ludwig, I.; Ludwig, J.; Lutz, G.; Lys, J.; Maassen, M.; Macina, D.; Macpherson, A.; MacWaters, C.; Magrath, C. A.; Malecki, P.; Mandić, I.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Martí-García, S.; Matheson, J. P.; Matson, R. M.; McMahon, S. J.; McMahon, T. J.; Meinhardt, J.; Mellado, B.; Melone, J. J.; Mercer, I. J.; Messmer, I.; Mikulec, B.; Mikuž, M.; Miñano, M.; Mitsou, V. A.; Modesto, P.; Moed, S.; Mohn, B.; Moncrieff, S.; Moorhead, G.; Morris, F. S.; Morris, J.; Morrissey, M.; Moser, H. G.; Moszczynski, A.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Murray, W. J.; Muskett, D.; Nacher, J.; Nagai, K.; Nakano, I.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nisius, R.; Oye, O. K.; O'Shea, V.; Paganis, E.; Parker, M. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pater, J. R.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Pellegrini, G.; Pelleriti, G.; Pernegger, H.; Perrin, E.; Phillips, P. W.; Pilavova, L. V.; Poltorak, K.; Pospíšil, S.; Postranecky, M.; Pritchard, T.; Prokofiev, K.; Rafí, J. M.; Raine, C.; Ratoff, P. N.; Řezníček, P.; Riadovikov, V. N.; Richter, R. H.; Robichaud-Véronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Rodriguez-Oliete, R.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Runge, K.; Saavedra, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F. W.; Sanchez, F. J.; Sandaker, H.; Saxon, D. H.; Scheirich, D.; Schieck, J.; Seiden, A.; Sfyrla, A.; Slavíček, T.; Smith, K. M.; Smith, N. A.; Snow, S. W.; Solar, M.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sospedra, L.; Spencer, E.; Stanecka, E.; Stapnes, S.; Stastny, J.; Strachko, V.; Stradling, A.; Stugu, B.; Su, D. S.; Sutcliffe, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Tanaka, R.; Taylor, G.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Thompson, R. J.; Titov, M.; Toczek, B.; Tovey, D. R.; Tratzl, G.; Troitsky, V. L.; Tseng, J.; Turala, M.; Turner, P. R.; Tyndel, M.; Ullán, M.; Unno, Y.; Vickey, T.; Van der Kraaij, E.; Viehhauser, G.; Villani, E. G.; Vitek, T.; Vu Anh, T.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Wachler, M.; Wallny, R.; Ward, C. P.; Warren, M. R. M.; Webel, M.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wells, P. S.; Wetzel, P.; Whitley, M.; Wiesmann, M.; Wilhelm, I.; Willenbrock, M.; Wilmut, I.; Wilson, J. A.; Winton, J.; Wolter, M.; Wormald, M. P.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Zhu, H.; Bingefors, N.; Brenner, R.; Ekelof, T.

    2007-06-01

    The challenges for the tracking detector systems at the LHC are unprecedented in terms of the number of channels, the required read-out speed and the expected radiation levels. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) end-caps have a total of about 3 million electronics channels each reading out every 25 ns into its own on-chip 3.3 μs buffer. The highest anticipated dose after 10 years operation is 1.4×1014 cm-2 in units of 1 MeV neutron equivalent (assuming the damage factors scale with the non-ionising energy loss). The forward tracker has 1976 double-sided modules, mostly of area ˜70 cm2, each having 2×768 strips read out by six ASICs per side. The requirement to achieve an average perpendicular radiation length of 1.5% X0, while coping with up to 7 W dissipation per module (after irradiation), leads to stringent constraints on the thermal design. The additional requirement of 1500e- equivalent noise charge (ENC) rising to only 1800e- ENC after irradiation, provides stringent design constraints on both the high-density Cu/Polyimide flex read-out circuit and the ABCD3TA read-out ASICs. Finally, the accuracy of module assembly must not compromise the 16 μm (rφ) resolution perpendicular to the strip directions or 580 μm radial resolution coming from the 40 mrad front-back stereo angle. A total of 2210 modules were built to the tight tolerances and specifications required for the SCT. This was 234 more than the 1976 required and represents a yield of 93%. The component flow was at times tight, but the module production rate of 40-50 per week was maintained despite this. The distributed production was not found to be a major logistical problem and it allowed additional flexibility to take advantage of where the effort was available, including any spare capacity, for building the end-cap modules. The collaboration that produced the ATLAS SCT end-cap modules kept in close contact at all times so that the effects of shortages or stoppages at different sites could be

  10. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    The conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' (1-5 June 2009, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) that myself and two former presidents of the American Biophysical Society—Wilma Olson (Rutgers University) and Adrian Parsegian (NIH), with the support of an ICTP team (Ralf Gebauer (Local Organizer) and Doreen Sauleek (Conference Secretary)), have organized was intended to establish stronger links between the biology and physics communities on the DNA front. The relationships between them were never easy. In 1997, Adrian published a paper in Physics Today ('Harness the Hubris') summarizing his thoughts about the main obstacles for a successful collaboration. The bottom line of that article was that physicists must seriously learn biology before exploring it and even having an interpreter, a friend or co-worker, who will be cooperating with you and translating the problems of biology into a physical language, may not be enough. He started his story with a joke about a physicist asking a biologist: 'I want to study the brain. Tell me something about it!' Biologist: 'First, the brain consists of two parts, and..' Physicist: 'Stop. You have told me too much.' Adrian listed a few direct avenues where physicists' contributions may be particularly welcome. This gentle and elegantly written paper caused, however, a stormy reaction from Bob Austin (Princeton), published together with Adrian's notes, accusing Adrian of forbidding physicists to attack big questions in biology straightaway. Twelve years have passed and many new developments have taken place in the biologist-physicist interaction. This was something I addressed in my opening conference speech, with my position lying somewhere inbetween Parsegian's and Austin's, which is briefly outlined here. I will first recall certain precepts or 'dogmas' that fly in the air like Valkyries, poisoning those relationships. Since the early seventies when I was a first year Ph

  11. Price smarter on the Net.

    PubMed

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  12. Performance verification testing for HET wide-field upgrade tracker in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, John; Hayes, Richard; Beno, Joseph; Booth, John; Cornell, Mark E.; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Mock, Jason; Rafal, Marc; Savage, Richard; Soukup, Ian

    2010-07-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), the McDonald Observatory (MDO) and the Center for Electro-mechanics (CEM) at the University of Texas at Austin are developing a new HET tracker in support of the Wide-Field Upgrade (WFU) and the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS). The precision tracker is required to maintain the position of a 3,100 kg payload within ten microns of its desired position relative to the telescope's primary mirror. The hardware system to accomplish this has ten precision controlled actuators. Prior to installation on the telescope, full performance verification is required of the completed tracker in CEM's lab, without a primary mirror or the telescope's final instrument package. This requires the development of a laboratory test stand capable of supporting the completed tracker over its full range of motion, as well as means of measurement and methodology that can verify the accuracy of the tracker motion over full travel (4m diameter circle, 400 mm deep, with 9 degrees of tip and tilt) at a cost and schedule in keeping with the HET WFU requirements. Several techniques have been evaluated to complete this series of tests including: photogrammetry, laser tracker, autocollimator, and a distance measuring interferometer, with the laser tracker ultimately being identified as the most viable method. The design of the proposed system and its implementation in the lab is presented along with the test processes, predicted accuracy, and the basis for using the chosen method*.

  13. The Inspiring Teacher: New Beginnings for the 21st Century. The Inspired Classroom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullo, Robert A.

    This book provides educators with information on how to become an inspiring teacher. Nine chapters look at: (1) "The Qualities of an Inspiring Teacher" (e.g., passion for learning, lifelong learners, and actions match words); (2) "Choice Theory" (genetic instructions affecting behavior, the quality world, and perception); (3) "Brain-Based…

  14. Volumetric verification of multiaxis machine tool using laser tracker.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Sergio; Samper, David; Santolaria, Jorge; Aguilar, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present a method of volumetric verification in machine tools with linear and rotary axes using a laser tracker. Beyond a method for a particular machine, it presents a methodology that can be used in any machine type. Along this paper, the schema and kinematic model of a machine with three axes of movement, two linear and one rotational axes, including the measurement system and the nominal rotation matrix of the rotational axis are presented. Using this, the machine tool volumetric error is obtained and nonlinear optimization techniques are employed to improve the accuracy of the machine tool. The verification provides a mathematical, not physical, compensation, in less time than other methods of verification by means of the indirect measurement of geometric errors of the machine from the linear and rotary axes. This paper presents an extensive study about the appropriateness and drawbacks of the regression function employed depending on the types of movement of the axes of any machine. In the same way, strengths and weaknesses of measurement methods and optimization techniques depending on the space available to place the measurement system are presented. These studies provide the most appropriate strategies to verify each machine tool taking into consideration its configuration and its available work space.

  15. Future silicon sensors for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard-Schwarz, Maria; CMS Tracker Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    For the high-luminosity phase of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN a campaign was started in the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment to investigate different radiation hard silicon detectors. Therefore 6 in. silicon wafers were ordered to answer various questions regarding for example the radiation tolerance and the annealing behavior of different sensor material. The testing variety includes sensor versions n-in-p and p-in-n in thicknesses from 50 μm to 300 μm. In terms of sensor material the difference between floating zone, magnetic Czochralski and epitaxial grown silicon is investigated. For the n-in-p sensors, the different isolation technologies, p-stop and p-spray, are tested. The design of the wafer contains test structures, diodes, mini-sensors, long and very short strip sensors, real pixel sensors and double metal routing variants. The irradiation is done with mixed fluences of protons and neutrons which represent the rates of integrated hadrons that are expected in the CMS tracker after the LHC upgrade. This paper presents an overview of results from measurements of non-irradiated test structures with different technologies and also the results after irradiation.

  16. An expert system for shuttle and satellite radar tracker scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Paul

    1988-01-01

    This expert system automates and optimizes radar tracker selection for shuttle missions. The expert system is written in the FORTRAN and C languages on an HP9000. It is portable to any UNIX machine having both ANSI-77 FORTRAN and C language compilers. It is a rule based expert system that selects tracking stations from the S-band and C-band radar stations and the TDRSS east and TDRSS west satellites under a variety of conditions. The expert system was prototyped on the Symbolics in the Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) and ZetaLisp. After the prototype demonstrated an acceptable automation of the process of selecting tracking stations to support the orbit determination requirements of Shuttle missions, the basic ART rules of the prototype were ported to the HP9000 computer using the CLIPS language. CLIPS is a forward-chaining rule-based expert system language written in C. Prior to the development of this expert system the selection process was a tedious manual process and expensive in terms of human resources. Manual tracking station selection required from 1 to 2 man weeks per mission; whereas the expert system can complete the selection process in about 2 hours.

  17. Planar waveguide concentrator used with a seasonal tracker.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Sébastien; Thibault, Simon

    2012-10-01

    Solar concentrators offer good promise for reducing the cost of solar power. Planar waveguides equipped with a microlens slab have already been proposed as an excellent approach to produce medium to high concentration levels. Instead, we suggest the use of a cylindrical microlens array to get useful concentration without tracking during the day. To use only a seasonal tracking system and get the highest possible concentration, cylindrical microlenses are placed in the east-west orientation. Our new design has an acceptance angle in the north-south direction of ±9° and ±54° in the east-west axis. Simulation of our optimized system achieves a 4.6× average concentration level from 8:30 to 16:30 with a maximum of 8.1× and 80% optical efficiency. The low-cost advantage of waveguide-based solar concentrators could support their use in roof-mounted solar panels and eliminate the need for an expensive and heavy active tracker.

  18. Gaussian Analytic Centroiding method of star image of star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiyong; Xu, Ershuai; Li, Zhifeng; Li, Jingjin; Qin, Tianmu

    2015-11-01

    The energy distribution of an actual star image coincides with the Gaussian law statistically in most cases, so the optimized processing algorithm about star image centroiding should be constructed also by following Gaussian law. For a star image spot covering a certain number of pixels, the marginal distribution of the gray accumulation on rows and columns are shown and analyzed, based on which the formulas of Gaussian Analytic Centroiding method (GAC) are deduced, and the robustness is also promoted due to the inherited filtering effect of gray accumulation. Ideal reference star images are simulated by the PSF (point spread function) with integral form. Precision and speed tests for the Gaussian Analytic formulas are conducted under three scenarios of Gaussian radius (0.5, 0.671, 0.8 pixel), The simulation results show that the precision of GAC method is better than that of the other given algorithms when the Gaussian radius is not bigger than 5 × 5 pixel window, a widely used parameter. Above all, the algorithm which consumes the least time is still the novel GAC method. GAC method helps to promote the comprehensive performance in the attitude determination of a star tracker.

  19. The optimization of an optical missile guidance tracker.

    PubMed

    Spiro, I J

    1969-07-01

    An antitank missile guidance system is described, which employs a tracker using two parallel optical paths and a pyrotechnic flare. Both optical channels are spectrally filtered; one rejects the target and views only the flare image; the other rejects the flare and views only the target. In performing the guidance tracking task, the operator superimposes the flare image on the target, thus providing steering signals to the missile. This paper describes an optimum flare as one with maximum luminous spectral emittance, minimum bandwidth, and minimum noise. Then with the selected flare as a basis, the optical components are matched individually and as an assembly to obtain maximum flare-filter system output. Calculated improvements of 100 to 250% were obtained in the performance of critical components which were reflected in the system operation and were subsequently verified by system field tests. The transmission ratios, visibility coefficients, improvement factors, and other bases for improvement are stated and discussed. Finally, the experiments performed and improvements achieved are described.

  20. Kinematics investigations of cylinders rolling down a ramp using tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Mawaddah, Menurseto; Winarno, Nanang; Sriwulan, Wiwin

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays, students' exploration as well as students' interaction in the application stage of learning cycle can be improved by directly model real-world objects based on Newton's Law using Open Source Physics (OSP) computer-modeling tools. In a case of studying an object rolling down a ramp, a traditional experiment method commonly uses a ticker tape sliding through a ticker timer. However, some kinematics parameters such as the instantaneous acceleration and the instantaneous speed of object cannot be investigated directly. By using the Tracker video analysis method, all kinematics parameters of cylinders rolling down a ramp can be investigated by direct visual inspection. The result shows that (1) there are no relations of cylinders' mass as well as cylinders' radius towards their kinetics parameters. (2) Excluding acceleration data, the speed and position as function of time follow the theory. (3) The acceleration data are in the random order, but their trend-lines closely fit the theory with 0.15% error. (4) The decrease of acceleration implicitly occurs due to the air friction acting on the cylinder during rolling down. (5) The cylinder's inertial moment constant has been obtained experimentally with 3.00% error. (6) The ramp angle linearly influences the cylinders' acceleration with 2.36% error. This research implied that the program can be further applied to physics educational purposes.

  1. Iterative alignment of reflector segments using a laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera Cuevas, Lizeth; Lucero Alvarez, Maribel; Leon-Huerta, Andrea; Hernandez Rios, Emilio; Hernandez Lázaro, Josefina; Tzile Torres, Carlos; Castro Santos, David; Gale, David M.; Wilson, Grant; Narayanan, Gopal; Smith, David R.

    2013-04-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a 50m diameter millimetre-wave radio telescope situated on the summit of Sierra Negra, Puebla, at an altitude of 4600 meters. The reflector surface of the LMT currently employs84 segments arranged in three annular rings. Each segment is comprised of 8 precision composite subpanels located on five threaded adjusters. During the current primary surface refurbishment, individual segments are aligned in the telescope basement using a laser tracker. This allows increased spatial resolution in shorter timescales, resulting in the opportunity for improved logistics and increased alignment precision. To perform segment alignment an iterative process is carried out whereby the surface is measured and subpanel deformations are corrected with the goal of 40 microns RMS. In practice we have been able to achieve RMS errors of almost 20 microns, with 35 microns typical. The number of iterations varies from around ten to over 20, depending mainly on the behaviour of the mechanical adjusters that support the individual subpanels. Cross marks scribed on the reflector surface are used as fiducials, because their positions on the paraboloid are well known. Measurement data is processed using a robust curve fitting algorithm which provides a map of the surface showing the subpanel deviations. From this map the required subpanel adjuster movements are calculated allowing surface improvement in a stepwise manner.

  2. Geometric error detection and calibration in laser trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zili; Lao, Dabao; Dong, Dengfeng; Zhou, Weihu

    2015-08-01

    Geometric errors in laser trackers such as light offset and transit tilt have essential influence on the system measurement errors. Thus error detection and calibration are very important for producers and customers to execute error compensation. Different methods are developed to detect and calibrate errors. However, the commonly used methods such as length measurement and two-face measurement are sensitive to several misalignments which cannot calibrate errors directly and separately. In this paper a series of methods for detecting and calibrating geometric errors such as mirror tilt, beam tilt and transit tilt were presented which can calibrate geometric errors individually and precisely. The mirror tilt could be detected with the help of two autocollimators and one polygon. Then the beam tilt and offset errors were calibrated using a CCD camera and condenser lenses. Finally the transit tilt error was calibrated using a gradient and a vertical plane. Experiments and error assessment were executed to show that the accuracy of the calibration methods can meet the user's demand.

  3. Operational Experience with Autonomous Star Trackers on ESA Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Mathias; Jauregui, Libe; Kielbassa, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Mars Express (MEX), Rosetta and Venus Express (VEX) are ESA interplanetary spacecrafts (S/C) launched in June 2003, March 2004 and November 2005, respectively. Mars Express was injected into Mars orbit end of 2003 with routine operations starting in spring 2004. Rosetta is since launch on its way to rendezvous comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It has completed several test and commissioning activities and is performing several planetary swingbys (Earth in spring 2005, Mars in spring 2007, Earth in autumn 2007 and again two years later). Venus Express has also started routine operations since the completion of the Venus orbit insertion maneuver sequence beginning of May 2006. All three S/C are three axes stabilized with a similar attitude and orbit control system (AOCS). The attitude is estimated on board using star and rate sensors and controlled using four reaction wheels. A bipropellant reaction control system with 10N thrusters serves for wheel off loadings and attitude control in safe mode. Mars Express and Venus Express have an additional 400N engine for the planetary orbit insertion. Nominal Earth communication is accomplished through a high gain antenna. All three S/C are equipped with a redundant set of autonomous star trackers (STR) which are based on almost the same hardware. The STR software is especially adapted for the respective mission. This paper addresses several topics related to the experience gained with the STR operations on board the three S/C so far.

  4. Planar waveguide concentrator used with a seasonal tracker.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Sébastien; Thibault, Simon

    2012-10-01

    Solar concentrators offer good promise for reducing the cost of solar power. Planar waveguides equipped with a microlens slab have already been proposed as an excellent approach to produce medium to high concentration levels. Instead, we suggest the use of a cylindrical microlens array to get useful concentration without tracking during the day. To use only a seasonal tracking system and get the highest possible concentration, cylindrical microlenses are placed in the east-west orientation. Our new design has an acceptance angle in the north-south direction of ±9° and ±54° in the east-west axis. Simulation of our optimized system achieves a 4.6× average concentration level from 8:30 to 16:30 with a maximum of 8.1× and 80% optical efficiency. The low-cost advantage of waveguide-based solar concentrators could support their use in roof-mounted solar panels and eliminate the need for an expensive and heavy active tracker. PMID:23033102

  5. Volumetric Verification of Multiaxis Machine Tool Using Laser Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present a method of volumetric verification in machine tools with linear and rotary axes using a laser tracker. Beyond a method for a particular machine, it presents a methodology that can be used in any machine type. Along this paper, the schema and kinematic model of a machine with three axes of movement, two linear and one rotational axes, including the measurement system and the nominal rotation matrix of the rotational axis are presented. Using this, the machine tool volumetric error is obtained and nonlinear optimization techniques are employed to improve the accuracy of the machine tool. The verification provides a mathematical, not physical, compensation, in less time than other methods of verification by means of the indirect measurement of geometric errors of the machine from the linear and rotary axes. This paper presents an extensive study about the appropriateness and drawbacks of the regression function employed depending on the types of movement of the axes of any machine. In the same way, strengths and weaknesses of measurement methods and optimization techniques depending on the space available to place the measurement system are presented. These studies provide the most appropriate strategies to verify each machine tool taking into consideration its configuration and its available work space. PMID:25202744

  6. Research of measuring accuracy of laser tracker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Jianfei; Liang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Haixin; Yan, Yonggang

    2006-11-01

    This paper presents the achievement of a China NSFC project. The Laser Tracker System (LTS) is a portable 3D large size measuring system. The measuring conditions such as time and temperature can greatly affect the measuring accuracy of LTS. This paper pays a great attention to study how the time and temperature affect the measuring accuracy of LTS. Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) is employed as a high-level measuring instrument to validate LTS. The experiments have been done to find how the time and temperature affect the measuring accuracy of LTS. The experiments show the LTS can work well with the highest measuring accuracy just after three-hour warm-up. However, the LTS becomes unstable and the measuring accuracy decreases after 10 hours. The LTS needs calibration and compensation every 10 hours. The experiments show that the measuring error can be up to 29.6μm when the measuring temperature is 30.5°C even if the measuring error is less than 5.9μm while the temperature is between 20°C and 23.8°C. The research provides a very useful guidance for application of LTS.

  7. Conceptual design report for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-15

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) will search for signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. The emphasis win be the correlation of many observables on an event-by-event basis. In the absence of definitive signatures for the QGP, it is imperative that such correlations be used to identify special events and possible signatures. This requires a flexible detection system that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The physics goals dictate the design of star and it's experiment. To meet the design criteria, tracking, momentum analysis, and particle identification of most of the charged particles at midrapidity are necessary. The tracking must operate in conditions at higher than the expected maximum charged particle multiplicities for central Au + Au collisions. Particle identification of pions/kaons for p < 0.7 GeV/c and kaons/protons for p < 1 GeV/c, as well as measurement of decay particles and reconstruction of secondary vertices will be possible. A two-track resolution of 2 cm at 2 m radial distance from, the interaction is expected. Momentum resolution of {Delta}p/p {approximately} 0.02 at p = 0.1 GeV/c is required to accomplish the physics, and,{Delta}p/p of several percent at p = 10 GeV/c is sufficient to accurately measure the rapidly failing spectra at high Pt and particles from mini-jets and jets.

  8. Conceptual design report for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    The STAR Collaboration

    1992-06-15

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) will search for signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. The emphasis win be the correlation of many observables on an event-by-event basis. In the absence of definitive signatures for the QGP, it is imperative that such correlations be used to identify special events and possible signatures. This requires a flexible detection system that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The physics goals dictate the design of star and it`s experiment. To meet the design criteria, tracking, momentum analysis, and particle identification of most of the charged particles at midrapidity are necessary. The tracking must operate in conditions at higher than the expected maximum charged particle multiplicities for central Au + Au collisions. Particle identification of pions/kaons for p < 0.7 GeV/c and kaons/protons for p < 1 GeV/c, as well as measurement of decay particles and reconstruction of secondary vertices will be possible. A two-track resolution of 2 cm at 2 m radial distance from, the interaction is expected. Momentum resolution of {Delta}p/p {approximately} 0.02 at p = 0.1 GeV/c is required to accomplish the physics, and,{Delta}p/p of several percent at p = 10 GeV/c is sufficient to accurately measure the rapidly failing spectra at high Pt and particles from mini-jets and jets.

  9. A hardware fast tracker for the ATLAS trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbah, Nedaa

    2016-09-01

    The trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is designed to reduce the event rate from the LHC nominal bunch crossing at 40 MHz to about 1 kHz, at the design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. After a successful period of data taking from 2010 to early 2013, the LHC already started with much higher instantaneous luminosity. This will increase the load on High Level Trigger system, the second stage of the selection based on software algorithms. More sophisticated algorithms will be needed to achieve higher background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project. It is a hardware processor that will provide, at every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100 microseconds, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV. Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance. FTK exploits hardware technologies with massive parallelism, combining Associative Memory ASICs, FPGAs and high-speed communication links.

  10. eXtremely Fast Tracker trigger upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Cox, C.; Cox, D.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Purdue U.

    2009-01-01

    The CDF II eXtremely Fast Tracker (XFT) is a trigger processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the central tracking chamber. The XFT tracks are also extrapolated to the electromagnetic calorimeter and muon chambers to generate trigger electron and muon candidates. The XFT is crucial for the entire CDF II physics program: it detects high P{sub t} lepton from W/Z and heavy flavors decay and, in conjunction with the level 2 processor, it identifies secondary vertices from beauty decay. The XFT has thus been crucial for the recent measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} oscillation and {Sigma}{sub b}. The increase of the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity demanded an upgrade of the system to cope with the higher occupancy of the chamber. In the upgraded XFT, three-dimensional tracking reduces the level of fake tracks and measures the longitudinal track parameters, which strongly reinforce the trigger selection. This allows to maintain the trigger perfectly efficient at the record luminosities 2-3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and to maintain intact the CDF II high luminosity physics program, which includes the Higgs search. In this paper we review the architecture, the used technology, the performance and the impact of the upgraded XFT on the entire CDF II trigger strategy.

  11. Operation and performance of the ATLAS silicon micro-strip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Pylypchenko, Y.

    2011-07-01

    The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall since 2007 and has been operational since then. In this paper the current status of the Semiconductor Tracker is reviewed, including results from the data-taking periods in 2009 and 2010, and from the detector alignment. The emphasis is given to the performance of the Semiconductor Tracker with the LHC in collision mode and to the performance of individual electronic components. (authors)

  12. Features of design and development of the optical head of star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldabekov, M.; Akhmedov, D.; Yelubayev, S.; Ten, V.; Albazarov, B.; Shamro, Alexander; Alipbayev, Kuanysh; Bopeyev, Timur; Sukhenko, A.

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an approach to the design and development of the optical head of the star tracker and its hood for satellites. The main stages of the optical system design including development of requirements, selection of the optical system by analyzing with help of CAD, hood design with help of simulation, as well as the main stages of its components(lenses) manufacturing and control of quality of manufacturing the optical system are described. Engineering model of the optical head of star tracker which can be used as the basis for the development of the star tracker prototype for use in Kazakhstan's satellites was developed in accordance with the requirements.

  13. Optimal Spacing of Dual-axis Trackers for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Sin; Winston, Roland

    2011-12-01

    The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is widely used to compare the cost of energy generation across technologies. In a utility-scale concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system, the spacing of dual-axis trackers must be balanced with total energy harvested from modules to minimize LCOE. In this paper, a spacing method of dual-axis trackers in a CPV system is presented. Based on the definition of LCOE, a cost function is defined and optimized in terms of spacing related parameters. Various methods to estimate hourly direct normal irradiance (DNI) are investigated and m-by-n tracker array configurations to minimize the cost function are discussed.

  14. Compensation for Time-Dependent Star Tracker Thermal Deformation on the Aqua Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Natanson, Gregory; Glickman, Jonathan; Sedlak, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of attitude sensor data from the Aqua mission showed small but systematic differences between batch least-squares and extended Kalman filter attitudes. These differences were also found to be correlated with star tracker residuals, gyro bias estimates, and star tracker baseplate temperatures. This paper describes the analysis that shows that these correlations are all consistent with a single cause: time-dependent thermal deformation of star tracker alignments. These varying alignments can be separated into relative and common components. The relative misalignments can be determined and compensated for. The common misalignments can only be determined in special cases.

  15. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  16. Biologically Inspired Micro-Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Waszak, Martin R.

    2003-01-01

    Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed- wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.

  17. Compact and Thermosensitive Nature-inspired Micropump

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyejeong; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    Liquid transportation without employing a bulky power source, often observed in nature, has been an essential prerequisite for smart applications of microfluidic devices. In this report, a leaf-inspired micropump (LIM) which is composed of thermo-responsive stomata-inspired membrane (SIM) and mesophyll-inspired agarose cryogel (MAC) is proposed. The LIM provides a durable flow rate of 30 μl/h · cm2 for more than 30 h at room temperature without external mechanical power source. By adapting a thermo-responsive polymer, the LIM can smartly adjust the delivery rate of a therapeutic liquid in response to temperature changes. In addition, as the LIM is compact, portable, and easily integrated into any liquid, it might be utilized as an essential component in advanced hand-held drug delivery devices. PMID:27796357

  18. Fairness and dynamic pricing: comments

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-07-15

    In ''The Ethics of Dynamic Pricing,'' Ahmad Faruqui lays out a case for improved efficiency in using dynamic prices for retail electricity tariffs and addresses various issues about the distributional effects of alternative pricing mechanisms. The principal contrast is between flat or nearly constant energy prices and time-varying prices that reflect more closely the marginal costs of energy and capacity. The related issues of fairness criteria, contracts, risk allocation, cost allocation, means testing, real-time pricing, and ethical policies of electricity market design also must be considered. (author)

  19. OPEC pricing decisions through 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Krupp, H.W.

    1982-05-01

    Recent developments brought the future of OPEC price decisions under intense scrutiny. Since OPEC's decision in March to support the Saudi marker price and curb crude oil production, oil prices firmed somewhat in the spot markets. Nevertheless, as of the end of April, petroleum markets remained sloppy and the final outcome still remains uncertain. Bankers Trust felt that OPEC would succeed in holding the marker price at $34 a barrel in 1982; through 1985, they predict nominal increases in the price of oil but at a rate lower than inflation. The real price, therefore, will decline modestly for the next few years. 1 table.

  20. Nostalgia-Evoked Inspiration: Mediating Mechanisms and Motivational Implications.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Elena; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Routledge, Clay; Arndt, Jamie

    2015-10-01

    Six studies examined the nostalgia-inspiration link and its motivational implications. In Study 1, nostalgia proneness was positively associated with inspiration frequency and intensity. In Studies 2 and 3, the recollection of nostalgic (vs. ordinary) experiences increased both general inspiration and specific inspiration to engage in exploratory activities. In Study 4, serial mediational analyses supported a model in which nostalgia increases social connectedness, which subsequently fosters self-esteem, which then boosts inspiration. In Study 5, a rigorous evaluation of this serial mediational model (with a novel nostalgia induction controlling for positive affect) reinforced the idea that nostalgia-elicited social connectedness increases self-esteem, which then heightens inspiration. Study 6 extended the serial mediational model by demonstrating that nostalgia-evoked inspiration predicts goal pursuit (intentions to pursue an important goal). Nostalgia spawns inspiration via social connectedness and attendant self-esteem. In turn, nostalgia-evoked inspiration bolsters motivation. PMID:26228477

  1. Blood Clotting Inspired Polymer Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Charles Edward

    The blood clotting process is one of the human body's masterpieces in targeted molecular manipulation, as it requires the activation of the clotting cascade at a specific place and a specific time. Recent research in the biological sciences have discovered that one of the protein molecules involved in the initial stages of the clotting response, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), exhibits counterintuitive and technologically useful properties that are driven in part by the physical environment in the bloodstream at the site of a wound. In this thesis, we take inspiration from initial observations of the vWF in experiments, and aim to describe the behaviors observed in this process within the context of polymer physics. By understanding these physical principles, we hope to harness nature's ability to both direct molecules in both spatial and conformational coordinates. This thesis is presented in three complementary sections. After an initial introduction describing the systems of interest, we first describe the behavior of collapsed Lennard-Jones polymers in the presence of an infinite medium. It has been shown that simple bead-spring homopolymer models describe vWF quite well in vitro. We build upon this previous work to first describe the behavior of a collapsed homopolymer in an elongational fluid flow. Through a nucleation-protrusion mechanism, scaling relationships can be developed to provide a clear picture of a first-order globule-stretch transition and its ramifications in dilute-solution rheology. The implications of this behavior and its relation to the current literature provides qualitative explanations for the physiological process of vasoconstriction. In an effort to generalize these observations, we present an entire theory on the behavior of polymer globules under influence of any local fluid flow. Finally, we investigate the internal dynamics of these globules by probing their pulling response in an analogous fashion to force spectroscopy. We elucidate

  2. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    The conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' (1-5 June 2009, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) that myself and two former presidents of the American Biophysical Society—Wilma Olson (Rutgers University) and Adrian Parsegian (NIH), with the support of an ICTP team (Ralf Gebauer (Local Organizer) and Doreen Sauleek (Conference Secretary)), have organized was intended to establish stronger links between the biology and physics communities on the DNA front. The relationships between them were never easy. In 1997, Adrian published a paper in Physics Today ('Harness the Hubris') summarizing his thoughts about the main obstacles for a successful collaboration. The bottom line of that article was that physicists must seriously learn biology before exploring it and even having an interpreter, a friend or co-worker, who will be cooperating with you and translating the problems of biology into a physical language, may not be enough. He started his story with a joke about a physicist asking a biologist: 'I want to study the brain. Tell me something about it!' Biologist: 'First, the brain consists of two parts, and..' Physicist: 'Stop. You have told me too much.' Adrian listed a few direct avenues where physicists' contributions may be particularly welcome. This gentle and elegantly written paper caused, however, a stormy reaction from Bob Austin (Princeton), published together with Adrian's notes, accusing Adrian of forbidding physicists to attack big questions in biology straightaway. Twelve years have passed and many new developments have taken place in the biologist-physicist interaction. This was something I addressed in my opening conference speech, with my position lying somewhere inbetween Parsegian's and Austin's, which is briefly outlined here. I will first recall certain precepts or 'dogmas' that fly in the air like Valkyries, poisoning those relationships. Since the early seventies when I was a first year Ph

  3. Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) design and analysis. Two-axis gimbal star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) focused chiefly on the two-axis gimballed star tracker and electronics design improved from that of Precision Pointing Control System (PPCS), and application of the improved tracker for PADS at geosynchronous altitude. System design, system analysis, software design, and hardware design activities are reported. The system design encompasses the PADS configuration, system performance characteristics, component design summaries, and interface considerations. The PADS design and performance analysis includes error analysis, performance analysis via attitude determination simulation, and star tracker servo design analysis. The design of the star tracker and electronics are discussed. Sensor electronics schematics are included. A detailed characterization of the application software algorithms and computer requirements is provided.

  4. Spacecraft attitude control systems with dynamic methods and structures for processing star tracker signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yong (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Li, Rongsheng (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Methods are provided for dynamically processing successively-generated star tracker data frames and associated valid flags to generate processed star tracker signals that have reduced noise and a probability greater than a selected probability P.sub.slctd of being valid. These methods maintain accurate spacecraft attitude control in the presence of spurious inputs (e.g., impinging protons) that corrupt collected charges in spacecraft star trackers. The methods of the invention enhance the probability of generating valid star tracker signals because they respond to a current frame probability P.sub.frm by dynamically selecting the largest valid frame combination whose combination probability P.sub.cmb satisfies a selected probability P.sub.slctd. Noise is thus reduced while the probability of finding a valid frame combination is enhanced. Spacecraft structures are also provided for practicing the methods of the invention.

  5. Preliminary results from a study of the impact of digital activity trackers on health risk status.

    PubMed

    Rowe-Roberts, Dinah; Cercos, Robert; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    Digital activity trackers are becoming increasingly more widespread and affordable, providing new opportunities to support participatory e-health programs in which participants take an active role. However, there is limited knowledge of how to deploy these activity trackers within these programs. In response, we conducted a 7-month study with 212 employees using a wireless activity tracker to log step count. Our results suggest that these devices can support improving physical activity levels and consequently reduce diabetes risk factors. Furthermore, the intervention seems more effective for people with higher risk factors. With our work we aim to contribute to a better understanding of the issues and challenges involved in the design of participatory e-health programs that include activity trackers. PMID:25087541

  6. A novel method for measuring transit tilt error in laser trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zili; Zhou, Weihu; Zhu, Han; Lin, Xinlong

    2015-02-01

    A novel method was proposed to measure the tilt error between the transit axis and standing axis of the laser tracker. A gradienter was first used to make the standing axis of the laser tracker perpendicular to the horizontal plane. The laser beam of the tracker was then projected onto a vertical plane set at a certain distance from the tracker with equal horizontal angles and diverse vertical angles in two-face mode. The contrail of the laser beam was recorded while the simulation was manipulated to estimate the beam trail under the same circumstance. The tilt error was thus obtained according to the comparison of the actual result against the simulated one. Experimental results showed that the accuracy of the tilt measuring method could meet the user's demand.

  7. The electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC. A Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beddo, M.E.; Bielick, E.; Dawson, J.W.; The STAR EMC Collaboration

    1993-09-22

    This report discusses the following on the electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC: conceptual design; the physics of electromagnetic calorimetry in STAR; trigger capability; integration into STAR; and cost, schedule, manpower, and funding.

  8. Price transparency: building community trust.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    With the push from policymakers, payers, and consumers for hospitals to make their prices public, healthcare executives need to recognize two central issues related to price transparency: 1) meaningful price transparency involves helping patients and consumers understand their financial obligation for an episode of care, and 2) price transparency is key to the most critical success strategy for healthcare providers: building trust. This article reviews the history of pricing and billing practices and explores why price transparency is not easily achieved in today's environment. Pricing is a mystery even to those of us who work in the field, yet despite its complexity, the call for price transparency is not going to go away. For transparency, the goal should be to establish a rational pricing system that is easily explainable and justified to all stakeholders. Healthcare executives must make pricing a priority, understand cost, develop a pricing philosophy, understand the overall revenue requirements, examine market conditions and prices, and set up systems for review. A rational process of price setting should enhance community trust. In this matter there is nothing less at stake than the hearts of our community members. PMID:17405387

  9. Radiation-tolerant optical links for the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, John; Charlton, David G.; Chu, Ming-lee; Dowell, John D.; Galagedera, Senerath; Homer, Roger J.; Hou, Li-Shing; Jovanovic, Predrag; Kundu, Nikhil N.; Lee, Shih-chang; McMahon, Thomas J.; Macwaters, Craig; Mahout, Gilles; Morrissey, Martin; Rudge, Alan; Skubic, Bjorn J.; Teng, Ping-kun; Wastie, Roy; Weidberg, Anthony R.; Wilson, John A.

    2002-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), currently under construction at CERN, Geneva, will collide proton beams of energy 7 TeV. The high luminosity of the machine will lead to a severe radiation environment for detectors such as ATLAS. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) must be able to tolerate a radiation field equivalent to an ionising dose of 10 Mrad (Si) and a neutron fluence of 2x1014cm-2 (1MeV,Si) over the 10 year lifetime of the experiment. The SCT is instrumented by silicon microstrip detectors and their front-end chips (ABCDs). Data is transferred from, and control signals to, the ABCDs using multimode optical links carrying light at 840 nm. The incoming timing, trigger and control (TTC) link uses biphase mark encoding to send 40 Mbit/s control signals along with a 40 MHz clock down a single fibre. Optical signals are received by a p-i-n diode and decoded by DORIC chips. Data in electrical form from the ABCDs is used to moderate two VCSELs by means of a VCSEL driver chip (VDC). Each detector module carries 12 ABCDs and is served by two optical fibres for data readout and one for TTC signals. There are 4088 such modules within the SCT. The system performance specifications and architecture are described, followed by test results on individual components and complete links. The optical fibre, active optical components, chips, packaging and interconnects have all been qualified to the necessary radiation levels. This has involved studies of total dose effects, single event upset and ageing at elevated temperatures and details of these studies are presented.

  10. Calibration Test Set for a Phase-Comparison Digital Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boas, Amy; Li, Samuel; McMaster, Robert

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus that generates four signals at a frequency of 7.1 GHz having precisely controlled relative phases and equal amplitudes has been designed and built. This apparatus is intended mainly for use in computer-controlled automated calibration and testing of a phase-comparison digital tracker (PCDT) that measures the relative phases of replicas of the same X-band signal received by four antenna elements in an array. (The relative direction of incidence of the signal on the array is then computed from the relative phases.) The present apparatus can also be used to generate precisely phased signals for steering a beam transmitted from a phased antenna array. The apparatus (see figure) includes a 7.1-GHz signal generator, the output of which is fed to a four-way splitter. Each of the four splitter outputs is attenuated by 10 dB and fed as input to a vector modulator, wherein DC bias voltages are used to control the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. The bias voltages are generated by digital-to-analog- converter circuits on a control board that receives its digital control input from a computer running a LabVIEW program. The outputs of the vector modulators are further attenuated by 10 dB, then presented at high-grade radio-frequency connectors. The attenuation reduces the effects of changing mismatch and reflections. The apparatus was calibrated in a process in which the bias voltages were first stepped through all possible IQ settings. Then in a reverse interpolation performed by use of MATLAB software, a lookup table containing 3,600 IQ settings, representing equal amplitude and phase increments of 0.1 , was created for each vector modulator. During operation of the apparatus, these lookup tables are used in calibrating the PCDT.

  11. DCPT: A dual-continua random walk particle tracker fortransport

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, L.; Liu, H.H.; Cushey, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2000-04-11

    Accurate and efficient simulation of chemical transport processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain is important to evaluate the performance of the potential repository. The scale of the unsaturated zone model domain for Yucca Mountain (50 km{sup 2} area with a 600 meter depth to the water table) requires a large gridblock approach to efficiently analyze complex flow & transport processes. The conventional schemes based on finite element or finite difference methods perform well for dispersion-dominated transport, but are subject to considerable numerical dilution/dispersion for advection-dominated transport, especially when a large gridblock size is used. Numerical dispersion is an artificial, grid-dependent chemical spreading, especially for otherwise steep concentration fronts. One effective scheme to deal with numerical dispersion is the random walk particle method (RWPM). While significant progress has been made in developing RWPM algorithms and codes for single continuum systems, a random walk particle tracker, which can handle chemical transport in dual-continua (fractured porous media) associated with irregular grid systems, is still absent (to our knowledge) in the public domain. This is largely due to the lacking of rigorous schemes to deal with particle transfer between the continua, and efficient schemes to track particles in irregular grid systems. The main objectives of this study are (1) to develop approaches to extend RWPM from a single continuum to a dual-continua system; (2) to develop an efficient algorithm for tracking particles in 3D irregular grids; and (3) to integrate these approaches into an efficient and user-friendly software, DCPT, for simulating chemical transport in fractured porous media.

  12. The design, construction and performance of the MICE scintillating fibre trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, M.; Hobson, P. R.; Kyberd, P.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Bross, A.; Fagan, J.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Flores, R.; Kubinski, R.; Krider, J.; Rucinski, R.; Rubinov, P.; Tolian, C.; Hart, T. L.; Kaplan, D. M.; Luebke, W.; Freemire, B.; Wojcik, M.; Barber, G.; Clark, D.; Clark, I.; Dornan, P. J.; Fish, A.; Greenwood, S.; Hare, R.; Jamdagni, A.; Kasey, V.; Khaleeq, M.; Leaver, J.; Long, K. R.; McKigney, E.; Matsushita, T.; Rogers, C.; Sashalmi, T.; Savage, P.; Takahashi, M.; Tapper, A.; Yoshimura, K.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Yano, T.; Yoshida, M.; MacWaters, C.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.; Klier, A.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Adey, D.

    2011-12-01

    Charged-particle tracking in the international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) will be performed using two solenoidal spectrometers, each instrumented with a tracking detector based on 350 μm diameter scintillating fibres. The design and construction of the trackers is described along with the quality-assurance procedures, photon-detection system, readout electronics, reconstruction and simulation software and the data-acquisition system. Finally, the performance of the MICE tracker, determined using cosmic rays, is presented.

  13. Intelligent error correction method applied on an active pixel sensor based star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Uwe

    2005-10-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used on-board of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The active pixel sensor (APS) technology, introduced in the early 90-ties, allows now the beneficial replacement of CCD detectors by APS detectors with respect to performance, reliability, power, mass and cost. The company's heritage in star tracker design started in the early 80-ties with the launch of the worldwide first fully autonomous star tracker system ASTRO1 to the Russian MIR space station. Jena-Optronik recently developed an active pixel sensor based autonomous star tracker "ASTRO APS" as successor of the CCD based star tracker product series ASTRO1, ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15. Key features of the APS detector technology are, a true xy-address random access, the multiple windowing read out and the on-chip signal processing including the analogue to digital conversion. These features can be used for robust star tracking at high slew rates and under worse conditions like stray light and solar flare induced single event upsets. A special algorithm have been developed to manage the typical APS detector error contributors like fixed pattern noise (FPN), dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU) and white spots. The algorithm works fully autonomous and adapts to e.g. increasing DSNU and up-coming white spots automatically without ground maintenance or re-calibration. In contrast to conventional correction methods the described algorithm does not need calibration data memory like full image sized calibration data sets. The application of the presented algorithm managing the typical APS detector error contributors is a key element for the design of star trackers for long term satellite applications like

  14. 2050: A Pricing Odyssey

    SciTech Connect

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2006-10-15

    The author uses the Rip Van Winkle approach favored by marketers to gaze, clear-eyed, into the future - say, the year 2050 - to visualize alternative demand-response possibilities. Dare we go California Dreamin' of a distant utopia - or is it inevitable that pricing myopia will keep us from attaining the fulfillment of many of our career goals? (author)

  15. Pricing Decisions: A Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Simon

    1989-01-01

    Describes a game that illustrates the effects of pricing on profit. Students compete against each other in an imaginary industry and become familiar with decision-making processes. Depicts the gameboard, how to make it, and how to use it. (GG)

  16. The Price Is Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    There's something about textbook prices that generates outrage in ways that other college expenses, such as housing and technology fees, don't. Maybe it's the shock felt by new students when faced with a $900 bill after getting their textbooks for free in K-12. Maybe it's the awful realization that $40,000 in tuition and board doesn't even cover…

  17. Price bundling packs pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Jaklevic, M C

    1995-02-27

    Hospitals thought bundling of healthcare services under one all-inclusive price would have great appeal to payers, bringing in more business. But instead, the concept has brought disappointment as the expected boost in patient volume has failed to materialize. PMID:10140286

  18. Sixth special price report: world petroleum-product prices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-11

    Twice annually, Energy Detente accesses its own twice-monthly supplement, the Fuel Price/Tax Series, for an overview of how prices and taxes for refined petroleum products from natural gas to asphalt for end-users are changing. In this issue, it also updates its review of individual nations' pricing as to controls or free-market practices. The front cover chart reveals that, in terms of US dollars, the world average price of regular leaded (RL) gasoline is US $1.63, and high-octane leaded is US $1.78 - a difference of about 9%. A table details RL retail prices, the taxes pertaining to them, the percentages that those taxes are of prices, plus the January 1983 prices and the price change in US dollars over the period. In terms of US dollars, most price changes since January 1983 appear negative - particularly in the cases of Bolivia, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. A view of actual market price changes in terms of national currencies is depicted in another table. The fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices are presented for January 1984 for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  19. Option pricing: Stock price, stock velocity and the acceleration Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Bhanap, Jitendra

    2014-12-01

    The industry standard Black-Scholes option pricing formula is based on the current value of the underlying security and other fixed parameters of the model. The Black-Scholes formula, with a fixed volatility, cannot match the market's option price; instead, it has come to be used as a formula for generating the option price, once the so called implied volatility of the option is provided as additional input. The implied volatility not only is an entire surface, depending on the strike price and maturity of the option, but also depends on calendar time, changing from day to day. The point of view adopted in this paper is that the instantaneous rate of return of the security carries part of the information that is provided by implied volatility, and with a few (time-independent) parameters required for a complete pricing formula. An option pricing formula is developed that is based on knowing the value of both the current price and rate of return of the underlying security which in physics is called velocity. Using an acceleration Lagrangian model based on the formalism of quantum mathematics, we derive the pricing formula for European call options. The implied volatility of the market can be generated by our pricing formula. Our option price is applied to foreign exchange rates and equities and the accuracy is compared with Black-Scholes pricing formula and with the market price.

  20. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1975 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    Higher Education price in index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1975 are presented. The supplement is published yearly shortly after the fiscal year to which the latest data refer, and the index values refer to the entire year, not any specific month of the year. The basic study, "Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes," presents complete…

  1. Collaborative engineering and design management for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope tracker upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollison, Nicholas T.; Hayes, Richard J.; Good, John M.; Booth, John A.; Savage, Richard D.; Jackson, John R.; Rafal, Marc D.; Beno, Joseph H.

    2010-07-01

    The engineering and design of systems as complex as the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's* new tracker require that multiple tasks be executed in parallel and overlapping efforts. When the design of individual subsystems is distributed among multiple organizations, teams, and individuals, challenges can arise with respect to managing design productivity and coordinating successful collaborative exchanges. This paper focuses on design management issues and current practices for the tracker design portion of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade project. The scope of the tracker upgrade requires engineering contributions and input from numerous fields including optics, instrumentation, electromechanics, software controls engineering, and site-operations. Successful system-level integration of tracker subsystems and interfaces is critical to the telescope's ultimate performance in astronomical observation. Software and process controls for design information and workflow management have been implemented to assist the collaborative transfer of tracker design data. The tracker system architecture and selection of subsystem interfaces has also proven to be a determining factor in design task formulation and team communication needs. Interface controls and requirements change controls will be discussed, and critical team interactions are recounted (a group-participation Failure Modes and Effects Analysis [FMEA] is one of special interest). This paper will be of interest to engineers, designers, and managers engaging in multi-disciplinary and parallel engineering projects that require coordination among multiple individuals, teams, and organizations.

  2. A smart car for the surface shape measurement of large antenna based on laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yonggang; Hu, Jing; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2012-09-01

    The geometric accuracy of the surface shape of large antenna is an important indicator of antenna’s quality. Currently, high-precision measurement of large antenna surface shape can be performed in two ways: photogrammetry and laser tracker. Photogrammetry is a rapid method, but its accuracy is not enough good. Laser tracker can achieve high precision, but it is very inconvenient to move the reflector (target mirror) on the surface of the antenna by hand during the measurement. So, a smart car is designed to carry the reflector in this paper. The car, controlled by wireless, has a small weight and a strong ability for climbing, and there is a holding bracket gripping the reflector and controlling reflector rise up and drop down on the car. During the measurement of laser tracker, the laser beam between laser tracker and the reflector must not be interrupted, so two high-precision three-dimensional miniature electronic compasses, which can real-time monitor the relative angle between the holding bracket and the laser tracker’s head, are both equipped on the car and the head of laser tracker to achieve automatic alignment between reflector and laser beam. With the aid of the smart car, the measurement of laser tracker has the advantages of high precision and rapidity.

  3. Large Gas Electron Multiplier Trackers for Super Bigbite Spectrometer at Jefferson lab Hall A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenboonruang, K.; Gnanvo, K.; Liyanage, N.; Nelyubin, V.; Sacher, S.; Cisbani, E.; Musico, P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2013-04-01

    The 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) makes many exciting nuclear experiments possible. These experiments also require new high performance instrumentation. The Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) was proposed to perform a series of high precision nucleon form factor experiments at large momentum transfer. The SBS will be capable of operating at a very high luminosity and provide a large solid angle acceptance of 76 msr. SBS will be equipped with a double focal plane polarimeter. Thus, SBS will have three large trackers made of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers. The first, second, and third trackers will consist of six, four, and four tracking layers respectively. When completed in 2017, the SBS GEM trackers will form one of the largest sets of GEM chambers in the world. The GEM trackers allow the SBS to operate under high background rates over 500 kHz/cm^2, while providing an excellent spatial resolution of 70 μm. The first tracker will be constructed at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, while the second and third trackers will be built at the University of Virginia. In 2012, the first UVa SBS GEM chamber prototype was successfully constructed and tested. The GEM chamber construction details and test results will be presented in this talk.

  4. Optical System Error Analysis and Calibration Method of High-Accuracy Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The star tracker is a high-accuracy attitude measurement device widely used in spacecraft. Its performance depends largely on the precision of the optical system parameters. Therefore, the analysis of the optical system parameter errors and a precise calibration model are crucial to the accuracy of the star tracker. Research in this field is relatively lacking a systematic and universal analysis up to now. This paper proposes in detail an approach for the synthetic error analysis of the star tracker, without the complicated theoretical derivation. This approach can determine the error propagation relationship of the star tracker, and can build intuitively and systematically an error model. The analysis results can be used as a foundation and a guide for the optical design, calibration, and compensation of the star tracker. A calibration experiment is designed and conducted. Excellent calibration results are achieved based on the calibration model. To summarize, the error analysis approach and the calibration method are proved to be adequate and precise, and could provide an important guarantee for the design, manufacture, and measurement of high-accuracy star trackers. PMID:23567527

  5. Finding Inspiration in Middle School General Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

    2011-01-01

    Middle school general music programs can be vibrant, exciting places, where students are inspired to learn more about music and themselves. In this article, the author discusses how to work with rather than against adolescents' age-appropriate characteristics when planning "content", "process", "assessment", and "classroom environment". Then, she…

  6. Eric Carle-Inspired Insect Collages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palamountain, Eileen; Turner, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which students create collage insects inspired by the work of Eric Carle (The Very Hungry Caterpillar). Connects art, language arts, and science. Discusses how students make paper to use as the collage material and how students create the insects. (CMK)

  7. Art Works ... when Students Find Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Artworks are not produced in a vacuum, but by the interaction of experiences, and interrelationships of ideas, perceptions and feelings acknowledged and expressed in some form. Students, like mature artists, may be inspired and motivated by their memories and observations of their surroundings. Like adult artists, students may find that their own…

  8. Inspired by Athletes, Myths, and Poets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Tales of love and hate, of athleticism, heroism, devotion to gods and goddesses that influenced myth and culture are a way of sharing ancient Greece's rich history. In this article, the author describes how her students created their own Greek-inspired clay vessels as artifacts of their study. (Contains 6 online resources.)

  9. Basket Weaving Inspired by the Gullah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Many different cultures created and used the basket not only for utilitarian purposes, but also for ceremonial uses. In this article, the author describes an eighth-grade project inspired by the basket making of the Gullah people, who live along the coast of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

  10. Inspiring a Life Full of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlam, John

    2012-01-01

    The Secrets and Words films had everything one would expect from a BBC drama--great writing, acting and directing allied with high production values. But the dramas were also powerful learning tools, co-commissioned by BBC Learning and aimed at inspiring people who have difficulty with reading and writing to seek help. The BBC's learning vision is…

  11. Pop Art--Inspired Self-Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donna J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art lesson that was inspired by Andy Warhol's mass-produced portraits. Warhol began his career as a graphic artist and illustrator. His artwork was a response to the redundancy of the advertising images put in front of the American public. Celebrities and famous people in magazines and newspapers were seen…

  12. Using "1 = 2" to Inspire and Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premadasa, Kirthi; Samaranayake, Geetha

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical fallacies have an embedded sense of awe and mystery that can be used effectively in a classroom to inspire students to tackle a fallacy and find the "hidden" violation. In doing so, the student may discover the consequence of a rule violation in a stimulating manner, thus making a lasting impact of the rule as well as providing the…

  13. Bio-Inspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Self-cleaning surfaces have drawn a lot of interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in mechanism, preparation, and application of self-cleaning surfaces. To date, self-cleaning has been demonstrated by the following four conceptual approaches: (a) TiO2-based superhydrophilic self-cleaning, (b) lotus effect self-cleaning (superhydrophobicity with a small sliding angle), (c) gecko setae-inspired self-cleaning, and (d) underwater organisms-inspired antifouling self-cleaning. Although a number of self-cleaning products have been commercialized, the remaining challenges and future outlook of self-cleaning surfaces are also briefly addressed. Through evolution, nature, which has long been a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers, has arrived at what is optimal. We hope this review will stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, chemistry, biology, physics, nanoscience, engineering, etc., which is essential for the rational design and reproducible construction of bio-inspired multifunctional self-cleaning surfaces in practical applications.

  14. Water Treatment Technologies Inspire Healthy Beverages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.

  15. Towards a Pedagogy of Inspirational Parables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pio, Edwina; Haigh, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present a rationale for a learning and assessment activity involving students in the construction of inspirational parables for diversity management within a university business studies programme. The paper reviews processes from teacher and student perspectives, describes initial outcomes and foreshadows further…

  16. Personal Computer Price and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1993-01-01

    Discusses personal computer price trends since 1986; describes offerings and prices for four direct-market suppliers, i.e., Dell CompuAdd, PC Brand, and Gateway 2000; and discusses overall value and price/performance ratios. Tables and graphs chart value over time. (EA)

  17. Pricing of GPO Sales Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzkopf, LeRoy C.

    This report analyzes the pricing policy of the Government Printing Office (GPO) for publications sold to the public. It discusses the sharp rise in prices for GPO sales publications from November 1972 through 1975. This is a detailed report which expands on the summary report prepared by the author as chairman of the Pricing Subcommittee, GPO…

  18. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  19. The price they paid

    PubMed Central

    York, Eugene P.; Brown, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Background Several individuals integral to the development of evidence-based medicine endured hardship for their efforts and beliefs. Case presentation We present the history of three individuals who were integral to the formation of evidence-based medicine. All three individuals suffered as a result of resistance to change from colleagues as well as from within the profession. Conclusion Individual and professional collegiality in the face of change should be maintained. The efforts of our predecessors are honored and provide us with inspiration. PMID:25656676

  20. Higher prices in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    1982-03-01

    Price increases in the Jamaica CSM program went into effect on August 31, 1981. The program began in 1975. While the need for higher prices has been under discussion for the past 3 years, this is the 1st time the requisite approval from the Jamaica Price Commission has been obtained. The Jamaica National Family Planning Board (JNFPB) reports that the Panther 3-pack (condom) is up US$0.15 to US$0.30. Each Perle package (oral contraceptive) was increased by US$0.20. Single cycle Perle now sells for US$0.50, and 3-pack Perle sells for US$1.10. The 6-year price stagnation experienced by the CSM program resulted in a decreasing operational budget as program costs continued to rise. Marketing costs alone during this period escalated by 100-300%. For example, Panther pop-up display cartons cost the project US 16U each in 1975. By 1979 the same product cost US 49U. Newspaper advertisements have increased from the 1975 cost of US$68.00 to nearly $200.00 per placement. The overall inflation rate in Jamaica during the last 5 years has averaged more than 20% annually. In the face of these rising costs, outlet expansion for Perle has been prevented, wholesaler margins have been unavailable, and new retailer training has been discontinued. It is projected that the new prices will result in an annual increased revenues of US$80,000 which will be used to reinstate these essential marketing activities. The JNFPB is also planning to introduce a Panther 12-pack and Panther strips to the CSM product line. According to Marketing Manager Aston Evans, "We believe the public is now ready for this type of packaging" which is scheduled to be available soon. Panther is presently only available in a 3-pack, but annual sales have been steady. The new 12-pack will be stocked on supermarket shelves to provide higher product visibility and wider distribution. The selling price has been set as US$1.20 and is expected to yield a 25% increase in sales during the 1st year. A complete sales promotion

  1. Kittens! Inspired by Kittens! Undergraduate Theorists Inspired by YouTube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Diane Downer; Lewis, Mark; Peterson, Sarah; Griggs, Samantha; Grubb, Gina; Singer, Nicole; Fried, Simone; Krone, Elizabeth; Elko, Leigh; Narang, Jasmine

    2010-01-01

    A professor and students in an undergraduate honors research seminar were inspired to playfully link old and contemporary literacy theories to a 2.0 media artifact, the popular YouTube video Kittens! Inspired by Kittens! (KIbK) starring 6 year-old Maddie. In this article KIbK is theorized drawing on frames of school-based reading instruction,…

  2. Cost Validation Using PRICE H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John; Kwan, Eric; Wood, Milana

    2011-01-01

    PRICE H was introduced into the JPL cost estimation tool set circa 2003. It became more available at JPL when IPAO funded the NASA-wide site license for all NASA centers. PRICE H was mainly used as one of the cost tools to validate proposal grassroots cost estimates. Program offices at JPL view PRICE H as an additional crosscheck to Team X (JPL Concurrent Engineering Design Center) estimates. PRICE H became widely accepted ca, 2007 at JPL when the program offices moved away from grassroots cost estimation for Step 1 proposals. PRICE H is now one of the key cost tools used for cost validation, cost trades, and independent cost estimates.

  3. Buying stagnates; prices slide

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This article is an overview of Uranium transactions during the period January-February 1994. Trading volume and prices are given for conversion trades, SWUs, U3O8, and spot market activities. Due to a wait-and-see attitude pending the modification of the Suspension Agreement, volume during this period was limited to four contracts: two in the spot market and two in the enrichment market.

  4. Cross modality registration of video and magnetic tracker data for 3D appearance and structure modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Dusty; Chen, Chao-I.; Wang, Yuan-Fang

    2010-02-01

    The paper reports a fully-automated, cross-modality sensor data registration scheme between video and magnetic tracker data. This registration scheme is intended for use in computerized imaging systems to model the appearance, structure, and dimension of human anatomy in three dimensions (3D) from endoscopic videos, particularly colonoscopic videos, for cancer research and clinical practices. The proposed cross-modality calibration procedure operates this way: Before a colonoscopic procedure, the surgeon inserts a magnetic tracker into the working channel of the endoscope or otherwise fixes the tracker's position on the scope. The surgeon then maneuvers the scope-tracker assembly to view a checkerboard calibration pattern from a few different viewpoints for a few seconds. The calibration procedure is then completed, and the relative pose (translation and rotation) between the reference frames of the magnetic tracker and the scope is determined. During the colonoscopic procedure, the readings from the magnetic tracker are used to automatically deduce the pose (both position and orientation) of the scope's reference frame over time, without complicated image analysis. Knowing the scope movement over time then allows us to infer the 3D appearance and structure of the organs and tissues in the scene. While there are other well-established mechanisms for inferring the movement of the camera (scope) from images, they are often sensitive to mistakes in image analysis, error accumulation, and structure deformation. The proposed method using a magnetic tracker to establish the camera motion parameters thus provides a robust and efficient alternative for 3D model construction. Furthermore, the calibration procedure does not require special training nor use expensive calibration equipment (except for a camera calibration pattern-a checkerboard pattern-that can be printed on any laser or inkjet printer).

  5. Behavior Change Techniques Present in Wearable Activity Trackers: A Critical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kathryn; Li, Melissa; Giangregorio, Lora; Burns, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity trackers are promising as interventions that offer guidance and support for increasing physical activity and health-focused tracking. Most adults do not meet their recommended daily activity guidelines, and wearable fitness trackers are increasingly cited as having great potential to improve the physical activity levels of adults. Objective The objective of this study was to use the Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy to examine if the design of wearable activity trackers incorporates behavior change techniques (BCTs). A secondary objective was to critically analyze whether the BCTs present relate to known drivers of behavior change, such as self-efficacy, with the intention of extending applicability to older adults in addition to the overall population. Methods Wearing each device for a period of 1 week, two independent raters used CALO-RE taxonomy to code the BCTs of the seven wearable activity trackers available in Canada as of March 2014. These included Fitbit Flex, Misfit Shine, Withings Pulse, Jawbone UP24, Spark Activity Tracker by SparkPeople, Nike+ FuelBand SE, and Polar Loop. We calculated interrater reliability using Cohen's kappa. Results The average number of BCTs identified was 16.3/40. Withings Pulse had the highest number of BCTs and Misfit Shine had the lowest. Most techniques centered around self-monitoring and self-regulation, all of which have been associated with improved physical activity in older adults. Techniques related to planning and providing instructions were scarce. Conclusions Overall, wearable activity trackers contain several BCTs that have been shown to increase physical activity in older adults. Although more research and development must be done to fully understand the potential of wearables as health interventions, the current wearable trackers offer significant potential with regard to BCTs relevant to uptake by all populations, including older adults. PMID:27122452

  6. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  7. Trading network predicts stock price.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  8. The Inspiration of Hope in Substance Abuse Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne; Cutcliffe, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a grounded theory method to explore how counselors inspire hope in clients struggling with substance abuse. Findings from 10 participants revealed that hope inspiration occurred in 3 phases and consisted of several categories of hope-inspiring processes. Implications for counseling practice, counselor education, and research are…

  9. Impact of External Price Referencing on Medicine Prices – A Price Comparison Among 14 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Christine; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Katja; Seyfang, Leonhard; Vogler, Sabine; de Joncheere, Kees; Laing, Richard Ogilvie; Leufkens, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to examine the impact of external price referencing (EPR) on on-patent medicine prices, adjusting for other factors that may affect price levels such as sales volume, exchange rates, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, total pharmaceutical expenditure (TPE), and size of the pharmaceutical industry. Methods: Price data of 14 on-patent products, in 14 European countries in 2007 and 2008 were obtained from the Pharmaceutical Price Information Service of the Austrian Health Institute. Based on the unit ex-factory prices in EURO, scaled ranks per country and per product were calculated. For the regression analysis the scaled ranks per country and product were weighted; each country had the same sum of weights but within a country the weights were proportional to its sales volume in the year (data obtained from IMS Health). Taking the scaled ranks, several statistical analyses were performed by using the program “R”, including a multiple regression analysis (including variables such as GDP per capita and national industry size). Results: This study showed that on average EPR as a pricing policy leads to lower prices. However, the large variation in price levels among countries using EPR confirmed that the price level is not only driven by EPR. The unadjusted linear regression model confirms that applying EPR in a country is associated with a lower scaled weighted rank (p=0.002). This interaction persisted after inclusion of total pharmaceutical expenditure per capita and GDP per capita in the final model. Conclusions: The study showed that for patented products, prices are in general lower in case the country applied EPR. Nevertheless substantial price differences among countries that apply EPR could be identified. Possible explanations could be found through a correlation between pharmaceutical industry and the scaled price ranks. In conclusion, we found that implementing external reference pricing could lead to lower prices. PMID

  10. Enhancing medicine price transparency through price information mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medicine price information mechanisms provide an essential tool to countries that seek a better understanding of product availability, market prices and price compositions of individual medicines. To be effective and contribute to cost savings, these mechanisms need to consider prices in their particular contexts when comparing between countries. This article discusses in what ways medicine price information mechanisms can contribute to increased price transparency and how this may affect access to medicines for developing countries. Methods We used data collected during the course of a WHO project focusing on the development of a vaccine price and procurement information mechanism. The project collected information from six medicine price information mechanisms and interviewed data managers and technical experts on key aspects as well as observed market effects of these mechanisms. The reviewed mechanisms were broken down into categories including objective and target audience, as well as the sources, types and volumes of data included. Information provided by the mechanisms was reviewed according to data available on medicine prices, product characteristics, and procurement modalities. Results We found indications of positive effects on access to medicines resulting from the utilization of the reviewed mechanisms. These include the uptake of higher quality medicines, more favorable results from contract negotiations, changes in national pricing policies, and the decrease of prices in certain segments for countries participating in or deriving data from the various mechanisms. Conclusion The reviewed mechanisms avoid the methodological challenges observed for medicine price comparisons that only use national price databases. They work with high quality data and display prices in the appropriate context of procurement modalities as well as the peculiarities of purchasing countries. Medicine price information mechanisms respond to the need for increased

  11. Additive manufacturing of biologically-inspired materials.

    PubMed

    Studart, André R

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer an attractive pathway towards the fabrication of functional materials featuring complex heterogeneous architectures inspired by biological systems. In this paper, recent research on the use of AM approaches to program the local chemical composition, structure and properties of biologically-inspired materials is reviewed. A variety of structural motifs found in biological composites have been successfully emulated in synthetic systems using inkjet-based, direct-writing, stereolithography and slip casting technologies. The replication in synthetic systems of design principles underlying such structural motifs has enabled the fabrication of lightweight cellular materials, strong and tough composites, soft robots and autonomously shaping structures with unprecedented properties and functionalities. Pushing the current limits of AM technologies in future research should bring us closer to the manufacturing capabilities of living organisms, opening the way for the digital fabrication of advanced materials with superior performance, lower environmental impact and new functionalities.

  12. Shadow of noncommutative geometry inspired black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Cheng, Peng; Zhong, Yi; Zhou, Xiang-Nan E-mail: pcheng14@lzu.edu.cn E-mail: zhouxn10@lzu.edu.cn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the shadow casted by the rotating black hole inspired by noncommutative geometry is investigated. In addition to the dimensionless spin parameter a/M{sub 0} with M{sub 0} black hole mass and inclination angle i, the dimensionless noncommutative parameter √θ/M{sub 0} is also found to affect the shape of the black hole shadow. The result shows that the size of the shadow slightly decreases with the parameter √θ/M{sub 0}, while the distortion increases with it. Compared to the Kerr black hole, the parameter √θ/M{sub 0} increases the deformation of the shadow. This may offer a way to distinguish noncommutative geometry inspired black hole from Kerr one via astronomical instruments in the near future.

  13. Taxonomic etymology – in search of inspiration

    PubMed Central

    Jóźwiak, Piotr; Rewicz, Tomasz; Pabis, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present a review of the etymology of zoological taxonomic names with emphasis on the most unusual examples. The names were divided into several categories, starting from the most common – given after morphological features – through inspiration from mythology, legends, and classic literature but also from fictional and nonfictional pop-culture characters (e.g., music, movies or cartoons), science, and politics. A separate category includes zoological names created using word-play and figures of speech such as tautonyms, acronyms, anagrams, and palindromes. Our intention was to give an overview of possibilities of how and where taxonomists can find the inspirations that will be consistent with the ICZN rules and generate more detail afterthought about the naming process itself, the meaningful character of naming, as well as the recognition and understanding of names. PMID:26257573

  14. Recent developments in biologically inspired seeker technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Massie, Mark A.

    2001-06-01

    As electro-optic sensors increase in size and frame rate, the data transfer and digital processing resource requirements also increase. In many missions, the spatial area of interest is but a small fraction of the available field of view. Choosing the right region of interest, however, is a challenge and still requires an enormous amount of downstream digital processing resources. In order to filter this ever-increasing amount of data, we look at how nature solves the problem. The Advanced Guidance Division of the Munitions Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/MNG) at Eglin AFB, Florida, has been pursuing research in the area of advanced sensor and image processing concepts based on biologically inspired sensory information processing. A summary of some vertebrate and invertebrate inspired 'neuromorphic' processing efforts will be presented along with a seeker system concept utilizing this innovative technology. Concepts and requirements for future such efforts will also be discussed.

  15. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

    2016-03-07

    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers.

  16. A Brightness-Referenced Star Identification Algorithm for APS Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4∼5 times that of the pyramid method and 35∼37 times that of the geometric method. PMID:25299950

  17. The AGILE silicon tracker: Pre-launch and in-flight configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Basset, M.; Chen, A.; Di Cocco, G.; Foggetta, L.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Mereghetti, S.; Monzani, F.; Nicolini, L.; Pavesi, R.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pontoni, C.; Prest, M.; Pucella, G.; Tavani, M.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vercellone, S.

    2010-03-01

    AGILE is an ASI (Italian Space Agency) Small Scientific Mission dedicated to high-energy astrophysics which was successfully launched on April 23, 2007. The AGILE instrument is composed of three main detectors: a Tungsten-Silicon Tracker designed to detect and image photons in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy band, an X-ray imager called Super-AGILE operating in the 18-60 keV energy band, and a Mini-Calorimeter that detects gamma-rays and charged particles energy deposits between 300 keV and 100 MeV. The instrument is surrounded by an anti-coincidence (AC) system. In this paper, we present the noise characterization and the front-end configuration of the Silicon Tracker. Two crucial (and unique, among gamma-ray astrophysics missions) characteristic of the AGILE Silicon Tracker are the analog signal acquisition (aimed at obtaining an optimal angular resolution for gamma-ray imaging) and the very small dimension of the instrument (the total height including the active elements is ˜21 cm and therefore the Silicon Tracker is the lightest and most compact γ- ray imager sent in orbit). The results presented in this paper were obtained during the AIV (Assembly, Integration and Verification) pre-launch testing phase and during the post-launch commissioning phase. The AGILE Silicon Tracker has been optimally configured with a very good response of the frontend system and of the data acquisition units.

  18. Tracker: A three-dimensional raytracing program for ionospheric radio propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; DeLapp, D.; Sutherland, C.D.; Farrer, R.G.

    1994-12-01

    TRACKER is an extension of a three-dimensional Hamiltonian raytrace code developed some thirty years ago by R. Michael Jones. Subsequent modifications to this code, which is commonly called the {open_quotes}Jones Code,{close_quotes} were documented by Jones and Stephensen (1975). TRACKER incorporates an interactive user`s interface, modern differential equation integrators, graphical outputs, homing algorithms, and the Ionospheric Conductivity and Electron Density (ICED) ionosphere. TRACKER predicts the three-dimensional paths of radio waves through model ionospheres by numerically integrating Hamilton`s equations, which are a differential expression of Fermat`s principle of least time. By using continuous models, the Hamiltonian method avoids false caustics and discontinuous raypath properties often encountered in other raytracing methods. In addition to computing the raypath, TRACKER also calculates the group path (or pulse travel time), the phase path, the geometrical (or {open_quotes}real{close_quotes}) pathlength, and the Doppler shift (if the time variation of the ionosphere is explicitly included). Computational speed can be traded for accuracy by specifying the maximum allowable integration error per step in the integration. Only geometrical optics are included in the main raytrace code; no partial reflections or diffraction effects are taken into account. In addition, TRACKER does not lend itself to statistical descriptions of propagation -- it requires a deterministic model of the ionosphere.

  19. Effects of attachment position and shoulder orientation during calibration on the accuracy of the acromial tracker.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, A F; Alexander, C M; Bull, A M J

    2011-04-29

    The acromial tracker is used to measure scapular rotations during dynamic movements. The method has low accuracy in high elevations and is sensitive to its attachment location on the acromion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the attachment position and shoulder orientation during calibration on the tracker accuracy. The tracker was attached to one of three positions: near the anterior edge of the acromion process, just above the acromial angle and the meeting point between the acromion and the scapular spine. The scapula locator was used to track the scapula during bilateral abduction simultaneously. The locator was used to calibrate the tracker at: no abduction, 30°, 60°, 90° and 120° humerothoracic abduction. ANOVA tests compared RMS errors for different attachment positions and calibration angles. The results showed that attaching the device at the meeting point between the acromion and the scapular spine gave the smallest errors and it was best to calibrate the device at 60° for elevations ≤90°, at 120° for elevations >90° and at 90°or 120° for the full range of abduction. The accuracy of the tracker is significantly improved if attached appropriately and calibrated for the range of movement being measured.

  20. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

    2016-01-01

    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers. PMID:26948412

  1. A brightness-referenced star identification algorithm for APS star trackers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-10-08

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4~5 times that of the pyramid method and 35~37 times that of the geometric method.

  2. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

    2016-01-01

    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers. PMID:26948412

  3. Gravitational radiation, inspiraling binaries, and cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, David F.; Finn, Lee S.

    1993-01-01

    We show how to measure cosmological parameters using observations of inspiraling binary neutron star or black hole systems in one or more gravitational wave detectors. To illustrate, we focus on the case of fixed mass binary systems observed in a single Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)-like detector. Using realistic detector noise estimates, we characterize the rate of detections as a function of a threshold SNR Rho(0), H0, and the binary 'chirp' mass. For Rho(0) = 8, H0 = 100 km/s/Mpc, and 1.4 solar mass neutron star binaries, the sample has a median redshift of 0.22. Under the same assumptions but independent of H0, a conservative rate density of coalescing binaries implies LIGO will observe about 50/yr binary inspiral events. The precision with which H0 and the deceleration parameter q0 may be determined depends on the number of observed inspirals. For fixed mass binary systems, about 100 observations with Rho(0) = 10 in the LIGO will give H0 to 10 percent in an Einstein-DeSitter cosmology, and 3000 will give q0 to 20 percent. For the conservative rate density of coalescing binaries, 100 detections with Rho(0) = 10 will require about 4 yrs.

  4. Strategic pricing: hitting the mark with pricing strategies. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Porn, L; Manning, M

    1988-01-01

    Efforts by government and business to reduce healthcare expenditures by fostering competition and reducing utilization have combined to redefine the basic economic structure of the healthcare delivery system. Increased competition among providers has prompted an increased awareness of strategic pricing as a means of achieving institutional goals and objectives. In this article, the first in a three-part series on strategic pricing, the authors examine some of the key theoretical considerations related to pricing strategies for healthcare providers. Future articles will examine practical applications as they relate to package pricing, discounting, per diem systems, and capitation arrangements.

  5. Performance of the Integrated Tracker Towers of the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Brigida, M.; Caliandro, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Loparco, F.; Marangelli, B.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Mirizzi, N.; Raino, S.; Spinelli, P.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari

    2007-02-15

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a high energy gamma ray observatory, mounted on a satellite that will be own in 2007. The LAT tracker consists of an array of tower modules, equipped with planes of silicon strip detectors (SSDs) interleaved with tungsten converter layers. Photon detection is based on the pair conversion process; silicon strip detectors will reconstruct tracks of electrons and positrons. The instrument is actually being assembled. The first towers have been already tested and integrated at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). An overview of the integration stages of the main components of the tracker and a description of the pre-launch tests will be given. Experimental results on the performance of the tracker towers will be also discussed.

  6. Environmental Test Activity on the Flight Modules of the GLAST LAT Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Brigida, M.; Caliandro, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Loparco, F.; Marangelli, B.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Mirizzi, N.; Raino, S.; Spinelli, P.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari

    2007-02-15

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a gamma-ray telescope consisting of a silicon micro-strip detector tracker followed by a segmented CsI calorimeter and covered by a segmented scintillator anticoincidence system that will search for {gamma}-rays in the 20 MeV-300 GeV energy range. The results of the environmental tests performed on the flight modules (towers) of the Tracker are presented. The aim of the environmental tests is to verify the performance of the silicon detectors in the expected mission environment. The tower modules are subjected to dynamic tests that simulate the launch environment and thermal vacuum test that reproduce the thermal gradients expected on orbit. The tower performance is continuously monitored during the whole test sequence. The environmental test activity, the results of the tests and the silicon tracker performance are presented.

  7. The MROI fringe tracker: closing the loop on ICoNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, T. M.; Jurgenson, C. A.; Santoro, F.; Shtromberg, A. V.; Alvidrez, V.; Torres, N.; Dahl, C.; Farris, A.; Buscher, D. F.; Haniff, C. A.; Young, J. S.; Seneta, E. B.; Creech-Eakman, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    The characterization of ICoNN, the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer's fringe tracker, through labor­ tory simulations is presented. The performance limits of an interferometer are set by its ability to keep the optical path difference between combination partners minimized. This is the job of the fringe tracker. Understanding the behavior and limits of the fringe tracker in a controlled environment is key to maximize the science output. This is being done with laboratory simulations of on-sky fringe tracking, termed the closed-loop fringe experi­ ment. The closed-loop fringe experiment includes synthesizing a white light source and atmospheric piston with estimation of the tracking error being fed back to mock delay lines in real-time. We report here on the progress of the closed-loop fringe experiment detailing its design, layout, controls and software.

  8. DC-DC converters with reduced mass for trackers at the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolder, A.; Allongue, B.; Blanchot, G.; Faccio, F.; Fuentes, C.; Greenall, A.; Michelis, S.

    2011-11-01

    The development at CERN of low noise DC-DC converters for the powering of front-end systems enables the implementation of efficient powering schemes for the physics experiments at the HL-LHC. Recent tests made on the ATLAS short strip tracker modules confirm the full electromagnetic compatibility of the DC-DC converter prototypes with front-end detectors. The integration of the converters in the trackers front-ends needs to address also the material budget constraints. The impact of the DC-DC converters onto the material budget of the ATLAS tracker modules is discussed and mass reduction techniques are explored, leading to a compromise between electromagnetic compatibility and mass. Low mass shield implementations and Aluminum core inductors are proposed. Also, the impact on emitted noise due to a size reduction of critical components is discussed. Finally, material reduction techniques are discussed at the board layout and manufacturing levels.

  9. Combined Feature Based and Shape Based Visual Tracker for Robot Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, J.; Kunz, C.; Sargent, R.; Park, E.; Pedersen, L.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a combined feature based and shape based visual tracking system designed to enable a planetary rover to visually track and servo to specific points chosen by a user with centimeter precision. The feature based tracker uses invariant feature detection and matching across a stereo pair, as well as matching pairs before and after robot movement in order to compute an incremental 6-DOF motion at each tracker update. This tracking method is subject to drift over time, which can be compensated by the shape based method. The shape based tracking method consists of 3D model registration, which recovers 6-DOF motion given sufficient shape and proper initialization. By integrating complementary algorithms, the combined tracker leverages the efficiency and robustness of feature based methods with the precision and accuracy of model registration. In this paper, we present the algorithms and their integration into a combined visual tracking system.

  10. CMS Tracker upgrade for HL-LHC: R&D plans, present status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravera, F.

    2016-07-01

    During the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), the machine is expected to deliver an instantaneous luminosity of 5 ×1034cm-2s-1. A total of 3000 fb-1 of data is foreseen to be delivered, with the opening of new physics potential for the LHC experiments, but also new challenges from the point of view of both detector and electronics capabilities and radiation hardness. In order to maintain its physics reach, CMS will build a new Tracker, including a completely new Pixel Detector and Outer Tracker. The ongoing R&D activities on both pixel and strip sensors will be presented. The present status of the Inner and Outer Tracker projects will be illustrated, and the possible perspectives will be discussed.

  11. Spatial competition and price formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Kai; Shubik, Martin; Paczuski, Maya; Bak, Per

    2000-12-01

    We look at price formation in a retail setting, that is, companies set prices, and consumers either accept prices or go someplace else. In contrast to most other models in this context, we use a two-dimensional spatial structure for information transmission, that is, consumers can only learn from nearest neighbors. Many aspects of this can be understood in terms of generalized evolutionary dynamics. In consequence, we first look at spatial competition and cluster formation without price. This leads to establishement size distributions, which we compare to reality. After some theoretical considerations, which at least heuristically explain our simulation results, we finally return to price formation, where we demonstrate that our simple model with nearly no organized planning or rationality on the part of any of the agents indeed leads to an economically plausible price.

  12. How hospitals approach price transparency.

    PubMed

    Houk, Scott; Cleverley, James O

    2014-09-01

    A survey of finance leaders found that hospitals with lower charges were more likely than other hospitals to emphasize making prices defensible rather than simply transparent. Finance leaders of hospitals with higher charges were more likely to express concern that price transparency would cause a reduction in hospital revenue by forcing them to lower charges. Those respondents said commercial payers likely will have to agree to renegotiate contracts for price transparency to be a financially viable proposition. PMID:25647890

  13. Developing a consumer pricing strategy.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Arthur; Tiedemann, Frank

    2013-05-01

    Healthcare providers can learn a variety of pricing lessons from the retail market: For providers, wholesale pricing--"the price to play"--alone is not enough. Once a hospital or health system chooses a market position, the provider creates an expectation that must be met-consistently. Consumer loyalty is fluid, and the price of care or service is not always the motivator for choosing one organization over another; intangibles such as location and level of customer service also drive purchasing decisions. PMID:23678698

  14. Natural-gas price puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.

    1983-02-01

    Rectifying natural-gas underpricing and distortions in production has benefited the overall economy, but transition costs are large, and problems and strains continue. The natural-gas price story began with the 1954 price controls that developed into a wasteful, inefficient, and unfair system of too-low gas prices that resulted in the 1978 Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA). While meeting a number of goals, NGPA has also led to current large increases in gas prices, ironically at a time when producers complain of more gas than they can sell. This glut, however, may be a surplus of short-run deliverability rather than an increase in supply. Prices have not fallen even temporarily because long-term contracts common between pipelines and producers typically prevent downward adjustment of prices to meet demand fluctuations, and the economy (hence the consumer) cannot escape the costof sustaining capacity through up-and-down demand. Transportation and delivery costs that, while getting smaller in relation to wellhead prices, are rising, and inflation, higher interest rates, and costs of uncollectables add to the price. In addition, while a straightforward supply, demand, and cost explanation of the price picture is accurate enough on a national basis, the average cost of gas as it enters a particular pipeline is affected by such complexities as historical accident, location, timing, bargaining power, and management decisions.

  15. Tracking parameter simulation for the Turkish accelerator center particle factory tracker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapan, I.; Pilicer, E.; Pilicer, F. B.

    2016-09-01

    The silicon tracker part of the Turkish Accelerator Center super charm particle factory detector was designed for effectively tracking charged particles with momentum values up to 2.0 GeV/c. In this work, the FLUKA simulation code has been used to estimate the track parameters and their resolutions in the designed tracker system. These results have been compared with those obtained by the tkLayout software package. The simulated track parameter resolutions are compatible with the physics goals of the tracking detector.

  16. Comparison analysis of self-shading loss in pedestal and carousel tracker systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijiro, Toshikazu; Yamada, Noboru

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes the results of a self-shading loss analysis of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) plant based on pedestal and carousel solar tacking systems. To determine the best possible tracker array configuration to minimize self-shading loss, a multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA) was used with a theoretical shadow model and cloudless solar spectrum model. As a result of MOGA optimization, the trade-off between land-use efficiency and the capacity factor in the optimized tracker arrays was characterized and compared.

  17. Electrical production testing of the D0 Silicon microstrip tracker detector modules

    SciTech Connect

    D0, SMT Production Testing Group; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    The D0 Silicon Microstrip Tracker (SMT) is the innermost system of the D0 detector in Run 2. It consists of 912 detector units, corresponding to 5 different types of assemblies, which add up to a system with 792,576 readout channels. The task entrusted to the Production Testing group was to thoroughly debug, test and grade each detector module before its installation in the tracker. This note describes the production testing sequence and the procedures by which the detector modules were electrically tested and characterized at the various stages of their assembly.

  18. 7 CFR 1001.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat solids price; (d) The other solids price; (e) The butterfat price; (f) The average butterfat,...

  19. 7 CFR 1001.62 - Announcement of producer prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... following prices and information: (a) The producer price differential; (b) The protein price; (c) The nonfat solids price; (d) The other solids price; (e) The butterfat price; (f) The average butterfat,...

  20. Unsettled Times, Unsettled Prices: Periodical Price Survey 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketcham, Lee; Born, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of the thirty-seventh annual periodical price survey conducted by "Library Journal". Highlights include canceling print subscriptions and electronic journals, cost trends by subject and by countries, prices for public and school libraries and for college and medium-sized university libraries, and budgeting for 1988. (LRW)

  1. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1977 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    This 1977 supplement presents higher education price index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1977. The basic study presents complete descriptions of the indexes together with the index values and price data for fiscal years 1961 through 1974. It includes a discussion of index number theory and computation, explains the uses and limitations of…

  2. U.S. Photovoltaic Prices and Cost Breakdowns. Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Davidson, Carolyn; Fu, Ran; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has continued to decline across all major market sectors. This report provides a Q1 2015 update regarding the prices of residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variations in business models, labor rates, and system architecture choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.09/W for residential scale rooftop systems, $2.15/W for commercial scale rooftop systems, $1.77/W for utility scale systems with fixed mounting structures, and $1.91/W for utility scale systems using single-axis trackers. All systems are modeled assuming standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon PV modules, and further assume installation within the United States.

  3. Pricing effects on food choices.

    PubMed

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations. PMID:12612165

  4. Is College Pricing Power Pro-Cyclical?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altringer, Levi; Summers, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    We define pricing power as a college's ability to increase its net tuition revenue by raising its sticker-price for tuition. The greater is the positive effect of sticker-price increases on net tuition revenue, the greater is the pricing power. We gauge variation in the pricing power of private, non-profit baccalaureate colleges by estimating this…

  5. 48 CFR 8.707 - Prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prices. 8.707 Section 8... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.707 Prices. (a) The prices of items on the Procurement List are fair market prices established by the Committee. All prices for supplies ordered under this subpart are f.o.b....

  6. Synthesis and characterization of diatom inspired nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutu, Timothy

    This dissertation addresses the investigation of two novel methods to synthesize composite nanomaterials inspired by marine microalgae called diatoms. Diatoms are inspirational sources of silica structures, ordered at micro- to nanoscale, that possess unique optical properties. The fabrication of nanomaterials with well-defined and controllable micro-to nanoscale features has been of great interest for chemical, optical, electronic, catalytic, environmental, and medical applications. While bottom-up and top-down approaches have been extensively used to fabricate two-dimensional structures and devices, there is a need for inexpensive methods to mass-produce complex micro- to nanoscale structures with a variety of three-dimensional (3D) morphologies at high degrees of precision, reproducibility, and chemical tailorability. To explore the fabrication of 3D nanostructures, this study harnessed the biomineralization capacity of diatom cell cultures to fabricate Si-Ge oxide nanocomposites on one hand and the chemical bath deposition on the other hand. A two-stage photobioreactor strategy was used to metabolically insert nanostructured germanium into the silica microstructure of diatom of diatom Pinnularia sp. In the first stage, diatom cells were grown to the point of silicon starvation. In the second stage, a pulse of silicon and germanium solution was added to the silicon-starved cells. Various electron microscopy techniques were utilized to validate the extent of the insertion and the subsequent incorporation of germanium into the diatom silica matrix. In the second method to form diatom inspired nanocomposites, we utilize a simple, inexpensive chemical bath deposition technique to deposit a cadmium sulfide nanocrystals on the patterned surface of diatom biosilica. A parametric investigation of the factors affecting the chemical bath process was carried out. The morphology, structural and compositional properties of the composites were characterized by electron

  7. Inspired gas temperature in ventilated neonates.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mark William; Dunster, Kimble Robert; Cartwright, David William

    2004-07-01

    The warming and humidification of inspired gases for ventilated neonates are routine. There are no data on the temperature of the gas at the airway opening in ventilated neonates. Is the inspired gas temperature at the airway opening, as expected and set on the humidifier, around 37 degrees C? We aimed to measure temperature at the airway opening and compare this with the circuit temperature. This was an observational study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Twenty-five mechanically ventilated infants were studied. All had humidifiers with chamber temperature set at 36 degrees C and the circuit temperature set at 37 degrees C. Two temperature probes were inserted and rested at the circuit-exit and at the airway opening, and temperatures were measured for 2 min in each infant. At this time, the circuit temperature was also noted. The mean (SD) temperature at the airway opening in infants nursed in incubators was 34.9 (1.2) degrees C, compared with radiant warmers where the mean (SD) was 33.1 (0.5) degrees C. The mean (SD) difference in temperature from the circuit temperature probe to the airway opening was greater under radiant warmers, with a mean (SD) drop of 3.9 (0.6) degrees C compared with a mean (SD) drop of 2.0 (1.3) degrees C in the incubators. In conclusion, the temperature at the circuit temperature probe does not reflect the temperature at the airway opening. Inspired gas temperatures are lower than the expected 37 degrees C with the normal circuits and usual humidifier settings. PMID:15170873

  8. The "Biologically-Inspired Computing" Column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Self-managing systems, whether viewed from the perspective of Autonomic Computing, or from that of another initiative, offers a holistic vision for the development and evolution of biologically-inspired computer-based systems. It aims to bring new levels of automation and dependability to systems, while simultaneously hiding their complexity and reducing costs. A case can certainly be made that all computer-based systems should exhibit autonomic properties [6], and we envisage greater interest in, and uptake of, autonomic principles in future system development.

  9. Bio-inspired optofluidic lasers with luciferin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang; Chen, Qiushu; Sun, Yuze; Fan, Xudong

    2013-05-01

    The authors demonstrate a bio-inspired optofluidic laser with luciferin, a class of light-emitting compounds synthesized by many different organisms, as the gain medium. The laser characteristics under various conditions such as solution pH value and luciferin concentration are investigated. The authors demonstrate an optofluidic fluorescence resonance energy transfer laser by using luciferin and Rhodamine 6G as the donor and the acceptor, respectively, which takes advantage of the large Stokes shift of luciferin to avoid potential cross excitation of the acceptor. Their work leads to the photonic devices using biosynthesized materials as the gain medium and optofluidic intra-cavity bio/chemical sensing.

  10. Biologically Inspired SNN for Robot Control.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Eric; McDaid, Liam J; Siddique, Nazmul

    2013-02-01

    This paper proposes a spiking-neural-network-based robot controller inspired by the control structures of biological systems. Information is routed through the network using facilitating dynamic synapses with short-term plasticity. Learning occurs through long-term synaptic plasticity which is implemented using the temporal difference learning rule to enable the robot to learn to associate the correct movement with the appropriate input conditions. The network self-organizes to provide memories of environments that the robot encounters. A Pioneer robot simulator with laser and sonar proximity sensors is used to verify the performance of the network with a wall-following task, and the results are presented.

  11. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Sheen S.; Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L.; Zajac, Edward J.; Stark, David

    2014-01-01

    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others’ decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity. PMID:25404313

  12. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles.

    PubMed

    Levine, Sheen S; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L; Zajac, Edward J; Stark, David

    2014-12-30

    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others' decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity.

  13. Pricing Films, Filmstrips and Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Connie C.

    1984-01-01

    Examines pricing practices of major producers of educational materials: Weston Woods, Listening Library, Random House Educational Media, Live Oak Media, S&S Communications Group, Phoenix/BFA, Benchmark, and Churchill Films. Royalties, production and manufacturing costs, list prices, recoveries to producers, and marketing are noted. (EJS)

  14. Coinsurance effects on dental prices.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Conrad, D A

    1986-01-01

    For many Americans the cost of dental services represents a barrier to receiving regular dental care and maintaining proper oral health. The recent growth of the dental insurance industry, however, may partly offset this price barrier among insureds. Our purpose is to examine the relationship between coinsurance and dental prices for 16 dental services among a sample of Pennsylvania Blue Shield (PBS) adult insureds. The dependent price measure is the annual average gross price paid for 16 specific preventive, restorative, periodontic, endodontic, prosthodontic, and surgical dental services. Independent variables in the price model include the insured's age, education, coinsurance rates, time costs, market area, non-wage income, oral health status, area dentist-population ratio and usual source of care. Data sources are 1980 PBS claims and coinsurance rate data and a mail survey of sampled insureds. OLS regression analysis reveals that the model's independent variables explain little dental price variation. No variable is consistently significant across services, but market area, coinsurance rates, and time costs alternately dominate across equations. These results suggest that, among adult insureds, coinsurance and time costs influence dental fees in a minority of dental services. Insurance reduces the patient's sensitivity to money price, and non-price factors correspondingly seem to become more important in patient search.

  15. Airport Pricing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional economic wisdom suggests that congestion pricing would be an appropriate response to cope with the growing congestion levels currently experienced at many airports. Several characteristics of aviation markets, however, may make naive congestion prices equal to the value of marginal travel delays a non-optimal response. This paper has developed a model of airport pricing that captures a number of these features. The model in particular reflects that airlines typically have market power and are engaged in oligopolistic competition at different sub-markets; that part of external travel delays that aircraft impose are internal to an operator and hence should not be accounted for in congestion tolls. We presented an analytical treatment for a simple bi-nodal symmetric network, which through the use of 'hyper-networks' would be readily applicable to dynamic problems (in discrete time) such as peak - off-peak differences, and some numerical exercises for the same symmetric network, which was only designed to illustrate the possible comparative static impacts of tolling, in addition to marginal equilibrium conditions as could be derived for the general model specification. Some main conclusions are that second-best optimal tolls are typically lower than what would be suggested by congestion costs alone and may even be negative, and that the toll as derived by Brueckner (2002) may not lead to an increase in total welfare. While Brueckner (2002) has made clear that congestion tolls on airports may be smaller than expected when congestion costs among aircraft are internal for a firm, our analysis adds to this that a further downward adjustment may be in order due to market power. The presence of market power (which causes prices to exceed marginal costs) may cause the pure congestion toll to be suboptimal, because the resulting decrease in demand is too high (the pure congestion tall does not take into account the decrease in consumer surplus). The various

  16. Ground Testing Strategies for Verifying the Slew Rate Tolerance of Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Dzamba, Tom; Enright, John

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a star tracker is largely based on the availability of its attitude solution. Several methods exist to assess star tracker availability under both static and dynamic imaging conditions. However, these methods typically make various idealizations that can limit the accuracy of these results. This study aims to increase the fidelity of star tracker availability modeling by accounting for the effects of detection logic and pixel saturation on star detection. We achieve this by developing an analytical model for the focal plane intensity distribution of a star in the presence of sensor slew. Using the developed model, we examine the effects of slew rate on star detection using simulations and lab tests. The developed approach allows us to determine the maximum slew rate for which a star of a given stellar magnitude can still be detected. This information can then be used to describe the availability of a star tracker attitude solution as a function of slew rate, both spatially, across the entire celestial sphere, or locally, along a specified orientation track. PMID:24577522

  17. Interrogation of Patient Smartphone Activity Tracker to Assist Arrhythmia Management.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Joshua; McDougall, Carol; Sailam, Vivek; Smith, Monika; Sacchetti, Alfred

    2016-09-01

    A 42-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation of unknown duration. Interrogation of the patient's wrist-worn activity tracker and smartphone application identified the onset of the arrhythmia as within the previous 3 hours, permitting electrocardioversion and discharge of the patient from the ED.

  18. Increasing Physical Activity in Preschool: A Pilot Study to Evaluate Animal Trackers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christine L.; Carter, Betty Jean; Kibbe, Debra L.; Dennison, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This report describes a pilot study to evaluate Animal Trackers (AT), a preschool program designed to (1) increase structured physical activity (PA) during the preschool day; (2) increase practice of gross motor skills; (3) provide teachers with an easy-to-use PA program regardless of teacher experience; and (4) implement a teacher…

  19. The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) proportional drift tube: design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ATLAS TRT Collaboration; Abat, E.; Addy, T. N.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Alison, J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Baron, S.; Bault, C.; Becerici, N.; Beddall, A.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Blampey, H.; Bocci, A.; Bochenek, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Catinaccio, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chandler, T.; Chritin, R.; Cwetanski, P.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Danilevich, E.; David, E.; Degenhardt, J.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dogan, O. B.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Egede, U.; Egorov, K.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fowler, A. J.; Fratina, S.; Froidevaux, D.; Fry, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Ghodbane, N.; Godlewski, J.; Goulette, M.; Gousakov, I.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grognuz, J.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Hansen, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, P. H.; Hare, G. A.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hauviller, C.; High, A.; Hulsbergen, W.; Huta, W.; Issakov, V.; Istin, S.; Jain, V.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A. S.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Khabarova, E.; Khristachev, A.; Kisielewski, B.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Kline, C.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klopov, N. V.; Ko, B. R.; Koffas, T.; Kondratieva, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korsmo, H.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; LeBihan, A.-C.; LeGeyt, B. C.; Levterov, K.; Lichard, P.; Lindahl, A.; Lisan, V.; Lobastov, S.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lokwitz, S.; Long, M. C.; Lucas, S.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lundberg, B.; Mackeprang, R.; Maleev, V. P.; Manara, A.; Mandl, M.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, F. F.; Mashinistov, R.; Mayers, G. M.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mialkovski, V.; Mills, B. M.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Muir, A. M.; Munar, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitin, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olivito, D.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Passmore, M. S.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Poblaguev, A.; Pons, X.; Price, M. J.; hne, O. Rø; Reece, R. D.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Söderberg, M.; Savenkov, A.; Saxon, J.; Scandurra, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, C.; Sedykh, E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, P.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sprachmann, G.; Subramania, S.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sulin, V. V.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Tartarelli, G.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vassilieva, L.; Wagner, P.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Whittington, D.; Williams, H. H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhukov, K.

    2008-02-01

    A straw proportional counter is the basic element of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). Its detailed properties as well as the main properties of a few TRT operating gas mixtures are described. Particular attention is paid to straw tube performance in high radiation conditions and to its operational stability.

  20. Bittracker-a bitmap tracker for visual tracking under very general conditions.

    PubMed

    Leichter, Ido; Lindenbaum, Michael; Rivlin, Ehud

    2008-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of visual tracking under very general conditions: a possibly non-rigid target whose appearance may drastically change over time; general camera motion; a 3D scene; and no a priori information except initialization. This is in contrast to the vast majority of trackers which rely on some limited model in which, for example, the target's appearance is known a priori or restricted, the scene is planar, or a pan tilt zoom camera is used. Their goal is to achieve speed and robustness, but their limited context may cause them to fail in the more general case. The proposed tracker works by approximating, in each frame, a PDF (probability distribution function) of the target's bitmap and then estimating the maximum a posteriori bitmap. The PDF is marginalized over all possible motions per pixel, thus avoiding the stage in which optical flow is determined. This is an advantage over other general-context trackers that do not use the motion cue at all or rely on the error-prone calculation of optical flow. Using a Gibbs distribution with respect to the first-order neighborhood system yields a bitmap PDF whose maximization may be transformed into that of a quadratic pseudo-Boolean function, the maximum of which is approximated via a reduction to a maximum-flow problem. Many experiments were conducted to demonstrate that the tracker is able to track under the aforementioned general context. PMID:18617716

  1. Investigating the Magnetic Interaction with Geomag and Tracker Video Analysis: Static Equilibrium and Anharmonic Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onorato, P.; Mascheretti, P.; DeAmbrosis, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe how simple experiments realizable by using easily found and low-cost materials allow students to explore quantitatively the magnetic interaction thanks to the help of an Open Source Physics tool, the Tracker Video Analysis software. The static equilibrium of a "column" of permanents magnets is carefully investigated by…

  2. EyeTribe Tracker Data Accuracy Evaluation and Its Interconnection with Hypothesis Software for Cartographic Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Stachoň, Zdeněk; Šašinka, Čeněk; Doležalová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The mixed research design is a progressive methodological discourse that combines the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods. Its possibilities of application are, however, dependent on the efficiency with which the particular research techniques are used and combined. The aim of the paper is to introduce the possible combination of Hypothesis with EyeTribe tracker. The Hypothesis is intended for quantitative data acquisition and the EyeTribe is intended for qualitative (eye-tracking) data recording. In the first part of the paper, Hypothesis software is described. The Hypothesis platform provides an environment for web-based computerized experiment design and mass data collection. Then, evaluation of the accuracy of data recorded by EyeTribe tracker was performed with the use of concurrent recording together with the SMI RED 250 eye-tracker. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed that data accuracy is sufficient for cartographic research. In the third part of the paper, a system for connecting EyeTribe tracker and Hypothesis software is presented. The interconnection was performed with the help of developed web application HypOgama. The created system uses open-source software OGAMA for recording the eye-movements of participants together with quantitative data from Hypothesis. The final part of the paper describes the integrated research system combining Hypothesis and EyeTribe. PMID:27087805

  3. Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Automobile Braking Distances and Video Analysis Using Interactive Program Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in…

  4. Rotation Angle for the Optimum Tracking of One-Axis Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, W. F.; Dobos, A. P.

    2013-07-01

    An equation for the rotation angle for optimum tracking of one-axis trackers is derived along with equations giving the relationships between the rotation angle and the surface tilt and azimuth angles. These equations are useful for improved modeling of the solar radiation available to a collector with tracking constraints and for determining the appropriate motor revolutions for optimum tracking.

  5. Cryo-Tracker® Mass Gauging System Testing in a Launch Vehicle Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieb, Daniel J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.; Yeckley, Alexander J.

    2006-04-01

    Sierra Lobo successfully tested its patented Cryo-Tracker® probe and mass gauging system in an Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) liquid oxygen tank simulation for NASA's Launch Service Providers Directorate. The effort involved collaboration between Sierra Lobo, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and Lockheed Martin personnel. Testing simulated filling and expulsion operations of Lockheed Martin's Atlas V liquid oxygen (LOX) tank and characterized the 10.06 m (33-ft) Cryo-Tracker's performance. Sierra Lobo designed a 9.14 m (30-ft) tall liquid nitrogen test tank to simulate the Atlas V LOX tank flow conditions and validate Cryo-Tracker® data via other sensors and visualization. This test package was fabricated at Sierra Lobo's Cryogenics Testbed at NASA KSC. All test objectives were met or exceeded. Key accomplishments include: fabrication of the longest Cryo-Tracker® probe to date; installation technique proven with only two attachment points at top and bottom of tank; probe survived a harsh environment with no loss of signal or structural integrity; probe successfully measured liquid levels and temperatures under all conditions and successfully demonstrated its feasibility as an engine cut-off signal.

  6. Hard-wired digital data preprocessing applied within a modular star and target tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Uwe; Wunder, Dietmar

    1997-10-01

    Star sensors developed in the last years can be enhanced in terms of mass reduction, lower power consumption, and operational flexibility, by taking advantage of improvements in the detector technology and the electronics components. Jena-Optronik GmbH developed an intelligent modular star and target named 'stellar and extended target intelligent sensor' (SETIS). Emphasis was placed to increase the sensor adaptability to meet specific mission requirements. The intelligent modular star and target tracker shall generate positional information regarding a number of celestial targets or shall act as a navigation camera. The targets will be either stars or extended objects like comets and planetary objects, or both simultaneously. Deign drivers like simultaneous tracking of extended targets and stars or searching for new objects during tracking of already detected objects require a powerful hard-wired digital data preprocessing. An advanced rad-tolerant ASIC- technology is used for the star tracker preprocessor electronics. All of the necessary preprocessing star tracker functions like pixel defect correction, filtering, on-line background estimation, thresholding, object detection and extraction and pixel centroiding are realized in the ASIC design. The technical approach for the intelligent modular star and target tracker is presented in detail. Emphasis is placed on the description of the powerful signal preprocessing capabilities.

  7. Ground testing strategies for verifying the slew rate tolerance of star trackers.

    PubMed

    Dzamba, Tom; Enright, John

    2014-02-26

    The performance of a star tracker is largely based on the availability of its attitude solution. Several methods exist to assess star tracker availability under both static and dynamic imaging conditions. However, these methods typically make various idealizations that can limit the accuracy of these results. This study aims to increase the fidelity of star tracker availability modeling by accounting for the effects of detection logic and pixel saturation on star detection. We achieve this by developing an analytical model for the focal plane intensity distribution of a star in the presence of sensor slew. Using the developed model, we examine the effects of slew rate on star detection using simulations and lab tests. The developed approach allows us to determine the maximum slew rate for which a star of a given stellar magnitude can still be detected. This information can then be used to describe the availability of a star tracker attitude solution as a function of slew rate, both spatially, across the entire celestial sphere, or locally, along a specified orientation track.

  8. EyeTribe Tracker Data Accuracy Evaluation and Its Interconnection with Hypothesis Software for Cartographic Purposes.

    PubMed

    Popelka, Stanislav; Stachoň, Zdeněk; Šašinka, Čeněk; Doležalová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The mixed research design is a progressive methodological discourse that combines the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods. Its possibilities of application are, however, dependent on the efficiency with which the particular research techniques are used and combined. The aim of the paper is to introduce the possible combination of Hypothesis with EyeTribe tracker. The Hypothesis is intended for quantitative data acquisition and the EyeTribe is intended for qualitative (eye-tracking) data recording. In the first part of the paper, Hypothesis software is described. The Hypothesis platform provides an environment for web-based computerized experiment design and mass data collection. Then, evaluation of the accuracy of data recorded by EyeTribe tracker was performed with the use of concurrent recording together with the SMI RED 250 eye-tracker. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed that data accuracy is sufficient for cartographic research. In the third part of the paper, a system for connecting EyeTribe tracker and Hypothesis software is presented. The interconnection was performed with the help of developed web application HypOgama. The created system uses open-source software OGAMA for recording the eye-movements of participants together with quantitative data from Hypothesis. The final part of the paper describes the integrated research system combining Hypothesis and EyeTribe.

  9. Using Tracker to Understand "Toss Up" and Free Fall Motion: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Tan, Kim Kia; Leong, Tze Kwang; Tan, Ching

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the use of Tracker as a computer-based learning tool to support effective learning and teaching of "toss up" and free fall motion for beginning secondary three (15?year-old) students. The case study involved (N = 123) students from express pure physics classes at a mainstream school in Singapore. We used eight…

  10. The Silicon Inner Tracker of CMS: Construction, Organization and Future Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Krammer, Manfred

    2008-04-21

    The silicon Inner Tracker is the innermost detector part of the CMS experiment at CERN. This detector contains about 200 m{sup 2} of precision silicon sensors, fast and radiation hard electronics, an optical readout and many more highly sophisticated components. The total number of sensor elements amounts to 9.3 million strips and 66 millions pixels. The strip detector is completely assembled and has been commissioned at the operating temperature of about--15 deg. C. A collaboration consisting of about 500 members coming from 51 institutes worldwide has designed and constructed this detector in a period of more than 12 years. The different components for the tracker were developed in cooperation with industrial partners. The Inner Tracker was installed in the CMS experiment at the end of 2007. A discussion on the upgrade of CMS and the Inner Tracker has already started in view of an increase in performance of the LHC collider. To cope with the even more demanding requirements expected for the next generation apparatus an extensive R and D period is about to start with many opportunities opening up for new collaboration members to join the effort.

  11. FMT (Flight Software Memory Tracker) For Cassini Spacecraft-Software Engineering Using JAVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.; Uffelman, Hal; Wax, Allan H.

    1997-01-01

    The software engineering design of the Flight Software Memory Tracker (FMT) Tool is discussed in this paper. FMT is a ground analysis software set, consisting of utilities and procedures, designed to track the flight software, i.e., images of memory load and updatable parameters of the computers on-board Cassini spacecraft. FMT is implemented in Java.

  12. 48 CFR 36.207 - Pricing fixed-price construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pricing fixed-price... Contracting for Construction 36.207 Pricing fixed-price construction contracts. (a) Generally, firm-fixed... estimates. (c) Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment may be used if such a provision...

  13. 48 CFR 36.207 - Pricing fixed-price construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pricing fixed-price... Contracting for Construction 36.207 Pricing fixed-price construction contracts. (a) Generally, firm-fixed... estimates. (c) Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment may be used if such a provision...

  14. SimTracker - Using the Web to track computer simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.; Spencer, P.; Springmeyer, R.

    1998-08-26

    Large-scale computer simulations, a hallmark of computing at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), often take days to run and can produce massive amounts of output. The typical environment of many LLNL scientists includes multiple hardware platforms, a large collection of eclectic software applications, data stored on many devices in many formats, and little standard metadata, which is accessible documentation about the data. The exploration of simulation results typically proceeds as a laborious process requiring knowledge of this complex environment and many application programs. We have addressed this problem by developing a web-based approach for exploring simulation results via the automatic generation of metadata summaries which provide convenient access to the data sets and associated analysis tools. In this paper we will describe the SimTracker tool for automatically generating metadata that serves as a quick overview and index to the archived results of simulations. The SimTracker application consists of two parts - a generation component and a viewing component. The generation component captures and generates calculation metadata from a simulation. These metadata include graphical snapshots from various stages of the run, pointers to the input and output files from the simulation, and assorted annotations describing the run. SimTracker generation can be done either during a simulation or afterwards. When integrated with a code system, SimTracker does its work on the fly, allowing the user to monitor a calculation while it is running. The viewing component of SimTracker provides a web-based mechanism for both quick perusing and careful analysis of simulation results. HTML is created on the fly from a series of Perl CGI scripts and metadata extracted from a database. A variety of views are provided, ranging from a high-level table of contents showing all of one's simulations, to an in-depth results page from which numeric values can be extracted

  15. CarbonTracker-Lagrange: A model-data assimilation system for North American carbon flux estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Chen, Huilin; van der Velde, Ivar; Andrews, Arlyn; Sweeney, Colm; Baker, Ian; Ju, Weimin; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid; Tans, Pieter; Peters, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the regional carbon fluxes is of great importance for climate-related studies. To derive these carbon fluxes, atmospheric inverse modeling methods are often used. Different from global inverse modeling, regional studies need to deal with lateral boundary conditions (BCs) at the outer atmospheric domain studied. Also, regional inverse modeling systems typically use a higher spatial resolution and can be more computation-intensive. In this study, we implement a regional inverse modeling system for atmospheric CO₂ based on the CarbonTracker framework. We combine it with a high-resolution Lagrangian transport model, the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model driven by the Weather Forecast and Research meteorological fields (WRF-STILT). The new system uses independent information from aircraft CO₂ profiles to optimize lateral BCs, while simultaneously optimizing biosphere fluxes with near-surface CO₂ observations from tall towers. This Lagrangian transport model with precalculated footprints is computational more efficient than using an Eulerian model. We take SiBCASA biosphere model results as prior NEE from the terrestrial biosphere. Three different lateral BCs, derived from CarbonTracker North America mole fraction fields, CarbonTracker Europe mole fraction fields and an empirical BC from NOAA aircraft profiles, are employed to investigate the influence of BCs. To estimate the uncertainties of the optimized fluxes from the system and to determine the impacts of system setup on biosphere flux covariances, BC uncertainties and model-data mismatches, we tested various prior biosphere fluxes and BCs. To estimate the transport uncertainties, we also tested an alternative Lagrangian transport model Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model driven by the North American Mesoscale Forecast System meteorological fields (HYSPLIT-NAM12). Based on the above tests, we achieved an ensemble of inverse estimates from our system

  16. On-Orbit Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Star Tracker Warm Pixel Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felikson, Denis; Ekinci, Matthew; Hashmall, Joseph A.; Vess, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the process of identification and analysis of warm pixels in two autonomous star trackers on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission. A brief description of the mission orbit and attitude regimes is discussed and pertinent star tracker hardware specifications are given. Warm pixels are defined and the Quality Index parameter is introduced, which can be explained qualitatively as a manifestation of a possible warm pixel event. A description of the algorithm used to identify warm pixel candidates is given. Finally, analysis of dumps of on-orbit star tracker charge coupled devices (CCD) images is presented and an operational plan going forward is discussed. SDO, launched on February 11, 2010, is operated from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). SDO is in a geosynchronous orbit with a 28.5 inclination. The nominal mission attitude points the spacecraft X-axis at the Sun, with the spacecraft Z-axis roughly aligned with the Solar North Pole. The spacecraft Y-axis completes the triad. In attitude, SDO moves approximately 0.04 per hour, mostly about the spacecraft Z-axis. The SDO star trackers, manufactured by Galileo Avionica, project the images of stars in their 16.4deg x 16.4deg fields-of-view onto CCD detectors consisting of 512 x 512 pixels. The trackers autonomously identify the star patterns and provide an attitude estimate. Each unit is able to track up to 9 stars. Additionally, each tracker calculates a parameter called the Quality Index, which is a measure of the quality of the attitude solution. Each pixel in the CCD measures the intensity of light and a warns pixel is defined as having a measurement consistently and significantly higher than the mean background intensity level. A warns pixel should also have lower intensity than a pixel containing a star image and will not move across the field of view as the attitude changes (as would a dim star image). It should be noted that the maximum error introduced in the star tracker

  17. Coherent Bayesian analysis of inspiral signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röver, Christian; Meyer, Renate; Guidi, Gianluca M.; Viceré, Andrea; Christensen, Nelson

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we present a Bayesian parameter estimation method for the analysis of interferometric gravitational wave observations of an inspiral of binary compact objects using data recorded simultaneously by a network of several interferometers at different sites. We consider neutron star or black hole inspirals that are modeled to 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order in phase and 2.5 PN in amplitude. Inference is facilitated using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods that are adapted in order to efficiently explore the particular parameter space. Examples are shown to illustrate how and what information about the different parameters can be derived from the data. This study uses simulated signals and data with noise characteristics that are assumed to be defined by the LIGO and Virgo detectors operating at their design sensitivities. Nine parameters are estimated, including those associated with the binary system plus its location on the sky. We explain how this technique will be part of a detection pipeline for binary systems of compact objects with masses up to 20 M_{\\odot} , including cases where the ratio of the individual masses can be extreme.

  18. Bio-inspired color image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meylan, Laurence; Susstrunk, Sabine

    2004-06-01

    Capturing and rendering an image that fulfills the observer's expectations is a difficult task. This is due to the fact that the signal reaching the eye is processed by a complex mechanism before forming a percept, whereas a capturing device only retains the physical value of light intensities. It is especially difficult to render complex scenes with highly varying luminances. For example, a picture taken inside a room where objects are visible through the windows will not be rendered correctly by a global technique. Either details in the dim room will be hidden in shadow or the objects viewed through the window will be too bright. The image has to be treated locally to resemble more closely to what the observer remembers. The purpose of this work is to develop a technique for rendering images based on human local adaptation. We take inspiration from a model of color vision called Retinex. This model determines the perceived color given spatial relationships of the captured signals. Retinex has been used as a computational model for image rendering. In this article, we propose a new solution inspired by Retinex that is based on a single filter applied to the luminance channel. All parameters are image-dependent so that the process requires no parameter tuning. That makes the method more flexible than other existing ones. The presented results show that our method suitably enhances high dynamic range images.

  19. Bio-inspired Fillers for Mechanical Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korley, Lashanda

    2012-02-01

    An examination of natural materials has offered a new perspective on the development of multi-functional materials with enhanced mechanical properties. One important lesson from nature is the utilization of composite structures to impart improved mechanical behavior and enhanced functionality using nanofillers. A relatively unexplored expansion of this bio-inspired, nanoscale filler approach to high performance materials is the incorporation of responsive, multi-functional reinforcing elements in polymeric composites with the goal of combining superior mechanical behavior that can be tuned with additional functionality, such as sensing and bioactivity. One approach is the use of self-assembling small molecules that form uniform, one-dimensional nanostructures as an emerging class of filler components. Another pathway toward mechanical enhancement is the incorporation of stimuli-responsive and high-modulus electrospun nanofibers. We have probed the utilization of high-aspect ratio, self-assembled small molecules and responsive electrospun nanofibers as all-organic nanofillers to achieve significant modulus changes within elastomeric matrices. The influence of matrix-filler interactions and the role of hierarchical organization in these nature-inspired composites will be discussed. Potential applications in barrier technology and drug delivery have also been explored.

  20. Biomimetic multifunctional surfaces inspired from animals.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiwu; Mu, Zhengzhi; Yin, Wei; Li, Wen; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2016-08-01

    Over millions of years, animals have evolved to a higher intelligent level for their environment. A large number of diverse surface structures on their bodies have been formed to adapt to the extremely harsh environment. Just like the structural diversity existed in plants, the same also applies true in animals. Firstly, this article provides an overview and discussion of the most common functional surface structures inspired from animals, such as drag reduction, noise reduction, anti-adhesion, anti-wear, anti-erosion, anti-fog, water capture, and optical surfaces. Then, some typical characteristics of morphologies, structures, and materials of the animal multifunctional surfaces were discussed. The adaptation of these surfaces to environmental conditions was also analyzed. It mainly focuses on the relationship between their surface functions and their surface structural characteristics. Afterwards, the multifunctional mechanisms or principles of these surfaces were discussed. Models of these structures were provided for the development of structure materials and machinery surfaces. At last, fabrication techniques and existing or potential technical applications inspired from biomimetic multifunctional surfaces in animals were also discussed. The application prospects of the biomimetic functional surfaces are very broad, such as civil field of self-cleaning textile fabrics and non-stick pots, ocean field of oil-water separation, sports field of swimming suits, space development field of lens arrays. PMID:27085632

  1. Adhesive Bioactive Coatings Inspired by Sea Life.

    PubMed

    Rego, Sónia J; Vale, Ana C; Luz, Gisela M; Mano, João F; Alves, Natália M

    2016-01-19

    Inspired by nature, in particular by the marine mussels adhesive proteins (MAPs) and by the tough brick-and-mortar nacre-like structure, novel multilayered films are prepared in the present work. Organic-inorganic multilayered films, with an architecture similar to nacre based on bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG), chitosan, and hyaluronic acid modified with catechol groups, which are the main components responsible for the outstanding adhesion in MAPs, are developed for the first time. The biomimetic conjugate is prepared by carbodiimide chemistry and analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The buildup of the multilayered films is monitored with a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and their topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy. The mechanical properties reveal that the films containing catechol groups and BG present an enhanced adhesion. Moreover, the bioactivity of the films upon immersion in a simulated body fluid solution is evaluated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the constructed films promote the formation of bonelike apatite in vitro. Such multifunctional mussel inspired LbL films, which combine enhanced adhesion and bioactivity, could be potentially used as coatings of a variety of implants for orthopedic applications. PMID:26653103

  2. The EnzymeTracker: an open-source laboratory information management system for sample tracking

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In many laboratories, researchers store experimental data on their own workstation using spreadsheets. However, this approach poses a number of problems, ranging from sharing issues to inefficient data-mining. Standard spreadsheets are also error-prone, as data do not undergo any validation process. To overcome spreadsheets inherent limitations, a number of proprietary systems have been developed, which laboratories need to pay expensive license fees for. Those costs are usually prohibitive for most laboratories and prevent scientists from benefiting from more sophisticated data management systems. Results In this paper, we propose the EnzymeTracker, a web-based laboratory information management system for sample tracking, as an open-source and flexible alternative that aims at facilitating entry, mining and sharing of experimental biological data. The EnzymeTracker features online spreadsheets and tools for monitoring numerous experiments conducted by several collaborators to identify and characterize samples. It also provides libraries of shared data such as protocols, and administration tools for data access control using OpenID and user/team management. Our system relies on a database management system for efficient data indexing and management and a user-friendly AJAX interface that can be accessed over the Internet. The EnzymeTracker facilitates data entry by dynamically suggesting entries and providing smart data-mining tools to effectively retrieve data. Our system features a number of tools to visualize and annotate experimental data, and export highly customizable reports. It also supports QR matrix barcoding to facilitate sample tracking. Conclusions The EnzymeTracker was designed to be easy to use and offers many benefits over spreadsheets, thus presenting the characteristics required to facilitate acceptance by the scientific community. It has been successfully used for 20 months on a daily basis by over 50 scientists. The EnzymeTracker is

  3. Real-time dataflow and workflow with the CMS tracker data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippis, N. D.; Bagliesi, G.; Bainbridge, R.; Boccali, T.; Ciulli, V.; Giordano, D.; Hufnagel, D.; Mason, D.; Mirabito, L.; Noeding, C.; Palla, F.; Piedra, J.; Sarkar, S.

    2008-07-01

    The Tracker detector took data with cosmics rays at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN. First on-line monitoring tasks were executed at the Tracker Analysis Centre (TAC) which is a dedicated Control Room at TIF with limited computing resources. A set of software agents were developed to perform the real-time data conversion in a standard format, to archive data on tape at CERN and to publish them in the official CMS data bookkeeping systems. According to the CMS computing and analysis model, most of the subsequent data processing has to be done in remote Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites, so data were automatically transferred from CERN to the sites interested to analyze them, currently Fermilab, Bari and Pisa. Official reconstruction in the distributed environment was triggered in real-time by using the tool currently used for the processing of simulated events. Automatic end-user analysis of data was performed in a distributed environment, in order to derive the distributions of important physics variables. The tracker data processing is currently migrating to the Tier-0 CERN as a prototype for the global data taking chain. Tracker data were also registered into the most recent version of the data bookkeeping system, DBS-2, by profiting from the new features to handle real data. A description of the dataflow/workflow and of the tools developed is given, together with the results about the performance of the real-time chain. Almost 7.2 million events were officially registered, moved, reconstructed and analyzed in remote sites by using the distributed environment.

  4. Potential application of Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi tracker on satellite images for automatic change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Tasneem; Singh, Dharmendra; Raman, Balasubramanian

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring agricultural areas is still a very challenging task. Various models and methodologies have been developed for monitoring the agricultural areas with satellite images, but their practical applicability is limited due to the complexity in processing and dependence on a priori information. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the utility of the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) tracker, which is generally useful for tracking objects in video images, for monitoring agricultural areas. The KLT tracker was proposed to deal with the problem of image registration, but the use of the KLT tracker in satellite images for land cover monitoring is rarely reported. Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS PALSAR) data has been used to identify and track the agricultural areas. The tracked pixels were compared with the agriculture pixels obtained from a decision tree algorithm and both results are closely matched. An image differencing change detection technique has been applied after KLT tracker implementation to observe the "change" and "no change" pixels in agricultural areas. It is observed that two kinds of changes are being detected. The areas where agriculture was not there earlier, but now is present, the changes are called positive changes. In the areas where agriculture was present earlier, but now is not present, those changes are referred to as negative changes. Unchanged areas retrieved from both the images are labeled as "no change" pixels. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is that it uses a simplified version of the KLT tracker to efficiently select and track the agriculture features on the basis of their spatial information and does not require a priori information every time.

  5. Into the deep: Evaluation of SourceTracker for assessment of faecal contamination of coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Henry, Rebekah; Schang, Christelle; Coutts, Scott; Kolotelo, Peter; Prosser, Toby; Crosbie, Nick; Grant, Trish; Cottam, Darren; O'Brien, Peter; Deletic, Ana; McCarthy, David

    2016-04-15

    Faecal contamination of recreational waters is an increasing global health concern. Tracing the source of the contaminant is a vital step towards mitigation and disease prevention. Total 16S rRNA amplicon data for a specific environment (faeces, water, soil) and computational tools such as the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo based SourceTracker can be applied to microbial source tracking (MST) and attribution studies. The current study applied artificial and in-laboratory derived bacterial communities to define the potential and limitations associated with the use of SourceTracker, prior to its application for faecal source tracking at three recreational beaches near Port Phillip Bay (Victoria, Australia). The results demonstrated that at minimum multiple model runs of the SourceTracker modelling tool (i.e. technical replicates) were required to identify potential false positive predictions. The calculation of relative standard deviations (RSDs) for each attributed source improved overall predictive confidence in the results. In general, default parameter settings provided high sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and precision. Application of SourceTracker to recreational beach samples identified treated effluent as major source of human-derived faecal contamination, present in 69% of samples. Site-specific sources, such as raw sewage, stormwater and bacterial populations associated with the Yarra River estuary were also identified. Rainfall and associated sand resuspension at each location correlated with observed human faecal indicators. The results of the optimised SourceTracker analysis suggests that local sources of contamination have the greatest effect on recreational coastal water quality. PMID:26921850

  6. In-flight star tracker SED 12 performances on-board the SIGMA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouret, M.; Sebbag, I.; Vandermarcq, M. Q.; Krebs, J. P.; Le Goff, R.; Vilaire, D.; Tulet, M. M.

    The multimission SED 12 star tracker using a CCD matrix array has been designed by SODERN in cooperation with Matra-Marconi Space (F), respectively in charge of the optical head and software development for one and processing electronics and associated interfaces for the other. It has been selected for the French SIGMA experiment on board the Soviet GRANAT spacecraft which was launched on December 2, 1989. SIGMA is a French hard X-ray/medium energy gamma ray (30 keV-2 MeV) experiment aimed at imaging selected regions of the sky with a resolution of about one arc minute and has been developed and manufactured under the overall management of CNES (the French National Space Agency). The experiment package demands a pointing stability of a few arc-seconds over periods of several hours corresponding to the long exposure times required to build up images of the target gamma sources. As the GRANAT satellite is not able to maintain such high precision attitude stability, incorporated into the gamma telescope are two SED 12 sensors aligned together with the telescope. The development of this star tracker was started in 1985 under a CNES contract, the qualification was successfully performed in 1987 and the delivery of 2 flight models was completed in 1988. The expected life time of the experiment was 1.5 year and since the launch date the mission is still operating without any significant performance degradation of the star tracker. The purpose of this paper is, on the one hand to present the multimission tracker design trade-offs and the SED 12 device: description, main features, operating modes and performances, and on the other hand, to analyze the on ground and in-flight star tracker data. This analysis has been mainly led according to the following criteria: performance results in angular position and magnitude measurement, dark current evolution versus time and radiation dose, correlation between visual and instrumental magnitudes.

  7. Brain-Inspired Machines: What, Exactly, Are We Looking For?

    PubMed

    Zahran, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In the computing community, people look at the brain as the ultimate computer. Brain-inspired machines are believed to be more efficient than the traditional Von Neumann computing paradigm, which has been the dominant computing model since the dawn of computing. More recently, however, there have been many claims made regarding attempts to build brain-inspired machines. But one question, in particular, needs to be thoroughly considered before we embark on creating these so-called brain-inspired machines: Inspired by what, exactly? Do we want to build a full replica of the human brain, assuming we have the required technology?

  8. Construction of Discrete Time Shadow Price

    SciTech Connect

    Rogala, Tomasz Stettner, Lukasz

    2015-12-15

    In the paper expected utility from consumption over finite time horizon for discrete time markets with bid and ask prices and strictly concave utility function is considered. The notion of weak shadow price, i.e. an illiquid price, depending on the portfolio, under which the model without bid and ask price is equivalent to the model with bid and ask price is introduced. Existence and the form of weak shadow price is shown. Using weak shadow price usual (called in the paper strong) shadow price is then constructed.

  9. Multi-factor energy price models and exotic derivatives pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikspoors, Samuel

    The high pace at which many of the world's energy markets have gradually been opened to competition have generated a significant amount of new financial activity. Both academicians and practitioners alike recently started to develop the tools of energy derivatives pricing/hedging as a quantitative topic of its own. The energy contract structures as well as their underlying asset properties set the energy risk management industry apart from its more standard equity and fixed income counterparts. This thesis naturally contributes to these broad market developments in participating to the advances of the mathematical tools aiming at a better theory of energy contingent claim pricing/hedging. We propose many realistic two-factor and three-factor models for spot and forward price processes that generalize some well known and standard modeling assumptions. We develop the associated pricing methodologies and propose stable calibration algorithms that motivate the application of the relevant modeling schemes.

  10. Bio-inspired accommodating fluidic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wen; Johnson, Daniel; Tsai, Frank S; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-10-15

    The invention of intraocular lens (IOL), a substitute for crystalline lens, represents a major advancement in cataract surgery. After about sixty years of IOL development, one key remaining problem is its limited accommodation range compared with natural eyes. To overcome this performance limit, we explore bio-inspired fluidic IOL. By mimicking the working principle of natural eyes, a fluidic intraocular lens can achieve an exceedingly large accommodation range. An experiment on fluidic IOL demonstrated a very high tuning range of 12 D. This accommodation range was achieved with a modest amount of force (0.06 N) and equatorial radius change (0.286 mm), in conditions matching well with the characteristics of aged eyes. PMID:19838277

  11. A Biologically Inspired Network Design Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoge; Adamatzky, Andrew; Chan, Felix T.S.; Deng, Yong; Yang, Hai; Yang, Xin-She; Tsompanas, Michail-Antisthenis I.; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    A network design problem is to select a subset of links in a transport network that satisfy passengers or cargo transportation demands while minimizing the overall costs of the transportation. We propose a mathematical model of the foraging behaviour of slime mould P. polycephalum to solve the network design problem and construct optimal transport networks. In our algorithm, a traffic flow between any two cities is estimated using a gravity model. The flow is imitated by the model of the slime mould. The algorithm model converges to a steady state, which represents a solution of the problem. We validate our approach on examples of major transport networks in Mexico and China. By comparing networks developed in our approach with the man-made highways, networks developed by the slime mould, and a cellular automata model inspired by slime mould, we demonstrate the flexibility and efficiency of our approach. PMID:26041508

  12. Biologically inspired emotion recognition from speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caponetti, Laura; Buscicchio, Cosimo Alessandro; Castellano, Giovanna

    2011-12-01

    Emotion recognition has become a fundamental task in human-computer interaction systems. In this article, we propose an emotion recognition approach based on biologically inspired methods. Specifically, emotion classification is performed using a long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network which is able to recognize long-range dependencies between successive temporal patterns. We propose to represent data using features derived from two different models: mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and the Lyon cochlear model. In the experimental phase, results obtained from the LSTM network and the two different feature sets are compared, showing that features derived from the Lyon cochlear model give better recognition results in comparison with those obtained with the traditional MFCC representation.

  13. Bio-inspired networks for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bing; Huang, Yuanlin; Li, Ruopeng; Peng, Qiang; Luo, Junyi; Pei, Ke; Herczynski, Andrzej; Kempa, Krzysztof; Ren, Zhifeng; Gao, Jinwei

    2014-11-01

    Modern optoelectronics needs development of new materials characterized not only by high optical transparency and electrical conductivity, but also by mechanical strength, and flexibility. Recent advances employ grids of metallic micro- and nanowires, but the overall performance of the resulting material composites remains unsatisfactory. In this work, we propose a new strategy: application of natural scaffoldings perfected by evolution. In this context, we study two bio-inspired networks for two specific optoelectronic applications. The first network, intended for solar cells, light sources and similar devices, has a quasi-fractal structure and is derived directly from a chemically extracted leaf venation system. The second network is intended for touch screens and flexible displays, and is obtained by metalizing a spider’s silk web. We demonstrate that each of these networks attain an exceptional optoelectonic and mechanical performance for its intended purpose, providing a promising direction in the development of more efficient optoelectronic devices.

  14. The periodic table: icon and inspiration.

    PubMed

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Tang, Samantha

    2015-03-13

    To start this discussion meeting on the new chemistry of the elements held on 12 May 2014, Martyn Poliakoff, Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society, was invited to give the opening remarks. As a chemist and a presenter of the popular online video channel 'The periodic table of videos', Martyn communicates his personal and professional interest in the elements to the public, who in turn use these videos both as an educational resource and for entertainment purposes. Ever since Mendeleev's first ideas for the periodic table were published in 1869, the table has continued to grow as new elements have been discovered, and it serves as both icon and inspiration; its form is now so well established that it is recognized the world over as a symbol for science. This paper highlights but a few of the varied forms that the table can take, such as an infographic, which can convey the shortage of certain elements with great impact. PMID:25666072

  15. Aurelia aurita bio-inspired tilt sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Colin; Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank

    2012-10-01

    The quickly expanding field of mobile robots, unmanned underwater vehicles, and micro-air vehicles urgently needs a cheap and effective means for measuring vehicle inclination. Commonly, tilt or inclination has been mathematically derived from accelerometers; however, there is inherent error in any indirect measurement. This paper reports a bio-inspired tilt sensor that mimics the natural balance organ of jellyfish, called the ‘statocyst’. Biological statocysts from the species Aurelia aurita were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the morphology and size of the natural sensor. An artificial tilt sensor was then developed by using printed electronics that incorporates a novel voltage divider concept in conjunction with small surface mount devices. This sensor was found to have minimum sensitivity of 4.21° with a standard deviation of 1.77°. These results open the possibility of developing elegant tilt sensor architecture for both air and water based platforms.

  16. The periodic table: icon and inspiration.

    PubMed

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Tang, Samantha

    2015-03-13

    To start this discussion meeting on the new chemistry of the elements held on 12 May 2014, Martyn Poliakoff, Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society, was invited to give the opening remarks. As a chemist and a presenter of the popular online video channel 'The periodic table of videos', Martyn communicates his personal and professional interest in the elements to the public, who in turn use these videos both as an educational resource and for entertainment purposes. Ever since Mendeleev's first ideas for the periodic table were published in 1869, the table has continued to grow as new elements have been discovered, and it serves as both icon and inspiration; its form is now so well established that it is recognized the world over as a symbol for science. This paper highlights but a few of the varied forms that the table can take, such as an infographic, which can convey the shortage of certain elements with great impact.

  17. Real NASA Inspiration in a Virtual Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Ruth; Starr, Bob; Anderson, Susan

    2003-01-01

    NASA exemplifies the spirit of exploration of new horizons - from flight in earth's skies to missions in space. As we know from our experience as teachers, one of the best ways to motivate students' interest in mathematics, science, technology, and engineering is to allow them to explore the universe through NASA's rich history of air and space exploration and current missions. But how? It's not really practical for large numbers of students to talk to NASA astronauts, researchers, scientists, and engineers in person. NASA offers tools that make it possible for hundreds of students to visit with NASA through videoconferencing. These visits provide a real-world connection to scientists and their research and support the NASA mission statement: To inspire the next generation of explorers ... as only NASA can.

  18. Bio-inspired Computing for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Larry

    2003-01-01

    Living creatures may provide algorithms to enable active sensing/control systems in robots. Active sensing could enable planetary rovers to feel their way in unknown environments. The surface of Jupiter's moon Europa consists of fractured ice over a liquid sea that may contain microbes similar to those on Earth. To explore such extreme environments, NASA needs robots that autonomously survive, navigate, and gather scientific data. They will be too far away for guidance from Earth. They must sense their environment and control their own movements to avoid obstacles or investigate a science opportunity. To meet this challenge, CICT's Information Technology Strategic Research (ITSR) Project is funding neurobiologists at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and selected universities to search for biologically inspired algorithms that enable robust active sensing and control for exploratory robots. Sources for these algorithms are living creatures, including rats and electric fish.

  19. A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Tee, Benjamin C-K; Chortos, Alex; Berndt, Andre; Nguyen, Amanda Kim; Tom, Ariane; McGuire, Allister; Lin, Ziliang Carter; Tien, Kevin; Bae, Won-Gyu; Wang, Huiliang; Mei, Ping; Chou, Ho-Hsiu; Cui, Bianxiao; Deisseroth, Karl; Ng, Tse Nga; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-10-16

    Human skin relies on cutaneous receptors that output digital signals for tactile sensing in which the intensity of stimulation is converted to a series of voltage pulses. We present a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure into digital frequency signals directly. The output frequency ranges between 0 and 200 hertz, with a sublinear response to increasing force stimuli that mimics slow-adapting skin mechanoreceptors. The output of the sensors was further used to stimulate optogenetically engineered mouse somatosensory neurons of mouse cortex in vitro, achieving stimulated pulses in accordance with pressure levels. This work represents a step toward the design and use of large-area organic electronic skins with neural-integrated touch feedback for replacement limbs. PMID:26472906

  20. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  1. Cognition inspired framework for indoor scene annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xianglong

    2015-09-01

    We present a simple yet effective scene annotation framework based on a combination of bag-of-visual words (BoVW), three-dimensional scene structure estimation, scene context, and cognitive theory. From a macroperspective, the proposed cognition-based hybrid motivation framework divides the annotation problem into empirical inference and real-time classification. Inspired by the inference ability of human beings, common objects of indoor scenes are defined for experience-based inference, while in the real-time classification stage, an improved BoVW-based multilayer abstract semantics labeling method is proposed by introducing abstract semantic hierarchies to narrow the semantic gap and improve the performance of object categorization. The proposed framework was evaluated on a variety of common data sets and experimental results proved its effectiveness.

  2. Tree-inspired Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, William; Hu, David

    2009-11-01

    We design and build a tabletop wind energy harvester inspired by the swaying of trees. The device consists of cantilevered cylinders (``tree trunks'') arranged linearly downwind. The bases of the cylinders contain piezoelectric transducers that capture energy from vibration of the cylinder transverse to the flow. For a particular Reynolds number, and ratio of vortex shedding frequency to cylinder natural frequency, we experimentally measure the power generated (˜ 1 micro-watt) as a function of cylinder arrangement. We report optimal spacings for generating peak power. We also report the distribution of power down the array. We qualitatively account for these trends using flow visualizations of vortex shedding using a flowing soap film dynamically matched with our piezoelectric system.

  3. Tree-inspired piezoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, William B.; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    We design and test micro-watt energy-harvesters inspired by tree trunks swaying in the wind. A uniform flow vibrates a linear array of four cylinders affixed to piezoelectric energy transducers. Particular attention is paid to measuring the energy generated as a function of cylinder spacing, flow speed, and relative position of the cylinder within the array. Peak power is generated using cylinder center-to-center spacings of 3.3 diameters and flow speeds in which the vortex shedding frequency is 1.6 times the natural frequency of the cylinders. Using these flow speeds and spacings, the power generated by downstream cylinders can exceed that of leading cylinders by more than an order of magnitude. We visualize the flow in this system by studying the behavior of a dynamically matched flowing soap film with imbedded styrofoam disks. Our qualitative visualizations suggest that peak energy harvesting occurs under conditions in which vortices have fully detached from the leading cylinder.

  4. Spider web-inspired acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniaci, Marco; Krushynska, Anastasiia; Movchan, Alexander B.; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-08-01

    Spider silk is a remarkable example of bio-material with superior mechanical characteristics. Its multilevel structural organization of dragline and viscid silk leads to unusual and tunable properties, extensively studied from a quasi-static point of view. In this study, inspired by the Nephila spider orb web architecture, we propose a design for mechanical metamaterials based on its periodic repetition. We demonstrate that spider-web metamaterial structure plays an important role in the dynamic response and wave attenuation mechanisms. The capability of the resulting structure to inhibit elastic wave propagation in sub-wavelength frequency ranges is assessed, and parametric studies are performed to derive optimal configurations and constituent mechanical properties. The results show promise for the design of innovative lightweight structures for tunable vibration damping and impact protection, or the protection of large scale infrastructure such as suspended bridges.

  5. Compact stars in Eddington inspired gravity.

    PubMed

    Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Delsate, Térence

    2011-07-15

    A new, Eddington inspired theory of gravity was recently proposed by Bañados and Ferreira. It is equivalent to general relativity in vacuum, but differs from it inside matter. This viable, one-parameter theory was shown to avoid cosmological singularities and turns out to lead to many other exciting new features that we report here. First, for a positive coupling parameter, the field equations have a dramatic impact on the collapse of dust, and do not lead to singularities. We further find that the theory supports stable, compact pressureless stars made of perfect fluid, which provide interesting models of self-gravitating dark matter. Finally, we show that the mere existence of relativistic stars imposes a strong, near optimal constraint on the coupling parameter, which can even be improved by observations of the moment of inertia of the double pulsar.

  6. Inspiration Today: Music, Astronomy, and Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We explore a variety of examples of music inspired by serious astronomy (as opposed to simply an astronomical title or quick allusion to spooning in June to the light of the Moon). The examples are drawn from my recently published catalog of 133 such pieces, including both classical and popular genres of music. We discuss operas based on the life and work of astronomers, six songs based on a reasonable understanding of the properties of black holes, constellation pieces written by composers from around the world who are or were active amateur astronomers, the song that compares walking on the Moon to being in love, the little-known rock song that became a reference in the Astrophysical Journal, pieces that base the patterns of the music on the rhythms of astronomical phenomena, and a number of others.

  7. Compact stars in Eddington inspired gravity.

    PubMed

    Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Delsate, Térence

    2011-07-15

    A new, Eddington inspired theory of gravity was recently proposed by Bañados and Ferreira. It is equivalent to general relativity in vacuum, but differs from it inside matter. This viable, one-parameter theory was shown to avoid cosmological singularities and turns out to lead to many other exciting new features that we report here. First, for a positive coupling parameter, the field equations have a dramatic impact on the collapse of dust, and do not lead to singularities. We further find that the theory supports stable, compact pressureless stars made of perfect fluid, which provide interesting models of self-gravitating dark matter. Finally, we show that the mere existence of relativistic stars imposes a strong, near optimal constraint on the coupling parameter, which can even be improved by observations of the moment of inertia of the double pulsar. PMID:21838345

  8. Tough, bio-inspired hybrid materials

    SciTech Connect

    Munch, Etienne; Launey, Maximimilan E.; Alsem, Daan H.; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-10-06

    The notion of mimicking natural structures in the synthesis of new structural materials has generated enormous interest but has yielded few practical advances. Natural composites achieve strength and toughness through complex hierarchical designs extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. Here we emulate Nature's toughening mechanisms through the combination of two ordinary compounds, aluminum oxide and polymethylmethacrylate, into ice-templated structures whose toughness can be over 300 times (in energy terms) that of their constituents. The final product is a bulk hybrid ceramic material whose high yield strength and fracture toughness ({approx}200 MPa and {approx}30 MPa{radical}m) provide specific properties comparable to aluminum alloys. These model materials can be used to identify the key microstructural features that should guide the synthesis of bio-inspired ceramic-based composites with unique strength and toughness.

  9. Biologically Inspired Mushroom-Shaped Adhesive Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon with great importance in technology, in our everyday life, and in nature. In this article, we review physical interactions that resist the separation of two solids in contact. By using examples of biological attachment systems, we summarize and categorize various principles that contribute to the so-called gecko effect. Emphasis is placed on the contact geometry and in particular on the mushroom-shaped geometry, which is observed in long-term biological adhesive systems. Furthermore, we report on artificial model systems with this bio-inspired geometry and demonstrate that surface microstructures with this geometry are promising candidates for technical applications, in which repeatable, reversible, and residue-free adhesion under different environmental conditions—such as air, fluid, and vacuum—is required. Various applications in robotic systems and in industrial pick-and-place processes are discussed.

  10. Mapping the 2017 Eclipse: Education, Navigation, Inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiler, M.

    2015-12-01

    Eclipse maps are a unique vessel of knowledge. At a glance, they communicate the essential knowledge of where and when to successfully view a total eclipse of the sun. An eclipse map also provides detailed knowledge of eclipse circumstances superimposed on the highway system for optimal navigation, especially in the event that weather forces relocation. Eclipse maps are also a vital planning tool for solar physicists and astrophotographers capturing high-resolution imagery of the solar corona. Michael Zeiler will speak to the role of eclipse maps in educating the American public and inspiring people to make the effort to reach the path of totality for the sight of a lifetime. Michael will review the role of eclipse maps in astronomical research and discuss a project under development, the 2017 Eclipse Atlas for smartphones, tablets, and desktop computers.

  11. Integrated bio-inspired fluidic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Frank S.; Johnson, Daniel; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Arianpour, Ashkan; Francis, Cameron S.; Kim, Nam-Hyong; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2010-02-01

    We developed a new type of optical lens device that can change its curvature like crystalline lens in human eye. The curvature changing capability of the lens allows for a tremendous tuning range in its optical power and subsequently enables miniaturized imaging systems that can perform autofocus, optical zoom, and other advanced functions. In this paper, we study the physical properties of bio-inspired fluidic lenses and demonstrate the optical functionality through miniaturized optical systems constructed with such lenses. We report an auto-focusing optical system that can turn from a camera to a microscope, and demonstrate more than 4X optical zoom with a very short total track length. Finally, we demonstrate the benefits of fluidic lens zoom camera through minimally invasive gallbladder removal surgery.

  12. A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Chortos, Alex; Berndt, Andre; Nguyen, Amanda Kim; Tom, Ariane; McGuire, Allister; Lin, Ziliang Carter; Tien, Kevin; Bae, Won-Gyu; Wang, Huiliang; Mei, Ping; Chou, Ho-Hsiu; Cui, Bianxiao; Deisseroth, Karl; Ng, Tse Nga; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-10-01

    Human skin relies on cutaneous receptors that output digital signals for tactile sensing in which the intensity of stimulation is converted to a series of voltage pulses. We present a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure into digital frequency signals directly. The output frequency ranges between 0 and 200 hertz, with a sublinear response to increasing force stimuli that mimics slow-adapting skin mechanoreceptors. The output of the sensors was further used to stimulate optogenetically engineered mouse somatosensory neurons of mouse cortex in vitro, achieving stimulated pulses in accordance with pressure levels. This work represents a step toward the design and use of large-area organic electronic skins with neural-integrated touch feedback for replacement limbs.

  13. Bio-inspired networks for optoelectronic applications.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Huang, Yuanlin; Li, Ruopeng; Peng, Qiang; Luo, Junyi; Pei, Ke; Herczynski, Andrzej; Kempa, Krzysztof; Ren, Zhifeng; Gao, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Modern optoelectronics needs development of new materials characterized not only by high optical transparency and electrical conductivity, but also by mechanical strength, and flexibility. Recent advances employ grids of metallic micro- and nanowires, but the overall performance of the resulting material composites remains unsatisfactory. In this work, we propose a new strategy: application of natural scaffoldings perfected by evolution. In this context, we study two bio-inspired networks for two specific optoelectronic applications. The first network, intended for solar cells, light sources and similar devices, has a quasi-fractal structure and is derived directly from a chemically extracted leaf venation system. The second network is intended for touch screens and flexible displays, and is obtained by metalizing a spider's silk web. We demonstrate that each of these networks attain an exceptional optoelectonic and mechanical performance for its intended purpose, providing a promising direction in the development of more efficient optoelectronic devices.

  14. American Energy Production and Price Reduction Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Miller, Gary G. [R-CA-42

    2009-07-31

    09/14/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Lipoprotein-inspired nanoparticles for cancer theranostics.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kenneth K; Lovell, Jonathan F; Zheng, Gang

    2011-10-18

    Over hundreds of millions of years, animals have evolved endogenous lipoprotein nanoparticles for shuttling hydrophobic molecules to different parts of the body. In the last 70 years, scientists have developed an understanding of lipoprotein function, often in relationship to lipid transport and heart disease. Such biocompatible, lipid-protein complexes are also ideal for loading and delivering cancer therapeutic and diagnostic agents, which means that lipoprotein and lipoprotein-inspired nanoparticles also offer opportunities for cancer theranostics. By mimicking the endogenous shape and structure of lipoproteins, the nanocarrier can remain in circulation for an extended period of time, while largely evading the reticuloendothelial cells in the body's defenses. The small size (less than 30 nm) of the low-density (LDL) and high-density (HDL) classes of lipoproteins allows them to maneuver deeply into tumors. Furthermore, lipoproteins can be targeted to their endogenous receptors, when those are implicated in cancer, or to other cancer receptors. In this Account, we review the field of lipoprotein-inspired nanoparticles related to the delivery of cancer imaging and therapy agents. LDL has innate cancer targeting potential and has been used to incorporate diverse hydrophobic molecules and deliver them to tumors. Nature's method of rerouting LDL in atherosclerosis provides a strategy to extend the cancer targeting potential of lipoproteins beyond its narrow purview. Although LDL has shown promise as a drug nanocarrier for cancer imaging and therapy, increasing evidence indicates that HDL, the smallest lipoprotein, may also be of use for drug targeting and uptake into cancer cells. We also discuss how synthetic HDL-like nanoparticles, which do not include human or recombinant proteins, can deliver molecules directly to the cytoplasm of certain cancer cells, effectively bypassing the endosomal compartment. This strategy could allow HDL-like nanoparticles to be used to

  16. Engaging Generation Now, Inspiring Generation Next

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Mike; Gay, P.

    2008-05-01

    In 2008, the Education and Public Outreach Committee of the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) initiated several new strategies for disseminating accurate, stimulating, engaging information on general astronomy and variable star science to thousands of students, parents, and amateur astronomers each year through astronomy clubs, societies, and star party events. We are initiating contact with astronomy clubs and organizations to offer qualified speakers from the AAVSO Speakers Bureau for their meetings and activities. The current roster of speakers include, professional astronomers, doctors, engineers, teachers and some of the world's leading variable star observers. Request information is available on the AAVSO website. For organizations and individuals unable to engage one of our speakers due to time, distance or financial constraints, we have made PowerPoint presentations used in previous talks available free for download from the same web pages. Thousands of amateur astronomers and their children attend star parties each year. As an extension of our speakers’ bureau, our goal is to have an AAVSO representative at each of the major star parties each year giving an enthusiastic talk on variable stars or related astronomical subject and supplying inspirational printed materials on astronomy and amateur contributions to science. The nation's largest astronomy clubs have monthly newsletters they distribute to their membership. Newsletter editors are constantly in need of quality, interesting content to fill out their issues each month. We are offering a `writers’ bureau’ service to newsletter editors, similar to the news wire services used by newspapers. We will supply up to a half dozen articles on astronomy and variable star science each month for editors to use at their discretion in their publications. Our goal is to provide information, inspiration and encourage participation among amateur astronomers and their kids, our next

  17. NASA Missions Inspire Online Video Games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Fast forward to 2035. Imagine being part of a community of astronauts living and working on the Moon. Suddenly, in the middle of just another day in space, a meteorite crashes into the surface of the Moon, threatening life as you know it. The support equipment that provides oxygen for the entire community has been compromised. What would you do? While this situation is one that most people will never encounter, NASA hopes to place students in such situations - virtually - to inspire, engage, and educate about NASA technologies, job opportunities, and the future of space exploration. Specifically, NASA s Learning Technologies program, part of the Agency s Office of Education, aims to inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines through interactive technologies. The ultimate goal of these educational programs is to support the growth of a pool of qualified scientific and technical candidates for future careers at places like NASA. STEM education has been an area of concern in the United States; according to the results of the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment, 23 countries had higher average scores in mathematics literacy than the United States. On the science literacy scale, 18 countries had higher average scores. "This is part of a much bigger picture of trying to grow skilled graduates for places like NASA that will want that technical expertise," says Daniel Laughlin, the Learning Technologies project manager at Goddard Space Flight Center. "NASA is trying to increase the number of students going into those fields, and so are other government agencies."

  18. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience.

  19. Supporting STEM Teachers to Inspire through Everyday Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bienkowski, Marie; Shechtman, Nicole; Remold, Julie; Knudsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Science teachers inspire in part by their constant adaptation to the learning needs of their students and to evolving content, curriculum, technology, and student populations. Innovation--bringing novel things to a situation to confer a benefit--is an integral part of teaching overall, and in especially inspired science teaching. While innovation…

  20. INSPIRE: A VLF Radio Project for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jill A.; Pine, Bill; Taylor, William W. L.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1988 the Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionospheric Radio Experiment, or INSPIRE, has given students the opportunity to build research-quality VLF radio receivers and make observations of both natural and stimulated radio waves in the atmosphere. Any high school science class is eligible to join the INSPIRE volunteer observing network and…

  1. Seeking Meaningful School Reform: Characteristics of Inspired Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Christine N.; Young, Nicholas D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to gain an understanding of how senior school administrators define inspired public schools; and (2) to discern the characteristics of inspired schools to guide meaningful school improvement efforts. Twenty-nine senior leaders--school superintendents and assistant superintendents--from across New England…

  2. Kids as Airborne Mission Scientists: Designing PBL To Inspire Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Grabowski, Barbara L.; Kim, Younghoon

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has great potential for inspiring K-12 learning. KaAMS, a NASA funded project and an example of PBL, was designed to help teachers inspire middle school students to learn science. The students participate as scientists investigating environmental problems using NASA airborne remote sensing data. Two PBL modules were…

  3. Rising Food Prices: Who's Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1973-01-01

    Rise in food prices can be partially attributed to the high food consumption level throughout Europe and North America, coupled with failure to evolve systems for more production of cattle, soybeans, and fisheries at lower cost. (PS)

  4. Pricing Models Using Real Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obremski, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A practical hands-on classroom exercise is described and illustrated using the price of an item as dependent variable throughout. The exercise is well-tested and affords the instructor a variety of approaches and levels.

  5. Problems of Geophysics that Inspired Fractal Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelbrot, B. B.

    2001-12-01

    Fractal geometry arose when the speaker used then esoteric mathematics and the concept of invariance as a tool to understand diverse ``down-to-earth'' practical needs. The first step consisted in using discontinuous functions to represent the variation of speculative prices. The next several steps consisted in introducing infinite-range (global) dependence to handle data from geophysics, beginning with hydrology (and also again in finance). This talk will detail the speaker's debt and gratitude toward several specialists from diverse areas of geophysics who had the greatest impact on fractal geometry in its formative period.

  6. Investors’ risk attitudes and stock price fluctuation asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Honggang

    2011-05-01

    Price rise/fall asymmetry, which indicates enduring but modest rises and sudden short-term falls, is a ubiquitous phenomenon in stock markets throughout the world. Instead of the widely used time series method, we adopt inverse statistics from turbulence to analyze this asymmetry. To explore its underlying mechanism, we build a multi-agent model with two kinds of investors, which are specifically referred to as fundamentalists and chartists. Inspired by Kahneman and Tversky’s claim regarding peoples’ asymmetric psychological responses to the equivalent levels of gains and losses, we assume that investors take different risk attitudes to gains and losses and adopt different trading strategies. The simulation results of the model developed herein are consistent with empirical work, which may support our conjecture that investors’ asymmetric risk attitudes might be one origin of rise/fall asymmetry.

  7. National hospital input price index.

    PubMed

    Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies. PMID:10309052

  8. National hospital input price index.

    PubMed

    Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies.

  9. Establishing prices: one hospital's strategic response.

    PubMed

    Bjelich, S C

    1985-03-01

    Establishing appropriate prices for health care products has been an ongoing problem. Price increases have traditionally been based on an across-the-board percentage increase for all products. In this article, the importance of pricing and the actual pricing methodology used at Baptist Medical Center in Kansas City, Missouri are discussed.

  10. Price Discrimination and Resale: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuchoudhary, Atin; Metcalf, Christopher; Pommerenke, Kai; Reiley, David; Rojas, Christian; Rostek, Marzena; Stodder, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a classroom experiment designed to illustrate key concepts of third-degree price discrimination. By participating as buyers and sellers, students actively learn (1) how group pricing differs from uniform pricing, (2) how resale between buyers limits a seller's ability to price discriminate, and (3) how preventing price…

  11. 10 CFR 218.12 - Pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pricing. 218.12 Section 218.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.12 Pricing. The price for oil subject to a supply order issued pursuant to this subpart shall be based on the price...

  12. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  13. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  14. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  15. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  16. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  17. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  18. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1005.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  19. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  20. 48 CFR 15.405 - Price negotiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price negotiation. 15.405... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.405 Price negotiation. (a) The purpose of performing cost or price analysis is to develop a negotiation position that permits...