Science.gov

Sample records for price trackers inspired

  1. INSPIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Bill; Pine, Bill

    2003-01-01

    INSPIRE (Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment - http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/inspire) is a non-profit scientific, educational organization whose objective is to bring the excitement of observing natural and manmade radio waves in the audio region to high school students and others. The project consists of building an audio frequency radio receiver kit, making observations of natural and manmade radio waves and analyzing the data. Students also learn about NASA and our natural environment through the study of lightning, the source of many of the audio frequency waves, the atmosphere, the ionosphere, and the magnetosphere where the waves travel.

  2. Tracker Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Steven J.; Palacios, David M.

    2013-01-01

    This software can track multiple moving objects within a video stream simultaneously, use visual features to aid in the tracking, and initiate tracks based on object detection in a subregion. A simple programmatic interface allows plugging into larger image chain modeling suites. It extracts unique visual features for aid in tracking and later analysis, and includes sub-functionality for extracting visual features about an object identified within an image frame. Tracker Toolkit utilizes a feature extraction algorithm to tag each object with metadata features about its size, shape, color, and movement. Its functionality is independent of the scale of objects within a scene. The only assumption made on the tracked objects is that they move. There are no constraints on size within the scene, shape, or type of movement. The Tracker Toolkit is also capable of following an arbitrary number of objects in the same scene, identifying and propagating the track of each object from frame to frame. Target objects may be specified for tracking beforehand, or may be dynamically discovered within a tripwire region. Initialization of the Tracker Toolkit algorithm includes two steps: Initializing the data structures for tracked target objects, including targets preselected for tracking; and initializing the tripwire region. If no tripwire region is desired, this step is skipped. The tripwire region is an area within the frames that is always checked for new objects, and all new objects discovered within the region will be tracked until lost (by leaving the frame, stopping, or blending in to the background).

  3. CCD star trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The application of CCDs to star trackers and star mappers is considered. Advantages and disadvantages of silicon CCD star trackers are compared with those of image dissector star trackers. It is concluded that the CCD has adequate sensitivity for most single star tracking tasks and is distinctly superior in multiple star tracking or mapping applications. The signal and noise figures of several current CCD configurations are discussed. The basic structure of the required signal processing is described, and it is shown that resolution in excess of the number of CCD elements may be had by interpolation.

  4. ORNL SunTracker

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, Robert Wesley

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screen that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.

  5. Writing Inspired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  6. Miniature Laser Tracker

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2003-09-09

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  7. Advanced Imaging Tracker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    document requires that it 1e returncd: ADVANCED IMACINGC TRACKER Dr . L. E. Schmutz Contractor: Adaptive Optics Associates, Inc. Contt-ict Number: F30602-80...Code Number: IE20 Period of Worl: Covered: jun 80 - D’:c 81 Principal Investigator: Dr . Larry Schmut~z Phone: 617 547-2786 Project Engineer: Captaia...yaJPODCVR~ ADVANCED IMAGING TRACKER 10Jun 80 - ’,’ Dec 81 𔄃 PiRFORMiNO7 01G. REPORT NUMBER 7 ATII~(. ONTPA OR GRANTY NUMDERf.) Dr . 1L. E. Schiiut

  8. Sun-Relative Pointing for Dual-Axis Solar Trackers Employing Azimuth and Elevation Rotations

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Daniel; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2014-12-30

    Dual axis trackers employing azimuth and elevation rotations are common in the field of photovoltaic (PV) energy generation. Accurate sun-tracking algorithms are widely available. However, a steering algorithm has not been available to accurately point the tracker away from the sun such that a vector projection of the sun beam onto the tracker face falls along a desired path relative to the tracker face. We have developed an algorithm which produces the appropriate azimuth and elevation angles for a dual axis tracker when given the sun position, desired angle of incidence, and the desired projection of the sun beam onto the tracker face. Development of this algorithm was inspired by the need to accurately steer a tracker to desired sun-relative positions in order to better characterize the electro-optical properties of PV and CPV modules.

  9. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  10. Rotational Dynamics with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadkhong, T.; Rajsadorn, R.; Jannual, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia ("I") of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction ("b") for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive…

  11. MediaTracker system

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D. M.; Strittmatter, R. B.; Abeyta, J. D.; Brown, J.; Marks, T. , Jr.; Martinez, B. J.; Jones, D. B.; Hsue, W.

    2004-01-01

    The initial objectives of this effort were to provide a hardware and software platform that can address the requirements for the accountability of classified removable electronic media and vault access logging. The Media Tracker system software assists classified media custodian in managing vault access logging and Media Tracking to prevent the inadvertent violation of rules or policies for the access to a restricted area and the movement and use of tracked items. The MediaTracker system includes the software tools to track and account for high consequence security assets and high value items. The overall benefits include: (1) real-time access to the disposition of all Classified Removable Electronic Media (CREM), (2) streamlined security procedures and requirements, (3) removal of ambiguity and managerial inconsistencies, (4) prevention of incidents that can and should be prevented, (5) alignment with the DOE's initiative to achieve improvements in security and facility operations through technology deployment, and (6) enhanced individual responsibility by providing a consistent method of dealing with daily responsibilities. In response to initiatives to enhance the control of classified removable electronic media (CREM), the Media Tracker software suite was developed, piloted and implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in July 2000. The Media Tracker software suite assists in the accountability and tracking of CREM and other high-value assets. One component of the MediaTracker software suite provides a Laboratory-approved media tracking system. Using commercial touch screen and bar code technology, the MediaTracker (MT) component of the MediaTracker software suite provides an efficient and effective means to meet current Laboratory requirements and provides new-engineered controls to help assure compliance with those requirements. It also establishes a computer infrastructure at vault entrances for vault access logging, and can accommodate

  12. Inspired Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Carol Frederick

    2011-01-01

    In terms of teacher quality, Steele believes the best teachers have reached a stage she terms inspired, and that teachers move progressively through the stages of unaware, aware, and capable until the most reflective teachers finally reach the inspired level. Inspired teachers have a wide repertoire of teaching and class management techniques and…

  13. The Tevatron Chromaticity tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    The Tevatron chromaticity tracker (CT) has been successfully commissioned and is now operational. The basic idea behind the CT is that when the phase of the Tevatron RF is slowly modulated, the beam momentum is also modulated. This momentum modulation is coupled transversely via chromaticity to manifest as a phase modulation on the betatron tune. Thus by phase demodulating the betatron tune, the chromaticity can be recovered. However, for the phase demodulation to be successful, it is critical that the betatron tune be a coherent signal that can be easily picked up by a phase detector. This is easily done because the Tevatron has a phase locked loop (PLL) based tune tracker which coherently excites the beam at the betatron tune.

  14. Tracker 300 Software

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, R. Wes

    2006-01-12

    The Tracker300 software is downloaded to an off-the-shelf product called RCM3400/RCM3410 made by Rabbit Semiconductor. The software is a closed loop control which computes the sun's position and provides stability compensation. Using the RCM3400/RCM3410 module, the software stores and retrieves parameters from the onboard flash. The software also allows for communication with a host. It will allow the parameters to be downloaded or uploaded, it will show the status of the controller, it will provide real-time feedback, and it will send command acknowledgements. The software will capture the GPS response and ensure the internal clock is set correctly.

  15. CMS tracker visualization tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennea, M. S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-08-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  16. Silicon tracker data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Large particle physics experiments are making increasing technological demands on the design and implementation of real-time data acquisition systems. The LHC will have bunch crossing intervals of 25 nanoseconds and detectors, such as CMS, will contain over 10 million electronic channels. Readout systems will need to cope with 100 kHz rates of 1 MByte-sized events. Over 70% of this voluminous flow will stem from silicon tracker and MSGC devices. This paper describes the techniques currently being harnessed from ASIC devices through to modular microprocessor-based architectures around standards such as VMEbus and PCI. In particular, the experiences gained at the HERA H1 experiment are highlighted where many of the key technological concepts have already been im implemented.

  17. ATLAS strip tracker stavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, P. W.

    2012-02-01

    The engineering challenges related to the supply of electrical power to future large scale detector systems are well documented. Two options remain under active study in our community, namely serial powering and the use of DC-DC converters. Whilst clearly different in detail, both have the potential to increase the efficiency of the powering system. The ATLAS Upgrade Strip Tracker Community has constructed two demonstrator stavelets using the ABCN-25 ASIC, each comprising four silicon strip detector modules. The first stavelet is serially powered, using shunt transistors integrated into the ABCN-25 chip to maintain the required operating voltage given a constant supply current, and the second stavelet uses STV-10 DC-DC converters provided by the CERN group. Although the detailed test programme shall continue at CERN, results from stavelet tests made at RAL are presented here.

  18. WGM Temperature Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    This software implements digital control of a WGM (whispering-gallerymode) resonator temperature based on the dual-mode approach. It comprises one acquisition (dual-channel) and three control modules. The interaction of the proportional-integral loops is designed in the original way, preventing the loops from fighting. The data processing is organized in parallel with the acquisition, which allows the computational overhead time to be suppressed or often completely avoided. WGM resonators potentially provide excellent optical references for metrology, clocks, spectroscopy, and other applications. However, extremely accurate (below micro-Kelvin) temperature stabilization is required. This software allows one specifically advantageous method of such stabilization to be implemented, which is immune to a variety of effects that mask the temperature variation. WGM Temperature Tracker 2.3 (see figure) is a LabVIEW code developed for dual-mode temperature stabilization of WGM resonators. It has allowed for the temperature stabilization at the level of 200 nK with one-second integration time, and 6 nK with 10,000-second integration time, with the above room-temperature set point. This software, in conjunction with the appropriate hardware, can be used as a noncryogenic temperature sensor/ controller with sub-micro-Kelvin sensitivity, which at the time of this reporting considerably outperforms the state of the art.

  19. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  20. Head tracker evaluation utilizing the dynamic tracker test fixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Moure Shattuck, Judson, III; Parisi, Vincent M., II; Smerdon, Arryn J.

    2007-04-01

    In military aviation, head tracker technologies have become increasingly important to track the pilot's head position and orientation, allowing the user to quickly interact with the operational environment. This technology allows the pilot to quickly acquire items of interest and see Fighter Data Link type information. Acquiring the target on a helmet-mounted tracker/display which can automatically slew a weapon's seeker is far more efficient than having to point at the target with the nose of the aircraft as previously required for the heads-up display (HUD) type of target acquisition. The United States Air Force (USAF) has used and evaluated a variety of helmet-mounted trackers for incorporation into their high performance aircrafts. The Dynamic Tracker Test Fixture (DTTF) was designed by the Helmet-Mounted Sensory Technology (HMST) laboratory to accurately measure rotation in one plane both static and dynamic conditions for the purpose of evaluating the accuracy of head trackers, including magnetic, inertial, and optical trackers. This paper describes the design, construction, capabilities, limitations, and performance of the DTTF.

  1. Schedule-Tracker Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Fernando F.

    1990-01-01

    Schedule Tracker provides effective method for tracking tasks "past due" and/or "near term". Generates reports for each responsible staff member having one or more assigned tasks falling within two listed categories. Schedule Organizer (SO) (COSMIC program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker (ST), and Schedule Report Generator (SRG) (COSMIC program MSC-21527) computer programs manipulating data-base files in ways advantageous in scheduling. Written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL).

  2. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  3. Inspired Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Robert; Spruch, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    It has been nearly 400 years since Harvard College was created, and since then, thousands of colleges and universities have been built across the United States. From the classically inspired lines of Thomas Jefferson's University of Virginia to the Spanish architecture at Stanford University, every campus has its own personality. It's not unusual,…

  4. International Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2017-01-01

    As the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) expands its Registered Apprenticeship College Consortium (RACC) among community colleges and employer partners, those involved are looking to countries like Germany and Switzerland for inspiration. In some cases, that has meant partnering with companies from those countries, which have had more comprehensive…

  5. Hyperspectral Imager-Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agurok, Llya

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager-Tracker (HIT) is a technique for visualization and tracking of low-contrast, fast-moving objects. The HIT architecture is based on an innovative and only recently developed concept in imaging optics. This innovative architecture will give the Light Prescriptions Innovators (LPI) HIT the possibility of simultaneously collecting the spectral band images (hyperspectral cube), IR images, and to operate with high-light-gathering power and high magnification for multiple fast- moving objects. Adaptive Spectral Filtering algorithms will efficiently increase the contrast of low-contrast scenes. The most hazardous parts of a space mission are the first stage of a launch and the last 10 kilometers of the landing trajectory. In general, a close watch on spacecraft operation is required at distances up to 70 km. Tracking at such distances is usually associated with the use of radar, but its milliradian angular resolution translates to 100- m spatial resolution at 70-km distance. With sufficient power, radar can track a spacecraft as a whole object, but will not provide detail in the case of an accident, particularly for small debris in the onemeter range, which can only be achieved optically. It will be important to track the debris, which could disintegrate further into more debris, all the way to the ground. Such fragmentation could cause ballistic predictions, based on observations using high-resolution but narrow-field optics for only the first few seconds of the event, to be inaccurate. No optical imager architecture exists to satisfy NASA requirements. The HIT was developed for space vehicle tracking, in-flight inspection, and in the case of an accident, a detailed recording of the event. The system is a combination of five subsystems: (1) a roving fovea telescope with a wide 30 field of regard; (2) narrow, high-resolution fovea field optics; (3) a Coude optics system for telescope output beam stabilization; (4) a hyperspectral

  6. MAD for visual tracker fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Krah, Sebastian B.; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Existing tracking methods vary strongly in their approach and therefore have different strengths and weaknesses. For example, a single tracking algorithm may be good at handling variations in illumination, but does not cope well with deformation. Hence, their failures can occur on entirely different time intervals on the same sequence. One possible solution for overcoming limitations of a single tracker and for benefitting from individual strengths, is to run a set of tracking algorithms in parallel and fuse their outputs. But in general, tracking algorithms are not designed to receive feedback from a higher level fusion strategy or require a high degree of integration between individual levels. Towards this end, we introduce a fusion strategy serving the purpose of online single object tracking, for which no knowledge about individual tracker characteristics is needed. The key idea is to combine several independent and heterogeneous tracking approaches and to robustly identify an outlier subset based on the "Median Absolute Deviations" (MAD) measure. The MAD fusion strategy is very generic and only requires frame-based object bounding boxes as input. Thus, it can work with arbitrary tracking algorithms. Furthermore, the MAD fusion strategy can also be applied for combining several instances of the same tracker to form a more robust ensemble for tracking an object. The evaluation is done on public available datasets. With a set of heterogeneous, commonly used trackers we show that the proposed MAD fusion strategy improves the tracking results in comparison to a classical combination of parallel trackers and that the tracker ensemble helps to deal with the initialization uncertainty of a single tracker.

  7. Space Shuttle Star Tracker Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    The space shuttle fleet of avionics was originally designed in the 1970's. Many of the subsystems have been upgraded and replaced, however some original hardware continues to fly. Not only fly, but has proven to be the best design available to perform its designated task. The shuttle star tracker system is currently flying as a mixture of old and new designs, each with a unique purpose to fill for the mission. Orbiter missions have tackled many varied missions in space over the years. As the orbiters began flying to the International Space Station (ISS), new challenges were discovered and overcome as new trusses and modules were added. For the star tracker subsystem, the growing ISS posed an unusual problem, bright light. With two star trackers on board, the 1970's vintage image dissector tube (IDT) star trackers track the ISS, while the new solid state design is used for dim star tracking. This presentation focuses on the challenges and solutions used to ensure star trackers can complete the shuttle missions successfully. Topics include KSC team and industry partner methods used to correct pressurized case failures and track system performance.

  8. Head Tracker Evaluation Utilizing the Dynamic Tracker Test Fixture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    secondary system that updates the inertial system--often referred to as a hybrid system. Optical head trackers ( OHT ) are immune to magnetic field...S, ABBREVIATION CCW – Counter Clockwise CW – Clockwise Deg – Degrees D HUD – Head-up Display Min – Minute Mrad – milliradian N OHT – Optical

  9. Four-cell solar tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Forty cm Sun tracker, consisting of optical telescope and four solar cells, stays pointed at Sun throughout day for maximum energy collection. Each solar cell generates voltage proportional to part of solar image it receives; voltages drive servomotors that keep image centered. Mirrored portion of cylinder extends acquisition angle of device by reflecting Sun image back onto solar cells.

  10. TacNet Tracker Software

    SciTech Connect

    WISEMAN, JAMES; & STEVENS, JAMES

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. The purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.

  11. Chapter 6: CPV Tracking and Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Luque-Heredia, Ignacio; Magalhaes, Pedro; Muller, Matthew

    2016-04-15

    This chapter explains the functional requirements of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) sun tracker. It derives the design specifications of a CPV tracker. The chapter presents taxonomy of trackers describing the most common tracking architectures, based on the number of axes, their relative position, and the foundation and placing of tracking drives. It deals with the structural issues related to tracker design, mainly related to structural flexure and its impact on the system's acceptance angle. The chapter analyzes the auto-calibrated sun tracking control, by describing the state of the art and its development background. It explores the sun tracking accuracy measurement with a practical example. The chapter discusses tracker manufacturing and tracker field works. It reviews survey of different types of tracker designs obtained from different manufacturers. Finally, the chapter deals with IEC62817, the technical standard developed for CPV sun trackers.

  12. Star Tracker/Mapper: System Design Parameters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    AD-A008 554 STAR TRACKER/MAPPER: SYSTEM’DESIGN PARAMETERS F. W. Schenkel Johns Hopkins University Prepared for: Naval Plant Representative Office...APLIJHU TG 1256 4. TITLE (andSubritle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Star Tracker/Mapper: System Design Parameters 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...identify by block number) Design parameters Star tracker/mapper Optical sensors Optical trackers Spectral characteristics 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on

  13. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  14. Introduction to Mini Muon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, Konstantin N.

    2012-08-13

    Using a mini muon tracker developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory we performed experiments of simple landscapes of various materials, including TNT, 9501, lead, tungsten, aluminium, and water. Most common scenes are four two inches thick step wedges of different dimensions: 12-inch x 12-inch, 12-inch x 9-inch, 12-inch x 6-inch, and 12-inch x 3-inch; and a one three inches thick hemisphere of lead with spherical hollow, and a similar full lead sphere.

  15. The CMS tracker control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G. H.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Hartmann, F.; Masetti, L.; Militaru, O.; Shah, S. Y.; Stringer, R.; Tsirou, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Tracker Control System (TCS) is a distributed control software to operate about 2000 power supplies for the silicon modules of the CMS Tracker and monitor its environmental sensors. TCS must thus be able to handle about 104 power supply parameters, about 103 environmental probes from the Programmable Logic Controllers of the Tracker Safety System (TSS), about 105 parameters read via DAQ from the DCUs in all front end hybrids and from CCUs in all control groups. TCS is built on top of an industrial SCADA program (PVSS) extended with a framework developed at CERN (JCOP) and used by all LHC experiments. The logical partitioning of the detector is reflected in the hierarchical structure of the TCS, where commands move down to the individual hardware devices, while states are reported up to the root which is interfaced to the broader CMS control system. The system computes and continuously monitors the mean and maximum values of critical parameters and updates the percentage of currently operating hardware. Automatic procedures switch off selected parts of the detector using detailed granularity and avoiding widespread TSS intervention.

  16. Activity trackers: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The wearable consumer health devices can be mainly divided into activity trackers, sleep trackers, and stress management devices. These devices are widely advertised to provide positive effects on the user's daily behaviours and overall heath. However, objective evidence supporting these claims appears to be missing. The goal of this study was to review available evidence pertaining to performance of activity trackers. A comprehensive review of available information has been conducted for seven representative devices and the validity of marketing claims was assessed. The device assessment was based on availability of verified output metrics, theoretical frameworks, systematic evaluation, and FDA clearance. The review identified critical absence of supporting evidence of advertised functions and benefits for the majority of the devices. Six out of seven devices did not provide any information on sensor accuracy and output validity at all. Possible underestimation or overestimation of specific health indicators reported to consumers was not clearly disclosed to the public. Furthermore, significant limitations of these devices which can be categorized into user restrictions, user responsibilities and company disclaimers could not be easily found or comprehended by unsophisticated users and may represent a serious health hazard.

  17. D0 silicon microstrip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Burdin, Sergey

    2005-11-01

    The D0 Run II silicon microstrip tracker (SMT) has 3 square meters of Si area. There are 792,576 channels read out by 6192 SVXIIe chips on 912 read out modules. The SMT provides track and vertex reconstruction capabilities over the full pseudorapidity coverage of the D0 detector. The full detector has been running successfully since April 2002. This presentation covers the experience in commissioning and operating, the recent electronics upgrade which improved stability of the SMT and estimates of the radiation damage.

  18. The CDF Central Outer Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, K.T.; CDF Collaboration

    1997-01-01

    We describe the CDF Central Outer Tracker (COT), an open-cell drift chamber currently being constructed for the CDF detector to run at the upgraded Fermilab Tevatron collider. This detector will provide central tracking with excellent momentum resolution in the high- density environment of a hadron collider. It will be able to resolve 132 ns beam crossings and provide tracking trigger information to the Level 1 trigger. The design is based upon the existing and successful CDF Central Tracking Chamber. The preliminary mechanical and electrical designs are presented. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Optical filtering for star trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The optimization of optical filtering was investigated for tracking faint stars, down to the fifth magnitude. The effective wavelength and bandwidth for tracking pre-selected guide stars are discussed along with the results of an all-electronic tracker with a star tracking photomultiplier, which was tested with a simulated second magnitude star. Tables which give the sum of zodiacal light and galactic background light over the entire sky for intervals of five degrees in declination, and twenty minutes in right ascension are included.

  20. External referencing and pharmaceutical price negotiation.

    PubMed

    Garcia Mariñoso, Begoña; Jelovac, Izabela; Olivella, Pau

    2011-06-01

    External referencing (ER) imposes a price cap for pharmaceuticals, based on prices of identical or comparable products in foreign countries. Suppose a foreign country (F) negotiates prices with a pharmaceutical firm, whereas a home country (H) can either negotiate prices independently or implement ER, based on the foreign price. We show that country H prefers ER if copayments in H are relatively high. This preference is reinforced when H's population is small. Irrespective of relative country sizes, ER by country H harms country F. Our model is inspired by the wide European experience with this cost-containment policy. Namely, in Europe, drug authorization and price negotiations are carried out by separate agencies. We confirm our main results in two extensions. The first one allows for therapeutic competition between drugs. In the second one, drug authorization and price negotiation take place in a single agency.

  1. Priced Out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-White, Daniel R.; Radcliffe, Peter M.; Lorenz, Linda M.; Soria, Krista M.

    2014-01-01

    While the literature on postsecondary student success identifies important academic and social factors associated with student outcomes, one question that persists concerns the influence of financial aid. We use the National Student Clearinghouse's StudentTracker service to develop a more complete model of student success that accommodates…

  2. Progress on the MICE Tracker Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.; Lau, W.; Yang, Stephanie Q.

    2006-06-10

    This report describes the 400 mm warm bore tracker solenoid for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The 2.923 m long tracker solenoid module includes the radiation shutter between the end absorber focus coil modules and the tracker as well as the 2.735 m long magnet cryostat vacuum vessel. The 2.554 m long tracker solenoid cold mass consists of two sections, a three-coil spectrometer magnet and a two-coil matching section that matches the uniform field 4 T spectrometer solenoid into the MICE cooling channel. The two tracker magnets are used to provide a uniform magnetic field for the fiber detectors that are used to measure the muon beam emittance at the two ends of the cooling channel. This paper describes the design for the tracker magnet coils and the 4.2 K cryogenic coolers that are used to cool the superconducting magnet. Interfaces between the magnet and the detectors are discussed.

  3. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  4. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  5. High-speed mirror-scanning tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, HengWei

    1999-06-01

    This paper introduces a high speed single-mirror scanner developed by us as a versatile tracker. It can be connected with a high speed camera, a TV tracker (or color video recorder) /measurer/recorder. It can be guided by a computer, a joystick (automatic or manual) or TV tracker. In this paper, we also present the advantages of our scanner contrasted with the limitations of fixed camera system. In addition, several usable projects of mirror scanner are discussed.

  6. Star tracker for the Apollo telescope mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    The star tracker for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) has been designed specifically to meet the requirements of the Skylab vehicle and mission. The functions of the star tracker are presented, as well as descriptions of the optical-mechanical assembly (OMA) and the star tracker electronics (STE). Also included are the electronic and mechanical specifications, interface and operational requirements, support equipment and test requirements, and occultation information. Laboratory functional tests, environmental qualification tests, and life tests have provided a high confidence factor in the performance of the star tracker in the laboratory and on the Skylab mission.

  7. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  8. Ruby on Rails Issue Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Juan Jared

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the tasks accomplished as a NASA NIFS intern for the summer 2014 session. This internship opportunity is to develop an issue tracker Ruby on Rails web application to improve the communication of developmental anomalies between the Support Software Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) teams, System Build and Information Architecture. As many may know software development is an arduous, time consuming, collaborative effort. It involves nearly as much work designing, planning, collaborating, discussing, and resolving issues as effort expended in actual development. This internship opportunity was put in place to help alleviate the amount of time spent discussing issues such as bugs, missing tests, new requirements, and usability concerns that arise during development and throughout the life cycle of software applications once in production.

  9. ST - SCHEDULE TRACKER COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST, and Schedule Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. ST and SRG use the same data base file as input. The common data base file has a maximum number of 400 entries. The time span of all three programs is nineteen months. Both of these maximum numbers can be modified by the user. ST requires the VMS Operating System on DEC VAX and was written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL). The program requires a memory of 233KB. ST can be purchased separately or in a package (COSMIC Program COS-10021) containing SO, ST, and SRG. ST was developed in 1985.

  10. Surface metrology using laser trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enriquez, Rogerio; Sampieri, Cesar E.

    2005-02-01

    During the process of manufacture or measuring large components, position and orientation are needed thus; a method based in surveying the surface can be used to describe them. This method requires an ensemble of measurements of fixed points whose coordinates are unknown. Afterwards resulting observations are manipulated to determinate objects position in order to apply surface metrology. In this work, a methodology to reduce uncertainties in surface measuring is presented. When measuring large surfaces, numerical methods can reduce uncertainties in the measures, and this can be done with instruments as such as the Laser Tracker (LT). Calculations use range and angles measures, in order to determinate the coordinates of tridimensional unknown positions from differents surveying points. The purpose of this work, is to solve problems of surface metrology with given tolerances; with advantages in resources and results, instead of making time sacrifices. Here, a hybrid methodology is developed, combining Laser Tracker with GPS theories and analysis. Such a measuring position system can be used in applications where the use of others systems are unpractical, mainly because this kind of measuring instruments are portables and capable to track and report results in real-time, it can be used in virtually anyplace. Simulations to measure panels for the Large Millimetric Telescope (LMT/GTM) in Mexico were done. A first benefit from using this method is that instrument is not isolated from its measuring environment. Instead, the system is thought as a whole with operator, measuring environment and targets. This solution provides an effective way, and a more precise measurement, because it does optimize the use of the instrument and uses additional information to strength the solution.

  11. Sun tracker for clear or cloudy weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Sun tracker orients solar collector so that they absorb maximum possible sunlight without being fooled by bright clouds, holes in cloud cover, or other atmospheric conditions. Tracker follows sun within 0.25 deg arc and is accurate within + or - 5 deg when sun is hidden.

  12. The Chesapeake Laser Tracker in Industrial Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-16

    In the summer of 1992, the survey and alignment team at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center acquired a CMS3000 laser tracker manufactured by Chesapeake Laser Systems in Lanham, Maryland. This paper gives a description of the principles of operation and calibration of the tracker. Several applications are explained and the results shared.

  13. The Clubbers' Guide: "Be Inspired, Inspire Others"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Liz

    2012-01-01

    "Be inspired, inspire others" is this author's school motto and also something she aims to achieve by running the Science Club at The Warwick School in Redhill, Surrey, UK, an 11-16 specialist technology comprehensive. The Science Club is part of an extensive science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programme that has…

  14. The Inspirational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Hughes, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Amid the focus on improved standardized test scores, differentiated instruction, value-added initiatives and improved teacher evaluation, one must not ignore an education leader's need to inspire and be inspired. But how do education leaders inspire their students and teachers during some of the most difficult economic times the nation has ever…

  15. Eye trackers in an oculary clinical setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahimin, Mizhanim M.; Shahimin, Mukhzeer M.

    2013-12-01

    Infrared eye tracker has been demonstrated to provide a more objective and quantitative results of the cover test measurement in eye care practices. This paper reviews the application of eye trackers in oculary clinical setting. It highlights the different types of eye movement recording system (EMRS) available, the advantages and disadvantages of each and their use in a clinical setting. This paper also discusses the parameters that can be derived from the EMRS and the significance of the parameters in a clinical interpretation. Using an eye tracker would make available to the clinician a simple system for making quantitative measurements when performing the cover test in an eye examination.

  16. Personal Activity Trackers and the Quantified Self.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Personal activity trackers are an inexpensive and easy way for people to record their physical activity and simple biometric data. As these devices have increased in availability and sophistication, their use in daily life and in medicine has grown. This column will briefly explore what these devices are, what types of data they can track, and how that data can be used. It will also discuss potential problems with trackers and how librarians can help patients and physicians manage and protect activity data. A brief list of currently available activity trackers is also included.

  17. My Game Plan: Food and Activity Tracker

    MedlinePlus

    ... partner organizations. SAMPLE ENTRY: TIME 8:00 AM MONDAY FOOD AND DRINK TRACKER AMOUNT /NAME /DESCRIPTION FAT ... TOTALS FAT GRAMS CALORIES MINUTES OF ACTIVITY WEIGHT MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY WEEKLY TOTALS ...

  18. A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality Yohan Baillot and Simon J. Julier ITT Advanced Engineering & Sciences 2560 Huntington Ave...with as few as three measurements. 1. Introduction Almost all Augmented Reality (AR) systems use a track- ing system to capture motion of objects in...DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  19. Inspire Your Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, William E.; Taylor, William W. L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a science project, Interactive Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiments (INSPIRE), that allows students to work with physicists to address unanswered questions about the physics of space. (ZWH)

  20. Reference pricing and firms' pricing strategies.

    PubMed

    Miraldo, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Within a horizontal differentiation model and allowing for heterogeneous qualities, we analyze the effects of reference pricing reimbursement on firms' pricing strategies. With this analysis we find inherent incentives for firms' pricing behavior, and consequently we shed some light on the time consistency of such policy. The analysis encompasses different reference price rules: (i) reference price as the minimum of the observed prices in the market, (ii) reference price as a linear combination of firms' prices. Results show that under the "minimum policy" firms are not able to coordinate on higher prices while the "linear policy", implicitly, provides a coordination device. We have also found that, relatively to the "linear policy", when the reference price is the minimum of observed prices, after policy implementation, total and private expenditures are higher and consumer surplus and firms' profits are lower. With quality differentiation both the minimum and linear policies unambiguously lead to higher prices.

  1. Star Tracker Performance Estimate with IMU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Swank, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A software tool for estimating cross-boresight error of a star tracker combined with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was developed to support trade studies for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication project (iROC) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center. Typical laser communication systems, such as the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) and the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD), use a beacon to locate ground stations. iROC is investigating the use of beaconless precision laser pointing to enable laser communication at Mars orbits and beyond. Precision attitude knowledge is essential to the iROC mission to enable high-speed steering of the optical link. The preliminary concept to achieve this precision attitude knowledge is to use star trackers combined with an IMU. The Star Tracker Accuracy (STAcc) software was developed to rapidly assess the capabilities of star tracker and IMU configurations. STAcc determines the overall cross-boresight error of a star tracker with an IMU given the characteristic parameters: quantum efficiency, aperture, apparent star magnitude, exposure time, field of view, photon spread, detector pixels, spacecraft slew rate, maximum stars used for quaternion estimation, and IMU angular random walk. This paper discusses the supporting theory used to construct STAcc, verification of the program and sample results.

  2. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, Sunil; Kille, Natalie; Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Thomson, David; Hannigan, James; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometers, making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The integrated system allows the tracker to operate autonomously while the mobile laboratory is in motion. Mobile direct sun differential optical absorption spectroscopy (mobile DS-DOAS) observations using this tracker were conducted during summer 2014 as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) in Colorado, USA. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052° (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile DS-DOAS spectra. The high photon flux from direct sun observation enables measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant columns with high temporal resolution and reveals spatial detail in the variations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). The NO2 VCD from DS-DOAS is compared with a co-located MAX-DOAS instrument. Overall good agreement is observed amid a highly heterogeneous air mass.

  3. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, S.; Kille, N.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Thomson, D.; Hannigan, J.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-11-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometers making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The integrated system allows the tracker to operate autonomously while the mobile laboratory is in motion. Mobile direct sun Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mobile DS-DOAS) observations using this tracker were conducted during summer 2014 as part of the Front Range Photochemistry and Pollution Experiment (FRAPPE) in Colorado, USA. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052° (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives, and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile DS-DOAS spectra. The high photon flux from direct sun observation enables measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant columns with high temporal resolution, and reveals spatial detail in the variations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). The NO2 VCD from DS-DOAS is compared with a co-located MAX-DOAS instrument. Overall good agreement is observed amid a highly heterogeneous air mass.

  4. Clay Bells: Edo Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…

  5. Accuracy of the vivofit activity tracker.

    PubMed

    Alsubheen, Sana'a A; George, Amanda M; Baker, Alicia; Rohr, Linda E; Basset, Fabien A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of the vivofit activity tracker in assessing energy expenditure and step count. Thirteen participants wore the vivofit activity tracker for five days. Participants were required to independently perform 1 h of self-selected activity each day of the study. On day four, participants came to the lab to undergo BMR and a treadmill-walking task (TWT). On day five, participants completed 1 h of office-type activities. BMR values estimated by the vivofit were not significantly different from the values measured through indirect calorimetry (IC). The vivofit significantly underestimated EE for treadmill walking, but responded to the differences in the inclination. Vivofit underestimated step count for level walking but provided an accurate estimate for incline walking. There was a strong correlation between EE and the exercise intensity. The vivofit activity tracker is on par with similar devices and can be used to track physical activity.

  6. Preliminary studies of a chromaticity tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    A chromaticity tracker based on a method by D. McGinnis is proposed. This method starts with the slow modulation of the accelerating RF which causes the beam to respond to it. This beam modulation can be detected transversely with a Schottky pickup which after phase demodulation, the chromaticity can be calculated from it. However, to perform phase demodulation, the carrier frequency which is the betatron tune needs to be identified. The identification of the carrier frequency falls naturally onto the phase locked loop tune tracker which when locked to the betatron tune outputs this value in real time.

  7. Optical contacting for gravity probe star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. J.; Zissa, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A star-tracker telescope, constructed entirely of fused silica elements optically contacted together, has been proposed to provide submilliarc-second pointing accuracy for Gravity Probe. A bibliography and discussion on optical contacting (the bonding of very flat, highly polished surfaces without the use of adhesives) are presented. Then results from preliminary experiments on the strength of optical contacts including a tensile strength test in liquid helium are discussed. Suggestions are made for further study to verify an optical contacting method for the Gravity Probe star-tracker telescope.

  8. A microprocessor-controlled CCD star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, P. M.; Goss, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The STELLAR (Star Tracker for Economical Long Life Attitude Reference) utilizes an image sensing Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) operating under microprocessor control. This approach results in a new type of high-accuracy star tracker which can be adapted to a wide variety of different space flight applications through software changes only. The STELLAR determines two-axis star positions by computing the element and the interelement interpolated centroid positions of the star images. As many as 10 stars may be tracked simultaneously, providing significantly increased stability and accuracy. A detailed description of the STELLAR is presented along with measurements of system performance obtained from an operating breadboard model.

  9. Quintessence reconstructed: New constraints and tracker viability

    SciTech Connect

    Sahlen, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David

    2007-01-15

    We update and extend our previous work reconstructing the potential of a quintessence field from current observational data. We extend the cosmological data set to include new supernova data, plus information from the cosmic microwave background and from baryon acoustic oscillations. We extend the modeling by considering Pade approximant expansions as well as Taylor series, and by using observations to assess the viability of the tracker hypothesis. We find that parameter constraints have improved by a factor of 2, with a strengthening of the preference of the cosmological constant over evolving quintessence models. Present data show some signs, though inconclusive, of favoring tracker models over nontracker models under our assumptions.

  10. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  11. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  12. Sun Tracker Operates a Year Between Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low-cost modification of Sun tracker automatically compensates equation of time and seasonal variations in declination of Sun. Output of Scotch Yoke drive mechanism adjusted through proper sizing of crank, yoke and other components and through choice of gear ratios to approximate seasonal northand south motion of Sun. Used for industrial solar-energy monitoring and in remote meteorological stations.

  13. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers

    PubMed Central

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J.; Flagel, Shelly B.; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers. PMID:24954026

  14. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers.

    PubMed

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J; Flagel, Shelly B; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers.

  15. Determination of Laser Tracker Angle Encoder Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, Karim M.; Hughes, Ben; Forbes, Alistair; Lewis, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Errors in the angle encoders of a laser tracker may potentially produce large errors in long range coordinate measurements. To determine the azimuth angle encoder errors and verify their values stored in the tracker's internal error map, several methodologies were evaluated, differing in complexity, measurement time and the need for specialised measuring equipment. These methodologies are: an artefact-based technique developed by NIST; a multi-target network technique developed by NPL; and the classical precision angular indexing table technique. It is shown that the three methodologies agree within their respective measurement uncertainties and that the NPL technique has the advantages of a short measurement time and no reliance on specialised measurement equipment or artefacts.

  16. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, W. J.

    1999-10-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as a independent module for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002 for an operational period of three years. The principal scientific objectives are the searches for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. The AMS uses 5.5m2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories in the field of a permanent magnet. The detector design and construction covered a 3yr period which terminated with a test flight on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1988. In this contribution, we describe the shuttle version of the AMS silicon tracker, including preliminary results of the tracker performance during the flight.

  17. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Borozdin, K. N.; Durham, J. M.; Fuzita, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Izumi, M.; Nakayama, K.; Saltus, M.; Sugita, T.; Takakura, K.; Yoshioka, K.

    2016-09-01

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. The system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m2 area. Each muon tracker consists of 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when the core is imaged from outside the reactor building.

  18. Research and Development of Scintillation fiber Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, A.; ITO, H.; Kawai, H.; Kodama, S.; Kaneko, N.; Han, S.

    2015-07-01

    We are developing the scintillation fiber trackers. This detector is consist of 0.5 mm diameter scintillation fibers and PPDs. This detector has the doughnut shape with outer diameter of 50 cm and inner diameter of 10 cm and thickness of 2 mm. The position resolution is 70 μm. There are no ineffective area. And the cost is several million yen. (authors)

  19. ILC Vertex Tracker R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Marco; Bussat, Jean-Marie; Contarato, Devis; Denes,Peter; Glesener, Lindsay; Greiner, Leo; Hooberman, Benjamin; Shuman,Derek; Tompkins, Lauren; Vu, Chinh; Bisello, Dario; Giubilato, Piero; Pantano, Devis; Costa, Marco; La Rosa, Alessandro; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Children, Isaac

    2007-10-01

    This document summarizes past achievements, current activities and future goals of the R&D program aimed at the design, prototyping and characterization of a full detector module, equipped with monolithic pixel sensors, matching the requirements for the Vertex Tracker at the ILC. We provide a plan of activities to obtain a demonstrator multi-layered vertex tracker equipped with sensors matching the ILC requirements and realistic lightweight ladders in FY11, under the assumption that ILC detector proto-collaborations will be choosing technologies and designs for the Vertex Tracker by that time. The R&D program discussed here started at LBNL in 2004, supported by a Laboratory Directed R&D (LDRD) grant and by funding allocated from the core budget of the LBNL Physics Division and from the Department of Physics at UC Berkeley. Subsequently additional funding has been awarded under the NSF-DOE LCRD program and also personnel have become available through collaborative research with other groups. The aim of the R&D program carried out by our collaboration is to provide a well-integrated, inclusive research effort starting from physics requirements for the ILC Vertex Tracker and addressing Si sensor design and characterization, engineered ladder design, module system issues, tracking and vertex performances and beam test validation. The broad scope of this program is made possible by important synergies with existing know-how and concurrent programs both at LBNL and at the other collaborating institutions. In particular, significant overlaps with LHC detector design, SLHC R&D as well as prototyping for the STAR upgrade have been exploited to optimize the cost per deliverable of our program. This activity is carried out as a collaborative effort together with Accelerator and Fusion Research, the Engineering and the Nuclear Science Divisions at LBNL, INFN and the Department of Physics in Padova, Italy, INFN and the Department of Physics in Torino, Italy and the Department

  20. Stereoscopic Video Weld-Seam Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Larry Z.

    1991-01-01

    Stereoscopic video camera and laser illuminator operates in conjunction with image-data-processing computer to locate weld seam and to map surface features in vicinity of seam. Intended to track seams to guide placement of welding torch in automatic welding system and to yield information on qualities of welds. More sensitive than prior optical seam trackers and suitable for use in production environment. Tracks nearly invisible gap between butted machined edges of two plates.

  1. Analytic Performance Modeling of Imaging Trackers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-05

    stochastic differential equations, where the tracker synthesis problem is to find a near optimal estimate of x based on measurements y and the performance...digital simulation, which by it’s very nature is discrete. This solution is based on the representation theorem.I Representation Theorem j The...system to performance of related linear systems. j The first approach, the Bobrovsky-Zakai bound (23). is based on an infinite-dimensional extension of

  2. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  3. An optical tracker for the maritime environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachoo, Asheer K.; le Roux, Francois; Nicolls, Fred

    2011-06-01

    Optical (visual) tracking is an important research area in computer vision with a wide range of useful and critical applications in defence and industry. The tracking of targets that pose a threat or potential threat to a country's assets and resources is a critical component in defence and security. In order to complement radar sensing applications, an optical tracker provides additional functions such as target detection, target identification and intent detection at the visual level. A tracker for the maritime environment is an optical system that performs the automatic tracking of an above water target. Ideally, a track of the target is required for as long as is possible. Some examples of targets include boats, yachts, ships, jet-skis and aircraft. A number of factors mitigate the performance of such a system - change in target appearance, target occlusions, platform vibration and scintillation in the atmosphere are some common examples. We present the implementation of a firstgeneration system that is robust to platform vibration, target appearance changes and short-term occlusions. The optical tracker is developed using a particle filter and an appearance model that is updated online. The system achieves real-time tracking through the use of non-specialized computer hardware. Promising results are presented for a number of real-world videos captured during field trials.

  4. The CMS Tracker Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousaf Shah, S.; Tsirou, Andromachi; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Hartmann, Frank; Masetti, Lorenzo; Dirkes, Guido H.; Stringer, Robert; Fahrer, Manuel

    2009-06-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid DCS (CMS) Silicon Strip Tracker is by far the largest detector ever built in micro-strip technology. It has an active surface area of 198 m 2 consisting of 15,148 silicon modules with 9,316,352 readout channels read via 75,376 Analog Pipeline Voltage (APV) front-end chips and a total of 24,244 sensors. The Detector Control System (DCS) for the Tracker is a distributed control system that operates ˜2000 power supplies for the silicon modules and also monitors its environmental sensors. The DCS receives information from about 10 3 environmental probes (temperature and humidity sensors) located inside the detector's volume and values from these probes are driven through the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) of the Detector Safety System (DSS). A total of 10 5 parameters are read out from the dedicated chips in the front-end electronics of the detector via the data acquisition system, and a total of 10 5 parameters are read from the power supply modules. All these parameters are monitored, evaluated and correlated with the detector layout; actions are taken under specific conditions. The hardware for DCS consists of 10 PCs and 10 PLC systems that are continuously running the necessary control and safety routines. The DCS is a fundamental tool for the Tracker operation and its safety.

  5. A large Scintillating Fibre Tracker for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greim, R.

    2017-02-01

    The LHCb experiment will be upgraded during LHC Long Shutdown 2 to be able to record data at a higher instantaneous luminosity. The readout rate is currently limited to 1 MHz by the Level 1 trigger. In order to achieve the target integrated luminosity of 50 fb‑1 during LHC Run 3, all subdetectors have to be read out by a 40 MHz trigger-less readout system. Especially, the current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet suffer from large detector dead times and a small granularity in the Outer Tracker, which consists of proportional straw tubes. Therefore, the Downstream Tracker will be replaced by a Scintillating Fibre Tracker with Silicon Photomultiplier readout. The total sensitive area of 340 m2 is made up of 2.5 m long fibre mats consisting of six staggered layers of 250 μm thin scintillating fibres. The scintillation light created by the charged particles traversing the fibre mats is transported to the fibre ends via total internal reflection and detected by state-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays. This paper presents the detector concept, design, challenges, custom-made readout chips, as well as laboratory and beam test results.

  6. Nature as Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tank, Kristina; Moore, Tamara; Strnat, Meg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the final lesson within a seven-day STEM and literacy unit that is part of the Picture STEM curriculum (pictureSTEM. org) and uses engineering to integrate science and mathematics learning in a meaningful way (Tank and Moore 2013). For this engineering challenge, students used nature as a source of inspiration for designs to…

  7. In Search of Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Keeping one's self inspired in the music classroom is all about connections. Sometimes educators need to look at what they're doing from a different perspective. Luckily, there's no shortage of ways to revitalize one's classroom approach, and to help the author explores a few, he made use of some connections of his own, turning to five educators…

  8. Summer Reading That Inspires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    Why did you decide on science as a career? For many, it was the inspiration of a mentor or model--an explorer who could communicate excitement and a sense of adventure to others. During the school year, teachers take on that role of motivator for students. But as they recharge over summer break, it is great to treat themselves again to the stories…

  9. Inspired by Oceans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Several years ago, the school system discussed in this article, agreed on a five-year cycle of nature themes to integrate instruction across disciplines. Last year, students studied artists and artworks inspired by oceans. Students also explored the theme with their own artistic expressions. Teachers began the year with lessons based on sea…

  10. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  11. Inspired by Nevelson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egenes, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Louise Nevelson's circular assemblage, "Collegiate School" (1972), was the inspiration for an art class with the preschoolers at the Kent Children's Center. Nevelson (1899-1988) was the ultimate "found art" artist. Finding interesting throwaway objects, in and out of trash bins, she constructed assemblages that completely changed their former use.…

  12. Characterizing limit order prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon

    2013-11-01

    A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.

  13. Robust visual tracking with dual spatio-temporal context trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shiyan; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Visual tracking is a challenging problem in computer vision. Recent years, significant numbers of trackers have been proposed. Among these trackers, tracking with dense spatio-temporal context has been proved to be an efficient and accurate method. Other than trackers with online trained classifier that struggle to meet the requirement of real-time tracking task, a tracker with spatio-temporal context can run at hundreds of frames per second with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Nevertheless, the performance of the tracker with Spatio-temporal context relies heavily on the learning rate of the context, which restricts the robustness of the tracker. In this paper, we proposed a tracking method with dual spatio-temporal context trackers that hold different learning rate during tracking. The tracker with high learning rate could track the target smoothly when the appearance of target changes, while the tracker with low learning rate could percepts the occlusion occurring and continues to track when the target starts to emerge again. To find the target among the candidates from these two trackers, we adopt Normalized Correlation Coefficient (NCC) to evaluate the confidence of each sample. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs robustly against several state-of-the-art tracking methods.

  14. Dynamic exit pupil trackers for autostereoscopic displays.

    PubMed

    Akşit, Kaan; Baghsiahi, Hadi; Surman, Phil; Ölçer, Selim; Willman, Eero; Selviah, David R; Day, Sally; Urey, Hakan

    2013-06-17

    This paper describes the first demonstrations of two dynamic exit pupil (DEP) tracker techniques for autostereoscopic displays. The first DEP tracker forms an exit pupil pair for a single viewer in a defined space with low intraocular crosstalk using a pair of moving shutter glasses located within the optical system. A display prototype using the first DEP tracker is constructed from a pair of laser projectors, pupil-forming optics, moving shutter glasses at an intermediate pupil plane, an image relay lens, and a Gabor superlens based viewing screen. The left and right eye images are presented time-sequentially to a single viewer and seen as a 3D image without wearing glasses and allows the viewer to move within a region of 40 cm × 20 cm in the lateral plane, and 30 cm along the axial axis. The second DEP optics can move the exit pupil location dynamically in a much larger 3D space by using a custom spatial light modulator (SLM) forming an array of shutters. Simultaneous control of multiple exit pupils in both lateral and axial axes is demonstrated for the first time and provides a viewing volume with an axial extent of 0.6-3 m from the screen and within a lateral viewing angle of ± 20° for multiple viewers. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs. In this novel version of the display the optical system is used as an advanced dynamic backlight for a liquid crystal display (LCD). This has advantages in terms of overall display size as there is no requirement for an intermediate image, and in image quality. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs.

  15. Roadside Tracker Portal-less Portal Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Bradley, Eric Craig; Cunningham, Mark F.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Goddard, Jr, James Samuel; Hornback, Donald Eric; Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Kerekes, Ryan A.; Newby, Jason

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the full development cycle of the Roadside Tracker (RST) Portal-less Portal monitor (Fig. 1) funded by DHS DNDO. The project started with development of a proof-of-feasibility proto-type, proceeded through design and construction of a proof-of-concept (POC) prototype, a test-and-evaluation phase, participation in a Limited Use Exercise that included the Standoff Radiation Detections Systems developed under an Advanced Technology Demonstration and concluded with participation in a Characterization Study conducted by DNDO.

  16. Optimization Method for Solution Model of Laser Tracker Multilateration Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongfang; Tan, Zhi; Shi, Zhaoyao; Song, Huixu; Yan, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Multilateration measurement using laser trackers suffers from a cumbersome solution method for high-precision measurements. Errors are induced by the self-calibration routines of the laser tracker software. This paper describes an optimization solution model for laser tracker multilateration measurement, which effectively inhibits the negative effect of this self-calibration, and further, analyzes the accuracy of the singular value decomposition for the described solution model. Experimental verification for the solution model based on laser tracker and coordinate measuring machine (CMM) was performed. The experiment results show that the described optimization model for laser tracker multilateration measurement has good accuracy control, and has potentially broad application in the field of laser tracker spatial localization.

  17. Modeling of intensified high dynamic star tracker.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinyun; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-01-23

    An intensified high dynamic star tracker (IHDST) is a photoelectric instrument and stably outputs three-axis attitude for a spacecraft at very high angular velocity. The IHDST uses an image intensifier to multiply the incident starlight. Thus, high sensitivity of the star detection is achieved under short exposure time such that extremely high dynamic performance is achieved. The IHDST differs from a traditional star tracker in terms of the imaging process. Therefore, we establish a quantum transfer model of IHDST based on stochastic process theory. By this model, the probability distribution of the output quantum number is obtained accurately. Then, we introduce two-dimensional Lorentz functions to describe the spatial spreading process of the IHDST. Considering the interaction of these two processes, a complete star imaging model of IHDST is provided. Using this model, the centroiding accuracy of the IHDST is analyzed in detail. Accordingly, a working parameter optimizing strategy is developed for high centroiding accuracy and improved dynamic performance. Finally, the laboratory tests and the night sky experiment support the conclusions.

  18. Videometric head tracker for augmented reality applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janin, Adam L.; Zikan, Karel; Mizell, David; Banner, Mike; Sowizral, Henry A.

    1995-12-01

    For the past three years, we have been developing augmented reality technology for application to a variety of touch labor tasks in aircraft manufacturing and assembly. The system would be worn by factory workers to provide them with better-quality information for performing their tasks than was previously available. Using a see-through head-mounted display (HMD) whose optics are set at a focal length of about 18 in., the display and its associated head tracking system can be used to superimpose and stabilize graphics on the surface of a work piece. This technology would obviate many expensive marking systems now used in aerospace manufacturing. The most challenging technical issue with respect to factory applications of AR is head position and orientation tracking. It requires high accuracy, long- range tracking in a high-noise environment. The approach we have chosen uses a head- mounted miniature video camera. The user's wearable computer system utilizes the camera to find fiducial markings that have been placed on known coordinates on or near the work piece. The system then computes the user's position and orientation relative to the fiducial marks. It is referred to as a `videometric' head tracker. In this paper, we describe the steps we took and the results we obtained in the process of prototyping our videometric head tracker, beginning with analytical and simulation results, and continuing through the working prototypes.

  19. The NA62 GigaTracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglieri Rinella, G.; Feito, D. Alvarez; Arcidiacono, R.; Biino, C.; Bonacini, S.; Ceccucci, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Gil, E. Cortina; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Degrange, J.; Fiorini, M.; Gamberini, E.; Gianoli, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Minucci, E.; Morel, M.; Noël, J.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Romagnoli, G.; Ruggiero, G.; Velghe, B.; Wahl, H.

    2017-02-01

    The GigaTracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector built for the NA62 experiment aiming at measuring the branching fraction of the ultra-rare kaon decay K+ →π+ ν ν bar at the CERN SPS. The detector has to track particles in a beam with a flux reaching 1.3 MHz/mm2 and provide single-hit timing with 200 ps RMS resolution for a total material budget of less than 0.5% X0 per station. The tracker comprises three 60.8 mm×27 mm stations installed in vacuum (∼10-6 mbar) and cooled with liquid C6F14 circulating through micro-channels etched inside a few hundred micron thick silicon plates. Each station is composed of a 200 μm thick silicon sensor read out by 2×5 custom 100 μm thick ASICs, called TDCPix. Each chip contains 40×45 asynchronous pixels, 300 μm×300 μm each and is instrumented with 100 ps bin time-to-digital converters. In order to cope with the high rate, the TDCPix is equipped with four 3.2 Gb/s serialisers sending out the data. We will describe the detector and the results from the 2014 and 2015 NA62 runs.

  20. Rover odometry aided by a star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammell, J. D.; Tong, Chi Hay; Berczi, P.; Anderson, S.; Barfoot, T. D.; Enright, J.

    This paper develops a practical framework for estimating rover position in full-dark conditions by correcting relative odometric estimates with periodic, absolute-attitude measurements from a star tracker. The framework is validated using just under 2.5 kilometres of field data gathered at the University of Toronto's Koffler Scientific Reserve at Jokers Hill (KSR) comprised of both wheel odometry and lidar-based Visual Odometry (VO). It is shown that for the wheel odometry solution, the final estimate of rover position was within 21 metres of the groundtruth as calculated by a differential GPS receiver, or 0.85% of the total traverse distance. When the star tracker measurements are artificially limited to occurring approximately every 250 metres, the algorithm still performs well, giving a final position error of 75.8 metres or 3.0%. Preliminary results to replace wheel odometry with lidar-based VO for the development a full-dark visual solution are also presented. The lidar-based VO solution is shown to be capable of outperforming wheel odometry, but more work is required to develop methods to handle the variety of terrain conditions encountered.

  1. A multi-hypothesis tracker for clicking whales.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a tracker specially designed to track clicking beaked whales using widely spaced bottom-mounted hydrophones, although it can be adapted to different species and sensors. The input to the tracker is a sequence of static localization solutions obtained using time difference of arrival information at widely spaced hydrophones. To effectively handle input localizations with high ambiguity, the tracker is based on multi-hypothesis tracker concepts, so it considers all potential association hypotheses and keeps a large number of potential tracks in memory. The method is demonstrated on actual data and shown to successfully track multiple beaked whales at depth.

  2. Quantum-Inspired Maximizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

  3. Astronomy. Inspiration. Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanic, N.

    2008-10-01

    This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazić (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maletić (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djukić, Nenad Jeremić, Olivera Obradović, Romana Vujasinović, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.

  4. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  5. Estimating 3D gaze in physical environment: a geometric approach on consumer-level remote eye tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibirama, Sunu; Mahesa, Rizki R.; Nugroho, Hanung A.; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    Remote eye trackers with consumer price have been used for various applications on flat computer screen. On the other hand, 3D gaze tracking in physical environment has been useful for visualizing gaze behavior, robots controller, and assistive technology. Instead of using affordable remote eye trackers, 3D gaze tracking in physical environment has been performed using corporate-level head mounted eye trackers, limiting its practical usage to niche user. In this research, we propose a novel method to estimate 3D gaze using consumer-level remote eye tracker. We implement geometric approach to obtain 3D point of gaze from binocular lines-of-sight. Experimental results show that the proposed method yielded low errors of 3.47+/-3.02 cm, 3.02+/-1.34 cm, and 2.57+/-1.85 cm in X, Y , and Z dimensions, respectively. The proposed approach may be used as a starting point for designing interaction method in 3D physical environment.

  6. Infrared tracker for a portable missile launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.

    1993-07-13

    An infrared beam tracker is described for arrangement to a housing that is unitary with a portable missile launcher, comprising: a rotating beam splitter positioned to intercept the infrared beam passing a first portion of the beam through the beam splitter along a first direction and reflecting the remaining portion along a different direction; a first infrared detector for receiving the beam reflected portion from the beam splitter and produce electric signals responsive thereto; a second infrared detector for receiving the beam portion that passes through the beam splitter and providing electric signals responsive thereto; and means interconnected to the first and second infrared detectors and responsive to the electric signals generated by said detectors for determining errors in missile flight direction and communicating course correction information to the missile.

  7. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-06-15

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.

  8. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses. PMID:27314359

  9. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, C.; Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Levine, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Xu, Z.; Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Cendejas, R.; Huang, H.; Sakai, S.; Whitten, C.; Joseph, J.; Keane, D.; Margetis, S.; Rykov, V.; Zhang, W.M.; Bystersky, M.; Kapitan, J.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Baudot, J.; Hu-Guo, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Winter, M.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Plesko, M.; Redwine, R.; Simon, F.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Anderssen, E.; Dong, X.; Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Morgan, S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Singh, R.P.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Thomas, J.H.; Tram, V.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Xu, N.; Hirsch, A.; Srivastava, B.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Bichsel, H.

    2008-02-25

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector,the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APSsensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay.

  10. Simulating Price-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Lucas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a price-takers' market simulation geared toward principles-level students. This simulation demonstrates that price-taking behavior is a natural result of the conditions that create perfect competition. In trials, there is a significant degree of price convergence in just three or four rounds. Students find this…

  11. The Frozen Price Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Lori

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…

  12. Price Estimation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Aster, R. W.; Firnett, P. J.; Miller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG4, program provides comparatively simple, yet relatively accurate estimate of price of manufactured product. IPEG4 processes user supplied input data to determine estimate of price per unit of production. Input data include equipment cost, space required, labor cost, materials and supplies cost, utility expenses, and production volume on industry wide or process wide basis.

  13. Laser tracker error determination using a network measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Ben; Forbes, Alistair; Lewis, Andrew; Sun, Wenjuan; Veal, Dan; Nasr, Karim

    2011-04-01

    We report on a fast, easily implemented method to determine all the geometrical alignment errors of a laser tracker, to high precision. The technique requires no specialist equipment and can be performed in less than an hour. The technique is based on the determination of parameters of a geometric model of the laser tracker, using measurements of a set of fixed target locations, from multiple locations of the tracker. After fitting of the model parameters to the observed data, the model can be used to perform error correction of the raw laser tracker data or to derive correction parameters in the format of the tracker manufacturer's internal error map. In addition to determination of the model parameters, the method also determines the uncertainties and correlations associated with the parameters. We have tested the technique on a commercial laser tracker in the following way. We disabled the tracker's internal error compensation, and used a five-position, fifteen-target network to estimate all the geometric errors of the instrument. Using the error map generated from this network test, the tracker was able to pass a full performance validation test, conducted according to a recognized specification standard (ASME B89.4.19-2006). We conclude that the error correction determined from the network test is as effective as the manufacturer's own error correction methodologies.

  14. SVT: an online silicon vertex tracker for the CDF upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bardi, A.; Belforte, S.; Berryhill, J.; CDF Collaboration

    1997-07-01

    The SVT is an online tracker for the CDF upgrade which will reconstruct 2D tracks using information from the Silicon VerteX detector (SVXII) and Central Outer Tracker (COT). The precision measurement of the track impact parameter will then be used to select and record large samples of B hadrons. We discuss the overall architecture, algorithms, and hardware implementation of the system.

  15. Visible-spectrum remote eye tracker for gaze communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imabuchi, Takashi; Prima, Oky Dicky A.; Kikuchi, Hikaru; Horie, Yusuke; Ito, Hisayoshi

    2015-03-01

    Many approaches have been proposed to create an eye tracker based on visible-spectrum. These efforts provide a possibility to create inexpensive eye tracker capable to operate outdoor. Although the resulted tracking accuracy is acceptable for a visible-spectrum head-mounted eye tracker, there are many limitations of these approaches to create a remote eye tracker. In this study, we propose a high-accuracy remote eye tracker that uses visible-spectrum imaging and several gaze communication interfaces suited to the tracker. The gaze communication interfaces are designed to assist people with motor disability. Our results show that the proposed eye tracker achieved an average accuracy of 0.77° and a frame rate of 28 fps with a personal computer. With a tablet device, the proposed eye tracker achieved an average accuracy of 0.82° and a frame rate of 25 fps. The proposed gaze communication interfaces enable users to type a complete sentence containing eleven Japanese characters in about a minute.

  16. Biologically inspired oxidation catalysis.

    PubMed

    Que, Lawrence; Tolman, William B

    2008-09-18

    The development of processes for selective hydrocarbon oxidation is a goal that has long been pursued. An additional challenge is to make such processes environmentally friendly, for example by using non-toxic reagents and energy-efficient catalytic methods. Excellent examples are naturally occurring iron- or copper-containing metalloenzymes, and extensive studies have revealed the key chemical principles that underlie their efficacy as catalysts for aerobic oxidations. Important inroads have been made in applying this knowledge to the development of synthetic catalysts that model enzyme function. Such biologically inspired hydrocarbon oxidation catalysts hold great promise for wide-ranging synthetic applications.

  17. The Design Parameters for the MICE Tracker Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Chen, C.Y.; Juang, Tiki; Lau, Wing W.; Taylor,Clyde; Virostek, Steve P.; Wahrer, Robert; Wang, S.T.; Witte, Holger; Yang, Stephanie Q.

    2006-08-20

    The first superconducting magnets to be installed in the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) will be the tracker solenoids. The tracker solenoid module is a five coil superconducting solenoid with a 400 mm diameter warm bore that is used to provide a 4 T magnetic field for the experiment tracker module. Three of the coils are used to produce a uniform field (up to 4 T with better than 1 percent uniformity) in a region that is 300 mm in diameter and 1000 mm long. The other two coils are used to match the muon beam into the MICE cooling channel. Two 2.94-meter long superconducting tracker solenoid modules have been ordered for MICE. The tracker solenoid will be cooled using two-coolers that produce 1.5 W each at 4.2 K. The magnet system is described. The decisions that drive the magnet design will be discussed in this report.

  18. Acceptability of wristband activity trackers among community dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Tara; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Hathaway, Donna; Armstrong, Shannon; Moore, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Wristband activity trackers have become widely used among young adults. However, few studies have explored their use for monitoring and improving health outcomes among older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of activity tracker use among older adults for monitoring activity, improving self-efficacy, and health outcomes. A 12-week pilot study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and utility of mobile wristband activity trackers. The sample (N = 34) was 65% women 73.5 ± 9.4 years of age who had a high school diploma or GED (38%) and reported an income ≤$35,000 (58%). Participants completing the study (95%) experienced a decrease in waist circumference (p > 0.009), however no change in self-efficacy. Participants found activity trackers easy to use which contributed to minimal study withdrawals. It was concluded that activity trackers could be useful for monitoring and promoting physical activity and improving older adults' health.

  19. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  20. SDC conceptual design: Scintillating fiber outer tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Baumbaugh, A.; Bird, F.; SDC Collaboration

    1992-01-22

    The authors propose an all-scintillating fiber detector for the purpose of outer tracking for the SDC. The objectives of this tracking system are to: (1) provide a first level trigger for {vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} < 2.3 with sharp p{sub T} threshold with the ability to resolve individual beam crossings; (2) provide pattern recognition capability and momentum resolution which complements and extends the capabilities of the inner silicon tracking system; (3) provide three dimensional linkage with outer detection systems including the shower maximum detector, muon detectors, and calorimetry; (4) provide robust tracking and track-triggering at the highest luminosities expected at the SSC. The many attractive features of a fiber tracker include good position resolution, low occupancy, low mass in the active volume, and excellent resistance to radiation damage. An additional important feature, especially at the SSC, is the intrinsically prompt response time of a scintillating fiber. This property is exploited in the construction of a level 1 trigger sensitive to individual beam crossings.

  1. The DAMPE silicon-tungsten tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzarello, P.; Ambrosi, G.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Bernardini, P.; Bertucci, B.; Bolognini, A.; Cadoux, F.; Caprai, M.; De Mitri, I.; Domenjoz, M.; Dong, Y.; Duranti, M.; Fan, R.; Fusco, P.; Gallo, V.; Gargano, F.; Gong, K.; Guo, D.; Husi, C.; Ionica, M.; La Marra, D.; Loparco, F.; Marsella, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mesa, J.; Nardinocchi, A.; Nicola, L.; Pelleriti, G.; Peng, W.; Pohl, M.; Postolache, V.; Qiao, R.; Surdo, A.; Tykhonov, A.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Wu, D.; Wu, X.; Zhang, F.

    2016-09-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a spaceborne astroparticle physics experiment, launched on 17 December 2015. DAMPE will identify possible dark matter signatures by detecting electrons and photons in the 5 GeV-10 TeV energy range. It will also measure the flux of nuclei up to 100 TeV, for the study of the high energy cosmic ray origin and propagation mechanisms. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon-tungsten tracker-converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is composed of six tracking planes of 2 orthogonal layers of single-sided micro-strip detectors, for a total detector surface of ca. 7 m2. The STK has been extensively tested for space qualification. Also, numerous beam tests at CERN have been done to study particle detection at silicon module level, and at full detector level. After description of the DAMPE payload and its scientific mission, we will describe the STK characteristics and assembly. We will then focus on some results of single ladder performance tests done with particle beams at CERN.

  2. An Exploration of Design Students' Inspiration Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dazkir, Sibel S.; Mower, Jennifer M.; Reddy-Best, Kelly L.; Pedersen, Elaine L.

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to explore how different sources of inspiration influenced two groups of students' inspiration process and their attitudes toward their design projects. Assigned sources of inspiration and instructor's assistance in the search for inspiration varied for two groups of students completing a small culture inspired product design…

  3. The research on image processing technology of the star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-ming; Li, Chun-jiang; Zheng, Ran; Li, Xiao; Yang, Jun

    2014-11-01

    As the core of visual sensitivity via imaging, image processing technology, especially for star tracker, is mainly characterized by such items as image exposure, optimal storage, background estimation, feature correction, target extraction, iteration compensation. This paper firstly summarizes the new research on those items at home and abroad, then, according to star tracker's practical engineering, environment in orbit and lifetime information, shows an architecture about rapid fusion between multiple frame images, which can be used to restrain oversaturation of the effective pixels, which means star tracker can be made more precise, more robust and more stable.

  4. A Bayesian tracker for multi-sensor passive narrowband fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirkl, Ryan J.; Aughenbaugh, Jason M.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the detection and localization performance of a multi-sensor, passive sonar Bayesian tracker for underwater targets emitting narrowband signals in the presence of realistic underwater ambient noise. Our evaluation focuses on recent advances in the formulation of the likelihood function used by the tracker that provide greater robustness in the presence of both realistic environmental noise and imprecise/inaccurate a priori knowledge of the target's narrowband signal. These improvements enable the tracker to reliably detect and localize narrowband emitters for a broader range of propagation environments, target velocities, and inherent uncertainty in a priori knowledge.

  5. EOS attitude determination and next generation star tracker enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudva, P.; Throckmorton, A.

    1993-01-01

    The pointing knowledge required for the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM mission is at the limit of the current generation of star trackers, with little margin. Techniques for improving the performance of existing star trackers are explored, with performance sensitivities developed for each alternative. These are extended to define the most significant performance enhancements for a next generation star tracker. Since attitude determination studies tend to be computationally intensive, an approach for using a simpler one degree of freedom formulation is contrasted with a full three degree of freedom formulation. Additionally, covariance analysis results are compared with time domain simulation performance results.

  6. Status of the D0 fiber tracker and preshower detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Dmitri; /Notre Dame U.

    2009-01-01

    In this report we focus on the performance of the D0 central fiber tracker and preshower detectors during the high luminosity p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 GeV delivered by the Tevatron collider at Fermilab (Run IIb). Both fiber tracker and preshower detectors utilize a similar readout system based on high quantum efficiency solid state photo-detectors capable of converting light into electrical signals. We also give a brief description of the D0 detector and the central track trigger, and conclude with a summary on the central tracker performance.

  7. Coalitional Tracker for Deception Detection in Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdall, Jonathan; Pavlidis, Ioannis; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis

    We propose a novel tracking method that uses a network of independent particle filter trackers whose interactions are modeled using coalitional game theory. Our tracking method is general; it maintains pixel-level accuracy, and can negotiate surface deformations and occlusions. We tested our method in a substantial video set featuring nontrivial motion from over 40 objects in both the infrared and vi sual spectra. The coalitional tracker demonstrated fault-tolerant behavior that far exceeds the performance of single-particle filter trackers. Our method represents a shift from the typical tracking paradigms and may find application in demanding imaging problems across the electromagnetic spectrum.

  8. High Energy Astronomy Observatory star tracker search program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a control system to accommodate the scientific payload of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) is discussed. One of the critical elements of the system is the star tracker subsystem, which defines an accurate three-axis attitude reference. A digital computer program has been developed to evaluate the ability of a particular star tracker configuration to meet the requirements for attitude reference at various vehicle orientations. Used in conjuction with an adequate star catalog, the computer program provides information on availability of stars for each tracker and on the ability of the system to maintain three-axis attitude reference throughout a representative sequence of vehicle orientations.

  9. STS pricing policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  10. Estimating Prices of Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.; Chamberlain, R. G.; Zendejas, S. C.; Lee, T. S.; Malhotra, S.

    1986-01-01

    Company-wide or process-wide production simulated. Price Estimation Guidelines (IPEG) program provides simple, accurate estimates of prices of manufactured products. Simplification of SAMIS allows analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform greater number of sensitivity studies. Although developed for photovoltaic industry, readily adaptable to standard assembly-line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG program estimates annual production price per unit. IPEG/PC program written in TURBO PASCAL.

  11. Food price volatility

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C. L.; Morgan, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    The high food prices experienced over recent years have led to the widespread view that food price volatility has increased. However, volatility has generally been lower over the two most recent decades than previously. Variability over the most recent period has been high but, with the important exception of rice, not out of line with historical experience. There is weak evidence that grains price volatility more generally may be increasing but it is too early to say. PMID:20713400

  12. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes: 1981 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Associates of Washington, DC.

    Higher Education prices and price indexes for fiscal years 1979-1981 are presented, with narrative explanation. A price index series measures the effects of price change on a fixed group of items. The change in price index values from year to year may be interpreted as the change in dollars required to offset the effects of inflation in buying the…

  13. HETDEX tracker control system design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beno, Joseph H.; Hayes, Richard; Leck, Ron; Penney, Charles; Soukup, Ian

    2012-09-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics and McDonald Observatory developed a precision tracker and control system - an 18,000 kg robot to position a 3,100 kg payload within 10 microns of a desired dynamic track. Performance requirements to meet science needs and safety requirements that emerged from detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis resulted in a system of 13 precision controlled actuators and 100 additional analog and digital devices (primarily sensors and safety limit switches). Due to this complexity, demanding accuracy requirements, and stringent safety requirements, two independent control systems were developed. First, a versatile and easily configurable centralized control system that links with modeling and simulation tools during the hardware and software design process was deemed essential for normal operation including motion control. A second, parallel, control system, the Hardware Fault Controller (HFC) provides independent monitoring and fault control through a dedicated microcontroller to force a safe, controlled shutdown of the entire system in the event a fault is detected. Motion controls were developed in a Matlab-Simulink simulation environment, and coupled with dSPACE controller hardware. The dSPACE real-time operating system collects sensor information; motor commands are transmitted over a PROFIBUS network to servo amplifiers and drive motor status is received over the same network. To interface the dSPACE controller directly to absolute Heidenhain sensors with EnDat 2.2 protocol, a custom communication board was developed. This paper covers details of operational control software, the HFC, algorithms, tuning, debugging, testing, and lessons learned.

  14. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  15. Data acquisition software for the CMS strip tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, R.; Baulieu, G.; Bel, S.; Cole, J.; Cripps, N.; Delaere, C.; Jesus, A. C. A.; Drouhin, F.; Fulcher, J.; Giassi, A.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Gross, L.; Hahn, K.; Mersi, S.; Mirabito, L.; Nikolic, M.; Radicci, V.; Tkaczyk, S.; Wingham, M.

    2008-07-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker, providing a sensitive area of approximately 200 m2 and comprising 10 million readout channels, has recently been completed at the tracker integration facility at CERN. The strip tracker community is currently working to develop and integrate the online and offline software frameworks, known as XDAQ and CMSSW respectively, for the purposes of data acquisition and detector commissioning and monitoring. Recent developments have seen the integration of many new services and tools within the online data acquisition system, such as event building, online distributed analysis, an online monitoring framework, and data storage management. We review the various software components that comprise the strip tracker data acquisition system, the software architectures used for stand-alone and global data-taking modes. Our experiences in commissioning and operating one of the largest ever silicon micro-strip tracking systems are also reviewed.

  16. D0 layer 0 innermost layer of silicon microstrip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A new inner layer silicon strip detector has been built and will be installed in the existing silicon microstrip tracker in D0. They report on the motivation, design, and performance of this new detector.

  17. A low-cost, CCD solid state star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielowski, M.; Wynne, D.

    1992-01-01

    Applied Research Corporation (ARC) has developed an engineering model of a multi-star CCD-based tracker for space applications requiring radiation hardness, high reliability and low power consumption. The engineering unit compared favorably in functional performance tests to the standard NASA single-star tracker. Characteristics of the ARC star tracker are: field of view = 10 deg x 7.5 deg, sensitivity range of -1 to +5 star magnitude, NEA = 3 in x 3 in, linearity = 5 in x 5 in, and power consumption of 1-3 W (operating mode dependent). The software is upgradable through a remote link. The hardware-limited acquisition rate is 1-5 Hz for stars of +2 to +5 magnitude and 10-30 Hz for -1 to +2 magnitude stars. Mechanical and electrical interfaces are identical to the standard NASA star tracker.

  18. Design of a sun tracker for a laser heterodyne spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaigue, A.; Thiebeaux, C.; Courtois, D.; Le Corre, H.

    1988-01-01

    A sun tracker with a tracking precision of 0.001 degree has been developed for use with a high-resolution Laser Heterodyne Spectrometer. The mechanical and optical arrangement of the tracker are described in detail, in addition to the tracking software. The system was used to record ozone atmospheric spectra in the 10-micron region in March 1987. The analysis range is + or - 1220 MHz.

  19. Optical Alignment of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetherington, Samuel; Osgood, Dean; McMann, Joe; Roberts, Viki; Gill, James; Mclean, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    The optical alignment of the star trackers on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core spacecraft at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was challenging due to the layout and structural design of the GPM Lower Bus Structure (LBS) in which the star trackers are mounted as well as the presence of the star tracker shades that blocked line-of-sight to the primary star tracker optical references. The initial solution was to negotiate minor changes in the original LBS design to allow for the installation of a removable item of ground support equipment (GSE) that could be installed whenever measurements of the star tracker optical references were needed. However, this GSE could only be used to measure secondary optical reference cube faces not used by the star tracker vendor to obtain the relationship information and matrix transformations necessary to determine star tracker alignment. Unfortunately, due to unexpectedly large orthogonality errors between the measured secondary adjacent cube faces and the lack of cube calibration data, we required a method that could be used to measure the same reference cube faces as originally measured by the vendor. We describe an alternative technique to theodolite auto-collimation for measurement of an optical reference mirror pointing direction when normal incidence measurements are not possible. This technique was used to successfully align the GPM star trackers and has been used on a number of other NASA flight projects. We also discuss alignment theory as well as a GSFC-developed theodolite data analysis package used to analyze angular metrology data.

  20. Space shuttle orbiter vehicle star tracker test program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development model test program was written to provide guidance for essential star tracker test support to the Space Shuttle Orbiter Program. The program organization included test equipment preparation, prototype baseline/acceptance tests, prototype total performance tests, and prototype special tests. Test configurations, preparation phase, documentation, scheduling, and manpower requirements are discussed. The test program permits an early evaluation of the tracker's performance prior to completion and testing of the final flight models.

  1. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Complete data from a test program designed to evaluate the performance of a star tracker, a breadboard tracker system, is presented in tabular form. All data presented was normalized to the pixel dimension of 20 micrometers. Data from determination of maximum spatial noise as it applies to the coarse and fine acquisition modes is presented. Pointing accuracy test data, raw pixel data for the track cycle, and data from equipment related tests is also presented.

  2. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollodge, J. C.; Hubbard, M. W.; Jain, S.; Schons, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of a star tracker equipped with a focal plane detector was evaluated. The CID board is an array of 256 x 256 pixels which are 20 x 20 micrometers in dimension. The tracker used for test was a breadboard tracker system developed by BASD. Unique acquisition and tracking algorithms are employed to enhance performance. A pattern recognition process is used to test for proper image spread function and to avoid false acquisition on noise. A very linear, high gain, interpixel transfer function is derived for interpolating star position. The lens used in the tracker has an EFL of 100 mm. The tracker has an FOV of 2.93 degrees resulting in a pixel angular subtense of 41.253 arc sec in each axis. The test procedure used for the program presented a star to the tracker in a circular pattern of positions; the pattern was formed by projecting a simulated star through a rotatable deviation wedge. Further tests determined readout noise, Noise Equivalent Displacement during track, and spatial noise during acquisition by taking related data and reducing it.

  3. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollodge, J. C.; Hubbard, M. W.; Jain, S.; Schons, C. A.

    1981-08-01

    The performance of a star tracker equipped with a focal plane detector was evaluated. The CID board is an array of 256 x 256 pixels which are 20 x 20 micrometers in dimension. The tracker used for test was a breadboard tracker system developed by BASD. Unique acquisition and tracking algorithms are employed to enhance performance. A pattern recognition process is used to test for proper image spread function and to avoid false acquisition on noise. A very linear, high gain, interpixel transfer function is derived for interpolating star position. The lens used in the tracker has an EFL of 100 mm. The tracker has an FOV of 2.93 degrees resulting in a pixel angular subtense of 41.253 arc sec in each axis. The test procedure used for the program presented a star to the tracker in a circular pattern of positions; the pattern was formed by projecting a simulated star through a rotatable deviation wedge. Further tests determined readout noise, Noise Equivalent Displacement during track, and spatial noise during acquisition by taking related data and reducing it.

  4. Multi-expert tracking algorithm based on improved compressive tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yachun; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Object tracking is a challenging task in computer vision. Most state-of-the-art methods maintain an object model and update the object model by using new examples obtained incoming frames in order to deal with the variation in the appearance. It will inevitably introduce the model drift problem into the object model updating frame-by-frame without any censorship mechanism. In this paper, we adopt a multi-expert tracking framework, which is able to correct the effect of bad updates after they happened such as the bad updates caused by the severe occlusion. Hence, the proposed framework exactly has the ability which a robust tracking method should process. The expert ensemble is constructed of a base tracker and its formal snapshot. The tracking result is produced by the current tracker that is selected by means of a simple loss function. We adopt an improved compressive tracker as the base tracker in our work and modify it to fit the multi-expert framework. The proposed multi-expert tracking algorithm significantly improves the robustness of the base tracker, especially in the scenes with frequent occlusions and illumination variations. Experiments on challenging video sequences with comparisons to several state-of-the-art trackers demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and our tracking algorithm can run at real-time.

  5. EMC Diagnosis and Corrective Actions for Silicon Strip Tracker Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Arteche, F.; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2006-06-06

    The tracker sub-system is one of the five sub-detectors of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment under construction at CERN for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The tracker subdetector is designed to reconstruct tracks of charged sub-atomic particles generated after collisions. The tracker system processes analogue signals from 10 million channels distributed across 14000 silicon micro-strip detectors. It is designed to process signals of a few nA and digitize them at 40 MHz. The overall sub-detector is embedded in a high particle radiation environment and a magnetic field of 4 Tesla. The evaluation of the electromagnetic immunity of the system is very important to optimize the performance of the tracker sub-detector and the whole CMS experiment. This paper presents the EMC diagnosis of the CMS silicon tracker sub-detector. Immunity tests were performed using the final prototype of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) system to estimate the sensitivity of the system to conducted noise, evaluate the weakest areas of the system and take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector. This paper shows the results of one of those tests, that is the measurement and analysis of the immunity to CM external conducted noise perturbations.

  6. Software and mathematical support of Kazakhstani star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, D.; Yelubayev, S.; Ten, V.; Bopeyev, T.; Alipbayev, K.; Sukhenko, A.

    2016-10-01

    Currently the specialists of Kazakhstan have been developing the star tracker that is further planned to use on Kazakhstani satellites of various purposes. At the first stage it has been developed the experimental model of star tracker that has following characteristics: field of view 20°, update frequency 2 Hz, exclusion angle 40°, accuracy of attitude determination of optical axis/around optical axis 15/50 arcsec. Software and mathematical support are the most high technology parts of star tracker. The results of software and mathematical support development of experimental model of Kazakhstani star tracker are represented in this article. In particular, there are described the main mathematical models and algorithms that have been used as a basis for program units of preliminary image processing of starry sky, stars identification and star tracker attitude determination. The results of software and mathematical support testing with the help of program simulation complex using various configurations of defects including image sensor noises, point spread function modeling, optical system distortion up to 2% are presented. Analysis of testing results has shown that accuracy of attitude determination of star tracker is within the permissible range

  7. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  8. Holography inspired stringy hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Holography inspired stringy hadrons (HISH) is a set of models that describe hadrons: mesons, baryons and glueballs as strings in flat four dimensional space-time. The models are based on a "map" from stringy hadrons of holographic confining backgrounds. In this note we review the "derivation" of the models. We start with a brief reminder of the passage from the AdS5 ×S5 string theory to certain flavored confining holographic models. We then describe the string configurations in holographic backgrounds that correspond to a Wilson line, a meson, a baryon and a glueball. The key ingredients of the four dimensional picture of hadrons are the "string endpoint mass" and the "baryonic string vertex". We determine the classical trajectories of the HISH. We review the current understanding of the quantization of the hadronic strings. We end with a summary of the comparison of the outcome of the HISH models with the PDG data about mesons and baryons. We extract the values of the tension, masses and intercepts from best fits, write down certain predictions for higher excited hadrons and present attempts to identify glueballs.

  9. Perspectives on Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litten, Larry H.

    1986-01-01

    The most provocative perspectives on pricing for colleges and universities have come from the introduction of marketing into higher education. A brief review of these developments is offered to serve as an orientation for the consideration of pricing issues per se. (Author/MLW)

  10. A tracker adjunct processing system for reconsideration of firm tracker decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trawick, David J.; Slocumb, Benjamin J.; Paffenroth, Randy C.

    2010-04-01

    Most modern maximum likelihood multiple target tracking systems (e.g., Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) and Numerica's Multiple Frame Assignment (MFA)) need to determine how to separate their input measurements into subsets corresponding to the observations of individual targets. These observation sets form the tracks of the system, and the process of determining these sets is known as data association. Real-time constraints frequently force the use of only the maximum likelihood choice for data association (over some time window), although alternative data association choices may have been considered in the process of choosing the most likely. This paper presents a Tracker Adjunct Processing (TAP) system that captures and manages the uncertainty encountered in making data association decisions. The TAP combines input observation data and the data association alternatives considered by the tracker into a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The network efficiently represents the combined alternative tracking hypotheses. Bayesian network evidence propagation methods are used to update the network in light of new evidence, which may consist of new observations, new alternative data associations, newly received late observations, hypothetical connections, or other flexible queries. The maximum likelihood tracking hypothesis can then be redetermined, which may result in changes to the best tracking hypothesis. The recommended changes can then be communicated back to the associated tracking system, which can then update its tracks. In this manner, the TAP's interpretation makes the firm, fixed (formerly maximum likelihood) decisions of the tracker "softer," i.e., less absolute. The TAP can also assess (and reassess) track purity regions by ambiguity level. We illustrate the working of the TAP with several examples, one in particular showing the incorporation of critical, late or infrequent data. These data are critical in the sense that they are very valuable in resolving

  11. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  12. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  13. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  14. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  15. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  16. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  17. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  18. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  19. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  20. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  1. Bio-inspired vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  2. Pricing of new vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  3. Pricing of new vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  4. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  5. Six Sigma pricing.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, ManMohan S; Sodhi, Navdeep S

    2005-05-01

    Many companies are now good at managing costs and wringing out manufacturing efficiencies. The TQM movement and the disciplines of Six Sigma have seen to that. But the discipline so often brought to the cost side of the business equation is found far less commonly on the revenue side. The authors describe how a global manufacturer of industrial equipment, which they call Acme Incorporated, recently applied Six Sigma to one major revenue related activity--the price-setting process. It seemed to Acme's executives that pricing closely resembled many manufacturing processes. So, with the help of a Six Sigma black belt from manufacturing, a manager from Acme's pricing division recruited a team to carry out the five Six Sigma steps: Define what constitutes a defect. At Acme, a defect was an item sold at an unauthorized price. Gather data and prepare it for analysis. That involved mapping out the existing pricing-agreement process. Analyze the data. The team identified the ways in which people failed to carry out or assert effective control at each stage. Recommend modifications to the existing process. The team sought to decrease the number of unapproved prices without creating an onerous approval apparatus. Create controls. This step enabled Acme to sustain and extend the improvements in its pricing procedures. As a result of the changes, Acme earned dollar 6 million in additional revenue on one product line alone in the six months following implementation--money that went straight to the bottom line. At the same time, the company removed much of the organizational friction that had long bedeviled its pricing process. Other companies can benefit from Acme's experience as they look for ways to exercise price control without alienating customers.

  6. SALT tracker upgrade utilizing aerospace processes and procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Raoul; Coetzee, Chris; Strydom, Ockert; Brink, Janus; Browne, Keith; Wiid, Eben; Lochner, Wouter; Nelson, Grant; Rabe, Paul; Wilkinson, Martin; Moore, Vic; Malan, Adelaide; Love, Jonathan; Koeslag, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    The SALT Tracker was originally designed to carry a payload of approximately 1000 kg. The current loading exceeds 1300 kg and more instrumentation, for example, the Near-Infrared (NIR) arm of the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS), is being designed for the telescope. In general, provision also had to be made to expand the envelope of the tracker payload carrying capacity for future growth as some of the systems on SALT are currently running with small safety margins. It was therefore decided to upgrade the SALT Tracker to be able to carry a payload of 1875 kg. Before the project "Kick-Off" it became evident that neither SALT nor SAAO had the required standard of formal processes and procedures to execute a project of this nature. The Project Management, Mechanical Design and Review processes and procedures were adopted from the Aerospace Industry and tailored for our application. After training the project team in the application of these processes/procedures and gaining their commitment, the Tracker Upgrade Project was "Kicked-Off" in early May 2013. The application of these aerospace-derived processes and procedures, as used during the Tracker Upgrade Project, were very successful as is shown in this paper where the authors also highlight some of the details of the implemented processes and procedures as well as specific challenges that needed to be met while executing a project of this nature and technical complexity.

  7. Forecasting method in multilateration accuracy based on laser tracker measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, Sergio; Santolaria, Jorge; Samper, David; José Aguilar, Juan

    2017-02-01

    Multilateration based on a laser tracker (LT) requires the measurement of a set of points from three or more positions. Although the LTs’ angular information is not used, multilateration produces a volume of measurement uncertainty. This paper presents two new coefficients from which to determine whether the measurement of a set of points, before performing the necessary measurements, will improve or worsen the accuracy of the multilateration results, avoiding unnecessary measurement, and reducing the time and economic cost required. The first specific coefficient measurement coefficient (MCLT) is unique for each laser tracker. It determines the relationship between the radial and angular laser tracker measurement noise. Similarly, the second coefficient is related with specific conditions of measurement β. It is related with the spatial angle between the laser tracker positions α and its effect on error reduction. Both parameters MCLT and β are linked in error reduction limits. Beside these, a new methodology to determine the multilateration reduction limit according to the multilateration technique of an ideal laser tracker distribution and a random one are presented. It provides general rules and advice from synthetic tests that are validated through a real test carried out in a coordinate measurement machine.

  8. Exposure time optimization for highly dynamic star trackers.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinguo; Tan, Wei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-03-11

    Under highly dynamic conditions, the star-spots on the image sensor of a star tracker move across many pixels during the exposure time, which will reduce star detection sensitivity and increase star location errors. However, this kind of effect can be compensated well by setting an appropriate exposure time. This paper focuses on how exposure time affects the star tracker under highly dynamic conditions and how to determine the most appropriate exposure time for this case. Firstly, the effect of exposure time on star detection sensitivity is analyzed by establishing the dynamic star-spot imaging model. Then the star location error is deduced based on the error analysis of the sub-pixel centroiding algorithm. Combining these analyses, the effect of exposure time on attitude accuracy is finally determined. Some simulations are carried out to validate these effects, and the results show that there are different optimal exposure times for different angular velocities of a star tracker with a given configuration. In addition, the results of night sky experiments using a real star tracker agree with the simulation results. The summarized regularities in this paper should prove helpful in the system design and dynamic performance evaluation of the highly dynamic star trackers.

  9. Application Of Expert System Techniques To A Visual Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myler, Harley R.; Thompson, Wiley E.; Flachs, Gerald M.

    1985-04-01

    A structure for visual tracking system is presented which relies on information developed from previous tracking scenarios stored in a knowledge base to enhance tracking performance. The system is comprised of a centroid tracker front end which supplies segmented image features to a data reduction algorithm which holds the reduced data in a temporary data base relation. This relation is then classified vio two separate modes, learn and track. Under learn mode, an external teacher-irector operator provides identification and weighting cues for membership in a long-term storage relation within a knowledge base. Track mode operates autonomously from the learn mode where the system determines feature validity by applying fuzzy set membership criteria to previously stored track information in the database. Results determined from the classification generate tracker directives which either enhance or permit current tracking to continue or cause the tracker to search for alternate targets based upon analysis of a global target tracking list. The classification algorithm is based on correlative analysis of the tracker's segmented output presentation after low pass filtering derives lower order harmonics of the feature. The fuzzy set membership criteria is based on size, rotation, Irame location, and past history of the feature. The first three factors are lin-ear operations on the spectra, while the last is generated as a context relation in the knowledge base. The context relation interlinks data between features to facilitate tracker operation during feature occlusion or presence of countermeasures.

  10. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

    2011-12-01

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  11. Price percolation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Yasuhiro; Abe, Keiji; Seki, Yoichi

    2015-06-01

    We propose a price percolation model to reproduce the price distribution of components used in industrial finished goods. The intent is to show, using the price percolation model and a component category as an example, that percolation behaviors, which exist in the matter system, the ecosystem, and human society, also exist in abstract, random phenomena satisfying the power law. First, we discretize the total potential demand for a component category, considering it a random field. Second, we assume that the discretized potential demand corresponding to a function of a finished good turns into actual demand if the difficulty of function realization is less than the maximum difficulty of the realization. The simulations using this model suggest that changes in a component category's price distribution are due to changes in the total potential demand corresponding to the lattice size and the maximum difficulty of realization, which is an occupation probability. The results are verified using electronic components' sales data.

  12. Pricing and Fee Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    Defines key terms and discusses things to consider when setting fees for a continuing education program. These include (1) the organization's philosophy and mission, (2) certain key variables, (3) pricing strategy options, and (4) the test of reasonableness. (CH)

  13. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  14. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1976 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Kent D.

    The 1976 supplement presents higher education price index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1976. The basic study, "Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes" (ED 123 996) presents complete descriptions of the indexes together with index values and price data for fiscal years 1961 through 1974. Indexes are presented for research and development,…

  15. The Reconstruction Software for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, A.; Long, K.; Santos, E.; Adey, D.; Hanlet, P.; Heidt, C.

    2014-01-01

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionization cooling, for application to a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. In order to measure the change in emittance, MICE is equipped with a pair of high precision scintillating fibre trackers. The trackers are required to measure a 10% change in emittance to 1% accuracy (giving an overall precision of 0.1%). This paper describes the tracker reconstruction software, as a part of the overall MICE software framework, MAUS. Channel clustering is described, proceeding to the formation of space-points, which are then associated with particle tracks using pattern recognition algorithms. Finally a full custom Kalman track fit is performed, to account for energy loss and multiple scattering. Exemplar results are shown for Monte Carlo data.

  16. Context Aware Programmable Trackers for the Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Pedro

    This work introduces and proposes the concept of context aware programmable trackers for the next generation Internet. The proposed solution gives ground for the development of advanced applications based on the P2P paradigm and will foster collaborative efforts among several network entities (e.g. P2P applications and ISPs). The proposed concept of context aware programmable trackers allows that several peer selection strategies might be supported by a P2P tracker entity able to improve the peer selection decisions according with pre-defined objectives and external inputs provided by specific services. The flexible, adaptive and enhanced peer selection semantics that might be achieved by the proposed solution will contribute for devising novel P2P based services and business models for the future Internet.

  17. The silicon tracker detector of the AMS experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosi, G.

    1999-02-01

    The AMS experiment is devoted to the measurement of the antimatter component of cosmic rays. The experiment is based on a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer consisting of a precision tracker and time-of-flight counters, mounted on a permanent magnet providing a large bending power. The apparatus will operate in space with a preliminary version flying in May 1998 on the Space Shuttle mission STS91 and a final installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002. The design of the silicon tracker is described, illustrating features and solutions introduced to make it suitable for a space-borne experiment and for equipping the ≡1 m3 magnet bore. Some of the issues related to the construction of a large, high-precision silicon microstrip tracker are also discussed.

  18. Combinations of 148 navigation stars and the star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R.

    1980-01-01

    The angular separation of all star combinations for 148 nav star on the onboard software for space transportation system-3 flight and following missions is presented as well as the separation of each pair that satisfies the viewing constraints of using both star trackers simultaneously. Tables show (1) shuttle star catalog 1980 star position in M 1950 coordinates; (2) two star combination of 148 nav stars; and (3) summary of two star-combinations of the star tracker 5 deg filter. These 148 stars present 10,875 combinations. For the star tracker filters of plus or minus 5 deg, there are 875 combinations. Formalhaut (nav star 26) has the best number of combinations, which is 33.

  19. Laser Tracker Test Facility at SLAC - Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, G.L.; Ruland, R.E.; /SLAC

    2008-02-22

    Physics experiments at SLAC require high accuracy positioning, e. g. 100 {micro}m over a distance of 150 m or 25 {micro}m in a 10 x 10 x 3 meter volume. Laser Tracker measurement systems have become one of the most important tools for achieving these accuracies when mapping components. In order to improve and get a better understanding of laser tracker measurement tolerances we extended our laboratory with a rotary calibration table (Kugler GmbH) providing an accuracy of better than 0.2 arcsec. This paper gives an overview of the calibration table and its evaluation. Results of tests on two of our Laser Trackers utilizing the new rotary table as well as the SLAC interferometer bench are presented.

  20. Development and Performance Characterization of Colour Star Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVittie, Geoffrey

    Star trackers provide an essential component to a satellite mission requiring high-precision and high-accuracy attitude measurements. A star tracker operates by taking pictures of the celestial sphere and attempting to identify the stars in the image using a combination of the geometric and brightness patterns. The star-positions in the image then determine the attitude of the sensor in the inertial frame. I propose extending the capability of star trackers by including the colour properties of the stars into the star identification process; hence, colour star tracking. Current generation star trackers exist in a variety of forms, with a variety of additional potential designs and operational algorithms proposed in the literature. However, they all share the common trait of using a combination of geometric and monochrome brightness derived patterns to identify stars. Including colour information with the geometric and brightness properties into the identification process represents a new branch in the field of star tracker design. The process of measuring colour also causes a reduction in the amount of light gathered by the sensor, decreasing the number of stars observed. The challenge in colour star tracking becomes establishing that the additional information provided by colour to star patterns is greater than the loss of observable stars due to the measurement process. While superficially brief, accomplishing it touches upon a wide range of topic areas. This includes most research developed for monochromatic star trackers including imaging hardware, optics, noise rejection, parameter estimation, signal detection, data mining, pattern matching, and astronomy. Additionally, using colour necessitates introducing the topics of stellar photometry, spectral filtering, and colour imaging. The approach to colour star tracker development, presented here, considers three aspects to the operation of the technology: colour measurement, star detection, and star pattern

  1. Upgrades of the CMS Outer Tracker for HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sguazzoni, Giacomo

    2017-02-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity to about 5 ×1034cm-2s-1 around 2028, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 in the following decade. This High Luminosity LHC scenario, HL-LHC, will require a preparation program of the LHC detectors known as Phase-2 upgrade. The current CMS Outer Tracker, already running close to its design limits, will not be able to survive HL-LHC radiation conditions and CMS will need a completely new device, in order to fully exploit the highly demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also L1 trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS Outer Tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D activities.

  2. Laser tracker TSPI uncertainty quantification via centrifuge trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Edward; Paez, Thomas; Brown, Timothy; Miller, Timothy

    2009-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories currently utilizes two laser tracking systems to provide time-space-position-information (TSPI) and high speed digital imaging of test units under flight. These laser trackers have been in operation for decades under the premise of theoretical accuracies based on system design and operator estimates. Advances in optical imaging and atmospheric tracking technology have enabled opportunities to provide more precise six degree of freedom measurements from these trackers. Applying these technologies to the laser trackers requires quantified understanding of their current errors and uncertainty. It was well understood that an assortment of variables contributed to laser tracker uncertainty but the magnitude of these contributions was not quantified and documented. A series of experiments was performed at Sandia National Laboratories large centrifuge complex to quantify TSPI uncertainties of Sandia National Laboratories laser tracker III. The centrifuge was used to provide repeatable and economical test unit trajectories of a test-unit to use for TSPI comparison and uncertainty analysis. On a centrifuge, testunits undergo a known trajectory continuously with a known angular velocity. Each revolution may represent an independent test, which may be repeated many times over for magnitudes of data practical for statistical analysis. Previously these tests were performed at Sandia's rocket sled track facility but were found to be costly with challenges in the measurement ground truth TSPI. The centrifuge along with on-board measurement equipment was used to provide known ground truth position of test units. This paper discusses the experimental design and techniques used to arrive at measures of laser tracker error and uncertainty.

  3. Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated cost-of-service pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers?

  4. Simulations of silicon vertex tracker for star experiment at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Odyniec, G.; Cebra, D.; Christie, W.; Naudet, C.; Schroeder, L.; Wilson, W.; Liko, D.; Cramer, J.; Prindle, D.; Trainor, T.; Braithwaite, W.

    1991-12-31

    The first computer simulations to optimize the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) designed for the STAR experiment at RHIC are presented. The physics goals and the expected complexity of the events at RHIC dictate the design of a tracking system for the STAR experiment. The proposed tracking system will consist of a silicon vertex tracker (SVT) to locate the primary interaction and secondary decay vertices and to improve the momentum resolution, and a time projection chamber (TPC), positioned inside a solenoidal magnet, for continuous tracking.

  5. The straw tube tracker of the P¯ANDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanza, S.; Benussi, L.; Braghieri, A.; Boca, G.; Genova, P.; Gianotti, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Lucherini, V.; Montagna, P.; Orecchini, D.; Pierluigi, D.; Ritman, J.; Roeder, M.; Rotondi, A.; Russo, A.; Wintz, P.

    2010-05-01

    P¯ANDA is a new experiment that will be installed at HESR, the new antiproton storage ring under construction as a part of the FAIR facility at Darmstadt, Germany. This experiment, that will investigate QCD in the charmonium mass regime and other aspects of particle and nuclear physics, will be a fixed target detector with a central spectrometer and a forward one. The central tracker will provide information about decay vertices, momenta and types of charged particles emitted after pp¯ annihilations. The design of the Straw Tube Tracker (STT) together with experimental results of the R&D phase are presented here.

  6. Detector production for the R3B Si-tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borri, M.; Lemmon, R.; Thornhill, J.; Bate, R.; Chartier, M.; Clague, N.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Labiche, M.; Lindsay, S.; Nolan, P.; Pearce, F.; Powell, W.; Wells, D.

    2016-11-01

    R3B is a fixed target experiment which will study reactions with relativistic radioactive beams at FAIR. Its Si-tracker will surround the target volume and it will detect light charged-particles like protons. The detector technology in use consists of double-sided silicon strip sensors wire bonded to the custom made R3B-ASIC. The tracker allows for a maximum of two outer layers and one inner layer. This paper reports on the production of detectors necessary to build the minimum tracking configuration: one inner layer and one outer layer.

  7. Retroreflector field tracker. [noncontact optical position sensor for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargocki, F. E.; Ray, A. J.; Hall, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    An electrooptical position-measuring instrument, the Retroreflector Field Tracker or RFT, is described. It is part of the Dynamic Augmentation Experiment - a part of the payload of Space Shuttle flight 41-D in Summer 1984. The tracker measures and outputs the position of 23 reflective targets placed on a 32-m solar array to provide data for determination of the dynamics of the lightweight structure. The sensor uses a 256 x 256 pixel CID detector; the processor electronics include three Z-80 microprocessors. A pulsed laser diode illuminator is used.

  8. Environmental Tests of the Flight GLAST LAT Tracker Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Angelis, A.De; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Goodman, J.; Himel, T.

    2008-03-12

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space telescope (GLAST) is a gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in 2008. Before the assembly of the Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of GLAST, every component (tray) and module (tower) has been subjected to extensive ground testing required to ensure successful launch and on-orbit operation. This paper describes the sequence and results of the environmental tests performed on an engineering model and all the flight hardware of the GLAST LAT Tracker. Environmental tests include vibration testing, thermal cycles and thermal-vacuum cycles of every tray and tower as well as the verification of their electrical performance.

  9. Characterization of the Ecosole HCPV tracker and single module inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpanelli, Maurizio; Borelli, Gianni; Verdilio, Daniele; De Nardis, Davide; Migali, Fabrizio; Cancro, Carmine; Graditi, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    BECAR, the Beghelli group's R&D company, is leading ECOSOLE (Elevated COncentration SOlar Energy), one of the largest European Demonstration projects in solar photovoltaic. ECOSOLE, started in 2012, is focused on the study, design, and realization of new HCPV generator made of high efficiency PV modules equipped with SoG (Silicone on Glass) fresnel lenses and III-V solar cells, and a low cost matched solar tracker with distributed inverters approach. The project also regards the study and demonstration of new high throughput methods for the industrial large scale productions, at very low manufacturing costs. This work reports the description of the characterization of the tracker and single module.

  10. Environmental testing results over a tracker drive train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, María; Calvo-Parra, Gustavo; Gil, Eduardo; de la Rubia, Oscar; Hillebrand, Mario; Rubio, Francisca; Aipperspach, Wolfgang; Gombert, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Environmental testing following the draft of the IEC62817 standard has been carried out at ISFOC using a Soitec Solar tracker drive. The objective of this work is twofold; first to assure that the tracker design can perform under varying conditions and survive under extreme conditions and secondly to test the viability and usefulness of the tests described in the standard. After some changes in the device under test (specifically, gear-box oil) the drive system produced satisfactory results, assuring its performance under operational temperatures. Therefore, this work has demonstrated that the tests described in the standard are useful for detecting early failures.

  11. Star tracker error analysis: Roll-to-pitch nonorthogonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    An error analysis is described on an anomaly isolated in the star tracker software line of sight (LOS) rate test. The LOS rate cosine was found to be greater than one in certain cases which implied that either one or both of the star tracker measured end point unit vectors used to compute the LOS rate cosine had lengths greater than unity. The roll/pitch nonorthogonality matrix in the TNB CL module of the IMU software is examined as the source of error.

  12. The ethics of dynamic pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2010-07-15

    Dynamic pricing has garnered much interest among regulators and utilities, since it has the potential for lowering energy costs for society. But the deployment of dynamic pricing has been remarkably tepid. The underlying premise is that dynamic pricing is unfair. But the presumption of unfairness in dynamic pricing rests on an assumption of fairness in today's tariffs. (author)

  13. Pricing Information Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, H. E., III

    1981-01-01

    Outlines several approaches to the establishment of prices for information products and services by the administrators of libraries and information centers, including optimization, pricing to achieve organizational objectives, pricing for market structures, and types of market structure pricing systems. A reference list is included. (JL)

  14. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  15. Volatile pipe prices ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C.

    1988-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, prices for oilfield casing and tubing have shot up and down like a roller coaster. Average pipe prices went up 80 percent in the 1979-81 drilling boom. They dropped 50 percent in the 1982-83 period, only to recover 20 percent in 1984-85. The collapse of crude prices caused another 30 percent drop in 1986. Since they bottomed out in August of that year, prices have come up by 60 percent. The key question: ''What lies ahead.'' The short answer: ''Probably more of the same''. This article looks at what has caused price fluctuations of such magnitude and volatility over the past several years to assess the outlook for 1988 and beyond. The author says we are not on the brink of a severe OCTG shortage of any sort, though there may be some very localized spot shortages in terms of deliverability and price. There is likely to be some build up of tubular inventory among supply houses wary of losing regular customers to those with adequate inventories. The characteristic first-of-the-year dip in the active rig count will supplement a slight inventory building, as will an expected increase in imports. The bottomline impact for the wellsite is there is little chance for substantial price increases until the third or fourth quarter of this year. Even then, a considerable jump in utilization would be needed and most analysts are predicting the rig count to slowly rise to about the 1500-plus range for the fourth quarter.

  16. System and method for calibrating inter-star-tracker misalignments in a stellar inertial attitude determination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rongsheng (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Hein, Douglas H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining star tracker misalignments is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of defining a defining a reference frame for the star tracker assembly according to a boresight of the primary star tracker and a boresight of a second star tracker wherein the boresight of the primary star tracker and a plane spanned by the boresight of the primary star tracker and the boresight of the second star tracker at least partially define a datum for the reference frame for the star tracker assembly; and determining the misalignment of the at least one star tracker as a rotation of the defined reference frame.

  17. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  18. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  19. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  1. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  2. Pharmaceutical Pricing: The Use of External Reference Pricing.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Nolte, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    External reference pricing, or international price comparison, is a common strategy to control prices of pharmaceuticals that are protected by intellectual property rights and benefit from a legal monopoly (in-patent drugs). In the UK negotiations are under way that seek to define new arrangements for the pricing of branded (new) medicines from 2014. The pharmaceutical market in the UK only accounts for a small proportion of global sales; however, UK prices are important as many countries reference their prices against those in the UK. This article seeks to contribute to our understanding of approaches to pharmaceutical pricing in high-income countries and the role of reference pricing as a means to determining pharmaceutical prices. Reviewing experiences in Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, we find high variability of external reference pricing across different settings and of the relative importance of this approach in comparison with other pricing strategies. There was also considerable variation in the terminology and practices used, and understanding the complexities of countries included in reference baskets for external pricing requires considerable semantic clarification. There was considerable overlap between countries that cross-reference, and it remains challenging to estimate the direct, immediate impact on external reference baskets. This review suggests that the international impact of pricing changes in the UK is likely to be minimal or indirect, largely because of the diverse ways in which reference pricing is implemented in the countries examined.

  3. Using Tracker as a Pedagogical Tool for Understanding Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Chew, Charles; Goh, Giam Hwee; Tan, Samuel; Lee, Tat Leong

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the use of Tracker as a pedagogical tool in the effective learning and teaching of projectile motion in physics. When a computer model building learning process is supported and driven by video analysis data, this free Open Source Physics tool can provide opportunities for students to engage in active enquiry-based…

  4. Star tracker operation in a high density proton field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miklus, Kenneth J.; Kissh, Frank; Flynn, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Algorithms that reject transient signals due to proton effects on charge coupled device (CCD) sensors have been implemented in the HDOS ASTRA-l Star Trackers to be flown on the TOPEX mission scheduled for launch in July 1992. A unique technique for simulating a proton-rich environment to test trackers is described, as well as the test results obtained. Solar flares or an orbit that passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly can subject the vehicle to very high proton flux levels. There are three ways in which spurious proton generated signals can impact tracker performance: the many false signals can prevent or extend the time to acquire a star; a proton-generated signal can compromise the accuracy of the star's reported magnitude and position; and the tracked star can be lost, requiring reacquisition. Tests simulating a proton-rich environment were performed on two ASTRA-1 Star Trackers utilizing these new algorithms. There were no false acquisitions, no lost stars, and a significant reduction in reported position errors due to these improvements.

  5. The CDF II eXtremely fast tracker upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Ohio State U. /Baylor U. /UC, Davis /Athens Natl. Capodistrian U. /Purdue U. /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    The CDF II Extremely Fast Tracker is the trigger track processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the CDF II central outer tracking chamber. The system is now being upgraded to perform a three dimensional track reconstruction. A review of the upgrade is presented here.

  6. Using Tracker to prove the simple harmonic motion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinchin, John

    2016-09-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; Tracker, we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  7. Using "Tracker" to Prove the Simple Harmonic Motion Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, John

    2016-01-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; "Tracker", we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  8. Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-31

    understanding the mechanisms of biological flight through collaboration with various experimental biology academic research laboratories around the world ...around the world . The research focus addressed two broad, complementary research areas: autonomous systems concepts inspired by the behavior and...freedom to do so”.2 This definition characterizes the most obvious feature of biological flight: flying organisms exploit real- world aerial

  9. In Search of Scientific Inspiration.

    PubMed

    2017-01-12

    In the ever-expanding sea of scientific advances, how do you find inspiration for your own study? Cell editor Jiaying Tan talked with Mark Lemmon and Joseph (Yossi) Schlessinger about the importance of fueling your research creativity with the conceptual excitement and technical advance from the broad scientific field. An excerpt of the conversation appears below.

  10. London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

  11. Inspiring the Best in Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Students' success in school and later in life is highly dependent on their ability to 1) regulate their emotions and control their behavior and 2) get along with their teachers and peers. In this book, the author wants to teach you how to inspire students to learn, behave responsibly, and improve their relationships with themselves, other…

  12. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop…

  13. Novel locomotion via biological inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Roger D.; Boxerbaum, Alexander; Palmer, Luther; Chiel, Hillel; Diller, Eric; Hunt, Alexander; Bachmann, Richard

    2011-05-01

    Animal behavioral, physiological and neurobiological studies are providing a wealth of inspirational data for robot design and control. Several very different biologically inspired mobile robots will be reviewed. A robot called DIGbot is being developed that moves independent of the direction of gravity using Distributed Inward Gripping (DIG) as a rapid and robust attachment mechanism observed in climbing animals. DIGbot is an 18 degree of freedom hexapod with onboard power and control systems. Passive compliance in its feet, which is inspired by the flexible tarsus of the cockroach, increases the robustness of the adhesion strategy and enables DIGbot to execute large steps and stationary turns while walking on mesh screens. A Whegs™ robot, inspired by insect locomotion principles, is being developed that can be rapidly reconfigured between tracks and wheel-legs and carry GeoSystems Zipper Mast. The mechanisms that cause it to passively change its gait on irregular terrain have been integrated into its hubs for a compact and modular design. The robot is designed to move smoothly on moderately rugged terrain using its tracks and run on irregular terrain and stairs using its wheel-legs. We are also developing soft bodied robots that use peristalsis, the same method of locomotion earthworms use. We present a technique of using a braided mesh exterior to produce fluid waves of motion along the body of the robot that increase the robot's speed relative to previous designs. The concept is highly scalable, for endoscopes to water, oil or gas line inspection.

  14. INSPIRED High School Computing Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerschuk, Peggy; Liu, Jiangjiang; Mann, Judith

    2011-01-01

    If we are to attract more women and minorities to computing we must engage students at an early age. As part of its mission to increase participation of women and underrepresented minorities in computing, the Increasing Student Participation in Research Development Program (INSPIRED) conducts computing academies for high school students. The…

  15. Opportunity Science Using the Juno Magnetometer Investigation Star Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joergensen, J. L.; Connerney, J. E.; Bang, A. M.; Denver, T.; Oliversen, R. J.; Benn, M.; Lawton, P.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetometer experiment onboard Juno is equipped with four non-magnetic star tracker camera heads, two of which reside on each of the magnetometer sensor optical benches. These are located 10 and 12 m from the spacecraft body at the end of one of the three solar panel wings. The star tracker, collectively referred to as the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), provides high accuracy attitude information for the magnetometer sensors throughout science operations. The star tracker camera heads are pointed +/- 13 deg off the spin vector, in the anti-sun direction, imaging a 13 x 20 deg field of view every ¼ second as Juno rotates at 1 or 2 rpm. The ASC is a fully autonomous star tracker, producing a time series of attitude quaternions for each camera head, utilizing a suite of internal support functions. These include imaging capabilities, autonomous object tracking, automatic dark-sky monitoring, and related capabilities; these internal functions may be accessed via telecommand. During Juno's cruise phase, this capability can be tapped to provide unique science and engineering data available along the Juno trajectory. We present a few examples of the JUNO ASC opportunity science here. As the Juno spacecraft approached the Earth-Moon system for the close encounter with the Earth on October 9, 2013, one of the ASC camera heads obtained imagery of the Earth-Moon system while the other three remained in full science (attitude determination) operation. This enabled the first movie of the Earth and Moon obtained by a spacecraft flying past the Earth in gravity assist. We also use the many artificial satellites in orbit about the Earth as calibration targets for the autonomous asteroid detection system inherent to the ASC autonomous star tracker. We shall also profile the zodiacal dust disk, using the interstellar image data, and present the outlook for small asteroid body detection and distribution being performed during Juno's passage from Earth flyby to Jovian orbit

  16. Lyondell outage spikes prices

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-07

    Methanol spot markets in the US Gulf Coast cooled a bit late last week from their Monday spike in the wake of a pipeline rupture and fire that shut down Lyondell Petrochemical`s Channelview, TX complex and its 248-million gal/year methanol plant. The unit resumed production last week and was expected to return to full service by August 3. Offering prices shot up at least 10% over the pre-accident level of about 50 cts/gal fob. No actual business could be confirmed at a price of more than 52 cts-53 cts/gal, however.

  17. The price of anarchy in basketball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Brian

    2010-03-01

    Optimizing the performance of a basketball offense may be viewed as a network problem, wherein each play represents a ``pathway'' through which the ball and players may move from origin (the in-bounds pass) to goal (the basket). Effective field goal percentages from the resulting shot attempts can be used to characterize the efficiency of each pathway. Inspired by recent discussions of the ``price of anarchy'' in traffic networks, this paper makes a formal analogy between a basketball offense and a simplified traffic network. The analysis suggests that there may be a significant difference between taking the highest-percentage shot each time down the court and playing the most efficient possible game. There may also be an analogue of Braess's Paradox in basketball, such that removing a key player from a team can result in the improvement of the team's offensive efficiency.

  18. The large silicon tracker for the AMS experiment on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauluzzi, M.

    1996-02-01

    The design of the high precision microstrip silicon tracker for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment (AMS) is presented. We emphasize features of the silicon tracker which make it suitable for a space born experiment and for equipping large active areas.

  19. Fairness and dynamic pricing: comments

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-07-15

    In ''The Ethics of Dynamic Pricing,'' Ahmad Faruqui lays out a case for improved efficiency in using dynamic prices for retail electricity tariffs and addresses various issues about the distributional effects of alternative pricing mechanisms. The principal contrast is between flat or nearly constant energy prices and time-varying prices that reflect more closely the marginal costs of energy and capacity. The related issues of fairness criteria, contracts, risk allocation, cost allocation, means testing, real-time pricing, and ethical policies of electricity market design also must be considered. (author)

  20. Anomalous Aspects of Pricing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanikoski, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses six propositions concerning higher education contradicting prevailing pricing wisdom: high demand rarely drives prices up; market share increases rarely drive prices down; competition drives prices up; tuition prices are only loosely tied to delivery costs; student tuition is only loosely tied to price; and high tuition prices do not…

  1. Pricing and Marketing Online Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Sheila Anne Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the pricing of online information in the broader context of marketing. Highlights include changes in the marketing context and issues of value relating to price; other reviews of online pricing; trends affecting price, including public sector involvement and the Internet; promotional pricing; price discrimination; and price aggregation…

  2. 130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Fortyseven acre Julian Price Lake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Forty-seven acre Julian Price Lake created by an impoundment. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  3. Inspire Me! Pupils' Views of What Inspires Them and What Constitutes an Inspiring Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Both "pupil voice" and "staff voice" can be powerful tools in developing various aspects of a school, but only if there is a strong dialogue between the two. This project used a number of different approaches--questionnaires, lesson observations and planning discussions--to investigate pupils' views of what inspires them to…

  4. A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, Heath B.; /Fermilab

    2010-04-01

    The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

  5. Costing and pricing.

    PubMed

    Jones, T

    1993-01-01

    With spreadsheets at the ready, accountants in the NHS are waiting to apply the uniform costing methodology emerging from the National Steering Group on Costing. Before the money-number-crunchers hijack its eventual final report Costing for contracts, general managers need to work out the implications for their role in pricing services and contracts.

  6. 2050: A Pricing Odyssey

    SciTech Connect

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2006-10-15

    The author uses the Rip Van Winkle approach favored by marketers to gaze, clear-eyed, into the future - say, the year 2050 - to visualize alternative demand-response possibilities. Dare we go California Dreamin' of a distant utopia - or is it inevitable that pricing myopia will keep us from attaining the fulfillment of many of our career goals? (author)

  7. The Price Is Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    There's something about textbook prices that generates outrage in ways that other college expenses, such as housing and technology fees, don't. Maybe it's the shock felt by new students when faced with a $900 bill after getting their textbooks for free in K-12. Maybe it's the awful realization that $40,000 in tuition and board doesn't even cover…

  8. Price transparency: building community trust.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    With the push from policymakers, payers, and consumers for hospitals to make their prices public, healthcare executives need to recognize two central issues related to price transparency: 1) meaningful price transparency involves helping patients and consumers understand their financial obligation for an episode of care, and 2) price transparency is key to the most critical success strategy for healthcare providers: building trust. This article reviews the history of pricing and billing practices and explores why price transparency is not easily achieved in today's environment. Pricing is a mystery even to those of us who work in the field, yet despite its complexity, the call for price transparency is not going to go away. For transparency, the goal should be to establish a rational pricing system that is easily explainable and justified to all stakeholders. Healthcare executives must make pricing a priority, understand cost, develop a pricing philosophy, understand the overall revenue requirements, examine market conditions and prices, and set up systems for review. A rational process of price setting should enhance community trust. In this matter there is nothing less at stake than the hearts of our community members.

  9. Option pricing: Stock price, stock velocity and the acceleration Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Bhanap, Jitendra

    2014-12-01

    The industry standard Black-Scholes option pricing formula is based on the current value of the underlying security and other fixed parameters of the model. The Black-Scholes formula, with a fixed volatility, cannot match the market's option price; instead, it has come to be used as a formula for generating the option price, once the so called implied volatility of the option is provided as additional input. The implied volatility not only is an entire surface, depending on the strike price and maturity of the option, but also depends on calendar time, changing from day to day. The point of view adopted in this paper is that the instantaneous rate of return of the security carries part of the information that is provided by implied volatility, and with a few (time-independent) parameters required for a complete pricing formula. An option pricing formula is developed that is based on knowing the value of both the current price and rate of return of the underlying security which in physics is called velocity. Using an acceleration Lagrangian model based on the formalism of quantum mathematics, we derive the pricing formula for European call options. The implied volatility of the market can be generated by our pricing formula. Our option price is applied to foreign exchange rates and equities and the accuracy is compared with Black-Scholes pricing formula and with the market price.

  10. Developing a consumer pricing strategy.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Arthur; Tiedemann, Frank

    2013-05-01

    Healthcare providers can learn a variety of pricing lessons from the retail market: For providers, wholesale pricing--"the price to play"--alone is not enough. Once a hospital or health system chooses a market position, the provider creates an expectation that must be met-consistently. Consumer loyalty is fluid, and the price of care or service is not always the motivator for choosing one organization over another; intangibles such as location and level of customer service also drive purchasing decisions.

  11. Oil prices and world inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, R.G.; Kelly, N.

    1983-06-01

    This paper addresses the nature of the causal relationships between oil prices and US inflation using a procedure developed by Granger to assess causality or, more precisely stated, informativeness. The results confirm that higher oil prices have increased the US wholesale price index (WPI). The results also support OPEC's contention that their price increases have, in part, been a result of worldwide inflation. 9 references, 2 tables.

  12. The reconstruction software for the MICE scintillating fibre trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, A.; Hunt, C.; Long, K.; Santos, E.; Uchida, M. A.; Kyberd, P.; Heidt, C.; Blot, S.; Overton, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate the principle of muon beam phase-space reduction via ionization cooling. Muon beam cooling will be required for the proposed Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. The phase-space before and after the cooling cell must be measured precisely. This is achieved using two scintillating-fibre trackers, each placed in a solenoidal magnetic field. This paper describes the software reconstruction for the fibre trackers: the GEANT4 based simulation; the implementation of the geometry; digitisation; space-point reconstruction; pattern recognition; and the final track fit based on a Kalman filter. The performance of the software is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo studies and the precision of the final track reconstruction is evaluated.

  13. Tracker: Image-Processing and Object-Tracking System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Theodore W.

    1999-01-01

    Tracker is an object-tracking and image-processing program designed and developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to help with the analysis of images generated by microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments. Experiments are often recorded on film or videotape for analysis later. Tracker automates the process of examining each frame of the recorded experiment, performing image-processing operations to bring out the desired detail, and recording the positions of the objects of interest. It can load sequences of images from disk files or acquire images (via a frame grabber) from film transports, videotape, laser disks, or a live camera. Tracker controls the image source to automatically advance to the next frame. It can employ a large array of image-processing operations to enhance the detail of the acquired images and can analyze an arbitrarily large number of objects simultaneously. Several different tracking algorithms are available, including conventional threshold and correlation-based techniques, and more esoteric procedures such as "snake" tracking and automated recognition of character data in the image. The Tracker software was written to be operated by researchers, thus every attempt was made to make the software as user friendly and self-explanatory as possible. Tracker is used by most of the microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments performed by Lewis, and by visiting researchers. This includes experiments performed on the space shuttles, Mir, sounding rockets, zero-g research airplanes, drop towers, and ground-based laboratories. This software automates the analysis of the flame or liquid s physical parameters such as position, velocity, acceleration, size, shape, intensity characteristics, color, and centroid, as well as a number of other measurements. It can perform these operations on multiple objects simultaneously. Another key feature of Tracker is that it performs optical character recognition (OCR). This feature is useful in

  14. VERSATILE TWO-AXIS OPEN-LOOP SOLAR TRACKER CONTROLLER*

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Christina D; Maxey, L Curt; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen; Lapsa, Melissa Voss

    2008-01-01

    A versatile single-board controller for two-axis solar tracking applications has been developed and tested on operating solar tracking systems with over two years of field experience. The operating experience gained from the two systems and associated modifications are discussed as representative examples of the practical issues associated with implementing a new two-axis solar tracker design. In this research, open and closed loop control methods were evaluated; however, only the open loop method met the 0.125 tracking accuracy requirement and the requirement to maintain pointing accuracy in hazy and scattered cloudy skies. The open loop algorithm was finally implemented in a microcontroller-based tracking system. Methods of applying this controller hardware to different tracker geometries and hardware are discussed along with the experience gained to date.

  15. Star spot location estimation using Kalman filter for star tracker.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jian-kun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Tan, Ji-chun; Li, Xiu-jian

    2011-04-20

    Star pattern recognition and attitude determination accuracy is highly dependent on star spot location accuracy for the star tracker. A star spot location estimation approach with the Kalman filter for a star tracker has been proposed, which consists of three steps. In the proposed approach, the approximate locations of the star spots in successive frames are predicted first; then the measurement star spot locations are achieved by defining a series of small windows around each predictive star spot location. Finally, the star spot locations are updated by the designed Kalman filter. To confirm the proposed star spot location estimation approach, the simulations based on the orbit data of the CHAMP satellite and the real guide star catalog are performed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can filter out noises from the measurements remarkably if the sampling frequency is sufficient.

  16. The KLOE-2 Inner Tracker: Detector commissioning and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balla, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Branchini, P.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwinski, E.; De Lucia, E.; Cicco, A.; Di Domenici, D.; Felici, G.; Morello, G.

    2017-02-01

    The KLOE-2 experiment started its data taking campaign in November 2014 with an upgraded tracking system including an Inner Tracker built with the cylindrical GEM technology, to operate together with the Drift Chamber improving the apparatus tracking performance. The Inner Tracker is composed of four cylindrical triple-GEM, each provided with an X-V strips-pads stereo readout and equipped with the GASTONE ASIC developed inside the KLOE-2 collaboration. Although GEM detectors are already used in high energy physics experiment, this device is considered a frontier detector due to its cylindrical geometry: KLOE-2 is the first experiment to use this novel solution. The results of the detector commissioning, detection efficiency evaluation, calibration studies and alignment, both with dedicated cosmic-ray muon and Bhabha scattering events, will be reported.

  17. Performance of the CDF Online Silicon Vertex Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    R. Carosi et al.

    2002-03-27

    The Online Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) is the new trigger processor dedicated to the 2-D reconstruction of charged particle trajectories at the Level 2 of the CDF trigger. The SVT links the digitized pulse heights found within the Silicon Vertex detector to the tracks reconstructed in the Central Outer Tracker by the Level 1 fast track finder. Preliminary tests of the system took place during the October 2000 commissioning run of the Tevatron Collider. During the April-October 2001 data taking it was possible to evaluate the performance of the system. In this paper we review the tracking algorithms implemented in the SVT and we report on the performance achieved during the early phase of run II.

  18. High voltage multiplexing for the ATLAS Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, E. G.; Phillips, P.; Matheson, J.; Lynn, D.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Gregor, I.; Bessner, M.; Tackmann, K.; Newcomer, F. M.; Spencer, E.; Greenall, A.

    2014-01-01

    The increased luminosity of the HL-LHC will require more channels in the upgraded ATLAS Tracker, as a result of the finer detector segmentation, stemming from the otherwise too high occupancy. Among the many technological challenges facing the ATLAS Tracker Upgrade there is more an efficient power distribution and HV biasing of the sensors. The solution adopted in the current ATLAS detector uses one HV conductor for each sensor, which makes it easy to disable malfunctioning sensors without affecting the others, but space constraints and material budget considerations renders this approach impractical for the Upgraded detector. A number of approaches, including the use of the same HV line to bias several sensors and suitable HV switches, along with their control circuitry, are currently being investigated for this purpose. The proposed solutions along with latest test results and measurements will be described.

  19. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-04-13

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  20. Visual tracker using sequential bayesian learning: discriminative, generative, and hybrid.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yun; Ding, Xiaoqing; Wang, Shengjin

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel solution to track a visual object under changes in illumination, viewpoint, pose, scale, and occlusion. Under the framework of sequential Bayesian learning, we first develop a discriminative model-based tracker with a fast relevance vector machine algorithm, and then, a generative model-based tracker with a novel sequential Gaussian mixture model algorithm. Finally, we present a three-level hierarchy to investigate different schemes to combine the discriminative and generative models for tracking. The presented hierarchical model combination contains the learner combination (at level one), classifier combination (at level two), and decision combination (at level three). The experimental results with quantitative comparisons performed on many realistic video sequences show that the proposed adaptive combination of discriminative and generative models achieves the best overall performance. Qualitative comparison with some state-of-the-art methods demonstrates the effectiveness and efficiency of our method in handling various challenges during tracking.

  1. The iMPACT project tracker and calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiazzo, S.; Bisello, D.; Giubilato, P.; Pantano, D.; Pozzobon, N.; Snoeys, W.

    2017-02-01

    In recent years the use of hadrons for cancer radiation treatment has grown in importance, and many facilities are currently operational or under construction worldwide. To fully exploit the therapeutic advantages offered by hadron therapy, precise body imaging for accurate beam delivery is decisive. While traditional X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) fails in providing 3D images with the precision required for hadrons treatment guidance, Proton Computer Tomography (pCT) scanners, currently in their R&D phase, can. A pCT scanner consists of a tracker system, to track protons, and of a calorimeter, to measure their residual energy. In this paper we will present the iMPACT project, which foresees a novel proton tracking detector with higher scanning speed, better spatial resolution and lower material budget with respect to present state-of-the-art detectors, leading to enhanced performances. The tracker will be matched to a fast, highly segmented proton range calorimeter.

  2. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  3. Personal Computer Price and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1993-01-01

    Discusses personal computer price trends since 1986; describes offerings and prices for four direct-market suppliers, i.e., Dell CompuAdd, PC Brand, and Gateway 2000; and discusses overall value and price/performance ratios. Tables and graphs chart value over time. (EA)

  4. The Pricing of Economics Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laband, David; Hudson, John

    2003-01-01

    Examines the pricing and other characteristics of books. Notes substantial increases in book prices between 2000 and 1985 data. Suggests a major factor is the increasing importance of foreign presses that sell books at higher prices. Indicates that discount on paperbacks appear to have been relatively stable in the two years studied. (JEH)

  5. Resonance interaction in LBNE fine-grained-tracker near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Duyang, Hongyue; Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib R.

    2015-10-15

    This talk is devoted to resonance interaction (RES) in the proposed fine-grained tracker detector (FGT) for LBNE experiment. We use fast MC to study the sensitivity of FGT to RES, and use this measurement as a handle to constrain nuclear effects. Similar analysis is performed on NOMAD data for validation and better understanding. Preliminary RES measurement result using NOMAD data will be reported.

  6. A new silicon tracker for proton imaging and dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. T.; Waltham, C.; Price, T.; Allinson, N. M.; Allport, P. P.; Casse, G. L.; Kacperek, A.; Manger, S.; Smith, N. A.; Tsurin, I.

    2016-09-01

    For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today. The Proton Radiotherapy, Verification and Dosimetry Applications (PRaVDA) consortium are developing instrumentation for particle therapy based upon technology from high-energy physics. The characteristics of a new silicon micro-strip tracker for particle therapy will be presented. The array uses specifically designed, large area sensors with technology choices that follow closely those taken for the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC. These detectors will be arranged into four units each with three layers in an x-u-v configuration to be suitable for fast proton tracking with minimal ambiguities. The sensors will form a tracker capable of tracing the path of ~200 MeV protons entering and exiting a patient allowing a new mode of imaging known as proton computed tomography (pCT). This will aid the accurate delivery of treatment doses and in addition, the tracker will also be used to monitor the beam profile and total dose delivered during the high fluences used for treatment. We present here details of the design, construction and assembly of one of the four units that will make up the complete tracker along with its characterisation using radiation tests carried out using a 90Sr source in the laboratory and a 60 MeV proton beam at the Clatterbridge Cancer Centre.

  7. Isotope Identification in the GammaTracker Handheld Radioisotope Identifier

    SciTech Connect

    Batdorf, Michael T.; Hensley, Walter K.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Erikson, Luke E.; Jordan, David V.

    2009-11-13

    GammaTracker is a portable handheld radioisotope identifier using position sensitive CdZnTe crystals. The device uses a peak-based method for isotope identification implemented on an embedded computing platform within the device. This paper presents the run-time optimized algorithms used in this peak-based approach. Performance of the algorithms is presented using measured data from gamma-ray sources.

  8. Clementine Star Tracker Stellar Compass: Final report part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, R.E.; Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.

    1995-07-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star stracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 x 384 focal plane array and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 m{sub v}, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 {mu}rad pitch and yaw and 450 {mu}rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights. Documentation generated during the design, analysis, build, test and characterization of the star tracker cameras are presented. Collectively, this documentation represents a small library of information for this camera, and may be used as a framework for producing copy units by commercial enterprises, and therefore satisfies a Department of Defense and Department of Energy goal to transfer technology to industry. However, the considerable knowledge gained from the experience of the individuals involved in the system trades, design, analysis, production, testing and characterization of the star tracker stellar compass is not contained in this documentation.

  9. How valid are wearable physical activity trackers for measuring steps?

    PubMed

    An, Hyun-Sung; Jones, Gregory C; Kang, Seoung-Ki; Welk, Gregory J; Lee, Jung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Wearable activity trackers have become popular for tracking individual's daily physical activity, but little information is available to substantiate the validity of these devices in step counts. Thirty-five healthy individuals completed three conditions of activity tracker measurement: walking/jogging on a treadmill, walking over-ground on an indoor track, and a 24-hour free-living condition. Participants wore 10 activity trackers at the same time for both treadmill and over-ground protocol. Of these 10 activity trackers three were randomly given for 24-hour free-living condition. Correlations of steps measured to steps observed were r = 0.84 and r = 0.67 on a treadmill and over-ground protocol, respectively. The mean MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) score for all devices and speeds on a treadmill was 8.2% against manually counted steps. The MAPE value was higher for over-ground walking (9.9%) and even higher for the 24-hour free-living period (18.48%) on step counts. Equivalence testing for step count measurement resulted in a significant level within ±5% for the Fitbit Zip, Withings Pulse, and Jawbone UP24 and within ±10% for the Basis B1 band, Garmin VivoFit, and SenseWear Armband Mini. The results show that the Fitbit Zip and Withings Pulse provided the most accurate measures of step count under all three different conditions (i.e. treadmill, over-ground, and 24-hour condition), and considerable variability in accuracy across monitors and also by speeds and conditions.

  10. ASTROS - A sub-arcsec CCD star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, R. H.; Alexander, J. W.; Dennison, E. W.; Glavich, T. A.; Salomon, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design and application of ASTROS (Advanced Star and Target Reference Optical Sensor) are described, with emphasis on performance test results acquired with a prototype system. The ASTROS tracker provides extremely precise measurements of star image coordinates as inputs to the Image Motion Compensation (IMC) system used to stabilize the science instrument focal planes. Performance levels achieved are dramatic improvements over the levels achieved with image dissector designs with comparable fields of view.

  11. Star tracker stellar compass for the Clementine mission

    SciTech Connect

    Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.; Wilson, B.A.

    1995-04-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star tracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 x 384 FPA and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 m{sub v}, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 {micro}rad pitch and yaw and 450 {micro}rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  12. Pupil size influences the eye-tracker signal during saccades.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Marcus; Hooge, Ignace; Andersson, Richard

    2016-04-01

    While it is known that scleral search coils-measuring the rotation of the eye globe--and modern, video based eye trackers-tracking the center of the pupil and the corneal reflection (CR)--produce signals with different properties, the mechanisms behind the differences are less investigated. We measure how the size of the pupil affects the eye-tracker signal recorded during saccades with a common pupil-CR eye-tracker. Eye movements were collected from four healthy participants and one person with an aphakic eye while performing self-paced, horizontal saccades at different levels of screen luminance and hence pupil size. Results show that pupil-, and gaze-signals, but not the CR-signal, are affected by the size of the pupil; changes in saccade peak velocities in the gaze signal of more than 30% were found. It is important to be aware of this pupil size dependent change when comparing fine grained oculomotor behavior across participants and conditions.

  13. High efficient solar tracker based on a simple shutter structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Jia; Liu, Te-Shu; Huang, Kuang-Lung; Lin, Po-Chih

    2013-09-01

    In many photovoltaic (PV) or sunlight-illumination systems, solar trackers are always essential to obtain high energy/flux concentration efficiency, and that would lead to increase cost and extra power consumption due to the complex structure and heavy weight of the trackers. To decrease the cost while without sacrificing efficiency, a Fresnellens concentrator incorporated with a simple and cheap shutter, which consists of high reflective mirrors instead of conventional trackers, is proposed in this paper to provide solar tracking during the daytime. Thus, the time-variant and slant-incident sunlight rays can be redirected to vertically incident upon the surface of the Fresnel lens by appropriately arranging mirrors and swinging them to the proper slant angles with respect to the orientation of sunlight. The computer simulation results show that power concentration efficiency over 90%, as compared with the efficiency of directly normal incident sunlight, can be achieved with the mirror reflectance of 0.97 and for any solar incident angle within +/-75 degrees to the normal of the Fresnel lens. To verify the feasibility and performance of the concentrator with the proposed shutter, a sunlight illumination system based on this novel structure is demonstrated. Both computer simulation and practical measurement results for the prototype of the sunlight illumination system are also given to compare with. The results prove the simple and high efficient shutter applicable to general PV or sunlight-illumination systems for solar tracking.

  14. Innovation Inspiration School Grant Program Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Tim [D-OH-17

    2011-06-21

    09/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Innovation Inspiration School Grant Program Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Tim [D-OH-13

    2013-03-18

    04/23/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Uranium price forecasting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, D.M.

    1994-03-01

    This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again.

  17. Cost and Price Collaboration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    Management and currently teaches acquisition and program management courses for the Defense Acquisition University (DAU). Rao is part of the faculty of...Engineering and Management , Air Force Institute of Technology Cost and Price Collaboration Venkat Rao, Professor, Defense Acquisition University David Holm...the 12 states within the Midwest. Rao is also the Site Lead for the DAU-Midwest Sterling Heights office and has broad program management and product

  18. Cost Validation Using PRICE H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John; Kwan, Eric; Wood, Milana

    2011-01-01

    PRICE H was introduced into the JPL cost estimation tool set circa 2003. It became more available at JPL when IPAO funded the NASA-wide site license for all NASA centers. PRICE H was mainly used as one of the cost tools to validate proposal grassroots cost estimates. Program offices at JPL view PRICE H as an additional crosscheck to Team X (JPL Concurrent Engineering Design Center) estimates. PRICE H became widely accepted ca, 2007 at JPL when the program offices moved away from grassroots cost estimation for Step 1 proposals. PRICE H is now one of the key cost tools used for cost validation, cost trades, and independent cost estimates.

  19. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  20. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  1. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  2. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  3. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  4. The price they paid

    PubMed Central

    York, Eugene P.; Brown, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Background Several individuals integral to the development of evidence-based medicine endured hardship for their efforts and beliefs. Case presentation We present the history of three individuals who were integral to the formation of evidence-based medicine. All three individuals suffered as a result of resistance to change from colleagues as well as from within the profession. Conclusion Individual and professional collegiality in the face of change should be maintained. The efforts of our predecessors are honored and provide us with inspiration. PMID:25656676

  5. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices. PMID:24429767

  6. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  7. Impact of External Price Referencing on Medicine Prices – A Price Comparison Among 14 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Christine; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Katja; Seyfang, Leonhard; Vogler, Sabine; de Joncheere, Kees; Laing, Richard Ogilvie; Leufkens, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to examine the impact of external price referencing (EPR) on on-patent medicine prices, adjusting for other factors that may affect price levels such as sales volume, exchange rates, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, total pharmaceutical expenditure (TPE), and size of the pharmaceutical industry. Methods: Price data of 14 on-patent products, in 14 European countries in 2007 and 2008 were obtained from the Pharmaceutical Price Information Service of the Austrian Health Institute. Based on the unit ex-factory prices in EURO, scaled ranks per country and per product were calculated. For the regression analysis the scaled ranks per country and product were weighted; each country had the same sum of weights but within a country the weights were proportional to its sales volume in the year (data obtained from IMS Health). Taking the scaled ranks, several statistical analyses were performed by using the program “R”, including a multiple regression analysis (including variables such as GDP per capita and national industry size). Results: This study showed that on average EPR as a pricing policy leads to lower prices. However, the large variation in price levels among countries using EPR confirmed that the price level is not only driven by EPR. The unadjusted linear regression model confirms that applying EPR in a country is associated with a lower scaled weighted rank (p=0.002). This interaction persisted after inclusion of total pharmaceutical expenditure per capita and GDP per capita in the final model. Conclusions: The study showed that for patented products, prices are in general lower in case the country applied EPR. Nevertheless substantial price differences among countries that apply EPR could be identified. Possible explanations could be found through a correlation between pharmaceutical industry and the scaled price ranks. In conclusion, we found that implementing external reference pricing could lead to lower prices. PMID

  8. Can a Free Wearable Activity Tracker Change Behavior? The Impact of Trackers on Adults in a Physician-Led Wellness Group

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbluth, Sandra; Phillips, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity trackers (trackers) are increasingly popular devices used to track step count and other health indicators. Trackers have the potential to benefit those in need of increased physical activity, such as adults who are older and face significant health challenges. These populations are least likely to purchase trackers and most likely to face challenges in using them, yet may derive educational, motivational, and health benefits from their use once these barriers are removed. Objective The aim of this pilot research is to investigate the use of trackers by adults with chronic medical conditions who have never used trackers previously. Specifically, we aim to determine (1) if participants would accept and use trackers to increase their physical activity; (2) if there were barriers to use besides cost and training; (3) if trackers would educate participants on their baseline and ongoing activity levels and support behavior change; and (4) if clinical outcomes would show improvements in participants’ health. Methods This study was conducted with patients (N=10) in a 12-week physician-led wellness group offered by Family Doctors, LLC. Patients were given trackers in the second week of The Wellness Group and were interviewed 2 to 4 weeks after it ended. The study investigators analyzed the interview notes to extract themes about the participants’ attitudes and behavior changes and collected and analyzed participants’ clinical data, including weight and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol over the course of the study. Results Over the 12 to 14 weeks of tracker use, improvements were seen in clinical outcomes, attitudes towards the trackers, and physical activity behaviors. Participants lost an average of 0.5 lbs per week (SD 0.4), with a mean total weight loss of 5.97 lbs (P=.004). Other short-term clinical outcomes included a 9.2% decrease in LDL levels (P=.038). All participants reported an increase in well-being and confidence in

  9. Enhancing medicine price transparency through price information mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medicine price information mechanisms provide an essential tool to countries that seek a better understanding of product availability, market prices and price compositions of individual medicines. To be effective and contribute to cost savings, these mechanisms need to consider prices in their particular contexts when comparing between countries. This article discusses in what ways medicine price information mechanisms can contribute to increased price transparency and how this may affect access to medicines for developing countries. Methods We used data collected during the course of a WHO project focusing on the development of a vaccine price and procurement information mechanism. The project collected information from six medicine price information mechanisms and interviewed data managers and technical experts on key aspects as well as observed market effects of these mechanisms. The reviewed mechanisms were broken down into categories including objective and target audience, as well as the sources, types and volumes of data included. Information provided by the mechanisms was reviewed according to data available on medicine prices, product characteristics, and procurement modalities. Results We found indications of positive effects on access to medicines resulting from the utilization of the reviewed mechanisms. These include the uptake of higher quality medicines, more favorable results from contract negotiations, changes in national pricing policies, and the decrease of prices in certain segments for countries participating in or deriving data from the various mechanisms. Conclusion The reviewed mechanisms avoid the methodological challenges observed for medicine price comparisons that only use national price databases. They work with high quality data and display prices in the appropriate context of procurement modalities as well as the peculiarities of purchasing countries. Medicine price information mechanisms respond to the need for increased

  10. Natural photonics for industrial inspiration.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew R

    2009-05-13

    There are two considerations for optical biomimetics: the diversity of submicrometre architectures found in the natural world, and the industrial manufacture of these. A review exists on the latter subject, where current engineering methods are considered along with those of the natural cells. Here, on the other hand, I will provide a modern review of the different categories of reflectors and antireflectors found in animals, including their optical characterization. The purpose of this is to inspire designers within the $2 billion annual optics industry.

  11. Which cue to 'want'? Opioid stimulation of central amygdala makes goal-trackers show stronger goal-tracking, just as sign-trackers show stronger sign-tracking.

    PubMed

    DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra G; Berridge, Kent C

    2012-05-01

    Pavlovian cues that have been paired with reward can gain incentive salience. Drug addicts find drug cues motivationally attractive and binge eaters are attracted by food cues. But the level of incentive salience elicited by a cue re-encounter still varies across time and brain states. In an animal model, cues become attractive and 'wanted' in an 'autoshaping' paradigm, where different targets of incentive salience emerge for different individuals. Some individuals (sign-trackers) find a predictive discrete cue attractive while others find a reward contiguous goal cue more attractive (location where reward arrives: goal-trackers). Here we assessed whether central amygdala mu opioid receptor stimulation enhances the phasic incentive salience of the goal-cue for goal-trackers during moments of predictive cue presence (expressed in both approach and consummatory behaviors to goal cue), just as it enhances the attractiveness of the predictive cue target for sign-trackers. Using detailed video analysis we measured the approaches, nibbles, sniffs, and bites directed at their preferred target for both sign-trackers and goal-trackers. We report that DAMGO microinjections in central amygdala made goal-trackers, like sign-trackers, show phasic increases in appetitive nibbles and sniffs directed at the goal-cue expressed selectively whenever the predictive cue was present. This indicates enhancement of incentive salience attributed by both goal trackers and sign-trackers, but attributed in different directions: each to their own target cue. For both phenotypes, amygdala opioid stimulation makes the individual's prepotent cue into a stronger motivational magnet at phasic moments triggered by a CS that predicts the reward UCS.

  12. Transit pricing and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pickerell, D.H.; Abkowitz, M.; Tozzi, J.; McCord, M.R.; Cheng, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    The 9 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Federal operating assistance for urban mass transit; a decade of experience; transit route characteristics and headway-based reliability control; day-of-week and part-of-month variation in bus ridership; job satisfaction and transit operator recognition programs; results of a survey of muni operators; bus marketing costs: the experience of 18 section 15 reporters from 1981 to 1983; prospects for differential transit pricing in the United States; an initial analysis of total factor productivity for public-transit coordination of transportation resources: the Georgia experience; absenteeism, accidents, and attrition: part-time versus full-time bus drivers.

  13. Thermal/Optical analysis of optical system of star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Si-yu; Huang, Yi-fan

    2011-08-01

    Spacecraft would be expected to encounter diverse extreme environmental (EE) conditions throughout their mission phases. These EE conditions are often coupled. Star tracker is a high accurate 3-axis attitude measuring instrument used in various spacecrafts. In this paper, an effective scheme to the thermal/optical analysis in optical system of star sensor was described and the concept of thermal optical analysis of star tracker optical system was introduced in detail. Using finite element analysis (FEA) and ray tracing, we can study the relationship of optical properties of optical systems and optical system's temperature distribution . A lens system configuration having six uncemented elements was discussed. The lens system was a 56mm EFL, which was different from common lens used in imaging system that this lens system was required to have a high resolving power in design thoughts. It was designed to determine the attitude of space platform by detecting and mapping the geometric pattern of stars. Based on this system, the FEA models of the optical system were established for temperature distribution calculation and for thermal-elastic structural deformation analysis respectively. Using the models, the steady-state temperature distributions of the tracker were simulated. The rigid body displacements of the optical components under homogeneous temperature changes and certain temperature distributions were derived out. It is convenient to use Zernike polynomials as the data transmission between optical and structural analysis programs. Here, Zernike polynomials and their fitting method are used as an example to determine the thermal induced optical degradations of the optical system.

  14. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker and Upgrade Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contin, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) of the STAR experiment at RHIC is the first application of the state-of-the-art thin Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) technology in a collider environment. The HFT is composed of two silicon PiXeL detector (PXL) layers, an Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST) and a Silicon Strip Detector (SSD). It greatly improves the impact parameter resolution of STAR tracking and enables reconstruction of secondary decay vertices of open heavy hadrons in heavy ion collisions, providing unique probes for studying the Quark-Gluon Plasma. In these proceedings we discuss the HFT hardware design, and current detector status and performance. The HFT was successfully commissioned during the 2014 RHIC run, taking data in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. The HFT performance during this run matches the expected performance, most significantly for track pointing resolution. Preliminary results have been obtained from 2014 Au+Au data analyses, demonstrating the capabilities of open charm hadron reconstruction with the HFT. Modifications to HFT subsystems have been made to improve its performance in the 2015 run in p+p, p+Au and p+Al collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV. In order to further improve such capabilities to measure bottom quark hadrons at RHIC energies, a faster heavy flavor tracker (HFT+) is needed to collect data at higher luminosity with good efficiency. The proposed HFT+ will be equipped with new generation of MAPS sensors with a much shorter integration time (≤ 40 μs) and possibly extend the current PXL detector acceptance with minimal modification to the original mechanical and air cooling infrastructure. Requirements for the upgraded HFT+ detector and expected performance are also presented in these proceedings.

  15. Monitoring with Trackers Based on Semi-Quantitative Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    In three years of NASA-sponsored research preceding this project, we successfully developed a technology for: (1) building qualitative and semi-quantitative models from libraries of model-fragments, (2) simulating these models to predict future behaviors with the guarantee that all possible behaviors are covered, (3) assimilating observations into behaviors, shrinking uncertainty so that incorrect models are eventually refuted and correct models make stronger predictions for the future. In our object-oriented framework, a tracker is an object which embodies the hypothesis that the available observation stream is consistent with a particular behavior of a particular model. The tracker maintains its own status (consistent, superceded, or refuted), and answers questions about its explanation for past observations and its predictions for the future. In the MIMIC approach to monitoring of continuous systems, a number of trackers are active in parallel, representing alternate hypotheses about the behavior of a system. This approach is motivated by the need to avoid 'system accidents' [Perrow, 1985] due to operator fixation on a single hypothesis, as for example at Three Mile Island. As we began to address these issues, we focused on three major research directions that we planned to pursue over a three-year project: (1) tractable qualitative simulation, (2) semiquantitative inference, and (3) tracking set management. Unfortunately, funding limitations made it impossible to continue past year one. Nonetheless, we made major progress in the first two of these areas. Progress in the third area as slower because the graduate student working on that aspect of the project decided to leave school and take a job in industry. I enclosed a set of abstract of selected papers on the work describe below. Several papers that draw on the research supported during this period appeared in print after the grant period ended.

  16. Physics sensitivity studies of Fine-Grained Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Hongyue, Duyang

    2015-10-15

    The reference design of the near detector for the LBNE experiment is a high-resolution Fine-Grained Tracker (FGT). We performed sensitivity studies – critical to constraining the systematics in oscillation searches – of measurements of (1) the absolute neutrino flux, (2) neutrino-nucleon quasi-elastic (QE) and (3) resonance (Res) interactions. In QE and Res emphasis is laid in identifying in situ measurables that help constrain nuclear effects such as initial state pair wise correlations and final state interactions.

  17. Modular high accuracy tracker for dual channel laser Doppler velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridman, J. D.; Young, R. M.; Seavey, R. E.; Orloff, K. L.

    1976-01-01

    In the study described, a scanning dual-channel cross-beam laser Doppler velocimeter (developed for measuring simultaneously the two orthogonal components of flow velocity and turbulence intensity) was used to measure the instantaneous velocity characteristics of a model helicopter rotor and in a vortex wake survey experiment on a Boeing 747 aircraft model. Particular attention is given to a special purpose dual-loop frequency tracker developed to track and demodulate 10 microsecond wide pulse burst Doppler signals with a study cycle of 25% (or narrower signals at a higher duty cycle) generated by the laser Doppler velocimeter.

  18. CO2 cooling for the CMS tracker at SLHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Merz, J.; Wlochal, M.

    2011-01-01

    For a new CMS tracker at SLHC cooling of the silicon sensors and their electronics is a crucial issue. Currently under investigation is an evaporative CO2 cooling system, being able to provide more cooling power at a lower mass than a mono-phase liquid system. Furthermore carbon dioxide could allow for lower operating temperatures, which are beneficial for the sensor performance and lifetime. The CO2 cooling test system at RWTH Aachen University is being presented. First measurements and results are shown, demonstrating the functionality of the system.

  19. Lineage mapper: A versatile cell and particle tracker

    PubMed Central

    Chalfoun, Joe; Majurski, Michael; Dima, Alden; Halter, Michael; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Brady, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The ability to accurately track cells and particles from images is critical to many biomedical problems. To address this, we developed Lineage Mapper, an open-source tracker for time-lapse images of biological cells, colonies, and particles. Lineage Mapper tracks objects independently of the segmentation method, detects mitosis in confluence, separates cell clumps mistakenly segmented as a single cell, provides accuracy and scalability even on terabyte-sized datasets, and creates division and/or fusion lineages. Lineage Mapper has been tested and validated on multiple biological and simulated problems. The software is available in ImageJ and Matlab at isg.nist.gov. PMID:27853188

  20. Radiation-Hard Breadboard Star Tracker. Attachment 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    343(11X,1OA,/)":"Star #1 ","Star #2 ","Star #3 "o70 STATUS -2,5:Tkrstatus ! Get tracker status ,:,0 Tkrcommand=BINAND(Tkr_stat!s,3)+1O ! Form command...Clear the dis lay 1 ine Beep terminal :I I /....... I! eia Onutpt "P ease i rI’t NEW star. # W", ’ read C:Urr..s ta.r 4--------4...OFF END statement with an unassigned 1Ŕ path name. 52 Improper mass storage unit specifier. The characters used for a msus do not form a valid

  1. The AMS Silicon Tracker: Performance Results from STS-91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a detector designed to search for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. AMS is programmed for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) for an operational period of 3 years. The magnetic spectrometer uses 5.5 m2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories. The AMS was flown on the NASA shuttle flight STS-91 in June 1998. In this contribution, we present results for the performance of the silicon tracker during the test flight.

  2. Lineage mapper: A versatile cell and particle tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalfoun, Joe; Majurski, Michael; Dima, Alden; Halter, Michael; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Brady, Mary

    2016-11-01

    The ability to accurately track cells and particles from images is critical to many biomedical problems. To address this, we developed Lineage Mapper, an open-source tracker for time-lapse images of biological cells, colonies, and particles. Lineage Mapper tracks objects independently of the segmentation method, detects mitosis in confluence, separates cell clumps mistakenly segmented as a single cell, provides accuracy and scalability even on terabyte-sized datasets, and creates division and/or fusion lineages. Lineage Mapper has been tested and validated on multiple biological and simulated problems. The software is available in ImageJ and Matlab at isg.nist.gov.

  3. Microprocessor-controlled laser tracker for atmospheric sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.; Webster, C. R.; Menzies, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    An optical tracking system comprising a visible HeNe laser, an imaging detector, and a microprocessor-controlled mirror, has been designed to track a moving retroreflector located up to 500 m away from an atmospheric instrument and simultaneously direct spectrally tunable infrared laser radiation to the retroreflector for double-ended, long-path absorption measurements of atmospheric species. The tracker has been tested during the recent flight of a balloon-borne tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer which monitors the concentrations of stratospheric species within a volume defined by a 0.14-m-diameter retroreflector lowered 500 m below the instrument gondola.

  4. Pricing objectives in nonprofit hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Bauerschmidt, A D; Jacobs, P

    1985-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of 60 financial managers of nonprofit hospitals in the eastern United States relating to the importance of a number of factors which influence their pricing decisions and the pricing objectives which they pursue. Among the results uncovered by the responses: that trustees are the single most important body in the price-setting process (doctors play a relatively unimportant role); that hospital pricing goals are more related to target net revenue than profit maximizing; and that regional factors seem to play an important role in management differences. PMID:4008272

  5. Price transparency for medical devices.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Mark V; Burns, Lawton R

    2008-01-01

    Hospital buyers of medical devices contract with manufacturers with market power that sell differentiated products. The medical staff strongly influences hospitals' choice of devices. Sellers have sought to limit disclosure of transaction prices. Policy-makers have proposed legislation mandating disclosure, in the interest of greater transparency. We discuss why a manufacturer might charge different prices to different hospitals, the role that secrecy plays, and the consequences of secrecy versus disclosure. We argue that hospital-physician relationships are key to understanding what manufacturers gain from price discrimination. Price disclosure can catalyze a restructuring of those relationships, which, in turn, can improve hospital bargaining.

  6. Has the London 2012 Olympic Inspire Programme Inspired a Generation? A Realist View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girginov, Vassil

    2016-01-01

    The organisers of the 2012 London Olympics have endeavoured explicitly to use the Games to inspire a generation. This is nothing short of putting the main claim of Olympism to the test, but surprisingly the Inspire project has received virtually no scholarly scrutiny. Using an educationally-informed view of inspiration, this paper interrogates the…

  7. Low-background tracker development for SuperNEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, James; Collaboration: SuperNEMO Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The SuperNEMO experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) with a target sensitivity of T{sub 1/2}(0ν) > 10{sup 26} years, corresponding to an effective neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. At its heart there is a low-background gaseous tracking detector which allows for extremely efficient background rejection and, if 0νββ is observed, may provide important insights into the mechanism via which it may be mediated. Radon inside the tracker, which can mimic rare ββ events, is one of the most dangerous backgrounds for SuperNEMO. To reach the target sensitivity the radon concentration inside the tracking volume must be < 0.15 mBq/m{sup 3}. To reach this challengingly-low level of radon, a considerable program of R and D has been undertaken. This includes automation of the tracker-wiring process, development of a dedicated setup to measure radon diffusion and a 'radon concentration line' which will be able to measure levels of radon in the μBq/m{sup 3} range.

  8. Compact near-to-eye display with integrated gaze tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvenpää, Toni; Aaltonen, Viljakaisa

    2008-04-01

    Near-to-Eye Display (NED) offers a big screen experience to the user anywhere, anytime. It provides a way to perceive a larger image than the physical device itself is. Commercially available NEDs tend to be quite bulky and uncomfortable to wear. However, by using very thin plastic light guides with diffractive structures on the surfaces, many of the known deficiencies can be notably reduced. These Exit Pupil Expander (EPE) light guides enable a thin, light, user friendly and high performing see-through NED, which we have demonstrated. To be able to interact with the displayed UI efficiently, we have also integrated a video-based gaze tracker into the NED. The narrow light beam of an infrared light source is divided and expanded inside the same EPEs to produce wide collimated beams out from the EPE towards the eyes. Miniature video camera images the cornea and eye gaze direction is accurately calculated by locating the pupil and the glints of the infrared beams. After a simple and robust per-user calibration, the data from the highly integrated gaze tracker reflects the user focus point in the displayed image which can be used as an input device for the NED system. Realizable applications go from eye typing to playing games, and far beyond.

  9. Solar kinetics` photovoltaic concentrator module and tracker development

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Howell, B.

    1995-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc., has been developing a point-focus concentrating photovoltaic module and tracker system under contract to Sandia National Laboratories. The primary focus of the contract was to achieve a module design that was manufacturable and passed Sandia`s environmental testing. Nine modules of two variations were assembled, tested, and characterized in Phase 1, and results of these tests were promising, with module efficiency approaching the theoretical limit achievable with the components used. The module efficiency was 11.9% at a solar irradiance of 850 W/sq m and an extrapolated cell temperature of 25 C. Improvements in module performance are anticipated as cell efficiencies meet their expectations. A 2-kW tracker and controller accommodating 20 modules was designed, built, installed, and operated at Solar Kinetics` test site. The drive used many commercially available components in an innovative arrangement to reduce cost and increase reliability. Backlash and bearing play were controlled by use of preloaded, low slip-stick, synthetic slide bearings. The controller design used a standard industrial programmable logic controller to perform ephemeris calculations, operate the actuators, and monitor encoders.

  10. Clementine Star-Tracker Images of the Inner Zodiacal Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, B. L.; Zook, H. A.; Hahn, J. M.; Potter, A. E.

    2000-10-01

    Excellent photographs of the inner zodiacal light, using the Moon as an occulting disk, have been obtained with the Clementine star-tracker cameras. With exposures that vary from 50 milliseconds to 700 milliseconds, with a dynamic range of 256 for each exposure, and with a 28.9 degree by 43.4 degree field of view, the Clementine cameras have recorded the zodiacal light brightness from 1 degree (the solar F- corona) to in excess of 20 degrees from the Sun. Problems of proper removal of thermal background electrons, of 'streak' removal, and of absolute brightness calibration, have been earlier described and resolved (1). The problem of correcting for the non-uniform response of the star-tracker cameras to a field of uniform brightness is now also largely resolved, and photometrically accurate maps of the inner zodiacal light intensity isophotes are now obtainable. These maps represent a major advance in obtaining zodiacal light brightnesses, in both heliocentric longitude and latitude, over previous studies in this region of the sky. The spatial density of dust grains, as a function of both ecliptic longitude and latitude relative to the Sun, are obtained using well-understood integral inversion procedures. The relation of the symmetry plane of the dust density to the ecliptic plane will be analyzed in terms of gravitational perturbations by Jupiter and the inner planets. (1) Zook et al., LPSC 28, 1635-1636, 1997.

  11. Solar kinetics` photovoltaic concentrator module and tracker development

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Howell, B.

    1995-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc., has been developing a point-focus concentrating photovoltaic module and tracker system under contract to Sandia National Laboratories. The primary focus of the contract was to achieve a module design that was manufacturable and passed Sandia`s environmental testing. Nine modules of two variations were assembled, tested, and characterized in Phase 1, and results of these tests were promising, with module efficiency approaching the theoretical limit achievable with the components used. The module efficiency was 11.9% at a solar irradiance of 850 W/m{sup 2} and an extrapolated cell temperature of 25{degrees}C. Improvements in module performance are anticipated as cell efficiencies meet their expectations. A 2-kW tracker and controller accommodating 20 modules was designed, built, installed, and operated at Solar Kinetics` test site. The drive used many commercially available components in an innovative arrangement to reduce cost and increase reliability. Backlash and bearing play were controlled by use of preloaded, low slip-stick, synthetic slide bearings. The controller design used a standard industrial programmable logic controller to perform ephemeris calculations, operate the actuators, and monitor encoders.

  12. Multiexposure imaging and parameter optimization for intensified star trackers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenbo; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-12-20

    Due to the introduction of the intensified image detector, the dynamic performance of the intensified star tracker is effectively improved. However, its attitude update rate is still seriously restricted by the transmission and processing of pixel data. In order to break through the above limitation, a multiexposure imaging approach for intensified star trackers is proposed in this paper. One star image formed by this approach actually records N different groups of star positions, and then N corresponding groups of attitude information can be acquired. Compared with the existing exposure imaging approach, the proposed approach improves the attitude update rate by N times. Furthermore, for a dim star, the proposed approach can also accumulate the energy of its N positions and then effectively improve its signal-to-noise ratio. Subsequently, in order to obtain the optimal performance of the proposed approach, parameter optimization is carried out. First, the motion model of the star spot in the image plane is established, and then based on it, all the key parameters are optimized. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach and parameter optimization.

  13. Dynamic imaging model and parameter optimization for a star tracker.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinyun; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-03-21

    Under dynamic conditions, star spots move across the image plane of a star tracker and form a smeared star image. This smearing effect increases errors in star position estimation and degrades attitude accuracy. First, an analytical energy distribution model of a smeared star spot is established based on a line segment spread function because the dynamic imaging process of a star tracker is equivalent to the static imaging process of linear light sources. The proposed model, which has a clear physical meaning, explicitly reflects the key parameters of the imaging process, including incident flux, exposure time, velocity of a star spot in an image plane, and Gaussian radius. Furthermore, an analytical expression of the centroiding error of the smeared star spot is derived using the proposed model. An accurate and comprehensive evaluation of centroiding accuracy is obtained based on the expression. Moreover, analytical solutions of the optimal parameters are derived to achieve the best performance in centroid estimation. Finally, we perform numerical simulations and a night sky experiment to validate the correctness of the dynamic imaging model, the centroiding error expression, and the optimal parameters.

  14. SciFi - A large scintillating fibre tracker for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirn, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. Concept, design and operational parameters are driven by the challenging LHC environment including significant ionising and neutron radiation levels. Over a total active surface of 360 m2 the SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres (∅ = 0.25 mm) read out by state-of-the-art multi-channel Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) arrays. A custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The project is now at the transition from R&D to series production. We will present the evolution of the design and the latest lab and test beam results.

  15. In-flight evaluation of an optical head motion tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawada, Kazuho

    2009-05-01

    We have presented a new approach for Optical HMT (Head Motion Tracker) last year (Proc. SPIE 6955, 69550A1-11, 2008) [1]. In existing Magnetic HMT, it is inevitable to conduct pre-mapping in order to obtain sufficient accuracy because of magnetic field's distortion caused by metallic material around HMT, such as cockpit and helmet. Optical HMT is commonly known as mapping-free tracker; however, it has some disadvantages on accuracy, stability against sunlight conditions, in terms of comparison with Magnetic HMT. We have succeeded to develop new Optical HMT, which can overcome particular disadvantages by integration with two area cameras, LED markers, image processing techniques and inertial sensors with simple algorithm in laboratory level environment. We have also reported some experimental results conducted in laboratory, which proves good accuracy even in the sunlight condition. This time, we show actual performance of the Optical HMT in flight condition, including evaluation of stability against sunlight. Shimadzu Corp. and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) is conducting joint research named SAVERH (Situation Awareness and Visual Enhancer for Rescue Helicopter) [2] that aims at inventing method of presenting suitable information to the pilot to support search and rescue missions by helicopters. The Optical HMT has been evaluated through a series of flight evaluation in SAVERH and demonstrated the operation concept.

  16. An adaptive tracker for ShipIR/NTCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.

    2015-05-01

    A key component in any image-based tracking system is the adaptive tracking algorithm used to segment the image into potential targets, rank-and-select the best candidate target, and the gating of the selected target to further improve tracker performance. This paper will describe a new adaptive tracker algorithm added to the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature model (ShipIR). The new adaptive tracking algorithm is an optional feature used with any of the existing internal NTCS or user-defined seeker algorithms (e.g., binary centroid, intensity centroid, and threshold intensity centroid). The algorithm segments the detected pixels into clusters, and the smallest set of clusters that meet the detection criterion is obtained by using a knapsack algorithm to identify the set of clusters that should not be used. The rectangular area containing the chosen clusters defines an inner boundary, from which a weighted centroid is calculated as the aim-point. A track-gate is then positioned around the clusters, taking into account the rate of change of the bounding area and compensating for any gimbal displacement. A sequence of scenarios is used to test the new tracking algorithm on a generic unclassified DDG ShipIR model, with and without flares, and demonstrate how some of the key seeker signals are impacted by both the ship and flare intrinsic signatures.

  17. Research and development of the laser tracker measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Zhou, W. H.; Lao, D. B.; Yuan, J.; Dong, D. F. F.; Ji, R. Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The working principle and system design of the laser tracker measurement system are introduced, as well as the key technologies and solutions in the implementation of the system. The design and implementation of the hardware and configuration of the software are mainly researched. The components of the hardware include distance measuring unit, angle measuring unit, tracking and servo control unit and electronic control unit. The distance measuring devices include the relative distance measuring device (IFM) and the absolute distance measuring device (ADM). The main component of the angle measuring device, the precision rotating stage, is mainly comprised of the precision axis and the encoders which are both set in the tracking head. The data processing unit, tracking and control unit and power supply unit are all set in the control box. The software module is comprised of the communication module, calibration and error compensation module, data analysis module, database management module, 3D display module and the man-machine interface module. The prototype of the laser tracker system has been accomplished and experiments have been carried out to verify the proposed strategies of the hardware and software modules. The experiments showed that the IFM distance measuring error is within 0.15mm, the ADM distance measuring error is within 3.5mm and the angle measuring error is within 3〞which demonstrates that the preliminary prototype can realize fundamental measurement tasks.

  18. Electromagnetic tracker accuracy in the CyberKnife suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Emmanuel; Slack, Rebecca; Banovac, Filip; Dieterich, Sonja; Zhang, Hui; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-03-01

    Electromagnetic trackers have found inroads into medical applications as a tool for navigation in recent years. Their susceptibility to interference from both electromagnetic and ferromagnetic sources have prompted several accuracy assessment studies in past years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first accuracy study conducted to characterize measurement accuracy of an NDI AURORA electromagnetic tracker within a CyberKnife radiosurgery suite. CyberKnife is a frameless, stereotactic radiosurgery device used to ablate tumors within the brain, spine and in recent years, the chest and abdomen. This paper uses a data collection protocol to collect uniformly distributed data points within a subset of the AURORA measurement volume in a CyberKnife suite. The key aim of the study is to determine the extent to which large metal components of the CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery device and robot mount contribute to overall system performance for the AURORA electromagnetic device. A secondary goal of the work is to determine the variation in accuracy and device behavior with the presence of ionizing radiation when the LINAC is turned on.

  19. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1977 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    This 1977 supplement presents higher education price index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1977. The basic study presents complete descriptions of the indexes together with the index values and price data for fiscal years 1961 through 1974. It includes a discussion of index number theory and computation, explains the uses and limitations of…

  20. 129. Julian Price Memorial Park. Price Lake Dam. A concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. Julian Price Memorial Park. Price Lake Dam. A concrete slab bridge crosses the top of the dam impounding a forty-seven acre lake. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  1. Developing Intuition for Prices in Euros: Rescaling or Relearning Prices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, J. Frederico; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2004-01-01

    This article examines how numerical intuition for prices develops after a major change in currency. University students in Portugal (Study 1) and Austria (Study 2) made price estimates for 40 different items from November 2001 to June 2002, surrounding the time at which these countries switched to the euro. Overall results are more in accordance…

  2. Post flight analysis of NASA standard star trackers recovered from the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P.

    1985-01-01

    The flight hardware returned after the Solar Maximum Mission Repair Mission was analyzed to determine the effects of 4 years in space. The NASA Standard Star Tracker would be a good candidate for such analysis because it is moderately complex and had a very elaborate calibration during the acceptance procedure. However, the recovery process extensively damaged the cathode of the image dissector detector making proper operation of the tracker and a comparison with preflight characteristics impossible. Otherwise, the tracker functioned nominally during testing.

  3. Maitotoxin: An Inspiration for Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Aversa, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Maitotoxin holds a special place in the annals of natural products chemistry as the largest and most toxic secondary metabolite known to date. Its fascinating, ladder-like, polyether molecular structure and diverse spectrum of biological activities elicited keen interest from chemists and biologists who recognized its uniqueness and potential as a probe and inspiration for research in chemistry and biology. Synthetic studies in the area benefited from methodologies and strategies that were developed as part of chemical synthesis programs directed toward the total synthesis of some of the less complex members of the polyether marine biotoxin class, of which maitotoxin is the flagship. This account focuses on progress made in the authors’ laboratories in the synthesis of large maitotoxin domains with emphasis on methodology development, strategy design, and structural comparisons of the synthesized molecules with the corresponding regions of the natural product. The article concludes with an overview of maitotoxin’s biological profile and future perspectives. PMID:21709816

  4. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    PubMed

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions.

  5. Pricing effects on food choices.

    PubMed

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations.

  6. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  7. Decrypting SO (10)-inspired leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bari, Pasquale; Marzola, Luca; Re Fiorentin, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of SO (10)-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that it is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry NB-Lp,i, the strong thermal (ST) condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the ST- SO (10)-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analytical lower bound on the effective neutrino-less double beta decay neutrino mass, mee ≳ 8 meV, for NB-Lp,i =10-3, testable with next generation experiments. This, in combination with an upper bound on the atmospheric mixing angle, necessarily in the first octant, forces the lightest neutrino mass within a narrow range m1 ≃ (10- 30) meV (corresponding to ∑imi ≃ (75- 125) meV). We also show why the solution could correctly predict a non-vanishing reactor neutrino mixing angle and requires the Dirac phase to be in the fourth quadrant, implying sin ⁡ δ (and JCP) negative as hinted by current global analyses. Many of the analytical results presented (expressions for the orthogonal matrix, RH neutrino mixing matrix, masses and phases) can have applications beyond leptogenesis.

  8. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  9. Inspiring a Life Full of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasse, Saul

    2010-01-01

    After being appointed as Controller of BBC Learning, this author reflected on how the BBC had inspired his own love of learning. He realised that unlocking the learning potential of the full range of BBC outputs would be the key to inspiring a "life full of learning" for all its audiences. In this article, the author describes four new…

  10. Airport Pricing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional economic wisdom suggests that congestion pricing would be an appropriate response to cope with the growing congestion levels currently experienced at many airports. Several characteristics of aviation markets, however, may make naive congestion prices equal to the value of marginal travel delays a non-optimal response. This paper has developed a model of airport pricing that captures a number of these features. The model in particular reflects that airlines typically have market power and are engaged in oligopolistic competition at different sub-markets; that part of external travel delays that aircraft impose are internal to an operator and hence should not be accounted for in congestion tolls. We presented an analytical treatment for a simple bi-nodal symmetric network, which through the use of 'hyper-networks' would be readily applicable to dynamic problems (in discrete time) such as peak - off-peak differences, and some numerical exercises for the same symmetric network, which was only designed to illustrate the possible comparative static impacts of tolling, in addition to marginal equilibrium conditions as could be derived for the general model specification. Some main conclusions are that second-best optimal tolls are typically lower than what would be suggested by congestion costs alone and may even be negative, and that the toll as derived by Brueckner (2002) may not lead to an increase in total welfare. While Brueckner (2002) has made clear that congestion tolls on airports may be smaller than expected when congestion costs among aircraft are internal for a firm, our analysis adds to this that a further downward adjustment may be in order due to market power. The presence of market power (which causes prices to exceed marginal costs) may cause the pure congestion toll to be suboptimal, because the resulting decrease in demand is too high (the pure congestion tall does not take into account the decrease in consumer surplus). The various

  11. Periodical Prices: 1976-78 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clasquin, F. F.

    1978-01-01

    Comparative data are given for periodical price changes for 1976-78. Tables include price changes in library rates for scientific literature; percent of total subscriptions processed and total expenditure for various periodical price ranges; comparisons of prices for domestic and foreign titles; and journal price ranges for selected subject…

  12. Is College Pricing Power Pro-Cyclical?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altringer, Levi; Summers, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    We define pricing power as a college's ability to increase its net tuition revenue by raising its sticker-price for tuition. The greater is the positive effect of sticker-price increases on net tuition revenue, the greater is the pricing power. We gauge variation in the pricing power of private, non-profit baccalaureate colleges by estimating this…

  13. Highly eccentric inspirals into a black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, Thomas; Warburton, Niels; Evans, Charles R.

    2016-03-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact stellar-mass object into a massive nonrotating black hole including all dissipative and conservative first-order-in-the-mass-ratio effects on the orbital motion. The techniques we develop allow inspirals with initial eccentricities as high as e ˜0.8 and initial separations as large as p ˜50 to be evolved through many thousands of orbits up to the onset of the plunge into the black hole. The inspiral is computed using an osculating elements scheme driven by a hybridized self-force model, which combines Lorenz-gauge self-force results with highly accurate flux data from a Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli code. The high accuracy of our hybrid self-force model allows the orbital phase of the inspirals to be tracked to within ˜0.1 radians or better. The difference between self-force models and inspirals computed in the radiative approximation is quantified.

  14. Option price and market instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2017-04-01

    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.

  15. Pricing Films, Filmstrips and Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Connie C.

    1984-01-01

    Examines pricing practices of major producers of educational materials: Weston Woods, Listening Library, Random House Educational Media, Live Oak Media, S&S Communications Group, Phoenix/BFA, Benchmark, and Churchill Films. Royalties, production and manufacturing costs, list prices, recoveries to producers, and marketing are noted. (EJS)

  16. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Sheen S.; Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L.; Zajac, Edward J.; Stark, David

    2014-01-01

    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others’ decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity. PMID:25404313

  17. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  18. Development of an extremely thin-wall straw tracker operational in vacuum - The COMET straw tracker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiguchi, H.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fujii, Y.; Hamada, E.; Mihara, S.; Moiseenko, A.; Noguchi, K.; Oishi, K.; Tanaka, S.; Tojo, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Tsverava, N.; Ueno, K.; Volkov, A.

    2017-02-01

    The COMET experiment at J-PARC aims to search for a lepton-flavour violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom, μ-e conversion, with a branching-ratio sensitivity of better than 10-16, 4 orders of magnitude better than the present limit, in order to explore the parameter region predicted by most of well-motivated theoretical models beyond the Standard Model. The need for this sensitivity places several stringent requirements on the detector development. The experiment requires to detect the monochromatic electron of 105 MeV, the momentum resolution is primarily limited by the multiple scattering effect for this momentum region. Thus we need the very light material detector in order to achieve an excellent momentum resolution, better than 2%, for 100 MeV region. In order to fulfil such a requirement, the thin-wall straw-tube planar tracker has been developed by an extremely light material which is operational in vacuum. The COMET straw tracker consists of 9.8 mm diameter straw tube, longer than 1 m length, with 20-μm-thick Mylar foil and 70-nm-thick aluminium deposition. Currently even thinner and smaller, 12 μm thick and 5 mm diameter, straw is under development by the ultrasonic welding technique.

  19. 2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria

    2006-01-01

    A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems

  20. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... value and, in an investigation, prices used as the basis for export price or constructed export price...

  1. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... value and, in an investigation, prices used as the basis for export price or constructed export price...

  2. Echo tracker/range finder for radars and sonars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, N. J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An echo tracker/range finder or altimeter is described. The pulse repetition frequency (PFR) of a predetermined plurality of transmitted pulses is adjusted so that echo pulses received from a reflecting object are positioned between transmitted pulses and divided their interpulse time interval into two time intervals having a predetermined ratio with respect to each other. The invention described provides a means whereby the arrival time of a plurality of echo pulses is defined as the time at which a composite echo pulse formed of a sum of the individual echo pulses has the highest amplitude. The invention is applicable to radar systems, sonar systems, or any other kind of system in which pulses are transmitted and echoes received therefrom.

  3. Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine Calibration by Laser Tracker Multilateration

    PubMed Central

    Majarena, Ana C.; Brau, Agustín; Velázquez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision. PMID:24688418

  4. Circumnutation Tracker: novel software for investigation of circumnutation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An endogenous, helical plant organ movement named circumnutation is ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. Plant shoots, stems, tendrils, leaves, and roots commonly circumnutate but their appearance is still poorly described. To support such investigations, novel software Circumnutation Tracker (CT) for spatial-temporal analysis of circumnutation has been developed. Results CT works on time-lapse video and collected circumnutation parameters: period, length, rate, shape, angle, and clockwise- and counterclockwise directions. The CT combines a filtering algorithm with a graph-based method to describe the parameters of circumnutation. The parameters of circumnutation of Helianthus annuus hypocotyls and the relationship between cotyledon arrangement and circumnutation geometry are presented here to demonstrate the CT options. Conclusions We have established that CT facilitates and accelerates analysis of circumnutation. In combination with the physiological, molecular, and genetic methods, this software may be a powerful tool also for investigations of gravitropism, biological clock, and membrane transport, i.e. processes involved in the mechanism of circumnutation.

  5. Two-axis tracker for solar panels and the like

    DOEpatents

    Liao, Henry H.

    2013-04-16

    A tracker including an outer post having elongated bore and a lower end mounted on a sub-structure, an inner pole rotatably received in the elongated bore, a lower bearing in the bore adjacent a lower end of the outer post and attached thereto to be constrained from lateral movement and mounted on the sub-structure such that a lower end of the inner pole rests on and is supported by the lower bearing, an upper bearing near an upper end of the outer post, a circumferential drive supported on the outer post for rotating the inner pole relative to the outer post, such that substantially a full weight of a load on the inner pole is directly transmitted to the sub-structure and lateral force and torque leverage are placed on a full length of the outer post by way of the upper and lower bearing.

  6. Design and Implementation of a Biomolecular Concentration Tracker

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As a field, synthetic biology strives to engineer increasingly complex artificial systems in living cells. Active feedback in closed loop systems offers a dynamic and adaptive way to ensure constant relative activity independent of intrinsic and extrinsic noise. In this work, we use synthetic protein scaffolds as a modular and tunable mechanism for concentration tracking through negative feedback. Input to the circuit initiates scaffold production, leading to colocalization of a two-component system and resulting in the production of an inhibitory antiscaffold protein. Using a combination of modeling and experimental work, we show that the biomolecular concentration tracker circuit achieves dynamic protein concentration tracking in Escherichia coli and that steady state outputs can be tuned. PMID:24847683

  7. Design and Performance of the Keck Angle Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Samuel L.; Ragland, S.; Booth, A.; Colavita, M. M.; Hovland, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Keck Angle Tracker (KAT) is a key subsystem in the NASA-funded Keck Interferometer at the Keck Observatory on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii. KAT, which has been in operation since the achievement of first fringes in March 2001, senses the tilt of the stellar wavefront for each of the beams from the interferometer telescopes and provides tilt error signals to fast tip/tilt mirrors for high-bandwidth, wavefront tilt correction. In addition, KAT passes low-bandwidth, desaturation offsets to the adaptive optics system of the Keck telescopes to correct for slow pointing drifts. We present an overview of the instrument design and recent performance of KAT in support of the V2 science and nulling observing modes of the Keck Interferometer.

  8. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    SciTech Connect

    Antonioli, Mary Ann; Boiarinov, Serguie; Bonneau, Peter R.; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eng, Brian J.; Gotra, Yuri N.; Kurbatov, Evgeny O.; Leffel, Mindy A.; Mandal, Saptarshi; McMullen, Marc E.; Merkin, Mikhail M.; Raydo, Benjamin J.; Teachey, Robert W,; Tucker, Ross J.; Ungaro, Maurizio; Yegneswaran, Amrit S.; Ziegler, Veronique

    2013-12-01

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156{micro}m, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements.

  9. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, M. A.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonneau, P.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eng, B.; Gotra, Y.; Kurbatov, E.; Leffel, M.; Mandal, S.; McMullen, M.; Merkin, M.; Raydo, B.; Teachey, W.; Tucker, R.; Ungaro, M.; Yegneswaran, A.; Ziegler, V.

    2013-12-01

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156 μm, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements.

  10. Design and implementation of a biomolecular concentration tracker.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Victoria; de los Santos, Emmanuel L C; Whitaker, Weston R; Dueber, John E; Murray, Richard M

    2015-02-20

    As a field, synthetic biology strives to engineer increasingly complex artificial systems in living cells. Active feedback in closed loop systems offers a dynamic and adaptive way to ensure constant relative activity independent of intrinsic and extrinsic noise. In this work, we use synthetic protein scaffolds as a modular and tunable mechanism for concentration tracking through negative feedback. Input to the circuit initiates scaffold production, leading to colocalization of a two-component system and resulting in the production of an inhibitory antiscaffold protein. Using a combination of modeling and experimental work, we show that the biomolecular concentration tracker circuit achieves dynamic protein concentration tracking in Escherichia coli and that steady state outputs can be tuned.

  11. LoyalTracker: Visualizing Loyalty Dynamics in Search Engines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Conglei; Wu, Yingcai; Liu, Shixia; Zhou, Hong; Qu, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    The huge amount of user log data collected by search engine providers creates new opportunities to understand user loyalty and defection behavior at an unprecedented scale. However, this also poses a great challenge to analyze the behavior and glean insights into the complex, large data. In this paper, we introduce LoyalTracker, a visual analytics system to track user loyalty and switching behavior towards multiple search engines from the vast amount of user log data. We propose a new interactive visualization technique (flow view) based on a flow metaphor, which conveys a proper visual summary of the dynamics of user loyalty of thousands of users over time. Two other visualization techniques, a density map and a word cloud, are integrated to enable analysts to gain further insights into the patterns identified by the flow view. Case studies and the interview with domain experts are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of our technique in understanding user loyalty and switching behavior in search engines.

  12. The Tevatron tune tracker pll - theory, implementation and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The Tevatron tune tracker is based on the idea that the transverse phase response of the beam can be measured quickly and accurately enough to allow us to track the betatron tune with a phase locked loop (PLL). The goal of this paper is to show the progress of the PLL project at Fermilab. We will divide this paper into three parts: theory, implementation and measurements. In the theory section, we will use a simple linear model to show that our design will track the betatron tune under conditions that occur in the Tevatron. In the implementation section we will break down and examine each part of the PLL and in some cases calculate the actual PLL parameters used in our system from beam measurements. And finally in the measurements section we will show the results of the PLL performance.

  13. Angular velocity estimation from measurement vectors of star tracker.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jun-cai; Yi, Wen-jun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Yang, Jian-kun; Li, Xiu-jian; Tan, Ji-chun

    2012-06-01

    In most spacecraft, there is a need to know the craft's angular rate. Approaches with least squares and an adaptive Kalman filter are proposed for estimating the angular rate directly from the star tracker measurements. In these approaches, only knowledge of the vector measurements and sampling interval is required. The designed adaptive Kalman filter can filter out noise without information of the dynamic model and inertia dyadic. To verify the proposed estimation approaches, simulations based on the orbit data of the challenging minisatellite payload (CHAMP) satellite and experimental tests with night-sky observation are performed. Both the simulations and experimental testing results have demonstrated that the proposed approach performs well in terms of accuracy, robustness, and performance.

  14. DAMPE silicon tracker on-board data compression algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Fei; Qiao, Rui; Peng, Wen-Xi; Fan, Rui-Rui; Gong, Ke; Wu, Di; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2015-11-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is an upcoming scientific satellite mission for high energy gamma-ray, electron and cosmic ray detection. The silicon tracker (STK) is a subdetector of the DAMPE payload. It has excellent position resolution (readout pitch of 242 μm), and measures the incident direction of particles as well as charge. The STK consists of 12 layers of Silicon Micro-strip Detector (SMD), equivalent to a total silicon area of 6.5 m2. The total number of readout channels of the STK is 73728, which leads to a huge amount of raw data to be processed. In this paper, we focus on the on-board data compression algorithm and procedure in the STK, and show the results of initial verification by cosmic-ray measurements. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA040402) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (1111403027)

  15. Laser Tracker Calibration - Testing the Angle Measurement System -

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, Georg; Ruland, Robert; /SLAC

    2008-12-05

    Physics experiments at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) usually require high accuracy positioning, e. g. 100 {micro}m over a distance of 150 m or 25 {micro}m in a 10 x 10 x 3 meter volume. Laser tracker measurement systems have become one of the most important tools for achieving these accuracies when mapping components. The accuracy of these measurements is related to the manufacturing tolerances of various individual components, the resolutions of measurement systems, the overall precision of the assembly, and how well imperfections can be modeled. As with theodolites and total stations, one can remove the effects of most assembly and calibration errors by measuring targets in both direct and reverse positions and computing the mean to obtain the result. However, this approach does not compensate for errors originating from the encoder system. In order to improve and gain a better understanding of laser tracker angle measurement tolerances we extended our laboratory's capabilities with the addition of a horizontal angle calibration test stand. This setup is based on the use of a high precision rotary table providing an angular accuracy of better than 0.2 arcsec. Presently, our setup permits only tests of the horizontal angle measurement system. A test stand for vertical angle calibration is under construction. Distance measurements (LECOCQ & FUSS, 2000) are compared to an interferometer bench for distances of up to 32 m. Together both tests provide a better understanding of the instrument and how it should be operated. The observations also provide a reasonable estimate of covariance information of the measurements according to their actual performance for network adjustments.

  16. VisioTracker, an innovative automated approach to oculomotor analysis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kaspar P; Schnaedelbach, Oliver D R; Russig, Holger D; Neuhauss, Stephan C F

    2011-10-12

    Investigations into the visual system development and function necessitate quantifiable behavioral models of visual performance that are easy to elicit, robust, and simple to manipulate. A suitable model has been found in the optokinetic response (OKR), a reflexive behavior present in all vertebrates due to its high selection value. The OKR involves slow stimulus-following movements of eyes alternated with rapid resetting saccades. The measurement of this behavior is easily carried out in zebrafish larvae, due to its early and stable onset (fully developed after 96 hours post fertilization (hpf)), and benefitting from the thorough knowledge about zebrafish genetics, for decades one of the favored model organisms in this field. Meanwhile the analysis of similar mechanisms in adult fish has gained importance, particularly for pharmacological and toxicological applications. Here we describe VisioTracker, a fully automated, high-throughput system for quantitative analysis of visual performance. The system is based on research carried out in the group of Prof. Stephan Neuhauss and was re-designed by TSE Systems. It consists of an immobilizing device for small fish monitored by a high-quality video camera equipped with a high-resolution zoom lens. The fish container is surrounded by a drum screen, upon which computer-generated stimulus patterns can be projected. Eye movements are recorded and automatically analyzed by the VisioTracker software package in real time. Data analysis enables immediate recognition of parameters such as slow and fast phase duration, movement cycle frequency, slow-phase gain, visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity. Typical results allow for example the rapid identification of visual system mutants that show no apparent alteration in wild type morphology, or the determination of quantitative effects of pharmacological or toxic and mutagenic agents on visual system performance.

  17. Study on the faint star extraction technology with MEMS gyro aided APS star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fei; Zhao, Borui; Sun, Ting; Xu, Wei; You, Zheng

    2013-08-01

    Star tracker is the most accurate attitude sensor for satellite. Generally speaking, the higher the accuracy, the fainter the star can be sensed by the star tracker. How to extract the faint star from a star image is becoming a critical technology in dynamic condition for star tracker, especially using the APS (Active Pixels Sensor) detector. A novel APS star tracker with MEMS Gyroscope aided system was proposed in this paper that could extremely improve the detection effect and capability for the faint stars. During the exposure time of star tracker, the trajectory of star projection on the detector maybe occupy more than ten pixels due to the satellite rotation. In this situation, the signal-to-noise ratio will decline sharply, and the traditional star extraction method for faint star will take no effect. As a result, the accuracy of star tracker would decline sharply, even more, couldn't work. Using the MEMS Gyroscope, the track of star projection can be predicated and measured, on the basis of which the deconvolution algorithm could be taken to recover the faint star signal. The accuracy of the star projection centroid could be improved obviously, and the dynamic performance of the star tracker would be improved by a magnitude. Meanwhile, the MEMS gyroscope has not less volume, mass and power consumption, which make it more suitable for the application of APS star tracker.

  18. Design of an upgraded D0 silicon microstrip tracker for Run IIb at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    The D0 collaboration planned to upgrade the Silicon Tracker to withstand the radiation dose corresponding to above 2 fb{sup -1} of data. This new detector was designed to be functional up to at least 15 fb{sup -1}. The authors report on the design of the new Silicon Tracker with details of the innermost layer.

  19. Lightweight dual-axis tracker designs for dish-based HCPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Roger; Cuerden, Brian; Whiteside, Andy

    2014-09-01

    Dish-based HCPV holds the promise of solar electricity at lower cost than for flat panel PV, provided that the dual-axis tracker cost can be minimized. Here we outline first and second generation lightweight tracker designs that include supports for a rectangular array of square dish mirrors and receivers located at their foci.

  20. Construction of Discrete Time Shadow Price

    SciTech Connect

    Rogala, Tomasz Stettner, Lukasz

    2015-12-15

    In the paper expected utility from consumption over finite time horizon for discrete time markets with bid and ask prices and strictly concave utility function is considered. The notion of weak shadow price, i.e. an illiquid price, depending on the portfolio, under which the model without bid and ask price is equivalent to the model with bid and ask price is introduced. Existence and the form of weak shadow price is shown. Using weak shadow price usual (called in the paper strong) shadow price is then constructed.

  1. Biologically Inspired Phosphino Platinum Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Avijita; Helm, Monte L.; Linehan, John C.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2012-08-01

    Platinum complexes containing phosphino amino acid and amino acid ester ligands, built upon the PPhNR’2 platform, have been synthesized and characterized (PPhNR’2= [1,3-diaza]-5-phenyl phosphacyclohexane, R’=glycine or glycine ester). These complexes were characterized by 31P, 13C, 1H, 195Pt NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the complexes, [PtCl2(PPhNGlyester 2)2], is also reported. These biologically inspired ligands have potential use in homogeneous catalysis, with special applications in chiral chemistry and water soluble chemistry. These complexes also provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached, to allow the introduction of enzyme-like features onto small molecule catalysts. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  2. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.

    PubMed

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded.

  3. Developing intuition for prices in euros: rescaling or relearning prices?

    PubMed

    Marques, J Frederico; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2004-09-01

    This article examines how numerical intuition for prices develops after a major change in currency. University students in Portugal (Study 1) and Austria (Study 2) made price estimates for 40 different items from November 2001 to June 2002, surrounding the time at which these countries switched to the euro. Overall results are more in accordance with a relearning hypothesis, considering that price estimates become progressively more accurate by a process that is related to buying frequency and, hence, is faster for frequently bought items. An alternative global rescaling hypothesis received mixed support. Results also suggest that price estimations in euros have not yet reached a level of accuracy comparable with estimations in the former national currency.

  4. Supply prices to increase slightly.

    PubMed

    Hard, R

    1991-03-05

    Expect hospital supply prices to increase by about 3 percent to 4 percent during 1991, says the new economic forecast from the Joint Purchasing Corp. (JPC), New York City. JPC's report may help reduce the uncertainty for those making supply price forecasts during the current recession. The Economic Forecast and Budget Impact Report presents economic information from industry analysts and publishes the data in a single volume. The JPC forecast can be used as a guide to help determine price changes; however, it's also important to consider changes in consumption, utilization, and quality when using the report, says JPC's president.

  5. Silicon photomultiplier choice for the scintillating fibre tracker in second generation proton computed tomography scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, A.; Johnson, E.; Medvedev, V.; Ronzhin, A.; Rykalin, V.; Rubinov, P.; Sleptcov, V.; /Unlisted, RU

    2012-03-01

    Scintillating fibers are capable of charged particle tracking with high position resolution, as demonstrated by the central fiber tracker of the D0 experiment. The charged particles will deposit less energy in the polystyrene scintillating fibers as opposed to a typical silicon tracker of the same thickness, while SiPM's are highly efficient at detecting photons created by the passage of the charged particle through the fibers. The current prototype of the Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) tracker uses groups of three 0.5 mm green polystyrene based scintillating fibers connected to a single SiPM, while first generation prototype tracker used Silicon strip detectors. The results of R&D for the Scintillating Fiber Tracker (SFT) as part of the pCT detector are outlined, and the premise for the selection of SiPM is discussed.

  6. A protocol for evaluating video trackers under real-world conditions.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Tahir; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The absence of a commonly adopted performance evaluation framework is hampering advances in the design of effective video trackers. In this paper, we present a single-score evaluation measure and a protocol to objectively compare trackers. The proposed measure evaluates tracking accuracy and failure, and combines them for both summative and formative performance assessment. The proposed protocol is composed of a set of trials that evaluate the robustness of trackers on a range of test scenarios representing several real-world conditions. The protocol is validated on a set of sequences with a diversity of targets (head, vehicle and person) and challenges (occlusions, background clutter, pose changes and scale changes) using six state-of-the-art trackers, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses on more than 187000 frames. The software implementing the protocol and the evaluation results are made available online and new results can be included, thus facilitating the comparison of trackers.

  7. Alignment of the CMS silicon strip tracker during stand-alone commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-07-01

    The results of the CMS tracker alignment analysis are presented using the data from cosmic tracks, optical survey information, and the laser alignment system at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. During several months of operation in the spring and summer of 2007, about five million cosmic track events were collected with a partially active CMS Tracker. This allowed us to perform first alignment of the active silicon modules with the cosmic tracks using three different statistical approaches; validate the survey and laser alignment system performance; and test the stability of Tracker structures under various stresses and temperatures ranging from +15C to -15C. Comparison with simulation shows that the achieved alignment precision in the barrel part of the tracker leads to residual distributions similar to those obtained with a random misalignment of 50 (80) microns in the outer (inner) part of the barrel.

  8. Bio-Inspired Innovation and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    119 Michael Ladisch chapter 9 Bio-inspired Materials and operations...123 figure 8–3. scheme of lignocellulosic Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125...9–1. areas in Which natural Biological Materials excel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 table 9–2

  9. NASA Celebrates Atlantis as Pioneer, Inspiration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts and senior NASA management noted the contributions of space shuttle Atlantis as they signed the spacecraft over for a new mission of inspiration as it goes on public display at the Kenne...

  10. Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

  11. Biologically Inspired Technology Using Electroactive Polymers (EAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    Evolution allowed nature to introduce highly effective biological mechanisms that are incredible inspiration for innovation. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature's inventions and we are increasingly making advances that it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. This brought us to the ability to create technology that is far beyond the simple mimicking of nature. Having better tools to understand and to implement nature's principles we are now equipped like never before to be inspired by nature and to employ our tools in far superior ways. Effectively, by bio-inspiration we can have a better view and value of nature capability while studying its models to learn what can be extracted, copied or adapted. Using electroactive polymers (EAP) as artificial muscles is adding an important element to the development of biologically inspired technologies.

  12. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  13. Development of OA Abroad and Its Inspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces the concept and characteristics of open access (OA), analyses the status quo and development of OA in foreign countries, and discusses its inspiration to its future development in China.

  14. Pricing Models Using Real Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obremski, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A practical hands-on classroom exercise is described and illustrated using the price of an item as dependent variable throughout. The exercise is well-tested and affords the instructor a variety of approaches and levels.

  15. Rising Food Prices: Who's Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1973-01-01

    Rise in food prices can be partially attributed to the high food consumption level throughout Europe and North America, coupled with failure to evolve systems for more production of cattle, soybeans, and fisheries at lower cost. (PS)

  16. Bio-inspired dynamic robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Alan S.; Wax, Steven G.; Christodoulou, Leo

    2003-09-01

    The unique performance of biological systems across a wide spectrum of phylogenetic species has historically provided inspirations for roboticists in new designs and fabrication of new robotic platforms. Of particular interest to a number of important applications is to create dynamic robots able to adapt to a change in their world, unplanned events that are sometimes unexpected, and sometimes unstable, harsh conditions. It is likely that the exploring dynamics in biological systems will continue to provide rich solutions to attaining robots capable of more complex tasks for this purpose. This is because the long-term design process of evolution utilizes a natural selection process that responds to such changes. Recently, there have been significant advances across a number of interdisciplinary efforts that have generated new capabilities in biorobotics. Whole body dynamics that capture the force dynamics and functional stability of legged systems over rough terrain have been elucidated and applied in legged robotic systems. Exploying the force dynamics of flapping winged insect flight has provided key discoveries and enabled the fabrication of new micro air vehicles. New classes of materials are being developed that emulate the ability of natural muscle, capturing the compliant and soft subtle movement and performance of biological appendages. In addition, classes of new multifunctional materials are being developed to enable the design of biorobotics with the structural and functional efficiency of living organisms. Optical flow and other sensors based on the principles of invertebrate vision have been implemented on robotic platforms for autonomous robotic guidance and control. These fundamental advances have resulted in the emergence of a new generation of bioinspired dynamic robots which show significant performance improvements in early prototype testing and that could someday be useful in a number of significant applications such as search and rescue and

  17. Effect of inspiration on bolus injection

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.M.; Moreno, A.J.; Berger, D.E.; Sorensen, K.A.; Farnum, G.D.

    1986-03-01

    Adequate compact intravenous (i.v.) bolus injections of radiopharmaceuticals are essential for many quantitative radionuclide studies. Techniques have been described to obtain optimum bolus injections. The effect of inspiration on i.v. bolus injections was studied in 36 individuals. A slow, deep inspiration just prior to the arrival of the bolus within the superior vena cava significantly improved the quality of the bolus.

  18. Endogenous Biologically Inspired Art of Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haru; Wakefield, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007, Graham Wakefield and Haru Ji have looked to nature for inspiration as they have created a series of "artificial natures," or interactive visualizations of biologically inspired complex systems that can evoke nature-like aesthetic experiences within mixed-reality art installations. This article describes how they have applied visualization, sonification, and interaction design in their work with artificial ecosystems and organisms using specific examples from their exhibited installations.

  19. Fuel Price Effects on Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Nancy M. V. Huff Shaun K. McGee Sara Rajaram Laila A. Wahedi Fuel Price Effects on Readiness INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES 4850 Mark Center Drive...P-5087 Thomas P. Frazier, Project Leader John W. Bailey Nancy M. V. Huff Shaun K. McGee Sara Rajaram Laila A. Wahedi Fuel Price Effects on Readiness...Thomas, P. Bailey, John, W. Huff, Nancy, M. V. McGee , Shaun, K. Rajaram, Sara Wahedi, Laila, A. Institute for Defense Analyses 4850 Mark

  20. Non-equilibrium price theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, Dirk; Kern, Daniel

    2000-11-01

    We propose two theories for the formation of stock prices under the condition that the number of available stocks is fixed. Both theories consider the balance equations for cash and several kinds of stocks. They also take into account interest rates, dividends, and transaction costs. The proposed theories have the advantage that they do not require iterative procedures to determine the price, which would be inefficient for simulations with many agents.

  1. Financial price dynamics and agent-based models as inspired by Benoit Mandelbrot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBaron, Blake

    2016-12-01

    This short note draws some connections between Mandelbrot‗s empirical legacy, and the interdisciplinary work that followed in finance. Much of this work is now labeled econophysics, but some has always been more in the realm of economics than physics. In a few areas the overlap is even becoming quite complete as in market microstructure. I will also give some ideas about the various successes and failures in this area, and some directions for the future of agent- based modeling in particular.

  2. National hospital input price index.

    PubMed

    Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies.

  3. U.S. Photovoltaic Prices and Cost Breakdowns. Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Davidson, Carolyn; Fu, Ran; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has continued to decline across all major market sectors. This report provides a Q1 2015 update regarding the prices of residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variations in business models, labor rates, and system architecture choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.09/W for residential scale rooftop systems, $2.15/W for commercial scale rooftop systems, $1.77/W for utility scale systems with fixed mounting structures, and $1.91/W for utility scale systems using single-axis trackers. All systems are modeled assuming standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon PV modules, and further assume installation within the United States.

  4. 48 CFR 15.405 - Price negotiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price negotiation. 15.405... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.405 Price negotiation. (a) The purpose of performing cost or price analysis is to develop a negotiation position that permits...

  5. 48 CFR 15.405 - Price negotiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Price negotiation. 15.405... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.405 Price negotiation. (a) The purpose of performing cost or price analysis is to develop a negotiation position that permits...

  6. PRICING POLICIES CONTINGENT ON OBSERVED PRODUCT QUALITY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    situation is described in which a risk-averse producer and consumer both attempt to maximize expected profit --the consumer by selecting a pricing strategy...producer expected profit at p’, this price schedule is a ’motivating’ price schedule. For fixed (n,p), a motivating price schedule must be the solution

  7. Price Discrimination and Resale: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuchoudhary, Atin; Metcalf, Christopher; Pommerenke, Kai; Reiley, David; Rojas, Christian; Rostek, Marzena; Stodder, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a classroom experiment designed to illustrate key concepts of third-degree price discrimination. By participating as buyers and sellers, students actively learn (1) how group pricing differs from uniform pricing, (2) how resale between buyers limits a seller's ability to price discriminate, and (3) how preventing price…

  8. The Outer Limits of Video Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitman, Randy

    1995-01-01

    Briefly traces the history of video pricing, emphasizing the pricing disparity for home and public performance use of videos. Provides advice in dealing with vendors and in shopping for reasonably priced videos: when to wait for prices to lower on public performance video or to wait for home video versions. (JKP)

  9. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  10. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  11. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  12. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  13. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  14. Hospital pricing policies: the simple economics.

    PubMed

    Robison, G A; Robison, H D

    1986-10-01

    Changes in hospital reimbursement structures and the shrinking inpatient service market are forcing hospitals to reexamine their pricing strategies. This article examines historical hospital pricing, the effect of pricing in a competitive market and considerations for hospitals moving toward competitive pricing for services.

  15. Concept of Price in a Library Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talaga, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses pricing problems of public library service. The meaning of price in a library context is examined, including amount charged and patron's cost; components of price setting are described, including the impact of demand, cost, and competition; and library pricing strategies are suggested that should help achieve the library's goals. (13…

  16. In Search of Ideal Information Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews some of the models used for pricing online information services and discusses some of the implications of these pricing algorithms. Topics discussed include online versus print pricing; charges for the retrieval process; charges for the retrieved information; telecommunications charges; and the pricing policies of Chemical Abstracts…

  17. 48 CFR 8.707 - Prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prices without prior coordination with the responsible contracting office. (d) Price changes shall... Committee may make price changes applicable to orders received by the AbilityOne participating nonprofit... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prices. 8.707 Section...

  18. Academic Library Responses to Journal Price Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Jean Walstrom; Talaga, James

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the nature and extent of discriminatory pricing by journal publishers, and reports on a survey of academic libraries that was conducted to assess the effectiveness of strategies used by libraries to mitigate the effects of high journal prices and price discrimination, i.e., higher prices for both institutions and foreign subscribers.…

  19. Low-Frequency Error Extraction and Compensation for Attitude Measurements from STECE Star Tracker.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yuwang; Gu, Defeng; Liu, Junhong; Li, Wenping; Yi, Dongyun

    2016-10-12

    The low frequency errors (LFE) of star trackers are the most penalizing errors for high-accuracy satellite attitude determination. Two test star trackers- have been mounted on the Space Technology Experiment and Climate Exploration (STECE) satellite, a small satellite mission developed by China. To extract and compensate the LFE of the attitude measurements for the two test star trackers, a new approach, called Fourier analysis, combined with the Vondrak filter method (FAVF) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the LFE of the two test star trackers' attitude measurements are analyzed and extracted by the FAVF method. The remarkable orbital reproducibility features are found in both of the two test star trackers' attitude measurements. Then, by using the reproducibility feature of the LFE, the two star trackers' LFE patterns are estimated effectively. Finally, based on the actual LFE pattern results, this paper presents a new LFE compensation strategy. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed LFE compensation algorithm is demonstrated by the significant improvement in the consistency between the two test star trackers. The root mean square (RMS) of the relative Euler angle residuals are reduced from [27.95'', 25.14'', 82.43''], 3σ to [16.12'', 15.89'', 53.27''], 3σ.

  20. An electricity price model with consideration to load and gas price effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min-xiang; Tao, Xiao-hu; Han, Zhen-xiang

    2003-01-01

    Some characteristics of the electricity load and prices are studied, and the relationship between electricity prices and gas (fuel) prices is analyzed in this paper. Because electricity prices are strongly dependent on load and gas prices, the authors constructed a model for electricity prices based on the effects of these two factors; and used the Geometric Mean Reversion Brownian Motion (GMRBM) model to describe the electricity load process, and a Geometric Brownian Motion(GBM) model to describe the gas prices; deduced the price stochastic process model based on the above load model and gas price model. This paper also presents methods for parameters estimation, and proposes some methods to solve the model.

  1. Planar waveguide concentrator used with a seasonal tracker.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Sébastien; Thibault, Simon

    2012-10-01

    Solar concentrators offer good promise for reducing the cost of solar power. Planar waveguides equipped with a microlens slab have already been proposed as an excellent approach to produce medium to high concentration levels. Instead, we suggest the use of a cylindrical microlens array to get useful concentration without tracking during the day. To use only a seasonal tracking system and get the highest possible concentration, cylindrical microlenses are placed in the east-west orientation. Our new design has an acceptance angle in the north-south direction of ±9° and ±54° in the east-west axis. Simulation of our optimized system achieves a 4.6× average concentration level from 8:30 to 16:30 with a maximum of 8.1× and 80% optical efficiency. The low-cost advantage of waveguide-based solar concentrators could support their use in roof-mounted solar panels and eliminate the need for an expensive and heavy active tracker.

  2. Volumetric verification of multiaxis machine tool using laser tracker.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Sergio; Samper, David; Santolaria, Jorge; Aguilar, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present a method of volumetric verification in machine tools with linear and rotary axes using a laser tracker. Beyond a method for a particular machine, it presents a methodology that can be used in any machine type. Along this paper, the schema and kinematic model of a machine with three axes of movement, two linear and one rotational axes, including the measurement system and the nominal rotation matrix of the rotational axis are presented. Using this, the machine tool volumetric error is obtained and nonlinear optimization techniques are employed to improve the accuracy of the machine tool. The verification provides a mathematical, not physical, compensation, in less time than other methods of verification by means of the indirect measurement of geometric errors of the machine from the linear and rotary axes. This paper presents an extensive study about the appropriateness and drawbacks of the regression function employed depending on the types of movement of the axes of any machine. In the same way, strengths and weaknesses of measurement methods and optimization techniques depending on the space available to place the measurement system are presented. These studies provide the most appropriate strategies to verify each machine tool taking into consideration its configuration and its available work space.

  3. HVMUX, a high voltage multiplexing for the ATLAS Tracker upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulio Villani, E.; Phillips, P.; Matheson, J.; Zhang, Z.; Lynn, D.; Kuczewski, P.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Gregor, I.; Bessner, M.; Tackmann, K.; Newcomer, F. M.; Spencer, E.; Greenall, A.

    2017-01-01

    The HV biasing solution adopted in the current ATLAS detector uses one HV conductor for each sensor. This approach easily allows disabling of malfunctioning sensors without affecting the others, but space constraints and material budget considerations renders this approach impractical for the Upgraded detector. In fact, the increased luminosity of the Upgraded LHC will require more channels in the upgraded ATLAS Tracker, as a result of the finer detector segmentation. Different approaches to bring the HV biasing to the detectors, including the use of a shared HV line to bias several sensors and employing semiconductor switches for the HV routing (HVMUX), have been investigated. Beside the size constraints, particular attention must be paid to the radiation tolerance of any proposed solution, which, for the strips detector, requires proper operation up to fluences of the order of 2ṡ 1015 1MeV neq/cm2 and TID in excess of 300 kGy. In this paper, a description of the proposed HVMUX solution, along with electrical and radiation tests results will be presented and discussed.

  4. Zoonotic Infections in Military Scout and Tracker Dogs in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, A. D.; Binn, L. N.; Elisberg, B.; Husted, P.; Huxsoll, D. L.; Marshall, J. D.; Needy, C. F.; White, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    Significant levels of antibodies indicative of a variety of zoonotic infections were demonstrated in sera collected from 64 U.S. military scout and tracker dogs after service in the Republic of Vietnam (RVN). Scrub typhus antibodies were found in 45% of the specimens, melioidosis in 19%, group B arbovirus in 49%, and leptospirosis in 62%. Only 38% of the seropositive reactions for leptospirosis could be related to overseas infections. Tests were conducted on paired sera obtained from 32 of the dogs before service in RVN. Significant increases in titer were demonstrated with scrub typhus, melioidosis, leptospirosis, plague, group B arbovirus, and Rickettsia canada antigens. After 2 to 6 months of service in RVN, 8 of 19 dogs developed antibody titers to at least one of four zoonotic diseases. Only 3 of 45 dogs with 7 or more months of service failed to develop antibodies to one or more of the agents. The serological findings pose questions on the potential epidemiological importance and veterinary significance of scrub typhus, group B arbovirus, leptospirosis, and melioidosis infections in dogs. PMID:4564881

  5. A hardware fast tracker for the ATLAS trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbah, Nedaa

    2016-09-01

    The trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is designed to reduce the event rate from the LHC nominal bunch crossing at 40 MHz to about 1 kHz, at the design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. After a successful period of data taking from 2010 to early 2013, the LHC already started with much higher instantaneous luminosity. This will increase the load on High Level Trigger system, the second stage of the selection based on software algorithms. More sophisticated algorithms will be needed to achieve higher background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project. It is a hardware processor that will provide, at every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100 microseconds, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV. Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance. FTK exploits hardware technologies with massive parallelism, combining Associative Memory ASICs, FPGAs and high-speed communication links.

  6. Kinematics investigations of cylinders rolling down a ramp using tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Mawaddah, Menurseto; Winarno, Nanang; Sriwulan, Wiwin

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays, students' exploration as well as students' interaction in the application stage of learning cycle can be improved by directly model real-world objects based on Newton's Law using Open Source Physics (OSP) computer-modeling tools. In a case of studying an object rolling down a ramp, a traditional experiment method commonly uses a ticker tape sliding through a ticker timer. However, some kinematics parameters such as the instantaneous acceleration and the instantaneous speed of object cannot be investigated directly. By using the Tracker video analysis method, all kinematics parameters of cylinders rolling down a ramp can be investigated by direct visual inspection. The result shows that (1) there are no relations of cylinders' mass as well as cylinders' radius towards their kinetics parameters. (2) Excluding acceleration data, the speed and position as function of time follow the theory. (3) The acceleration data are in the random order, but their trend-lines closely fit the theory with 0.15% error. (4) The decrease of acceleration implicitly occurs due to the air friction acting on the cylinder during rolling down. (5) The cylinder's inertial moment constant has been obtained experimentally with 3.00% error. (6) The ramp angle linearly influences the cylinders' acceleration with 2.36% error. This research implied that the program can be further applied to physics educational purposes.

  7. Iterative alignment of reflector segments using a laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera Cuevas, Lizeth; Lucero Alvarez, Maribel; Leon-Huerta, Andrea; Hernandez Rios, Emilio; Hernandez Lázaro, Josefina; Tzile Torres, Carlos; Castro Santos, David; Gale, David M.; Wilson, Grant; Narayanan, Gopal; Smith, David R.

    2013-04-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a 50m diameter millimetre-wave radio telescope situated on the summit of Sierra Negra, Puebla, at an altitude of 4600 meters. The reflector surface of the LMT currently employs84 segments arranged in three annular rings. Each segment is comprised of 8 precision composite subpanels located on five threaded adjusters. During the current primary surface refurbishment, individual segments are aligned in the telescope basement using a laser tracker. This allows increased spatial resolution in shorter timescales, resulting in the opportunity for improved logistics and increased alignment precision. To perform segment alignment an iterative process is carried out whereby the surface is measured and subpanel deformations are corrected with the goal of 40 microns RMS. In practice we have been able to achieve RMS errors of almost 20 microns, with 35 microns typical. The number of iterations varies from around ten to over 20, depending mainly on the behaviour of the mechanical adjusters that support the individual subpanels. Cross marks scribed on the reflector surface are used as fiducials, because their positions on the paraboloid are well known. Measurement data is processed using a robust curve fitting algorithm which provides a map of the surface showing the subpanel deviations. From this map the required subpanel adjuster movements are calculated allowing surface improvement in a stepwise manner.

  8. The phase II ATLAS Pixel upgrade: the Inner Tracker (ITk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flick, T.

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the ITk (Inner Tracker). The pixel detector will comprise the five innermost layers, and will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. Several layout options are being investigated. All of these include a barrel part and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions. All structures will be based on low mass, highly stable and highly thermally conductive carbon-based materials cooled by evaporative carbon dioxide. Different designs of planar, 3D, and CMOS sensors are being investigated to identify the optimal technology for the different pixel layers. While the RD53 Collaboration is developing the new readout chip, the pixel off-detector readout electronics will be implemented in the framework of the general ATLAS trigger and DAQ system. A readout speed of up to 5 Gbit/s per data link (FE-chip) will be needed in the innermost layers going down to 640 Mbit/s for the outermost. This paper presents an overview of the different components of the ITk and the current status of the developments.

  9. Conceptual design report for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-15

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) will search for signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. The emphasis win be the correlation of many observables on an event-by-event basis. In the absence of definitive signatures for the QGP, it is imperative that such correlations be used to identify special events and possible signatures. This requires a flexible detection system that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The physics goals dictate the design of star and it's experiment. To meet the design criteria, tracking, momentum analysis, and particle identification of most of the charged particles at midrapidity are necessary. The tracking must operate in conditions at higher than the expected maximum charged particle multiplicities for central Au + Au collisions. Particle identification of pions/kaons for p < 0.7 GeV/c and kaons/protons for p < 1 GeV/c, as well as measurement of decay particles and reconstruction of secondary vertices will be possible. A two-track resolution of 2 cm at 2 m radial distance from, the interaction is expected. Momentum resolution of {Delta}p/p {approximately} 0.02 at p = 0.1 GeV/c is required to accomplish the physics, and,{Delta}p/p of several percent at p = 10 GeV/c is sufficient to accurately measure the rapidly failing spectra at high Pt and particles from mini-jets and jets.

  10. Conceptual design report for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    The STAR Collaboration

    1992-06-15

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) will search for signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. The emphasis win be the correlation of many observables on an event-by-event basis. In the absence of definitive signatures for the QGP, it is imperative that such correlations be used to identify special events and possible signatures. This requires a flexible detection system that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The physics goals dictate the design of star and it`s experiment. To meet the design criteria, tracking, momentum analysis, and particle identification of most of the charged particles at midrapidity are necessary. The tracking must operate in conditions at higher than the expected maximum charged particle multiplicities for central Au + Au collisions. Particle identification of pions/kaons for p < 0.7 GeV/c and kaons/protons for p < 1 GeV/c, as well as measurement of decay particles and reconstruction of secondary vertices will be possible. A two-track resolution of 2 cm at 2 m radial distance from, the interaction is expected. Momentum resolution of {Delta}p/p {approximately} 0.02 at p = 0.1 GeV/c is required to accomplish the physics, and,{Delta}p/p of several percent at p = 10 GeV/c is sufficient to accurately measure the rapidly failing spectra at high Pt and particles from mini-jets and jets.

  11. Gaussian Analytic Centroiding method of star image of star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiyong; Xu, Ershuai; Li, Zhifeng; Li, Jingjin; Qin, Tianmu

    2015-11-01

    The energy distribution of an actual star image coincides with the Gaussian law statistically in most cases, so the optimized processing algorithm about star image centroiding should be constructed also by following Gaussian law. For a star image spot covering a certain number of pixels, the marginal distribution of the gray accumulation on rows and columns are shown and analyzed, based on which the formulas of Gaussian Analytic Centroiding method (GAC) are deduced, and the robustness is also promoted due to the inherited filtering effect of gray accumulation. Ideal reference star images are simulated by the PSF (point spread function) with integral form. Precision and speed tests for the Gaussian Analytic formulas are conducted under three scenarios of Gaussian radius (0.5, 0.671, 0.8 pixel), The simulation results show that the precision of GAC method is better than that of the other given algorithms when the Gaussian radius is not bigger than 5 × 5 pixel window, a widely used parameter. Above all, the algorithm which consumes the least time is still the novel GAC method. GAC method helps to promote the comprehensive performance in the attitude determination of a star tracker.

  12. Operational Experience with Autonomous Star Trackers on ESA Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Mathias; Jauregui, Libe; Kielbassa, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Mars Express (MEX), Rosetta and Venus Express (VEX) are ESA interplanetary spacecrafts (S/C) launched in June 2003, March 2004 and November 2005, respectively. Mars Express was injected into Mars orbit end of 2003 with routine operations starting in spring 2004. Rosetta is since launch on its way to rendezvous comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It has completed several test and commissioning activities and is performing several planetary swingbys (Earth in spring 2005, Mars in spring 2007, Earth in autumn 2007 and again two years later). Venus Express has also started routine operations since the completion of the Venus orbit insertion maneuver sequence beginning of May 2006. All three S/C are three axes stabilized with a similar attitude and orbit control system (AOCS). The attitude is estimated on board using star and rate sensors and controlled using four reaction wheels. A bipropellant reaction control system with 10N thrusters serves for wheel off loadings and attitude control in safe mode. Mars Express and Venus Express have an additional 400N engine for the planetary orbit insertion. Nominal Earth communication is accomplished through a high gain antenna. All three S/C are equipped with a redundant set of autonomous star trackers (STR) which are based on almost the same hardware. The STR software is especially adapted for the respective mission. This paper addresses several topics related to the experience gained with the STR operations on board the three S/C so far.

  13. 3-D worm tracker for freely moving C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Namseop; Pyo, Jaeyeon; Lee, Seung-Jae; Je, Jung Ho

    2013-01-01

    The manner in which the nervous system regulates animal behaviors in natural environments is a fundamental issue in biology. To address this question, C. elegans has been widely used as a model animal for the analysis of various animal behaviors. Previous behavioral assays have been limited to two-dimensional (2-D) environments, confining the worm motion to a planar substrate that does not reflect three-dimensional (3-D) natural environments such as rotting fruits or soil. Here, we develop a 3-D worm tracker (3DWT) for freely moving C. elegans in 3-D environments, based on a stereoscopic configuration. The 3DWT provides us with a quantitative trajectory, including the position and movement direction of the worm in 3-D. The 3DWT is also capable of recording and visualizing postures of the moving worm in 3-D, which are more complex than those in 2-D. Our 3DWT affords new opportunities for understanding the nervous system function that regulates animal behaviors in natural 3-D environments.

  14. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: global delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness.

    PubMed

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach. The platform needed to be agile, provide powerful real-time reporting, and have the capacity to quickly transform to meet emerging requirements. Existing organizational applications, such as "Single Sign-On," and authoritative data sources were exploited to the maximum extent possible. Development of the "Soldier Fitness Tracker" is the most recent, and possibly the best, demonstration of the potential benefits possible when existing organizational capabilities are married to new, innovative applications. Combining the capabilities of the extant applications with the newly developed applications expedited development, eliminated redundant data collection, resulted in the exceeding of program objectives, and produced a comfortable experience for the end user, all in less than six months. This is a model for future technology integration.

  15. Compressive measurement and feature reconstruction method for autonomous star trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hang; Yan, Ye; Song, Xin; Yang, Yueneng

    2016-12-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory provides a framework for signal reconstruction using a sub-Nyquist sampling rate. CS theory enables the reconstruction of a signal that is sparse or compressible from a small set of measurements. The current CS application in optical field mainly focuses on reconstructing the original image using optimization algorithms and conducts data processing in full-dimensional image, which cannot reduce the data processing rate. This study is based on the spatial sparsity of star image and proposes a new compressive measurement and reconstruction method that extracts the star feature from compressive data and directly reconstructs it to the original image for attitude determination. A pixel-based folding model that preserves the star feature and enables feature reconstruction is presented to encode the original pixel location into the superposed space. A feature reconstruction method is then proposed to extract the star centroid by compensating distortions and to decode the centroid without reconstructing the whole image, which reduces the sampling rate and data processing rate at the same time. The statistical results investigate the proportion of star distortion and false matching results, which verifies the correctness of the proposed method. The results also verify the robustness of the proposed method to a great extent and demonstrate that its performance can be improved by sufficient measurement in noise cases. Moreover, the result on real star images significantly ensures the correct star centroid estimation for attitude determination and confirms the feasibility of applying the proposed method in a star tracker.

  16. Construction, Test And Calibration of the GLAST Silicon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Sgro, C.; Atwood, W.B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellazzini, R.; Belli, F.; Bonamente, E.; Borden, T.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; De Angelis, A.; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /UC, Santa Cruz /INFN, Trieste /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /SLAC /INFN, Bari /Bari U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Udine U. /Hiroshima U. /Maryland U., JCA /Tokyo Inst. Tech. /JAXA, Sagamihara /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /NASA, Goddard

    2009-06-05

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope represents a great advance in space application of silicon detectors. With a surface of 80 m{sup 2} and about 1 M readout channels it is the largest silicon tracker ever built for a space experiment. GLAST is an astro-particle mission that will study the mostly unexplored, high energy (20 MeV-300 GeV) spectrum coming from active sources or diffused in the Universe. The detector integration and test phase is complete. The full instrument underwent environmental testing and the spacecraft integration phase has just started: the launch is foreseen in late 2007. In the meanwhile the spare modules are being used for instrument calibration and performance verification employing the CERN accelerator complex. A Calibration Unit has been exposed to photon, electron and hadron beams from a few GeV up to 300 GeV. We report on the status of the instrument and on the calibration campaign.

  17. Low-resolution face tracker robust to illumination variations.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wilman W; Yuen, Pong C; Chellappa, Rama

    2013-05-01

    In many practical video surveillance applications, the faces acquired by outdoor cameras are of low resolution and are affected by uncontrolled illumination. Although significant efforts have been made to facilitate face tracking or illumination normalization in unconstrained videos, the approaches developed may not be effective in video surveillance applications. This is because: 1) a low-resolution face contains limited information, and 2) major changes in illumination on a small region of the face make the tracking ineffective. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes to perform tracking in an illumination-insensitive feature space, called the gradient logarithm field (GLF) feature space. The GLF feature mainly depends on the intrinsic characteristics of a face and is only marginally affected by the lighting source. In addition, the GLF feature is a global feature and does not depend on a specific face model, and thus is effective in tracking low-resolution faces. Experimental results show that the proposed GLF-based tracker works well under significant illumination changes and outperforms many state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  18. 48 CFR 216.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 216.203 Section 216.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 216.203 Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment....

  19. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... making comparisons of export price or constructed export price with normal value. (See section 777A(d)...

  20. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... making comparisons of export price or constructed export price with normal value. (See section 777A(d)...

  1. 48 CFR 3016.203 - Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments. 3016.203 Section 3016.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 3016.203 Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments....

  2. 48 CFR 216.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 216.203 Section 216.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 216.203 Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment....

  3. 48 CFR 216.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 216.203 Section 216.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 216.203 Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment....

  4. 48 CFR 3016.203 - Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments. 3016.203 Section 3016.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 3016.203 Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments....

  5. 48 CFR 3016.203 - Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments. 3016.203 Section 3016.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 3016.203 Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments....

  6. 48 CFR 216.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 216.203 Section 216.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 216.203 Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment....

  7. 48 CFR 3016.203 - Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments. 3016.203 Section 3016.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 3016.203 Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments....

  8. 48 CFR 216.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 216.203 Section 216.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 216.203 Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment....

  9. Three essays on access pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of

  10. Compensation for Time-Dependent Star Tracker Thermal Deformation on the Aqua Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Natanson, Gregory; Glickman, Jonathan; Sedlak, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of attitude sensor data from the Aqua mission showed small but systematic differences between batch least-squares and extended Kalman filter attitudes. These differences were also found to be correlated with star tracker residuals, gyro bias estimates, and star tracker baseplate temperatures. This paper describes the analysis that shows that these correlations are all consistent with a single cause: time-dependent thermal deformation of star tracker alignments. These varying alignments can be separated into relative and common components. The relative misalignments can be determined and compensated for. The common misalignments can only be determined in special cases.

  11. Chasing the Sun - The In-Flight Evaluation of an Optical Head Tracker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    AFRL-HE-WP-TP-2006-0057 AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Chasing the Sun - The In-Flight Evaluation of an NO, Optical Head Tracker Michael R. Sedillo...Chasing the Sun -The In-flight Evaluation of an Optical Head Tracker 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Michael...area UNC UNC UNC code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Chasing the Sun - In-flight Evaluation of an Optical Tracker 21

  12. Impact of European pharmaceutical price regulation on generic price competition: a review.

    PubMed

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    Although economic theory indicates that it should not be necessary to intervene in the generic drug market through price regulation, most EU countries intervene in this market, both by regulating the maximum sale price of generics (price cap) and by setting the maximum reimbursement rate, especially by means of reference pricing systems. We analyse current knowledge of the impact of direct price-cap regulation of generic drugs and the implementation of systems regulating the reimbursement rate, particularly through reference pricing and similar tools, on dynamic price competition between generic competitors in Europe. A literature search was carried out in the EconLit and PubMed databases, and on Google Scholar. The search included papers published in English or Spanish between January 2000 and July 2009. Inclusion criteria included that studies had to present empirical results of a quantitative nature for EU countries of the impact of price capping and/or regulation of the reimbursement rate (reference pricing or similar systems) on price dynamics, corresponding to pharmacy sales, in the generic drug market. The available evidence indicates that price-cap regulation leads to a levelling off of generic prices at a higher level than would occur in the absence of this regulation. Reference pricing systems cause an obvious and almost compulsory reduction in the consumer price of all pharmaceuticals subject to this system, to a varying degree in different countries and periods, the reduction being greater for originator-branded drugs than for generics. In several countries with a reference pricing system, it was observed that generics with a consumer price lower than the reference price do not undergo price reductions until the reference price is reduced, even when there are other lower-priced generics on the market (absence of price competition below the reference price). Beyond the price reduction forced by the price-cap and/or reference pricing regulation itself

  13. The Inspiring Teacher: New Beginnings for the 21st Century. The Inspired Classroom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullo, Robert A.

    This book provides educators with information on how to become an inspiring teacher. Nine chapters look at: (1) "The Qualities of an Inspiring Teacher" (e.g., passion for learning, lifelong learners, and actions match words); (2) "Choice Theory" (genetic instructions affecting behavior, the quality world, and perception); (3)…

  14. 48 CFR 5416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 5416.203 Section 5416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... contracts with economic price adjustment....

  15. 48 CFR 5416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 5416.203 Section 5416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... contracts with economic price adjustment....

  16. 48 CFR 5416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 5416.203 Section 5416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... contracts with economic price adjustment....

  17. 48 CFR 5416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 5416.203 Section 5416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... contracts with economic price adjustment....

  18. The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker operation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pater, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a key precision tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. The SCT is composed of 4088 planar p-in-n silicon micro-strip detectors. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which operate in binary readout mode; data are transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. The SCT was completed in 2007. An extensive commissioning phase followed, during which calibration data were collected and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system, and further performance parameters of the detector were determined using cosmic ray data, both with and without magnetic field. After the commissioning phase, the SCT was ready for the first LHC proton-proton collisions in December 2009. From the beginning of data taking, the completed SCT has been in very good shape with more than 99% of its 6.3 million strips operational; the detector is well timed-in and the operational channels are 99.9% efficient in data acquisition. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency are better than the design specifications. The detector geometry is monitored continuously with a laser-based alignment system and is stable to the few-micron level; the alignment accuracy as determined by tracks is near specification and improving as statistics increase. The sensor behaviour in the 2T solenoidal magnetic field has been studied by measuring the Lorentz angle. Radiation damage in the silicon is monitored by periodic measurements of the leakage current; these measurements are in reasonable agreement with predictions.

  19. MONDO: a neutron tracker for particle therapy secondary emission characterisation.

    PubMed

    Marafini, M; Gasparini, L; Mirabelli, R; Pinci, D; Patera, V; Sciubba, A; Spiriti, E; Stoppa, D; Traini, G; Sarti, A

    2017-04-21

    Tumour control is performed in particle therapy using particles and ions, whose high irradiation precision enhances the effectiveness of the treatment, while sparing the healthy tissue surrounding the target volume. Dose range monitoring devices using photons and charged particles produced by the beam interacting with the patient's body have already been proposed, but no attempt has been made yet to exploit the detection of the abundant neutron component. Since neutrons can release a significant dose far away from the tumour region, precise measurements of their flux, production energy and angle distributions are eagerly sought in order to improve the treatment planning system (TPS) software. It will thus be possible to predict not only the normal tissue toxicity in the target region, but also the risk of late complications in the whole body. The aforementioned issues underline the importance of an experimental effort devoted to the precise characterisation of neutron production, aimed at the measurement of their abundance, emission point and production energy. The technical challenges posed by a neutron detector aimed at high detection efficiency and good backtracking precision are addressed within the MONDO (monitor for neutron dose in hadrontherapy) project, whose main goal is to develop a tracking detector that can target fast and ultrafast neutrons. A full reconstruction of two consecutive elastic scattering interactions undergone by the neutrons inside the detector material will be used to measure their energy and direction. The preliminary results of an MC simulation performed using the FLUKA software are presented here, together with the DSiPM (digital SiPM) readout implementation. New detector readout implementations specifically tailored to the MONDO tracker are also discussed, and the neutron detection efficiency attainable with the proposed neutron tracking strategy are reported.

  20. Low bandwidth eye tracker for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Zachary G.; Dubra, Alfredo; Cahill, Nathan D.; Lopez Alarcon, Sonia

    2012-02-01

    The incorporation of adaptive optics to scanning ophthalmoscopes (AOSOs) has allowed for in vivo, noninvasive imaging of the human rod and cone photoreceptor mosaics. Light safety restrictions and power limitations of the current low-coherence light sources available for imaging result in each individual raw image having a low signal to noise ratio (SNR). To date, the only approach used to increase the SNR has been to collect large number of raw images (N >50), to register them to remove the distortions due to involuntary eye motion, and then to average them. The large amplitude of involuntary eye motion with respect to the AOSO field of view (FOV) dictates that an even larger number of images need to be collected at each retinal location to ensure adequate SNR over the feature of interest. Compensating for eye motion during image acquisition to keep the feature of interest within the FOV could reduce the number of raw frames required per retinal feature, therefore significantly reduce the imaging time, storage requirements, post-processing times and, more importantly, subject's exposure to light. In this paper, we present a particular implementation of an AOSO, termed the adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) equipped with a simple eye tracking system capable of compensating for eye drift by estimating the eye motion from the raw frames and by using a tip-tilt mirror to compensate for it in a closed-loop. Multiple control strategies were evaluated to minimize the image distortion introduced by the tracker itself. Also, linear, quadratic and Kalman filter motion prediction algorithms were implemented and tested and tested using both simulated motion (sinusoidal motion with varying frequencies) and human subjects. The residual displacement of the retinal features was used to compare the performance of the different correction strategies and prediction methods.

  1. Calibration Test Set for a Phase-Comparison Digital Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boas, Amy; Li, Samuel; McMaster, Robert

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus that generates four signals at a frequency of 7.1 GHz having precisely controlled relative phases and equal amplitudes has been designed and built. This apparatus is intended mainly for use in computer-controlled automated calibration and testing of a phase-comparison digital tracker (PCDT) that measures the relative phases of replicas of the same X-band signal received by four antenna elements in an array. (The relative direction of incidence of the signal on the array is then computed from the relative phases.) The present apparatus can also be used to generate precisely phased signals for steering a beam transmitted from a phased antenna array. The apparatus (see figure) includes a 7.1-GHz signal generator, the output of which is fed to a four-way splitter. Each of the four splitter outputs is attenuated by 10 dB and fed as input to a vector modulator, wherein DC bias voltages are used to control the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. The bias voltages are generated by digital-to-analog- converter circuits on a control board that receives its digital control input from a computer running a LabVIEW program. The outputs of the vector modulators are further attenuated by 10 dB, then presented at high-grade radio-frequency connectors. The attenuation reduces the effects of changing mismatch and reflections. The apparatus was calibrated in a process in which the bias voltages were first stepped through all possible IQ settings. Then in a reverse interpolation performed by use of MATLAB software, a lookup table containing 3,600 IQ settings, representing equal amplitude and phase increments of 0.1 , was created for each vector modulator. During operation of the apparatus, these lookup tables are used in calibrating the PCDT.

  2. DCPT: A dual-continua random walk particle tracker fortransport

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, L.; Liu, H.H.; Cushey, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2000-04-11

    Accurate and efficient simulation of chemical transport processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain is important to evaluate the performance of the potential repository. The scale of the unsaturated zone model domain for Yucca Mountain (50 km{sup 2} area with a 600 meter depth to the water table) requires a large gridblock approach to efficiently analyze complex flow & transport processes. The conventional schemes based on finite element or finite difference methods perform well for dispersion-dominated transport, but are subject to considerable numerical dilution/dispersion for advection-dominated transport, especially when a large gridblock size is used. Numerical dispersion is an artificial, grid-dependent chemical spreading, especially for otherwise steep concentration fronts. One effective scheme to deal with numerical dispersion is the random walk particle method (RWPM). While significant progress has been made in developing RWPM algorithms and codes for single continuum systems, a random walk particle tracker, which can handle chemical transport in dual-continua (fractured porous media) associated with irregular grid systems, is still absent (to our knowledge) in the public domain. This is largely due to the lacking of rigorous schemes to deal with particle transfer between the continua, and efficient schemes to track particles in irregular grid systems. The main objectives of this study are (1) to develop approaches to extend RWPM from a single continuum to a dual-continua system; (2) to develop an efficient algorithm for tracking particles in 3D irregular grids; and (3) to integrate these approaches into an efficient and user-friendly software, DCPT, for simulating chemical transport in fractured porous media.

  3. Eye tracker uncertainty analysis and modelling in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaser, A.; De Cecco, M.; Leuci, M.; Conci, N.; Daldoss, M.; Armanini, A.; Maule, L.; De Natale, F.; Da Lio, M.

    2017-01-01

    Techniques for tracking the eyes took place since several decades for different applications that range from military, to education, entertainment and clinics. The existing systems are in general of two categories: precise but intrusive or comfortable but less accurate. The idea of this work is to calibrate an eye tracker of the second category. In particular we have estimated the uncertainty both in nominal and in case of variable operating conditions. We took into consideration different influencing factors such as: head movement and rotation, eyes detected, target position on the screen, illumination and objects in front of the eyes. Results proved that the 2D uncertainty can be modelled as a circular confidence interval as far as there is no stable principal directions in both the systematic and the repeatability effects. This confidence region was also modelled as a function of the current working conditions. In this way we can obtain a value of the uncertainty that is a function of the operating condition estimated in real time opening the field to new applications that reconfigure the human machine interface as a function of the operating conditions. Examples can range from option buttons reshape, local zoom dynamically adjusted, speed optimization to regulate interface responsiveness, the possibility to take into account the uncertainty associated to a particular interaction. Furthermore, in the analysis of visual scanning patterns, the resulting Point of Regard maps would be associated with proper confidence levels thus allowing to draw accurate conclusions. We conducted an experimental campaign to estimate and validate the overall modelling procedure obtaining valid results in 86% of the cases.

  4. The electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC. A Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beddo, M.E.; Bielick, E.; Dawson, J.W.; The STAR EMC Collaboration

    1993-09-22

    This report discusses the following on the electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC: conceptual design; the physics of electromagnetic calorimetry in STAR; trigger capability; integration into STAR; and cost, schedule, manpower, and funding.

  5. Don't Bank on Heart-Rate Accuracy from Your Activity Tracker

    MedlinePlus

    ... moments, it won't be," said Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, an assistant professor of kinesiology at the University ... activity trackers were near the correct mark, Cadmus-Bertram said. But occasionally, their estimates of heart rate ...

  6. Evaluation of a heliostat tracker for linear Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-12-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of a heliostat tracking structure used as a two-axis tracking platform for ENTECH's linear focus Fresnel lens photovoltaic collectors. The study included the installation and operation of a heliostat tracker populated with 30 modules (1 operational and 29 non-operational) on a 32-ft x 32-ft platform. Details of the array installation, collector mounting, and array tracking accuracy are provided. Test results demonstrate that the heliostat tracker meets the performance requirements imposed by the collector. The evaluation includes a comparison of the heliostat tracker approach with the current tracker approach (a roll/tilt array). Results of the comparison do not identify a clearly superior option.

  7. Spacecraft attitude control systems with dynamic methods and structures for processing star tracker signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yong (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Li, Rongsheng (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Methods are provided for dynamically processing successively-generated star tracker data frames and associated valid flags to generate processed star tracker signals that have reduced noise and a probability greater than a selected probability P.sub.slctd of being valid. These methods maintain accurate spacecraft attitude control in the presence of spurious inputs (e.g., impinging protons) that corrupt collected charges in spacecraft star trackers. The methods of the invention enhance the probability of generating valid star tracker signals because they respond to a current frame probability P.sub.frm by dynamically selecting the largest valid frame combination whose combination probability P.sub.cmb satisfies a selected probability P.sub.slctd. Noise is thus reduced while the probability of finding a valid frame combination is enhanced. Spacecraft structures are also provided for practicing the methods of the invention.

  8. Carbon fiber plates production for the CMS tracker outer barrel detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lanfranco, Giobatta; /Fermilab

    2001-03-01

    The production methods together with the achieved flatness and thickness of the composite support structures of the CMS tracker outer barrel (TOB) detector are presented. Possible areas of improvement in the process and in the materials used are also suggested.

  9. Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) design and analysis. Two-axis gimbal star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) focused chiefly on the two-axis gimballed star tracker and electronics design improved from that of Precision Pointing Control System (PPCS), and application of the improved tracker for PADS at geosynchronous altitude. System design, system analysis, software design, and hardware design activities are reported. The system design encompasses the PADS configuration, system performance characteristics, component design summaries, and interface considerations. The PADS design and performance analysis includes error analysis, performance analysis via attitude determination simulation, and star tracker servo design analysis. The design of the star tracker and electronics are discussed. Sensor electronics schematics are included. A detailed characterization of the application software algorithms and computer requirements is provided.

  10. Understanding Price Formation in Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadoya, Toshihisa; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Ihara, Satoru

    The electricity price will influence the future growth and mix of generation capacity that will in turn influence the future electricity price, and therefore, it is important to understand how electricity price is formed as well as its short-term and long-term impacts on the economy. This paper describes evaluation of PJM day-ahead market bidding data and comparison of various electricity markets in terms of the market clearing price and volatility. The objective is to find critical factors and mechanisms determining the movements of electricity price. It was found that speculation by a small number of bidders can cause price spikes, that a Nash equilibrium may exist during a delayed response of the electricity price to a decline of the fuel price, and that the hydro generation with storage capability effectively stabilizes the electricity price.

  11. Price competition in the Chinese pharmaceutical market.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Richard

    2006-06-01

    We study price competition between high-quality global products and low-quality local products in a developing country, i.e., China, Nearly all previous studies on pharmaceutical price competition focused on developed countries with bioequivalent generics. In China, local generic products are not bioequivalent and are deemed of lower quality, while global products in the same class are considered similar in quality and better substitutes. We hypothesize that local generic competition drives down local product price but not global product price. In addition, we hypothesize that therapeutic competition among similar global products lowers global product price. Our empirical results support both hypotheses. Number of local generic competitors has a significantly negative effect on local product price but no effect on global product price, while number of global therapeutic competitors has a significantly negative effect on global product price. Policy changes that encourage bioequivalent local products and accelerate global product approvals will enhance price competition in China.

  12. Bio-inspired variable structural color materials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Gu, Hongcheng; Zhu, Cun; Gu, Zhongze

    2012-04-21

    Natural structural color materials, especially those that can undergo reversible changes, are attracting increasing interest in a wide variety of research fields. Inspired by the natural creatures, many elaborately nanostructured photonic materials with variable structural colors were developed. These materials have found important applications in switches, display devices, sensors, and so on. In this critical review, we will provide up-to-date research concerning the natural and bio-inspired photonic materials with variable structural colors. After introducing the variable structural colors in natural creatures, we will focus on the studies of artificial variable structural color photonic materials, including their bio-inspired designs, fabrications and applications. The prospects for the future development of these fantastic variable structural color materials will also be presented. We believe this review will promote the communications among biology, bionics, chemistry, optical physics, and material science (196 references).

  13. Compact and Thermosensitive Nature-inspired Micropump.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejeong; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-10-31

    Liquid transportation without employing a bulky power source, often observed in nature, has been an essential prerequisite for smart applications of microfluidic devices. In this report, a leaf-inspired micropump (LIM) which is composed of thermo-responsive stomata-inspired membrane (SIM) and mesophyll-inspired agarose cryogel (MAC) is proposed. The LIM provides a durable flow rate of 30 μl/h · cm(2) for more than 30 h at room temperature without external mechanical power source. By adapting a thermo-responsive polymer, the LIM can smartly adjust the delivery rate of a therapeutic liquid in response to temperature changes. In addition, as the LIM is compact, portable, and easily integrated into any liquid, it might be utilized as an essential component in advanced hand-held drug delivery devices.

  14. Compact and Thermosensitive Nature-inspired Micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyejeong; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-10-01

    Liquid transportation without employing a bulky power source, often observed in nature, has been an essential prerequisite for smart applications of microfluidic devices. In this report, a leaf-inspired micropump (LIM) which is composed of thermo-responsive stomata-inspired membrane (SIM) and mesophyll-inspired agarose cryogel (MAC) is proposed. The LIM provides a durable flow rate of 30 μl/h · cm2 for more than 30 h at room temperature without external mechanical power source. By adapting a thermo-responsive polymer, the LIM can smartly adjust the delivery rate of a therapeutic liquid in response to temperature changes. In addition, as the LIM is compact, portable, and easily integrated into any liquid, it might be utilized as an essential component in advanced hand-held drug delivery devices.

  15. Biologically Inspired Micro-Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Waszak, Martin R.

    2003-01-01

    Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed- wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.

  16. Compact and Thermosensitive Nature-inspired Micropump

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyejeong; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    Liquid transportation without employing a bulky power source, often observed in nature, has been an essential prerequisite for smart applications of microfluidic devices. In this report, a leaf-inspired micropump (LIM) which is composed of thermo-responsive stomata-inspired membrane (SIM) and mesophyll-inspired agarose cryogel (MAC) is proposed. The LIM provides a durable flow rate of 30 μl/h · cm2 for more than 30 h at room temperature without external mechanical power source. By adapting a thermo-responsive polymer, the LIM can smartly adjust the delivery rate of a therapeutic liquid in response to temperature changes. In addition, as the LIM is compact, portable, and easily integrated into any liquid, it might be utilized as an essential component in advanced hand-held drug delivery devices. PMID:27796357

  17. Food prices and blood cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Rahkovsky, Ilya; Gregory, Christian A

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) cost Americans billions of dollars per year. High cholesterol levels, which are closely related to dietary habits, are a major contributor to CVD. In this article, we study whether changes in food prices are related to cholesterol levels and whether taxes or subsidies on particular foods would be effective in lowering cholesterol levels and, consequently, CVD costs. We find that prices of vegetables, processed foods, whole milk and whole grains are significantly associated with blood cholesterol levels. Having analyzed the costs and benefits of government interventions, we find that a subsidy of vegetables and whole grains would be an efficient way to reduce CVD expenditures.

  18. Investors’ risk attitudes and stock price fluctuation asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Honggang

    2011-05-01

    Price rise/fall asymmetry, which indicates enduring but modest rises and sudden short-term falls, is a ubiquitous phenomenon in stock markets throughout the world. Instead of the widely used time series method, we adopt inverse statistics from turbulence to analyze this asymmetry. To explore its underlying mechanism, we build a multi-agent model with two kinds of investors, which are specifically referred to as fundamentalists and chartists. Inspired by Kahneman and Tversky’s claim regarding peoples’ asymmetric psychological responses to the equivalent levels of gains and losses, we assume that investors take different risk attitudes to gains and losses and adopt different trading strategies. The simulation results of the model developed herein are consistent with empirical work, which may support our conjecture that investors’ asymmetric risk attitudes might be one origin of rise/fall asymmetry.

  19. American Energy Production and Price Reduction Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Miller, Gary G. [R-CA-42

    2009-07-31

    09/14/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Improving the WIYN Telescope's pointing and tracking performance with a star tracker camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Jayadev K.; Harbeck, Daniel R.; Corson, Charles; Abareshi, Behzad; Schweiker, Heidi; Liu, Wilson; Hooper, Eric J.; Percival, Jeffrey W.; Jaehnig, Kurt P.

    2014-07-01

    We report on the implementation of a star tracker camera to improve the telescope pointing and tracking, at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. We base the overall concept on a star tracker system developed at the University of Wisconsin and routinely in use now for rocket and high-altitude balloon navigation. This fairly simple system provides pointing and station-keeping information, accurate to a few arcseconds, typically within a second.

  1. Essays on pricing dynamics, price dispersion, and nested logit modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinda, Jeremy Alan

    The body of this dissertation comprises three standalone essays, presented in three respective chapters. Chapter One explores the possibility that local market power contributes to the asymmetric relationship observed between wholesale costs and retail prices in gasoline markets. I exploit an original data set of weekly gas station prices in Southern California from September 2002 to May 2003, and take advantage of highly detailed station and local market-level characteristics to determine the extent to which spatial differentiation influences price-response asymmetry. I find that brand identity, proximity to rival stations, bundling and advertising, operation type, and local market features and demographics each influence a station's predicted asymmetric relationship between prices and wholesale costs. Chapter Two extends the existing literature on the effect of market structure on price dispersion in airline fares by modeling the effect at the disaggregate ticket level. Whereas past studies rely on aggregate measures of price dispersion such as the Gini coefficient or the standard deviation of fares, this paper estimates the entire empirical distribution of airline fares and documents how the shape of the distribution is determined by market structure. Specifically, I find that monopoly markets favor a wider distribution of fares with more mass in the tails while duopoly and competitive markets exhibit a tighter fare distribution. These findings indicate that the dispersion of airline fares may result from the efforts of airlines to practice second-degree price discrimination. Chapter Three adopts a Bayesian approach to the problem of tree structure specification in nested logit modelling, which requires a heavy computational burden in calculating marginal likelihoods. I compare two different techniques for estimating marginal likelihoods: (1) the Laplace approximation, and (2) reversible jump MCMC. I apply the techniques to both a simulated and a travel mode

  2. Alignment and arm length measurement of the swing arm profilometer using a laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hongwei; King, Christopher; Walker, David

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present the use of the laser tracker to aid the alignment of a Swing Arm Profilometer (SAP) and measure the length of the swinging arm, thus calibrating the operating radius of the SAP. The measurement uncertainty analysis is given. A laser tracker is used to align the SAP to ensure the path of the probe head passes through the rotary axis of the rotary table. By building the coordinate system by laser tracker measurement on the rotary table and measuring the swinging arc of the arm, we can determine whether the swinging path of the probe head passes through the rotary axis of the rotary table and perform the corresponding adjustment if necessary. A laser tracker is also used to measure the arm length, i.e. the length between the probe's ball centre and the rotation axis of the swinging arm. By placing a retroreflector or the tracker ball on the swinging arm and scanning the swinging path of the arm using the laser tracker, we can acquire the data of an arc and fit to determine the length of the probe head center to rotation axis of swinging arm, thus giving accurate SAP calibration data.

  3. Signal processing and target discrimination algorithms for a rosette scan tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Andre

    A prototype of an infrared rosette scan tracker has been developed to evaluate the immunity of this type of tracker against decoys which can be deployed from a target aircraft. The performance of the tracker depends on the signal processing and the target discrimination algorithms employed to control the tracker. Because of the low resolution of the resulting target image, the rosette scanner does not have the ability to recognize the targets by their shape characteristics. In addition, targets which are too close appear simultaneously in the tracker instantaneous field of view. These targets are then detected in one single pulse signal. To prevent the tracker from breaking its lock onto its target, the transients in amplitude and width of the selected pulses are detected when decoys are deployed from the target. The occurrence of such transients initiates the computation of the drift between the estimated target position and the center of the pulse for the two axes to determine the direction in which the decoy was deployed. The performance of this processing technique is illustrated and some improvements are suggested.

  4. Collaborative engineering and design management for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope tracker upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollison, Nicholas T.; Hayes, Richard J.; Good, John M.; Booth, John A.; Savage, Richard D.; Jackson, John R.; Rafal, Marc D.; Beno, Joseph H.

    2010-07-01

    The engineering and design of systems as complex as the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's* new tracker require that multiple tasks be executed in parallel and overlapping efforts. When the design of individual subsystems is distributed among multiple organizations, teams, and individuals, challenges can arise with respect to managing design productivity and coordinating successful collaborative exchanges. This paper focuses on design management issues and current practices for the tracker design portion of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade project. The scope of the tracker upgrade requires engineering contributions and input from numerous fields including optics, instrumentation, electromechanics, software controls engineering, and site-operations. Successful system-level integration of tracker subsystems and interfaces is critical to the telescope's ultimate performance in astronomical observation. Software and process controls for design information and workflow management have been implemented to assist the collaborative transfer of tracker design data. The tracker system architecture and selection of subsystem interfaces has also proven to be a determining factor in design task formulation and team communication needs. Interface controls and requirements change controls will be discussed, and critical team interactions are recounted (a group-participation Failure Modes and Effects Analysis [FMEA] is one of special interest). This paper will be of interest to engineers, designers, and managers engaging in multi-disciplinary and parallel engineering projects that require coordination among multiple individuals, teams, and organizations.

  5. Large Gas Electron Multiplier Trackers for Super Bigbite Spectrometer at Jefferson lab Hall A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenboonruang, K.; Gnanvo, K.; Liyanage, N.; Nelyubin, V.; Sacher, S.; Cisbani, E.; Musico, P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2013-04-01

    The 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) makes many exciting nuclear experiments possible. These experiments also require new high performance instrumentation. The Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) was proposed to perform a series of high precision nucleon form factor experiments at large momentum transfer. The SBS will be capable of operating at a very high luminosity and provide a large solid angle acceptance of 76 msr. SBS will be equipped with a double focal plane polarimeter. Thus, SBS will have three large trackers made of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers. The first, second, and third trackers will consist of six, four, and four tracking layers respectively. When completed in 2017, the SBS GEM trackers will form one of the largest sets of GEM chambers in the world. The GEM trackers allow the SBS to operate under high background rates over 500 kHz/cm^2, while providing an excellent spatial resolution of 70 μm. The first tracker will be constructed at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, while the second and third trackers will be built at the University of Virginia. In 2012, the first UVa SBS GEM chamber prototype was successfully constructed and tested. The GEM chamber construction details and test results will be presented in this talk.

  6. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    The conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' (1-5 June 2009, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) that myself and two former presidents of the American Biophysical Society—Wilma Olson (Rutgers University) and Adrian Parsegian (NIH), with the support of an ICTP team (Ralf Gebauer (Local Organizer) and Doreen Sauleek (Conference Secretary)), have organized was intended to establish stronger links between the biology and physics communities on the DNA front. The relationships between them were never easy. In 1997, Adrian published a paper in Physics Today ('Harness the Hubris') summarizing his thoughts about the main obstacles for a successful collaboration. The bottom line of that article was that physicists must seriously learn biology before exploring it and even having an interpreter, a friend or co-worker, who will be cooperating with you and translating the problems of biology into a physical language, may not be enough. He started his story with a joke about a physicist asking a biologist: 'I want to study the brain. Tell me something about it!' Biologist: 'First, the brain consists of two parts, and..' Physicist: 'Stop. You have told me too much.' Adrian listed a few direct avenues where physicists' contributions may be particularly welcome. This gentle and elegantly written paper caused, however, a stormy reaction from Bob Austin (Princeton), published together with Adrian's notes, accusing Adrian of forbidding physicists to attack big questions in biology straightaway. Twelve years have passed and many new developments have taken place in the biologist-physicist interaction. This was something I addressed in my opening conference speech, with my position lying somewhere inbetween Parsegian's and Austin's, which is briefly outlined here. I will first recall certain precepts or 'dogmas' that fly in the air like Valkyries, poisoning those relationships. Since the early seventies when I was a first year Ph

  7. Blood Clotting Inspired Polymer Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Charles Edward

    The blood clotting process is one of the human body's masterpieces in targeted molecular manipulation, as it requires the activation of the clotting cascade at a specific place and a specific time. Recent research in the biological sciences have discovered that one of the protein molecules involved in the initial stages of the clotting response, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), exhibits counterintuitive and technologically useful properties that are driven in part by the physical environment in the bloodstream at the site of a wound. In this thesis, we take inspiration from initial observations of the vWF in experiments, and aim to describe the behaviors observed in this process within the context of polymer physics. By understanding these physical principles, we hope to harness nature's ability to both direct molecules in both spatial and conformational coordinates. This thesis is presented in three complementary sections. After an initial introduction describing the systems of interest, we first describe the behavior of collapsed Lennard-Jones polymers in the presence of an infinite medium. It has been shown that simple bead-spring homopolymer models describe vWF quite well in vitro. We build upon this previous work to first describe the behavior of a collapsed homopolymer in an elongational fluid flow. Through a nucleation-protrusion mechanism, scaling relationships can be developed to provide a clear picture of a first-order globule-stretch transition and its ramifications in dilute-solution rheology. The implications of this behavior and its relation to the current literature provides qualitative explanations for the physiological process of vasoconstriction. In an effort to generalize these observations, we present an entire theory on the behavior of polymer globules under influence of any local fluid flow. Finally, we investigate the internal dynamics of these globules by probing their pulling response in an analogous fashion to force spectroscopy. We elucidate

  8. The Price Is Right Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burks, Robert E.; Jaye, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The "Price Is Right" ("TPIR") provides a wealth of material for studying statistics at various levels of mathematical sophistication. The authors have used elements of this show to motivate students from undergraduate probability and statistics courses to graduate level executive management courses. The material consistently generates a high…

  9. The Hidden Price of Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2006-01-01

    Surprising new studies show that privileged adolescents are more likely than any other socioeconomic group to suffer from depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. This article presents an interview with Madeline Levine, a Marin County, California, clinical psychologist of 25 years, and author of the new book "The Price of Privilege"…

  10. Trends in College Pricing, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents data on college costs from the College Board's Annual Survey of Colleges for the 2001-2002 academic year, as well as trends in costs for the past 30 years and analyses of college prices in relation to family income and available financial aid. Data include: (1) average fixed charges for undergraduates (tuition and fees and…

  11. True-sky demonstration of an autonomous star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bezooijen, Roelof W.

    1994-07-01

    An autonomous star tracker (AST) is basically a `star field in, attitude out' device capable of determining its attitude without requiring any a priori attitude knowledge. In addition to this attitude acquisition capability, an AST can perform attitude updates autonomously and is able to provide its attitude `continuously' while tracking a star field. The Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory is developing a reliable, low-cost, miniature AST that has a one arcsec overall accuracy, weighs less than 1.5 kg, consumes less than 7 watts of power, and is sufficiently sensitive to be used at all sky locations. The device performs attitude acquisition in a fraction of a second and outputs its attitude at a 10 Hz rate when operating in its tracking mode. Besides providing the functionality needed for future advanced attitude control and navigation systems, an AST also improves spacecraft reliability, mass, power, cost, and operating expenses. The AST comprises a-thermalized, refractive optics, a frame-transfer CCD with a sensitive area of 1024 by 1024 pixels, camera electronics implemented with application- specific integrated circuits, a compact single board computer with a radiation hard 32 bit RISC processor, and an all-sky guide star database. Star identification is performed by a memory- efficient and highly robust algorithm that finds the largest group of observed stars matching a group of guide stars. An important milestone has recently been achieved with the validation of the attitude acquisition capability through correct and rapid identification of all 704 true-sky star fields obtained at the Lick Observatory, using an uncalibrated prototype AST with a 512 by 1024 pixel frame-transfer CCD and a 50 mm f/1.2 lens that provided an effective 6.5 by 13.2 degree field of view. The overlapping fields cover 47% of the sky, including both rich and sparse areas. The paper contains a description of the AST, a summary of the functions enabled or improved by the device, an

  12. Towards a Pedagogy of Inspirational Parables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pio, Edwina; Haigh, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present a rationale for a learning and assessment activity involving students in the construction of inspirational parables for diversity management within a university business studies programme. The paper reviews processes from teacher and student perspectives, describes initial outcomes and foreshadows further…

  13. Using "1 = 2" to Inspire and Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premadasa, Kirthi; Samaranayake, Geetha

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical fallacies have an embedded sense of awe and mystery that can be used effectively in a classroom to inspire students to tackle a fallacy and find the "hidden" violation. In doing so, the student may discover the consequence of a rule violation in a stimulating manner, thus making a lasting impact of the rule as well as providing the…

  14. Inspiring a Life Full of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlam, John

    2012-01-01

    The Secrets and Words films had everything one would expect from a BBC drama--great writing, acting and directing allied with high production values. But the dramas were also powerful learning tools, co-commissioned by BBC Learning and aimed at inspiring people who have difficulty with reading and writing to seek help. The BBC's learning vision is…

  15. Pop Art--Inspired Self-Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donna J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art lesson that was inspired by Andy Warhol's mass-produced portraits. Warhol began his career as a graphic artist and illustrator. His artwork was a response to the redundancy of the advertising images put in front of the American public. Celebrities and famous people in magazines and newspapers were seen…

  16. Water Treatment Technologies Inspire Healthy Beverages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.

  17. Art Works ... when Students Find Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Artworks are not produced in a vacuum, but by the interaction of experiences, and interrelationships of ideas, perceptions and feelings acknowledged and expressed in some form. Students, like mature artists, may be inspired and motivated by their memories and observations of their surroundings. Like adult artists, students may find that their own…

  18. Inspired by Athletes, Myths, and Poets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Tales of love and hate, of athleticism, heroism, devotion to gods and goddesses that influenced myth and culture are a way of sharing ancient Greece's rich history. In this article, the author describes how her students created their own Greek-inspired clay vessels as artifacts of their study. (Contains 6 online resources.)

  19. Inspiring Students to Create the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Cynthia; Vespia, Kristin M.; Fitzpatrick, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    An exemplary program based at the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay greatly increases the odds that at-risk youngsters will not only graduate from high school, but will go on to higher education. The program is also a model of university/community collaboration. ["Inspiring Students to Create the Future" was written with Timothy U.…

  20. Bio-Inspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Self-cleaning surfaces have drawn a lot of interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in mechanism, preparation, and application of self-cleaning surfaces. To date, self-cleaning has been demonstrated by the following four conceptual approaches: (a) TiO2-based superhydrophilic self-cleaning, (b) lotus effect self-cleaning (superhydrophobicity with a small sliding angle), (c) gecko setae-inspired self-cleaning, and (d) underwater organisms-inspired antifouling self-cleaning. Although a number of self-cleaning products have been commercialized, the remaining challenges and future outlook of self-cleaning surfaces are also briefly addressed. Through evolution, nature, which has long been a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers, has arrived at what is optimal. We hope this review will stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, chemistry, biology, physics, nanoscience, engineering, etc., which is essential for the rational design and reproducible construction of bio-inspired multifunctional self-cleaning surfaces in practical applications.

  1. Basket Weaving Inspired by the Gullah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Many different cultures created and used the basket not only for utilitarian purposes, but also for ceremonial uses. In this article, the author describes an eighth-grade project inspired by the basket making of the Gullah people, who live along the coast of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

  2. Eric Carle-Inspired Insect Collages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palamountain, Eileen; Turner, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which students create collage insects inspired by the work of Eric Carle (The Very Hungry Caterpillar). Connects art, language arts, and science. Discusses how students make paper to use as the collage material and how students create the insects. (CMK)

  3. 78 FR 29785 - Priority Mail Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... electronic filing. DATES: Comments are due: May 30, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen L... that it has inflation-based price adjustment authority of 1.053 percent \\4\\ and unused price...

  4. 17 CFR 242.201 - Price test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... price to satisfy the order to buy, exclusive of any explicitly disclosed markup or markdown, commission... same price to satisfy the order to sell, exclusive of any explicitly disclosed markup or...

  5. Surviving in the age of price transparency.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Christopher J; Mazoh, Margery; Brown, James P; Moore, Sarah; Skalka, Christi

    2008-10-01

    *Healthcare organizations can develop a value-based pricing strategy that benefits both patients and the organization. *The value-based pricing strategy of the Cleveland Clinic is based on five key components of value-relationship to cost, payment considerations, quality, market tolerance, and consistency. *Seven interrelated work streams can be used to align pricing inputs around the five components of value-based pricing.

  6. Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: promotion, packaging, price and place.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers.

  7. Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: promotion, packaging, price and place

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers. PMID:22345238

  8. Cross modality registration of video and magnetic tracker data for 3D appearance and structure modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Dusty; Chen, Chao-I.; Wang, Yuan-Fang

    2010-02-01

    The paper reports a fully-automated, cross-modality sensor data registration scheme between video and magnetic tracker data. This registration scheme is intended for use in computerized imaging systems to model the appearance, structure, and dimension of human anatomy in three dimensions (3D) from endoscopic videos, particularly colonoscopic videos, for cancer research and clinical practices. The proposed cross-modality calibration procedure operates this way: Before a colonoscopic procedure, the surgeon inserts a magnetic tracker into the working channel of the endoscope or otherwise fixes the tracker's position on the scope. The surgeon then maneuvers the scope-tracker assembly to view a checkerboard calibration pattern from a few different viewpoints for a few seconds. The calibration procedure is then completed, and the relative pose (translation and rotation) between the reference frames of the magnetic tracker and the scope is determined. During the colonoscopic procedure, the readings from the magnetic tracker are used to automatically deduce the pose (both position and orientation) of the scope's reference frame over time, without complicated image analysis. Knowing the scope movement over time then allows us to infer the 3D appearance and structure of the organs and tissues in the scene. While there are other well-established mechanisms for inferring the movement of the camera (scope) from images, they are often sensitive to mistakes in image analysis, error accumulation, and structure deformation. The proposed method using a magnetic tracker to establish the camera motion parameters thus provides a robust and efficient alternative for 3D model construction. Furthermore, the calibration procedure does not require special training nor use expensive calibration equipment (except for a camera calibration pattern-a checkerboard pattern-that can be printed on any laser or inkjet printer).

  9. Behavior Change Techniques Present in Wearable Activity Trackers: A Critical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kathryn; Li, Melissa; Giangregorio, Lora; Burns, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity trackers are promising as interventions that offer guidance and support for increasing physical activity and health-focused tracking. Most adults do not meet their recommended daily activity guidelines, and wearable fitness trackers are increasingly cited as having great potential to improve the physical activity levels of adults. Objective The objective of this study was to use the Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy to examine if the design of wearable activity trackers incorporates behavior change techniques (BCTs). A secondary objective was to critically analyze whether the BCTs present relate to known drivers of behavior change, such as self-efficacy, with the intention of extending applicability to older adults in addition to the overall population. Methods Wearing each device for a period of 1 week, two independent raters used CALO-RE taxonomy to code the BCTs of the seven wearable activity trackers available in Canada as of March 2014. These included Fitbit Flex, Misfit Shine, Withings Pulse, Jawbone UP24, Spark Activity Tracker by SparkPeople, Nike+ FuelBand SE, and Polar Loop. We calculated interrater reliability using Cohen's kappa. Results The average number of BCTs identified was 16.3/40. Withings Pulse had the highest number of BCTs and Misfit Shine had the lowest. Most techniques centered around self-monitoring and self-regulation, all of which have been associated with improved physical activity in older adults. Techniques related to planning and providing instructions were scarce. Conclusions Overall, wearable activity trackers contain several BCTs that have been shown to increase physical activity in older adults. Although more research and development must be done to fully understand the potential of wearables as health interventions, the current wearable trackers offer significant potential with regard to BCTs relevant to uptake by all populations, including older adults. PMID:27122452

  10. NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Special Section NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... page please turn Javascript on. Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers Fogarty scholar helps Zambians ...

  11. Bio-inspired cell concentration and deformability monitoring chips.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Ho; Youn, Sechan; Lee, Dong Woo

    2007-11-01

    The paper presents a couple of biofluidic devices, whose functions are inspired from biological cell concentration and deformability monitoring functions. The cell concentration monitoring chip is inspired from RBC control mechanism in kidney, performing cell concentration monitoring functions. The cell deformability chip, inspired from selective RBC destruction mechanism in spleen, performs mechanical cell deformability monitoring functions. The structures and principles of the bio-inspired chips are presented and compared with those of the biological organs. The unique features and performance characteristics of the bio-inspired chips are analyzed and verified from experimental study. The bio-inspired cell concentration monitoring chips perform flow-rate insensitive concentration measurement, while the bio-inspired cell deformability monitoring chips achieve size-independent cell deformability measurement. Common advantages of the bio-inspired chips include simple structures, digital signals and high integrability, thus making them suitable for use in integrated digital biomedical systems.

  12. Recent developments in bio-inspired special wettability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kesong; Yao, Xi; Jiang, Lei

    2010-08-01

    Nature is a school for scientists and engineers. After four and a half billion years of stringent evolution, some creatures in nature exhibit fascinating surface wettability. Biomimetics, mimicking nature for engineering solutions, provides a model for the development of functional surfaces with special wettability. Recently, bio-inspired special wetting surfaces have attracted wide scientific attention for both fundamental research and practical applications, which has become an increasingly hot research topic. This Critical Review summarizes the recent work in bio-inspired special wettability, with a focus on lotus leaf inspired self-cleaning surfaces, plants and insects inspired anisotropic superhydrophobic surfaces, mosquito eyes inspired superhydrophobic antifogging coatings, insects inspired superhydrophobic antireflection coatings, rose petals and gecko feet inspired high adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces, bio-inspired water collecting surfaces, and superlyophobic surfaces, with particular focus on the last two years. The research prospects and directions of this rapidly developing field are also briefly addressed (159 references).

  13. Kittens! Inspired by Kittens! Undergraduate Theorists Inspired by YouTube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Diane Downer; Lewis, Mark; Peterson, Sarah; Griggs, Samantha; Grubb, Gina; Singer, Nicole; Fried, Simone; Krone, Elizabeth; Elko, Leigh; Narang, Jasmine

    2010-01-01

    A professor and students in an undergraduate honors research seminar were inspired to playfully link old and contemporary literacy theories to a 2.0 media artifact, the popular YouTube video Kittens! Inspired by Kittens! (KIbK) starring 6 year-old Maddie. In this article KIbK is theorized drawing on frames of school-based reading instruction,…

  14. 14 CFR 381.13 - Price increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.13 Price increases. (a) Should the tour operator increase a participant's tour price by more than 10 percent (aggregate of all increases to that participant), that... refund within 14 days after the cancellation. (b) The tour operator shall not increase the tour price...

  15. 16 CFR 453.2 - Price disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., outer burial containers, immediate burials, or direct cremations, to persons inquiring about the...) The price range for the direct cremations offered by the funeral provider, together with: (1) A separate price for a direct cremation where the purchaser provides the container; (2) Separate prices...

  16. 16 CFR 453.2 - Price disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., outer burial containers, immediate burials, or direct cremations, to persons inquiring about the...) The price range for the direct cremations offered by the funeral provider, together with: (1) A separate price for a direct cremation where the purchaser provides the container; (2) Separate prices...

  17. 16 CFR 453.2 - Price disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., outer burial containers, immediate burials, or direct cremations, to persons inquiring about the...) The price range for the direct cremations offered by the funeral provider, together with: (1) A separate price for a direct cremation where the purchaser provides the container; (2) Separate prices...

  18. 16 CFR 453.2 - Price disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., outer burial containers, immediate burials, or direct cremations, to persons inquiring about the...) The price range for the direct cremations offered by the funeral provider, together with: (1) A separate price for a direct cremation where the purchaser provides the container; (2) Separate prices...

  19. 16 CFR 453.2 - Price disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., outer burial containers, immediate burials, or direct cremations, to persons inquiring about the...) The price range for the direct cremations offered by the funeral provider, together with: (1) A separate price for a direct cremation where the purchaser provides the container; (2) Separate prices...

  20. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this...

  1. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this...

  2. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this...

  3. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this...

  4. Third-Degree Price Discrimination Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Youngsun

    2006-01-01

    The author derives the probability that price discrimination improves social welfare, using a simple model of third-degree price discrimination assuming two independent linear demands. The probability that price discrimination raises social welfare increases as the preferences or incomes of consumer groups become more heterogeneous. He derives the…

  5. 48 CFR 15.402 - Pricing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate price competition, except as provided by 15.403-3(b). (ii) Data other than certified cost or... officers shall— (a) Purchase supplies and services from responsible sources at fair and reasonable prices. In establishing the reasonableness of the offered prices, the contracting officer— (1) Shall...

  6. 48 CFR 408.707 - Prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prices. 408.707 Section 408.707 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 408.707 Prices. Prior to applying for a price revision, the chief...

  7. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be at prices offered through the...

  8. Pricing Structures for Automated Library Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the development of successful pricing algorithms for cooperative library automation projects. Highlights include desirable characteristics of pricing measures, including simplicity and the ability to allow for system growth; problems with transaction-based systems; and a review of the pricing strategies of seven library consortia.…

  9. Pricing Strategies for CD-ROM Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Pricing strategies for subscriptions and licenses for CD-ROMs are different for single users and networks. The basic components of pricing strategies are charges for subscription, connect line, display/print, telecommunication, session rate, special commands, and special services. Highlights selected supplier pricing strategies for single users…

  10. 75 FR 166 - Postal Product Price Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... recently-filed Postal Service request to change prices for a Global Plus 2 contract. This notice provides...). \\1\\ Notice of United States Postal Service of Change in Prices in Accordance with Order No. 216... requirements of a competitive rate change set forth in 39 CFR 3015.5. Because the basis for the price change...

  11. 75 FR 166 - Postal Product Price Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... recently-filed Postal Service request to change prices for a Global Plus 2 contract. This notice provides... 3). \\1\\ Notice of United States Postal Service of Change in Prices in Accordance with Order No. 216... requirements of a competitive rate change set forth in 39 CFR 3015.5. Because the basis for the price change...

  12. 41 CFR 51-5.5 - Prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in § 51-5.6. (c) Price changes for commodities and services shall usually apply to orders received by... the views of the contracting activity, the Committee may make price changes applicable to orders... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Prices. 51-5.5 Section...

  13. A Tool To Assess Journal Price Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    The author designed an experiment to determine whether periodical price inflation might be dampened by electronic scholarship. This article discusses results of an econometric analysis of prices for 859 periodical titles for three consecutive years, and concludes with a description of an analytical tool that may be used to assess journal prices.…

  14. The Economics of Professional Journal Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Michael A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates the literature on journal pricing that emphasizes three types of price discrimination practiced by publishers. Concludes that the monopoly power of commercial publishers and a third party payment system are the cause of increasing journal costs. Recommends incentives to journal users, adoption of equitable pricing systems, and employing…

  15. 48 CFR 1416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 1416.203 Section 1416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment....

  16. 48 CFR 916.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustments. 916.203 Section 916.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...-price contracts with economic price adjustments....

  17. 48 CFR 416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 416.203 Section 416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...-price contracts with economic price adjustment....

  18. 48 CFR 1216.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 1216.203 Section 1216.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...-price contracts with economic price adjustment....

  19. 48 CFR 1316.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 1316.203 Section 1316.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...-price contracts with economic price adjustment....

  20. 48 CFR 616.203 - Fixed-Price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-Price contracts with economic price adjustment. 616.203 Section 616.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...-Price contracts with economic price adjustment....