Science.gov

Sample records for price trackers inspired

  1. INSPIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Bill; Pine, Bill

    2003-01-01

    INSPIRE (Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment - http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/inspire) is a non-profit scientific, educational organization whose objective is to bring the excitement of observing natural and manmade radio waves in the audio region to high school students and others. The project consists of building an audio frequency radio receiver kit, making observations of natural and manmade radio waves and analyzing the data. Students also learn about NASA and our natural environment through the study of lightning, the source of many of the audio frequency waves, the atmosphere, the ionosphere, and the magnetosphere where the waves travel.

  2. Tracker Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    ict public roenq IA, - x.’ nicn~ Unitnitod I ITT-EPL PROJECT REPORT NO. 278 CHAPEL BELL REPORT NO. 115 TRACKER STUDIES R. N. DeWitt SManager, Advanced...peak amplitude at the F layer. These values lead to a maximum rate of angular deviation I d dhl k2 dx 11[djma = Ak dt dxj max dt =10 k.1 (.004)2 kmŖ

  3. Tracker Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Steven J.; Palacios, David M.

    2013-01-01

    This software can track multiple moving objects within a video stream simultaneously, use visual features to aid in the tracking, and initiate tracks based on object detection in a subregion. A simple programmatic interface allows plugging into larger image chain modeling suites. It extracts unique visual features for aid in tracking and later analysis, and includes sub-functionality for extracting visual features about an object identified within an image frame. Tracker Toolkit utilizes a feature extraction algorithm to tag each object with metadata features about its size, shape, color, and movement. Its functionality is independent of the scale of objects within a scene. The only assumption made on the tracked objects is that they move. There are no constraints on size within the scene, shape, or type of movement. The Tracker Toolkit is also capable of following an arbitrary number of objects in the same scene, identifying and propagating the track of each object from frame to frame. Target objects may be specified for tracking beforehand, or may be dynamically discovered within a tripwire region. Initialization of the Tracker Toolkit algorithm includes two steps: Initializing the data structures for tracked target objects, including targets preselected for tracking; and initializing the tripwire region. If no tripwire region is desired, this step is skipped. The tripwire region is an area within the frames that is always checked for new objects, and all new objects discovered within the region will be tracked until lost (by leaving the frame, stopping, or blending in to the background).

  4. Writing Inspired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  5. Writing Inspired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  6. ORNL SunTracker

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, Robert Wesley

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screen that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.

  7. CCD star trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The application of CCDs to star trackers and star mappers is considered. Advantages and disadvantages of silicon CCD star trackers are compared with those of image dissector star trackers. It is concluded that the CCD has adequate sensitivity for most single star tracking tasks and is distinctly superior in multiple star tracking or mapping applications. The signal and noise figures of several current CCD configurations are discussed. The basic structure of the required signal processing is described, and it is shown that resolution in excess of the number of CCD elements may be had by interpolation.

  8. Television Tracker Range Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan-Wen, Zhu

    1987-05-01

    The paper gives an approximate television tracker range equation based on the concept of the radiology and signal-to-noise of television system, and describes the physical process and mathematical method of reckoning range equation. The range equation is useful to the desing and development of a system. This paper also discusses the demand and selection standard of the television tracker system to the imaging device and gives some possible approaches to increase the range.

  9. Miniature Laser Tracker

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2003-09-09

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  10. Inspired Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Carol Frederick

    2011-01-01

    In terms of teacher quality, Steele believes the best teachers have reached a stage she terms inspired, and that teachers move progressively through the stages of unaware, aware, and capable until the most reflective teachers finally reach the inspired level. Inspired teachers have a wide repertoire of teaching and class management techniques and…

  11. Advanced Imaging Tracker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    document requires that it 1e returncd: ADVANCED IMACINGC TRACKER Dr . L. E. Schmutz Contractor: Adaptive Optics Associates, Inc. Contt-ict Number: F30602-80...Code Number: IE20 Period of Worl: Covered: jun 80 - D’:c 81 Principal Investigator: Dr . Larry Schmut~z Phone: 617 547-2786 Project Engineer: Captaia...yaJPODCVR~ ADVANCED IMAGING TRACKER 10Jun 80 - ’,’ Dec 81 𔄃 PiRFORMiNO7 01G. REPORT NUMBER 7 ATII~(. ONTPA OR GRANTY NUMDERf.) Dr . 1L. E. Schiiut

  12. Digital Standard Star Tracker.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuerry, J. P., Jr.

    The Digital Standard Star Tracker (DSST) is an electro-optical instrument which provides position data used for precise attitude determination. The new DSST design uses flight-proven optical and sensor components from the BASD/NASA Standard Star Tracker (SST) programs while incorporating digital electronics techniques to improve producibility and reliability. This design approach has resulted in a new instrument capable of ≤ 10 arc second calibrated accuracy with 50 percent of the electrical components and only 10 percent of the electrical assemblies used in the SST.

  13. Digital Standard Star Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuerry, J. P., Jr.

    The Digital Standard Star Tracker (DSST) is an electro-optical instrument which provides position data used for precise attitude determination. The new DSST design uses flight-proven optical and sensor components from the BASD/NASA Standard Star Tracker (SST) programs while incorporating digital electronics techniques to improve producibility and reliability. This design approach has resulted in a new instrument capable of less than 10 arc second calibrated accuracy with 50 percent of the electrical components and only 10 percent of the electrical assemblies used in the SST.

  14. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  15. Ebola Tracker app.

    PubMed

    Evans, Roger

    2015-01-27

    Developer Bryan Ratledge claims his Ebola Tracker app is the only up to date mapping application of the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak centred in West Africa. With this app, you track the Ebola outbreak just as you would track a hurricane, or the weather.

  16. Rotational Dynamics with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadkhong, T.; Rajsadorn, R.; Jannual, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia ("I") of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction ("b") for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive…

  17. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  18. Rotational Dynamics with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadkhong, T.; Rajsadorn, R.; Jannual, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia ("I") of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction ("b") for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive…

  19. MediaTracker system

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D. M.; Strittmatter, R. B.; Abeyta, J. D.; Brown, J.; Marks, T. , Jr.; Martinez, B. J.; Jones, D. B.; Hsue, W.

    2004-01-01

    The initial objectives of this effort were to provide a hardware and software platform that can address the requirements for the accountability of classified removable electronic media and vault access logging. The Media Tracker system software assists classified media custodian in managing vault access logging and Media Tracking to prevent the inadvertent violation of rules or policies for the access to a restricted area and the movement and use of tracked items. The MediaTracker system includes the software tools to track and account for high consequence security assets and high value items. The overall benefits include: (1) real-time access to the disposition of all Classified Removable Electronic Media (CREM), (2) streamlined security procedures and requirements, (3) removal of ambiguity and managerial inconsistencies, (4) prevention of incidents that can and should be prevented, (5) alignment with the DOE's initiative to achieve improvements in security and facility operations through technology deployment, and (6) enhanced individual responsibility by providing a consistent method of dealing with daily responsibilities. In response to initiatives to enhance the control of classified removable electronic media (CREM), the Media Tracker software suite was developed, piloted and implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in July 2000. The Media Tracker software suite assists in the accountability and tracking of CREM and other high-value assets. One component of the MediaTracker software suite provides a Laboratory-approved media tracking system. Using commercial touch screen and bar code technology, the MediaTracker (MT) component of the MediaTracker software suite provides an efficient and effective means to meet current Laboratory requirements and provides new-engineered controls to help assure compliance with those requirements. It also establishes a computer infrastructure at vault entrances for vault access logging, and can accommodate

  20. The Tevatron Chromaticity tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    The Tevatron chromaticity tracker (CT) has been successfully commissioned and is now operational. The basic idea behind the CT is that when the phase of the Tevatron RF is slowly modulated, the beam momentum is also modulated. This momentum modulation is coupled transversely via chromaticity to manifest as a phase modulation on the betatron tune. Thus by phase demodulating the betatron tune, the chromaticity can be recovered. However, for the phase demodulation to be successful, it is critical that the betatron tune be a coherent signal that can be easily picked up by a phase detector. This is easily done because the Tevatron has a phase locked loop (PLL) based tune tracker which coherently excites the beam at the betatron tune.

  1. CMS tracker visualization tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennea, M. S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-08-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  2. Tracker 300 Software

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, R. Wes

    2006-01-12

    The Tracker300 software is downloaded to an off-the-shelf product called RCM3400/RCM3410 made by Rabbit Semiconductor. The software is a closed loop control which computes the sun's position and provides stability compensation. Using the RCM3400/RCM3410 module, the software stores and retrieves parameters from the onboard flash. The software also allows for communication with a host. It will allow the parameters to be downloaded or uploaded, it will show the status of the controller, it will provide real-time feedback, and it will send command acknowledgements. The software will capture the GPS response and ensure the internal clock is set correctly.

  3. Sun-Relative Pointing for Dual-Axis Solar Trackers Employing Azimuth and Elevation Rotations

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Daniel; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2014-12-30

    Dual axis trackers employing azimuth and elevation rotations are common in the field of photovoltaic (PV) energy generation. Accurate sun-tracking algorithms are widely available. However, a steering algorithm has not been available to accurately point the tracker away from the sun such that a vector projection of the sun beam onto the tracker face falls along a desired path relative to the tracker face. We have developed an algorithm which produces the appropriate azimuth and elevation angles for a dual axis tracker when given the sun position, desired angle of incidence, and the desired projection of the sun beam onto the tracker face. Development of this algorithm was inspired by the need to accurately steer a tracker to desired sun-relative positions in order to better characterize the electro-optical properties of PV and CPV modules.

  4. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to the study of heavy flavour physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The primary goal of the experiment is to search for indirect evidence of new physics via measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The LHCb detector has a large-area silicon micro-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet, and three tracking stations with silicon micro-strip detectors in the innermost region downstream of the magnet. These two sub-detectors form the LHCb Silicon Tracker (ST). This paper gives an overview of the performance and operation of the ST during LHC Run 1. Measurements of the observed radiation damage are shown and compared to the expectation from simulation.

  5. ATLAS strip tracker stavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, P. W.

    2012-02-01

    The engineering challenges related to the supply of electrical power to future large scale detector systems are well documented. Two options remain under active study in our community, namely serial powering and the use of DC-DC converters. Whilst clearly different in detail, both have the potential to increase the efficiency of the powering system. The ATLAS Upgrade Strip Tracker Community has constructed two demonstrator stavelets using the ABCN-25 ASIC, each comprising four silicon strip detector modules. The first stavelet is serially powered, using shunt transistors integrated into the ABCN-25 chip to maintain the required operating voltage given a constant supply current, and the second stavelet uses STV-10 DC-DC converters provided by the CERN group. Although the detailed test programme shall continue at CERN, results from stavelet tests made at RAL are presented here.

  6. Silicon tracker data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Large particle physics experiments are making increasing technological demands on the design and implementation of real-time data acquisition systems. The LHC will have bunch crossing intervals of 25 nanoseconds and detectors, such as CMS, will contain over 10 million electronic channels. Readout systems will need to cope with 100 kHz rates of 1 MByte-sized events. Over 70% of this voluminous flow will stem from silicon tracker and MSGC devices. This paper describes the techniques currently being harnessed from ASIC devices through to modular microprocessor-based architectures around standards such as VMEbus and PCI. In particular, the experiences gained at the HERA H1 experiment are highlighted where many of the key technological concepts have already been im implemented.

  7. Star trackers for spacecraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, Lawrence W.; Abreu, Rene

    1990-09-01

    During the last 10 years the need for a new generation of star trackers emerged as the requirements for space platform attitude control became more stringent. The Advanced Star Tracker (ASTRA) combines the high sensitivity and resolution inherent in a modern CCD detector with the versatile processing capability of a 16-bit microprocessor to achieve a level of performance surpassing existing trackers. In this paper, star tracker error sources and the design and calibration techniques utilized in ASTRA to eliminate or minimize those errors are explored. An error tree presents high and low special frequency centroiding error sources and their influence on the tracker's design. Requirements for thermal control of the detector and for optical calibration are discussed along with an overview of the data processing function. Finally, hardware test results are presented that demonstrate a significant improvement in accuracy and sensitivity relative to existing tube-type trackers.

  8. WGM Temperature Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    This software implements digital control of a WGM (whispering-gallerymode) resonator temperature based on the dual-mode approach. It comprises one acquisition (dual-channel) and three control modules. The interaction of the proportional-integral loops is designed in the original way, preventing the loops from fighting. The data processing is organized in parallel with the acquisition, which allows the computational overhead time to be suppressed or often completely avoided. WGM resonators potentially provide excellent optical references for metrology, clocks, spectroscopy, and other applications. However, extremely accurate (below micro-Kelvin) temperature stabilization is required. This software allows one specifically advantageous method of such stabilization to be implemented, which is immune to a variety of effects that mask the temperature variation. WGM Temperature Tracker 2.3 (see figure) is a LabVIEW code developed for dual-mode temperature stabilization of WGM resonators. It has allowed for the temperature stabilization at the level of 200 nK with one-second integration time, and 6 nK with 10,000-second integration time, with the above room-temperature set point. This software, in conjunction with the appropriate hardware, can be used as a noncryogenic temperature sensor/ controller with sub-micro-Kelvin sensitivity, which at the time of this reporting considerably outperforms the state of the art.

  9. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  10. International Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2017-01-01

    As the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) expands its Registered Apprenticeship College Consortium (RACC) among community colleges and employer partners, those involved are looking to countries like Germany and Switzerland for inspiration. In some cases, that has meant partnering with companies from those countries, which have had more comprehensive…

  11. International Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2017-01-01

    As the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) expands its Registered Apprenticeship College Consortium (RACC) among community colleges and employer partners, those involved are looking to countries like Germany and Switzerland for inspiration. In some cases, that has meant partnering with companies from those countries, which have had more comprehensive…

  12. Inspired Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Robert; Spruch, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    It has been nearly 400 years since Harvard College was created, and since then, thousands of colleges and universities have been built across the United States. From the classically inspired lines of Thomas Jefferson's University of Virginia to the Spanish architecture at Stanford University, every campus has its own personality. It's not unusual,…

  13. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  14. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  15. Hyperspectral Imager-Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agurok, Llya

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager-Tracker (HIT) is a technique for visualization and tracking of low-contrast, fast-moving objects. The HIT architecture is based on an innovative and only recently developed concept in imaging optics. This innovative architecture will give the Light Prescriptions Innovators (LPI) HIT the possibility of simultaneously collecting the spectral band images (hyperspectral cube), IR images, and to operate with high-light-gathering power and high magnification for multiple fast- moving objects. Adaptive Spectral Filtering algorithms will efficiently increase the contrast of low-contrast scenes. The most hazardous parts of a space mission are the first stage of a launch and the last 10 kilometers of the landing trajectory. In general, a close watch on spacecraft operation is required at distances up to 70 km. Tracking at such distances is usually associated with the use of radar, but its milliradian angular resolution translates to 100- m spatial resolution at 70-km distance. With sufficient power, radar can track a spacecraft as a whole object, but will not provide detail in the case of an accident, particularly for small debris in the onemeter range, which can only be achieved optically. It will be important to track the debris, which could disintegrate further into more debris, all the way to the ground. Such fragmentation could cause ballistic predictions, based on observations using high-resolution but narrow-field optics for only the first few seconds of the event, to be inaccurate. No optical imager architecture exists to satisfy NASA requirements. The HIT was developed for space vehicle tracking, in-flight inspection, and in the case of an accident, a detailed recording of the event. The system is a combination of five subsystems: (1) a roving fovea telescope with a wide 30 field of regard; (2) narrow, high-resolution fovea field optics; (3) a Coude optics system for telescope output beam stabilization; (4) a hyperspectral

  16. Head tracker evaluation utilizing the dynamic tracker test fixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Moure Shattuck, Judson, III; Parisi, Vincent M., II; Smerdon, Arryn J.

    2007-04-01

    In military aviation, head tracker technologies have become increasingly important to track the pilot's head position and orientation, allowing the user to quickly interact with the operational environment. This technology allows the pilot to quickly acquire items of interest and see Fighter Data Link type information. Acquiring the target on a helmet-mounted tracker/display which can automatically slew a weapon's seeker is far more efficient than having to point at the target with the nose of the aircraft as previously required for the heads-up display (HUD) type of target acquisition. The United States Air Force (USAF) has used and evaluated a variety of helmet-mounted trackers for incorporation into their high performance aircrafts. The Dynamic Tracker Test Fixture (DTTF) was designed by the Helmet-Mounted Sensory Technology (HMST) laboratory to accurately measure rotation in one plane both static and dynamic conditions for the purpose of evaluating the accuracy of head trackers, including magnetic, inertial, and optical trackers. This paper describes the design, construction, capabilities, limitations, and performance of the DTTF.

  17. Schedule-Tracker Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Fernando F.

    1990-01-01

    Schedule Tracker provides effective method for tracking tasks "past due" and/or "near term". Generates reports for each responsible staff member having one or more assigned tasks falling within two listed categories. Schedule Organizer (SO) (COSMIC program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker (ST), and Schedule Report Generator (SRG) (COSMIC program MSC-21527) computer programs manipulating data-base files in ways advantageous in scheduling. Written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL).

  18. MAD for visual tracker fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Krah, Sebastian B.; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Existing tracking methods vary strongly in their approach and therefore have different strengths and weaknesses. For example, a single tracking algorithm may be good at handling variations in illumination, but does not cope well with deformation. Hence, their failures can occur on entirely different time intervals on the same sequence. One possible solution for overcoming limitations of a single tracker and for benefitting from individual strengths, is to run a set of tracking algorithms in parallel and fuse their outputs. But in general, tracking algorithms are not designed to receive feedback from a higher level fusion strategy or require a high degree of integration between individual levels. Towards this end, we introduce a fusion strategy serving the purpose of online single object tracking, for which no knowledge about individual tracker characteristics is needed. The key idea is to combine several independent and heterogeneous tracking approaches and to robustly identify an outlier subset based on the "Median Absolute Deviations" (MAD) measure. The MAD fusion strategy is very generic and only requires frame-based object bounding boxes as input. Thus, it can work with arbitrary tracking algorithms. Furthermore, the MAD fusion strategy can also be applied for combining several instances of the same tracker to form a more robust ensemble for tracking an object. The evaluation is done on public available datasets. With a set of heterogeneous, commonly used trackers we show that the proposed MAD fusion strategy improves the tracking results in comparison to a classical combination of parallel trackers and that the tracker ensemble helps to deal with the initialization uncertainty of a single tracker.

  19. Space Shuttle Star Tracker Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    The space shuttle fleet of avionics was originally designed in the 1970's. Many of the subsystems have been upgraded and replaced, however some original hardware continues to fly. Not only fly, but has proven to be the best design available to perform its designated task. The shuttle star tracker system is currently flying as a mixture of old and new designs, each with a unique purpose to fill for the mission. Orbiter missions have tackled many varied missions in space over the years. As the orbiters began flying to the International Space Station (ISS), new challenges were discovered and overcome as new trusses and modules were added. For the star tracker subsystem, the growing ISS posed an unusual problem, bright light. With two star trackers on board, the 1970's vintage image dissector tube (IDT) star trackers track the ISS, while the new solid state design is used for dim star tracking. This presentation focuses on the challenges and solutions used to ensure star trackers can complete the shuttle missions successfully. Topics include KSC team and industry partner methods used to correct pressurized case failures and track system performance.

  20. Head Tracker Evaluation Utilizing the Dynamic Tracker Test Fixture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    secondary system that updates the inertial system--often referred to as a hybrid system. Optical head trackers ( OHT ) are immune to magnetic field...S, ABBREVIATION CCW – Counter Clockwise CW – Clockwise Deg – Degrees D HUD – Head-up Display Min – Minute Mrad – milliradian N OHT – Optical

  1. Lab Tracker and Copper Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... that you share this log of your treatment history with your physicians so that important trends in your health status can be noted. Patient Lab Tracker - Excel Version This format is downloadable to the Microsoft Excel program on your computer. Included are instructions and sample pages to assist ...

  2. Four-cell solar tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Forty cm Sun tracker, consisting of optical telescope and four solar cells, stays pointed at Sun throughout day for maximum energy collection. Each solar cell generates voltage proportional to part of solar image it receives; voltages drive servomotors that keep image centered. Mirrored portion of cylinder extends acquisition angle of device by reflecting Sun image back onto solar cells.

  3. TacNet Tracker Software

    SciTech Connect

    WISEMAN, JAMES; & STEVENS, JAMES

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. The purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.

  4. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark; LHCb Upgrade Scintillating Fibre Tracker Group

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  5. Introduction to Mini Muon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, Konstantin N.

    2012-08-13

    Using a mini muon tracker developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory we performed experiments of simple landscapes of various materials, including TNT, 9501, lead, tungsten, aluminium, and water. Most common scenes are four two inches thick step wedges of different dimensions: 12-inch x 12-inch, 12-inch x 9-inch, 12-inch x 6-inch, and 12-inch x 3-inch; and a one three inches thick hemisphere of lead with spherical hollow, and a similar full lead sphere.

  6. Activity trackers: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The wearable consumer health devices can be mainly divided into activity trackers, sleep trackers, and stress management devices. These devices are widely advertised to provide positive effects on the user's daily behaviours and overall heath. However, objective evidence supporting these claims appears to be missing. The goal of this study was to review available evidence pertaining to performance of activity trackers. A comprehensive review of available information has been conducted for seven representative devices and the validity of marketing claims was assessed. The device assessment was based on availability of verified output metrics, theoretical frameworks, systematic evaluation, and FDA clearance. The review identified critical absence of supporting evidence of advertised functions and benefits for the majority of the devices. Six out of seven devices did not provide any information on sensor accuracy and output validity at all. Possible underestimation or overestimation of specific health indicators reported to consumers was not clearly disclosed to the public. Furthermore, significant limitations of these devices which can be categorized into user restrictions, user responsibilities and company disclaimers could not be easily found or comprehended by unsophisticated users and may represent a serious health hazard.

  7. Upgrade of the CMS tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricomi, A.

    2014-03-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity up to or above 5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 sometimes after 2020, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 at the end of that decade. The foreseen increases of both the instantaneous and the integrated luminosity by the LHC during the next ten years will necessitate a stepwise upgrade of the CMS tracking detector. During the extended end-of-year shutdown 2016-2017 the pixel detector will be exchanged with a new one. The so-called Phase1 Pixel foresees one additional barrel layer and one additional end-cap disk, a new readout chip, reduction of material, and the installation of more efficient cooling and powering systems. In the so-called Phase2, when LHC will reach the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) phase, CMS will need a completely new Tracker detector, in order to fully exploit the high-demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS pixel and outer tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D activities.

  8. The CMS tracker control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G. H.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Hartmann, F.; Masetti, L.; Militaru, O.; Shah, S. Y.; Stringer, R.; Tsirou, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Tracker Control System (TCS) is a distributed control software to operate about 2000 power supplies for the silicon modules of the CMS Tracker and monitor its environmental sensors. TCS must thus be able to handle about 104 power supply parameters, about 103 environmental probes from the Programmable Logic Controllers of the Tracker Safety System (TSS), about 105 parameters read via DAQ from the DCUs in all front end hybrids and from CCUs in all control groups. TCS is built on top of an industrial SCADA program (PVSS) extended with a framework developed at CERN (JCOP) and used by all LHC experiments. The logical partitioning of the detector is reflected in the hierarchical structure of the TCS, where commands move down to the individual hardware devices, while states are reported up to the root which is interfaced to the broader CMS control system. The system computes and continuously monitors the mean and maximum values of critical parameters and updates the percentage of currently operating hardware. Automatic procedures switch off selected parts of the detector using detailed granularity and avoiding widespread TSS intervention.

  9. Chapter 6: CPV Tracking and Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Luque-Heredia, Ignacio; Magalhaes, Pedro; Muller, Matthew

    2016-04-15

    This chapter explains the functional requirements of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) sun tracker. It derives the design specifications of a CPV tracker. The chapter presents taxonomy of trackers describing the most common tracking architectures, based on the number of axes, their relative position, and the foundation and placing of tracking drives. It deals with the structural issues related to tracker design, mainly related to structural flexure and its impact on the system's acceptance angle. The chapter analyzes the auto-calibrated sun tracking control, by describing the state of the art and its development background. It explores the sun tracking accuracy measurement with a practical example. The chapter discusses tracker manufacturing and tracker field works. It reviews survey of different types of tracker designs obtained from different manufacturers. Finally, the chapter deals with IEC62817, the technical standard developed for CPV sun trackers.

  10. Star Tracker/Mapper: System Design Parameters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    AD-A008 554 STAR TRACKER/MAPPER: SYSTEM’DESIGN PARAMETERS F. W. Schenkel Johns Hopkins University Prepared for: Naval Plant Representative Office...APLIJHU TG 1256 4. TITLE (andSubritle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Star Tracker/Mapper: System Design Parameters 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...identify by block number) Design parameters Star tracker/mapper Optical sensors Optical trackers Spectral characteristics 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on

  11. The CDF silicon vertex tracker

    SciTech Connect

    A. Cerri et al.

    2000-10-10

    Real time pattern recognition is becoming a key issue in many position sensitive detector applications. The CDF collaboration is building SVT: a specialized electronic device designed to perform real time track reconstruction using the silicon vertex detector (SVX II). This will strongly improve the CDF capability of triggering on events containing b quarks, usually characterized by the presence of a secondary vertex. SVT is designed to reconstruct in real time charged particles trajectories using data coming from the Silicon Vertex detector and the Central Outer Tracker drift chamber. The SVT architecture and algorithm have been specially tuned to minimize processing time without degrading parameter resolution.

  12. Overlap-Based Cell Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Chalfoun, Joe; Cardone, Antonio; Dima, Alden A.; Allen, Daniel P.; Halter, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the extraction of quantitative data from live cell image sets, automated image analysis methods are needed. This paper presents an introduction to the general principle of an overlap cell tracking software developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This cell tracker has the ability to track cells across a set of time lapse images acquired at high rates based on the amount of overlap between cellular regions in consecutive frames. It is designed to be highly flexible, requires little user parameterization, and has a fast execution time. PMID:27134800

  13. Optical filtering for star trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The optimization of optical filtering was investigated for tracking faint stars, down to the fifth magnitude. The effective wavelength and bandwidth for tracking pre-selected guide stars are discussed along with the results of an all-electronic tracker with a star tracking photomultiplier, which was tested with a simulated second magnitude star. Tables which give the sum of zodiacal light and galactic background light over the entire sky for intervals of five degrees in declination, and twenty minutes in right ascension are included.

  14. D0 silicon microstrip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Burdin, Sergey

    2005-11-01

    The D0 Run II silicon microstrip tracker (SMT) has 3 square meters of Si area. There are 792,576 channels read out by 6192 SVXIIe chips on 912 read out modules. The SMT provides track and vertex reconstruction capabilities over the full pseudorapidity coverage of the D0 detector. The full detector has been running successfully since April 2002. This presentation covers the experience in commissioning and operating, the recent electronics upgrade which improved stability of the SMT and estimates of the radiation damage.

  15. The CDF Central Outer Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, K.T.; CDF Collaboration

    1997-01-01

    We describe the CDF Central Outer Tracker (COT), an open-cell drift chamber currently being constructed for the CDF detector to run at the upgraded Fermilab Tevatron collider. This detector will provide central tracking with excellent momentum resolution in the high- density environment of a hadron collider. It will be able to resolve 132 ns beam crossings and provide tracking trigger information to the Level 1 trigger. The design is based upon the existing and successful CDF Central Tracking Chamber. The preliminary mechanical and electrical designs are presented. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. External referencing and pharmaceutical price negotiation.

    PubMed

    Garcia Mariñoso, Begoña; Jelovac, Izabela; Olivella, Pau

    2011-06-01

    External referencing (ER) imposes a price cap for pharmaceuticals, based on prices of identical or comparable products in foreign countries. Suppose a foreign country (F) negotiates prices with a pharmaceutical firm, whereas a home country (H) can either negotiate prices independently or implement ER, based on the foreign price. We show that country H prefers ER if copayments in H are relatively high. This preference is reinforced when H's population is small. Irrespective of relative country sizes, ER by country H harms country F. Our model is inspired by the wide European experience with this cost-containment policy. Namely, in Europe, drug authorization and price negotiations are carried out by separate agencies. We confirm our main results in two extensions. The first one allows for therapeutic competition between drugs. In the second one, drug authorization and price negotiation take place in a single agency. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  18. The Clubbers' Guide: "Be Inspired, Inspire Others"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Liz

    2012-01-01

    "Be inspired, inspire others" is this author's school motto and also something she aims to achieve by running the Science Club at The Warwick School in Redhill, Surrey, UK, an 11-16 specialist technology comprehensive. The Science Club is part of an extensive science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programme that has…

  19. The Clubbers' Guide: "Be Inspired, Inspire Others"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Liz

    2012-01-01

    "Be inspired, inspire others" is this author's school motto and also something she aims to achieve by running the Science Club at The Warwick School in Redhill, Surrey, UK, an 11-16 specialist technology comprehensive. The Science Club is part of an extensive science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programme that has…

  20. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  1. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  2. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  3. Ruby on Rails Issue Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Juan Jared

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the tasks accomplished as a NASA NIFS intern for the summer 2014 session. This internship opportunity is to develop an issue tracker Ruby on Rails web application to improve the communication of developmental anomalies between the Support Software Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) teams, System Build and Information Architecture. As many may know software development is an arduous, time consuming, collaborative effort. It involves nearly as much work designing, planning, collaborating, discussing, and resolving issues as effort expended in actual development. This internship opportunity was put in place to help alleviate the amount of time spent discussing issues such as bugs, missing tests, new requirements, and usability concerns that arise during development and throughout the life cycle of software applications once in production.

  4. Surface metrology using laser trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enriquez, Rogerio; Sampieri, Cesar E.

    2005-02-01

    During the process of manufacture or measuring large components, position and orientation are needed thus; a method based in surveying the surface can be used to describe them. This method requires an ensemble of measurements of fixed points whose coordinates are unknown. Afterwards resulting observations are manipulated to determinate objects position in order to apply surface metrology. In this work, a methodology to reduce uncertainties in surface measuring is presented. When measuring large surfaces, numerical methods can reduce uncertainties in the measures, and this can be done with instruments as such as the Laser Tracker (LT). Calculations use range and angles measures, in order to determinate the coordinates of tridimensional unknown positions from differents surveying points. The purpose of this work, is to solve problems of surface metrology with given tolerances; with advantages in resources and results, instead of making time sacrifices. Here, a hybrid methodology is developed, combining Laser Tracker with GPS theories and analysis. Such a measuring position system can be used in applications where the use of others systems are unpractical, mainly because this kind of measuring instruments are portables and capable to track and report results in real-time, it can be used in virtually anyplace. Simulations to measure panels for the Large Millimetric Telescope (LMT/GTM) in Mexico were done. A first benefit from using this method is that instrument is not isolated from its measuring environment. Instead, the system is thought as a whole with operator, measuring environment and targets. This solution provides an effective way, and a more precise measurement, because it does optimize the use of the instrument and uses additional information to strength the solution.

  5. ST - SCHEDULE TRACKER COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST, and Schedule Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. ST and SRG use the same data base file as input. The common data base file has a maximum number of 400 entries. The time span of all three programs is nineteen months. Both of these maximum numbers can be modified by the user. ST requires the VMS Operating System on DEC VAX and was written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL). The program requires a memory of 233KB. ST can be purchased separately or in a package (COSMIC Program COS-10021) containing SO, ST, and SRG. ST was developed in 1985.

  6. ST - SCHEDULE TRACKER COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST, and Schedule Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. ST and SRG use the same data base file as input. The common data base file has a maximum number of 400 entries. The time span of all three programs is nineteen months. Both of these maximum numbers can be modified by the user. ST requires the VMS Operating System on DEC VAX and was written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL). The program requires a memory of 233KB. ST can be purchased separately or in a package (COSMIC Program COS-10021) containing SO, ST, and SRG. ST was developed in 1985.

  7. The Inspirational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Hughes, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Amid the focus on improved standardized test scores, differentiated instruction, value-added initiatives and improved teacher evaluation, one must not ignore an education leader's need to inspire and be inspired. But how do education leaders inspire their students and teachers during some of the most difficult economic times the nation has ever…

  8. The Inspirational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Hughes, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Amid the focus on improved standardized test scores, differentiated instruction, value-added initiatives and improved teacher evaluation, one must not ignore an education leader's need to inspire and be inspired. But how do education leaders inspire their students and teachers during some of the most difficult economic times the nation has ever…

  9. Progress on the MICE Tracker Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.; Lau, W.; Yang, Stephanie Q.

    2006-06-10

    This report describes the 400 mm warm bore tracker solenoid for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The 2.923 m long tracker solenoid module includes the radiation shutter between the end absorber focus coil modules and the tracker as well as the 2.735 m long magnet cryostat vacuum vessel. The 2.554 m long tracker solenoid cold mass consists of two sections, a three-coil spectrometer magnet and a two-coil matching section that matches the uniform field 4 T spectrometer solenoid into the MICE cooling channel. The two tracker magnets are used to provide a uniform magnetic field for the fiber detectors that are used to measure the muon beam emittance at the two ends of the cooling channel. This paper describes the design for the tracker magnet coils and the 4.2 K cryogenic coolers that are used to cool the superconducting magnet. Interfaces between the magnet and the detectors are discussed.

  10. Priced Out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-White, Daniel R.; Radcliffe, Peter M.; Lorenz, Linda M.; Soria, Krista M.

    2014-01-01

    While the literature on postsecondary student success identifies important academic and social factors associated with student outcomes, one question that persists concerns the influence of financial aid. We use the National Student Clearinghouse's StudentTracker service to develop a more complete model of student success that accommodates…

  11. High-speed mirror-scanning tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, HengWei

    1999-06-01

    This paper introduces a high speed single-mirror scanner developed by us as a versatile tracker. It can be connected with a high speed camera, a TV tracker (or color video recorder) /measurer/recorder. It can be guided by a computer, a joystick (automatic or manual) or TV tracker. In this paper, we also present the advantages of our scanner contrasted with the limitations of fixed camera system. In addition, several usable projects of mirror scanner are discussed.

  12. Star tracker for the Apollo telescope mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    The star tracker for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) has been designed specifically to meet the requirements of the Skylab vehicle and mission. The functions of the star tracker are presented, as well as descriptions of the optical-mechanical assembly (OMA) and the star tracker electronics (STE). Also included are the electronic and mechanical specifications, interface and operational requirements, support equipment and test requirements, and occultation information. Laboratory functional tests, environmental qualification tests, and life tests have provided a high confidence factor in the performance of the star tracker in the laboratory and on the Skylab mission.

  13. The Chesapeake Laser Tracker in Industrial Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-16

    In the summer of 1992, the survey and alignment team at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center acquired a CMS3000 laser tracker manufactured by Chesapeake Laser Systems in Lanham, Maryland. This paper gives a description of the principles of operation and calibration of the tracker. Several applications are explained and the results shared.

  14. Sun tracker for clear or cloudy weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Sun tracker orients solar collector so that they absorb maximum possible sunlight without being fooled by bright clouds, holes in cloud cover, or other atmospheric conditions. Tracker follows sun within 0.25 deg arc and is accurate within + or - 5 deg when sun is hidden.

  15. A Rollercoaster Viewed through Motion Tracker Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Rodjegard, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A motion tracker measures acceleration and rotation in three dimensions, sufficient for a complete determination of the motion. In this article, a rollercoaster ride is analysed with reference to motion tracker data. The use of this type of data in education is discussed as a way to deepen students' understanding of concepts related to force and…

  16. Inspire Your Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, William E.; Taylor, William W. L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a science project, Interactive Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiments (INSPIRE), that allows students to work with physicists to address unanswered questions about the physics of space. (ZWH)

  17. Inspire Your Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, William E.; Taylor, William W. L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a science project, Interactive Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiments (INSPIRE), that allows students to work with physicists to address unanswered questions about the physics of space. (ZWH)

  18. Eye trackers in an oculary clinical setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahimin, Mizhanim M.; Shahimin, Mukhzeer M.

    2013-12-01

    Infrared eye tracker has been demonstrated to provide a more objective and quantitative results of the cover test measurement in eye care practices. This paper reviews the application of eye trackers in oculary clinical setting. It highlights the different types of eye movement recording system (EMRS) available, the advantages and disadvantages of each and their use in a clinical setting. This paper also discusses the parameters that can be derived from the EMRS and the significance of the parameters in a clinical interpretation. Using an eye tracker would make available to the clinician a simple system for making quantitative measurements when performing the cover test in an eye examination.

  19. Personal Activity Trackers and the Quantified Self.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Personal activity trackers are an inexpensive and easy way for people to record their physical activity and simple biometric data. As these devices have increased in availability and sophistication, their use in daily life and in medicine has grown. This column will briefly explore what these devices are, what types of data they can track, and how that data can be used. It will also discuss potential problems with trackers and how librarians can help patients and physicians manage and protect activity data. A brief list of currently available activity trackers is also included.

  20. Clay Bells: Edo Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…

  1. The Inspirational Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuey, Gary; Moore, Lonnie

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss the sequential nature of becoming a teacher of the highest caliber, an "inspirational" teacher, by creating a personal mission statement, classroom mission statement, modeling, respecting listening and building relationships. The first level of inspirational teaching is the creation of a personal mission statement. Great…

  2. Clay Bells: Edo Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…

  3. Power Studies for the CMS Pixel Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  4. Power distribution studies for CMS forward tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  5. My Game Plan: Food and Activity Tracker

    MedlinePlus

    ... partner organizations. SAMPLE ENTRY: TIME 8:00 AM MONDAY FOOD AND DRINK TRACKER AMOUNT /NAME /DESCRIPTION FAT ... TOTALS FAT GRAMS CALORIES MINUTES OF ACTIVITY WEIGHT MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY WEEKLY TOTALS ...

  6. Reference pricing and firms' pricing strategies.

    PubMed

    Miraldo, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Within a horizontal differentiation model and allowing for heterogeneous qualities, we analyze the effects of reference pricing reimbursement on firms' pricing strategies. With this analysis we find inherent incentives for firms' pricing behavior, and consequently we shed some light on the time consistency of such policy. The analysis encompasses different reference price rules: (i) reference price as the minimum of the observed prices in the market, (ii) reference price as a linear combination of firms' prices. Results show that under the "minimum policy" firms are not able to coordinate on higher prices while the "linear policy", implicitly, provides a coordination device. We have also found that, relatively to the "linear policy", when the reference price is the minimum of observed prices, after policy implementation, total and private expenditures are higher and consumer surplus and firms' profits are lower. With quality differentiation both the minimum and linear policies unambiguously lead to higher prices.

  7. A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality Yohan Baillot and Simon J. Julier ITT Advanced Engineering & Sciences 2560 Huntington Ave...with as few as three measurements. 1. Introduction Almost all Augmented Reality (AR) systems use a track- ing system to capture motion of objects in...DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  8. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, Sunil; Kille, Natalie; Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Thomson, David; Hannigan, James; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometers, making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The integrated system allows the tracker to operate autonomously while the mobile laboratory is in motion. Mobile direct sun differential optical absorption spectroscopy (mobile DS-DOAS) observations using this tracker were conducted during summer 2014 as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) in Colorado, USA. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052° (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile DS-DOAS spectra. The high photon flux from direct sun observation enables measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant columns with high temporal resolution and reveals spatial detail in the variations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). The NO2 VCD from DS-DOAS is compared with a co-located MAX-DOAS instrument. Overall good agreement is observed amid a highly heterogeneous air mass.

  9. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, S.; Kille, N.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Thomson, D.; Hannigan, J.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-11-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometers making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The integrated system allows the tracker to operate autonomously while the mobile laboratory is in motion. Mobile direct sun Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mobile DS-DOAS) observations using this tracker were conducted during summer 2014 as part of the Front Range Photochemistry and Pollution Experiment (FRAPPE) in Colorado, USA. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052° (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives, and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile DS-DOAS spectra. The high photon flux from direct sun observation enables measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant columns with high temporal resolution, and reveals spatial detail in the variations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). The NO2 VCD from DS-DOAS is compared with a co-located MAX-DOAS instrument. Overall good agreement is observed amid a highly heterogeneous air mass.

  10. Star Tracker Performance Estimate with IMU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Swank, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A software tool for estimating cross-boresight error of a star tracker combined with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was developed to support trade studies for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication project (iROC) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center. Typical laser communication systems, such as the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) and the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD), use a beacon to locate ground stations. iROC is investigating the use of beaconless precision laser pointing to enable laser communication at Mars orbits and beyond. Precision attitude knowledge is essential to the iROC mission to enable high-speed steering of the optical link. The preliminary concept to achieve this precision attitude knowledge is to use star trackers combined with an IMU. The Star Tracker Accuracy (STAcc) software was developed to rapidly assess the capabilities of star tracker and IMU configurations. STAcc determines the overall cross-boresight error of a star tracker with an IMU given the characteristic parameters: quantum efficiency, aperture, apparent star magnitude, exposure time, field of view, photon spread, detector pixels, spacecraft slew rate, maximum stars used for quaternion estimation, and IMU angular random walk. This paper discusses the supporting theory used to construct STAcc, verification of the program and sample results.

  11. Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mersi, Stefano; CMS Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    An upgrade program is planned for the LHC which will smoothly bring the luminosity up to or above 5 ×1034 cm-2 s-1 sometimes after 2020, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 at the end of that decade. In this ultimate scenario, called Phase-2, when LHC will reach the High Luminosity phase (HL-LHC), CMS will need a completely new Tracker detector, in order to fully exploit the highly-demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS pixel and outer tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D activities and expected detector performance.

  12. Accuracy of the vivofit activity tracker.

    PubMed

    Alsubheen, Sana'a A; George, Amanda M; Baker, Alicia; Rohr, Linda E; Basset, Fabien A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of the vivofit activity tracker in assessing energy expenditure and step count. Thirteen participants wore the vivofit activity tracker for five days. Participants were required to independently perform 1 h of self-selected activity each day of the study. On day four, participants came to the lab to undergo BMR and a treadmill-walking task (TWT). On day five, participants completed 1 h of office-type activities. BMR values estimated by the vivofit were not significantly different from the values measured through indirect calorimetry (IC). The vivofit significantly underestimated EE for treadmill walking, but responded to the differences in the inclination. Vivofit underestimated step count for level walking but provided an accurate estimate for incline walking. There was a strong correlation between EE and the exercise intensity. The vivofit activity tracker is on par with similar devices and can be used to track physical activity.

  13. Results from the MSGC tracker at SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballintijn, M. K.; van den Berg, F. D.; van Dantzig, R.; Gracia, G.; de Groot, N.; Hartjes, F. G.; Horisberger, R.; Kaandorp, D.; Ketel, T. J.; Litmaath, M. F.; Niessink, J. J.; Ogawa, A.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Udo, F.; de Winter, A. R.

    1995-11-01

    A tracker consisting of 16 MSGCs has been installed in the high intensity muon beam of the SMC experiment[1] at CERN. Each MSGC has an active surface of 10 × 10 cm 2, covered by 496 anode strips. As a front-end amplifier the APC 64 is used. Results are presented about the efficiency, both at a high rate and at a low rate, and the position resolution. Using the data of the MSGC tracker the definition of the beam tracks in SMC significantly improved.

  14. A microprocessor-controlled CCD star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, P. M.; Goss, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The STELLAR (Star Tracker for Economical Long Life Attitude Reference) utilizes an image sensing Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) operating under microprocessor control. This approach results in a new type of high-accuracy star tracker which can be adapted to a wide variety of different space flight applications through software changes only. The STELLAR determines two-axis star positions by computing the element and the interelement interpolated centroid positions of the star images. As many as 10 stars may be tracked simultaneously, providing significantly increased stability and accuracy. A detailed description of the STELLAR is presented along with measurements of system performance obtained from an operating breadboard model.

  15. A microprocessor-controlled CCD star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, P. M.; Goss, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The STELLAR (Star Tracker for Economical Long Life Attitude Reference) utilizes an image sensing Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) operating under microprocessor control. This approach results in a new type of high-accuracy star tracker which can be adapted to a wide variety of different space flight applications through software changes only. The STELLAR determines two-axis star positions by computing the element and the interelement interpolated centroid positions of the star images. As many as 10 stars may be tracked simultaneously, providing significantly increased stability and accuracy. A detailed description of the STELLAR is presented along with measurements of system performance obtained from an operating breadboard model.

  16. Preliminary studies of a chromaticity tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    A chromaticity tracker based on a method by D. McGinnis is proposed. This method starts with the slow modulation of the accelerating RF which causes the beam to respond to it. This beam modulation can be detected transversely with a Schottky pickup which after phase demodulation, the chromaticity can be calculated from it. However, to perform phase demodulation, the carrier frequency which is the betatron tune needs to be identified. The identification of the carrier frequency falls naturally onto the phase locked loop tune tracker which when locked to the betatron tune outputs this value in real time.

  17. Optical contacting for gravity probe star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. J.; Zissa, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A star-tracker telescope, constructed entirely of fused silica elements optically contacted together, has been proposed to provide submilliarc-second pointing accuracy for Gravity Probe. A bibliography and discussion on optical contacting (the bonding of very flat, highly polished surfaces without the use of adhesives) are presented. Then results from preliminary experiments on the strength of optical contacts including a tensile strength test in liquid helium are discussed. Suggestions are made for further study to verify an optical contacting method for the Gravity Probe star-tracker telescope.

  18. Quintessence reconstructed: New constraints and tracker viability

    SciTech Connect

    Sahlen, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David

    2007-01-15

    We update and extend our previous work reconstructing the potential of a quintessence field from current observational data. We extend the cosmological data set to include new supernova data, plus information from the cosmic microwave background and from baryon acoustic oscillations. We extend the modeling by considering Pade approximant expansions as well as Taylor series, and by using observations to assess the viability of the tracker hypothesis. We find that parameter constraints have improved by a factor of 2, with a strengthening of the preference of the cosmological constant over evolving quintessence models. Present data show some signs, though inconclusive, of favoring tracker models over nontracker models under our assumptions.

  19. Price controls and international petroleum product prices

    SciTech Connect

    Deacon, R.T.; Mead, W.J.; Agarwal, V.B.

    1980-02-01

    The effects of Federal refined-product price controls upon the price of motor gasoline in the United States through 1977 are examined. A comparison of domestic and foreign gasoline prices is made, based on the prices of products actually moving in international trade. There is also an effort to ascribe US/foreign market price differentials to identifiable cost factors. Primary emphasis is on price comparisons at the wholesale level, although some retail comparisons are presented. The study also examines the extent to which product price controls are binding, and attempts to estimate what the price of motor gasoline would have been in the absence of controls. The time period under consideration is from 1969 through 1977, with primary focus on price relationships in 1970-1971 (just before US controls) and 1976-1977. The foreign-domestic comparisons are made with respect to four major US cities, namely, Boston, New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles. 20 figures, 14 tables.

  20. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  1. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  2. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  3. Sun Tracker Operates a Year Between Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low-cost modification of Sun tracker automatically compensates equation of time and seasonal variations in declination of Sun. Output of Scotch Yoke drive mechanism adjusted through proper sizing of crank, yoke and other components and through choice of gear ratios to approximate seasonal northand south motion of Sun. Used for industrial solar-energy monitoring and in remote meteorological stations.

  4. Sun Tracker Operates a Year Between Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low-cost modification of Sun tracker automatically compensates equation of time and seasonal variations in declination of Sun. Output of Scotch Yoke drive mechanism adjusted through proper sizing of crank, yoke and other components and through choice of gear ratios to approximate seasonal northand south motion of Sun. Used for industrial solar-energy monitoring and in remote meteorological stations.

  5. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1986

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, the average price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood was $47.20, a decrease of 6 percent from the 1985 price. The average price for a green ton of chipped residues also decreased, down 1 percent to $21.77. The average price for a green ton of sawdust fell to $10.25, 3 percent below the 1985 price. Between 1977 and 1986, real prices for roundwood fell, but real...

  6. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers

    PubMed Central

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J.; Flagel, Shelly B.; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers. PMID:24954026

  7. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers.

    PubMed

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J; Flagel, Shelly B; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers.

  8. Inspired by Oceans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Several years ago, the school system discussed in this article, agreed on a five-year cycle of nature themes to integrate instruction across disciplines. Last year, students studied artists and artworks inspired by oceans. Students also explored the theme with their own artistic expressions. Teachers began the year with lessons based on sea…

  9. An eye for inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    The discovery that the eye of a particular mantis shrimp has an achromatic quarter-waveplate that is superior to modern-day devices could be a source of inspiration to those designing optical components. Nature Photonics spoke to Nicholas Roberts, one of the researchers involved in the study.

  10. Inspired by Oceans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Several years ago, the school system discussed in this article, agreed on a five-year cycle of nature themes to integrate instruction across disciplines. Last year, students studied artists and artworks inspired by oceans. Students also explored the theme with their own artistic expressions. Teachers began the year with lessons based on sea…

  11. Nature as Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tank, Kristina; Moore, Tamara; Strnat, Meg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the final lesson within a seven-day STEM and literacy unit that is part of the Picture STEM curriculum (pictureSTEM. org) and uses engineering to integrate science and mathematics learning in a meaningful way (Tank and Moore 2013). For this engineering challenge, students used nature as a source of inspiration for designs to…

  12. Haring-Inspired Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfield, Marie

    2007-01-01

    While exploring Keith Haring's Web site one day, the author discovered two untitled pieces from 1982 that became inspiration pieces for a lesson on symmetry and complementary colors for her second graders. Haring's simple shapes and colors and playful images are very similar to those found in the margins or on the cover of any typical child's…

  13. In Search of Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Keeping one's self inspired in the music classroom is all about connections. Sometimes educators need to look at what they're doing from a different perspective. Luckily, there's no shortage of ways to revitalize one's classroom approach, and to help the author explores a few, he made use of some connections of his own, turning to five educators…

  14. In Search of Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Keeping one's self inspired in the music classroom is all about connections. Sometimes educators need to look at what they're doing from a different perspective. Luckily, there's no shortage of ways to revitalize one's classroom approach, and to help the author explores a few, he made use of some connections of his own, turning to five educators…

  15. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  16. Inspired by Nevelson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egenes, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Louise Nevelson's circular assemblage, "Collegiate School" (1972), was the inspiration for an art class with the preschoolers at the Kent Children's Center. Nevelson (1899-1988) was the ultimate "found art" artist. Finding interesting throwaway objects, in and out of trash bins, she constructed assemblages that completely changed their former use.…

  17. Summer Reading That Inspires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    Why did you decide on science as a career? For many, it was the inspiration of a mentor or model--an explorer who could communicate excitement and a sense of adventure to others. During the school year, teachers take on that role of motivator for students. But as they recharge over summer break, it is great to treat themselves again to the stories…

  18. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  19. Nature as Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tank, Kristina; Moore, Tamara; Strnat, Meg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the final lesson within a seven-day STEM and literacy unit that is part of the Picture STEM curriculum (pictureSTEM. org) and uses engineering to integrate science and mathematics learning in a meaningful way (Tank and Moore 2013). For this engineering challenge, students used nature as a source of inspiration for designs to…

  20. Laptops and Inspired Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Arada, Kathleen; Zheng, Binbin

    2010-01-01

    Can daily access to laptop computers help students become better writers? Are such programs affordable? Evidence from the Inspired Writing program in Littleton Public Schools, Colorado, USA, provides a resounding yes to both questions. The program employs student netbooks, open-source software, cloud computing, and social media to help students in…

  1. Inspired by Nevelson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egenes, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Louise Nevelson's circular assemblage, "Collegiate School" (1972), was the inspiration for an art class with the preschoolers at the Kent Children's Center. Nevelson (1899-1988) was the ultimate "found art" artist. Finding interesting throwaway objects, in and out of trash bins, she constructed assemblages that completely changed their former use.…

  2. Equation of state of tracker fields

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takeshi

    2010-01-15

    We derive the equation of state of tracker fields, which are typical examples of freezing quintessence (quintessence with the equation of state approaching toward -1), taking into account of the late-time departure from the tracker solution due to the nonzero density parameter of dark energy {Omega}{sub {phi}.} We calculate the equation of state as a function of {Omega}{sub {phi}}for constant {Gamma}=VV{sup ''}/(V{sup '}){sup 2} (during matter era) models. The derived equation of state contains a single parameter, w{sub (0)}, which parametrizes the equation of state during the matter-dominated epoch. We derive observational constraints on w{sub (0)} and find that observational data are consistent with the cosmological constant: -1.11

  3. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, W. J.

    1999-10-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as a independent module for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002 for an operational period of three years. The principal scientific objectives are the searches for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. The AMS uses 5.5m2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories in the field of a permanent magnet. The detector design and construction covered a 3yr period which terminated with a test flight on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1988. In this contribution, we describe the shuttle version of the AMS silicon tracker, including preliminary results of the tracker performance during the flight.

  4. Determination of Laser Tracker Angle Encoder Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, Karim M.; Hughes, Ben; Forbes, Alistair; Lewis, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Errors in the angle encoders of a laser tracker may potentially produce large errors in long range coordinate measurements. To determine the azimuth angle encoder errors and verify their values stored in the tracker's internal error map, several methodologies were evaluated, differing in complexity, measurement time and the need for specialised measuring equipment. These methodologies are: an artefact-based technique developed by NIST; a multi-target network technique developed by NPL; and the classical precision angular indexing table technique. It is shown that the three methodologies agree within their respective measurement uncertainties and that the NPL technique has the advantages of a short measurement time and no reliance on specialised measurement equipment or artefacts.

  5. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Borozdin, K. N.; Durham, J. M.; Fuzita, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Izumi, M.; Nakayama, K.; Saltus, M.; Sugita, T.; Takakura, K.; Yoshioka, K.

    2016-09-01

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. The system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m2 area. Each muon tracker consists of 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when the core is imaged from outside the reactor building.

  6. Stereoscopic Video Weld-Seam Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Larry Z.

    1991-01-01

    Stereoscopic video camera and laser illuminator operates in conjunction with image-data-processing computer to locate weld seam and to map surface features in vicinity of seam. Intended to track seams to guide placement of welding torch in automatic welding system and to yield information on qualities of welds. More sensitive than prior optical seam trackers and suitable for use in production environment. Tracks nearly invisible gap between butted machined edges of two plates.

  7. ILC Vertex Tracker R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Marco; Bussat, Jean-Marie; Contarato, Devis; Denes,Peter; Glesener, Lindsay; Greiner, Leo; Hooberman, Benjamin; Shuman,Derek; Tompkins, Lauren; Vu, Chinh; Bisello, Dario; Giubilato, Piero; Pantano, Devis; Costa, Marco; La Rosa, Alessandro; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Children, Isaac

    2007-10-01

    This document summarizes past achievements, current activities and future goals of the R&D program aimed at the design, prototyping and characterization of a full detector module, equipped with monolithic pixel sensors, matching the requirements for the Vertex Tracker at the ILC. We provide a plan of activities to obtain a demonstrator multi-layered vertex tracker equipped with sensors matching the ILC requirements and realistic lightweight ladders in FY11, under the assumption that ILC detector proto-collaborations will be choosing technologies and designs for the Vertex Tracker by that time. The R&D program discussed here started at LBNL in 2004, supported by a Laboratory Directed R&D (LDRD) grant and by funding allocated from the core budget of the LBNL Physics Division and from the Department of Physics at UC Berkeley. Subsequently additional funding has been awarded under the NSF-DOE LCRD program and also personnel have become available through collaborative research with other groups. The aim of the R&D program carried out by our collaboration is to provide a well-integrated, inclusive research effort starting from physics requirements for the ILC Vertex Tracker and addressing Si sensor design and characterization, engineered ladder design, module system issues, tracking and vertex performances and beam test validation. The broad scope of this program is made possible by important synergies with existing know-how and concurrent programs both at LBNL and at the other collaborating institutions. In particular, significant overlaps with LHC detector design, SLHC R&D as well as prototyping for the STAR upgrade have been exploited to optimize the cost per deliverable of our program. This activity is carried out as a collaborative effort together with Accelerator and Fusion Research, the Engineering and the Nuclear Science Divisions at LBNL, INFN and the Department of Physics in Padova, Italy, INFN and the Department of Physics in Torino, Italy and the Department

  8. Research and Development of Scintillation fiber Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, A.; ITO, H.; Kawai, H.; Kodama, S.; Kaneko, N.; Han, S.

    2015-07-01

    We are developing the scintillation fiber trackers. This detector is consist of 0.5 mm diameter scintillation fibers and PPDs. This detector has the doughnut shape with outer diameter of 50 cm and inner diameter of 10 cm and thickness of 2 mm. The position resolution is 70 μm. There are no ineffective area. And the cost is several million yen. (authors)

  9. The CMS Tracker Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousaf Shah, S.; Tsirou, Andromachi; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Hartmann, Frank; Masetti, Lorenzo; Dirkes, Guido H.; Stringer, Robert; Fahrer, Manuel

    2009-06-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid DCS (CMS) Silicon Strip Tracker is by far the largest detector ever built in micro-strip technology. It has an active surface area of 198 m 2 consisting of 15,148 silicon modules with 9,316,352 readout channels read via 75,376 Analog Pipeline Voltage (APV) front-end chips and a total of 24,244 sensors. The Detector Control System (DCS) for the Tracker is a distributed control system that operates ˜2000 power supplies for the silicon modules and also monitors its environmental sensors. The DCS receives information from about 10 3 environmental probes (temperature and humidity sensors) located inside the detector's volume and values from these probes are driven through the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) of the Detector Safety System (DSS). A total of 10 5 parameters are read out from the dedicated chips in the front-end electronics of the detector via the data acquisition system, and a total of 10 5 parameters are read from the power supply modules. All these parameters are monitored, evaluated and correlated with the detector layout; actions are taken under specific conditions. The hardware for DCS consists of 10 PCs and 10 PLC systems that are continuously running the necessary control and safety routines. The DCS is a fundamental tool for the Tracker operation and its safety.

  10. An optical tracker for the maritime environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachoo, Asheer K.; le Roux, Francois; Nicolls, Fred

    2011-06-01

    Optical (visual) tracking is an important research area in computer vision with a wide range of useful and critical applications in defence and industry. The tracking of targets that pose a threat or potential threat to a country's assets and resources is a critical component in defence and security. In order to complement radar sensing applications, an optical tracker provides additional functions such as target detection, target identification and intent detection at the visual level. A tracker for the maritime environment is an optical system that performs the automatic tracking of an above water target. Ideally, a track of the target is required for as long as is possible. Some examples of targets include boats, yachts, ships, jet-skis and aircraft. A number of factors mitigate the performance of such a system - change in target appearance, target occlusions, platform vibration and scintillation in the atmosphere are some common examples. We present the implementation of a firstgeneration system that is robust to platform vibration, target appearance changes and short-term occlusions. The optical tracker is developed using a particle filter and an appearance model that is updated online. The system achieves real-time tracking through the use of non-specialized computer hardware. Promising results are presented for a number of real-world videos captured during field trials.

  11. A large Scintillating Fibre Tracker for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greim, R.

    2017-02-01

    The LHCb experiment will be upgraded during LHC Long Shutdown 2 to be able to record data at a higher instantaneous luminosity. The readout rate is currently limited to 1 MHz by the Level 1 trigger. In order to achieve the target integrated luminosity of 50 fb-1 during LHC Run 3, all subdetectors have to be read out by a 40 MHz trigger-less readout system. Especially, the current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet suffer from large detector dead times and a small granularity in the Outer Tracker, which consists of proportional straw tubes. Therefore, the Downstream Tracker will be replaced by a Scintillating Fibre Tracker with Silicon Photomultiplier readout. The total sensitive area of 340 m2 is made up of 2.5 m long fibre mats consisting of six staggered layers of 250 μm thin scintillating fibres. The scintillation light created by the charged particles traversing the fibre mats is transported to the fibre ends via total internal reflection and detected by state-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays. This paper presents the detector concept, design, challenges, custom-made readout chips, as well as laboratory and beam test results.

  12. Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    of mask respirators with bio -inspired adhesive integrated into their peripheral seals; and (2) assessment of the competitive position of the new bio -inspired adhesives in broader fields of application.

  13. Characterizing limit order prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon

    2013-11-01

    A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.

  14. Data specifications for INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portele, Clemens; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    In Europe a major recent development has been the entering in force of the INSPIRE Directive in May 2007, establishing an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe to support Community environmental policies, and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment. INSPIRE is based on the infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by the 27 Member States of the European Union. The Directive addresses 34 spatial data themes needed for environmental applications, with key components specified through technical implementing rules. This makes INSPIRE a unique example of a legislative "regional" approach. One of the requirements of the INSPIRE Directive is to make existing spatial data sets with relevance for one of the spatial data themes available in an interoperable way, i.e. where the spatial data from different sources in Europe can be combined to a coherent result. Since INSPIRE covers a wide range of spatial data themes, the first step has been the development of a modelling framework that provides a common foundation for all themes. This framework is largely based on the ISO 19100 series of standards. The use of common generic spatial modelling concepts across all themes is an important enabler for interoperability. As a second step, data specifications for the first set of themes has been developed based on the modelling framework. The themes include addresses, transport networks, protected sites, hydrography, administrative areas and others. The data specifications were developed by selected experts nominated by stakeholders from all over Europe. For each theme a working group was established in early 2008 working on their specific theme and collaborating with the other working groups on cross-theme issues. After a public review of the draft specifications starting in December 2008, an open testing process and thorough comment resolution process, the draft technical implementing rules for these themes have been

  15. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1983

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1985-01-01

    The average price per cord for Midsouth roundwood pulpwood increased less than 1 percent to $48.38 in 1983. The average price for a green ton of chipped mill residues fell 9.3 percent to $23.34. Sawdust prices averaged $13.04 per green ton, a 42.2 percent increase over 1982 prices. Prices for rail delivery of wood fiber continue to be slightly lower than truck...

  16. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1985

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, the average price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood was $50.12, a decrease of less than 1 percent from the 1984 price. In contrast, the average price for a green ton of chipped residues decreased to $21.97, 14 percent below the price paid in 1984. The average price for a green ton of sawdust also fell in 1985, dropping 2 percent to $10.60. The 1985 expenditure...

  17. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  18. Astronomy. Inspiration. Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanic, N.

    2008-10-01

    This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazić (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maletić (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djukić, Nenad Jeremić, Olivera Obradović, Romana Vujasinović, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.

  19. Quantum-Inspired Maximizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

  20. Dynamic exit pupil trackers for autostereoscopic displays.

    PubMed

    Akşit, Kaan; Baghsiahi, Hadi; Surman, Phil; Ölçer, Selim; Willman, Eero; Selviah, David R; Day, Sally; Urey, Hakan

    2013-06-17

    This paper describes the first demonstrations of two dynamic exit pupil (DEP) tracker techniques for autostereoscopic displays. The first DEP tracker forms an exit pupil pair for a single viewer in a defined space with low intraocular crosstalk using a pair of moving shutter glasses located within the optical system. A display prototype using the first DEP tracker is constructed from a pair of laser projectors, pupil-forming optics, moving shutter glasses at an intermediate pupil plane, an image relay lens, and a Gabor superlens based viewing screen. The left and right eye images are presented time-sequentially to a single viewer and seen as a 3D image without wearing glasses and allows the viewer to move within a region of 40 cm × 20 cm in the lateral plane, and 30 cm along the axial axis. The second DEP optics can move the exit pupil location dynamically in a much larger 3D space by using a custom spatial light modulator (SLM) forming an array of shutters. Simultaneous control of multiple exit pupils in both lateral and axial axes is demonstrated for the first time and provides a viewing volume with an axial extent of 0.6-3 m from the screen and within a lateral viewing angle of ± 20° for multiple viewers. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs. In this novel version of the display the optical system is used as an advanced dynamic backlight for a liquid crystal display (LCD). This has advantages in terms of overall display size as there is no requirement for an intermediate image, and in image quality. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs.

  1. Roadside Tracker Portal-less Portal Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Bradley, Eric Craig; Cunningham, Mark F.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Goddard, Jr, James Samuel; Hornback, Donald Eric; Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Kerekes, Ryan A.; Newby, Jason

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the full development cycle of the Roadside Tracker (RST) Portal-less Portal monitor (Fig. 1) funded by DHS DNDO. The project started with development of a proof-of-feasibility proto-type, proceeded through design and construction of a proof-of-concept (POC) prototype, a test-and-evaluation phase, participation in a Limited Use Exercise that included the Standoff Radiation Detections Systems developed under an Advanced Technology Demonstration and concluded with participation in a Characterization Study conducted by DNDO.

  2. CellTracker (not only) for dummies.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Filippo; Kiss, Alexa; Horvath, Peter

    2016-03-15

    Time-lapse experiments play a key role in studying the dynamic behavior of cells. Single-cell tracking is one of the fundamental tools for such analyses. The vast majority of the recently introduced cell tracking methods are limited to fluorescently labeled cells. An equally important limitation is that most software cannot be effectively used by biologists without reasonable expertise in image processing. Here we present CellTracker, a user-friendly open-source software tool for tracking cells imaged with various imaging modalities, including fluorescent, phase contrast and differential interference contrast (DIC) techniques. CellTracker is written in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc., USA). It works with Windows, Macintosh and UNIX-based systems. Source code and graphical user interface (GUI) are freely available at: http://celltracker.website/ horvath.peter@brc.mta.hu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Videometric head tracker for augmented reality applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janin, Adam L.; Zikan, Karel; Mizell, David; Banner, Mike; Sowizral, Henry A.

    1995-12-01

    For the past three years, we have been developing augmented reality technology for application to a variety of touch labor tasks in aircraft manufacturing and assembly. The system would be worn by factory workers to provide them with better-quality information for performing their tasks than was previously available. Using a see-through head-mounted display (HMD) whose optics are set at a focal length of about 18 in., the display and its associated head tracking system can be used to superimpose and stabilize graphics on the surface of a work piece. This technology would obviate many expensive marking systems now used in aerospace manufacturing. The most challenging technical issue with respect to factory applications of AR is head position and orientation tracking. It requires high accuracy, long- range tracking in a high-noise environment. The approach we have chosen uses a head- mounted miniature video camera. The user's wearable computer system utilizes the camera to find fiducial markings that have been placed on known coordinates on or near the work piece. The system then computes the user's position and orientation relative to the fiducial marks. It is referred to as a `videometric' head tracker. In this paper, we describe the steps we took and the results we obtained in the process of prototyping our videometric head tracker, beginning with analytical and simulation results, and continuing through the working prototypes.

  4. The NA62 GigaTracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglieri Rinella, G.; Feito, D. Alvarez; Arcidiacono, R.; Biino, C.; Bonacini, S.; Ceccucci, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Gil, E. Cortina; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Degrange, J.; Fiorini, M.; Gamberini, E.; Gianoli, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Minucci, E.; Morel, M.; Noël, J.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Romagnoli, G.; Ruggiero, G.; Velghe, B.; Wahl, H.

    2017-02-01

    The GigaTracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector built for the NA62 experiment aiming at measuring the branching fraction of the ultra-rare kaon decay K+ →π+ ν ν bar at the CERN SPS. The detector has to track particles in a beam with a flux reaching 1.3 MHz/mm2 and provide single-hit timing with 200 ps RMS resolution for a total material budget of less than 0.5% X0 per station. The tracker comprises three 60.8 mm×27 mm stations installed in vacuum (∼10-6 mbar) and cooled with liquid C6F14 circulating through micro-channels etched inside a few hundred micron thick silicon plates. Each station is composed of a 200 μm thick silicon sensor read out by 2×5 custom 100 μm thick ASICs, called TDCPix. Each chip contains 40×45 asynchronous pixels, 300 μm×300 μm each and is instrumented with 100 ps bin time-to-digital converters. In order to cope with the high rate, the TDCPix is equipped with four 3.2 Gb/s serialisers sending out the data. We will describe the detector and the results from the 2014 and 2015 NA62 runs.

  5. Modeling of intensified high dynamic star tracker.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinyun; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-01-23

    An intensified high dynamic star tracker (IHDST) is a photoelectric instrument and stably outputs three-axis attitude for a spacecraft at very high angular velocity. The IHDST uses an image intensifier to multiply the incident starlight. Thus, high sensitivity of the star detection is achieved under short exposure time such that extremely high dynamic performance is achieved. The IHDST differs from a traditional star tracker in terms of the imaging process. Therefore, we establish a quantum transfer model of IHDST based on stochastic process theory. By this model, the probability distribution of the output quantum number is obtained accurately. Then, we introduce two-dimensional Lorentz functions to describe the spatial spreading process of the IHDST. Considering the interaction of these two processes, a complete star imaging model of IHDST is provided. Using this model, the centroiding accuracy of the IHDST is analyzed in detail. Accordingly, a working parameter optimizing strategy is developed for high centroiding accuracy and improved dynamic performance. Finally, the laboratory tests and the night sky experiment support the conclusions.

  6. Rover odometry aided by a star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammell, J. D.; Tong, Chi Hay; Berczi, P.; Anderson, S.; Barfoot, T. D.; Enright, J.

    This paper develops a practical framework for estimating rover position in full-dark conditions by correcting relative odometric estimates with periodic, absolute-attitude measurements from a star tracker. The framework is validated using just under 2.5 kilometres of field data gathered at the University of Toronto's Koffler Scientific Reserve at Jokers Hill (KSR) comprised of both wheel odometry and lidar-based Visual Odometry (VO). It is shown that for the wheel odometry solution, the final estimate of rover position was within 21 metres of the groundtruth as calculated by a differential GPS receiver, or 0.85% of the total traverse distance. When the star tracker measurements are artificially limited to occurring approximately every 250 metres, the algorithm still performs well, giving a final position error of 75.8 metres or 3.0%. Preliminary results to replace wheel odometry with lidar-based VO for the development a full-dark visual solution are also presented. The lidar-based VO solution is shown to be capable of outperforming wheel odometry, but more work is required to develop methods to handle the variety of terrain conditions encountered.

  7. Biologically inspired oxidation catalysis.

    PubMed

    Que, Lawrence; Tolman, William B

    2008-09-18

    The development of processes for selective hydrocarbon oxidation is a goal that has long been pursued. An additional challenge is to make such processes environmentally friendly, for example by using non-toxic reagents and energy-efficient catalytic methods. Excellent examples are naturally occurring iron- or copper-containing metalloenzymes, and extensive studies have revealed the key chemical principles that underlie their efficacy as catalysts for aerobic oxidations. Important inroads have been made in applying this knowledge to the development of synthetic catalysts that model enzyme function. Such biologically inspired hydrocarbon oxidation catalysts hold great promise for wide-ranging synthetic applications.

  8. Robust visual tracking with dual spatio-temporal context trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shiyan; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Visual tracking is a challenging problem in computer vision. Recent years, significant numbers of trackers have been proposed. Among these trackers, tracking with dense spatio-temporal context has been proved to be an efficient and accurate method. Other than trackers with online trained classifier that struggle to meet the requirement of real-time tracking task, a tracker with spatio-temporal context can run at hundreds of frames per second with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Nevertheless, the performance of the tracker with Spatio-temporal context relies heavily on the learning rate of the context, which restricts the robustness of the tracker. In this paper, we proposed a tracking method with dual spatio-temporal context trackers that hold different learning rate during tracking. The tracker with high learning rate could track the target smoothly when the appearance of target changes, while the tracker with low learning rate could percepts the occlusion occurring and continues to track when the target starts to emerge again. To find the target among the candidates from these two trackers, we adopt Normalized Correlation Coefficient (NCC) to evaluate the confidence of each sample. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs robustly against several state-of-the-art tracking methods.

  9. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1987

    Treesearch

    John S. Vissage

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the average price per cord of Midsouth pulpwood was $47.47, an increase of less than 1 percent from the 1988 price. The average price per green ton of chipped residues decreased less than 1 percent to $2164. The average price of other residues remained at $10.25 per green ton. The total expenditure for pulpwood in the Midsouth increased approximately 1...

  10. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1984

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1986-01-01

    In 1984, the average price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood was $50.55, an increase of 4.5 percent from 1983. The average price for a green ton of chipped residues also increased, up 9.0 percent to $25.44. However, the average price for a green ton of sawdust fell 17.3 percent to $10.79. Rail delivery prices for wood fiber continue to be lower than truck delivery...

  11. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-06-15

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.

  12. 3D Technology for intelligent trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    At Super-LHC luminosity it is expected that the standard suite of level 1 triggers for CMS will saturate. Information from the tracker will be needed to reduce trigger rates to satisfy the level 1 bandwidth. Tracking trigger modules which correlate information from closely-spaced sensor layers to form an on-detector momentum filter are being developed by several groups. We report on a trigger module design which utilizes three dimensional integrated circuit technology incorporating chips which are connected both to the top and bottom sensor, providing the ability to filter information locally. A demonstration chip, the VICTR, has been submitted to the Chartered/Tezzaron two-tier 3D run coordinated by Fermilab. We report on the 3D design concept, the status of the VICTR chip and associated sensor integration utilizing oxide bonding.

  13. Infrared tracker for a portable missile launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.

    1993-07-13

    An infrared beam tracker is described for arrangement to a housing that is unitary with a portable missile launcher, comprising: a rotating beam splitter positioned to intercept the infrared beam passing a first portion of the beam through the beam splitter along a first direction and reflecting the remaining portion along a different direction; a first infrared detector for receiving the beam reflected portion from the beam splitter and produce electric signals responsive thereto; a second infrared detector for receiving the beam portion that passes through the beam splitter and providing electric signals responsive thereto; and means interconnected to the first and second infrared detectors and responsive to the electric signals generated by said detectors for determining errors in missile flight direction and communicating course correction information to the missile.

  14. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses. PMID:27314359

  15. The CHARA Array's Visible Band Fringe Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, C. E.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Berger, D. H.

    2003-12-01

    The CHARA Array is a Y-shaped cluster of 1-meter telescopes used to make interferometric measurements of stars. The optical paths from each telescope to the beam combiner must be matched in order to detect interference fringes. Atmospheric turbulence introduces a varying piston error in each telescope's optical path, which must be removed to stabilize the fringe position. The CHARA array separates the fringe tracker from the science combiner to keep the instrument flexible. The science combiner operates in the K' filter, leaving the visible band, from 0.6 μm to 1 μm for the fringe tracker. After beam combination, the visible light passes into the spectrograph, which is composed of a prism and a fast readout CCD. When the optical path difference (OPD) of two telescopes is near zero, the spectrum is modulated by sinusoidal fringes, called "channel fringes." The spatial frequency of the channel fringes is proportional to the OPD, and can be used as the error signal for a fringe tracking servo. A brief overview of the fringe tracking servo is presented, and current technical challenges are discussed. First channel fringe data are included, as well as a discussion of what they imply about atmospheric turbulence on Mount Wilson. Construction of the CHARA Array was made possible by grants from the National Science Foundation, the W. M. Keck Foundation, and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and by the generous support of Georgia State University. This research was also funded in part by the Michelson Fellowship Program sponsored by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  16. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, C.; Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Levine, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Xu, Z.; Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Cendejas, R.; Huang, H.; Sakai, S.; Whitten, C.; Joseph, J.; Keane, D.; Margetis, S.; Rykov, V.; Zhang, W.M.; Bystersky, M.; Kapitan, J.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Baudot, J.; Hu-Guo, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Winter, M.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Plesko, M.; Redwine, R.; Simon, F.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Anderssen, E.; Dong, X.; Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Morgan, S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Singh, R.P.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Thomas, J.H.; Tram, V.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Xu, N.; Hirsch, A.; Srivastava, B.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Bichsel, H.

    2008-02-25

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector,the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APSsensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay.

  17. The Frozen Price Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Lori

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…

  18. Price Estimation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Aster, R. W.; Firnett, P. J.; Miller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG4, program provides comparatively simple, yet relatively accurate estimate of price of manufactured product. IPEG4 processes user supplied input data to determine estimate of price per unit of production. Input data include equipment cost, space required, labor cost, materials and supplies cost, utility expenses, and production volume on industry wide or process wide basis.

  19. Simulating Price-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Lucas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a price-takers' market simulation geared toward principles-level students. This simulation demonstrates that price-taking behavior is a natural result of the conditions that create perfect competition. In trials, there is a significant degree of price convergence in just three or four rounds. Students find this…

  20. Simulating Price-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Lucas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a price-takers' market simulation geared toward principles-level students. This simulation demonstrates that price-taking behavior is a natural result of the conditions that create perfect competition. In trials, there is a significant degree of price convergence in just three or four rounds. Students find this…

  1. Price Estimation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Aster, R. W.; Firnett, P. J.; Miller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG4, program provides comparatively simple, yet relatively accurate estimate of price of manufactured product. IPEG4 processes user supplied input data to determine estimate of price per unit of production. Input data include equipment cost, space required, labor cost, materials and supplies cost, utility expenses, and production volume on industry wide or process wide basis.

  2. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  3. Optimization Method for Solution Model of Laser Tracker Multilateration Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongfang; Tan, Zhi; Shi, Zhaoyao; Song, Huixu; Yan, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Multilateration measurement using laser trackers suffers from a cumbersome solution method for high-precision measurements. Errors are induced by the self-calibration routines of the laser tracker software. This paper describes an optimization solution model for laser tracker multilateration measurement, which effectively inhibits the negative effect of this self-calibration, and further, analyzes the accuracy of the singular value decomposition for the described solution model. Experimental verification for the solution model based on laser tracker and coordinate measuring machine (CMM) was performed. The experiment results show that the described optimization model for laser tracker multilateration measurement has good accuracy control, and has potentially broad application in the field of laser tracker spatial localization.

  4. Maximum energy yield approach for CPV tracker design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaiturriaga, E.; González, O.; Castro, M.

    2012-10-01

    Foton HC Systems has developed a new CPV tracker model, specially focused on its tracking efficiency and the effect of the tracker control techniques on the final energy yield of the system. This paper presents the theoretical work carried out into determining the energy yield for a CPV system, and illustrates the steps involved in calculating and understanding how energy consumption for tracking is opposed to tracker pointing errors. Additionally, the expressions to compute the optimum parameters are presented and discussed.

  5. An Exploration of Design Students' Inspiration Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dazkir, Sibel S.; Mower, Jennifer M.; Reddy-Best, Kelly L.; Pedersen, Elaine L.

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to explore how different sources of inspiration influenced two groups of students' inspiration process and their attitudes toward their design projects. Assigned sources of inspiration and instructor's assistance in the search for inspiration varied for two groups of students completing a small culture inspired product design…

  6. An Exploration of Design Students' Inspiration Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dazkir, Sibel S.; Mower, Jennifer M.; Reddy-Best, Kelly L.; Pedersen, Elaine L.

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to explore how different sources of inspiration influenced two groups of students' inspiration process and their attitudes toward their design projects. Assigned sources of inspiration and instructor's assistance in the search for inspiration varied for two groups of students completing a small culture inspired product design…

  7. A multi-hypothesis tracker for clicking whales.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a tracker specially designed to track clicking beaked whales using widely spaced bottom-mounted hydrophones, although it can be adapted to different species and sensors. The input to the tracker is a sequence of static localization solutions obtained using time difference of arrival information at widely spaced hydrophones. To effectively handle input localizations with high ambiguity, the tracker is based on multi-hypothesis tracker concepts, so it considers all potential association hypotheses and keeps a large number of potential tracks in memory. The method is demonstrated on actual data and shown to successfully track multiple beaked whales at depth.

  8. Calculating proper transfer prices

    SciTech Connect

    Dorkey, F.C. ); Jarrell, G.A. )

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  9. Advanced electro-optical tracker/ranger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. A.; Defoe, D. N.

    1980-06-01

    The preliminary engineering design study of an Advanced Electro-Optical Tracker/Ranger (AEOTR) to provide passive target tracking and rangefinding for air to air gun fire control is described. Area correlation processing is used in the comparison of stereo image pairs for stereometric ranging and in the comparison of successive images for tracking. The application of these techniques to the AEOTR, the limitations imposed by packaging, environmental and state-of-the-art sensor and processing hardware constraints, and the projected performance are evaluated. Principal emphasis is given to the use of AEOTR in the gun director engagement mode in which target track and range data is provided to a gun fire control computer. The feasibility of use of the AEOTR to provide target video as an aid to visual target identification, and to provide automatic airborne target detection, is also evaluated. The necessary functions and subsystems are defined and integrated into a preliminary design, whose performance is estimated and compared with the program goals. In addition, a preliminary mounting location study for the F-15, F-16 and F-18 advanced fighters is included. CAI-built hardware was used to successfully demonstrate the feasibility of the ranging and tracking concepts employed in the AEOTR.

  10. A Scintillating Fibre Tracker for MICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Malcolm

    The provision of intense stored muon beams would allow the properties of neutrinos to be measured precisely and provide a route to multi-TeV lepton-anti-lepton collisions. The short muon lifetime makes it impossible to employ traditional cooling techniques while maintaining the muon-beam intensity. Ionisation cooling, a process in which the muon beam is passed through a series of liquid hydrogen absorbers followed by accelerating RF-cavities, is the proposed cooling technique. The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) collaboration has been approved at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and proposes to perform an engineering demonstration of ionisation cooling. The MICE experiment will require the measurement of the momentum and position of muons entering and leaving a section of ionisation cooling channel with high precision and purity in the presence of a large background. The technology chosen to meet this challenge is scintillating fibres readout with Visible Light Photon Detectors. The design, construction and operation of a prototype detector is described, as well as a summary of ongoing research and development activities in preparation for supplying the trackers needed for the MICE experiment.

  11. The DAMPE silicon-tungsten tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzarello, P.; Ambrosi, G.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Bernardini, P.; Bertucci, B.; Bolognini, A.; Cadoux, F.; Caprai, M.; De Mitri, I.; Domenjoz, M.; Dong, Y.; Duranti, M.; Fan, R.; Fusco, P.; Gallo, V.; Gargano, F.; Gong, K.; Guo, D.; Husi, C.; Ionica, M.; La Marra, D.; Loparco, F.; Marsella, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mesa, J.; Nardinocchi, A.; Nicola, L.; Pelleriti, G.; Peng, W.; Pohl, M.; Postolache, V.; Qiao, R.; Surdo, A.; Tykhonov, A.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Wu, D.; Wu, X.; Zhang, F.

    2016-09-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a spaceborne astroparticle physics experiment, launched on 17 December 2015. DAMPE will identify possible dark matter signatures by detecting electrons and photons in the 5 GeV-10 TeV energy range. It will also measure the flux of nuclei up to 100 TeV, for the study of the high energy cosmic ray origin and propagation mechanisms. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon-tungsten tracker-converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is composed of six tracking planes of 2 orthogonal layers of single-sided micro-strip detectors, for a total detector surface of ca. 7 m2. The STK has been extensively tested for space qualification. Also, numerous beam tests at CERN have been done to study particle detection at silicon module level, and at full detector level. After description of the DAMPE payload and its scientific mission, we will describe the STK characteristics and assembly. We will then focus on some results of single ladder performance tests done with particle beams at CERN.

  12. SDC conceptual design: Scintillating fiber outer tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Baumbaugh, A.; Bird, F.; SDC Collaboration

    1992-01-22

    The authors propose an all-scintillating fiber detector for the purpose of outer tracking for the SDC. The objectives of this tracking system are to: (1) provide a first level trigger for {vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} < 2.3 with sharp p{sub T} threshold with the ability to resolve individual beam crossings; (2) provide pattern recognition capability and momentum resolution which complements and extends the capabilities of the inner silicon tracking system; (3) provide three dimensional linkage with outer detection systems including the shower maximum detector, muon detectors, and calorimetry; (4) provide robust tracking and track-triggering at the highest luminosities expected at the SSC. The many attractive features of a fiber tracker include good position resolution, low occupancy, low mass in the active volume, and excellent resistance to radiation damage. An additional important feature, especially at the SSC, is the intrinsically prompt response time of a scintillating fiber. This property is exploited in the construction of a level 1 trigger sensitive to individual beam crossings.

  13. Operation of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuri, Gotra; CMS Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), comprising 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules covering an area of about 200 m², needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded from the detector, ensuring that the SST performance fully meets the physics research program of the CMS experiment. Calibration constants may be derived from promptly reconstructed events as well as from pedestal runs gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. These calibration procedures were exercised in summer and winter 2009, when the CMS detector was commissioned using cosmic muons and proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. During these data taking periods the performance of the SST was carefully studied: the noise of the detector, the data integrity, the signal-to-noise ratio, the hit reconstruction efficiency, the calibration workflows have been all checked for stability and for different conditions, at the module level. The calibration procedures and the detector performance results from recent physics runs are described.

  14. A Coprocessor for the Fast Tracker Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentsos, Christos; Volpi, Guido; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Giannetti, Paola; Citraro, Saverio; Crescioli, Francesco; Kordas, Kostas; Nikolaidis, Spiridon

    2017-06-01

    The Fast Tracker (FTK) executes real-time tracking for online event selection in the ATLAS experiment. Data processing speed is achieved by exploiting pipelining and parallel processing. Track reconstruction is executed in two stages. The first stage, implemented on custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASICs) called associative memory (AM) chips, performs pattern matching (PM) to identify track candidates in low resolution. The second stage, implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), builds on the PM results, performing track fitting in full resolution. The use of such a parallelized architecture for real-time event selection opens up a new, huge computing problem related to the analysis of the acquired samples. Millions of events have to be simulated to determine the efficiency and the properties of the reconstructed tracks with a small statistical error. The AM chip emulation is a computationally intensive task when implemented in software running on commercial resources. This paper proposes the use of a hardware coprocessor to solve this problem efficiently. We report on the implementation and performance of all the functions requiring massive computing power in a modern, compact embedded system for track reconstruction. That system is the miniaturization of the complex FTK processing unit, which is also well suited for powering applications outside the realm of high energy physics.

  15. Laser tracker error determination using a network measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Ben; Forbes, Alistair; Lewis, Andrew; Sun, Wenjuan; Veal, Dan; Nasr, Karim

    2011-04-01

    We report on a fast, easily implemented method to determine all the geometrical alignment errors of a laser tracker, to high precision. The technique requires no specialist equipment and can be performed in less than an hour. The technique is based on the determination of parameters of a geometric model of the laser tracker, using measurements of a set of fixed target locations, from multiple locations of the tracker. After fitting of the model parameters to the observed data, the model can be used to perform error correction of the raw laser tracker data or to derive correction parameters in the format of the tracker manufacturer's internal error map. In addition to determination of the model parameters, the method also determines the uncertainties and correlations associated with the parameters. We have tested the technique on a commercial laser tracker in the following way. We disabled the tracker's internal error compensation, and used a five-position, fifteen-target network to estimate all the geometric errors of the instrument. Using the error map generated from this network test, the tracker was able to pass a full performance validation test, conducted according to a recognized specification standard (ASME B89.4.19-2006). We conclude that the error correction determined from the network test is as effective as the manufacturer's own error correction methodologies.

  16. Optical alignment of the Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) star trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, Samuel; Osgood, Dean; McMann, Joe; Roberts, Viki; Gill, James; McLean, Kyle

    2013-09-01

    The optical alignment of the star trackers on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core spacecraft at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was challenging due to the layout and structural design of the GPM Lower Bus Structure (LBS) in which the star trackers are mounted as well as the presence of the star tracker shades that blocked line-of-sight to the primary star tracker optical references. The initial solution was to negotiate minor changes in the original LBS design to allow for the installation of a removable item of ground support equipment (GSE) that could be installed whenever measurements of the star tracker optical references were needed. However, this GSE could only be used to measure secondary optical reference cube faces not used by the star tracker vendor to obtain the relationship information and matrix transformations necessary to determine star tracker alignment. Unfortunately, due to unexpectedly large orthogonality errors between the measured secondary adjacent cube faces and the lack of cube calibration data, we required a method that could be used to measure the same reference cube faces as originally measured by the vendor. We describe an alternative technique to theodolite autocollimation for measurement of an optical reference mirror pointing direction when normal incidence measurements are not possible. This technique was used to successfully align the GPM star trackers and has been used on a number of other NASA flight projects. We also discuss alignment theory as well as a GSFC-developed theodolite data analysis package used to analyze angular metrology data.

  17. A Novel Performance Evaluation Methodology for Single-Target Trackers.

    PubMed

    Kristan, Matej; Matas, Jiri; Leonardis, Ales; Vojir, Tomas; Pflugfelder, Roman; Fernandez, Gustavo; Nebehay, Georg; Porikli, Fatih; Cehovin, Luka

    2016-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of single-target tracker performance evaluation. We consider the performance measures, the dataset and the evaluation system to be the most important components of tracker evaluation and propose requirements for each of them. The requirements are the basis of a new evaluation methodology that aims at a simple and easily interpretable tracker comparison. The ranking-based methodology addresses tracker equivalence in terms of statistical significance and practical differences. A fully-annotated dataset with per-frame annotations with several visual attributes is introduced. The diversity of its visual properties is maximized in a novel way by clustering a large number of videos according to their visual attributes. This makes it the most sophistically constructed and annotated dataset to date. A multi-platform evaluation system allowing easy integration of third-party trackers is presented as well. The proposed evaluation methodology was tested on the VOT2014 challenge on the new dataset and 38 trackers, making it the largest benchmark to date. Most of the tested trackers are indeed state-of-the-art since they outperform the standard baselines, resulting in a highly-challenging benchmark. An exhaustive analysis of the dataset from the perspective of tracking difficulty is carried out. To facilitate tracker comparison a new performance visualization technique is proposed.

  18. SVT: an online silicon vertex tracker for the CDF upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bardi, A.; Belforte, S.; Berryhill, J.; CDF Collaboration

    1997-07-01

    The SVT is an online tracker for the CDF upgrade which will reconstruct 2D tracks using information from the Silicon VerteX detector (SVXII) and Central Outer Tracker (COT). The precision measurement of the track impact parameter will then be used to select and record large samples of B hadrons. We discuss the overall architecture, algorithms, and hardware implementation of the system.

  19. Visible-spectrum remote eye tracker for gaze communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imabuchi, Takashi; Prima, Oky Dicky A.; Kikuchi, Hikaru; Horie, Yusuke; Ito, Hisayoshi

    2015-03-01

    Many approaches have been proposed to create an eye tracker based on visible-spectrum. These efforts provide a possibility to create inexpensive eye tracker capable to operate outdoor. Although the resulted tracking accuracy is acceptable for a visible-spectrum head-mounted eye tracker, there are many limitations of these approaches to create a remote eye tracker. In this study, we propose a high-accuracy remote eye tracker that uses visible-spectrum imaging and several gaze communication interfaces suited to the tracker. The gaze communication interfaces are designed to assist people with motor disability. Our results show that the proposed eye tracker achieved an average accuracy of 0.77° and a frame rate of 28 fps with a personal computer. With a tablet device, the proposed eye tracker achieved an average accuracy of 0.82° and a frame rate of 25 fps. The proposed gaze communication interfaces enable users to type a complete sentence containing eleven Japanese characters in about a minute.

  20. Holography inspired stringy hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Holography inspired stringy hadrons (HISH) is a set of models that describe hadrons: mesons, baryons and glueballs as strings in flat four dimensional space-time. The models are based on a "map" from stringy hadrons of holographic confining backgrounds. In this note we review the "derivation" of the models. We start with a brief reminder of the passage from the AdS5 ×S5 string theory to certain flavored confining holographic models. We then describe the string configurations in holographic backgrounds that correspond to a Wilson line, a meson, a baryon and a glueball. The key ingredients of the four dimensional picture of hadrons are the "string endpoint mass" and the "baryonic string vertex". We determine the classical trajectories of the HISH. We review the current understanding of the quantization of the hadronic strings. We end with a summary of the comparison of the outcome of the HISH models with the PDG data about mesons and baryons. We extract the values of the tension, masses and intercepts from best fits, write down certain predictions for higher excited hadrons and present attempts to identify glueballs.

  1. STS pricing policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  2. STS pricing policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  3. Flight performance of TOPEX/POSEIDON star trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, David J.; Fowski, Walter J.; Kia, Tooraj

    1993-09-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON spacecraft was launched on August 10, 1992. This paper presents data on the measured performance of the ASTRA Star Trackers supplied by Hughes Danbury Optical Systems (HDOS) for this satellite. The HDOS ASTRA Star Tracker is a charge coupled device (CCD), microprocessor based replacement for the NASA Standard Fixed Head Star Tracker. The position and magnitude accuracy of the star trackers computed from measured flight data are compared with ground measurements and system models. The performance of novel transient rejection algorithms implemented in the ASTRA Star Tracker which allows uninterrupted operation in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) where the sensor is subjected to high proton flux levels, also are presented.

  4. The Design Parameters for the MICE Tracker Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Chen, C.Y.; Juang, Tiki; Lau, Wing W.; Taylor,Clyde; Virostek, Steve P.; Wahrer, Robert; Wang, S.T.; Witte, Holger; Yang, Stephanie Q.

    2006-08-20

    The first superconducting magnets to be installed in the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) will be the tracker solenoids. The tracker solenoid module is a five coil superconducting solenoid with a 400 mm diameter warm bore that is used to provide a 4 T magnetic field for the experiment tracker module. Three of the coils are used to produce a uniform field (up to 4 T with better than 1 percent uniformity) in a region that is 300 mm in diameter and 1000 mm long. The other two coils are used to match the muon beam into the MICE cooling channel. Two 2.94-meter long superconducting tracker solenoid modules have been ordered for MICE. The tracker solenoid will be cooled using two-coolers that produce 1.5 W each at 4.2 K. The magnet system is described. The decisions that drive the magnet design will be discussed in this report.

  5. Acceptability of wristband activity trackers among community dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Tara; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Hathaway, Donna; Armstrong, Shannon; Moore, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Wristband activity trackers have become widely used among young adults. However, few studies have explored their use for monitoring and improving health outcomes among older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of activity tracker use among older adults for monitoring activity, improving self-efficacy, and health outcomes. A 12-week pilot study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and utility of mobile wristband activity trackers. The sample (N = 34) was 65% women 73.5 ± 9.4 years of age who had a high school diploma or GED (38%) and reported an income ≤$35,000 (58%). Participants completing the study (95%) experienced a decrease in waist circumference (p > 0.009), however no change in self-efficacy. Participants found activity trackers easy to use which contributed to minimal study withdrawals. It was concluded that activity trackers could be useful for monitoring and promoting physical activity and improving older adults' health.

  6. Performance of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe AST-201 Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, David K.; vanBezooijen, Roelof; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was launched to create a full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background. MAP incorporates two modified Lockheed Martin AST-201 (Autonomous Star Tracker) star trackers. The AST-201 employs an eight element radiation hardened lens assembly which is used to focus an image on a charge coupled device (CCD). The CCD image is then processed by a star identification algorithm which outputs a three-axis attitude. A CCD-shift algorithm called Time Delayed Integration (TDI) was also included in each star tracker. In order to provide some radiation effect filtering during MAP's three to five phasing loop passes through the Van Allen radiation belts, a simple pixel filtering scheme was implemented, rather than using a more complex, but more robust windowing algorithm. The trackers also include a fiber optic data interface. This paper details the ground testing that was accomplished on the MAP trackers.

  7. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1992

    Treesearch

    Patrick E. Miller

    1994-01-01

    The average price in the Midsouth for a cord of roundwood pulpwood increased 5.1 percent from $56.39 in 1991 to $59.29 in 1992. The average delivered price for a green ton of chipped residues was $27.30, an increase of 6.1 percent. In 1992, expenditures for Midsouth pulpwood increased 14.0 percent to $2.2 million. Real prices continued to rise for both softwood and...

  8. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1990

    Treesearch

    Patrick E. Miller

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, the average delivered price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood was $52.95, an increase of 5.7 percent since 1989. The average delivered price for a green ton of chipped residues increased about 3.7 percent to $22.51. The total pulpwood expenditure for Midsouth pulpmills increased 13 percent to $1,883 million in 1990. In terms of 1981 dollars, real prices fell...

  9. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1988

    Treesearch

    John S. Vissage

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, the average price per cord of Midsouth roundwood pulpwood was $49.21, an increase of approximately 4 percent since 1987. The average price per green ton of chipped residues fell 3 percent to $20.99. The total expenditure by Midsouth pulpmills for pulpwood increased about one-half percent to $1,569 million in 1988. However, the real prices, in terms of...

  10. Estimating Prices of Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.; Chamberlain, R. G.; Zendejas, S. C.; Lee, T. S.; Malhotra, S.

    1986-01-01

    Company-wide or process-wide production simulated. Price Estimation Guidelines (IPEG) program provides simple, accurate estimates of prices of manufactured products. Simplification of SAMIS allows analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform greater number of sensitivity studies. Although developed for photovoltaic industry, readily adaptable to standard assembly-line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG program estimates annual production price per unit. IPEG/PC program written in TURBO PASCAL.

  11. Food price volatility

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C. L.; Morgan, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    The high food prices experienced over recent years have led to the widespread view that food price volatility has increased. However, volatility has generally been lower over the two most recent decades than previously. Variability over the most recent period has been high but, with the important exception of rice, not out of line with historical experience. There is weak evidence that grains price volatility more generally may be increasing but it is too early to say. PMID:20713400

  12. Estimating Prices of Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.; Chamberlain, R. G.; Zendejas, S. C.; Lee, T. S.; Malhotra, S.

    1986-01-01

    Company-wide or process-wide production simulated. Price Estimation Guidelines (IPEG) program provides simple, accurate estimates of prices of manufactured products. Simplification of SAMIS allows analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform greater number of sensitivity studies. Although developed for photovoltaic industry, readily adaptable to standard assembly-line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG program estimates annual production price per unit. IPEG/PC program written in TURBO PASCAL.

  13. Soaring prices, soaring sales.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, L

    1998-12-01

    DuPont Pharmaceuticals and Glaxo Wellcome began marketing two new drugs, and the pricing of the drugs started a controversy. DuPont's efavirenz (Sustiva) was priced 60 percent higher than any other nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), with an annual retail price close to $5,000. In response, an ad hoc coalition called the Fair Price Working Group circulated a consensus statement demanding that the drug be priced like other drugs in that category. DuPont refused to reconsider, citing potency, once-daily dosing, and development costs. Several of the largest AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) also refused to add efavirenz to their formularies even though Dupont offered ADAPs a 5 percent rebate on the drug. Glaxo Wellcome learned from this dispute and priced its nucleoside analog abacavir at a level that ADAPs could afford, even though it is at the high end for its class of drugs. The coalition commended Glaxo for fairness in its pricing decision. Agouron and Bristol-Myers Squibb have also been criticized for repeatedly raising prices on their drugs. A continuing dialog, prior to price setting, will lead to greater understanding of a company's costs and may improve a company's reputation.

  14. Passive electro-optical projectiles tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurok, Ilya; Falicoff, Waqidi; Alvarez, Roberto; Shatford, Will

    2012-06-01

    Surveillance, detection, and tracking of multiple high-speed projectiles, particularly bullets, RPGs, and artillery shells, can help military forces immediately locate sources of enemy fire and trigger countermeasures. The traditional techniques for detection and tracing of fast moving objects typically employ various types of radar, which has inherently low resolution for such small objects. Fast moving projectiles are aerodynamically heated up to several hundred degree Kelvin temperatures depending on the speed of a projectile. Thereby, such projectiles radiate in the Mid- Infrared (MWIR) region, where electro-optical resolution is far superior, even to microwave radars. A new passive electro-optical tracker (or PET) uses a two-band IR intensity ratio to obtain a time-varying speed estimate from their time-varying temperatures. Based on an array of time-varying speed data and an array of azimuth/ elevation angles, PET can determines the 3D projectile trajectory and back track it to the source of fire. Various methods are given to determine the vector and range of a projectile, both for clear and for non-homogeneous atmospheric conditions. One approach uses the relative intensity of the image of the projectile on the pixels of a CCD camera to determine the azimuthal angle of trajectory with respect to the ground, and its range. Then by using directions to the tracked projectile (azimuth and elevation angles of the trajectory) and the array of instant projectile speeds, PET determines the distance to the projectile at any point on its tracked trajectory or its predicted trajectory backwards or forwards in time. A second approach uses a least-squares optimization technique over multiple frames based on a triangular representation of the smeared image to yield a real-time trajectory estimate. PET's estimated range accuracy is 0.2 m and the azimuth of the trajectory can be estimated within 0.2°.

  15. HETDEX tracker control system design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beno, Joseph H.; Hayes, Richard; Leck, Ron; Penney, Charles; Soukup, Ian

    2012-09-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics and McDonald Observatory developed a precision tracker and control system - an 18,000 kg robot to position a 3,100 kg payload within 10 microns of a desired dynamic track. Performance requirements to meet science needs and safety requirements that emerged from detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis resulted in a system of 13 precision controlled actuators and 100 additional analog and digital devices (primarily sensors and safety limit switches). Due to this complexity, demanding accuracy requirements, and stringent safety requirements, two independent control systems were developed. First, a versatile and easily configurable centralized control system that links with modeling and simulation tools during the hardware and software design process was deemed essential for normal operation including motion control. A second, parallel, control system, the Hardware Fault Controller (HFC) provides independent monitoring and fault control through a dedicated microcontroller to force a safe, controlled shutdown of the entire system in the event a fault is detected. Motion controls were developed in a Matlab-Simulink simulation environment, and coupled with dSPACE controller hardware. The dSPACE real-time operating system collects sensor information; motor commands are transmitted over a PROFIBUS network to servo amplifiers and drive motor status is received over the same network. To interface the dSPACE controller directly to absolute Heidenhain sensors with EnDat 2.2 protocol, a custom communication board was developed. This paper covers details of operational control software, the HFC, algorithms, tuning, debugging, testing, and lessons learned.

  16. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes: 1981 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Associates of Washington, DC.

    Higher Education prices and price indexes for fiscal years 1979-1981 are presented, with narrative explanation. A price index series measures the effects of price change on a fixed group of items. The change in price index values from year to year may be interpreted as the change in dollars required to offset the effects of inflation in buying the…

  17. Estimating 3D gaze in physical environment: a geometric approach on consumer-level remote eye tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibirama, Sunu; Mahesa, Rizki R.; Nugroho, Hanung A.; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    Remote eye trackers with consumer price have been used for various applications on flat computer screen. On the other hand, 3D gaze tracking in physical environment has been useful for visualizing gaze behavior, robots controller, and assistive technology. Instead of using affordable remote eye trackers, 3D gaze tracking in physical environment has been performed using corporate-level head mounted eye trackers, limiting its practical usage to niche user. In this research, we propose a novel method to estimate 3D gaze using consumer-level remote eye tracker. We implement geometric approach to obtain 3D point of gaze from binocular lines-of-sight. Experimental results show that the proposed method yielded low errors of 3.47+/-3.02 cm, 3.02+/-1.34 cm, and 2.57+/-1.85 cm in X, Y , and Z dimensions, respectively. The proposed approach may be used as a starting point for designing interaction method in 3D physical environment.

  18. Bio-inspired vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  19. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  20. Wind Load Analysis of A Solar Tracker For Concentrator Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiunn-Chi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Chih-Kuang

    2010-10-01

    This work studied the air flow over a two-axis solar tracker with two CPV modules installed. Both the velocity distribution and wind load were analyzed in order to quantify the effects of elevation angle and wind speed on the structural strength of tracker. The air flow is simulated as turbulent, incompressible flow upto 30 m/s and the κ-ɛ turbulence model is utilized for characterizing the flow turbulence. The range of elevation angle is varied between 0° to 90°. As the elevation angle increases, the wind load on the tracker reduces, and large recirculation zone and the suction pressure field are identified on the leeward side of the tracker. The maximum wind load always located on the pedestal of tracker. As the elevation angle decreases, the pedestal experiences increasing wind load. Such wind load distribution on the CPV modules and tracker has been used as the load-input for analyzing the structural deformation of the whole system (CPV modules and tracker). This deformation causes different levels of off-set angle on the CPV module which may reduce the tracking accuracy and degrade the electricity output of CPV system.

  1. Hardwood price reporting.

    Treesearch

    Brent L. Sohngen; Richard W. Haynes

    1994-01-01

    Prices for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) hardwood logs are published and analyzed for reliability, consistency, and robustness. Timberland managers can use these prices to make decisions about land management. They show that values for red alder logs have been increasing steadily for the last 11 years.

  2. Perspectives on Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litten, Larry H.

    1986-01-01

    The most provocative perspectives on pricing for colleges and universities have come from the introduction of marketing into higher education. A brief review of these developments is offered to serve as an orientation for the consideration of pricing issues per se. (Author/MLW)

  3. Coalitional Tracker for Deception Detection in Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdall, Jonathan; Pavlidis, Ioannis; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis

    We propose a novel tracking method that uses a network of independent particle filter trackers whose interactions are modeled using coalitional game theory. Our tracking method is general; it maintains pixel-level accuracy, and can negotiate surface deformations and occlusions. We tested our method in a substantial video set featuring nontrivial motion from over 40 objects in both the infrared and vi sual spectra. The coalitional tracker demonstrated fault-tolerant behavior that far exceeds the performance of single-particle filter trackers. Our method represents a shift from the typical tracking paradigms and may find application in demanding imaging problems across the electromagnetic spectrum.

  4. The research on image processing technology of the star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-ming; Li, Chun-jiang; Zheng, Ran; Li, Xiao; Yang, Jun

    2014-11-01

    As the core of visual sensitivity via imaging, image processing technology, especially for star tracker, is mainly characterized by such items as image exposure, optimal storage, background estimation, feature correction, target extraction, iteration compensation. This paper firstly summarizes the new research on those items at home and abroad, then, according to star tracker's practical engineering, environment in orbit and lifetime information, shows an architecture about rapid fusion between multiple frame images, which can be used to restrain oversaturation of the effective pixels, which means star tracker can be made more precise, more robust and more stable.

  5. High Energy Astronomy Observatory star tracker search program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a control system to accommodate the scientific payload of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) is discussed. One of the critical elements of the system is the star tracker subsystem, which defines an accurate three-axis attitude reference. A digital computer program has been developed to evaluate the ability of a particular star tracker configuration to meet the requirements for attitude reference at various vehicle orientations. Used in conjuction with an adequate star catalog, the computer program provides information on availability of stars for each tracker and on the ability of the system to maintain three-axis attitude reference throughout a representative sequence of vehicle orientations.

  6. Status of the D0 fiber tracker and preshower detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Dmitri; /Notre Dame U.

    2009-01-01

    In this report we focus on the performance of the D0 central fiber tracker and preshower detectors during the high luminosity p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 GeV delivered by the Tevatron collider at Fermilab (Run IIb). Both fiber tracker and preshower detectors utilize a similar readout system based on high quantum efficiency solid state photo-detectors capable of converting light into electrical signals. We also give a brief description of the D0 detector and the central track trigger, and conclude with a summary on the central tracker performance.

  7. A Bayesian tracker for multi-sensor passive narrowband fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirkl, Ryan J.; Aughenbaugh, Jason M.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the detection and localization performance of a multi-sensor, passive sonar Bayesian tracker for underwater targets emitting narrowband signals in the presence of realistic underwater ambient noise. Our evaluation focuses on recent advances in the formulation of the likelihood function used by the tracker that provide greater robustness in the presence of both realistic environmental noise and imprecise/inaccurate a priori knowledge of the target's narrowband signal. These improvements enable the tracker to reliably detect and localize narrowband emitters for a broader range of propagation environments, target velocities, and inherent uncertainty in a priori knowledge.

  8. EOS attitude determination and next generation star tracker enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudva, P.; Throckmorton, A.

    1993-01-01

    The pointing knowledge required for the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM mission is at the limit of the current generation of star trackers, with little margin. Techniques for improving the performance of existing star trackers are explored, with performance sensitivities developed for each alternative. These are extended to define the most significant performance enhancements for a next generation star tracker. Since attitude determination studies tend to be computationally intensive, an approach for using a simpler one degree of freedom formulation is contrasted with a full three degree of freedom formulation. Additionally, covariance analysis results are compared with time domain simulation performance results.

  9. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

    2011-12-01

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  10. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  11. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  12. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  13. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  14. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  15. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  16. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  17. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  18. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  19. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.50 Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent...

  20. Data acquisition software for the CMS strip tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, R.; Baulieu, G.; Bel, S.; Cole, J.; Cripps, N.; Delaere, C.; Jesus, A. C. A.; Drouhin, F.; Fulcher, J.; Giassi, A.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Gross, L.; Hahn, K.; Mersi, S.; Mirabito, L.; Nikolic, M.; Radicci, V.; Tkaczyk, S.; Wingham, M.

    2008-07-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker, providing a sensitive area of approximately 200 m2 and comprising 10 million readout channels, has recently been completed at the tracker integration facility at CERN. The strip tracker community is currently working to develop and integrate the online and offline software frameworks, known as XDAQ and CMSSW respectively, for the purposes of data acquisition and detector commissioning and monitoring. Recent developments have seen the integration of many new services and tools within the online data acquisition system, such as event building, online distributed analysis, an online monitoring framework, and data storage management. We review the various software components that comprise the strip tracker data acquisition system, the software architectures used for stand-alone and global data-taking modes. Our experiences in commissioning and operating one of the largest ever silicon micro-strip tracking systems are also reviewed.

  1. A low-cost, CCD solid state star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielowski, M.; Wynne, D.

    1992-01-01

    Applied Research Corporation (ARC) has developed an engineering model of a multi-star CCD-based tracker for space applications requiring radiation hardness, high reliability and low power consumption. The engineering unit compared favorably in functional performance tests to the standard NASA single-star tracker. Characteristics of the ARC star tracker are: field of view = 10 deg x 7.5 deg, sensitivity range of -1 to +5 star magnitude, NEA = 3 in x 3 in, linearity = 5 in x 5 in, and power consumption of 1-3 W (operating mode dependent). The software is upgradable through a remote link. The hardware-limited acquisition rate is 1-5 Hz for stars of +2 to +5 magnitude and 10-30 Hz for -1 to +2 magnitude stars. Mechanical and electrical interfaces are identical to the standard NASA star tracker.

  2. A single beam laser tracker as an alignment tool

    SciTech Connect

    Wand, B.T.; LeCocq, C.; Gaydosh, M.; Ruland, R.E.

    1992-07-01

    In December 1991 the Survey and Alignment team of the Stanford Liner Accelerator Center (SLAC) purchased a Chesapeake single beam laser tracker. This paper will discuss first experiences and applications with this new type of an alignment instrument.

  3. D0 layer 0 innermost layer of silicon microstrip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A new inner layer silicon strip detector has been built and will be installed in the existing silicon microstrip tracker in D0. They report on the motivation, design, and performance of this new detector.

  4. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  5. Grumman S2F-1 Tracker at NACA Lewis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1956-08-21

    The NACA’s Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory acquired the Grumman S2F-1 Tracker from the Navy in 1955 to study icing instrumentation. Lewis’s icing research program was winding down at the time. The use of jet engines was increasing thus reducing the threat of ice accumulation. Nonetheless Lewis continued research on the instrumentation used to detect icing conditions. The S2F-1 Tracker was a carrier-based submarine hunter for the Navy. Grumman developed the Tracker as a successor to its Korean War-era Guardian patrol aircraft. Prototypes first flew in late 1952 and battle-ready versions entered Naval service in early 1954. The Navy utilized the Trackers to protect fleets from attack.

  6. Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker in Run 1 of the LHC: tracker properties

    DOE PAGES

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; ...

    2017-05-03

    The tracking performance parameters of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) as part of the ATLAS inner detector are described in this paper for different data-taking conditions in proton-proton, proton-lead and lead-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The performance is studied using data collected during the first period of LHC operation (Run 1) and is compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The performance of the TRT, operating with two different gas mixtures (xenon-based and argon-based) and its dependence on the TRT occupancy is presented. Furthermore, these studies show that the tracking performance of the TRT is similar for themore » two gas mixtures and that a significant contribution to the particle momentum resolution is made by the TRT up to high particle densities.« less

  7. Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker in Run 1 of the LHC: tracker properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Abidi, S. H.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adachi, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adersberger, M.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agheorghiesei, C.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akatsuka, S.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alshehri, A. A.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antrim, D. J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Araujo Ferraz, V.; Arce, A. T. H.; Ardell, R. E.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Baines, J. T.; Bajic, M.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M.-S.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beermann, T. A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernardi, G.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethani, A.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Billoud, T. R. V.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bisanz, T.; Bittrich, C.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blue, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. 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C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Tornambe, P.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Treado, C. J.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsang, K. W.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tu, Y.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tulbure, T. T.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turgeman, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usui, J.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallier, A.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varni, C.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vasquez, G. A.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viaux Maira, N.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Boeriu, O. E. Vickey; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vishwakarma, A.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, Q.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, W.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, A. F.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Weber, S. A.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wobisch, M.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolff, R.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xi, Z.; Xia, L.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zacharis, G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zou, R.; zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2017-05-01

    The tracking performance parameters of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) as part of the ATLAS inner detector are described in this paper for different data-taking conditions in proton-proton, proton-lead and lead-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The performance is studied using data collected during the first period of LHC operation (Run 1) and is compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The performance of the TRT, operating with two different gas mixtures (xenon-based and argon-based) and its dependence on the TRT occupancy is presented. These studies show that the tracking performance of the TRT is similar for the two gas mixtures and that a significant contribution to the particle momentum resolution is made by the TRT up to high particle densities.

  8. Pricing of new vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  9. Pricing of new vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  10. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Complete data from a test program designed to evaluate the performance of a star tracker, a breadboard tracker system, is presented in tabular form. All data presented was normalized to the pixel dimension of 20 micrometers. Data from determination of maximum spatial noise as it applies to the coarse and fine acquisition modes is presented. Pointing accuracy test data, raw pixel data for the track cycle, and data from equipment related tests is also presented.

  11. A new accelerator alignment concept using laser trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.

    1994-07-01

    This paper outlines the basic principle of the laser tracker and the new and simplified alignment concept for the APS based on the use of these laser trackers. These instruments not only provide the necessary accuracy for positioning of beam components but are also reducing the time and manpower requirements for the alignment of beam elements. The presented alignment concept will be especially valuable when considering the alignment of small scale accelerators.

  12. Optical Alignment of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetherington, Samuel; Osgood, Dean; McMann, Joe; Roberts, Viki; Gill, James; Mclean, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    The optical alignment of the star trackers on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core spacecraft at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was challenging due to the layout and structural design of the GPM Lower Bus Structure (LBS) in which the star trackers are mounted as well as the presence of the star tracker shades that blocked line-of-sight to the primary star tracker optical references. The initial solution was to negotiate minor changes in the original LBS design to allow for the installation of a removable item of ground support equipment (GSE) that could be installed whenever measurements of the star tracker optical references were needed. However, this GSE could only be used to measure secondary optical reference cube faces not used by the star tracker vendor to obtain the relationship information and matrix transformations necessary to determine star tracker alignment. Unfortunately, due to unexpectedly large orthogonality errors between the measured secondary adjacent cube faces and the lack of cube calibration data, we required a method that could be used to measure the same reference cube faces as originally measured by the vendor. We describe an alternative technique to theodolite auto-collimation for measurement of an optical reference mirror pointing direction when normal incidence measurements are not possible. This technique was used to successfully align the GPM star trackers and has been used on a number of other NASA flight projects. We also discuss alignment theory as well as a GSFC-developed theodolite data analysis package used to analyze angular metrology data.

  13. Space shuttle orbiter vehicle star tracker test program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development model test program was written to provide guidance for essential star tracker test support to the Space Shuttle Orbiter Program. The program organization included test equipment preparation, prototype baseline/acceptance tests, prototype total performance tests, and prototype special tests. Test configurations, preparation phase, documentation, scheduling, and manpower requirements are discussed. The test program permits an early evaluation of the tracker's performance prior to completion and testing of the final flight models.

  14. Design of a sun tracker for a laser heterodyne spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaigue, A.; Thiebeaux, C.; Courtois, D.; Le Corre, H.

    1988-01-01

    A sun tracker with a tracking precision of 0.001 degree has been developed for use with a high-resolution Laser Heterodyne Spectrometer. The mechanical and optical arrangement of the tracker are described in detail, in addition to the tracking software. The system was used to record ozone atmospheric spectra in the 10-micron region in March 1987. The analysis range is + or - 1220 MHz.

  15. Six Sigma pricing.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, ManMohan S; Sodhi, Navdeep S

    2005-05-01

    Many companies are now good at managing costs and wringing out manufacturing efficiencies. The TQM movement and the disciplines of Six Sigma have seen to that. But the discipline so often brought to the cost side of the business equation is found far less commonly on the revenue side. The authors describe how a global manufacturer of industrial equipment, which they call Acme Incorporated, recently applied Six Sigma to one major revenue related activity--the price-setting process. It seemed to Acme's executives that pricing closely resembled many manufacturing processes. So, with the help of a Six Sigma black belt from manufacturing, a manager from Acme's pricing division recruited a team to carry out the five Six Sigma steps: Define what constitutes a defect. At Acme, a defect was an item sold at an unauthorized price. Gather data and prepare it for analysis. That involved mapping out the existing pricing-agreement process. Analyze the data. The team identified the ways in which people failed to carry out or assert effective control at each stage. Recommend modifications to the existing process. The team sought to decrease the number of unapproved prices without creating an onerous approval apparatus. Create controls. This step enabled Acme to sustain and extend the improvements in its pricing procedures. As a result of the changes, Acme earned dollar 6 million in additional revenue on one product line alone in the six months following implementation--money that went straight to the bottom line. At the same time, the company removed much of the organizational friction that had long bedeviled its pricing process. Other companies can benefit from Acme's experience as they look for ways to exercise price control without alienating customers.

  16. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  17. Software and mathematical support of Kazakhstani star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, D.; Yelubayev, S.; Ten, V.; Bopeyev, T.; Alipbayev, K.; Sukhenko, A.

    2016-10-01

    Currently the specialists of Kazakhstan have been developing the star tracker that is further planned to use on Kazakhstani satellites of various purposes. At the first stage it has been developed the experimental model of star tracker that has following characteristics: field of view 20°, update frequency 2 Hz, exclusion angle 40°, accuracy of attitude determination of optical axis/around optical axis 15/50 arcsec. Software and mathematical support are the most high technology parts of star tracker. The results of software and mathematical support development of experimental model of Kazakhstani star tracker are represented in this article. In particular, there are described the main mathematical models and algorithms that have been used as a basis for program units of preliminary image processing of starry sky, stars identification and star tracker attitude determination. The results of software and mathematical support testing with the help of program simulation complex using various configurations of defects including image sensor noises, point spread function modeling, optical system distortion up to 2% are presented. Analysis of testing results has shown that accuracy of attitude determination of star tracker is within the permissible range

  18. EMC Diagnosis and Corrective Actions for Silicon Strip Tracker Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Arteche, F.; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2006-06-06

    The tracker sub-system is one of the five sub-detectors of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment under construction at CERN for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The tracker subdetector is designed to reconstruct tracks of charged sub-atomic particles generated after collisions. The tracker system processes analogue signals from 10 million channels distributed across 14000 silicon micro-strip detectors. It is designed to process signals of a few nA and digitize them at 40 MHz. The overall sub-detector is embedded in a high particle radiation environment and a magnetic field of 4 Tesla. The evaluation of the electromagnetic immunity of the system is very important to optimize the performance of the tracker sub-detector and the whole CMS experiment. This paper presents the EMC diagnosis of the CMS silicon tracker sub-detector. Immunity tests were performed using the final prototype of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) system to estimate the sensitivity of the system to conducted noise, evaluate the weakest areas of the system and take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector. This paper shows the results of one of those tests, that is the measurement and analysis of the immunity to CM external conducted noise perturbations.

  19. Endoscope-magnetic tracker calibration via trust region optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Dusty

    2010-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgical techniques and advanced imaging systems are gaining prevalence in modern clinical practice. Using miniaturized magnetic trackers in combination with these procedures can help physicians with the orientation and guidance of instruments in graphical displays, navigation during surgery, 3D reconstruction of anatomy, and other applications. Magnetic trackers are often used in conjunction with other sensors or instruments such as endoscopes and optical trackers. In such applications, complex calibration procedures are required to align the coordinate systems of the different devices in order to produce accurate results. Unfortunately, current calibration procedures developed for augmented reality are cumbersome and unsuitable for repeated use in a clinical setting. This paper presents an efficient automated endoscope-tracker calibration algorithm for clinical applications. The algorithm is based on a state-of-the-art trust region optimization method and requires minimal intervention from the endoscope operator. The only required input is a short video of a calibration grid taken with the endoscope and attached magnetic tracker prior to the procedure. The three stage calibration process uses a traditional camera calibration to determine the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the endoscope, and then the endoscope is registered in the tracker's reference frame using a novel linear estimation method and a trust region optimization algorithm. This innovative method eliminates the need for complicated calibration procedures and facilitates the use of magnetic tracking devices in clinical settings.

  20. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollodge, J. C.; Hubbard, M. W.; Jain, S.; Schons, C. A.

    1981-08-01

    The performance of a star tracker equipped with a focal plane detector was evaluated. The CID board is an array of 256 x 256 pixels which are 20 x 20 micrometers in dimension. The tracker used for test was a breadboard tracker system developed by BASD. Unique acquisition and tracking algorithms are employed to enhance performance. A pattern recognition process is used to test for proper image spread function and to avoid false acquisition on noise. A very linear, high gain, interpixel transfer function is derived for interpolating star position. The lens used in the tracker has an EFL of 100 mm. The tracker has an FOV of 2.93 degrees resulting in a pixel angular subtense of 41.253 arc sec in each axis. The test procedure used for the program presented a star to the tracker in a circular pattern of positions; the pattern was formed by projecting a simulated star through a rotatable deviation wedge. Further tests determined readout noise, Noise Equivalent Displacement during track, and spatial noise during acquisition by taking related data and reducing it.

  1. Multi-expert tracking algorithm based on improved compressive tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yachun; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Object tracking is a challenging task in computer vision. Most state-of-the-art methods maintain an object model and update the object model by using new examples obtained incoming frames in order to deal with the variation in the appearance. It will inevitably introduce the model drift problem into the object model updating frame-by-frame without any censorship mechanism. In this paper, we adopt a multi-expert tracking framework, which is able to correct the effect of bad updates after they happened such as the bad updates caused by the severe occlusion. Hence, the proposed framework exactly has the ability which a robust tracking method should process. The expert ensemble is constructed of a base tracker and its formal snapshot. The tracking result is produced by the current tracker that is selected by means of a simple loss function. We adopt an improved compressive tracker as the base tracker in our work and modify it to fit the multi-expert framework. The proposed multi-expert tracking algorithm significantly improves the robustness of the base tracker, especially in the scenes with frequent occlusions and illumination variations. Experiments on challenging video sequences with comparisons to several state-of-the-art trackers demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and our tracking algorithm can run at real-time.

  2. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollodge, J. C.; Hubbard, M. W.; Jain, S.; Schons, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of a star tracker equipped with a focal plane detector was evaluated. The CID board is an array of 256 x 256 pixels which are 20 x 20 micrometers in dimension. The tracker used for test was a breadboard tracker system developed by BASD. Unique acquisition and tracking algorithms are employed to enhance performance. A pattern recognition process is used to test for proper image spread function and to avoid false acquisition on noise. A very linear, high gain, interpixel transfer function is derived for interpolating star position. The lens used in the tracker has an EFL of 100 mm. The tracker has an FOV of 2.93 degrees resulting in a pixel angular subtense of 41.253 arc sec in each axis. The test procedure used for the program presented a star to the tracker in a circular pattern of positions; the pattern was formed by projecting a simulated star through a rotatable deviation wedge. Further tests determined readout noise, Noise Equivalent Displacement during track, and spatial noise during acquisition by taking related data and reducing it.

  3. Why do stumpage prices increase more than lumber prices?

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    1998-01-01

    Every sawmiller who has been in business more than 5 years realizes that hardwood stumpage prices tend to increase faster than lumber prices, decreasing the margin between these two prices. Although increases in stumpage versus lumber prices are readily apparent, the reason for the decrease in the margin is not. Recent research findings indicate that the stumpage/...

  4. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1976 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Kent D.

    The 1976 supplement presents higher education price index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1976. The basic study, "Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes" (ED 123 996) presents complete descriptions of the indexes together with index values and price data for fiscal years 1961 through 1974. Indexes are presented for research and development,…

  5. Crustal Failure during Binary Inspiral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, A. J.; Andersson, N.; Jones, D. I.; Samuelsson, L.; Hawke, I.

    2012-04-01

    We present the first fully relativistic calculations of the crustal strain induced in a neutron star by a binary companion at the late stages of inspiral, employing realistic equations of state for the fluid core and the solid crust. We show that while the deep crust is likely to fail only shortly before coalescence, there is a large variation in elastic strain, with the outermost layers failing relatively early on in the inspiral. We discuss the significance of the results for both electromagnetic and gravitational-wave astronomy.

  6. CRUSTAL FAILURE DURING BINARY INSPIRAL

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, A. J.; Andersson, N.; Jones, D. I.; Hawke, I.; Samuelsson, L.

    2012-04-20

    We present the first fully relativistic calculations of the crustal strain induced in a neutron star by a binary companion at the late stages of inspiral, employing realistic equations of state for the fluid core and the solid crust. We show that while the deep crust is likely to fail only shortly before coalescence, there is a large variation in elastic strain, with the outermost layers failing relatively early on in the inspiral. We discuss the significance of the results for both electromagnetic and gravitational-wave astronomy.

  7. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  8. Pricing and Fee Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    Defines key terms and discusses things to consider when setting fees for a continuing education program. These include (1) the organization's philosophy and mission, (2) certain key variables, (3) pricing strategy options, and (4) the test of reasonableness. (CH)

  9. Price percolation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Yasuhiro; Abe, Keiji; Seki, Yoichi

    2015-06-01

    We propose a price percolation model to reproduce the price distribution of components used in industrial finished goods. The intent is to show, using the price percolation model and a component category as an example, that percolation behaviors, which exist in the matter system, the ecosystem, and human society, also exist in abstract, random phenomena satisfying the power law. First, we discretize the total potential demand for a component category, considering it a random field. Second, we assume that the discretized potential demand corresponding to a function of a finished good turns into actual demand if the difficulty of function realization is less than the maximum difficulty of the realization. The simulations using this model suggest that changes in a component category's price distribution are due to changes in the total potential demand corresponding to the lattice size and the maximum difficulty of realization, which is an occupation probability. The results are verified using electronic components' sales data.

  10. Pricing and Fee Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    Defines key terms and discusses things to consider when setting fees for a continuing education program. These include (1) the organization's philosophy and mission, (2) certain key variables, (3) pricing strategy options, and (4) the test of reasonableness. (CH)

  11. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  12. Marginal energy prices report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaitkin, Stuart; Biermayer, Peter; Bretz, Sarah; Brown, Steve; Constantine, Sachu; Fisher, Diane; Hakim, Sajid; Liew, Lucy; Lutz, Jim; Marnay, Chris; McMahon, James E.; Moezzi, Mithra; Osborn, Julie; Rawner, Esther; Roberson, Judy; Rosenquist, Greg; Ryan, Nancy; Turiel, Isaac; Wiel, Stephen

    1999-06-24

    This report responds to a recommendation from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advisory Committee on Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards. It presents the derivation of estimated consumer marginal energy prices for the commercial and residential sectors for use in the life-cycle cost (LCC) analyses for four of the high priority appliances' energy efficiency standards rule makings --clothes washers, water heaters,fluorescent lamp ballasts, and central airconditioners/heat pumps. Marginal prices as discussed here are those prices consumers pay (or save) for their last units of energy used (or saved). Marginal prices reflect a change in a consumer's bill (that might be associated with new energy efficiency standards) divided by the corresponding change in the amount of energy the consumer used.

  13. Inspiring to Inspire: Developing Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Louise; Nixon, Sarah; Hennessy, Claire; Mahon, Elizabeth; Adams, Gill

    2016-01-01

    Following a three-year staff development initiative within one faculty in a UK university, the authors reflected on inspiring teaching and the role that staff development can play in enhancing individual practice. Teaching is a core component of Higher Education and is complex and multi-faceted both theoretically and in practice. Through…

  14. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1989

    Treesearch

    John S. Vissage

    1992-01-01

    In 1989, the average delivered price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood was $49.92, an increase of less than 2 percent since 1988. The average delivered price for a green ton of chipped residues increased about 3 percent to $21.70. The total pulpwood expenditure for Midsouth pulpmills increased about 6 percent to $1,658.5 million in 1989. In terms of 1980 dollars,...

  15. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1991

    Treesearch

    Patrick E. Miller

    1993-01-01

    The average delivered price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood in 1991 was $56.39, an increase of 6.5 percent since 1990. Softwood roundwood averaged $58.24 and hardwoods, $50.48 per standard cord, up 2.8 and 7.9 percent, respectively. Chipped residue prices were $26.52 for softwood and $21.0l for hardwood per green ton. The expenditure for wood fiber in the Midsouth...

  16. Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated cost-of-service pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers?

  17. The ethics of dynamic pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2010-07-15

    Dynamic pricing has garnered much interest among regulators and utilities, since it has the potential for lowering energy costs for society. But the deployment of dynamic pricing has been remarkably tepid. The underlying premise is that dynamic pricing is unfair. But the presumption of unfairness in dynamic pricing rests on an assumption of fairness in today's tariffs. (author)

  18. Pricing Information Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, H. E., III

    1981-01-01

    Outlines several approaches to the establishment of prices for information products and services by the administrators of libraries and information centers, including optimization, pricing to achieve organizational objectives, pricing for market structures, and types of market structure pricing systems. A reference list is included. (JL)

  19. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  20. Project Inspire: Vocational Guidance Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Businessmen, Washington, DC.

    Two introductory speeches suggest the general social and interracial climate in the United States. It is against this backdrop that Project Inspire is described. Its purpose is the development of a vocational guidance component within the broader school curriculum. Its major objective is elevating the awareness level of students to the work world…

  1. London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

  2. Novel locomotion via biological inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Roger D.; Boxerbaum, Alexander; Palmer, Luther; Chiel, Hillel; Diller, Eric; Hunt, Alexander; Bachmann, Richard

    2011-05-01

    Animal behavioral, physiological and neurobiological studies are providing a wealth of inspirational data for robot design and control. Several very different biologically inspired mobile robots will be reviewed. A robot called DIGbot is being developed that moves independent of the direction of gravity using Distributed Inward Gripping (DIG) as a rapid and robust attachment mechanism observed in climbing animals. DIGbot is an 18 degree of freedom hexapod with onboard power and control systems. Passive compliance in its feet, which is inspired by the flexible tarsus of the cockroach, increases the robustness of the adhesion strategy and enables DIGbot to execute large steps and stationary turns while walking on mesh screens. A Whegs™ robot, inspired by insect locomotion principles, is being developed that can be rapidly reconfigured between tracks and wheel-legs and carry GeoSystems Zipper Mast. The mechanisms that cause it to passively change its gait on irregular terrain have been integrated into its hubs for a compact and modular design. The robot is designed to move smoothly on moderately rugged terrain using its tracks and run on irregular terrain and stairs using its wheel-legs. We are also developing soft bodied robots that use peristalsis, the same method of locomotion earthworms use. We present a technique of using a braided mesh exterior to produce fluid waves of motion along the body of the robot that increase the robot's speed relative to previous designs. The concept is highly scalable, for endoscopes to water, oil or gas line inspection.

  3. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop…

  4. London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

  5. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop…

  6. Inspiring the Best in Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Students' success in school and later in life is highly dependent on their ability to 1) regulate their emotions and control their behavior and 2) get along with their teachers and peers. In this book, the author wants to teach you how to inspire students to learn, behave responsibly, and improve their relationships with themselves, other…

  7. Inspiring the Best in Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Students' success in school and later in life is highly dependent on their ability to 1) regulate their emotions and control their behavior and 2) get along with their teachers and peers. In this book, the author wants to teach you how to inspire students to learn, behave responsibly, and improve their relationships with themselves, other…

  8. In Search of Scientific Inspiration.

    PubMed

    2017-01-12

    In the ever-expanding sea of scientific advances, how do you find inspiration for your own study? Cell editor Jiaying Tan talked with Mark Lemmon and Joseph (Yossi) Schlessinger about the importance of fueling your research creativity with the conceptual excitement and technical advance from the broad scientific field. An excerpt of the conversation appears below. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. INSPIRED High School Computing Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerschuk, Peggy; Liu, Jiangjiang; Mann, Judith

    2011-01-01

    If we are to attract more women and minorities to computing we must engage students at an early age. As part of its mission to increase participation of women and underrepresented minorities in computing, the Increasing Student Participation in Research Development Program (INSPIRED) conducts computing academies for high school students. The…

  10. Inversion exercises inspired by mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2016-02-01

    An elementary calculus transform, inspired by the centroid and gyration radius, is introduced as a prelude to the study of more advanced transforms. Analysis of the transform, including its inversion, makes use of several key concepts from basic calculus and exercises in the application and inversion of the transform provide practice in the use of technology in calculus.

  11. INSPIRED High School Computing Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerschuk, Peggy; Liu, Jiangjiang; Mann, Judith

    2011-01-01

    If we are to attract more women and minorities to computing we must engage students at an early age. As part of its mission to increase participation of women and underrepresented minorities in computing, the Increasing Student Participation in Research Development Program (INSPIRED) conducts computing academies for high school students. The…

  12. On-orbit performance of TOPEX/POSIEDON star trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kia, Tooraj; Hanover, Gene A.

    1996-10-01

    The primary objective of the TOPEX/POSIEDON satellite is to monitor the world's oceans for scientific study of ocean circulation leading to weather and climate prediction, coastal storm warning and maritime safety. TOPEX/POSIEDON was launched on August 10, 1992 from the Kourou Space Center in French Guyana on a nominal circular orbit with an altitude of 1336 Km with a 66 degree inclination. Selection of this orbit imposed challenging requirements on the on- board electronics. At this altitude, South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) covers a large area. During many orbits the satellite may spend up to 40 minutes in the SAA region, all the time being bombarded by heavy protons and other charged particles. The on-board electronics were required to endure an estimated total dose radiation of 70 KRAD, with an RDM of 2, over the prime mission life of three years. In addition to the total dose radiation requirement, the spacecraft is required to perform within specifications in-spite of the heavy protons present at this orbit. TOPEX/POSIEDON is the first NASA satellite to carry two CCD based star trackers on a long duration mission. TOPEX/POSIEDON star trackers, known as advanced star tracker (ASTRA), were designed and built by Hughes Danbury Optical Systems (HDOS). These trackers have experienced single-event upsets and possible radiation induced radiation changes in their characteristics. One of the trackers has been in an in-operable state since being hit by a suspected SEU in November 1992. The second tracker has also had anomalies indicative of an SEU, but has managed to recover and is performing within the TOPEX specifications. JPL has been monitoring and evaluating the performance of these star trackers, during the last forty months. The data show change in certain tracker characteristics such as the magnitude of the detected stars, the background counts and the hot pixel data. This paper addresses the CCD tracker performance and the change in their characteristics in the

  13. Forecasting method in multilateration accuracy based on laser tracker measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, Sergio; Santolaria, Jorge; Samper, David; José Aguilar, Juan

    2017-02-01

    Multilateration based on a laser tracker (LT) requires the measurement of a set of points from three or more positions. Although the LTs’ angular information is not used, multilateration produces a volume of measurement uncertainty. This paper presents two new coefficients from which to determine whether the measurement of a set of points, before performing the necessary measurements, will improve or worsen the accuracy of the multilateration results, avoiding unnecessary measurement, and reducing the time and economic cost required. The first specific coefficient measurement coefficient (MCLT) is unique for each laser tracker. It determines the relationship between the radial and angular laser tracker measurement noise. Similarly, the second coefficient is related with specific conditions of measurement β. It is related with the spatial angle between the laser tracker positions α and its effect on error reduction. Both parameters MCLT and β are linked in error reduction limits. Beside these, a new methodology to determine the multilateration reduction limit according to the multilateration technique of an ideal laser tracker distribution and a random one are presented. It provides general rules and advice from synthetic tests that are validated through a real test carried out in a coordinate measurement machine.

  14. Exposure time optimization for highly dynamic star trackers.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinguo; Tan, Wei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-03-11

    Under highly dynamic conditions, the star-spots on the image sensor of a star tracker move across many pixels during the exposure time, which will reduce star detection sensitivity and increase star location errors. However, this kind of effect can be compensated well by setting an appropriate exposure time. This paper focuses on how exposure time affects the star tracker under highly dynamic conditions and how to determine the most appropriate exposure time for this case. Firstly, the effect of exposure time on star detection sensitivity is analyzed by establishing the dynamic star-spot imaging model. Then the star location error is deduced based on the error analysis of the sub-pixel centroiding algorithm. Combining these analyses, the effect of exposure time on attitude accuracy is finally determined. Some simulations are carried out to validate these effects, and the results show that there are different optimal exposure times for different angular velocities of a star tracker with a given configuration. In addition, the results of night sky experiments using a real star tracker agree with the simulation results. The summarized regularities in this paper should prove helpful in the system design and dynamic performance evaluation of the highly dynamic star trackers.

  15. Application Of Expert System Techniques To A Visual Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myler, Harley R.; Thompson, Wiley E.; Flachs, Gerald M.

    1985-04-01

    A structure for visual tracking system is presented which relies on information developed from previous tracking scenarios stored in a knowledge base to enhance tracking performance. The system is comprised of a centroid tracker front end which supplies segmented image features to a data reduction algorithm which holds the reduced data in a temporary data base relation. This relation is then classified vio two separate modes, learn and track. Under learn mode, an external teacher-irector operator provides identification and weighting cues for membership in a long-term storage relation within a knowledge base. Track mode operates autonomously from the learn mode where the system determines feature validity by applying fuzzy set membership criteria to previously stored track information in the database. Results determined from the classification generate tracker directives which either enhance or permit current tracking to continue or cause the tracker to search for alternate targets based upon analysis of a global target tracking list. The classification algorithm is based on correlative analysis of the tracker's segmented output presentation after low pass filtering derives lower order harmonics of the feature. The fuzzy set membership criteria is based on size, rotation, Irame location, and past history of the feature. The first three factors are lin-ear operations on the spectra, while the last is generated as a context relation in the knowledge base. The context relation interlinks data between features to facilitate tracker operation during feature occlusion or presence of countermeasures.

  16. Construction and commissioning of the SuperNEMO detector tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascella, Michele; SuperNEMO Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The SuperNEMO detector will search for neutrinoless double beta decay at the Modane Underground Laboratory; the detector design allows complete topological reconstruction of the decay event enabling excellent levels of background rejection and, in the event of a discovery, the ability to determine the nature of the lepton number violating process. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the full experiment, we are building a Demonstrator Module containing 7 kg of 82Se, with an expected sensitivity of |mββ | < 0.2 - 0.4 eV after 2.5 yr. The demonstrator tracker is currently being assembled in the UK; the main challenge in the tracker design is the high radiopurity required to limit the background. For this reason the cell wiring is automated and every step of the tracker assembly happens in a clean environment. All components are carefully screened for radiopurity and each section of the tracker, once assembled, is sealed and checked for Radon emanation. We present the detector design, the current status of the construction and present the first results from the surface commissioning of one section of the Demonstrator Module tracker.

  17. Exposure Time Optimization for Highly Dynamic Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xinguo; Tan, Wei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Under highly dynamic conditions, the star-spots on the image sensor of a star tracker move across many pixels during the exposure time, which will reduce star detection sensitivity and increase star location errors. However, this kind of effect can be compensated well by setting an appropriate exposure time. This paper focuses on how exposure time affects the star tracker under highly dynamic conditions and how to determine the most appropriate exposure time for this case. Firstly, the effect of exposure time on star detection sensitivity is analyzed by establishing the dynamic star-spot imaging model. Then the star location error is deduced based on the error analysis of the sub-pixel centroiding algorithm. Combining these analyses, the effect of exposure time on attitude accuracy is finally determined. Some simulations are carried out to validate these effects, and the results show that there are different optimal exposure times for different angular velocities of a star tracker with a given configuration. In addition, the results of night sky experiments using a real star tracker agree with the simulation results. The summarized regularities in this paper should prove helpful in the system design and dynamic performance evaluation of the highly dynamic star trackers. PMID:24618776

  18. SALT tracker upgrade utilizing aerospace processes and procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Raoul; Coetzee, Chris; Strydom, Ockert; Brink, Janus; Browne, Keith; Wiid, Eben; Lochner, Wouter; Nelson, Grant; Rabe, Paul; Wilkinson, Martin; Moore, Vic; Malan, Adelaide; Love, Jonathan; Koeslag, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    The SALT Tracker was originally designed to carry a payload of approximately 1000 kg. The current loading exceeds 1300 kg and more instrumentation, for example, the Near-Infrared (NIR) arm of the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS), is being designed for the telescope. In general, provision also had to be made to expand the envelope of the tracker payload carrying capacity for future growth as some of the systems on SALT are currently running with small safety margins. It was therefore decided to upgrade the SALT Tracker to be able to carry a payload of 1875 kg. Before the project "Kick-Off" it became evident that neither SALT nor SAAO had the required standard of formal processes and procedures to execute a project of this nature. The Project Management, Mechanical Design and Review processes and procedures were adopted from the Aerospace Industry and tailored for our application. After training the project team in the application of these processes/procedures and gaining their commitment, the Tracker Upgrade Project was "Kicked-Off" in early May 2013. The application of these aerospace-derived processes and procedures, as used during the Tracker Upgrade Project, were very successful as is shown in this paper where the authors also highlight some of the details of the implemented processes and procedures as well as specific challenges that needed to be met while executing a project of this nature and technical complexity.

  19. Volatile pipe prices ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C.

    1988-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, prices for oilfield casing and tubing have shot up and down like a roller coaster. Average pipe prices went up 80 percent in the 1979-81 drilling boom. They dropped 50 percent in the 1982-83 period, only to recover 20 percent in 1984-85. The collapse of crude prices caused another 30 percent drop in 1986. Since they bottomed out in August of that year, prices have come up by 60 percent. The key question: ''What lies ahead.'' The short answer: ''Probably more of the same''. This article looks at what has caused price fluctuations of such magnitude and volatility over the past several years to assess the outlook for 1988 and beyond. The author says we are not on the brink of a severe OCTG shortage of any sort, though there may be some very localized spot shortages in terms of deliverability and price. There is likely to be some build up of tubular inventory among supply houses wary of losing regular customers to those with adequate inventories. The characteristic first-of-the-year dip in the active rig count will supplement a slight inventory building, as will an expected increase in imports. The bottomline impact for the wellsite is there is little chance for substantial price increases until the third or fourth quarter of this year. Even then, a considerable jump in utilization would be needed and most analysts are predicting the rig count to slowly rise to about the 1500-plus range for the fourth quarter.

  20. Market Depth and Price Dynamics:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhoff, Frank H.

    This note explores the consequences of nonlinear price impact functions on price dynamics within the chartist-fundamentalist framework. Price impact functions may be nonlinear with respect to trading volume. As indicated by recent empirical studies, a given transaction may cause a large (small) price change if market depth is low (high). Simulations reveal that such a relationship may create endogenous complex price fluctuations even if the trading behavior of chartists and fundamentalists is linear.

  1. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  2. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  3. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  4. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  5. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  6. Price smarter on the Net.

    PubMed

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  7. Pharmaceutical Pricing: The Use of External Reference Pricing.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Nolte, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    External reference pricing, or international price comparison, is a common strategy to control prices of pharmaceuticals that are protected by intellectual property rights and benefit from a legal monopoly (in-patent drugs). In the UK negotiations are under way that seek to define new arrangements for the pricing of branded (new) medicines from 2014. The pharmaceutical market in the UK only accounts for a small proportion of global sales; however, UK prices are important as many countries reference their prices against those in the UK. This article seeks to contribute to our understanding of approaches to pharmaceutical pricing in high-income countries and the role of reference pricing as a means to determining pharmaceutical prices. Reviewing experiences in Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, we find high variability of external reference pricing across different settings and of the relative importance of this approach in comparison with other pricing strategies. There was also considerable variation in the terminology and practices used, and understanding the complexities of countries included in reference baskets for external pricing requires considerable semantic clarification. There was considerable overlap between countries that cross-reference, and it remains challenging to estimate the direct, immediate impact on external reference baskets. This review suggests that the international impact of pricing changes in the UK is likely to be minimal or indirect, largely because of the diverse ways in which reference pricing is implemented in the countries examined.

  8. The silicon tracker detector of the AMS experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosi, G.

    1999-02-01

    The AMS experiment is devoted to the measurement of the antimatter component of cosmic rays. The experiment is based on a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer consisting of a precision tracker and time-of-flight counters, mounted on a permanent magnet providing a large bending power. The apparatus will operate in space with a preliminary version flying in May 1998 on the Space Shuttle mission STS91 and a final installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002. The design of the silicon tracker is described, illustrating features and solutions introduced to make it suitable for a space-borne experiment and for equipping the ≡1 m3 magnet bore. Some of the issues related to the construction of a large, high-precision silicon microstrip tracker are also discussed.

  9. The Reconstruction Software for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, A.; Long, K.; Santos, E.; Adey, D.; Hanlet, P.; Heidt, C.

    2014-01-01

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionization cooling, for application to a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. In order to measure the change in emittance, MICE is equipped with a pair of high precision scintillating fibre trackers. The trackers are required to measure a 10% change in emittance to 1% accuracy (giving an overall precision of 0.1%). This paper describes the tracker reconstruction software, as a part of the overall MICE software framework, MAUS. Channel clustering is described, proceeding to the formation of space-points, which are then associated with particle tracks using pattern recognition algorithms. Finally a full custom Kalman track fit is performed, to account for energy loss and multiple scattering. Exemplar results are shown for Monte Carlo data.

  10. Context Aware Programmable Trackers for the Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Pedro

    This work introduces and proposes the concept of context aware programmable trackers for the next generation Internet. The proposed solution gives ground for the development of advanced applications based on the P2P paradigm and will foster collaborative efforts among several network entities (e.g. P2P applications and ISPs). The proposed concept of context aware programmable trackers allows that several peer selection strategies might be supported by a P2P tracker entity able to improve the peer selection decisions according with pre-defined objectives and external inputs provided by specific services. The flexible, adaptive and enhanced peer selection semantics that might be achieved by the proposed solution will contribute for devising novel P2P based services and business models for the future Internet.

  11. Simulation analysis of dynamic working performance for star trackers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Juan; Zhang, Guangjun; Wei, Xinguo

    2010-12-01

    The elongated imaging track pertaining to a star spot recorded in the image sensor of a star tracker will diffuse over several pixels at a high angular velocity, leading to an inaccurate, even false, attitude value. A computer simulation of the attitude determination from a dynamic star tracker is developed first, based on a dynamic mathematical model of the star-spot imaging and an efficiency validation of the star centroiding algorithm in the dynamic condition. Then major error sources affecting the attitude accuracy in the dynamic condition are analyzed and discussed systematically based on the simulation results. A mathematical model calculating the average star number detected in the field of view is also deduced, using simulation results and signal processing theory, with image trailing ranging from 0 to 20 pixels during exposure. The summarized regularity is helpful in the system design and accuracy evaluation of a star tracker.

  12. Combinations of 148 navigation stars and the star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R.

    1980-01-01

    The angular separation of all star combinations for 148 nav star on the onboard software for space transportation system-3 flight and following missions is presented as well as the separation of each pair that satisfies the viewing constraints of using both star trackers simultaneously. Tables show (1) shuttle star catalog 1980 star position in M 1950 coordinates; (2) two star combination of 148 nav stars; and (3) summary of two star-combinations of the star tracker 5 deg filter. These 148 stars present 10,875 combinations. For the star tracker filters of plus or minus 5 deg, there are 875 combinations. Formalhaut (nav star 26) has the best number of combinations, which is 33.

  13. Upgrades of the CMS Outer Tracker for HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sguazzoni, Giacomo

    2017-02-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity to about 5 ×1034cm-2s-1 around 2028, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 in the following decade. This High Luminosity LHC scenario, HL-LHC, will require a preparation program of the LHC detectors known as Phase-2 upgrade. The current CMS Outer Tracker, already running close to its design limits, will not be able to survive HL-LHC radiation conditions and CMS will need a completely new device, in order to fully exploit the highly demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also L1 trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS Outer Tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D activities.

  14. Development and Performance Characterization of Colour Star Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVittie, Geoffrey

    Star trackers provide an essential component to a satellite mission requiring high-precision and high-accuracy attitude measurements. A star tracker operates by taking pictures of the celestial sphere and attempting to identify the stars in the image using a combination of the geometric and brightness patterns. The star-positions in the image then determine the attitude of the sensor in the inertial frame. I propose extending the capability of star trackers by including the colour properties of the stars into the star identification process; hence, colour star tracking. Current generation star trackers exist in a variety of forms, with a variety of additional potential designs and operational algorithms proposed in the literature. However, they all share the common trait of using a combination of geometric and monochrome brightness derived patterns to identify stars. Including colour information with the geometric and brightness properties into the identification process represents a new branch in the field of star tracker design. The process of measuring colour also causes a reduction in the amount of light gathered by the sensor, decreasing the number of stars observed. The challenge in colour star tracking becomes establishing that the additional information provided by colour to star patterns is greater than the loss of observable stars due to the measurement process. While superficially brief, accomplishing it touches upon a wide range of topic areas. This includes most research developed for monochromatic star trackers including imaging hardware, optics, noise rejection, parameter estimation, signal detection, data mining, pattern matching, and astronomy. Additionally, using colour necessitates introducing the topics of stellar photometry, spectral filtering, and colour imaging. The approach to colour star tracker development, presented here, considers three aspects to the operation of the technology: colour measurement, star detection, and star pattern

  15. Laser Tracker Test Facility at SLAC - Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, G.L.; Ruland, R.E.; /SLAC

    2008-02-22

    Physics experiments at SLAC require high accuracy positioning, e. g. 100 {micro}m over a distance of 150 m or 25 {micro}m in a 10 x 10 x 3 meter volume. Laser Tracker measurement systems have become one of the most important tools for achieving these accuracies when mapping components. In order to improve and get a better understanding of laser tracker measurement tolerances we extended our laboratory with a rotary calibration table (Kugler GmbH) providing an accuracy of better than 0.2 arcsec. This paper gives an overview of the calibration table and its evaluation. Results of tests on two of our Laser Trackers utilizing the new rotary table as well as the SLAC interferometer bench are presented.

  16. Inspire Me! Pupils' Views of What Inspires Them and What Constitutes an Inspiring Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Both "pupil voice" and "staff voice" can be powerful tools in developing various aspects of a school, but only if there is a strong dialogue between the two. This project used a number of different approaches--questionnaires, lesson observations and planning discussions--to investigate pupils' views of what inspires them to…

  17. A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, Heath B.; /Fermilab

    2010-04-01

    The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

  18. Bio-Inspired Odor Source Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    1 Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Bio -Inspired Odor Source Localization Bio -Inspired Odor Source Localization...2011 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bio -Inspired Odor Source Localization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Distribution Unlimited Bio -Inspired Odor Source Localization Why study odor tracking? • Engineer odor tracking systems – Gas leaks – Hazardous waste

  19. Laser tracker TSPI uncertainty quantification via centrifuge trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Edward; Paez, Thomas; Brown, Timothy; Miller, Timothy

    2009-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories currently utilizes two laser tracking systems to provide time-space-position-information (TSPI) and high speed digital imaging of test units under flight. These laser trackers have been in operation for decades under the premise of theoretical accuracies based on system design and operator estimates. Advances in optical imaging and atmospheric tracking technology have enabled opportunities to provide more precise six degree of freedom measurements from these trackers. Applying these technologies to the laser trackers requires quantified understanding of their current errors and uncertainty. It was well understood that an assortment of variables contributed to laser tracker uncertainty but the magnitude of these contributions was not quantified and documented. A series of experiments was performed at Sandia National Laboratories large centrifuge complex to quantify TSPI uncertainties of Sandia National Laboratories laser tracker III. The centrifuge was used to provide repeatable and economical test unit trajectories of a test-unit to use for TSPI comparison and uncertainty analysis. On a centrifuge, testunits undergo a known trajectory continuously with a known angular velocity. Each revolution may represent an independent test, which may be repeated many times over for magnitudes of data practical for statistical analysis. Previously these tests were performed at Sandia's rocket sled track facility but were found to be costly with challenges in the measurement ground truth TSPI. The centrifuge along with on-board measurement equipment was used to provide known ground truth position of test units. This paper discusses the experimental design and techniques used to arrive at measures of laser tracker error and uncertainty.

  20. Environmental tests of the flight GLAST LAT tracker towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; de Angelis, A.; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Goodman, J.; Himel, T.; Hirayama, M.; Johnson, R. P.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kroeger, W.; Ku, J.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lubrano, P.; Marangelli, B.; Marcucci, F.; Marchetti, M.; Massai, M. M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Minori, M.; Minuti, M.; Mirizzi, N.; Mongelli, M.; Monte, C.; Morselli, A.; Nelson, D.; Nordby, M.; Omodei, N.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Rich, D.; Scolieri, G.; Sgrò, C.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Sugizaki, M.; Takahashi, H.; Tenze, A.; Young, C.

    2008-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space telescope (GLAST) is a gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in 2008. Before the assembly of the Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of GLAST, every component (tray) and module (tower) has been subjected to extensive ground testing required to ensure successful launch and on-orbit operation. This paper describes the sequence and results of the environmental tests performed on an engineering model and all the flight hardware of the GLAST LAT Tracker. Environmental tests include vibration testing, thermal cycles and thermal-vacuum cycles of every tray and tower as well as the verification of their electrical performance.

  1. Simple electro-optically controlled dual-axis sun tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, W.A.; Salameh, Z.M. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a sun tracker which uses two electro-optic sensors and a small, low-cost electronic control circuit. One sensor is a four-cell pyramid which is mounted on the tracker plane. The second sensor is a sunlight beam sensor which is fixed facing south. The control circuit tracking resolution is within 0.1 degrees. This system minimizes wandering on partially overcast days. It will never make multiple revolutions or face down towards the ground. Power MOSFETS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors) are used to drive high-torque DC gearbox motors.

  2. Environmental testing results over a tracker drive train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, María; Calvo-Parra, Gustavo; Gil, Eduardo; de la Rubia, Oscar; Hillebrand, Mario; Rubio, Francisca; Aipperspach, Wolfgang; Gombert, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Environmental testing following the draft of the IEC62817 standard has been carried out at ISFOC using a Soitec Solar tracker drive. The objective of this work is twofold; first to assure that the tracker design can perform under varying conditions and survive under extreme conditions and secondly to test the viability and usefulness of the tests described in the standard. After some changes in the device under test (specifically, gear-box oil) the drive system produced satisfactory results, assuring its performance under operational temperatures. Therefore, this work has demonstrated that the tests described in the standard are useful for detecting early failures.

  3. Detector production for the R3B Si-tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borri, M.; Lemmon, R.; Thornhill, J.; Bate, R.; Chartier, M.; Clague, N.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Labiche, M.; Lindsay, S.; Nolan, P.; Pearce, F.; Powell, W.; Wells, D.

    2016-11-01

    R3B is a fixed target experiment which will study reactions with relativistic radioactive beams at FAIR. Its Si-tracker will surround the target volume and it will detect light charged-particles like protons. The detector technology in use consists of double-sided silicon strip sensors wire bonded to the custom made R3B-ASIC. The tracker allows for a maximum of two outer layers and one inner layer. This paper reports on the production of detectors necessary to build the minimum tracking configuration: one inner layer and one outer layer.

  4. Retroreflector field tracker. [noncontact optical position sensor for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargocki, F. E.; Ray, A. J.; Hall, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    An electrooptical position-measuring instrument, the Retroreflector Field Tracker or RFT, is described. It is part of the Dynamic Augmentation Experiment - a part of the payload of Space Shuttle flight 41-D in Summer 1984. The tracker measures and outputs the position of 23 reflective targets placed on a 32-m solar array to provide data for determination of the dynamics of the lightweight structure. The sensor uses a 256 x 256 pixel CID detector; the processor electronics include three Z-80 microprocessors. A pulsed laser diode illuminator is used.

  5. Characterization of the Ecosole HCPV tracker and single module inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpanelli, Maurizio; Borelli, Gianni; Verdilio, Daniele; De Nardis, Davide; Migali, Fabrizio; Cancro, Carmine; Graditi, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    BECAR, the Beghelli group's R&D company, is leading ECOSOLE (Elevated COncentration SOlar Energy), one of the largest European Demonstration projects in solar photovoltaic. ECOSOLE, started in 2012, is focused on the study, design, and realization of new HCPV generator made of high efficiency PV modules equipped with SoG (Silicone on Glass) fresnel lenses and III-V solar cells, and a low cost matched solar tracker with distributed inverters approach. The project also regards the study and demonstration of new high throughput methods for the industrial large scale productions, at very low manufacturing costs. This work reports the description of the characterization of the tracker and single module.

  6. Environmental Tests of the Flight GLAST LAT Tracker Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Angelis, A.De; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Goodman, J.; Himel, T.

    2008-03-12

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space telescope (GLAST) is a gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in 2008. Before the assembly of the Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of GLAST, every component (tray) and module (tower) has been subjected to extensive ground testing required to ensure successful launch and on-orbit operation. This paper describes the sequence and results of the environmental tests performed on an engineering model and all the flight hardware of the GLAST LAT Tracker. Environmental tests include vibration testing, thermal cycles and thermal-vacuum cycles of every tray and tower as well as the verification of their electrical performance.

  7. Simulations of silicon vertex tracker for star experiment at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Odyniec, G.; Cebra, D.; Christie, W.; Naudet, C.; Schroeder, L.; Wilson, W.; Liko, D.; Cramer, J.; Prindle, D.; Trainor, T.; Braithwaite, W.

    1991-12-31

    The first computer simulations to optimize the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) designed for the STAR experiment at RHIC are presented. The physics goals and the expected complexity of the events at RHIC dictate the design of a tracking system for the STAR experiment. The proposed tracking system will consist of a silicon vertex tracker (SVT) to locate the primary interaction and secondary decay vertices and to improve the momentum resolution, and a time projection chamber (TPC), positioned inside a solenoidal magnet, for continuous tracking.

  8. Design of a cost-effective laser spot tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artan, Göktuǧ Gencehan; Sari, Hüseyin

    2017-05-01

    One of the most important aspects of guided systems is detection. The most convenient detection in the sense of precision can be achieved with a laser spot tracker. This study deals with a military grade, high performance and cost-effective laser spot tracker for a guided system. The aim is to develop a high field of view system that will detect a laser spot from a distance of 3 kilometers in which the target is designated from 3 kilometers with a laser. The study basically consists of the system design, modeling, producing and the conducting performance tests of the whole system.

  9. The straw tube tracker of the P¯ANDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanza, S.; Benussi, L.; Braghieri, A.; Boca, G.; Genova, P.; Gianotti, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Lucherini, V.; Montagna, P.; Orecchini, D.; Pierluigi, D.; Ritman, J.; Roeder, M.; Rotondi, A.; Russo, A.; Wintz, P.

    2010-05-01

    P¯ANDA is a new experiment that will be installed at HESR, the new antiproton storage ring under construction as a part of the FAIR facility at Darmstadt, Germany. This experiment, that will investigate QCD in the charmonium mass regime and other aspects of particle and nuclear physics, will be a fixed target detector with a central spectrometer and a forward one. The central tracker will provide information about decay vertices, momenta and types of charged particles emitted after pp¯ annihilations. The design of the Straw Tube Tracker (STT) together with experimental results of the R&D phase are presented here.

  10. Star tracker error analysis: Roll-to-pitch nonorthogonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    An error analysis is described on an anomaly isolated in the star tracker software line of sight (LOS) rate test. The LOS rate cosine was found to be greater than one in certain cases which implied that either one or both of the star tracker measured end point unit vectors used to compute the LOS rate cosine had lengths greater than unity. The roll/pitch nonorthogonality matrix in the TNB CL module of the IMU software is examined as the source of error.

  11. The price of anarchy in basketball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Brian

    2010-03-01

    Optimizing the performance of a basketball offense may be viewed as a network problem, wherein each play represents a ``pathway'' through which the ball and players may move from origin (the in-bounds pass) to goal (the basket). Effective field goal percentages from the resulting shot attempts can be used to characterize the efficiency of each pathway. Inspired by recent discussions of the ``price of anarchy'' in traffic networks, this paper makes a formal analogy between a basketball offense and a simplified traffic network. The analysis suggests that there may be a significant difference between taking the highest-percentage shot each time down the court and playing the most efficient possible game. There may also be an analogue of Braess's Paradox in basketball, such that removing a key player from a team can result in the improvement of the team's offensive efficiency.

  12. Lyondell outage spikes prices

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-07

    Methanol spot markets in the US Gulf Coast cooled a bit late last week from their Monday spike in the wake of a pipeline rupture and fire that shut down Lyondell Petrochemical`s Channelview, TX complex and its 248-million gal/year methanol plant. The unit resumed production last week and was expected to return to full service by August 3. Offering prices shot up at least 10% over the pre-accident level of about 50 cts/gal fob. No actual business could be confirmed at a price of more than 52 cts-53 cts/gal, however.

  13. Metamaterial-inspired silicon nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staude, Isabelle; Schilling, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    The prospect of creating metamaterials with optical properties greatly exceeding the parameter space accessible with natural materials has been inspiring intense research efforts in nanophotonics for more than a decade. Following an era of plasmonic metamaterials, low-loss dielectric nanostructures have recently moved into the focus of metamaterial-related research. This development was mainly triggered by the experimental observation of electric and magnetic multipolar Mie-type resonances in high-refractive-index dielectric nanoparticles. Silicon in particular has emerged as a popular material choice, due to not only its high refractive index and very low absorption losses in the telecom spectral range, but also its paramount technological relevance. This Review overviews recent progress on metamaterial-inspired silicon nanostructures, including Mie-resonant and off-resonant regimes.

  14. Binary Inspiral in Quadratic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Quadratic gravity is a general class of quantum-gravity-inspired theories, where the Einstein-Hilbert action is extended through the addition of all terms quadratic in the curvature tensor coupled to a scalar field. In this article, we focus on the scalar Gauss- Bonnet (sGB) theory and consider the black hole binary inspiral in this theory. By applying the post-Newtonian (PN) formalism, we found that there is a scalar dipole radiation which leads to -1PN correction in the energy flux relative to gravitational radiation in general relativity. From the orbital decay rate of a low-mass X-ray binary A0600-20, we obtain the bound that is six orders of magnitude stronger than the current solar system bound. Furthermore, we show that the excess in the orbital decay rate of XTE J1118+480 can be explained by the scalar radiation in sGB theory.

  15. Inspiring a STEMester of Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abravanel, Susan; Guy, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    For the past two years, eighth graders at Lincoln Middle School have been participating in the STEMester of Service program, which uses the science, math, and language arts curricula to help students improve the environment. More than 70% of Lincoln students receive free and reduced-price lunch, and the school is diverse because it hosts the…

  16. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price or...

  17. Anomalous Aspects of Pricing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanikoski, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses six propositions concerning higher education contradicting prevailing pricing wisdom: high demand rarely drives prices up; market share increases rarely drive prices down; competition drives prices up; tuition prices are only loosely tied to delivery costs; student tuition is only loosely tied to price; and high tuition prices do not…

  18. Pricing and Marketing Online Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Sheila Anne Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the pricing of online information in the broader context of marketing. Highlights include changes in the marketing context and issues of value relating to price; other reviews of online pricing; trends affecting price, including public sector involvement and the Internet; promotional pricing; price discrimination; and price aggregation…

  19. Pricing and Marketing Online Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Sheila Anne Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the pricing of online information in the broader context of marketing. Highlights include changes in the marketing context and issues of value relating to price; other reviews of online pricing; trends affecting price, including public sector involvement and the Internet; promotional pricing; price discrimination; and price aggregation…

  20. Social insects inspire human design

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design. PMID:20392721

  1. Fairness and dynamic pricing: comments

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-07-15

    In ''The Ethics of Dynamic Pricing,'' Ahmad Faruqui lays out a case for improved efficiency in using dynamic prices for retail electricity tariffs and addresses various issues about the distributional effects of alternative pricing mechanisms. The principal contrast is between flat or nearly constant energy prices and time-varying prices that reflect more closely the marginal costs of energy and capacity. The related issues of fairness criteria, contracts, risk allocation, cost allocation, means testing, real-time pricing, and ethical policies of electricity market design also must be considered. (author)

  2. Biologically inspired dynamic material systems.

    PubMed

    Studart, André R

    2015-03-09

    Numerous examples of material systems that dynamically interact with and adapt to the surrounding environment are found in nature, from hair-based mechanoreceptors in animals to self-shaping seed dispersal units in plants to remodeling bone in vertebrates. Inspired by such fascinating biological structures, a wide range of synthetic material systems have been created to replicate the design concepts of dynamic natural architectures. Examples of biological structures and their man-made counterparts are herein revisited to illustrate how dynamic and adaptive responses emerge from the intimate microscale combination of building blocks with intrinsic nanoscale properties. By using top-down photolithographic methods and bottom-up assembly approaches, biologically inspired dynamic material systems have been created 1) to sense liquid flow with hair-inspired microelectromechanical systems, 2) to autonomously change shape by utilizing plantlike heterogeneous architectures, 3) to homeostatically influence the surrounding environment through self-regulating adaptive surfaces, and 4) to spatially concentrate chemical species by using synthetic microcompartments. The ever-increasing complexity and remarkable functionalities of such synthetic systems offer an encouraging perspective to the rich set of dynamic and adaptive properties that can potentially be implemented in future man-made material systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. 130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Fortyseven acre Julian Price Lake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Forty-seven acre Julian Price Lake created by an impoundment. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  4. Using "Tracker" to Prove the Simple Harmonic Motion Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, John

    2016-01-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; "Tracker", we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  5. Using "Tracker" to Prove the Simple Harmonic Motion Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, John

    2016-01-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; "Tracker", we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  6. Using Tracker to prove the simple harmonic motion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinchin, John

    2016-09-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; Tracker, we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  7. Using Tracker as a Pedagogical Tool for Understanding Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Chew, Charles; Goh, Giam Hwee; Tan, Samuel; Lee, Tat Leong

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the use of Tracker as a pedagogical tool in the effective learning and teaching of projectile motion in physics. When a computer model building learning process is supported and driven by video analysis data, this free Open Source Physics tool can provide opportunities for students to engage in active enquiry-based…

  8. Star tracker operation in a high density proton field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miklus, Kenneth J.; Kissh, Frank; Flynn, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Algorithms that reject transient signals due to proton effects on charge coupled device (CCD) sensors have been implemented in the HDOS ASTRA-l Star Trackers to be flown on the TOPEX mission scheduled for launch in July 1992. A unique technique for simulating a proton-rich environment to test trackers is described, as well as the test results obtained. Solar flares or an orbit that passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly can subject the vehicle to very high proton flux levels. There are three ways in which spurious proton generated signals can impact tracker performance: the many false signals can prevent or extend the time to acquire a star; a proton-generated signal can compromise the accuracy of the star's reported magnitude and position; and the tracked star can be lost, requiring reacquisition. Tests simulating a proton-rich environment were performed on two ASTRA-1 Star Trackers utilizing these new algorithms. There were no false acquisitions, no lost stars, and a significant reduction in reported position errors due to these improvements.

  9. The CDF II eXtremely fast tracker upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Ohio State U. /Baylor U. /UC, Davis /Athens Natl. Capodistrian U. /Purdue U. /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    The CDF II Extremely Fast Tracker is the trigger track processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the CDF II central outer tracking chamber. The system is now being upgraded to perform a three dimensional track reconstruction. A review of the upgrade is presented here.

  10. Radiation-hard breadboard star tracker. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, M.W.; Murata, D.L.

    1985-09-01

    Operation in a radiation environment affects the performance of many types of electro-optical sensors. Specifically, noise generated from radiation in the detector and front-end electronics in star trackers can degrade the performance of the sensors. Upsets in the related processing electronics can cause loss of track, data interruptions, and in some cases, failure to recover. Degradation of performance can occur in a natural charged-particle environment and becomes worse in a weapon-enhanced radiation environment. High total dose results in component and, in turn, system failure to operate. The objectives of this program, which was conducted by Ball Aerospace Systems Division (BASD) for the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), were to develop a tracker that could survive a high total dose and to gain a better understanding of the transient effects of radiation on the star tracker performance. Survivability of the star tracker in a radiation environment, both at the component level and at the system level, is of primary importance.

  11. B-jet tagging using the GEM central tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The efficiency for tagging b-jets with the full GEM central tracker has been determined using a GEANT simulation to be approximately 35% for b-jets with p{sub T} > 50 GeV/c while the fraction of other quark jets that are misidentified as b-jets is on the order of 1--3%.

  12. Highly integrated near-to-eye display and gaze tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvenpää, Toni; Äyräs, Pekka

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a Near-to-Eye Display (NED) technology based on diffractive optics. Thin and highly transparent plastic light guides enable a light-weight and ergonomic see-through NED design. We have previously reported of a compact NED with an integrated gaze tracker. Eye gaze tracker can detect the user's focus point in the displayed image. We have now made advances to further increase the level of integration as well as to enable the optical see-through. Originally, three separate light guides were used: two for the display (red, green/blue) and one for infrared light of the gaze tracker. To reduce weight and the system complexity, a shared light guide is now used for transmitting red (~630 nm, display) and infrared (~850 nm, gaze tracker) wavelengths. In addition, shared output gratings are used for outcoupling the light. Light guide plates have been characterized by measuring their modulation transfer functions. Measurements show that the deterioration of the NED's resolution, caused by the light guides, is reduced with improved manufacturing techniques. Also, it has been verified that the additional gratings for infrared (light in-coupling and expansion areas) do not have a notable effect on the display resolution.

  13. Using Tracker as a Pedagogical Tool for Understanding Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Chew, Charles; Goh, Giam Hwee; Tan, Samuel; Lee, Tat Leong

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the use of Tracker as a pedagogical tool in the effective learning and teaching of projectile motion in physics. When a computer model building learning process is supported and driven by video analysis data, this free Open Source Physics tool can provide opportunities for students to engage in active enquiry-based…

  14. Price transparency: building community trust.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    With the push from policymakers, payers, and consumers for hospitals to make their prices public, healthcare executives need to recognize two central issues related to price transparency: 1) meaningful price transparency involves helping patients and consumers understand their financial obligation for an episode of care, and 2) price transparency is key to the most critical success strategy for healthcare providers: building trust. This article reviews the history of pricing and billing practices and explores why price transparency is not easily achieved in today's environment. Pricing is a mystery even to those of us who work in the field, yet despite its complexity, the call for price transparency is not going to go away. For transparency, the goal should be to establish a rational pricing system that is easily explainable and justified to all stakeholders. Healthcare executives must make pricing a priority, understand cost, develop a pricing philosophy, understand the overall revenue requirements, examine market conditions and prices, and set up systems for review. A rational process of price setting should enhance community trust. In this matter there is nothing less at stake than the hearts of our community members.

  15. The Price Is Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    There's something about textbook prices that generates outrage in ways that other college expenses, such as housing and technology fees, don't. Maybe it's the shock felt by new students when faced with a $900 bill after getting their textbooks for free in K-12. Maybe it's the awful realization that $40,000 in tuition and board doesn't even cover…

  16. What Price Online Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganzel, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties involved with pricing an online training course. Looks at such issues as the size of the marketplace, the ability to use the same course many times, the switch from time-centered to content-centered courses, the amount of time needed to complete a specific course, and the need for multimedia training materials. (JOW)

  17. 2050: A Pricing Odyssey

    SciTech Connect

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2006-10-15

    The author uses the Rip Van Winkle approach favored by marketers to gaze, clear-eyed, into the future - say, the year 2050 - to visualize alternative demand-response possibilities. Dare we go California Dreamin' of a distant utopia - or is it inevitable that pricing myopia will keep us from attaining the fulfillment of many of our career goals? (author)

  18. Pricing Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, James

    1995-01-01

    Improvements in technology have increased the social and economic value of government information. This increase, combined with changes in information storage and dissemination cost, contributes to controversy over how government information should be disseminated and priced. Discussion includes economic concepts, rules and algorithms used by…

  19. Costing and pricing.

    PubMed

    Jones, T

    1993-01-01

    With spreadsheets at the ready, accountants in the NHS are waiting to apply the uniform costing methodology emerging from the National Steering Group on Costing. Before the money-number-crunchers hijack its eventual final report Costing for contracts, general managers need to work out the implications for their role in pricing services and contracts.

  20. The Price Is Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    There's something about textbook prices that generates outrage in ways that other college expenses, such as housing and technology fees, don't. Maybe it's the shock felt by new students when faced with a $900 bill after getting their textbooks for free in K-12. Maybe it's the awful realization that $40,000 in tuition and board doesn't even cover…

  1. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1975 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    Higher Education price in index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1975 are presented. The supplement is published yearly shortly after the fiscal year to which the latest data refer, and the index values refer to the entire year, not any specific month of the year. The basic study, "Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes," presents complete…

  2. Option pricing: Stock price, stock velocity and the acceleration Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Bhanap, Jitendra

    2014-12-01

    The industry standard Black-Scholes option pricing formula is based on the current value of the underlying security and other fixed parameters of the model. The Black-Scholes formula, with a fixed volatility, cannot match the market's option price; instead, it has come to be used as a formula for generating the option price, once the so called implied volatility of the option is provided as additional input. The implied volatility not only is an entire surface, depending on the strike price and maturity of the option, but also depends on calendar time, changing from day to day. The point of view adopted in this paper is that the instantaneous rate of return of the security carries part of the information that is provided by implied volatility, and with a few (time-independent) parameters required for a complete pricing formula. An option pricing formula is developed that is based on knowing the value of both the current price and rate of return of the underlying security which in physics is called velocity. Using an acceleration Lagrangian model based on the formalism of quantum mathematics, we derive the pricing formula for European call options. The implied volatility of the market can be generated by our pricing formula. Our option price is applied to foreign exchange rates and equities and the accuracy is compared with Black-Scholes pricing formula and with the market price.

  3. Opportunity Science Using the Juno Magnetometer Investigation Star Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joergensen, J. L.; Connerney, J. E.; Bang, A. M.; Denver, T.; Oliversen, R. J.; Benn, M.; Lawton, P.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetometer experiment onboard Juno is equipped with four non-magnetic star tracker camera heads, two of which reside on each of the magnetometer sensor optical benches. These are located 10 and 12 m from the spacecraft body at the end of one of the three solar panel wings. The star tracker, collectively referred to as the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), provides high accuracy attitude information for the magnetometer sensors throughout science operations. The star tracker camera heads are pointed +/- 13 deg off the spin vector, in the anti-sun direction, imaging a 13 x 20 deg field of view every ¼ second as Juno rotates at 1 or 2 rpm. The ASC is a fully autonomous star tracker, producing a time series of attitude quaternions for each camera head, utilizing a suite of internal support functions. These include imaging capabilities, autonomous object tracking, automatic dark-sky monitoring, and related capabilities; these internal functions may be accessed via telecommand. During Juno's cruise phase, this capability can be tapped to provide unique science and engineering data available along the Juno trajectory. We present a few examples of the JUNO ASC opportunity science here. As the Juno spacecraft approached the Earth-Moon system for the close encounter with the Earth on October 9, 2013, one of the ASC camera heads obtained imagery of the Earth-Moon system while the other three remained in full science (attitude determination) operation. This enabled the first movie of the Earth and Moon obtained by a spacecraft flying past the Earth in gravity assist. We also use the many artificial satellites in orbit about the Earth as calibration targets for the autonomous asteroid detection system inherent to the ASC autonomous star tracker. We shall also profile the zodiacal dust disk, using the interstellar image data, and present the outlook for small asteroid body detection and distribution being performed during Juno's passage from Earth flyby to Jovian orbit

  4. Oil prices and world inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, R.G.; Kelly, N.

    1983-06-01

    This paper addresses the nature of the causal relationships between oil prices and US inflation using a procedure developed by Granger to assess causality or, more precisely stated, informativeness. The results confirm that higher oil prices have increased the US wholesale price index (WPI). The results also support OPEC's contention that their price increases have, in part, been a result of worldwide inflation. 9 references, 2 tables.

  5. Developing a consumer pricing strategy.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Arthur; Tiedemann, Frank

    2013-05-01

    Healthcare providers can learn a variety of pricing lessons from the retail market: For providers, wholesale pricing--"the price to play"--alone is not enough. Once a hospital or health system chooses a market position, the provider creates an expectation that must be met-consistently. Consumer loyalty is fluid, and the price of care or service is not always the motivator for choosing one organization over another; intangibles such as location and level of customer service also drive purchasing decisions.

  6. Fuel Price Effects on Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    beginning of FY 2005. Note that the surplus/ deficit measure ignores the effects of OSD price change mitigation activity as well as any supplemental... Deficit 15 use of fuel will have to be curtailed. Because the price difference has usually resulted in a liability, and because assets are not...the budgeted price, and plus signs represent prices that were lower, referring to whether they caused a deficit or surplus for the Services. Only in

  7. Pricing of GPO Sales Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzkopf, LeRoy C.

    This report analyzes the pricing policy of the Government Printing Office (GPO) for publications sold to the public. It discusses the sharp rise in prices for GPO sales publications from November 1972 through 1975. This is a detailed report which expands on the summary report prepared by the author as chairman of the Pricing Subcommittee, GPO…

  8. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  9. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  10. Personal Computer Price and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1993-01-01

    Discusses personal computer price trends since 1986; describes offerings and prices for four direct-market suppliers, i.e., Dell CompuAdd, PC Brand, and Gateway 2000; and discusses overall value and price/performance ratios. Tables and graphs chart value over time. (EA)

  11. China, India demand cushions prices

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, M.

    2006-11-15

    Despite the hopes of coal consumers, coal prices did not plummet in 2006 as demand stayed firm. China and India's growing economies, coupled with solid supply-demand fundamentals in North America and Europe, and highly volatile prices for alternatives are likely to keep physical coal prices from wide swings in the coming year.

  12. Personal Computer Price and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1993-01-01

    Discusses personal computer price trends since 1986; describes offerings and prices for four direct-market suppliers, i.e., Dell CompuAdd, PC Brand, and Gateway 2000; and discusses overall value and price/performance ratios. Tables and graphs chart value over time. (EA)

  13. The Pricing of Economics Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laband, David; Hudson, John

    2003-01-01

    Examines the pricing and other characteristics of books. Notes substantial increases in book prices between 2000 and 1985 data. Suggests a major factor is the increasing importance of foreign presses that sell books at higher prices. Indicates that discount on paperbacks appear to have been relatively stable in the two years studied. (JEH)

  14. Long-range active retroreflector to measure the rotational orientation in conjunction with a laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofherr, O.; Wachten, Christian; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2014-11-01

    High precision optical non-contact position measurement is a key technology in modern engineering. Laser trackers (LT) accurately determine x-y-z coordinates of passive retroreflectors. Next-generation systems answer the need to measure an object`s rotational orientation (pitch, yaw, roll). So far, these devices are based either on photogrammetry or on enhanced retroreflectors. Here we present a new method to measure all six degrees of freedom in conjunction with a LT. The basic principle is to analyze the orientation to the LT's beam path by coupling-out laser radiation. The optical design is inspired by a cat's eye retroreflector equipped with an integrated beam splitter layer. The optical spherical aberration is compensated, which reduces the divergence angle for the reflected beam by one order of magnitude compared to an uncompensated standard system of the same size. The wave front distortion is reduced to less than 0.1 λ @ 633 nm for beam diameters up to 8 mm. Our active retroreflector is suitable for long-range measurements for a distance > 10 m.

  15. Active retroreflector to measure the rotational orientation in conjunction with a laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofherr, O.; Wachten, C.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2012-10-01

    High precision optical non-contact position measurement is a key technology in modern engineering. Laser trackers (LT) can determine accurately x-y-z coordinates of passive retroreflectors. Next-generation systems answer the additional need to measure an object's rotational orientation (pitch, yaw, roll). These devices are based on photogrammetry or on enhanced retroreflectors. However, photogrammetry relies on camera systems and time-consuming image processing. Enhanced retroreflectors analyze the LT's beam but are restricted in roll angle measurements. Here we present an integrated laser based method to evaluate all six degrees of freedom. An active retroreflector directly analyzes its orientation to the LT's beam path by outcoupling laser light on detectors. A proof of concept prototype has been designed with a specified measuring range of 360° for roll angle measurements and +/-15° for pitch and yaw angle respectively. The prototype's optical design is inspired by a cat's eye retroreflector. First results are promising and further improvements are under development. We anticipate our method to facilitate simple and cost-effective six degrees of freedom measurements. Furthermore, for industrial applications wide customizations are possible, e.g. adaptation of measuring range, optimization of accuracy, and further system miniaturization.

  16. Patients' views on price shopping and price transparency.

    PubMed

    Semigran, Hannah L; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Sinaiko, Anna D; Cowling, David; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the growth of high deductibles and price transparency initiatives, patients are being encouraged to search for prices before seeking care, yet few do so. To understand why this is the case, we interviewed individuals who were offered access to a widely used price transparency website through their employer. Qualitative interviews. We interviewed individuals enrolled in a preferred provider organization product through their health plan about their experience using the price transparency tool (if they had done so), their past medical experiences, and their opinions on shopping for care. All interviews were transcribed and manually coded using a thematic coding guide. In general, respondents expressed frustration with healthcare costs and had a positive opinion of the idea of price shopping in theory, but 2 sets of barriers limited their ability to do so in reality. The first was the salience of searching for price information. For example, respondents recognized that due to their health plan benefits design, they would not save money by switching to a lower-cost provider. Second, other factors were more important than price for respondents when choosing a provider, including quality and loyalty to current providers. We found a disconnect between respondents' enthusiasm for price shopping and their reported use of a price transparency tool to shop for care. However, many did find the tool useful for other purposes, including checking their claims history. Addressing the barriers to price shopping identified by respondents can help inform ongoing and future price transparency initiatives.

  17. Monthly stumpage prices for the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Haynes

    1991-01-01

    Seasonal variation is found in monthly stumpage price data. Seasonal adjustments indicate that monthly adjustments improve the utility of estimates of monthly stumpage prices. Comparisons of adjusted and unadjusted prices suggest that the unadjusted price series are reasonably robust.

  18. Neuroscience-Inspired Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Summerfield, Christopher; Botvinick, Matthew

    2017-07-19

    The fields of neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI) have a long and intertwined history. In more recent times, however, communication and collaboration between the two fields has become less commonplace. In this article, we argue that better understanding biological brains could play a vital role in building intelligent machines. We survey historical interactions between the AI and neuroscience fields and emphasize current advances in AI that have been inspired by the study of neural computation in humans and other animals. We conclude by highlighting shared themes that may be key for advancing future research in both fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Space as an inspiring context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancu, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Using space as context to inspire science education tapps into the excitement of generations of discovering the unknown resulting in unprecedented public participation. Educators are finding exciting and age appropiate materials for their class that explore science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Possible misconceptions are highlighted so that teachers may plan lessons to facilitate correct conceptual understanding. With a range of hands-on learning experiences, Web materials and online ,opportunities for students, educators are invited to take a closer look to actual science missions. This session leverages resources, materials and expertise to address a wide range of traditional and nontraditional audiences while providing consistent messages and information on various space agencies programs.

  20. Natural photonics for industrial inspiration.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew R

    2009-05-13

    There are two considerations for optical biomimetics: the diversity of submicrometre architectures found in the natural world, and the industrial manufacture of these. A review exists on the latter subject, where current engineering methods are considered along with those of the natural cells. Here, on the other hand, I will provide a modern review of the different categories of reflectors and antireflectors found in animals, including their optical characterization. The purpose of this is to inspire designers within the $2 billion annual optics industry.

  1. Cost Validation Using PRICE H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John; Kwan, Eric; Wood, Milana

    2011-01-01

    PRICE H was introduced into the JPL cost estimation tool set circa 2003. It became more available at JPL when IPAO funded the NASA-wide site license for all NASA centers. PRICE H was mainly used as one of the cost tools to validate proposal grassroots cost estimates. Program offices at JPL view PRICE H as an additional crosscheck to Team X (JPL Concurrent Engineering Design Center) estimates. PRICE H became widely accepted ca, 2007 at JPL when the program offices moved away from grassroots cost estimation for Step 1 proposals. PRICE H is now one of the key cost tools used for cost validation, cost trades, and independent cost estimates.

  2. Cost Validation Using PRICE H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John; Kwan, Eric; Wood, Milana

    2011-01-01

    PRICE H was introduced into the JPL cost estimation tool set circa 2003. It became more available at JPL when IPAO funded the NASA-wide site license for all NASA centers. PRICE H was mainly used as one of the cost tools to validate proposal grassroots cost estimates. Program offices at JPL view PRICE H as an additional crosscheck to Team X (JPL Concurrent Engineering Design Center) estimates. PRICE H became widely accepted ca, 2007 at JPL when the program offices moved away from grassroots cost estimation for Step 1 proposals. PRICE H is now one of the key cost tools used for cost validation, cost trades, and independent cost estimates.

  3. Cost and Price Collaboration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    and individual relationships. This paper examines the state of current collaboration between price and cost analysts in four Army ground vehicle...detailed costs for labor, material, and overhead, but the CSDRs also provide costs by a standardized detailed work breakdown structure. Currently , this...information in addition to the PNMs that supported their cost and budgeting efforts. Current Contractor Rates enabled the estimation of current

  4. Uranium price forecasting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, D.M.

    1994-03-01

    This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again.

  5. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  6. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  7. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  8. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  9. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Class Prices § 1000.53 Announcement of class prices... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices (as applicable to...

  10. High voltage multiplexing for the ATLAS Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, E. G.; Phillips, P.; Matheson, J.; Lynn, D.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Gregor, I.; Bessner, M.; Tackmann, K.; Newcomer, F. M.; Spencer, E.; Greenall, A.

    2014-01-01

    The increased luminosity of the HL-LHC will require more channels in the upgraded ATLAS Tracker, as a result of the finer detector segmentation, stemming from the otherwise too high occupancy. Among the many technological challenges facing the ATLAS Tracker Upgrade there is more an efficient power distribution and HV biasing of the sensors. The solution adopted in the current ATLAS detector uses one HV conductor for each sensor, which makes it easy to disable malfunctioning sensors without affecting the others, but space constraints and material budget considerations renders this approach impractical for the Upgraded detector. A number of approaches, including the use of the same HV line to bias several sensors and suitable HV switches, along with their control circuitry, are currently being investigated for this purpose. The proposed solutions along with latest test results and measurements will be described.

  11. Tracker: Image-Processing and Object-Tracking System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Theodore W.

    1999-01-01

    Tracker is an object-tracking and image-processing program designed and developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to help with the analysis of images generated by microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments. Experiments are often recorded on film or videotape for analysis later. Tracker automates the process of examining each frame of the recorded experiment, performing image-processing operations to bring out the desired detail, and recording the positions of the objects of interest. It can load sequences of images from disk files or acquire images (via a frame grabber) from film transports, videotape, laser disks, or a live camera. Tracker controls the image source to automatically advance to the next frame. It can employ a large array of image-processing operations to enhance the detail of the acquired images and can analyze an arbitrarily large number of objects simultaneously. Several different tracking algorithms are available, including conventional threshold and correlation-based techniques, and more esoteric procedures such as "snake" tracking and automated recognition of character data in the image. The Tracker software was written to be operated by researchers, thus every attempt was made to make the software as user friendly and self-explanatory as possible. Tracker is used by most of the microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments performed by Lewis, and by visiting researchers. This includes experiments performed on the space shuttles, Mir, sounding rockets, zero-g research airplanes, drop towers, and ground-based laboratories. This software automates the analysis of the flame or liquid s physical parameters such as position, velocity, acceleration, size, shape, intensity characteristics, color, and centroid, as well as a number of other measurements. It can perform these operations on multiple objects simultaneously. Another key feature of Tracker is that it performs optical character recognition (OCR). This feature is useful in

  12. Visual tracker using sequential bayesian learning: discriminative, generative, and hybrid.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yun; Ding, Xiaoqing; Wang, Shengjin

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel solution to track a visual object under changes in illumination, viewpoint, pose, scale, and occlusion. Under the framework of sequential Bayesian learning, we first develop a discriminative model-based tracker with a fast relevance vector machine algorithm, and then, a generative model-based tracker with a novel sequential Gaussian mixture model algorithm. Finally, we present a three-level hierarchy to investigate different schemes to combine the discriminative and generative models for tracking. The presented hierarchical model combination contains the learner combination (at level one), classifier combination (at level two), and decision combination (at level three). The experimental results with quantitative comparisons performed on many realistic video sequences show that the proposed adaptive combination of discriminative and generative models achieves the best overall performance. Qualitative comparison with some state-of-the-art methods demonstrates the effectiveness and efficiency of our method in handling various challenges during tracking.

  13. VERSATILE TWO-AXIS OPEN-LOOP SOLAR TRACKER CONTROLLER*

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Christina D; Maxey, L Curt; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen; Lapsa, Melissa Voss

    2008-01-01

    A versatile single-board controller for two-axis solar tracking applications has been developed and tested on operating solar tracking systems with over two years of field experience. The operating experience gained from the two systems and associated modifications are discussed as representative examples of the practical issues associated with implementing a new two-axis solar tracker design. In this research, open and closed loop control methods were evaluated; however, only the open loop method met the 0.125 tracking accuracy requirement and the requirement to maintain pointing accuracy in hazy and scattered cloudy skies. The open loop algorithm was finally implemented in a microcontroller-based tracking system. Methods of applying this controller hardware to different tracker geometries and hardware are discussed along with the experience gained to date.

  14. Performance of the CDF Online Silicon Vertex Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    R. Carosi et al.

    2002-03-27

    The Online Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) is the new trigger processor dedicated to the 2-D reconstruction of charged particle trajectories at the Level 2 of the CDF trigger. The SVT links the digitized pulse heights found within the Silicon Vertex detector to the tracks reconstructed in the Central Outer Tracker by the Level 1 fast track finder. Preliminary tests of the system took place during the October 2000 commissioning run of the Tevatron Collider. During the April-October 2001 data taking it was possible to evaluate the performance of the system. In this paper we review the tracking algorithms implemented in the SVT and we report on the performance achieved during the early phase of run II.

  15. Star spot location estimation using Kalman filter for star tracker.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jian-kun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Tan, Ji-chun; Li, Xiu-jian

    2011-04-20

    Star pattern recognition and attitude determination accuracy is highly dependent on star spot location accuracy for the star tracker. A star spot location estimation approach with the Kalman filter for a star tracker has been proposed, which consists of three steps. In the proposed approach, the approximate locations of the star spots in successive frames are predicted first; then the measurement star spot locations are achieved by defining a series of small windows around each predictive star spot location. Finally, the star spot locations are updated by the designed Kalman filter. To confirm the proposed star spot location estimation approach, the simulations based on the orbit data of the CHAMP satellite and the real guide star catalog are performed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can filter out noises from the measurements remarkably if the sampling frequency is sufficient.

  16. Optical trades for evolving a small arcsecond star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzamba, T.; Enright, J.

    We present a series of system performance models for nanosatellite star trackers. Many Earth-observing missions rely on spacecraft body motion to track ground targets. These operational scenarios lead to requirements for arc-second-accuracy attitude estimates during body motion at rates of up to 1 deg/s. Achieving these performance targets with a small sensor presents a challenge. We develop models to predict sensor availability and accuracy in terms of a number of optical design parameters. Starting from the baseline optical design of the Sinclair Interplanetary ST-16, we explore strategies for improving the sensor accuracy. We highlight distinctive features of the trade-space relative to more conventional star tracker design. Our discussions include an overview of system-level trends and an analysis of promising point designs. Results from these trades are valuable for prioritizing further development.

  17. The KLOE-2 Inner Tracker: Detector commissioning and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balla, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Branchini, P.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwinski, E.; De Lucia, E.; Cicco, A.; Di Domenici, D.; Felici, G.; Morello, G.

    2017-02-01

    The KLOE-2 experiment started its data taking campaign in November 2014 with an upgraded tracking system including an Inner Tracker built with the cylindrical GEM technology, to operate together with the Drift Chamber improving the apparatus tracking performance. The Inner Tracker is composed of four cylindrical triple-GEM, each provided with an X-V strips-pads stereo readout and equipped with the GASTONE ASIC developed inside the KLOE-2 collaboration. Although GEM detectors are already used in high energy physics experiment, this device is considered a frontier detector due to its cylindrical geometry: KLOE-2 is the first experiment to use this novel solution. The results of the detector commissioning, detection efficiency evaluation, calibration studies and alignment, both with dedicated cosmic-ray muon and Bhabha scattering events, will be reported.

  18. The reconstruction software for the MICE scintillating fibre trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, A.; Hunt, C.; Long, K.; Santos, E.; Uchida, M. A.; Kyberd, P.; Heidt, C.; Blot, S.; Overton, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate the principle of muon beam phase-space reduction via ionization cooling. Muon beam cooling will be required for the proposed Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. The phase-space before and after the cooling cell must be measured precisely. This is achieved using two scintillating-fibre trackers, each placed in a solenoidal magnetic field. This paper describes the software reconstruction for the fibre trackers: the GEANT4 based simulation; the implementation of the geometry; digitisation; space-point reconstruction; pattern recognition; and the final track fit based on a Kalman filter. The performance of the software is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo studies and the precision of the final track reconstruction is evaluated.

  19. The CHORUS honeycomb tracker and its bitstream electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uiterwijk, J. W. E.; van Beuzekom, M. G.; van Dantzig, R.; van der Graaf, H.; de Jong, M.; Kok, J. W.; Konijn, J.; Litmaath, M. F.; Metselaar, J. P. M.; Oldeman, R. G. C.; Panman, J.; van der Poel, C. J. A. F.; Visschers, J. L.

    1998-02-01

    The CHORUS experiment searches for ν μ↔ν τ oscillation. To aid in the momentum reconstruction of charged hadrons, a honeycomb tracker was built with three orientations of six planes each. The planes are manufactured by point-welding together two precision folded conductive polycarbonate foils, forming hexagonal tubes with 30 μm thick anode wires in the center. The honeycomb tracker in CHORUS is read out using a bitstream principle. The amplified signal of each wire is binary sampled every 5 ns and stored in a 256 bit circular buffer, implemented in dual-port memories. This technique allows a full reconstruction of a 1.28 μs history of each wire. Eighteen cards, each handling 72 wires, are read out over a single flat cable using a card-to-card pipeline.

  20. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-04-13

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  1. The iMPACT project tracker and calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiazzo, S.; Bisello, D.; Giubilato, P.; Pantano, D.; Pozzobon, N.; Snoeys, W.

    2017-02-01

    In recent years the use of hadrons for cancer radiation treatment has grown in importance, and many facilities are currently operational or under construction worldwide. To fully exploit the therapeutic advantages offered by hadron therapy, precise body imaging for accurate beam delivery is decisive. While traditional X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) fails in providing 3D images with the precision required for hadrons treatment guidance, Proton Computer Tomography (pCT) scanners, currently in their R&D phase, can. A pCT scanner consists of a tracker system, to track protons, and of a calorimeter, to measure their residual energy. In this paper we will present the iMPACT project, which foresees a novel proton tracking detector with higher scanning speed, better spatial resolution and lower material budget with respect to present state-of-the-art detectors, leading to enhanced performances. The tracker will be matched to a fast, highly segmented proton range calorimeter.

  2. The price they paid

    PubMed Central

    York, Eugene P.; Brown, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Background Several individuals integral to the development of evidence-based medicine endured hardship for their efforts and beliefs. Case presentation We present the history of three individuals who were integral to the formation of evidence-based medicine. All three individuals suffered as a result of resistance to change from colleagues as well as from within the profession. Conclusion Individual and professional collegiality in the face of change should be maintained. The efforts of our predecessors are honored and provide us with inspiration. PMID:25656676

  3. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  4. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices. PMID:24429767

  5. Trading network predicts stock price.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  6. ASTROS - A sub-arcsec CCD star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, R. H.; Alexander, J. W.; Dennison, E. W.; Glavich, T. A.; Salomon, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design and application of ASTROS (Advanced Star and Target Reference Optical Sensor) are described, with emphasis on performance test results acquired with a prototype system. The ASTROS tracker provides extremely precise measurements of star image coordinates as inputs to the Image Motion Compensation (IMC) system used to stabilize the science instrument focal planes. Performance levels achieved are dramatic improvements over the levels achieved with image dissector designs with comparable fields of view.

  7. A new silicon tracker for proton imaging and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J T; Waltham, C; Price, T; Allinson, N M; Allport, P P; Casse, G L; Kacperek, A; Manger, S; Smith, N A; Tsurin, I

    2016-09-21

    For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today. The Proton Radiotherapy, Verification and Dosimetry Applications (PRaVDA) consortium are developing instrumentation for particle therapy based upon technology from high-energy physics. The characteristics of a new silicon micro-strip tracker for particle therapy will be presented. The array uses specifically designed, large area sensors with technology choices that follow closely those taken for the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC. These detectors will be arranged into four units each with three layers in an x-u-v configuration to be suitable for fast proton tracking with minimal ambiguities. The sensors will form a tracker capable of tracing the path of ~200 MeV protons entering and exiting a patient allowing a new mode of imaging known as proton computed tomography (pCT). This will aid the accurate delivery of treatment doses and in addition, the tracker will also be used to monitor the beam profile and total dose delivered during the high fluences used for treatment. We present here details of the design, construction and assembly of one of the four units that will make up the complete tracker along with its characterisation using radiation tests carried out using a (90)Sr source in the laboratory and a 60 MeV proton beam at the Clatterbridge Cancer Centre.

  8. Resonance interaction in LBNE fine-grained-tracker near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Duyang, Hongyue; Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib R.

    2015-10-15

    This talk is devoted to resonance interaction (RES) in the proposed fine-grained tracker detector (FGT) for LBNE experiment. We use fast MC to study the sensitivity of FGT to RES, and use this measurement as a handle to constrain nuclear effects. Similar analysis is performed on NOMAD data for validation and better understanding. Preliminary RES measurement result using NOMAD data will be reported.

  9. The D0 silicon micro-strip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael S.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The D0 silicon micro-strip tracker (SMT) is part of the D0 upgrade for the Tevatron RunII at Fermilab. The detector has been running successfully since the start of the RunII physics data taking. The tracking and vertexing performance match the expectation from Monte-Carlo studies. An additional inner layer (Layer0) of silicon sensors at R = 1.6cm will be installed in 2005.

  10. How valid are wearable physical activity trackers for measuring steps?

    PubMed

    An, Hyun-Sung; Jones, Gregory C; Kang, Seoung-Ki; Welk, Gregory J; Lee, Jung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Wearable activity trackers have become popular for tracking individual's daily physical activity, but little information is available to substantiate the validity of these devices in step counts. Thirty-five healthy individuals completed three conditions of activity tracker measurement: walking/jogging on a treadmill, walking over-ground on an indoor track, and a 24-hour free-living condition. Participants wore 10 activity trackers at the same time for both treadmill and over-ground protocol. Of these 10 activity trackers three were randomly given for 24-hour free-living condition. Correlations of steps measured to steps observed were r = 0.84 and r = 0.67 on a treadmill and over-ground protocol, respectively. The mean MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) score for all devices and speeds on a treadmill was 8.2% against manually counted steps. The MAPE value was higher for over-ground walking (9.9%) and even higher for the 24-hour free-living period (18.48%) on step counts. Equivalence testing for step count measurement resulted in a significant level within ±5% for the Fitbit Zip, Withings Pulse, and Jawbone UP24 and within ±10% for the Basis B1 band, Garmin VivoFit, and SenseWear Armband Mini. The results show that the Fitbit Zip and Withings Pulse provided the most accurate measures of step count under all three different conditions (i.e. treadmill, over-ground, and 24-hour condition), and considerable variability in accuracy across monitors and also by speeds and conditions.

  11. Clementine Star Tracker Stellar Compass: Final report part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, R.E.; Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.

    1995-07-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star stracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 x 384 focal plane array and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 m{sub v}, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 {mu}rad pitch and yaw and 450 {mu}rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights. Documentation generated during the design, analysis, build, test and characterization of the star tracker cameras are presented. Collectively, this documentation represents a small library of information for this camera, and may be used as a framework for producing copy units by commercial enterprises, and therefore satisfies a Department of Defense and Department of Energy goal to transfer technology to industry. However, the considerable knowledge gained from the experience of the individuals involved in the system trades, design, analysis, production, testing and characterization of the star tracker stellar compass is not contained in this documentation.

  12. A new silicon tracker for proton imaging and dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. T.; Waltham, C.; Price, T.; Allinson, N. M.; Allport, P. P.; Casse, G. L.; Kacperek, A.; Manger, S.; Smith, N. A.; Tsurin, I.

    2016-09-01

    For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today. The Proton Radiotherapy, Verification and Dosimetry Applications (PRaVDA) consortium are developing instrumentation for particle therapy based upon technology from high-energy physics. The characteristics of a new silicon micro-strip tracker for particle therapy will be presented. The array uses specifically designed, large area sensors with technology choices that follow closely those taken for the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC. These detectors will be arranged into four units each with three layers in an x-u-v configuration to be suitable for fast proton tracking with minimal ambiguities. The sensors will form a tracker capable of tracing the path of 200 MeV protons entering and exiting a patient allowing a new mode of imaging known as proton computed tomography (pCT). This will aid the accurate delivery of treatment doses and in addition, the tracker will also be used to monitor the beam profile and total dose delivered during the high fluences used for treatment. We present here details of the design, construction and assembly of one of the four units that will make up the complete tracker along with its characterisation using radiation tests carried out using a 90Sr source in the laboratory and a 60 MeV proton beam at the Clatterbridge Cancer Centre.

  13. Isotope Identification in the GammaTracker Handheld Radioisotope Identifier

    SciTech Connect

    Batdorf, Michael T.; Hensley, Walter K.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Erikson, Luke E.; Jordan, David V.

    2009-11-13

    GammaTracker is a portable handheld radioisotope identifier using position sensitive CdZnTe crystals. The device uses a peak-based method for isotope identification implemented on an embedded computing platform within the device. This paper presents the run-time optimized algorithms used in this peak-based approach. Performance of the algorithms is presented using measured data from gamma-ray sources.

  14. Impact of External Price Referencing on Medicine Prices – A Price Comparison Among 14 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Christine; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Katja; Seyfang, Leonhard; Vogler, Sabine; de Joncheere, Kees; Laing, Richard Ogilvie; Leufkens, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to examine the impact of external price referencing (EPR) on on-patent medicine prices, adjusting for other factors that may affect price levels such as sales volume, exchange rates, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, total pharmaceutical expenditure (TPE), and size of the pharmaceutical industry. Methods: Price data of 14 on-patent products, in 14 European countries in 2007 and 2008 were obtained from the Pharmaceutical Price Information Service of the Austrian Health Institute. Based on the unit ex-factory prices in EURO, scaled ranks per country and per product were calculated. For the regression analysis the scaled ranks per country and product were weighted; each country had the same sum of weights but within a country the weights were proportional to its sales volume in the year (data obtained from IMS Health). Taking the scaled ranks, several statistical analyses were performed by using the program “R”, including a multiple regression analysis (including variables such as GDP per capita and national industry size). Results: This study showed that on average EPR as a pricing policy leads to lower prices. However, the large variation in price levels among countries using EPR confirmed that the price level is not only driven by EPR. The unadjusted linear regression model confirms that applying EPR in a country is associated with a lower scaled weighted rank (p=0.002). This interaction persisted after inclusion of total pharmaceutical expenditure per capita and GDP per capita in the final model. Conclusions: The study showed that for patented products, prices are in general lower in case the country applied EPR. Nevertheless substantial price differences among countries that apply EPR could be identified. Possible explanations could be found through a correlation between pharmaceutical industry and the scaled price ranks. In conclusion, we found that implementing external reference pricing could lead to lower prices. PMID

  15. Geometry optimization of a barrel silicon pixelated tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing-Yuan; Wang, Meng; Winter, Marc

    2017-08-01

    We have studied optimization of the design of a barrel-shaped pixelated tracker for given spatial boundaries. The optimization includes choice of number of layers and layer spacing. Focusing on tracking performance only, momentum resolution is chosen as the figure of merit. The layer spacing is studied based on Gluckstern’s method and a numerical geometry scan of all possible tracker layouts. A formula to give the optimal geometry for curvature measurement is derived in the case of negligible multiple scattering to deal with trajectories of very high momentum particles. The result is validated by a numerical scan method, which could also be implemented with any track fitting algorithm involving material effects, to search for the optimal layer spacing and to determine the total number of layers for the momentum range of interest under the same magnetic field. The geometry optimization of an inner silicon pixel tracker proposed for BESIII is also studied by using a numerical scan and these results are compared with Geant4-based simulations. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1232202)

  16. Interplanetary Radiation and Fault Tolerant Mini-Star Tracker System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Paceley, Pete

    2015-01-01

    The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. is partnering with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering Directorate's Avionics Design Division and Flight Mechanics & Analysis Division to develop and test a prototype small, low-weight, low-power, radiation-hardened, fault-tolerant mini-star tracker (fig. 1). The project is expected to enable Draper Laboratory and its small business partner, L-1 Standards and Technologies, Inc., to develop a new guidance, navigation, and control sensor product for the growing small sat technology market. The project also addresses MSFC's need for sophisticated small sat technologies to support a variety of science missions in Earth orbit and beyond. The prototype star tracker will be tested on the night sky on MSFC's Automated Lunar and Meteor Observatory (ALAMO) telescope. The specific goal of the project is to address the need for a compact, low size, weight, and power, yet radiation hardened and fault tolerant star tracker system that can be used as a stand-alone attitude determination system or incorporated into a complete attitude determination and control system for emerging interplanetary and operational CubeSat and small sat missions.

  17. Star tracker stellar compass for the Clementine mission

    SciTech Connect

    Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.; Wilson, B.A.

    1995-04-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star tracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 x 384 FPA and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 m{sub v}, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 {micro}rad pitch and yaw and 450 {micro}rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  18. High efficient solar tracker based on a simple shutter structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Jia; Liu, Te-Shu; Huang, Kuang-Lung; Lin, Po-Chih

    2013-09-01

    In many photovoltaic (PV) or sunlight-illumination systems, solar trackers are always essential to obtain high energy/flux concentration efficiency, and that would lead to increase cost and extra power consumption due to the complex structure and heavy weight of the trackers. To decrease the cost while without sacrificing efficiency, a Fresnellens concentrator incorporated with a simple and cheap shutter, which consists of high reflective mirrors instead of conventional trackers, is proposed in this paper to provide solar tracking during the daytime. Thus, the time-variant and slant-incident sunlight rays can be redirected to vertically incident upon the surface of the Fresnel lens by appropriately arranging mirrors and swinging them to the proper slant angles with respect to the orientation of sunlight. The computer simulation results show that power concentration efficiency over 90%, as compared with the efficiency of directly normal incident sunlight, can be achieved with the mirror reflectance of 0.97 and for any solar incident angle within +/-75 degrees to the normal of the Fresnel lens. To verify the feasibility and performance of the concentrator with the proposed shutter, a sunlight illumination system based on this novel structure is demonstrated. Both computer simulation and practical measurement results for the prototype of the sunlight illumination system are also given to compare with. The results prove the simple and high efficient shutter applicable to general PV or sunlight-illumination systems for solar tracking.

  19. Pupil size influences the eye-tracker signal during saccades.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Marcus; Hooge, Ignace; Andersson, Richard

    2016-04-01

    While it is known that scleral search coils-measuring the rotation of the eye globe--and modern, video based eye trackers-tracking the center of the pupil and the corneal reflection (CR)--produce signals with different properties, the mechanisms behind the differences are less investigated. We measure how the size of the pupil affects the eye-tracker signal recorded during saccades with a common pupil-CR eye-tracker. Eye movements were collected from four healthy participants and one person with an aphakic eye while performing self-paced, horizontal saccades at different levels of screen luminance and hence pupil size. Results show that pupil-, and gaze-signals, but not the CR-signal, are affected by the size of the pupil; changes in saccade peak velocities in the gaze signal of more than 30% were found. It is important to be aware of this pupil size dependent change when comparing fine grained oculomotor behavior across participants and conditions.

  20. Net Price Calculator Improvement Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Franken, Al [D-MN

    2014-05-01

    Senate - 05/01/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Price Gouging Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2010-06-29

    Senate - 06/29/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Discount Pricing Consumer Protection Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Kohl, Herb [D-WI

    2009-01-06

    Senate - 07/21/2010 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 473. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Discount Pricing Consumer Protection Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Kohl, Herb [D-WI

    2011-01-25

    Senate - 11/03/2011 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 215. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. System and method for calibrating inter-star-tracker misalignments in a stellar inertial attitude determination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rongsheng (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Hein, Douglas H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining star tracker misalignments is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of defining a defining a reference frame for the star tracker assembly according to a boresight of the primary star tracker and a boresight of a second star tracker wherein the boresight of the primary star tracker and a plane spanned by the boresight of the primary star tracker and the boresight of the second star tracker at least partially define a datum for the reference frame for the star tracker assembly; and determining the misalignment of the at least one star tracker as a rotation of the defined reference frame.

  5. Enhancing medicine price transparency through price information mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hinsch, Michael; Kaddar, Miloud; Schmitt, Sarah

    2014-05-08

    Medicine price information mechanisms provide an essential tool to countries that seek a better understanding of product availability, market prices and price compositions of individual medicines. To be effective and contribute to cost savings, these mechanisms need to consider prices in their particular contexts when comparing between countries. This article discusses in what ways medicine price information mechanisms can contribute to increased price transparency and how this may affect access to medicines for developing countries. We used data collected during the course of a WHO project focusing on the development of a vaccine price and procurement information mechanism. The project collected information from six medicine price information mechanisms and interviewed data managers and technical experts on key aspects as well as observed market effects of these mechanisms.The reviewed mechanisms were broken down into categories including objective and target audience, as well as the sources, types and volumes of data included. Information provided by the mechanisms was reviewed according to data available on medicine prices, product characteristics, and procurement modalities. We found indications of positive effects on access to medicines resulting from the utilization of the reviewed mechanisms. These include the uptake of higher quality medicines, more favorable results from contract negotiations, changes in national pricing policies, and the decrease of prices in certain segments for countries participating in or deriving data from the various mechanisms. The reviewed mechanisms avoid the methodological challenges observed for medicine price comparisons that only use national price databases. They work with high quality data and display prices in the appropriate context of procurement modalities as well as the peculiarities of purchasing countries. Medicine price information mechanisms respond to the need for increased medicine price transparency and have the

  6. Enhancing medicine price transparency through price information mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medicine price information mechanisms provide an essential tool to countries that seek a better understanding of product availability, market prices and price compositions of individual medicines. To be effective and contribute to cost savings, these mechanisms need to consider prices in their particular contexts when comparing between countries. This article discusses in what ways medicine price information mechanisms can contribute to increased price transparency and how this may affect access to medicines for developing countries. Methods We used data collected during the course of a WHO project focusing on the development of a vaccine price and procurement information mechanism. The project collected information from six medicine price information mechanisms and interviewed data managers and technical experts on key aspects as well as observed market effects of these mechanisms. The reviewed mechanisms were broken down into categories including objective and target audience, as well as the sources, types and volumes of data included. Information provided by the mechanisms was reviewed according to data available on medicine prices, product characteristics, and procurement modalities. Results We found indications of positive effects on access to medicines resulting from the utilization of the reviewed mechanisms. These include the uptake of higher quality medicines, more favorable results from contract negotiations, changes in national pricing policies, and the decrease of prices in certain segments for countries participating in or deriving data from the various mechanisms. Conclusion The reviewed mechanisms avoid the methodological challenges observed for medicine price comparisons that only use national price databases. They work with high quality data and display prices in the appropriate context of procurement modalities as well as the peculiarities of purchasing countries. Medicine price information mechanisms respond to the need for increased

  7. The large silicon tracker for the AMS experiment on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauluzzi, M.

    1996-02-01

    The design of the high precision microstrip silicon tracker for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment (AMS) is presented. We emphasize features of the silicon tracker which make it suitable for a space born experiment and for equipping large active areas.

  8. Has the London 2012 Olympic Inspire Programme Inspired a Generation? A Realist View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girginov, Vassil

    2016-01-01

    The organisers of the 2012 London Olympics have endeavoured explicitly to use the Games to inspire a generation. This is nothing short of putting the main claim of Olympism to the test, but surprisingly the Inspire project has received virtually no scholarly scrutiny. Using an educationally-informed view of inspiration, this paper interrogates the…

  9. Has the London 2012 Olympic Inspire Programme Inspired a Generation? A Realist View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girginov, Vassil

    2016-01-01

    The organisers of the 2012 London Olympics have endeavoured explicitly to use the Games to inspire a generation. This is nothing short of putting the main claim of Olympism to the test, but surprisingly the Inspire project has received virtually no scholarly scrutiny. Using an educationally-informed view of inspiration, this paper interrogates the…

  10. Co-training Framework of Generative and Disciminative Trackers with Partial Occlusion Handling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Frames GT DT FT OAB ST PNT MILT MIO CoT Ours Coke Can 292 102 9 67 25 85 8 21 22 10 8 Occluded Face 1 900 86 17 7 44 41 8 27 14 16 5 Occluded Face 2...ST: Semi-Boosting Tracker [9], PNT: P-N Tracker [11], MILT : MILTracker [3], MIO: MIL No Regret Tracker [14], CoT: Co- Tracker [29] ) in different

  11. Price sensitive demand with random sales price - a newsboy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar Sana, Shib

    2012-03-01

    Up to now, many newsboy problems have been considered in the stochastic inventory literature. Some assume that stochastic demand is independent of selling price (p) and others consider the demand as a function of stochastic shock factor and deterministic sales price. This article introduces a price-dependent demand with stochastic selling price into the classical Newsboy problem. The proposed model analyses the expected average profit for a general distribution function of p and obtains an optimal order size. Finally, the model is discussed for various appropriate distribution functions of p and illustrated with numerical examples.

  12. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    PubMed

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions.

  13. Maitotoxin: An Inspiration for Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Aversa, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Maitotoxin holds a special place in the annals of natural products chemistry as the largest and most toxic secondary metabolite known to date. Its fascinating, ladder-like, polyether molecular structure and diverse spectrum of biological activities elicited keen interest from chemists and biologists who recognized its uniqueness and potential as a probe and inspiration for research in chemistry and biology. Synthetic studies in the area benefited from methodologies and strategies that were developed as part of chemical synthesis programs directed toward the total synthesis of some of the less complex members of the polyether marine biotoxin class, of which maitotoxin is the flagship. This account focuses on progress made in the authors’ laboratories in the synthesis of large maitotoxin domains with emphasis on methodology development, strategy design, and structural comparisons of the synthesized molecules with the corresponding regions of the natural product. The article concludes with an overview of maitotoxin’s biological profile and future perspectives. PMID:21709816

  14. Nature-inspired superwettability systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingjie; Wang, Shutao; Jiang, Lei

    2017-07-01

    Superwettability is a centuries-old concept that has been rediscovered in past decades, largely owing to new understanding of the mechanisms of special wetting phenomena in nature. Combining multiscale structures and surface chemical compositions is crucial to fabricate interfacial materials with superwettability. In this Review, we detail the historical development and summarize the various combined superwetting states in superwettability systems. Nature-inspired design principles of superwettable materials are also briefly introduced. Superwettability systems can be extended from 2D surfaces to 0D nanoparticles, 1D fibres and channels, and 3D integrated materials. We discuss new phenomena and the advantages that superwettability-based systems have for chemical reactions and materials fabrication, including emerging applications that utilize single extreme wetting states or that combine two extreme wetting states. Finally, we provide our perspective for future research directions.

  15. Innovation Inspiration School Grant Program Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Shaheen, Jeanne [D-NH

    2013-05-23

    Senate - 05/23/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Innovation Inspiration School Grant Program Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Tim [D-OH-17

    2011-06-21

    House - 09/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Innovation Inspiration School Grant Program Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Tim [D-OH-13

    2013-03-18

    House - 04/23/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Innovation Inspiration School Grant Program Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Tim [D-OH-17

    2011-06-21

    09/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Innovation Inspiration School Grant Program Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Tim [D-OH-13

    2013-03-18

    04/23/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Innovation Inspiration School Grant Program Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Tim [D-OH-17

    2011-06-21

    09/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Innovation Inspiration School Grant Program Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Tim [D-OH-13

    2013-03-18

    04/23/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Transit pricing and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pickerell, D.H.; Abkowitz, M.; Tozzi, J.; McCord, M.R.; Cheng, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    The 9 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Federal operating assistance for urban mass transit; a decade of experience; transit route characteristics and headway-based reliability control; day-of-week and part-of-month variation in bus ridership; job satisfaction and transit operator recognition programs; results of a survey of muni operators; bus marketing costs: the experience of 18 section 15 reporters from 1981 to 1983; prospects for differential transit pricing in the United States; an initial analysis of total factor productivity for public-transit coordination of transportation resources: the Georgia experience; absenteeism, accidents, and attrition: part-time versus full-time bus drivers.

  3. Decrypting SO (10)-inspired leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bari, Pasquale; Marzola, Luca; Re Fiorentin, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of SO (10)-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that it is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry NB-Lp,i, the strong thermal (ST) condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the ST- SO (10)-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analytical lower bound on the effective neutrino-less double beta decay neutrino mass, mee ≳ 8 meV, for NB-Lp,i =10-3, testable with next generation experiments. This, in combination with an upper bound on the atmospheric mixing angle, necessarily in the first octant, forces the lightest neutrino mass within a narrow range m1 ≃ (10- 30) meV (corresponding to ∑imi ≃ (75- 125) meV). We also show why the solution could correctly predict a non-vanishing reactor neutrino mixing angle and requires the Dirac phase to be in the fourth quadrant, implying sin ⁡ δ (and JCP) negative as hinted by current global analyses. Many of the analytical results presented (expressions for the orthogonal matrix, RH neutrino mixing matrix, masses and phases) can have applications beyond leptogenesis.

  4. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  5. Inspiring a Life Full of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasse, Saul

    2010-01-01

    After being appointed as Controller of BBC Learning, this author reflected on how the BBC had inspired his own love of learning. He realised that unlocking the learning potential of the full range of BBC outputs would be the key to inspiring a "life full of learning" for all its audiences. In this article, the author describes four new…

  6. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  7. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  8. Inspiring a Life Full of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasse, Saul

    2010-01-01

    After being appointed as Controller of BBC Learning, this author reflected on how the BBC had inspired his own love of learning. He realised that unlocking the learning potential of the full range of BBC outputs would be the key to inspiring a "life full of learning" for all its audiences. In this article, the author describes four new…

  9. Highly eccentric inspirals into a black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, Thomas; Warburton, Niels; Evans, Charles R.

    2016-03-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact stellar-mass object into a massive nonrotating black hole including all dissipative and conservative first-order-in-the-mass-ratio effects on the orbital motion. The techniques we develop allow inspirals with initial eccentricities as high as e ˜0.8 and initial separations as large as p ˜50 to be evolved through many thousands of orbits up to the onset of the plunge into the black hole. The inspiral is computed using an osculating elements scheme driven by a hybridized self-force model, which combines Lorenz-gauge self-force results with highly accurate flux data from a Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli code. The high accuracy of our hybrid self-force model allows the orbital phase of the inspirals to be tracked to within ˜0.1 radians or better. The difference between self-force models and inspirals computed in the radiative approximation is quantified.

  10. Pricing objectives in nonprofit hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Bauerschmidt, A D; Jacobs, P

    1985-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of 60 financial managers of nonprofit hospitals in the eastern United States relating to the importance of a number of factors which influence their pricing decisions and the pricing objectives which they pursue. Among the results uncovered by the responses: that trustees are the single most important body in the price-setting process (doctors play a relatively unimportant role); that hospital pricing goals are more related to target net revenue than profit maximizing; and that regional factors seem to play an important role in management differences. PMID:4008272

  11. Pricing objectives in nonprofit hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bauerschmidt, A D; Jacobs, P

    1985-06-01

    This article reports on a survey of 60 financial managers of nonprofit hospitals in the eastern United States relating to the importance of a number of factors which influence their pricing decisions and the pricing objectives which they pursue. Among the results uncovered by the responses: that trustees are the single most important body in the price-setting process (doctors play a relatively unimportant role); that hospital pricing goals are more related to target net revenue than profit maximizing; and that regional factors seem to play an important role in management differences.

  12. Price transparency for medical devices.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Mark V; Burns, Lawton R

    2008-01-01

    Hospital buyers of medical devices contract with manufacturers with market power that sell differentiated products. The medical staff strongly influences hospitals' choice of devices. Sellers have sought to limit disclosure of transaction prices. Policy-makers have proposed legislation mandating disclosure, in the interest of greater transparency. We discuss why a manufacturer might charge different prices to different hospitals, the role that secrecy plays, and the consequences of secrecy versus disclosure. We argue that hospital-physician relationships are key to understanding what manufacturers gain from price discrimination. Price disclosure can catalyze a restructuring of those relationships, which, in turn, can improve hospital bargaining.

  13. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker and Upgrade Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contin, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) of the STAR experiment at RHIC is the first application of the state-of-the-art thin Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) technology in a collider environment. The HFT is composed of two silicon PiXeL detector (PXL) layers, an Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST) and a Silicon Strip Detector (SSD). It greatly improves the impact parameter resolution of STAR tracking and enables reconstruction of secondary decay vertices of open heavy hadrons in heavy ion collisions, providing unique probes for studying the Quark-Gluon Plasma. In these proceedings we discuss the HFT hardware design, and current detector status and performance. The HFT was successfully commissioned during the 2014 RHIC run, taking data in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. The HFT performance during this run matches the expected performance, most significantly for track pointing resolution. Preliminary results have been obtained from 2014 Au+Au data analyses, demonstrating the capabilities of open charm hadron reconstruction with the HFT. Modifications to HFT subsystems have been made to improve its performance in the 2015 run in p+p, p+Au and p+Al collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV. In order to further improve such capabilities to measure bottom quark hadrons at RHIC energies, a faster heavy flavor tracker (HFT+) is needed to collect data at higher luminosity with good efficiency. The proposed HFT+ will be equipped with new generation of MAPS sensors with a much shorter integration time (≤ 40 μs) and possibly extend the current PXL detector acceptance with minimal modification to the original mechanical and air cooling infrastructure. Requirements for the upgraded HFT+ detector and expected performance are also presented in these proceedings.

  14. Monitoring with Trackers Based on Semi-Quantitative Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    In three years of NASA-sponsored research preceding this project, we successfully developed a technology for: (1) building qualitative and semi-quantitative models from libraries of model-fragments, (2) simulating these models to predict future behaviors with the guarantee that all possible behaviors are covered, (3) assimilating observations into behaviors, shrinking uncertainty so that incorrect models are eventually refuted and correct models make stronger predictions for the future. In our object-oriented framework, a tracker is an object which embodies the hypothesis that the available observation stream is consistent with a particular behavior of a particular model. The tracker maintains its own status (consistent, superceded, or refuted), and answers questions about its explanation for past observations and its predictions for the future. In the MIMIC approach to monitoring of continuous systems, a number of trackers are active in parallel, representing alternate hypotheses about the behavior of a system. This approach is motivated by the need to avoid 'system accidents' [Perrow, 1985] due to operator fixation on a single hypothesis, as for example at Three Mile Island. As we began to address these issues, we focused on three major research directions that we planned to pursue over a three-year project: (1) tractable qualitative simulation, (2) semiquantitative inference, and (3) tracking set management. Unfortunately, funding limitations made it impossible to continue past year one. Nonetheless, we made major progress in the first two of these areas. Progress in the third area as slower because the graduate student working on that aspect of the project decided to leave school and take a job in industry. I enclosed a set of abstract of selected papers on the work describe below. Several papers that draw on the research supported during this period appeared in print after the grant period ended.

  15. Thermal/Optical analysis of optical system of star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Si-yu; Huang, Yi-fan

    2011-08-01

    Spacecraft would be expected to encounter diverse extreme environmental (EE) conditions throughout their mission phases. These EE conditions are often coupled. Star tracker is a high accurate 3-axis attitude measuring instrument used in various spacecrafts. In this paper, an effective scheme to the thermal/optical analysis in optical system of star sensor was described and the concept of thermal optical analysis of star tracker optical system was introduced in detail. Using finite element analysis (FEA) and ray tracing, we can study the relationship of optical properties of optical systems and optical system's temperature distribution . A lens system configuration having six uncemented elements was discussed. The lens system was a 56mm EFL, which was different from common lens used in imaging system that this lens system was required to have a high resolving power in design thoughts. It was designed to determine the attitude of space platform by detecting and mapping the geometric pattern of stars. Based on this system, the FEA models of the optical system were established for temperature distribution calculation and for thermal-elastic structural deformation analysis respectively. Using the models, the steady-state temperature distributions of the tracker were simulated. The rigid body displacements of the optical components under homogeneous temperature changes and certain temperature distributions were derived out. It is convenient to use Zernike polynomials as the data transmission between optical and structural analysis programs. Here, Zernike polynomials and their fitting method are used as an example to determine the thermal induced optical degradations of the optical system.

  16. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker PXL detector readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schambach, J.; Contin, G.; Greiner, L.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.; Vu, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a recently installed micro-vertex detector upgrade to the STAR experiment at RHIC, consisting of three subsystems with various technologies of silicon sensors arranged in 4 concentric cylinders. The two innermost layers of the HFT close to the beam pipe, the Pixel ("PXL") subsystem, employ CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) technology that integrate the sensor, front-end electronics, and zero-suppression circuitry in one silicon die. This paper presents selected characteristics of the PXL detector part of the HFT and the hardware, firmware and software associated with the readout system for this detector.

  17. The AMS Silicon Tracker: Performance Results from STS-91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a detector designed to search for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. AMS is programmed for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) for an operational period of 3 years. The magnetic spectrometer uses 5.5 m2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories. The AMS was flown on the NASA shuttle flight STS-91 in June 1998. In this contribution, we present results for the performance of the silicon tracker during the test flight.

  18. Radiation-Hard Breadboard Star Tracker. Attachment 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    343(11X,1OA,/)":"Star #1 ","Star #2 ","Star #3 "o70 STATUS -2,5:Tkrstatus ! Get tracker status ,:,0 Tkrcommand=BINAND(Tkr_stat!s,3)+1O ! Form command...Clear the dis lay 1 ine Beep terminal :I I /....... I! eia Onutpt "P ease i rI’t NEW star. # W", ’ read C:Urr..s ta.r 4--------4...OFF END statement with an unassigned 1Ŕ path name. 52 Improper mass storage unit specifier. The characters used for a msus do not form a valid

  19. Lineage mapper: A versatile cell and particle tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalfoun, Joe; Majurski, Michael; Dima, Alden; Halter, Michael; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Brady, Mary

    2016-11-01

    The ability to accurately track cells and particles from images is critical to many biomedical problems. To address this, we developed Lineage Mapper, an open-source tracker for time-lapse images of biological cells, colonies, and particles. Lineage Mapper tracks objects independently of the segmentation method, detects mitosis in confluence, separates cell clumps mistakenly segmented as a single cell, provides accuracy and scalability even on terabyte-sized datasets, and creates division and/or fusion lineages. Lineage Mapper has been tested and validated on multiple biological and simulated problems. The software is available in ImageJ and Matlab at isg.nist.gov.

  20. Microprocessor-controlled laser tracker for atmospheric sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.; Webster, C. R.; Menzies, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    An optical tracking system comprising a visible HeNe laser, an imaging detector, and a microprocessor-controlled mirror, has been designed to track a moving retroreflector located up to 500 m away from an atmospheric instrument and simultaneously direct spectrally tunable infrared laser radiation to the retroreflector for double-ended, long-path absorption measurements of atmospheric species. The tracker has been tested during the recent flight of a balloon-borne tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer which monitors the concentrations of stratospheric species within a volume defined by a 0.14-m-diameter retroreflector lowered 500 m below the instrument gondola.

  1. CO2 cooling for the CMS tracker at SLHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Merz, J.; Wlochal, M.

    2011-01-01

    For a new CMS tracker at SLHC cooling of the silicon sensors and their electronics is a crucial issue. Currently under investigation is an evaporative CO2 cooling system, being able to provide more cooling power at a lower mass than a mono-phase liquid system. Furthermore carbon dioxide could allow for lower operating temperatures, which are beneficial for the sensor performance and lifetime. The CO2 cooling test system at RWTH Aachen University is being presented. First measurements and results are shown, demonstrating the functionality of the system.

  2. Lineage mapper: A versatile cell and particle tracker

    PubMed Central

    Chalfoun, Joe; Majurski, Michael; Dima, Alden; Halter, Michael; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Brady, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The ability to accurately track cells and particles from images is critical to many biomedical problems. To address this, we developed Lineage Mapper, an open-source tracker for time-lapse images of biological cells, colonies, and particles. Lineage Mapper tracks objects independently of the segmentation method, detects mitosis in confluence, separates cell clumps mistakenly segmented as a single cell, provides accuracy and scalability even on terabyte-sized datasets, and creates division and/or fusion lineages. Lineage Mapper has been tested and validated on multiple biological and simulated problems. The software is available in ImageJ and Matlab at isg.nist.gov. PMID:27853188

  3. Physics sensitivity studies of Fine-Grained Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Hongyue, Duyang

    2015-10-15

    The reference design of the near detector for the LBNE experiment is a high-resolution Fine-Grained Tracker (FGT). We performed sensitivity studies – critical to constraining the systematics in oscillation searches – of measurements of (1) the absolute neutrino flux, (2) neutrino-nucleon quasi-elastic (QE) and (3) resonance (Res) interactions. In QE and Res emphasis is laid in identifying in situ measurables that help constrain nuclear effects such as initial state pair wise correlations and final state interactions.

  4. Modular high accuracy tracker for dual channel laser Doppler velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridman, J. D.; Young, R. M.; Seavey, R. E.; Orloff, K. L.

    1976-01-01

    In the study described, a scanning dual-channel cross-beam laser Doppler velocimeter (developed for measuring simultaneously the two orthogonal components of flow velocity and turbulence intensity) was used to measure the instantaneous velocity characteristics of a model helicopter rotor and in a vortex wake survey experiment on a Boeing 747 aircraft model. Particular attention is given to a special purpose dual-loop frequency tracker developed to track and demodulate 10 microsecond wide pulse burst Doppler signals with a study cycle of 25% (or narrower signals at a higher duty cycle) generated by the laser Doppler velocimeter.

  5. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1977 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    This 1977 supplement presents higher education price index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1977. The basic study presents complete descriptions of the indexes together with the index values and price data for fiscal years 1961 through 1974. It includes a discussion of index number theory and computation, explains the uses and limitations of…

  6. 129. Julian Price Memorial Park. Price Lake Dam. A concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. Julian Price Memorial Park. Price Lake Dam. A concrete slab bridge crosses the top of the dam impounding a forty-seven acre lake. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  7. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1977 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    This 1977 supplement presents higher education price index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1977. The basic study presents complete descriptions of the indexes together with the index values and price data for fiscal years 1961 through 1974. It includes a discussion of index number theory and computation, explains the uses and limitations of…

  8. Developing Intuition for Prices in Euros: Rescaling or Relearning Prices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, J. Frederico; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2004-01-01

    This article examines how numerical intuition for prices develops after a major change in currency. University students in Portugal (Study 1) and Austria (Study 2) made price estimates for 40 different items from November 2001 to June 2002, surrounding the time at which these countries switched to the euro. Overall results are more in accordance…

  9. Consumer food choices: the role of price and pricing strategies.

    PubMed

    Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Waterlander, Wilma E; de Mul, Anika

    2011-12-01

    To study differences in the role of price and value in food choice between low-income and higher-income consumers and to study the perception of consumers about pricing strategies that are of relevance during grocery shopping. A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured, written questionnaires. Food choice motives as well as price perceptions and opinion on pricing strategies were measured. The study was carried out in point-of-purchase settings, i.e. supermarkets, fast-food restaurants and sports canteens. Adults (n 159) visiting a point-of-purchase setting were included. Price is an important factor in food choice, especially for low-income consumers. Low-income consumers were significantly more conscious of value and price than higher-income consumers. The most attractive strategies, according to the consumers, were discounting healthy food more often and applying a lower VAT (Value Added Tax) rate on healthy food. Low-income consumers differ in their preferences for pricing strategies. Since price is more important for low-income consumers we recommend mainly focusing on their preferences and needs.

  10. The scintillating fiber tracker and the opto-electronic readout system of the CHORUS neutrino oscillation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rondeshagen, Dirk

    1998-11-09

    A scintillating fiber tracker system consisting of about 1.1 million fibers has been constructed successfully and is operational in the CHORUS neutrino oscillation experiment at CERN. The tracker system composes of a target tracker and a magnetic spectrometer. The target tracker consists of 8 tracker planes with 4 projections each, and the magnetic spectrometer consists of an air-core magnet and 3 tracker planes. The design, the performance and the opto-electronic readout system are described.

  11. Pricing effects on food choices.

    PubMed

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations.

  12. Can a Free Wearable Activity Tracker Change Behavior? The Impact of Trackers on Adults in a Physician-Led Wellness Group

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbluth, Sandra; Phillips, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity trackers (trackers) are increasingly popular devices used to track step count and other health indicators. Trackers have the potential to benefit those in need of increased physical activity, such as adults who are older and face significant health challenges. These populations are least likely to purchase trackers and most likely to face challenges in using them, yet may derive educational, motivational, and health benefits from their use once these barriers are removed. Objective The aim of this pilot research is to investigate the use of trackers by adults with chronic medical conditions who have never used trackers previously. Specifically, we aim to determine (1) if participants would accept and use trackers to increase their physical activity; (2) if there were barriers to use besides cost and training; (3) if trackers would educate participants on their baseline and ongoing activity levels and support behavior change; and (4) if clinical outcomes would show improvements in participants’ health. Methods This study was conducted with patients (N=10) in a 12-week physician-led wellness group offered by Family Doctors, LLC. Patients were given trackers in the second week of The Wellness Group and were interviewed 2 to 4 weeks after it ended. The study investigators analyzed the interview notes to extract themes about the participants’ attitudes and behavior changes and collected and analyzed participants’ clinical data, including weight and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol over the course of the study. Results Over the 12 to 14 weeks of tracker use, improvements were seen in clinical outcomes, attitudes towards the trackers, and physical activity behaviors. Participants lost an average of 0.5 lbs per week (SD 0.4), with a mean total weight loss of 5.97 lbs (P=.004). Other short-term clinical outcomes included a 9.2% decrease in LDL levels (P=.038). All participants reported an increase in well-being and confidence in

  13. Weighted south-wide average pulpwood prices

    Treesearch

    James E. Granskog; Kevin D. Growther

    1991-01-01

    Weighted average prices provide a more accurate representation of regional pulpwood price trends when production volumes valy widely by state. Unweighted South-wide average delivered prices for pulpwood, as reported by Timber Mart-South, were compared to average annual prices weighted by each state's pulpwood production from 1977 to 1986. Weighted average prices...

  14. Is College Pricing Power Pro-Cyclical?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altringer, Levi; Summers, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    We define pricing power as a college's ability to increase its net tuition revenue by raising its sticker-price for tuition. The greater is the positive effect of sticker-price increases on net tuition revenue, the greater is the pricing power. We gauge variation in the pricing power of private, non-profit baccalaureate colleges by estimating this…

  15. Is College Pricing Power Pro-Cyclical?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altringer, Levi; Summers, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    We define pricing power as a college's ability to increase its net tuition revenue by raising its sticker-price for tuition. The greater is the positive effect of sticker-price increases on net tuition revenue, the greater is the pricing power. We gauge variation in the pricing power of private, non-profit baccalaureate colleges by estimating this…

  16. Periodical Prices: 1976-78 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clasquin, F. F.

    1978-01-01

    Comparative data are given for periodical price changes for 1976-78. Tables include price changes in library rates for scientific literature; percent of total subscriptions processed and total expenditure for various periodical price ranges; comparisons of prices for domestic and foreign titles; and journal price ranges for selected subject…

  17. Thermal performance of microinverters on dual-axis trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Mohammad A.; Peshek, Timothy J.; Xu, Yifan; Ji, Liang; Sun, Jiayang; Abramson, Alexis; French, Roger H.

    2014-10-01

    Time-series insolation, environmental, thermal and power data were analyzed in a statistical analytical approach to identify the thermal performance of microinverters on dual-axis trackers under real-world operating conditions. This study analyzed 24 microinverters connected to 8 different brands of photovoltaic (PV) modules from July through October 2013 at the Solar Durability and Lifetime Extension (SDLE) SunFarm at Case Western Reserve University. Exploratory data analysis shows that the microinverter's temperature is strongly correlated with ambient temperature and PV module temperature, and moderately correlated with irradiance and AC power. Noontime data analysis reveals the variations of thermal behavior across different brands of PV module. Hierarchical clustering using the Euclidean distance measure principle was applied to noontime microinverter temperature data to group the similarly behaved microinverters. A multiple regression predictive model has been developed based on ambient temperature, PV module temperature, irradiance and AC power data to predict the microinverters temperature connected with different brands PV modules on dual-axis trackers.

  18. Research and development of the laser tracker measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Zhou, W. H.; Lao, D. B.; Yuan, J.; Dong, D. F. F.; Ji, R. Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The working principle and system design of the laser tracker measurement system are introduced, as well as the key technologies and solutions in the implementation of the system. The design and implementation of the hardware and configuration of the software are mainly researched. The components of the hardware include distance measuring unit, angle measuring unit, tracking and servo control unit and electronic control unit. The distance measuring devices include the relative distance measuring device (IFM) and the absolute distance measuring device (ADM). The main component of the angle measuring device, the precision rotating stage, is mainly comprised of the precision axis and the encoders which are both set in the tracking head. The data processing unit, tracking and control unit and power supply unit are all set in the control box. The software module is comprised of the communication module, calibration and error compensation module, data analysis module, database management module, 3D display module and the man-machine interface module. The prototype of the laser tracker system has been accomplished and experiments have been carried out to verify the proposed strategies of the hardware and software modules. The experiments showed that the IFM distance measuring error is within 0.15mm, the ADM distance measuring error is within 3.5mm and the angle measuring error is within 3〞which demonstrates that the preliminary prototype can realize fundamental measurement tasks.

  19. Low-background tracker development for SuperNEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, James; Collaboration: SuperNEMO Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The SuperNEMO experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) with a target sensitivity of T{sub 1/2}(0ν) > 10{sup 26} years, corresponding to an effective neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. At its heart there is a low-background gaseous tracking detector which allows for extremely efficient background rejection and, if 0νββ is observed, may provide important insights into the mechanism via which it may be mediated. Radon inside the tracker, which can mimic rare ββ events, is one of the most dangerous backgrounds for SuperNEMO. To reach the target sensitivity the radon concentration inside the tracking volume must be < 0.15 mBq/m{sup 3}. To reach this challengingly-low level of radon, a considerable program of R and D has been undertaken. This includes automation of the tracker-wiring process, development of a dedicated setup to measure radon diffusion and a 'radon concentration line' which will be able to measure levels of radon in the μBq/m{sup 3} range.

  20. Multiexposure imaging and parameter optimization for intensified star trackers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenbo; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-12-20

    Due to the introduction of the intensified image detector, the dynamic performance of the intensified star tracker is effectively improved. However, its attitude update rate is still seriously restricted by the transmission and processing of pixel data. In order to break through the above limitation, a multiexposure imaging approach for intensified star trackers is proposed in this paper. One star image formed by this approach actually records N different groups of star positions, and then N corresponding groups of attitude information can be acquired. Compared with the existing exposure imaging approach, the proposed approach improves the attitude update rate by N times. Furthermore, for a dim star, the proposed approach can also accumulate the energy of its N positions and then effectively improve its signal-to-noise ratio. Subsequently, in order to obtain the optimal performance of the proposed approach, parameter optimization is carried out. First, the motion model of the star spot in the image plane is established, and then based on it, all the key parameters are optimized. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach and parameter optimization.

  1. Dynamic imaging model and parameter optimization for a star tracker.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinyun; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-03-21

    Under dynamic conditions, star spots move across the image plane of a star tracker and form a smeared star image. This smearing effect increases errors in star position estimation and degrades attitude accuracy. First, an analytical energy distribution model of a smeared star spot is established based on a line segment spread function because the dynamic imaging process of a star tracker is equivalent to the static imaging process of linear light sources. The proposed model, which has a clear physical meaning, explicitly reflects the key parameters of the imaging process, including incident flux, exposure time, velocity of a star spot in an image plane, and Gaussian radius. Furthermore, an analytical expression of the centroiding error of the smeared star spot is derived using the proposed model. An accurate and comprehensive evaluation of centroiding accuracy is obtained based on the expression. Moreover, analytical solutions of the optimal parameters are derived to achieve the best performance in centroid estimation. Finally, we perform numerical simulations and a night sky experiment to validate the correctness of the dynamic imaging model, the centroiding error expression, and the optimal parameters.

  2. Solar kinetics` photovoltaic concentrator module and tracker development

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Howell, B.

    1995-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc., has been developing a point-focus concentrating photovoltaic module and tracker system under contract to Sandia National Laboratories. The primary focus of the contract was to achieve a module design that was manufacturable and passed Sandia`s environmental testing. Nine modules of two variations were assembled, tested, and characterized in Phase 1, and results of these tests were promising, with module efficiency approaching the theoretical limit achievable with the components used. The module efficiency was 11.9% at a solar irradiance of 850 W/m{sup 2} and an extrapolated cell temperature of 25{degrees}C. Improvements in module performance are anticipated as cell efficiencies meet their expectations. A 2-kW tracker and controller accommodating 20 modules was designed, built, installed, and operated at Solar Kinetics` test site. The drive used many commercially available components in an innovative arrangement to reduce cost and increase reliability. Backlash and bearing play were controlled by use of preloaded, low slip-stick, synthetic slide bearings. The controller design used a standard industrial programmable logic controller to perform ephemeris calculations, operate the actuators, and monitor encoders.

  3. SciFi - A large scintillating fibre tracker for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirn, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. Concept, design and operational parameters are driven by the challenging LHC environment including significant ionising and neutron radiation levels. Over a total active surface of 360 m2 the SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres (∅ = 0.25 mm) read out by state-of-the-art multi-channel Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) arrays. A custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The project is now at the transition from R&D to series production. We will present the evolution of the design and the latest lab and test beam results.

  4. Solar kinetics` photovoltaic concentrator module and tracker development

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Howell, B.

    1995-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc., has been developing a point-focus concentrating photovoltaic module and tracker system under contract to Sandia National Laboratories. The primary focus of the contract was to achieve a module design that was manufacturable and passed Sandia`s environmental testing. Nine modules of two variations were assembled, tested, and characterized in Phase 1, and results of these tests were promising, with module efficiency approaching the theoretical limit achievable with the components used. The module efficiency was 11.9% at a solar irradiance of 850 W/sq m and an extrapolated cell temperature of 25 C. Improvements in module performance are anticipated as cell efficiencies meet their expectations. A 2-kW tracker and controller accommodating 20 modules was designed, built, installed, and operated at Solar Kinetics` test site. The drive used many commercially available components in an innovative arrangement to reduce cost and increase reliability. Backlash and bearing play were controlled by use of preloaded, low slip-stick, synthetic slide bearings. The controller design used a standard industrial programmable logic controller to perform ephemeris calculations, operate the actuators, and monitor encoders.

  5. Clementine Star-Tracker Images of the Inner Zodiacal Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, B. L.; Zook, H. A.; Hahn, J. M.; Potter, A. E.

    2000-10-01

    Excellent photographs of the inner zodiacal light, using the Moon as an occulting disk, have been obtained with the Clementine star-tracker cameras. With exposures that vary from 50 milliseconds to 700 milliseconds, with a dynamic range of 256 for each exposure, and with a 28.9 degree by 43.4 degree field of view, the Clementine cameras have recorded the zodiacal light brightness from 1 degree (the solar F- corona) to in excess of 20 degrees from the Sun. Problems of proper removal of thermal background electrons, of 'streak' removal, and of absolute brightness calibration, have been earlier described and resolved (1). The problem of correcting for the non-uniform response of the star-tracker cameras to a field of uniform brightness is now also largely resolved, and photometrically accurate maps of the inner zodiacal light intensity isophotes are now obtainable. These maps represent a major advance in obtaining zodiacal light brightnesses, in both heliocentric longitude and latitude, over previous studies in this region of the sky. The spatial density of dust grains, as a function of both ecliptic longitude and latitude relative to the Sun, are obtained using well-understood integral inversion procedures. The relation of the symmetry plane of the dust density to the ecliptic plane will be analyzed in terms of gravitational perturbations by Jupiter and the inner planets. (1) Zook et al., LPSC 28, 1635-1636, 1997.

  6. In-flight evaluation of an optical head motion tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawada, Kazuho

    2009-05-01

    We have presented a new approach for Optical HMT (Head Motion Tracker) last year (Proc. SPIE 6955, 69550A1-11, 2008) [1]. In existing Magnetic HMT, it is inevitable to conduct pre-mapping in order to obtain sufficient accuracy because of magnetic field's distortion caused by metallic material around HMT, such as cockpit and helmet. Optical HMT is commonly known as mapping-free tracker; however, it has some disadvantages on accuracy, stability against sunlight conditions, in terms of comparison with Magnetic HMT. We have succeeded to develop new Optical HMT, which can overcome particular disadvantages by integration with two area cameras, LED markers, image processing techniques and inertial sensors with simple algorithm in laboratory level environment. We have also reported some experimental results conducted in laboratory, which proves good accuracy even in the sunlight condition. This time, we show actual performance of the Optical HMT in flight condition, including evaluation of stability against sunlight. Shimadzu Corp. and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) is conducting joint research named SAVERH (Situation Awareness and Visual Enhancer for Rescue Helicopter) [2] that aims at inventing method of presenting suitable information to the pilot to support search and rescue missions by helicopters. The Optical HMT has been evaluated through a series of flight evaluation in SAVERH and demonstrated the operation concept.

  7. Data correction for seven activity trackers based on regression models.

    PubMed

    Andalibi, Vafa; Honko, Harri; Christophe, Francois; Viik, Jari

    2015-08-01

    Using an activity tracker for measuring activity-related parameters, e.g. steps and energy expenditure (EE), can be very helpful in assisting a person's fitness improvement. Unlike the measuring of number of steps, an accurate EE estimation requires additional personal information as well as accurate velocity of movement, which is hard to achieve due to inaccuracy of sensors. In this paper, we have evaluated regression-based models to improve the precision for both steps and EE estimation. For this purpose, data of seven activity trackers and two reference devices was collected from 20 young adult volunteers wearing all devices at once in three different tests, namely 60-minute office work, 6-hour overall activity and 60-minute walking. Reference data is used to create regression models for each device and relative percentage errors of adjusted values are then statistically compared to that of original values. The effectiveness of regression models are determined based on the result of a statistical test. During a walking period, EE measurement was improved in all devices. The step measurement was also improved in five of them. The results show that improvement of EE estimation is possible only with low-cost implementation of fitting model over the collected data e.g. in the app or in corresponding service back-end.

  8. Electromagnetic tracker accuracy in the CyberKnife suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Emmanuel; Slack, Rebecca; Banovac, Filip; Dieterich, Sonja; Zhang, Hui; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-03-01

    Electromagnetic trackers have found inroads into medical applications as a tool for navigation in recent years. Their susceptibility to interference from both electromagnetic and ferromagnetic sources have prompted several accuracy assessment studies in past years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first accuracy study conducted to characterize measurement accuracy of an NDI AURORA electromagnetic tracker within a CyberKnife radiosurgery suite. CyberKnife is a frameless, stereotactic radiosurgery device used to ablate tumors within the brain, spine and in recent years, the chest and abdomen. This paper uses a data collection protocol to collect uniformly distributed data points within a subset of the AURORA measurement volume in a CyberKnife suite. The key aim of the study is to determine the extent to which large metal components of the CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery device and robot mount contribute to overall system performance for the AURORA electromagnetic device. A secondary goal of the work is to determine the variation in accuracy and device behavior with the presence of ionizing radiation when the LINAC is turned on.

  9. An adaptive tracker for ShipIR/NTCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.

    2015-05-01

    A key component in any image-based tracking system is the adaptive tracking algorithm used to segment the image into potential targets, rank-and-select the best candidate target, and the gating of the selected target to further improve tracker performance. This paper will describe a new adaptive tracker algorithm added to the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature model (ShipIR). The new adaptive tracking algorithm is an optional feature used with any of the existing internal NTCS or user-defined seeker algorithms (e.g., binary centroid, intensity centroid, and threshold intensity centroid). The algorithm segments the detected pixels into clusters, and the smallest set of clusters that meet the detection criterion is obtained by using a knapsack algorithm to identify the set of clusters that should not be used. The rectangular area containing the chosen clusters defines an inner boundary, from which a weighted centroid is calculated as the aim-point. A track-gate is then positioned around the clusters, taking into account the rate of change of the bounding area and compensating for any gimbal displacement. A sequence of scenarios is used to test the new tracking algorithm on a generic unclassified DDG ShipIR model, with and without flares, and demonstrate how some of the key seeker signals are impacted by both the ship and flare intrinsic signatures.

  10. Compact near-to-eye display with integrated gaze tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvenpää, Toni; Aaltonen, Viljakaisa

    2008-04-01

    Near-to-Eye Display (NED) offers a big screen experience to the user anywhere, anytime. It provides a way to perceive a larger image than the physical device itself is. Commercially available NEDs tend to be quite bulky and uncomfortable to wear. However, by using very thin plastic light guides with diffractive structures on the surfaces, many of the known deficiencies can be notably reduced. These Exit Pupil Expander (EPE) light guides enable a thin, light, user friendly and high performing see-through NED, which we have demonstrated. To be able to interact with the displayed UI efficiently, we have also integrated a video-based gaze tracker into the NED. The narrow light beam of an infrared light source is divided and expanded inside the same EPEs to produce wide collimated beams out from the EPE towards the eyes. Miniature video camera images the cornea and eye gaze direction is accurately calculated by locating the pupil and the glints of the infrared beams. After a simple and robust per-user calibration, the data from the highly integrated gaze tracker reflects the user focus point in the displayed image which can be used as an input device for the NED system. Realizable applications go from eye typing to playing games, and far beyond.

  11. Airport Pricing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional economic wisdom suggests that congestion pricing would be an appropriate response to cope with the growing congestion levels currently experienced at many airports. Several characteristics of aviation markets, however, may make naive congestion prices equal to the value of marginal travel delays a non-optimal response. This paper has developed a model of airport pricing that captures a number of these features. The model in particular reflects that airlines typically have market power and are engaged in oligopolistic competition at different sub-markets; that part of external travel delays that aircraft impose are internal to an operator and hence should not be accounted for in congestion tolls. We presented an analytical treatment for a simple bi-nodal symmetric network, which through the use of 'hyper-networks' would be readily applicable to dynamic problems (in discrete time) such as peak - off-peak differences, and some numerical exercises for the same symmetric network, which was only designed to illustrate the possible comparative static impacts of tolling, in addition to marginal equilibrium conditions as could be derived for the general model specification. Some main conclusions are that second-best optimal tolls are typically lower than what would be suggested by congestion costs alone and may even be negative, and that the toll as derived by Brueckner (2002) may not lead to an increase in total welfare. While Brueckner (2002) has made clear that congestion tolls on airports may be smaller than expected when congestion costs among aircraft are internal for a firm, our analysis adds to this that a further downward adjustment may be in order due to market power. The presence of market power (which causes prices to exceed marginal costs) may cause the pure congestion toll to be suboptimal, because the resulting decrease in demand is too high (the pure congestion tall does not take into account the decrease in consumer surplus). The various

  12. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Sheen S.; Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L.; Zajac, Edward J.; Stark, David

    2014-01-01

    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others’ decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity. PMID:25404313

  13. Option price and market instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2017-04-01

    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.

  14. Pricing Films, Filmstrips and Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Connie C.

    1984-01-01

    Examines pricing practices of major producers of educational materials: Weston Woods, Listening Library, Random House Educational Media, Live Oak Media, S&S Communications Group, Phoenix/BFA, Benchmark, and Churchill Films. Royalties, production and manufacturing costs, list prices, recoveries to producers, and marketing are noted. (EJS)

  15. Pricing Films, Filmstrips and Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Connie C.

    1984-01-01

    Examines pricing practices of major producers of educational materials: Weston Woods, Listening Library, Random House Educational Media, Live Oak Media, S&S Communications Group, Phoenix/BFA, Benchmark, and Churchill Films. Royalties, production and manufacturing costs, list prices, recoveries to producers, and marketing are noted. (EJS)

  16. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  17. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  18. Biologically Inspired Phosphino Platinum Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Avijita; Helm, Monte L.; Linehan, John C.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2012-08-01

    Platinum complexes containing phosphino amino acid and amino acid ester ligands, built upon the PPhNR’2 platform, have been synthesized and characterized (PPhNR’2= [1,3-diaza]-5-phenyl phosphacyclohexane, R’=glycine or glycine ester). These complexes were characterized by 31P, 13C, 1H, 195Pt NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the complexes, [PtCl2(PPhNGlyester 2)2], is also reported. These biologically inspired ligands have potential use in homogeneous catalysis, with special applications in chiral chemistry and water soluble chemistry. These complexes also provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached, to allow the introduction of enzyme-like features onto small molecule catalysts. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  19. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.

    PubMed

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded.

  20. Which cue to 'want'? Opioid stimulation of central amygdala makes goal-trackers show stronger goal-tracking, just as sign-trackers show stronger sign-tracking.

    PubMed

    DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra G; Berridge, Kent C

    2012-05-01

    Pavlovian cues that have been paired with reward can gain incentive salience. Drug addicts find drug cues motivationally attractive and binge eaters are attracted by food cues. But the level of incentive salience elicited by a cue re-encounter still varies across time and brain states. In an animal model, cues become attractive and 'wanted' in an 'autoshaping' paradigm, where different targets of incentive salience emerge for different individuals. Some individuals (sign-trackers) find a predictive discrete cue attractive while others find a reward contiguous goal cue more attractive (location where reward arrives: goal-trackers). Here we assessed whether central amygdala mu opioid receptor stimulation enhances the phasic incentive salience of the goal-cue for goal-trackers during moments of predictive cue presence (expressed in both approach and consummatory behaviors to goal cue), just as it enhances the attractiveness of the predictive cue target for sign-trackers. Using detailed video analysis we measured the approaches, nibbles, sniffs, and bites directed at their preferred target for both sign-trackers and goal-trackers. We report that DAMGO microinjections in central amygdala made goal-trackers, like sign-trackers, show phasic increases in appetitive nibbles and sniffs directed at the goal-cue expressed selectively whenever the predictive cue was present. This indicates enhancement of incentive salience attributed by both goal trackers and sign-trackers, but attributed in different directions: each to their own target cue. For both phenotypes, amygdala opioid stimulation makes the individual's prepotent cue into a stronger motivational magnet at phasic moments triggered by a CS that predicts the reward UCS.

  1. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... value and, in an investigation, prices used as the basis for export price or constructed export price...

  2. 48 CFR 36.207 - Pricing fixed-price construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pricing fixed-price... Contracting for Construction 36.207 Pricing fixed-price construction contracts. (a) Generally, firm-fixed... estimates. (c) Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment may be used if such a provision is...

  3. 48 CFR 36.207 - Pricing fixed-price construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pricing fixed-price... Contracting for Construction 36.207 Pricing fixed-price construction contracts. (a) Generally, firm-fixed... estimates. (c) Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment may be used if such a provision is...

  4. 48 CFR 36.207 - Pricing fixed-price construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pricing fixed-price... Contracting for Construction 36.207 Pricing fixed-price construction contracts. (a) Generally, firm-fixed... estimates. (c) Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment may be used if such a provision is...

  5. Development of an extremely thin-wall straw tracker operational in vacuum - The COMET straw tracker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiguchi, H.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fujii, Y.; Hamada, E.; Mihara, S.; Moiseenko, A.; Noguchi, K.; Oishi, K.; Tanaka, S.; Tojo, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Tsverava, N.; Ueno, K.; Volkov, A.

    2017-02-01

    The COMET experiment at J-PARC aims to search for a lepton-flavour violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom, μ-e conversion, with a branching-ratio sensitivity of better than 10-16, 4 orders of magnitude better than the present limit, in order to explore the parameter region predicted by most of well-motivated theoretical models beyond the Standard Model. The need for this sensitivity places several stringent requirements on the detector development. The experiment requires to detect the monochromatic electron of 105 MeV, the momentum resolution is primarily limited by the multiple scattering effect for this momentum region. Thus we need the very light material detector in order to achieve an excellent momentum resolution, better than 2%, for 100 MeV region. In order to fulfil such a requirement, the thin-wall straw-tube planar tracker has been developed by an extremely light material which is operational in vacuum. The COMET straw tracker consists of 9.8 mm diameter straw tube, longer than 1 m length, with 20-μm-thick Mylar foil and 70-nm-thick aluminium deposition. Currently even thinner and smaller, 12 μm thick and 5 mm diameter, straw is under development by the ultrasonic welding technique.

  6. 2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria

    2006-01-01

    A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems

  7. Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

  8. NASA Celebrates Atlantis as Pioneer, Inspiration

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Astronauts and senior NASA management noted the contributions of space shuttle Atlantis as they signed the spacecraft over for a new mission of inspiration as it goes on public display at the Kenne...

  9. Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

  10. Towards gecko-feet-inspired bandages.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    2009-01-01

    A novel bandage inspired by gecko feet might one day be used during emergencies and internal surgeries. The bandage uses a combination of nanofabricated structures, biodegradable materials and adhesive surface chemistry that allows adhesion onto even wet, moving tissue.

  11. Biologically Inspired Technology Using Electroactive Polymers (EAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    Evolution allowed nature to introduce highly effective biological mechanisms that are incredible inspiration for innovation. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature's inventions and we are increasingly making advances that it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. This brought us to the ability to create technology that is far beyond the simple mimicking of nature. Having better tools to understand and to implement nature's principles we are now equipped like never before to be inspired by nature and to employ our tools in far superior ways. Effectively, by bio-inspiration we can have a better view and value of nature capability while studying its models to learn what can be extracted, copied or adapted. Using electroactive polymers (EAP) as artificial muscles is adding an important element to the development of biologically inspired technologies.

  12. Biologically Inspired Technology Using Electroactive Polymers (EAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    Evolution allowed nature to introduce highly effective biological mechanisms that are incredible inspiration for innovation. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature's inventions and we are increasingly making advances that it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. This brought us to the ability to create technology that is far beyond the simple mimicking of nature. Having better tools to understand and to implement nature's principles we are now equipped like never before to be inspired by nature and to employ our tools in far superior ways. Effectively, by bio-inspiration we can have a better view and value of nature capability while studying its models to learn what can be extracted, copied or adapted. Using electroactive polymers (EAP) as artificial muscles is adding an important element to the development of biologically inspired technologies.

  13. Development of OA Abroad and Its Inspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces the concept and characteristics of open access (OA), analyses the status quo and development of OA in foreign countries, and discusses its inspiration to its future development in China.

  14. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  15. Bio-inspired dynamic robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Alan S.; Wax, Steven G.; Christodoulou, Leo

    2003-09-01

    The unique performance of biological systems across a wide spectrum of phylogenetic species has historically provided inspirations for roboticists in new designs and fabrication of new robotic platforms. Of particular interest to a number of important applications is to create dynamic robots able to adapt to a change in their world, unplanned events that are sometimes unexpected, and sometimes unstable, harsh conditions. It is likely that the exploring dynamics in biological systems will continue to provide rich solutions to attaining robots capable of more complex tasks for this purpose. This is because the long-term design process of evolution utilizes a natural selection process that responds to such changes. Recently, there have been significant advances across a number of interdisciplinary efforts that have generated new capabilities in biorobotics. Whole body dynamics that capture the force dynamics and functional stability of legged systems over rough terrain have been elucidated and applied in legged robotic systems. Exploying the force dynamics of flapping winged insect flight has provided key discoveries and enabled the fabrication of new micro air vehicles. New classes of materials are being developed that emulate the ability of natural muscle, capturing the compliant and soft subtle movement and performance of biological appendages. In addition, classes of new multifunctional materials are being developed to enable the design of biorobotics with the structural and functional efficiency of living organisms. Optical flow and other sensors based on the principles of invertebrate vision have been implemented on robotic platforms for autonomous robotic guidance and control. These fundamental advances have resulted in the emergence of a new generation of bioinspired dynamic robots which show significant performance improvements in early prototype testing and that could someday be useful in a number of significant applications such as search and rescue and

  16. Endogenous Biologically Inspired Art of Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haru; Wakefield, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007, Graham Wakefield and Haru Ji have looked to nature for inspiration as they have created a series of "artificial natures," or interactive visualizations of biologically inspired complex systems that can evoke nature-like aesthetic experiences within mixed-reality art installations. This article describes how they have applied visualization, sonification, and interaction design in their work with artificial ecosystems and organisms using specific examples from their exhibited installations.

  17. Measurements of The Neutrino Flux Using Fine-Grained Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib; Petti, Roberto; Duyang, Hongyue; LBNE Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The reference design of the near detector for the LBNE/F experiment is a high-resolution Fine-Grained Tracker (FGT) capable of precisely measuring all four species of neutrinos: νμ, νe, νμ and νe. The goals of the FGT is to constrain the systematic errors, below the corresponding statistical error in the far detector, for all oscillation studies; and to conduct a panoply of precision measurements and searches in neutrino physics. We present sensitivity studies - critical to constraining the systematics in oscillation searches - of measurements of the absolute and relative neutrino flux using the various techniques: 1) neutrino electron NC (CC) scattering, 2) νμ proton QE scattering, 3) Coherent ρ production for absolute flux and 4) Low- ν method for relative flux.

  18. A precision star tracker utilizing advanced techniques and materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. F.; Mcaloon, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    An image dissector star tracker has been developed which operates in the photon counting mode making it possible to utilize all digital electronics. A unique pulse processing circuit allows bright stars to be tracked as well as dim stars. Thermal mechanical stability has been greatly enhanced by fabricating a housing with graphite/epoxy composite material with a linear coefficient of thermal expansion near zero. Test results indicate the +10 Mv stars can be acquired and tracked, while position variation with star intensity is less than 2 arc seconds from 2.5 Mv to +10 Mv. The noise equivalent angle for a +8 Mv star is 3 arc seconds. Polynominal correction for remaining cross-coupling and nonlinearity reduced error over total 1 x 1 deg field to 1.5 arc seconds.

  19. The Tevatron tune tracker pll - theory, implementation and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The Tevatron tune tracker is based on the idea that the transverse phase response of the beam can be measured quickly and accurately enough to allow us to track the betatron tune with a phase locked loop (PLL). The goal of this paper is to show the progress of the PLL project at Fermilab. We will divide this paper into three parts: theory, implementation and measurements. In the theory section, we will use a simple linear model to show that our design will track the betatron tune under conditions that occur in the Tevatron. In the implementation section we will break down and examine each part of the PLL and in some cases calculate the actual PLL parameters used in our system from beam measurements. And finally in the measurements section we will show the results of the PLL performance.

  20. LoyalTracker: Visualizing Loyalty Dynamics in Search Engines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Conglei; Wu, Yingcai; Liu, Shixia; Zhou, Hong; Qu, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    The huge amount of user log data collected by search engine providers creates new opportunities to understand user loyalty and defection behavior at an unprecedented scale. However, this also poses a great challenge to analyze the behavior and glean insights into the complex, large data. In this paper, we introduce LoyalTracker, a visual analytics system to track user loyalty and switching behavior towards multiple search engines from the vast amount of user log data. We propose a new interactive visualization technique (flow view) based on a flow metaphor, which conveys a proper visual summary of the dynamics of user loyalty of thousands of users over time. Two other visualization techniques, a density map and a word cloud, are integrated to enable analysts to gain further insights into the patterns identified by the flow view. Case studies and the interview with domain experts are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of our technique in understanding user loyalty and switching behavior in search engines.