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Sample records for primary adult optical

  1. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor, relieve symptoms, and improve brain function or comfort. Surgery is often needed for most primary brain ... and pressure Anticonvulsants to reduce seizures Pain medicines Comfort measures, safety measures, physical therapy, and occupational therapy ...

  2. General Information about Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Primary Liver Cancer Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  3. Primary care of adults with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the 2006 Canadian guidelines for primary care of adults with developmental disabilities (DD) and to make practical recommendations based on current knowledge to address the particular health issues of adults with DD. Quality of evidence Knowledgeable health care providers participating in a colloquium and a subsequent working group discussed and agreed on revisions to the 2006 guidelines based on a comprehensive review of publications, feedback gained from users of the guidelines, and personal clinical experiences. Most of the available evidence in this area of care is from expert opinion or published consensus statements (level III). Main message Adults with DD have complex health issues, many of them differing from those of the general population. Good primary care identifies the particular health issues faced by adults with DD to improve their quality of life, to improve their access to health care, and to prevent suffering, morbidity, and premature death. These guidelines synthesize general, physical, behavioural, and mental health issues of adults with DD that primary care providers should be aware of, and they present recommendations for screening and management based on current knowledge that practitioners can apply. Because of interacting biologic, psychoaffective, and social factors that contribute to the health and well-being of adults with DD, these guidelines emphasize involving caregivers, adapting procedures when appropriate, and seeking input from a range of health professionals when available. Ethical care is also emphasized. The guidelines are formulated within an ethical framework that pays attention to issues such as informed consent and the assessment of health benefits in relation to risks of harm. Conclusion Implementation of the guidelines proposed here would improve the health of adults with DD and would minimize disparities in health and health care between adults with DD and those in the general population

  4. Optical design study for NASA's spherical primary optical telescope (SPOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Joseph M.

    2004-10-01

    Several of NASA's future space telescopes project teams have chosen or are considering segmented primary mirrors as a part of their architecture. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) design employs a 6.5-meter conic primary mirror constructed of 18 hexagonal segments, where each hex is one of three off-axis surface profiles corresponding to its radial distance to the parent mirror axis. Other future mission concepts such as SAFIR (Single Aperture Far-Infra Red) and SUVO (Space Ultra Violet Optical telescope) are considering even larger segmented primary mirrors. The goal of the Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT) project discussed in this paper is to investigate the option of a spherical primary mirror for such future large aperture NASA missions. Ground-based telescopes such as the Hobby-Eberly have realized this design option, and the current baseline design for ESO's OWL project incorporates a 100-meter segmented spherical primary mirror. While the benefits of fabricating large numbers of identical spherical surface segments are obvious, the optical design for the telescope becomes more complex in order to correct the significant aberration resulting from a spherical primary surface. This paper briefly surveys design approaches of spherical primary telescopes. Image based performance comparisons are made, and examples are presented.

  5. Treatment of primary brain tumours in adults.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Shanne

    This article considers the complexities of caring for patients with primary brain tumours. The incidence, classification and clinical signs and symptoms are outlined. Adult patients experience disabling effects as a result of a brain tumour, which is often accompanied by high morbidity and mortality rates. The various treatment options available are summarised. However, for many patients, there are limited curative treatment options and the main focus is palliative care. The nurse's contribution to care and support of these patients and their families is discussed, with the aim of improving their quality of life.

  6. Solar optical telescope primary mirror controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. J.; Liu, D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a technique to control the articulated primary mirror (APM) of the solar optical telescope (SOT) is discussed. Program results indicate that a single, all digital controller has sufficient capability to totally handle the computational requirements for control of the SOT APM.

  7. A review of primary hereditary optic neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Votruba, M; Aijaz, S; Moore, A T

    2003-01-01

    The primary inherited optic neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders that result in loss of retinal ganglion cells, leading to the clinical appearance of optic atrophy. They affect between 1:10,000 to 1:50,000 people. The main clinical features are a reduction in visual acuity, colour vision abnormalities, centro-caecal visual field defects and pallor of the optic nerve head. Electrophysiological testing shows a normal flash electroretinogram, absent or delayed pattern visually evoked potentials suggestive of a conduction deficit and N95 waveform reduction on the pattern electroretinogram, consistent with a primary ganglion cell pathology. The primary inherited optic neuropathies may be sporadic or familial. The mode of inheritance may be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked recessive or mitochondrial. Within each of these groups, the phenotypic characteristics vary in such features as the mode and age of onset, the severity of the visual loss, the colour deficit and the overall prognosis. A number of different genes (most as yet unidentified) in both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, underlie these disorders. The elucidation of the role of the encoded proteins will improve our understanding of basic mechanisms of ganglion cell development, physiology and metabolism and further our understanding of the pathophysiology of optic nerve disease. It will also improve diagnosis, counselling and management of patients, and eventually lead to the development of new therapeutic modalities.

  8. Radiation therapy for primary optic nerve meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.L.; Vuksanovic, M.M.; Yates, B.M.; Bienfang, D.C.

    1981-06-01

    Optic nerve sheath meningiomas, formerly thought to be rare, have been encountered with surprising frequency since the widespread use of computed tomography. Early diagnosis led to an enthusiastic surgical approach to these lesions, but this has been tempered by the realization that even in the best of hands, blindness followed such surgery with distressing frequency. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas may be divided into primary, secondary, and multiple meningioma groups. Five patients with primary optic nerve sheath meningiomas treated with irradiation therapy are presented in this report. Improvement in visual acuity, stabilization to increase in the visual field, and decrease in size to total regression of optociliary veins, have been documented following irradiation therapy of the posterior orbital and intracanalicular portions of the optic nerve in some of these cases. Although each patient must be carefully individualized, there is no question that visual palliation can be achieved in some cases of optic nerve sheath meningioma. Further investigation of this therapeutic modality in selected cases in advised.

  9. Spreading Optics in the primary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargallo, Ana; Gómez-Varela, Ana I.; Gónzalez-Nuñez, Héctor; Delgado, Tamara; Almaguer, Citlalli; Cambronero, Ferran; García-Sánchez, Ángel; Pallarés, David; Aymerich, María; Aragón, Ángel L.; Flores-Arias, Maria T.

    2015-04-01

    The USC-OSA is a student chapter located at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) whose objective is to bring optics and photonics knowledge closer to general public. In order to arouse kids' interest in Optics we developed an activity called Funny Light. This activity consisted on a visit of some USC-OSA members to a several local primary schools where we organized several optics experiments. In this work we present the optics demonstrations and the reaction of the 6 years-old students. The activities with greater acceptance include an explanation of light properties as polarization, refraction or reflection, and the workshop where they learnt how to build their own kaleidoscope and made a chromatic disk. Besides, they also participated in a demonstration and explanation of color properties and some optical illusions. We think that this activity has several benefits including spreading Optics through children meanwhile they have fun and experiment science in real life, as well as helping teachers to explain some complex properties and Physics phenomena of light. Given the broad acceptance of this activity, we are intending to make it a routine event of our student chapter repeating it every year.

  10. Hybrid RF / Optical Communication Terminal with Spherical Primary Optics for Optical Reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Jeffrey R.; Hoppe, Daniel H.; Sehic, Asim

    2011-01-01

    Future deep space communications are likely to employ not only the existing RF uplink and downlink, but also a high capacity optical downlink. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is currently investigating the benefits of a ground based hybrid RF and deep space optical terminal based on limited modification of existing 34 meter antenna designs. The ideal design would include as large an optical aperture as technically practical and cost effective, cause minimal impact to RF performance, and remain cost effective even when compared to a separate optical terminal of comparable size. Numerous trades and architectures have been considered, including shared RF and optical apertures having aspheric optics and means to separate RF and optical signals, plus, partitioned apertures in which various zones of the primary are dedicated to optical reception. A design based on the latter is emphasized in this paper, employing spherical primary optics and a new version of a "clamshell" corrector that is optimized to fit within the limited space between the antenna sub-reflector and the existing apex structure that supports the subreflector. The mechanical design of the hybrid accommodates multiple spherical primary mirror panels in the central 11 meters of the antenna, and integrates the clamshell corrector and optical receiver modules with antenna hardware using existing attach points to the maximum extent practical. When an optical collection area is implemented on a new antenna, it is possible to design the antenna structure to accommodate the additional weight of optical mirrors providing an equivalent aperture of several meters diameter. The focus of our near term effort is to use optics with the 34 meter DSS-13 antenna at Goldstone to demonstrate spatial optical acquisition and tracking capability using an optical system that is temporarily integrated into the antenna.

  11. Primary cerebral alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in adult

    PubMed Central

    Pirillo, Vania; Cipriano Cecchi, Paolo; Tripodi, Massimo; Maier, Klaus; Rizzo, Paolo; Schwarz, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Primary cerebral rhabdomyosarcomas are very rare and malignant tumors that occur predominantly in the posterior fossa of pediatric patients. We report a rare case of primary cerebral rhabdomyosarcoma located in the supratentorial compartment of a 51 year-old woman together with a review of the pertinent Literature especially regarding the histological diagnosis and pitfalls. PMID:21769325

  12. [Primary retroperitoneal enteric cyst in an adult].

    PubMed

    Kondor, Ariella; Hajdu, Gábor; Zöllei, István; Bende, Mariann

    2005-06-01

    The posterior mediastinum is the usual location of enteric cysts. They can be located at any part of the posterior mediastinum adjacent to the oesophagus, but communication with that structure is rare. Approximately 60 percent of the cysts occur in infants less than one year of age, and symptoms of tracheal or oesophageal obstruction are common. The cysts usually contain clear, colorless mucoid fluid. The authors describe here a successfully treated enteric cyst with an unusual, retroperitoneal location, which presented in an adult.

  13. Primary care for adults on the autism spectrum.

    PubMed

    Nicolaidis, Christina; Kripke, Clarissa Calliope; Raymaker, Dora

    2014-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by differences in social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Skills and challenges can change depending on environmental stimuli, supports, and stressors. Quality of life can be improved by the use of accommodations, assistive technologies, therapies to improve adaptive function or communication, caregiver training, acceptance, access, and inclusion. This article focuses on the identification of ASD in adults, referrals for services, the recognition of associated conditions, strategies and accommodations to facilitate effective primary care services, and ethical issues related to caring for autistic adults.

  14. Articulated primary mirror /APM/ for the Solar Optical Telescope /SOT/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowrinathan, S.; Gottesman, J.

    1981-01-01

    Allowing the location of the primary vs secondary mirrors to be movable in space, the articulated primary mirror (APM) was designed as an inexpensive alternative, providing stable imagery, for the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). Requirements of high resolution in the sub-arc-second region, and the ability to point the telescope through the Instrument Pointing System (IPS) were satisfied. Alignment sensors, contained within the subsystem, locate the points of coincidence of the foci of the primary and secondary optics (conic foci). These are utilized as inputs for subsystem actuators to correct via the digital controller algorithm.

  15. Mass Manufacturing Challenges For CPV Primary And Secondary Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, Thomas; Cohen, Joel

    2010-10-01

    Crucial for the performance and longevity of CPV installations is the efficiency of the optics used. Low production cost and high performance are key for the economical success of a CPV concept. To be able to compete with existing energy sources, proven mass production methods as well as high performance materials have to be employed. The injection molding process is the ideal serial production process capable to deliver at the same time high part quantities, excellent part precision and repeatable part quality at low manufacturing cost. Primary and secondary optics require different materials to be applied. The Pros and Cons of these materials in terms of production properties and achievable part precision will be discussed. We will show quality results for primary Fresnel optics using PMMA and, alternatively Silicone on Glass. For secondary optics we will demonstrate the use of optical silicone lenses widely used for high power LED applications today. Optical grade silicone has an excellent environmental stability even when encountering high energy density levels. The experience of Eschenbach Optik in injection molding silicone optics shows that this material is a very cost competitive alternative for glass secondary optics providing both highest optical performance and precision.

  16. Photonic crystal-based RGB primary colour optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Brahm Raj; Rawal, Swati; Sinha, R. K.

    2016-08-01

    We have presented an RGB optical filter, based on photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides, with the hexagonal arrangement of GaP rods in air. It filters out the three primary colours of the visible range, red (R, λ = 648 nm), green (G, λ = 540 nm) and blue (B, λ = 470 nm). The plane wave expansion method is applied for estimating the dispersion curves and finite element method is utilized in examining the propagation characteristics of the designed PhC-based optical filter. Transmittance, extinction ratio and tolerance analysis have further been calculated to confirm the performance of the proposed optical filter to work in the visible range of optical spectrum and filter out the three primary colours (red, green, blue) along different output ports.

  17. The center of curvature optical assembly for the JWST primary mirror cryogenic optical test: optical verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Conrad; Olczak, Gene; Merle, Cormic; Dey, Tom; Waldman, Mark; Whitman, Tony; Wick, Eric; Peer, Aaron

    2010-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) consists of a 6.6 m clear aperture, allreflective, three-mirror anastigmat. The 18-segment primary mirror (PM) presents unique and challenging assembly, integration, alignment and testing requirements. A full aperture center of curvature optical test is performed in cryogenic vacuum conditions at the integrated observatory level to verify PM performance requirements. The Center of Curvature Optical Assembly (CoCOA), designed and being built by ITT satisfies the requirements for this test. The CoCOA contains a multi wave interferometer, patented reflective null lens, actuation for alignment, full in situ calibration capability, coarse and fine alignment sensing systems, as well as a system for monitoring changes in the PM to CoCOA distance. Two wave front calibration tests are utilized to verify the low and Mid/High spatial frequencies, overcoming the limitations of the standard null/hologram configuration in its ability to resolve mid and high spatial frequencies. This paper will introduce the systems level architecture and optical test layout for the CoCOA.

  18. Preparing displaced adults for the optics/photonics workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Darrell M.

    2000-06-01

    As the optics/photonics industry continues to grow, the demand for workers is assumed to increase proportionally. Empirical data seem to support this assumption. This increase presents a challenge to optics/photonics education, since they control and assume responsibility for a key factor in the ability of industry to further expand. At the same time, the U.S. government through the Department of Labor and the Workforce Investment Act has requested that communities enact programs for displaced adults to transition to the workplace. A program of study is provided that would assist adults in making this transition from unemployment to the optics/photonics industry, with the necessary general work skills, occupational optics/photonics skills, and ability to progress on the job with academic foundations in math and science.

  19. Adult primary retroperitoneal cavernous hemangioma: a case report.

    PubMed

    He, Hang; Du, Zunguo; Hao, Sijie; Yao, Lie; Yang, Feng; Di, Yang; Li, Ji; Jiang, Yongjian; Jin, Chen; Fu, Deliang

    2012-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal cavernous hemangioma (PRCH) in an adult is extremely rare. We report on the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with PRCH with subtle clinical features and atypical findings on imaging scans. A 38-year-old man was admitted to hospital with a 5-day history of epigastralgia after alcohol drinking. Using various imaging methods, we found a giant cyst-like retroperitoneal mass compressing the surrounding organs. Surgical resection of the tumor was performed, and the mass was found to be a cavernous hemangioma measuring 90 × 80 × 60 mm, with a thick fibrotic wall and extensive intracystic hemorrhage. Physicians should be aware that PRCH may mimic a cystic neoplasm, and that a large tumor size probably indicates intracystic hemorrhage. Surgical resection is a curative approach for PRCH.

  20. Alignment displacements of the solar optical telescope primary mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medenica, W. V.

    1978-01-01

    Solar optical telescope is a space shuttle payload which is at the present time (1978) being planned. The selected alignment method for the telescope's primary mirror is such that the six inclined legs supporting the mirror are at the same time motorized alignment actuators, changing their own length according to the alignment requirement and command. The alignment displacements were described, including circumvention of some apparent NASTRAN limitations.

  1. Implementing an Optical Disk System for Adult Education Manuscripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RSR Reference Services Review, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Briefly describes the objectives and research areas of the Kellogg Project at Syracuse University, focusing on the development of an optical disk system for the indexing and dissemination of the university library's adult education collections. The criteria used to evaluate technologies and vendors are discussed. (CLB)

  2. Contemporary management of primary immune thrombocytopenia in adults.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, S; Cuker, A

    2012-10-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) comprises a syndrome of diverse disorders that have in common immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, but that differ with respect to pathogenesis, natural history and response to therapy. ITP may occur in the absence of an evident predisposing etiology (primary ITP) or as a sequela of a growing list of associated conditions (secondary ITP). Primary ITP remains a diagnosis of exclusion and must be differentiated from non-autoimmune etiologies of thrombocytopenia and secondary causes of ITP. The traditional objective of management is to provide a hemostatic platelet count (> 20-30 × 10(9) L(-1) in most cases) while minimizing treatment-related toxicity, although treatment goals should be tailored to the individual patient and clinical setting. Corticosteroids, supplemented with either intravenous immune globulin G or anti-Rh(D) as needed, are used as upfront therapy to stop bleeding and raise the platelet count acutely in patients with newly diagnosed or newly relapsed disease. Although most adults with primary ITP respond to first-line therapy, the majority relapse after treatment is tapered and require a second-line approach to maintain a hemostatic platelet count. Standard second-line options include splenectomy, rituximab and the thrombopoietin receptor agonists, romiplostim and eltrombopag. Studies that directly compare the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of these approaches are lacking. In the absence of such data, we do not favor a single second-line approach for all patients. Rather, we consider the pros and cons of each option with our patients and engage them in the decision-making process.

  3. Cystic change in primary paediatric optic nerve sheath meningioma.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Daniel; Rajak, Saul; Patel, Sandy; Selva, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    Primary optic nerve sheath meningiomas (PONSM) are rare in children. Cystic meningiomas are an uncommon subgroup of meningiomas. We report a case of paediatric PONSM managed using observation alone that underwent cystic change and radiological regression. A 5-year-old girl presented with visual impairment and proptosis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a PONSM. The patient was left untreated and followed up with regular MR imaging. Repeat imaging at 16 years of age showed the tumour had started to develop cystic change. Repeat imaging at 21 years of age showed the tumour had decreased in size. PMID:27310300

  4. Rituximab use in adult primary glomerulopathy: where is the evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Mallat, Samir G; Itani, Houssam S; Abou-Mrad, Rana M; Abou Arkoub, Rima; Tanios, Bassem Y

    2016-01-01

    Rituximab is a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody that results in depletion of B-cell lymphocytes. It is currently used in the treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases, in addition to CD20-positive lymphomas. The use of rituximab in the treatment of the adult primary glomerular diseases has emerged recently, although not yet established as first-line therapy in international guidelines. In patients with steroid-dependent minimal change disease or frequently relapsing disease, and in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), several retrospective and prospective studies support the use of rituximab to induce remission, whereas in idiopathic focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), the use of rituximab has resulted in variable results. Evidence is still lacking for the use of rituximab in patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), as only few reports used rituximab in these two entities. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are warranted and clearly needed to establish the definitive role of rituximab in the management of steroid-dependent and frequently relapsing minimal change disease, IMN, both as first-line and second-line treatment, and in MPGN. We await the results of an ongoing RCT of rituximab use in IgAN. Although current evidence for the use of rituximab in patients with idiopathic FSGS is poor, more RCTs are needed to clarify its role, if any, in the management of steroid-resistant or steroid-dependent FSGS. PMID:27621641

  5. Rituximab use in adult primary glomerulopathy: where is the evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Mallat, Samir G; Itani, Houssam S; Abou-Mrad, Rana M; Abou Arkoub, Rima; Tanios, Bassem Y

    2016-01-01

    Rituximab is a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody that results in depletion of B-cell lymphocytes. It is currently used in the treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases, in addition to CD20-positive lymphomas. The use of rituximab in the treatment of the adult primary glomerular diseases has emerged recently, although not yet established as first-line therapy in international guidelines. In patients with steroid-dependent minimal change disease or frequently relapsing disease, and in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), several retrospective and prospective studies support the use of rituximab to induce remission, whereas in idiopathic focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), the use of rituximab has resulted in variable results. Evidence is still lacking for the use of rituximab in patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), as only few reports used rituximab in these two entities. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are warranted and clearly needed to establish the definitive role of rituximab in the management of steroid-dependent and frequently relapsing minimal change disease, IMN, both as first-line and second-line treatment, and in MPGN. We await the results of an ongoing RCT of rituximab use in IgAN. Although current evidence for the use of rituximab in patients with idiopathic FSGS is poor, more RCTs are needed to clarify its role, if any, in the management of steroid-resistant or steroid-dependent FSGS.

  6. The center of curvature optical assembly for the JWST primary mirror cryogenic optical test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Conrad; Olczak, Gene; Merle, Cormic; Dey, Tom; Waldman, Mark; Whitman, Tony; Wick, Eric; Peer, Aaron

    2010-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) consists of a 6.6 m clear aperture, allreflective, three-mirror anastigmat. The 18-segment primary mirror (PM) presents unique and challenging assembly, integration, alignment and testing requirements. A full aperture center of curvature optical test is performed in cryogenic vacuum conditions at the integrated observatory level to verify PM performance requirements. The Center of Curvature Optical Assembly (CoCOA), designed and being built by ITT satisfies the requirements for this test. The CoCOA contains a multi wave interferometer, patented reflective null lens, actuation for alignment, full in situ calibration capability, coarse and fine alignment sensing systems, as well as a system for monitoring changes in the PM to CoCOA distance. This paper will introduce the systems level architecture and optical layout of the CoCOA and its main subsystems.

  7. Order-sensitive plasticity in adult primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kilgard, Michael P.; Merzenich, Michael M.

    2002-01-01

    The neural response to a stimulus presented as part of a rapid sequence is often quite different from the response to the same stimulus presented in isolation. In primary auditory cortex (A1), although the most common effect of preceding stimuli is inhibitory, most neurons can also exhibit response facilitation if the appropriate spectral and temporal separation of sequence elements is presented. In this study, we investigated whether A1 neurons in adult animals can develop context-dependent facilitation to a novel acoustic sequence. After repeatedly pairing electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain with a three-element sequence (high frequency tone–low frequency tone– noise burst), 25% of A1 neurons exhibited facilitation to the low tone when preceded by the high tone, compared with only 5% in controls. In contrast, there was no increase in the percent of sites that showed facilitation for the reversed tone order (low preceding high). Nearly 60% of sites exhibited a facilitated response to the noise burst when preceded by the two tones. Although facilitation was greatest in response to the paired sequence, facilitation also generalized to related sequences that were either temporally distorted or missing one of the tones. Pairing basal forebrain stimulation with the acoustic sequence also caused a decrease in the time to peak response and an increase in population discharge synchrony, which was not seen after pairing simple tones, tone trains, or broadband stimuli. These results indicate that context-dependent facilitation and response synchronization can be substantially altered in an experience-dependent fashion and provide a potential mechanism for learning spectrotemporal patterns. PMID:11880653

  8. Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Jeon, Mansik; Chaney, Eric J; Stewart, Charles N; Boppart, Stephen A

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an advanced point-of-care diagnostic instrument for use in a primary care office using handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT). This system has the potential to enable earlier detection of diseases and accurate image-based diagnostics. Our system was designed to be compact, portable, user-friendly, and fast, making it well suited for the primary care office setting. The unique feature of our system is a versatile handheld OCT imaging scanner which consists of a pair of computer-controlled galvanometer-mounted mirrors, interchangeable lens mounts, and miniaturized video camera. This handheld scanner has the capability to guide the physician in real time for finding suspicious regions to be imaged by OCT. In order to evaluate the performance and use of the handheld OCT scanner, the anterior chamber of a rat eye and in vivo human retina, cornea, skin, and tympanic membrane were imaged. Based on this feasibility study, we believe that this new type of handheld OCT device and system has the potential to be an efficient point-of-care imaging tool in primary care medicine. PMID:21134801

  9. Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Competencies in Specialty Areas: Adult, Family, Gerontological, Pediatric, and Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabtree, M. Katherine; Stanley, Joan; Werner, Kathryn E.; Schmid, Emily

    This document presents the nurse practitioner primary care competencies that a national panel of representatives of nine national organizations of the five primary care nurse practitioner specialties--adult, family, gerontological, pediatric, and women's health--identified as necessary for entry-level primary care nurse practitioners. Section 1…

  10. Primary Care of Adult Women: Common Dermatologic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M; Mhlaba, Julie; Roman, Carly

    2016-06-01

    Dermatologic disease often presents in the primary care setting. Therefore, it is important for the primary care provider to be familiar with the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of common skin conditions. This article provides an overview of acne, rosacea, melasma, vitiligo, alopecia, nonmelanoma, and melanoma skin cancer, dermatitis, and lichen sclerosus. PMID:27212088

  11. Primary feather molt of adult mourning doves in North and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, G.H.; Amend, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    Examination of 8,141 adult mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in North and South Carolina revealed that substantial numbers complete primary feather molt in September. Adult mourning doves shed primaries at the rate of 1 per 14 days. No difference was found in this rate between sexes or among years, 1969-74. The initiation of molt differed from year to year, and female molt always preceded male molt. Available data show that southern doves complete primary molt a month earlier than northern doves. Therefore, age based on primary molt can be biased upward if all molt-complete wings from southern hunting samples are considered immature.

  12. Hyperbola-parabola primary mirror in Cassegrain optical antenna to improve transmission efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Lu; Yang, HuaJun; Jiang, Ping; Mao, Shengqian; Caiyang, Weinan

    2015-08-20

    An optical model with a hyperbola-parabola primary mirror added in the Cassegrain optical antenna, which can effectively improve the transmission efficiency, is proposed in this paper. The optimum parameters of a hyperbola-parabola primary mirror and a secondary mirror for the optical antenna system have been designed and analyzed in detail. The parabola-hyperbola primary structure optical antenna is obtained to improve the transmission efficiency of 10.60% in theory, and the simulation efficiency changed 9.359%. For different deflection angles to the receiving antenna with the emit antenna, the coupling efficiency curve of the optical antenna has been obtained. PMID:26368746

  13. Active Optics for a Segmented Primary Mirror on a Deep-Space Optical Receiver Antenna (DSORA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clymer, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    This article investigates the active optical control of segments in the primary mirror to correct for wavefront errors in the Deep-Space Optical Receiver Antenna (DSORA). Although an exact assessment of improvement in signal blur radius cannot be made until a more detailed preliminary structural design is completed, analytical tools are identified for a time when such designs become available. A brief survey of appropriate sensing approaches is given. Since the choice of control algorithm and architecture depends on the particular sensing system used, typical control systems, estimated complexities, and the type of equipment required are discussed. Once specific sensor and actuator systems are chosen, the overall control system can be optimized using methods identified in the literature.

  14. Primary cilia regulate proliferation of amplifying progenitors in adult hippocampus: implications for learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Amador-Arjona, Alejandro; Elliott, Jimmy; Miller, Amber; Ginbey, Ashley; Pazour, Gregory J; Enikolopov, Grigori; Roberts, Amanda J; Terskikh, Alexey V

    2011-07-01

    Integration of new neurons into the adult hippocampus has been linked to specific types of learning. Primary cilia were found to be required for the formation of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus during development. However, the requirement of cilia in maintenance of adult NSCs is unknown. We developed a genetic mouse model in which fetal/perinatal brain development is unaffected, but adult hippocampal neurogenesis is constantly reduced by conditional ablation of primary cilia in adult GFAP(+) neural stem/progenitor cells. We found that this approach specifically reduces the number of hippocampal amplifying progenitors (also called type 2a cells) without affecting the number of radial NSCs (or type 1 cells). Constant reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis produced a delay rather than a permanent deficiency in spatial learning without affecting the retention of long-term memories. Decreased neurogenesis also altered spatial novelty recognition and hippocampus-independent cue conditioning. Here, we propose that adult hippocampal newborn neurons increase the efficiency of generating the new representations of spatial memories and that reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be biased toward cue-based strategies. This novel mouse model provides evidences that cognitive deficits associated with ciliary defects (ciliopathies) might be, in part, mediated by the deficiency of primary cilia in adult hippocampal stem/progenitor cells. PMID:21734285

  15. Primary cilia regulate proliferation of amplifying progenitors in adult hippocampus: implications for learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Amador-Arjona, Alejandro; Elliott, Jimmy; Miller, Amber; Ginbey, Ashley; Pazour, Gregory J; Enikolopov, Grigori; Roberts, Amanda J; Terskikh, Alexey V

    2011-07-01

    Integration of new neurons into the adult hippocampus has been linked to specific types of learning. Primary cilia were found to be required for the formation of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus during development. However, the requirement of cilia in maintenance of adult NSCs is unknown. We developed a genetic mouse model in which fetal/perinatal brain development is unaffected, but adult hippocampal neurogenesis is constantly reduced by conditional ablation of primary cilia in adult GFAP(+) neural stem/progenitor cells. We found that this approach specifically reduces the number of hippocampal amplifying progenitors (also called type 2a cells) without affecting the number of radial NSCs (or type 1 cells). Constant reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis produced a delay rather than a permanent deficiency in spatial learning without affecting the retention of long-term memories. Decreased neurogenesis also altered spatial novelty recognition and hippocampus-independent cue conditioning. Here, we propose that adult hippocampal newborn neurons increase the efficiency of generating the new representations of spatial memories and that reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be biased toward cue-based strategies. This novel mouse model provides evidences that cognitive deficits associated with ciliary defects (ciliopathies) might be, in part, mediated by the deficiency of primary cilia in adult hippocampal stem/progenitor cells.

  16. Primary Care for Adults with Down Syndrome: Adherence to Preventive Healthcare Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, K. M.; Taylor, L. C.; Davis, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Due to significant medical improvements, persons with Down syndrome now live well into adulthood. Consequently, primary care for adults with Down syndrome needs to incorporate routine care with screening for condition-specific comorbidities. This study seeks to evaluate the adherence of primary care physicians to age- and…

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Change in Adult-Child Primary Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Family caregiving research is increasingly contextual and dynamic, but few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of change in primary caregivers, those with the most frequent contact with healthcare professionals. We identified prevalence and predictors of 2-year change in primary adult-child caregivers. Data pooled from the 1992-2000…

  18. Guideline for primary care management of headache in adults

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Werner J.; Findlay, Ted; Moga, Carmen; Scott, N. Ann; Harstall, Christa; Taenzer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To increase the use of evidence-informed approaches to diagnosis, investigation, and treatment of headache for patients in primary care. Quality of evidence A comprehensive search was conducted for relevant guidelines and systematic reviews published between January 2000 and May 2011. The guidelines were critically appraised using the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) tool, and the 6 highest-quality guidelines were used as seed guidelines for the guideline adaptation process. Main message A multidisciplinary guideline development group of primary care providers and other specialists crafted 91 specific recommendations using a consensus process. The recommendations cover diagnosis, investigation, and management of migraine, tension-type, medication-overuse, and cluster headache. Conclusion A clinical practice guideline for the Canadian health care context was created using a guideline adaptation process to assist multidisciplinary primary care practitioners in providing evidence-informed care for patients with headache. PMID:26273080

  19. Primary Afferent Synapses on Developing and Adult Renshaw Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mentis, George Z.; Siembab, Valerie C.; Zerda, Ricardo; O’Donovan, Michael J.; Alvarez, Francisco J.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms that diversify adult interneurons from a few pools of embryonic neurons are unknown. Renshaw cells, Ia inhibitory interneurons (IaINs), and possibly other types of mammalian spinal interneurons have common embryonic origins within the V1 group. However, in contrast to IaINs and other V1-derived interneurons, adult Renshaw cells receive motor axon synapses and lack proprioceptive inputs. Here, we investigated how this specific pattern of connectivity emerges during the development of Renshaw cells. Tract tracing and immunocytochemical markers [parvalbumin and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1)] showed that most embryonic (embryonic day 18) Renshaw cells lack dorsal root inputs, but more than half received dorsal root synapses by postnatal day 0 (P0) and this input spread to all Renshaw cells by P10–P15. Electrophysiological recordings in neonates indicated that this input is functional and evokes Renshaw cell firing. VGLUT1-IR bouton density on Renshaw cells increased until P15 but thereafter decreased because of limited synapse proliferation coupled with the enlargement of Renshaw cell dendrites. In parallel, Renshaw cell postsynaptic densities apposed to VGLUT1-IR synapses became smaller in adult compared with P15. In contrast, vesicular acetylcholine transporter-IR motor axon synapses contact embryonic Renshaw cells and proliferate postnatally matching Renshaw cell growth. Like other V1 neurons, Renshaw cells are thus competent to receive sensory synapses. However, after P15, these sensory inputs appear deselected through arrested proliferation and synapse weakening. Thus, Renshaw cells shift from integrating sensory and motor inputs in neonates to predominantly motor inputs in adult. Similar synaptic weight shifts on interneurons may be involved in the maturation of motor reflexes and locomotor circuitry. PMID:17182780

  20. Progress of primary feather molt of adult mourning doves in Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadler, K.C.; Tomlinson, R.E.; Wight, H.M.

    1970-01-01

    The examination of 7,892 adult doves in Missouri between 1953 and 1965 showed that less than 2.5% of adult doves completed their molt before October 1. Adult doves of both sexes began molting their primary feathers during early June in Missouri and lost the last (tenth) primary during the latter half of October. Approximately 140-150 days were required to complete the molt. Thus, early-hatched immatures, which begin their primary molt 25-30 days after hatching, contributed the bulk of the wings with completed molts in September. By correctly classifying September samples of dove wings with a completed molt as young-of-the-year a more accurate young:adult ratio is obtained.

  1. [Primary small bowel volvulus in a young adult].

    PubMed

    Pastor, J; Adámek, S; Polanecký, O

    2014-06-01

    The authors present a rare case of a young male patient with primary small bowel volvulus. They show the main points to be considered in clinical diagnosis of this kind of acute abdomen and the importance of CT scan in such cases.

  2. Primary Care for the Older Adult Patient: Common Geriatric Issues and Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Katherine; Shi, Sandra; Kiraly, Carmela

    2016-06-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the US population and the majority of older adults are women. Primary care for the older adult patient requires a wide variety of skills, reflecting the complexity and heterogeneity of this patient population. Individualizing care through consideration of patients' goals, medical conditions, and prognosis is paramount. Quality care for the older adult patient requires familiarity with common geriatric syndromes, such as dementia, falls, and polypharmacy. In addition, developing the knowledge and communication skills necessary for complex care and end-of-life care planning is essential.

  3. Optical testing of the LSST combined primary/tertiary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuell, Michael T.; Martin, Hubert M.; Burge, James H.; Gressler, William J.; Zhao, Chunyu

    2010-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) utilizes a three-mirror design in which the primary (M1) and tertiary (M3) mirrors are two concentric aspheric surfaces on one monolithic substrate. The substrate material is Ohara E6 borosilicate glass, in a honeycomb sandwich configuration, currently in production at The University of Arizona's Steward Observatory Mirror Lab. In addition to the normal requirements for smooth surfaces of the appropriate prescriptions, the alignment of the two surfaces must be accurately measured and controlled in the production lab. Both the pointing and centration of the two optical axes are important parameters, in addition to the axial spacing of the two vertices. This paper describes the basic metrology systems for each surface, with particular attention to the alignment of the two surfaces. These surfaces are aspheric enough to require null correctors for each wavefront. Both M1 and M3 are concave surfaces with both non-zero conic constants and higher-order terms (6th order for M1 and both 6th and 8th orders for M3). M1 is hyperboloidal and can utilize a standard Offner null corrector. M3 is an oblate ellipsoid, so has positive spherical aberration. We have chosen to place a phase-etched computer-generated hologram (CGH) between the mirror surface and the center-of-curvature (CoC), whereas the M1 null lens is beyond the CoC. One relatively new metrology tool is the laser tracker, which is relied upon to measure the alignment and spacings. A separate laser tracker system will be used to measure both surfaces during loose abrasive grinding and initial polishing.

  4. Polygonal networks, "geodomes", of adult rat hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Y; Furukawa, K; Mitaka, T; Yokoi, T; Kodama, T

    1988-01-01

    Polygonal networks, "geodomes", in cultured hepatocytes of adult rats were examined by both light and electron microscopy. On light microscopical examinations of specimens stained with Coomassie blue after the treatment with Triton X-100, the networks were detected 5 days after culture, which consisted of triangles arranged mainly in hexagonal patterns. They surrounded main cell body, looking like a headband, or were occasionally situated over nuclei, looking like a geodesic dome. Scanning electron microscopical observations after Triton treatment revealed that these structures were located underneath surface membrane. Transmission electron microscopical investigations revealed that the connecting fibers of networks consisted of microfilaments which radiated in a compact bundle from electron-dense vertices. PMID:3396075

  5. Motivational interviewing for older adults in primary care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Purath, Janet; Keck, Annmarie; Fitzgerald, Cynthia E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic disease is now the leading cause of death and disability in United States. Many chronic illnesses experienced by older adults can be prevented or managed through behavior change, making patient counseling an essential component of disease prevention and management. Motivational Interviewing (MI), a type of conversational method, has been effective in eliciting health behavior changes in people in a variety of settings and may also be a useful tool to help older adults change. This review of the literature analyzes current research and describes potential biases of MI interventions that have been conducted in primary care settings with older adults. MI shows promise as a technique to elicit health behavior change among older adults. However, further study with this population is needed to evaluate efficacy of MI interventions in primary care settings.

  6. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse.

  7. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  8. Use of and interest in alternative therapies among adult primary care clinicians and adult members in a large health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N P; Sobel, D S; Tarazona, E Z

    1998-09-01

    During spring 1996, random samples of adult primary care physicians, obstetrics-gynecology physicians and nurse practitioners, and adult members of a large northern California group practice model health maintenance organization (HMO) were surveyed by mail to assess the use of alternative therapies and the extent of interest in having them incorporated into HMO-delivered care. Sixty-one percent (n = 624) of adult primary care physicians, 70% (n = 157) of obstetrics-gynecology clinicians, and 50% (2 surveys, n = 1,507 and n = 17,735) of adult HMO members responded. During the previous 12 months, 25% of adults reported using and nearly 90% of adult primary care physicians and obstetrics-gynecology clinicians reported recommending at least 1 alternative therapy, primarily for pain management. Chiropractic, acupuncture, massage, and behavioral medicine techniques such as meditation and relaxation training were most often cited. Obstetrics-gynecology clinicians used herbal and homeopathic medicines more often than adult primary care physicians, primarily for menopause and premenstrual syndrome. Two thirds of adult primary care physicians and three fourths of obstetrics-gynecology clinicians were at least moderately interested in using alternative therapies with patients, and nearly 70% of young and middle-aged adult and half of senior adult members were interested in having alternative therapies incorporated into their health care. Adult primary care physicians and members were more interested in having the HMO cover manipulative and behavioral medicine therapies than homeopathic or herbal medicines.

  9. Mutations in CIZ1 cause adult-onset primary cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianfeng; Uitti, Ryan J.; Zhao, Yu; Vemula, Satya R.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Maraganore, Demetrius M.; Auburger, Georg; Leube, Barbara; Lehnhoff, Katja; LeDoux, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Primary dystonia is usually of adult onset, can be familial, and frequently involves the cervical musculature. Our goal was to identify the causal mutation in a family with adult-onset, primary cervical dystonia. Methods Linkage and haplotype analyses were combined with solution-based whole-exome capture and massively parallel sequencing in a large Caucasian pedigree with adult-onset, primary cervical dystonia to identify a cosegregating mutation. High-throughput screening and Sanger sequencing were completed in 308 Caucasians with familial or sporadic adult-onset cervical dystonia and matching controls for sequence variants in this mutant gene. Results Exome sequencing led to the identification of an exonic splicing enhancer mutation in Exon 7 of CIZ1 (c.790A>G, p.S264G) which encodes CIZ1, Cip1-interacting zinc finger protein 1. CIZ1 is a p21Cip1/Waf1-interacting zinc finger protein expressed in brain and involved in DNA synthesis and cell-cycle control. Using a minigene assay, we showed that c.790A>G altered CIZ1 splicing patterns. The p.S264G mutation also altered the nuclear localization of CIZ1. Screening in subjects with adult-onset cervical dystonia identified two additional CIZ1 missense mutations (p.P47S and p.R672M). Interpretation Mutations in CIZ1 may cause adult-onset, primary cervical dystonia, possibly by precipitating neurodevelopmental abnormalities that manifest in adults and/or G1/S cell-cycle dysregulation in the mature central nervous system. PMID:22447717

  10. Screening for Suicide Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of suicide screening by primary care clinicians: There ... not enough evidence to weigh the benefits and harms of screening the general population for suicide risk. ...

  11. Health Checks in Primary Care for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: How Extensive Should They Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, U.; Kontopantelis, E.; Campbell, S.; Jarrett, H.; Lester, H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Routine health checks have gained prominence as a way of detecting unmet need in primary care for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and general practitioners are being incentivised in the UK to carry out health checks for many conditions through an incentivisation scheme known as the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF).…

  12. Adult Antisocial Behavior and Affect Regulation among Primary Crack/Cocaine-Using Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Lisa Caren; Hien, Denise A.; Levin, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between deficits in affect regulation and Adult Antisocial Behavior (ASB) in primary crack/cocaine-using women was explored in a sample of 80 inner-city women. Narrative early memories were coded for two components of affect regulation, Affect Tolerance and Affect Expression, using the Epigenetic Assessment Rating Scale (EARS;…

  13. Physician Perspectives on Providing Primary Medical Care to Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfield, Marji Erickson; Crossman, Morgan K.; Delahaye, Jennifer; Der Weerd, Emma; Kuhlthau, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted in-depth case studies of 10 health care professionals who actively provide primary medical care to adults with autism spectrum disorders. The study sought to understand their experiences in providing this care, the training they had received, the training they lack and their suggestions for encouraging more physicians to provide this…

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Adult-Rated Child Personality and Academic Performance in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poropat, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Personality is reliably associated with academic performance, but personality measurement in primary education can be problematic. Young children find it difficult to accurately self-rate personality, and dominant models of adult personality may be inappropriate for children. Aims: This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the…

  15. Primary retroperitoneal teratoma in the adult: correlation of MRI features with CT and pathology.

    PubMed

    Bellin, M F; Duron, J J; Curet, P; Dion-Voirin, E; Grellet, J

    1991-01-01

    Primary benign teratoma of the retroperitoneum is a rare tumor in the adult population. Only one case with an MRI examination has been reported in the English literature. This paper describes the CT and MRI features of a retroperitoneal teratoma in a 24-year-old male and discusses the value of MRI in the diagnosis and the preoperative imaging of such a tumor.

  16. Prevalence of Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Suzanne; Moran, Robert; Platt, Tan; Wood, Hope; Isaac, Terri; Dasari, Srikanth

    2005-01-01

    Two primary care practices were used to recruit adults with and without disability. Disability groups included autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. The patients without disability had an epilepsy prevalence rate of 1%. The prevalence of epilepsy within the disability groups was 13% for cerebral palsy, 13.6% for Down…

  17. Campylobacter fetus bacteremia with purulent pleurisy in a young adult with primary hypogammaglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Keiko; Miyashita, Tomoko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Shirano, Michinori; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Kameda, Kazuaki; Nishijima, Masayoshi; Imanishi, Masahiro; Yang, Xi; Kanegane, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    A 24-year-old man presented with fever and pleural effusion predominantly containing lymphocytes. Cultures of the pleural effusion and blood revealed Campylobacter fetus, and laboratory studies showed a low serum level of immunoglobulin. The patient was diagnosed with C. fetus pleuritis, bacteremia and primary hypogammaglobulinemia, and subsequent treatment with meropenem and immunoglobulin improved his condition. Although the underlying cause of the primary hypogammaglobulinemia remains unclear, the patient's status improved under immunoglobulin replacement therapy. C. fetus pleuritis is a rare infectious disease usually observed in immunocompromised hosts. We herein describe the first report of C. fetus pleuritis in a young adult with primary hypogammaglobulinemia.

  18. Optic Disc Perfusion in Primary Open Angle and Normal Tension Glaucoma Eyes Using Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Microangiography

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Joanne C.; Zhang, Qinqin; Xin, Chen; Gupta, Divakar; Mudumbai, Raghu C.; Johnstone, Murray A.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Philip P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate optic disc perfusion differences in normal, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes using optical microangiography (OMAG) based optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography technique. Design Cross-sectional, observational study. Subjects Twenty-eight normal, 30 POAG, and 31 NTG subjects. Methods One eye from each subject was scanned with a 68 kHz Cirrus HD-OCT 5,000-based OMAG prototype system centered at the optic nerve head (ONH) (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, CA). Microvascular images were generated from the OMAG dataset by detecting the differences in OCT signal between consecutive B-scans. The pre-laminar layer (preLC) was isolated by a semi-automatic segmentation program. Main Outcome Measures Optic disc perfusion, quantified as flux, vessel area density, and normalized flux (flux normalized by the vessel area) within the ONH. Results Glaucomatous eyes had significantly lower optic disc perfusion in preLC in all three perfusion metrics (p<0.0001) compared to normal eyes. The visual field (VF) mean deviation (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD) were similar between the POAG and NTG groups, and no differences in optic disc perfusion were observed between POAG and NTG. Univariate analysis revealed significant correlation between optic disc perfusion and VF MD, VF PSD, and rim area in both POAG and NTG groups (p≤0.0288). However, normalized optic disc perfusion was correlated with some structural measures (retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and ONH cup/disc ratio) only in POAG eyes. Conclusions Optic disc perfusion detected with OMAG was significantly reduced in POAG and NTG groups compared to normal controls, but no difference was seen between POAG and NTG groups with similar levels of VF damage. Disc perfusion was significantly correlated with VF MD, VF PSD, and rim area in glaucomatous eyes. Vascular changes at the optic disc as measured using OMAG may provide useful information for

  19. Initial manifestation of primary hyperoxaluria type I in adults-- recognition, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, J J

    1996-01-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type I may initially manifest as urolithiasis, renal insufficiency, or symptoms of systemic oxalosis. This hereditary disorder was fatal until effective therapies evolved during the past two decades. Difficulty in recognizing and diagnosing this disorder in adults is illustrated in a report of a patient eventually restored to good health by high-flux dialysis and combined renal and hepatic transplantation. I explore the molecular processes of the genetic defect and discuss clinical indicators of primary hyperoxaluria type I, manifestations of oxalosis, the pathogenesis of chronic oxalate nephropathy, and the diagnosis and management of this disease. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8779202

  20. [Mechanisms of primary reception of electromagnetic waves of optical range].

    PubMed

    Huliar, S O; Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P

    2003-01-01

    An existence of separate functional system of regulation of electromagnetic balance of organism has been substantiated and a working conception of light therapy has been formulated. As a basis, there is a possibility to use the acupuncture points for input of biologically necessary electromagnetic waves into the system of their conductors in a body that might be considered as a transport facility for energy of the polarized electromagnetic waves. Zones-recipients are organs having an electromagnetic disbalance due to excess of biologically inadequate radiation and being the targets for peroxide oxidation. Foremost, a body has the neurohormonal and immune regulatory systems. Electromagnetic stimulation or modification of functions of the zones-recipients determines the achievement of therapeutic and useful effects, and their combination with local reparative processes allows to attain a clinical goal. We represent own and literary experimental data about the development of physiological responses (analgesia) to BIOPTRON-light exposure on the acupuncture points or biologically active zones. We show the experimental facts in support of a hypothesis that a living organism can perceive an action of the electromagnetic fields of optical range not only via the visual system, but also through the off-nerve receptors (specific energy-sensitive proteins detecting critical changes of energy in cells and functioning as the "sensory" cell systems), as well as via the acupuncture points. It confirms an important role of the electromagnetic waves of optical range in providing normal vital functions of living organisms. A current approach to BIOPTRON light therapy (by polarized polychromatic coherent low energy light) consists in combined (local and system) exposure of the electromagnetic waves within the biologically necessary range. PMID:12945112

  1. Mapping a gene for adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 3q

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, M.K.; Samples, J.R.; Kramer, P.L.

    1997-02-01

    Glaucoma is the third-leading cause of blindness in the world, affecting >13.5 million people. Adult-on-set primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in the United States. We present a family in which adult-onset POAG is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Twelve affected family members were identified from 44 at-risk individuals. The disease-causing gene was mapped to chromosome 3q21-24, with analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggesting a total inclusion region of 11.1 cM between markers D3S3637 and D3S1744. This is the first report of mapping of an adult-onset POAG gene to chromosome 3q, gene symbol GLC1C. 57 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Adult cystic fibrosis patients' experiences of primary care consultations: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lowton, Karen; Ballard, Karen D

    2006-01-01

    Background ‘Expert patient’ programmes have been introduced in the UK as a new approach to chronic disease management for the 21st century. The average survival age of those with cystic fibrosis (CF) has steadily increased such that the majority of those with the condition now live into adulthood. Currently, specialist CF centres deliver the core of medical care, with primary care providing access to prescribed medicines, referral to other services, and care of non-CF needs, however, it is necessary to provide a more comprehensive service for adult CF patients, involving both specialist centres and primary care. To date, little is known about these expert patients' experiences of primary care. Aim To investigate how young adults with CF perceive and experience primary healthcare services. Design of study Qualitative study. Setting One specialist CF centre in southeast England. Method Interview study of 31 patients with CF, aged 18 years or over. Results Adults with CF consult in primary care on two distinct levels: as lay and expert patients. When consulting as experts, patients tend to operate as consumers of health care and perceive a satisfactory doctor–patient relationship to be influenced by three factors: GPs' understanding of how people live with CF, GPs' ability to prescribe certain specialist medications, and sensitive management of the cost of health care for adults with CF. A doctor–patient relationship based on trust and understanding is seen as desirable, but requires that these factors are addressed both by the GP and the patient. Conclusion Expert patient policy has focused on the role of patients with common chronic conditions in secondary and tertiary care, with little consideration of how adults with rare chronic illness and their GPs manage health problems that can be addressed in primary care. Enabling easy access to holistic care, as well as establishing successful trusting relationships with people with long-term rare conditions, is a

  3. Fundamental reform of payment for adult primary care: comprehensive payment for comprehensive care.

    PubMed

    Goroll, Allan H; Berenson, Robert A; Schoenbaum, Stephen C; Gardner, Laurence B

    2007-03-01

    Primary care is essential to the effective and efficient functioning of health care delivery systems, yet there is an impending crisis in the field due in part to a dysfunctional payment system. We present a fundamentally new model of payment for primary care, replacing encounter-based imbursement with comprehensive payment for comprehensive care. Unlike former iterations of primary care capitation (which simply bundled inadequate fee-for-service payments), our comprehensive payment model represents new investment in adult primary care, with substantial increases in payment over current levels. The comprehensive payment is directed to practices to include support for the modern systems and teams essential to the delivery of comprehensive, coordinated care. Income to primary physicians is increased commensurate with the high level of responsibility expected. To ensure optimal allocation of resources and the rewarding of desired outcomes, the comprehensive payment is needs/risk-adjusted and performance-based. Our model establishes a new social contract with the primary care community, substantially increasing payment in return for achieving important societal health system goals, including improved accessibility, quality, safety, and efficiency. Attainment of these goals should help offset and justify the costs of the investment. Field tests of this and other new models of payment for primary care are urgently needed. PMID:17356977

  4. [Screening for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adult patients in primary care].

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Enric; Cañisá, Anna; Caballero, Antònia; Piñol-Moreso, Josep Lluís

    2013-05-01

    AIMS. To estimate the proportion of adult patients in primary care with a positive screening test for attention deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD) and to analyse their characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in nine primary care clinics in the province of Tarragona. The sample consisted of 432 consecutive patients in primary care who visited for any reason, with ages ranging from 18 to 55 years. Screening for ADHD was carried out by means of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Data about functional impact (Sheehan Disability Inventory) were obtained and a review of the patient records provided data concerning psychiatric comorbidity and the consumption of psychopharmaceuticals. RESULTS. The percentage of positive results in the screening tests was 19.9% (95% CI = 16.4-23.9%). Taking into account the sensitivity and specificity of the ASRS, the 'real' prevalence was estimated to be 12.5% (95% CI = 8.2-16.8%). None of these patients were diagnosed or treated for ADHD. Positive screening tests are associated with occupational, social and familial dysfunction, and greater perceived stress. There is also a higher level of comorbidity with affective disorders and substance abuse, as well as greater use of psychopharmaceuticals. CONCLUSIONS. Screening for ADHD in adult patients in primary care gives rise to a notably high proportion of positive screening test results, which suggests that there could be a significant prevalence of patients with ADHD. These data contrast with the absence of this diagnosis in the patient records. Further research is needed to determine the usefulness of the diagnosis of ADHD and the possible role that must be played by primary care.

  5. The distinction between juvenile and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, J.L.; Haines, J.L.; Damji, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Because of the significant differences between the juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma, especially with regard to inheritance, prevalence, severity, and age of onset, we read with interest the recent publication by Morissette et al., describing a pedigree with a phenotype that overlaps the distinctive features of juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (usually abbreviated as POAG or COAG). These authors conclude that a gene mapped to human chromosome 1q21-q31 (GLC1A) can be responsible for both juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma. The implications of such a result could be extremely important, in light of the high prevalence of the adult form of the disease. However, while the data presented in this report suggest that variable expressivity of the GLC1A gene may lead to a broader range of onset for this form of juvenile glaucoma, these data do not identify the GLC1A gene as an important cause of POAG. To prevent misleading interpretations of this and similar studies, we wish to clarify the distinction between the juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma. 8 refs.

  6. The SNAP spacecraft, optics, and primary mission plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampton, M.; SNAP Collaboration

    2000-12-01

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission uses frequent deep reobservation of selected survey fields to deliver its planned detection rate of Type 1a supernovae at cosmological distances. The primary science mission is conducted in two alternating phases: discovery, which demands large sky coverage and sensitivity, and follow-up spectroscopy of detected SNe. The combination of sky area and sensitivity will be achieved in part through the use of a two-meter-aperture three-mirror-anastigmat telescope that delivers nearly diffraction-limited images in the visible and near-IR throughout its one square degree field of view. The spacecraft will include an attitude control system with focal plane sensors giving sustained pointing accuracy better than 0.03 arc seconds. Additional features include a 50Mb/s downlink data rate that will allow the image processing and data processing to be conducted at our ground facility rather than onboard. The orbits being studied for SNAP are high Earth orbits that keep the spacecraft well outside the geomagnetically trapped energetic particle environment, with inclinations high enough to minimize or eliminate eclipses to achieve the best possible thermal stability. This research has been supported in part by the U.S.Department of Energy.

  7. Time-Gated Optical Projection Tomography Allows Visualization of Adult Zebrafish Internal Structures

    PubMed Central

    Foglia, Efrem Alessandro; Pistocchi, Anna; D'Andrea, Cosimo; Valentini, Gianluca; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; De Silvestri, Sandro; Cerullo, Giulio; Cotelli, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Optical imaging through biological samples is compromised by tissue scattering and currently various approaches aim to overcome this limitation. In this paper we demonstrate that an all optical technique, based on non-linear upconversion of infrared ultrashort laser pulses and on multiple view acquisition, allows the reduction of scattering effects in tomographic imaging. This technique, namely Time-Gated Optical Projection Tomography (TGOPT), is used to reconstruct three dimensionally the internal structure of adult zebrafish without staining or clearing agents. This method extends the use of Optical Projection Tomography to optically diffusive samples yielding reconstructions with reduced artifacts, increased contrast and improved resolution with respect to those obtained with non-gated techniques. The paper shows that TGOPT is particularly suited for imaging the skeletal system and nervous structures of adult zebrafish. PMID:23185643

  8. Genus Distichopora (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa): from primary cyclosystem to adult pore organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puce, S.; Pica, D.; Brun, F.; Mancini, L.; Bavestrello, G.

    2012-09-01

    This investigation provides the first detailed description of the growth stages of two Distichopora species showing the formation of a primary cyclosystem and explaining the growth process leading from primary cyclosystem to adult pore organisation. The earliest observed stage is an oval calcareous disc from which, at a later stage, a primary cyclosystem raises up. Then, the addition of new gastropores and dactylopores leads to the pore rows typical of the genus. Using X-ray computed microtomography, we are able to visualise the dense canal network that permeates the coenosteum and envelops the gastropores and the dactylopores in all the observed growth stages. In both species, the thin canals surrounding the gastropores are responsible for the formation of the new gastropores that originate between the old ones, while the thin canals placed on the external side of the dactylopore rows produce the new dactylopores.

  9. Suicide Risk in Primary Care: Identification and Management in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Raue, Patrick J.; Ghesquiere, Angela R.; Bruce, Martha L.

    2014-01-01

    The National Strategy for Suicide Prevention (2012) has set a goal to reduce suicides by 20% within 5 years. Suicide rates are higher in older adults compared to most other age groups, and the majority of suicide completers have visited their primary care physician in the year before suicide. Primary care is an ideal setting to identify suicide risk and initiate mental health care. We review risk factors for late-life suicide; methods to assess for different levels of suicidality; and recent research developments regarding both effective assessment and management of suicide risk among older primary care patients. We highlight that broader scale screening of suicide risk may be considered in light of findings that suicidality can occur even in the absence of major risk factors like depression. We also highlight collaborative care models targeting suicide risk, and recent innovative interventions that aim to prevent the development of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior. PMID:25030971

  10. Suicide risk in primary care: identification and management in older adults.

    PubMed

    Raue, Patrick J; Ghesquiere, Angela R; Bruce, Martha L

    2014-09-01

    The National Strategy for Suicide Prevention (2012) has set a goal to reduce suicides by 20% within 5 years. Suicide rates are higher in older adults compared to most other age groups, and the majority of suicide completers have visited their primary care physician in the year before suicide. Primary care is an ideal setting to identify suicide risk and initiate mental health care. We review risk factors for late-life suicide; methods to assess for different levels of suicidality; and recent research developments regarding both effective assessment and management of suicide risk among older primary care patients. We highlight that broader scale screening of suicide risk may be considered in light of findings that suicidality can occur even in the absence of major risk factors like depression. We also highlight collaborative care models targeting suicide risk, and recent innovative interventions that aim to prevent the development of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior.

  11. Activating Older Adults With Serious Mental Illness for Collaborative Primary Care Visits

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Stephen J.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Rolin, Stephanie A.; Hendrick, Delia Cimpean; Naslund, John A.; Faber, Marjan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Persons with serious mental illness frequently receive inadequate medical care and are more likely to experience difficulty navigating the health care system compared with the general population. To address this gap in quality, we developed a program of peer co-led collaborative activation training for primary care (CAT-PC) designed to improve “patient activation” and person-centered care in primary care visits for middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness and cardiovascular risk. This report presents pilot study feasibility and participant outcomes for CAT-PC. Method A pre-post pilot evaluation of CAT-PC included N = 17 adults (age ≥ 50) with serious mental illness and cardiovascular health risk conditions, and N = 6 primary care providers. CAT-PC consists of 9 weekly peer co-led patient education and skills training sessions and a 45-min video-based training for primary care providers. Pre-post measures included the Patient Activation Measure (PAM), Perceived Efficacy in Patient-Physician Interactions (PEPPI), Autonomy Preference Index (API) for preferred role in primary care encounters, and Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) role-play test for medical visits. Results All 17 participants attended 5 or more sessions. Post-intervention improvement was found for patient activation and simulated performance of medical visit communication skills. Trends were observed for improved self-efficacy in provider interactions and greater preference for a more collaborative role in decision-making. Conclusions and Implications CAT-PC is a brief, peer co-led education and skills training intervention potentially improving patient activation in primary care encounters and providing an important missing component in emerging models of “patient-centered behavioral health homes” for this high-risk group. PMID:24219769

  12. Arthroscopic Treatment for Primary Septic Arthritis of the Hip in Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Primary septic arthritis is a rare differential diagnosis of acute hip pain in adults. Inspired by the success of all-arthroscopic treatment in pediatric patients, we developed a diagnostic and surgical pathway for our adult patients. Methods. Seven patients, average age 44 ± 13.7 years with acute hip pain since 4.4 ± 2.9 days in the average, were included. Septic arthritis was confirmed by joint aspiration and dissemination was excluded by MRI and standard radiographs. Surgical treatment consisted of immediate arthroscopic lavage using 4 portals for debridement, high-volume irrigation, partial synovectomy, and drainage. Results. Patients were treated in hospital for 12.4 ± 3.1 days (range 7–16 days). WBC and CRP returned to physiological levels. During the mean follow-up of 26.4 ± 19.4 months (range 13–66 months) no patient showed recurrence of infection. The 5 patients with an unimpaired hip joint prior to the infection had a mean modified Harris Hip Score of 94 ± 5.6 points (range 91–100) at final follow-up. Conclusions. Arthroscopic therapy using a minimally invasive approach with low perioperative morbidity for the treatment of primary septic arthritis of the adult hip is able to restore normal hip function in acute cases without dissemination of the infection. Level of Evidence. IV. PMID:27800188

  13. Active optics primary mirror support system for the 26m VST telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, Pietro; D'Orsi, Sergio; Ferragina, Luigi; Fierro, Davide; Marty, Laurent; Molfese, Cesare; Perrotta, Francesco

    2010-03-01

    The Very Large Telescope Survey Telescope (VST) is equipped with an active optics system in order to correct low-order aberrations. The 2.6 m primary mirror is supported both axially and laterally and is surrounded by several safety devices for earthquake protection. We describe the mirror support system and discuss the results of the qualification test campaign.

  14. Primary Care Use before Cancer Diagnosis in Adolescents and Young Adults – A Nationwide Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahrensberg, Jette Møller; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Survival rates of cancer patients have generally improved in recent years. However, children and older adults seem to have experienced more significant clinical benefits than adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Previous studies suggest a prolonged diagnostic pathway in AYAs, but little is known about their pre-diagnostic healthcare use. This study investigates the use of primary care among AYAs during the two years preceding a cancer diagnosis. Methods The study is a retrospective population-based matched cohort study using Danish nationwide registry data. All persons diagnosed with cancer during 2002–2011 in the age group 15–39 years were included (N = 12,306); each participant was matched on gender, age and general practice with 10 randomly selected references (N = 123,060). The use of primary healthcare services (face-to-face contacts, blood tests and psychometric tests) was measured during the two years preceding the diagnosis (index date), and collected data were analysed in a negative binomial regression model. Results The cases generally increased their use of primary care already from 8 months before a cancer diagnosis, whereas a similar trend was not found for controls. The increase was observed for all cancer types, but it started at different times: 17 months before a diagnosis of CNS tumour, 12 months before a diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, 9 months before a diagnosis of lymphoma, 5–6 months before a diagnosis of leukaemia, bone tumour or GCT, and 3 months before a diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Conclusion The use of primary care among AYAs increase several months before a cancer diagnosis. The diagnostic intervals are generally short for malignant melanomas and long for brain tumours. A prolonged diagnostic pathway may indicate non-specific or vague symptomatology and low awareness of cancer among AYAs primary-care personnel. The findings suggest potential of faster cancer diagnosis in AYAs. PMID:27203083

  15. Associations between adult attachment characteristics, medical burden, and life satisfaction among older primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Kirchmann, Helmut; Nolte, Tobias; Runkewitz, Kristin; Bayerle, Lisa; Becker, Simone; Blasczyk, Verena; Lindloh, Julia; Strauss, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    We investigated whether attachment security, measured by the Adult Attachment Prototype Rating (AAPR), was correlated with life satisfaction, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, medical burden, and age-related coping strategies in a sample of 81 patients (69-73 years) recruited from the register of a general primary care practice. Furthermore, we examined whether patients classified as AAPR-secure reported better adjustment to medical burden in terms of higher life satisfaction than did insecure patients. Attachment security was independently related to life satisfaction. Moreover, the association between medical burden and lower life satisfaction was significantly stronger for insecure than for secure participants. Our findings indicate that interventions to improve attachment security or coping processes related to attachment could help older adults retain life satisfaction.

  16. Primary haematogenous osteomyelitis of the patella: a rare cause for anterior knee pain in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Kankate, R; Selvan, T

    2000-01-01

    Acute osteomyelitis of the patella is a very rare condition, which commonly affects children between the ages of 5-15 years. Primary haematogenous osteomyelitis in an adult usually occurs in patients with associated risk factors like intravenous drug abuse, HIV infection, and trauma. This report discusses a similar condition in a 46 year old women with no associated predisposing risk factors. The rarity of this condition and its atypical presentation should be borne in mind while treating an adult patient with anterior knee pain. Point tenderness over the patella should alert a physician to the possibility of osteomyelitis of the patella. The value of bone scan and computed tomography in the early stages to help diagnose this condition has been stressed. The literature has been reviewed and discussed briefly.


Keywords: haematogenous osteomyelitis; patella PMID:11060146

  17. Security risk assessment of the primary layer of wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelka, Petr; Siska, Petr; Latal, Jan; Poboril, Radek; Hajek, Lukas; Kepak, Stanislav; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation passive optical access networks come to the fore nowadays. These optical next-generation networks are the response to the increasing qualitative requirements from end users. Technologies using Time Division Multiplexing include NG-PON (XG-PON 1 and XG-PON 2) and 10GEPON. Their advantage is the applicability to older topologies, which are operated by the original technology of passive optical access networks. Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON) is an alternative also belonging to next-generation networks. Time Division Multiplexing is in this case replaced by Wavelength Division Multiplexing. Certain variants of WDM-PON use a combination of broadband light source, optical circulator, optical phased array and tunable FP laser. Construction of the terminal units (ONU) is advantageous because it can always tune in to the appropriate wavelength in the given optical DWDM channel (100 GHz). The disadvantage is the increased security risk on the primary layer due to channel crosstalk in an optical phased array (AWG). The aim of this paper is to assess the degree of security risk in real conditions. The article includes both simulation and real measurements in C + L bands with 100 GHz DWDM spacing.

  18. Primary monolayer culture of adult mouse hepatocytes -- a model for the study of hepatotropic viruses.

    PubMed

    Arnheiter, H

    1980-01-01

    Primary monolayer cultures of adult mouse hepatocytes isolated by collagenase perfusion of the liver in situ were exposed to 2 hepatotropic viruses, an avian influenza A virus adapted to grow in mouse liver in vivo and a herpes simplex type I virus. Influenza virus infection led to lysis ofindividual hepatocytes and total monolayer destruction within 18 to 120 hours after infection according to the virus dose used. Virus replication was evidenced by assaying hepatocyte supernates for hemagglutinin and infectivity, by immunofluorescent staining and by electron microscopy. Herpes virus infection resulted in polykaryocyte formation followed by nuclear pycnosis and cell lysis. Virus replication was assayed by titration of supernate infectivity.

  19. Changes in the contralateral eye in uncomplicated persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous in adults.

    PubMed

    Awan, K J; Humayun, M

    1985-02-15

    In two adults (a 62-year-old man and a 71-year-old woman) uncomplicated full-blown unilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous was diagnosed on the basis of characteristic clinical features and ultrasonography. In the contralateral uninvolved eyes, we found open-angle glaucoma, anomalous blood vessels along the entire circumference of the anterior chamber angle, band keratopathy, and heterochromia iridis. The axial length of one involved eye was about 0.85 mm larger than that of the uninvolved eye.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Eszopiclone for the Treatment of Adults with Primary Chronic Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Snedecor, Sonya J.; Botteman, Marc F.; Bojke, Chris; Schaefer, Kendyl; Barry, Nadine; Pickard, A. Simon

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of treatment with eszopiclone for chronic primary insomnia in adults. Methods: A model using patient-level data from a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial (n = 824), combined with data from a claims database and published literature, was used to assess the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and costs associated with eszopiclone versus placebo in adults with primary insomnia. Quality of life data were collected during the trial via the SF-36, from which preference-based utility scores were derived using published algorithms. Medical and absenteeism costs, estimated via a retrospective analysis of a claims and absenteeism database, were assigned to patients based on the degree of severity of their insomnia, assessed via the Insomnia Severity Index collected in the clinical trial. Presenteeism costs (lost productivity while at work) were estimated from responses to the Work Limitation Questionnaire collected during the trial. Six-month gains in QALYs and costs for each treatment group were calculated to derive cost-effectiveness ratios. Uncertainty was addressed via univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses. Results: Over the 6-month period, eszopiclone use resulted in a net gain of 0.0137 QALYs over placebo at an additional cost of $67, resulting in an incremental cost per QALY gained of slightly less than $5,000. When absenteeism and presenteeism costs were excluded, the cost-effectiveness ratio increased to approximately $33,000 per QALY gained, which is below the commonly used threshold of $50,000 used to define cost-effectiveness. Extensive sensitivity analyses indicate the results are generally robust. Conclusion: Our model, based on efficacy data from a clinical trial, demonstrated eszopiclone was cost-effective for the treatment of primary insomnia in adults, especially when lost productivity costs were included. Citation: Snedecor SJ; Botteman MF; Bojke C; Schaefer K; Barry

  1. Origin of germ cells and formation of new primary follicles in adult human ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Upadhyaya, Nirmala B

    2004-01-01

    sophisticated adaptive mechanism created during the evolution of female reproduction. Our data indicate that the pool of primary follicles in adult human ovaries does not represent a static but a dynamic population of differentiating and regressing structures. An essential mission of such follicular turnover might be elimination of spontaneous or environmentally induced genetic alterations of oocytes in resting primary follicles. PMID:15115550

  2. Design of primary optics for LED chip array in road lighting application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shang; Wang, Kai; Chen, Fei; Liu, Sheng

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we proposed an effective optical design method to solve the problem of prescribed illuminance for LED chip array packaging (LCAP). With this method, light energy redistribution can be obtained by optimizing meshing parameters on the target. Not only can it deal with light controlling of extended source, but also improve the uniformity of both illuminance and luminance for road lighting as well. As an example, we designed a 16W LED packaging with a smooth primary freeform lens for general road lighting. The simulation results demonstrated that optical performance of this lens can meet the requirements of Commission Internationale del'Eclairage (CIE) quite well. Longitudinal and overall uniformities are 0.7 and 0.5 respectively, and relative optical efficiency of luminaire can be enhanced 19.6% in theory compared with traditional optics. PMID:21747539

  3. Severe bleeding events in adults and children with primary immune thrombocytopenia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    NEUNERT, C.; NOROOZI, N.; NORMAN, G.; BUCHANAN, G. R.; GOY, J.; NAZI, I.; KELTON, J. G.; ARNOLD, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The burden of severe bleeding in adults and children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) has not been established. Objectives To describe the frequency and severity of bleeding events in patients with ITP, and the methods used to measure bleeding in ITP studies. Patients/Methods We performed a systematic review of all prospective ITP studies that enrolled 20 or more patients. Two reviewers searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane registry up to May 2014. Overall weighted proportions were estimated using a random effects model. Measurement properties of bleeding assessment tools were evaluated. Results We identified 118 studies that reported bleeding (n = 10 908 patients). Weighted proportions for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) were 1.4% for adults (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9–2.1%) and 0.4% for children (95% CI, 0.2–0.7%; P < 0.01), most of whom had chronic ITP. The weighted proportion for severe (non-ICH) bleeding was 9.6% for adults (95% CI, 4.1–17.1%) and 20.2% for children (95% CI, 10.0–32.9%; P < 0.01) with newly-diagnosed or chronic ITP. Methods of reporting and definitions of severe bleeding were highly variable in primary studies. Two bleeding assessment tools (Buchanan 2002 for children; Page 2007 for adults) demonstrated adequate interrater reliability and validity in independent assessments. Conclusions ICH was more common in adults and tended to occur during chronic ITP; other severe bleeds were more common in children and occurred at all stages of disease. Reporting of non-ICH bleeding was variable across studies. Further attention to ITP-specific bleeding measurement in clinical trials is needed to improve standardization of this important outcome for patients. PMID:25495497

  4. The effect of increased primary schooling on adult women's HIV status in Malawi and Uganda: Universal Primary Education as a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Julia Andrea

    2015-02-01

    This paper explores the causal relationship between primary schooling and adult HIV status in Malawi and Uganda, two East African countries with some of the highest HIV infection rates in the world. Using data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey and the 2011 Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, the paper takes advantage of a natural experiment, the implementation of Universal Primary Education policies in the mid 1990s. An instrumented regression discontinuity approach is used to model the relationship between increased primary schooling and adult women's HIV status. Results indicate that a one-year increase in schooling decreases the probability of an adult woman testing positive for HIV by 0.06 (p < 0.01) in Malawi and by 0.03 (p < 0.05) in Uganda. These results are robust to a variety of model specifications. In a series of supplementary analyses a number of potential pathways through which such effects may occur are explored. Findings indicate increased primary schooling positively affects women's literacy and spousal schooling attainment in Malawi and age of marriage and current household wealth in Uganda. However primary schooling has no effect on recent (adult) sexual behavior.

  5. Primary and Specialty Medical Care Among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  6. Primary and Specialty Medical Care among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  7. A systematic review of motivational interviewing for weight loss among adults in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, R. D.; Ivezaj, V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centred method of intervention focused on enhancing intrinsic motivation and behaviour change. A previous review of the literature and meta-analyses support the effectiveness of MI for weight loss. None of these studies, however, focused on the bourgeoning literature examining MI for weight loss among adults within primary care settings, which confers unique barriers to providing weight loss treatment. Further, the current review includes 19 studies not included in previous reviews or meta-analyses. We conducted a comprehensive review of PubMed, MI review papers, and citations from relevant papers. A total of 24 adult randomized controlled trials were identified. MI interventions typically were provided individually by a range of clinicians and compared with usual care. Few studies provided adequate information regarding MI treatment fidelity. Nine studies (37.5%) reported significant weight loss at post-treatment assessment for the MI condition compared with control groups. Thirteen studies (54.2%) reported MI patients achieving at least 5% loss of initial body weight. There is potential for MI to help primary care patients lose weight. Conclusions, however, must be drawn cautiously as more than half of the reviewed studies showed no significant weight loss compared with usual care and few reported MI treatment fidelity. PMID:25752449

  8. Utilization and perceptions of primary health care services in Australian adults with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Happell, Brenda

    2013-06-01

    Persons accessing inpatient mental health services generally experience reduced access to and quality of primary health care. The objective of this study was to compare health service utilization and perceptions, and receipt of specified health services, in Australian adults with and without a previous mental illness diagnosis. A cross-sectional survey was administered by computer-assisted telephone interviewing in 2011; the main outcome measures were receipt of services in the previous 12 months, satisfaction with health care services, and concerns regarding health care affordability. Participants included 1275 adults residing in Queensland, Australia; 292 (23%) participants reported a diagnosis of mental illness, largely depression and/or anxiety (87%). The mental illness group had higher scores for concerns regarding health care affordability (mean ranks 778 vs. 706, respectively; z=-2.90, P=0.004) and lower scores for perceptions of health care service quality and accessibility (mean ranks 631 vs. 701, respectively; z=-2.90, P=0.004). After adjustment for increased utilization of services, the mental illness group had an increased likelihood of having received only 5 of 19 services in the past 12 months (odds ratios: 1.54-1.71). Compared to those with no mental illness, Australians with a mental illness report increased dissatisfaction with health care affordability, accessibility, and quality, and generally have similar odds of primary care services per health care utilization despite being at significantly greater risk of chronic disease.

  9. Measuring health-related quality of life in adults with chronic conditions in primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe health-related quality of life (HRQOL) conceptual frameworks, critically review 3 commonly used HRQOL scales relevant to adults with chronic conditions in primary care settings, and make recommendations for using HRQOL scales in primary care practice. Data sources Information was accessed regarding HRQOL conceptual and theoretical approaches. A comprehensive search strategy identified 3 commonly used scales that met the review criteria and evidence regarding use of the scales in adults with chronic conditions in community settings. Scale selection Scales were selected if they were designed for clinical use; were easy to administer; were generic and broad in content areas; and contained some individualized items. Scales were critiqued according to content development, theoretical basis, psychometric properties, scoring, feasibility, the concepts being measured, and the number of items that measured an individualized concept. Synthesis Early HRQOL approaches focused on health and functional status while recent approaches incorporate individualized concepts such as the person’s own values and the environment. The abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF), the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Duke Health Profile were critiqued. All address physical, mental, and social domains, while the WHOQOL-BREF also addresses environment. Psychometric evidence supports use of the SF-36 and WHOQOL-BREF with this population. The SF-36 has the most evidence of responsiveness but has some floor and ceiling effects, while the WHOQOL-BREF does not appear to have floor or ceiling effects but has limited evidence of responsiveness. The WHOQOL-BREF has the highest proportion of individualized items. Conclusion Measurement of HRQOL in adults with chronic conditions can support patient management and contribute to primary care service evaluation. Scales that are based on a broad definition of health and that

  10. Morphological response of injured adult rabbit optic nerve to implants containing media conditioned by growing optic nerves.

    PubMed

    Lavie, V; Harel, A; Doron, A; Solomon, A; Lobel, D; Belkin, M; Ben-Basat, S; Sharma, S; Schwartz, M

    1987-09-01

    Adult rabbit retina can express regeneration-associated characteristics after optic nerve injury, provided it is supplied with appropriate diffusible substances originating from media conditioned by regenerating fish optic nerves or by optic nerves of a newborn rabbit [Hadani et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 81 (1984) 7965; Schwartz et al., Science, 228 (1985) 600]. This was shown by applying the active substances to the injured axons in the form of 'wrap-around' implants, consisting of collagen-coated silicone tubes which had been soaked in the conditioned media (CM). The regeneration-associated response was manifested biochemically and by sprouting of nerve fibers in culture. The present work provides morphological evidence that the implantation prolongs survival of ganglion cells and optic nerve fibers and induces new growth. Light microscopic analysis (using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for labeling the fibers) revealed, 1 week following optic nerve injury, labeled fibers and ganglion cells in both the implanted and control (injured only or injured and implanted with collagen-coated silicone tubes free of CM) nerves. However, from the second week after the injury, distinct differences in the appearance of viable ganglion cells and labeled fibers, were seen between experimental and control preparations. In sections taken through the optic nerve, at the region distal to the site of injury, HRP-labeled fibers were seen in the experimental nerves 1 week, 2 weeks and to a significantly lesser extent 1 month after injury.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3676722

  11. Primary blast injury-induced lesions in the retina of adult rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of primary blast exposure on the brain is widely reported but its effects on the eye remains unclear. Here, we aim to examine the effects of primary blast exposure on the retina. Methods Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to primary blast high and low injury and sacrificed at 24 h, 72 h, and 2 weeks post injury. The retina was subjected to western analysis for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), aquaporin-4 (AQP4), glutamine synthethase (GS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS), endothelial NOS, neuronal NOS and nestin expression; ELISA analysis for cytokines and chemokines; and immunofluorescence for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)/VEGF, GFAP/AQP4, GFAP/nestin, GS/AQP4, lectin/iNOS, and TUNEL. Results The retina showed a blast severity-dependent increase in VEGF, iNOS, eNOS, nNOS, and nestin expression with corresponding increases in inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. There was also increased AQP4 expression and retinal thickness after primary blast exposure that was severity-dependent. Finally, a significant increase in TUNEL+ and Caspase-3+ cells was observed. These changes were observed at 24 h post-injury and sustained up to 2 weeks post injury. Conclusions Primary blast resulted in severity-dependent pathological changes in the retina, manifested by the increased expression of a variety of proteins involved in inflammation, edema, and apoptosis. These changes were observed immediately after blast exposure and sustained up to 2 weeks suggesting acute and chronic injury mechanisms. These changes were most obvious in the astrocytes and Müller cells and suggest important roles for these cells in retina pathophysiology after blast. PMID:23819902

  12. Severe chronic primary neutropenia in adults: report on a series of 108 patients.

    PubMed

    Sicre de Fontbrune, Flore; Moignet, Aline; Beaupain, Blandine; Suarez, Felipe; Galicier, Lionel; Socié, Gérard; Varet, Bruno; Coppo, Paul; Michel, Marc; Pautas, Cécile; Oksenhendler, Eric; Lengline, Etienne; Terriou, Louis; Moreau, Philippe; Chantepie, Sylvain; Casadevall, Nicole; Michot, Jean Marie; Gardembas, Martine; Michallet, Mauricette; Croisille, Laure; Audrain, Marie; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Donadieu, Jean; Lamy, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Severe chronic primary neutropenia (CPN) is a rare entity, and long-term outcome and risk factors for infections in severe CPN adults have not been described to date. We report the characteristics and outcomes of 108 severe adult CPN patients enrolled in a multi-institutional observational study. Severe CPN adults were mostly female (78%), and median age at diagnosis was 28.3 years. Diagnosis was fortuitous in 62% of cases. The median absolute neutrophil count (ANC) at diagnosis was 0.4 × 10(9)/L, and median ANC without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) during follow-up was 0.5 × 10(9)/L. Twenty-three of 66 (34.8%) evaluable patients had neutrophil autoantibodies, and 6 of 47 (12.8%) a T-cell clone. The presence of neutrophil autoantibodies or T-cell clone was not associated with any specific clinical or biological characteristics. No death or hematologic malignancies occurred, and 44 severe bacterial infections were reported in 27 patients with a median follow-up of 8.3 years. Fifty patients received G-CSF either sporadically (n = 24) or continuously (n = 26) and responded (96%). Nineteen patients received immunosuppressive therapies: overall response (OR) was 41%, and median duration of response was 3 months. At diagnosis, the only predictive factor for the occurrence of severe bacterial infections was an ANC count below 0.2 × 10(9)/L (OR, 0.76). Severe CPN in adults is characterized by a female predominance and a benign outcome with a low rate of severe bacterial infections and no secondary malignancies. G-CSF is efficient and well tolerated but is not required in a majority of patients. PMID:26261239

  13. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in optic nerve and brain integration centers of adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after optic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Pushchina, Evgeniya V.; Shukla, Sachin; Varaksin, Anatoly A.; Obukhov, Dmitry K.

    2016-01-01

    Fishes have remarkable ability to effectively rebuild the structure of nerve cells and nerve fibers after central nervous system injury. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In order to address this issue, we investigated the proliferation and apoptosis of cells in contralateral and ipsilateral optic nerves, after stab wound injury to the eye of an adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Heterogenous population of proliferating cells was investigated at 1 week after injury. TUNEL labeling gave a qualitative and quantitative assessment of apoptosis in the cells of optic nerve of trout 2 days after injury. After optic nerve injury, apoptotic response was investigated, and mass patterns of cell migration were found. The maximal concentration of apoptotic bodies was detected in the areas of mass clumps of cells. It is probably indicative of massive cell death in the area of high phagocytic activity of macrophages/microglia. At 1 week after optic nerve injury, we observed nerve cell proliferation in the trout brain integration centers: the cerebellum and the optic tectum. In the optic tectum, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunopositive radial glia-like cells were identified. Proliferative activity of nerve cells was detected in the dorsal proliferative (matrix) area of the cerebellum and in parenchymal cells of the molecular and granular layers whereas local clusters of undifferentiated cells which formed neurogenic niches were observed in both the optic tectum and cerebellum after optic nerve injury. In vitro analysis of brain cells of trout showed that suspension cells compared with monolayer cells retain higher proliferative activity, as evidenced by PCNA immunolabeling. Phase contrast observation showed mitosis in individual cells and the formation of neurospheres which gradually increased during 1–4 days of culture. The present findings suggest that trout can be used as a novel model for studying neuronal regeneration. PMID:27212918

  14. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in optic nerve and brain integration centers of adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after optic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Pushchina, Evgeniya V; Shukla, Sachin; Varaksin, Anatoly A; Obukhov, Dmitry K

    2016-04-01

    Fishes have remarkable ability to effectively rebuild the structure of nerve cells and nerve fibers after central nervous system injury. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In order to address this issue, we investigated the proliferation and apoptosis of cells in contralateral and ipsilateral optic nerves, after stab wound injury to the eye of an adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Heterogenous population of proliferating cells was investigated at 1 week after injury. TUNEL labeling gave a qualitative and quantitative assessment of apoptosis in the cells of optic nerve of trout 2 days after injury. After optic nerve injury, apoptotic response was investigated, and mass patterns of cell migration were found. The maximal concentration of apoptotic bodies was detected in the areas of mass clumps of cells. It is probably indicative of massive cell death in the area of high phagocytic activity of macrophages/microglia. At 1 week after optic nerve injury, we observed nerve cell proliferation in the trout brain integration centers: the cerebellum and the optic tectum. In the optic tectum, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunopositive radial glia-like cells were identified. Proliferative activity of nerve cells was detected in the dorsal proliferative (matrix) area of the cerebellum and in parenchymal cells of the molecular and granular layers whereas local clusters of undifferentiated cells which formed neurogenic niches were observed in both the optic tectum and cerebellum after optic nerve injury. In vitro analysis of brain cells of trout showed that suspension cells compared with monolayer cells retain higher proliferative activity, as evidenced by PCNA immunolabeling. Phase contrast observation showed mitosis in individual cells and the formation of neurospheres which gradually increased during 1-4 days of culture. The present findings suggest that trout can be used as a novel model for studying neuronal regeneration. PMID:27212918

  15. Weight management services for adults--highlighting the role of primary care.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S J; O'Shea, D

    2012-01-01

    Ireland has the fourth highest prevalence of overweight and obese men in the European Union and the seventh highest prevalence among women. This study focuses on 777 referrals on the waiting list for Ireland's only fully funded hospital-based adult weight management service with special emphasis on the role of primary care in the referral process. Since our last review two years ago, we found that patients are now being referred at a younger age (mean 43 years). The mean BMI at referral has increased from 44 to 46. Five hundred and forty eight (70%) referrals were from primary care with males accounting for 163 (30%) of these, despite male obesity being more prevalent. Interestingly, as the distance from Dublin increased, the number of referrals decreased. Overall this is a concerning trend showing the increasing burden of obesity on a younger population and a health system inadequately equipped to deal with the problem. It also highlights the central role of the primary care physician in the timely and appropriate referral to optimise use of our available resources.

  16. Optical images of visible and invisible percepts in the primary visual cortex of primates

    PubMed Central

    Macknik, Stephen L.; Haglund, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    We optically imaged a visual masking illusion in primary visual cortex (area V-1) of rhesus monkeys to ask whether activity in the early visual system more closely reflects the physical stimulus or the generated percept. Visual illusions can be a powerful way to address this question because they have the benefit of dissociating the stimulus from perception. We used an illusion in which a flickering target (a bar oriented in visual space) is rendered invisible by two counter-phase flickering bars, called masks, which flank and abut the target. The target and masks, when shown separately, each generated correlated activity on the surface of the cortex. During the illusory condition, however, optical signals generated in the cortex by the target disappeared although the image of the masks persisted. The optical image thus was correlated with perception but not with the physical stimulus. PMID:10611363

  17. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymophism in Adult Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mohd, Rozita; Wahab, Zaimi Abdul; Cader, Rizna; Gafor, Halim A.; Radzi, Azizah Md; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Tong, Norella Kong Chiew

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for a third of biopsy-proven primary glomerulonephritis in Malaysia. Pediatric studies have found the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene to be associated with renal disease progression. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the ACE (I/D) genotypes in adult primary FSGS and its association with renal outcome on follow-up. Methods Prospective observational study involving primary FSGS patients was conducted. Biochemical and urine tests at the time of study were compared to the time of the diagnosis and disease progression analyzed. ACE gene polymorphism was identified using polymerase chain reaction amplification technique and categorized into II, ID and DD genotypes. Results Forty-five patients with a median follow-up of 3.8 years (interquartile range: 1.8 - 5.6) were recruited. The commonest genotype was II (n = 23, 51.1%) followed by ID (n = 19, 42.2%) and DD (n = 3, 6.7%). The baseline characteristics were comparable between the II and non-II groups at diagnosis and at study recruitment except that the median urine protein-creatinine index was significantly lower in the II group compared to the non-II group (0.02 vs. 0.04 g/mmol (P = 0.03). Regardless of genotypes, all parameters of renal outcome improved after treatment. Conclusion The II followed by ID genotypes were the predominant ACE gene alleles in our FSGS. Although the D allele has been reported to have a negative impact on renal outcome, treatment appeared to be more important than genotype in preserving renal function in this cohort. PMID:24883149

  18. Giant primary ossified cavernous hemangioma of the skull in an adult: A rare calvarial tumor

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Devendra K; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Sawant, Hemant V

    2011-01-01

    Primary intraosseous cavernous hemangiomas (PICHs) of the cranium are rare benign vascular tumors that account for about 0.2 % of all bone tumors and 10 % of benign skull tumors. They generally present as osteolytic lesions with honeycomb pattern of calcification. Completely ossified cavernous hemangioma of the calvarium in an adult has not been reported previously. A 28-year-old female presented to us with a large right parietal skull mass that had been present since the last 15 years. Total resection of the lesion was performed. Pathological examination was suggestive of cavernous hemangioma of the skull bone. Cavernous hemangioma should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis in any case of bony swelling of the calvarium so that adequate preoperative planning can be made to minimize blood loss and subsequent morbidity. PMID:21897684

  19. Continual electric field stimulation preserves contractile function of adult ventricular myocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Berger, H J; Prasad, S K; Davidoff, A J; Pimental, D; Ellingsen, O; Marsh, J D; Smith, T W; Kelly, R A

    1994-01-01

    To model with greater fidelity the electromechanical function of freshly isolated heart muscle cells in primary culture, we describe a technique for the continual electrical stimulation of adult myocytes at physiological frequencies for several days. A reusable plastic cover was constructed to fit standard, disposable 175-cm2 tissue culture flasks and to hold parallel graphite electrodes along the long axis of each flask, which treated a uniform electric field that resulted in a capture efficiency of ventricular myocytes of 75-80%. Computer-controlled amplifiers were designed to be capable of driving a number of flasks concurrently, each containing up to 4 x 10(6) myocytes, over a range of stimulation frequencies (from 0.1 to 7.0 Hz) with reversal of electrode polarity after each stimulus to prevent the development of pH gradients around each electrode. Unlike quiescent, unstimulated myocytes, the amplitude of contraction, and velocities of shortening and relaxation did not change in myocytes paced at 3-5 Hz for up to 72 h. The maintenance of normal contractile function in paced myocytes required mechanical contraction per se, since paced myocytes that remained quiescent due to the inclusion of 2.5 microM verapamil in the culture medium for 48 h also exhibited a decline in contractility when paced after verapamil removal. Similarly, pacing increased peak calcium current compared with quiescent cells that had not been paced. Thus myocyte contraction at physiological frequencies induced by continual uniform electric field stimulation in short-term primary culture in defining medium maintains some biophysical parameters of myocyte phenotype that are similar to those observed in freshly isolated adult ventricular myocytes.

  20. Occupational and environmental risk factors of adult primary brain cancers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J; Al Zayadi, A; Guzman, A

    2011-04-01

    The incidence of brain neoplasm has been progressively increasing in recent years in the industrialized countries. One of the reasons for this increased incidence could be better access to health care and improved diagnosis in the industrialized countries. It also appears that Caucasians have a higher incidence than blacks or Hispanics or Asians. A number of risk factors have been identified and described including the genetic, ethnic and age-based factors. Certain occupational and environmental factors are also believed to influence the risk of primary adult brain tumors. Potential occupational and environmental factors include exposure to diagnostic and therapeutic radiations, electromagnetic radiation from cellular phones and other wireless devices, infectious agents, air pollution and residence near landfills and high-voltage power lines and jobs as firefighters, farmers, physician, chemists and jobs in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, synthetic rubber manufacturing, agricultural chemicals manufacturing. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine occupational and environmental risk factors of brain neoplasm. A range of occupational and environmental exposures are evaluated for significance of their relationship with adult primary brain tumors. On the basis of this review we suggest a concurrent evaluation of multiple risk factors both within and beyond occupational and environmental domains. The concurrent approach needs to consider better exposure assessment techniques, lifetime occupational exposures, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and lifestyle and dietary habits. This approach needs to be interdisciplinary with contributions from neurologists, oncologists, epidemiologists and molecular biologists. Conclusive evidence that has eluded multitude of studies with single focus and single exposure needs to multifaceted and multidisciplinary. PMID:23022824

  1. Activity, inhibition, and induction of cytochrome P450 2J2 in adult human primary cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Eric A; Kaspera, Rüdiger; Mokadam, Nahush A; Jones, J P; Totah, Rheem A

    2013-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 2J2 plays a significant role in the epoxidation of arachidonic acid to signaling molecules important in cardiovascular events. CYP2J2 also contributes to drug metabolism and is responsible for the intestinal clearance of ebastine. However, the interaction between arachidonic acid metabolism and drug metabolism in cardiac tissue, the main expression site of CYP2J2, has not been examined. Here we investigate an adult-derived human primary cardiac cell line as a suitable model to study metabolic drug interactions (inhibition and induction) of CYP2J2 in cardiac tissue. The primary human cardiomyocyte cell line demonstrated similar mRNA-expression profiles of P450 enzymes to adult human ventricular tissue. CYP2J2 was the dominant isozyme with minor contributions from CYP2D6 and CYP2E1. Both terfenadine and astemizole oxidation were observed in this cell line, whereas midazolam was not metabolized suggesting lack of CYP3A activity. Compared with recombinant CYP2J2, terfenadine was hydroxylated in cardiomyocytes at a similar K(m) value of 1.5 μM. The V(max) of terfenadine hydroxylation in recombinant enzyme was found to be 29.4 pmol/pmol P450 per minute and in the cells 6.0 pmol/pmol P450 per minute. CYP2J2 activity in the cell line was inhibited by danazol, astemizole, and ketoconazole in submicromolar range, but also by xenobiotics known to cause cardiac adverse effects. Of the 14 compounds tested for CYP2J2 induction, only rosiglitazone increased mRNA expression, by 1.8-fold. This cell model can be a useful in vitro model to investigate the role of CYP2J2-mediated drug metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and their association to drug induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:24021950

  2. Primary atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spine in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Li, Luyuan; Patel, Mohit; Nguyen, Ha Son; Doan, Ninh; Sharma, Abhishiek; Maiman, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is an aggressive neoplasm of the central nervous system that generally arises intracranially in patients under 2 years of age. Primary spinal AT/RT in an adult is rare. Case Description: A 23-year-old female presented with left lower extremity sciatica attributed to a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-documented intradural mass between L2 and L4. The lesion was biopsied (was unresectable) and treated with high-dose chemotherapy (methotrexate, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin) with autologous hematopoietic stem cells rescue, followed by 2 months of radiation therapy (36 Gy to craniospinal axis, 20 Gy to lumbar region) with concurrent temozolomide; the latter was discontinued after 3 weeks due to myelosuppression. Tumor relapsed 1 year later at C7–T1 level. She was started on oral metronomic therapy, and bevacizumab was added 2 months later. Three months later, a cervical MRI showed progression of the tumor, along with new lesions in the thoracic/lumbar spine plus intracranial punctate nodular tumors. Following resection of the C7/T1 lesion, she was started on palliative alisertib; a month later, a cranial computed tomography showed progression of her disease with hydrocephalus. Treatment was discontinued, and she expired 12 months after initial diagnosis. Conclusion: Primary spinal AT/RT in the adult patient is rare. The pathology is associated with early recurrence and a poor prognosis. Although potential benefits of metronomic chemotherapy and alisertib have been reported, the patient in this study did not favorably respond to these modalities. PMID:27069744

  3. A quality-of-life measure for adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia: QOL–PCD

    PubMed Central

    Behan, Laura; Dunn Galvin, Audrey; Alpern, Adrianne; Morris, Anjana M.; Carroll, Mary P.; Knowles, Michael R.; Leigh, Margaret W.; Quittner, Alexandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is characterised by chronic suppurative lung disease, rhino-sinusitis, hearing impairment and sub-fertility. We have developed the first multidimensional measure to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with PCD (QOL–PCD). Following a literature review and expert panel meeting, open-ended interviews with patients investigated the impact of PCD on HRQoL in the UK and North America (n=21). Transcripts were content analysed to derive saturation matrices. Items were rated for relevance by patients (n=49). Saturation matrices, relevance scores, literature review, evaluation of existing measures, and expert opinion contributed to development of a preliminary questionnaire. The questionnaire was refined following cognitive interviews (n=18). Open-ended interviews identified a spectrum of issues unique to adults with PCD. Saturation matrices confirmed comprehensive coverage of content. QOL–PCD includes 48 items covering the following seven domains: Physical Functioning, Emotional Functioning, Treatment Burden, Respiratory and Sinus Symptoms, Ears and Hearing, Social Functioning, and Vitality and Health Perceptions. Cognitive testing confirmed that content was comprehensive and the items were well-understood by respondents. Content validity and cognitive testing supported the items and structure. QOL–PCD has been translated into other languages and is awaiting psychometric testing. PMID:25976687

  4. Compound heterozygote mutations in SPG7 in a family with adult-onset primary lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Lynch, David R.; Lukas, Thomas; Ahmeti, Kreshnik; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Ryan, Eanna; Schadt, Kimberly A.; Newman, Jordan H.; Deng, Han-Xiang; Siddique, Nailah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the genetic defect for adult-onset primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) in a family with 5 patients. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the shared genetic variants in 3 affected members in a PLS family with 5 affected individuals. Sanger sequencing was used for validation of the variants and for cosegregation analysis. Mitochondrial activity for both patients and unaffected siblings was measured using a SeaHorse metabolic analyzer. Results: Whole-exome sequencing and subsequent cosegregation analysis demonstrated that compound heterozygous missense variants L695P and I743T in SPG7 were the only mutations cosegregating with the disease in an autosomal recessive fashion in this family. The parents and siblings are genetically heterozygous and clinically unaffected. Functional studies suggested that the PLS-associated SPG7 mutants affect mitochondrial function when glucose is reduced. Conclusions: Compound heterozygote mutations in SPG7 are associated with adult-onset PLS, extending the spectrum of SPG7-linked neurologic diseases. Patients with the PLS phenotype should have genetic testing for paraplegin, especially when the condition is familial. PMID:27123479

  5. A quality-of-life measure for adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia: QOL-PCD.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jane S; Behan, Laura; Dunn Galvin, Audrey; Alpern, Adrianne; Morris, Anjana M; Carroll, Mary P; Knowles, Michael R; Leigh, Margaret W; Quittner, Alexandra L

    2015-08-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is characterised by chronic suppurative lung disease, rhino-sinusitis, hearing impairment and sub-fertility. We have developed the first multidimensional measure to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with PCD (QOL-PCD).Following a literature review and expert panel meeting, open-ended interviews with patients investigated the impact of PCD on HRQoL in the UK and North America (n=21). Transcripts were content analysed to derive saturation matrices. Items were rated for relevance by patients (n=49). Saturation matrices, relevance scores, literature review, evaluation of existing measures, and expert opinion contributed to development of a preliminary questionnaire. The questionnaire was refined following cognitive interviews (n=18).Open-ended interviews identified a spectrum of issues unique to adults with PCD. Saturation matrices confirmed comprehensive coverage of content. QOL-PCD includes 48 items covering the following seven domains: Physical Functioning, Emotional Functioning, Treatment Burden, Respiratory and Sinus Symptoms, Ears and Hearing, Social Functioning, and Vitality and Health Perceptions. Cognitive testing confirmed that content was comprehensive and the items were well-understood by respondents.Content validity and cognitive testing supported the items and structure. QOL-PCD has been translated into other languages and is awaiting psychometric testing.

  6. Clinicopathological correlation and treatment response of primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in adults and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapriya, J.; Dineshkumar, T.; Gopalakrishnan, N.; Sakthirajan, R.; Balasubramaniyan, T.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is approximately 10% in children <6 years, 20% in adolescents, and 20-25% in adults. A retrospective observational study was done to document clinicopathological correlation, treatment response, and risk factors in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of primary FSGS in adults and adolescents. A total of 170 patients were studied with a mean follow-up of 4.32 ± 1.2 years. FSGS not otherwise specified was the most common subtype (56%) followed by tip variant (24%). About 32% had complete remission (CR) at a mean time of 6.4 months, 23% had partial remission (PR) at a mean time of 5.7 months, and 45% had no response to steroids. Persistent nephrotic proteinuria at 3rd and 6th month and presence of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy >30% in renal biopsy are the independent predictors of poor response to treatment. Presence of anemia, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy of >30% in renal biopsy and the absence of remission after treatment were the independent predictors of CKD progression. Overall renal survival was 78% at 3 years and 54% at 5 years. Renal survival difference with or without nephrotic proteinuria at onset was 39% and 69% at 5 years. Renal survival was higher in patients with normal renal function (66%) compared with those who had renal failure (42%) at 5 years. Renal survival at 5 years for CR was 69%, PR was 49%, and no remission was 42%.

  7. Changes in Young Adult Primary Care Under the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Carol A.; French, Benjamin; Rubin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe changes in young adults’ routine care and usual sources of care (USCs), according to provider specialty, after implementation of extended dependent coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010. Methods. We used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2006 to 2012 to examine young adults’ receipt of routine care in the preceding year, identification of a USC, and USC provider specialties (pediatrics, family medicine, internal medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Results. The percentage of young adults who sought routine care increased from 42.4% in 2006 to 49.5% in 2012 (P < .001). The percentage identifying a USC remained stable at approximately 60%. Among young adults with a USC, there was a trend between 2006 and 2012 toward increasing percentages with pediatric (7.6% vs 9.1%) and family medicine (75.9% vs 80.9%) providers and declining percentages with internal medicine (11.5% vs 7.6%) and obstetrics and gynecology (5.0% vs 2.5%) providers. Conclusions. Efforts under the ACA to increase health insurance coverage had favorable effects on young adults’ use of routine care. Monitoring routine care use and USC choices in this group can inform primary care workforce needs and graduate medical education priorities across specialties. PMID:26447914

  8. Primary Care Providers’ Perspectives On Psychoactive Medication Disorders in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Monica; Gething, Megan; Moore, Alison A.; Reid, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Compared to younger adults, older adults consume a disproportionate percentage of pain and sleep medications. Some studies have reported that psychoactive medication misuse and abuse in older populations is a significant problem. Objectives To understand primary care providers' (PCPs) perspectives regarding the extent and clinical presentations of misuse and abuse of psychoactive medications in older patients and to explore PCP’s perceived barriers to identifying affected individuals. Design Semi-structured focus groups with PCPs. Participants Seventeen physicians and five nurse practitioners from two ambulatory care practices serving older adults in New York City. Methods Six focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed. Two raters coded transcripts to identify recurring themes. Qualitative analysis software (QSR NVivo 8) was employed for data coding and sorting purposes. Results Although PCPs felt that only a small percentage of older patients were actively misusing or abusing their psychoactive medications (average estimate given by providers = 8%), PCPs felt that these patients placed significant time burdens on them. Perceived risk factors included psychiatric disorders, prior substance abuse history, and cognitive impairment, but many PCPs found it impossible to predict which patients were at increased risk. PCPs identified multiple barriers to identifying affected patients, including lack of communication (between provider and patient, provider and patient’s caregivers, and between different providers), nonspecific symptoms, and the lack of a clear definition of misuse and abuse. Conclusions The lack of a clear definition, absence of well-defined risk factors, and ambiguous clinical manifestations of psychoactive medication misuse and abuse present substantial barriers to diagnosis. A standard, age-appropriate definition could help PCPs to establish a diagnosis, clarify what constitutes appropriate psychoactive medication use

  9. Primary human adult lung epithelial cells in vitro: response to interferon-gamma and cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, L; Dominguez, M; Yacoub, M

    1993-01-01

    Primary human adult lung epithelial cells (ALEC) were established in culture using the most distal parts of the lung to avoid the airways. Immunocytochemical peroxidase staining and semiquantitative flow cytometry were used to characterize the cells in conjunction with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb). The cells showed a constitutive expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens, patchy expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and a weak patchy expression of MHC class II antigens (detected using immunocytochemical staining). Incubation of the primary ALEC with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) (250 U/ml) stimulated an up-regulation of the expression of these three antigens to varying degrees; expression of MHC class I antigens and ICAM-1 molecules showed an up-regulation at 10 hr after the start of the treatment, reaching a peak at 48 hr, maintaining it for the next 24 hr and then, steadily and progressively, losing it towards the end of the experiment at 96 hr. Expression of HLA-DR showed an up-regulation at 17 hr after the start of the treatment, reaching a peak at 72 hr and maintaining it for the next 24 hr. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of ALEC in culture caused an up-regulation of expression of class I antigens and ICAM-1, but not DR. However, when the infected cells were incubated with IFN-gamma, an up-regulation in the expression of DR took place. Therefore, within the micro-environment of the transplanted lung the presence of cytokines (IFN-gamma) produced by infiltrating activated mononuclear cells, may render the lung epithelial cells capable of acting as antigen-presenting cells, expressing high levels of class I antigens, ICAM-1 and class II antigens, activating CD8 and CD4 cells thus playing a major part in the process of rejection of the lung allograft; themselves becoming a primary target in the process. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8099565

  10. Isolated primary central nervous system lymphoma arising from the optic chiasm.

    PubMed

    Vassal, F; Pommier, B; Boutet, C; Forest, F; Campolmi, N; Nuti, C

    2014-12-01

    A 58-year-old previously healthy woman rapidly developed progressive bilateral visual loss. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a bulging appearance of the optic chiasm, with homogeneous enhancement after gadolinium administration, which suggested an optic glioma or inflammatory disease. In the absence of (para)clinical clues for a specific diagnosis despite extensive investigation, a biopsy of one optic nerve was performed, resulting in a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. There was no evidence of any other ocular or systemic involvement, therefore the conclusion was that this immunocompetent patient had a primary central nervous system lymphoma isolated in the anterior visual pathway. Treatment included two cycles of polychemotherapy (rituximab, methotrexate, carmustine, etoposide, methylprednisolone), followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and rituximab plus cytarabine consolidation therapy. Subsequently, the patient exhibited significant improvement in vision, and was still disease-free at the 1-year follow-up examination. The aim of the present paper was to provide well-documented clinical, radiological, and intraoperative features of isolated primary malignant lymphoma arising from the anterior visual pathway. A better recognition of this rare pathological entity is necessary for clinicians who may encounter similar presentations, as prompt management is crucial for both a visual and vital prognosis. PMID:25245922

  11. Primary care interventions to improve transition of youth with chronic health conditions from paediatric to adult healthcare: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bhawra, Jasmin; Toulany, Alene; Cohen, Eyal; Moore Hepburn, Charlotte; Guttmann, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine effective interventions to improve primary care provider involvement in transitioning youth with chronic conditions from paediatric to adult care. Design Systematic review. Multiple electronic databases were searched including Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science (from 1 January 1947 to 5 August 2015). Evidence quality was assessed using a 36-point scoring system for disparate study designs. Setting Studies with paediatric-to-adult transition programmes and interventions involving primary care providers or in primary care settings. Participants Youth aged 16 years and over. Outcomes Relevant outcomes were grouped into 3 main domains based on the Triple Aim Framework: experience of care, population health, cost. Results A total of 1888 unique citations were identified, yielding 3 studies for inclusion. Overall, primary care provider roles were not well defined. 2 studies used case managers to facilitate referrals to primary care, and the remaining study was the only 1 situated in a primary care setting. None of the studies examined transition in all 3 Triple Aim Framework domains. The most commonly reported outcomes were in the cost domain. Conclusions There is limited empiric evidence to guide primary care interventions to improve transition outcomes for youth with chronic conditions. Future research and policy should focus on developing and evaluating coordinated transition interventions to better integrate primary care for high need populations. PMID:27150188

  12. Effects of Primary Blast Overpressure on Retina and Optic Tract in Rats.

    PubMed

    DeMar, James; Sharrow, Keith; Hill, Miya; Berman, Jonathan; Oliver, Thomas; Long, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Blast has been the leading cause of injury, particularly traumatic brain injury and visual system injury, in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. We determined the effect of shock tube-generated primary blast on retinal electrophysiology and on retinal and brain optic tract histopathology in a rat model. The amplitude of a- and b-waves on the electroretinogram (ERG) for both right and left eyes were measured prior to a battlefield simulation Friedlander-type blast wave and on 1, 7, and 14 days thereafter. Histopathologic findings of the right and left retina and the right and left optic tracts (2.8 mm postoptic chiasm) were evaluated 14 days after the blast. For two experiments in which the right eye was oriented to the blast, the amplitude of ERG a- and b-waves at 7 days post blast on the right side but not on the left side was diminished compared to that of sham animals (P = 0.005-0.01) Histopathologic injury scores at 14 days post blast for the right retina but not the left retina were higher than for sham animals (P = 0.01), and histopathologic injury scores at 14 days for both optic tracts were markedly higher than for shams (P < 0.0001). Exposure of one eye to a blast wave, comparable to that causing human injury, produced injury to the retina as determined by ERG and histopathology, and to both postchiasmatic optic tracts as determined by histopathology. This model may be useful for analyzing the effect of therapeutic interventions on retinal damage due to primary blast waves.

  13. Effects of Primary Blast Overpressure on Retina and Optic Tract in Rats.

    PubMed

    DeMar, James; Sharrow, Keith; Hill, Miya; Berman, Jonathan; Oliver, Thomas; Long, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Blast has been the leading cause of injury, particularly traumatic brain injury and visual system injury, in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. We determined the effect of shock tube-generated primary blast on retinal electrophysiology and on retinal and brain optic tract histopathology in a rat model. The amplitude of a- and b-waves on the electroretinogram (ERG) for both right and left eyes were measured prior to a battlefield simulation Friedlander-type blast wave and on 1, 7, and 14 days thereafter. Histopathologic findings of the right and left retina and the right and left optic tracts (2.8 mm postoptic chiasm) were evaluated 14 days after the blast. For two experiments in which the right eye was oriented to the blast, the amplitude of ERG a- and b-waves at 7 days post blast on the right side but not on the left side was diminished compared to that of sham animals (P = 0.005-0.01) Histopathologic injury scores at 14 days post blast for the right retina but not the left retina were higher than for sham animals (P = 0.01), and histopathologic injury scores at 14 days for both optic tracts were markedly higher than for shams (P < 0.0001). Exposure of one eye to a blast wave, comparable to that causing human injury, produced injury to the retina as determined by ERG and histopathology, and to both postchiasmatic optic tracts as determined by histopathology. This model may be useful for analyzing the effect of therapeutic interventions on retinal damage due to primary blast waves. PMID:27199884

  14. Effects of Primary Blast Overpressure on Retina and Optic Tract in Rats

    PubMed Central

    DeMar, James; Sharrow, Keith; Hill, Miya; Berman, Jonathan; Oliver, Thomas; Long, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Blast has been the leading cause of injury, particularly traumatic brain injury and visual system injury, in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. We determined the effect of shock tube-generated primary blast on retinal electrophysiology and on retinal and brain optic tract histopathology in a rat model. The amplitude of a- and b-waves on the electroretinogram (ERG) for both right and left eyes were measured prior to a battlefield simulation Friedlander-type blast wave and on 1, 7, and 14 days thereafter. Histopathologic findings of the right and left retina and the right and left optic tracts (2.8 mm postoptic chiasm) were evaluated 14 days after the blast. For two experiments in which the right eye was oriented to the blast, the amplitude of ERG a- and b-waves at 7 days post blast on the right side but not on the left side was diminished compared to that of sham animals (P = 0.005–0.01) Histopathologic injury scores at 14 days post blast for the right retina but not the left retina were higher than for sham animals (P = 0.01), and histopathologic injury scores at 14 days for both optic tracts were markedly higher than for shams (P < 0.0001). Exposure of one eye to a blast wave, comparable to that causing human injury, produced injury to the retina as determined by ERG and histopathology, and to both postchiasmatic optic tracts as determined by histopathology. This model may be useful for analyzing the effect of therapeutic interventions on retinal damage due to primary blast waves. PMID:27199884

  15. First-time primary caregivers' experience of caring for young adults with first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I; Clark, Eileen

    2011-03-01

    Becoming a career is associated with physical, emotional, and financial hardship, with caregivers often experiencing a maelstrom of emotions as they struggle to understand what has happened to their loved one. While the burden of caring for young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) has been well documented, much less is known about how carers develop the strength and resilience to continue caring. This qualitative study aimed to understand the experience of 20 first-time primary caregivers of young adults with FEP. Most caregivers were female (85%, n = 17) and parents (85%, n = 17). The average length of involvement as a caregiver at an FEP service was 14.5 months. Six main themes were identified in the data, highlighting the carers' experience in supporting young adults with FEP. Caregiving is a burdensome responsibility and is characterized as a roller coaster and unpredictable experience. Caregivers often feel responsible for the young person's illness; however, eventually most come to terms with the changes that have occurred in the young person with FEP. As a consequence of the illness, the relationship between caregiver and care recipient frequently becomes closer and deeper, although it is important that they both maintain hope for the future. These findings provide important insights into the experiences of first-time caregivers of young people with FEP, with direct implications for improving the information and support given to caregivers by FEP services, as well as the development of interventions that effectively address the unique challenges caregivers face following the onset of FEP. PMID:19679716

  16. Isolation of intact astrocytes from the optic nerve head of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee Joo; Sun, Daniel; Jakobs, Tatjana C.

    2015-01-01

    The astrocytes of the optic nerve head are a specialized subtype of white matter astrocytes that form the direct cellular environment of the unmyelinated ganglion cell axons. Due to their potential involvement in glaucoma, these astrocytes have become a target of research. Due to the heterogeneity of the optic nerve tissue, which also contains other cell types, in some cases it may be desirable to conduct gene expression studies on small numbers of well-characterized astrocytes or even individual cells. Here, we describe a simple method to isolate individual astrocytes. This method permits obtaining astrocytes with intact morphology from the adult mouse optic nerve and reduces contamination of the isolated astrocytes by other cell types. Individual astrocytes can be recognized by their morphology and collected under microscopic control. The whole procedure can be completed in 2-3 hours. We also discuss downstream applications like multiplex single-cell PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMID:26093274

  17. Evaluation of bio-optical algorithms to remotely sense marine primary production from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthelot, Beatrice; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves

    1994-01-01

    In situ bio-optical measurements from several oceanographic campaigns were analyzed to derive a direct relationship between water column primary production P (sub t) ocean color as expressed by the ratio of reflectances R (sub 1) at 440 nm and R (sub 3) at 550 nm and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR). The study is restricted to the Morel case I waters for which the following algorithm is proposed: log (P(sub f)) = -4.286 - 1.390 log (R(sub 1)/R(sub3)) + 0.621 log (PAR), with P(sub t) in g C m(exp -2)/d and PAR in J m(exp -2)/d. Using this algorithm the rms accuracy of primary production estimate is 0.17 on a logarithmic scale, i.e., a factor of 1.5. Using spectral reflectance measurements in the entire visible spectral range, the central wavelength, spectral bandwidth, and radiometric noise level requirements are investigated for the channels to be used by an ocean color space mission dedicated to estimating global marine primary production and the associated carbon fluxes. Nearly all the useful information is provided by two channels centered at 440 nm and 550 nm, but the accuracy of primary production estimate appears weakly sensitive to spectral bandwidth, which, consequently, may be enlarged by several tens of nanometers. The sensitivity to radiometric noise, on the contrary, is strong, and a noise equivalent reflectance of 0.005 degraded the accuracy on the primary production estimate by a factor 2 (0.14-0.25 on a logarithmic scale). The results should be applicable to evaluating the primary production of oligotrophic and mesotrophic waters, which constitute most of the open ocean.

  18. Insulin Resistance in Adult Primary Care Patients With a Surrogate Index, Guadalajara, Mexico, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Espinel-Bermúdez, María Claudia; Robles-Cervantes, José Antonio; del Sagrario Villarreal-Hernández, Liliana; Villaseñor-Romero, Juan Pablo; Hernández-González, Sandra Ofelia; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Pérez-Rubio, Karina Griselda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Insulin resistance (IR) is a key molecular disorder related with diabetes mellitus, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine IR in adult primary care patients using the triglyceride/glucose (TyG) index [(Ln TG (mg/dL) × FG (mg/dL))/2]. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis and identified IR subjects according to the TyG index. Results There were 1500 patients included. Significant differences were found between the IR group versus the insulin-sensitive group, respectively: age (in years), 46.4 ± 9.34 versus 40.24 ± 11.27 (P < 0.001); fasting glucose (mg/dL), 99.87 ± 11.95 versus 84.62 ± 6.59 (P < 0.001); total cholesterol (mg/dL), 203.21 ± 37.38 versus 173.91 ± 33.99 (P < 0.001); triglycerides (mg/dL), 226.40 ± 96.66 versus 111.27 ± 23.44 (P < 0.001); uric acid (mg/dL), 6.09 ± 1.59 versus 4.77 ± 1.40 (P < 0.001); and TyG index, 4.96 ± 0.21 versus 4.48 ± 0.13 (P < 0.001). The cutoff of the TyG index for IR was 4.68 or greater. Conclusions The TyG index allows for early diagnosis of IR in primary health care. PMID:25503090

  19. Blood transcriptomic biomarkers in adult primary care patients with major depressive disorder undergoing cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Redei, E E; Andrus, B M; Kwasny, M J; Seok, J; Cai, X; Ho, J; Mohr, D C

    2014-09-16

    An objective, laboratory-based diagnostic tool could increase the diagnostic accuracy of major depressive disorders (MDDs), identify factors that characterize patients and promote individualized therapy. The goal of this study was to assess a blood-based biomarker panel, which showed promise in adolescents with MDD, in adult primary care patients with MDD and age-, gender- and race-matched nondepressed (ND) controls. Patients with MDD received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and clinical assessment using self-reported depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The measures, including blood RNA collection, were obtained before and after 18 weeks of CBT. Blood transcript levels of nine markers of ADCY3, DGKA, FAM46A, IGSF4A/CADM1, KIAA1539, MARCKS, PSME1, RAPH1 and TLR7, differed significantly between participants with MDD (N=32) and ND controls (N=32) at baseline (q< 0.05). Abundance of the DGKA, KIAA1539 and RAPH1 transcripts remained significantly different between subjects with MDD and ND controls even after post-CBT remission (defined as PHQ-9 <5). The ROC area under the curve for these transcripts demonstrated high discriminative ability between MDD and ND participants, regardless of their current clinical status. Before CBT, significant co-expression network of specific transcripts existed in MDD subjects who subsequently remitted in response to CBT, but not in those who remained depressed. Thus, blood levels of different transcript panels may identify the depressed from the nondepressed among primary care patients, during a depressive episode or in remission, or follow and predict response to CBT in depressed individuals.

  20. Age–incidence patterns of primary CNS tumors in children, adolescents, and adults in England

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ramandeep S.; Alston, Robert D.; Eden, Tim O.B.; Estlin, Edward J.; Moran, Anthony; Birch, Jillian M.

    2009-01-01

    Around 25% of all tumors in those 0–14 years of age and 9% in those 15–24 years of age involve the CNS. They are the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in both age groups. In adults 25–84 years of age, the proportion of CNS tumors is 2%; 5-year overall survival is 10%–15%; and survivors have considerable morbidity. Comprehensive up-to-date population-based incidence data on these tumors are lacking. We present incidence rates for primary CNS tumors based on data derived from the high-quality national cancer registration system in England. A total of 54,336 CNS tumors of malignant, benign, and uncertain behavior were registered across the whole of England from 1995 through 2003. The age-standardized rates for all ages (0–84 years) was 9.21 per 100,000 person-years. This is higher than previously reported for England because it includes nonmalignant CNS tumors and hence gives a more accurate picture of burden of disease. The age-standardized rates for those 0–14 years of age, 15–24 years of age, and 25–84 years of age were 3.56, 3.26, and 14.57 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. In this article, we describe the changing patterns in the epidemiology of primary CNS tumors in these three age groups with respect to sex, tumor behavior, and histology using the current WHO classification. This information will provide a reference for future studies nationally and internationally and make comparisons relevant and meaningful. PMID:19033157

  1. Evaluation of Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Primary Craniopharyngioma by Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Qu, Yuanzhen; Lu, Wen; Liu, Fengjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the differences in macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) in child and adult patients with primary craniopharyngioma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) and to evaluate their significance in the diagnosis of primary craniopharyngioma. Material/Methods Ninety-six participants were divided into 3 groups: 32 in the child craniopharyngioma group (CCG) and 32 in the adult craniopharyngioma group (ACG) who were treated in Beijing Tiantan Hospital between November 2013 and October 2014, and 32 in the normal group (NG). All subjects were scanned by FD-OCT to map GCC and pRNFL thicknesses. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between GCC and pRNFL thickness, and pRNFL thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters, including horizontal cup-disc ratio (HCDR), vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR), optic disc area (ODA), and cup area (CA), respectively. Results The correlation between GCC and pRNFL thickness in the CCG was slightly stronger compared with the ACG. A significant difference in GCC thickness was observed among the CCG, ACG, and NG. Although the pRNFL thickness in both the CCG and ACG was significantly higher than that in NG, no significant difference in pRNFL thickness was detected between the 2 craniopharyngioma groups. The average, superior, and inferior pRNFL thicknesses were negatively correlated with VCDR in the CCG (in double eyes) and ACG (only in left eyes). Conclusions GCC was more sensitive than pRNFL in detecting optic nerve damage in the eyes of craniopharyngioma patients. A thinner pRNFL was especially correlated with VCDR in child craniopharyngioma patients. PMID:27372909

  2. Effect of the Keck telescope`s segmented primary on the performance on the Keck adaptive optics system

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.

    1997-06-01

    The 349 degree of freedom Keck adaptive optics system will be mapped on to the 36 segment Keck primary mirror. Each telescope segment is independently controlled in piston and tilt by an active control system and each segment also has its own set of aberrations. This presents a unique set of problems for the Keck adaptive optics system, not encountered with continuous primaries. To a certain extent the low order segment aberrations, beginning with focus, can be corrected statically by the adaptive optic system. However, the discontinuous surface at the segment edges present special problems in sensing and correcting wavefront with laser guide stars or natural guide stars.

  3. Electron microscopy of primary cell cultures in solution and correlative optical microscopy using ASEM.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Kazumi; Kinoshita, Takaaki; Uemura, Takeshi; Motohashi, Hozumi; Watanabe, Yohei; Ebihara, Tatsuhiko; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Sato, Mari; Suga, Mitsuo; Maruyama, Yuusuke; Tsuji, Noriko M; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Nishihara, Shoko; Sato, Chikara

    2014-08-01

    Correlative light-electron microscopy of cells in a natural environment of aqueous liquid facilitates high-throughput observation of protein complex formation. ASEM allows the inverted SEM to observe the wet sample from below, while an optical microscope observes it from above quasi-simultaneously. The disposable ASEM dish with a silicon nitride (SiN) film window can be coated variously to realize the primary-culture of substrate-sensitive cells in a few milliliters of culture medium in a stable incubator environment. Neuron differentiation, neural networking, proplatelet-formation and phagocytosis were captured by optical or fluorescence microscopy, and imaged at high resolution by gold-labeled immuno-ASEM with/without metal staining. Fas expression on the cell surface was visualized, correlated to the spatial distribution of F-actin. Axonal partitioning was studied using primary-culture neurons, and presynaptic induction by GluRδ2-N-terminus-linked fluorescent magnetic beads was correlated to the presynaptic-marker Bassoon. Further, megakaryocytes secreting proplatelets were captured, and P-selectins with adherence activity were localized to some of the granules present by immuno-ASEM. The phagocytosis of lactic acid bacteria by dendritic cells was also imaged. Based on these studies, ASEM correlative microscopy promises to allow the study of various mesoscopic-scale dynamics in the near future. PMID:24216127

  4. Measurement of Systemic Mitochondrial Function in Advanced Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Van Bergen, Nicole J; Crowston, Jonathan G; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Kearns, Lisa S; Sharma, Shiwani; Hewitt, Alex W; Mackey, David A; Trounce, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective and gradual loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Aging and increased intraocular pressure (IOP) are glaucoma risk factors; nevertheless patients deteriorate at all levels of IOP, implying other causative factors. Recent evidence presents mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex-I impairments in POAG. Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) patients suffer specific and rapid loss of RGCs, predominantly in young adult males, due to complex-I mutations in the mitochondrial genome. This study directly compares the degree of OXPHOS impairment in POAG and LHON patients, testing the hypothesis that the milder clinical disease in POAG is due to a milder complex-I impairment. To assess overall mitochondrial capacity, cells can be forced to produce ATP primarily from mitochondrial OXPHOS by switching the media carbon source to galactose. Under these conditions POAG lymphoblasts grew 1.47 times slower than controls, whilst LHON lymphoblasts demonstrated a greater degree of growth impairment (2.35 times slower). Complex-I enzyme specific activity was reduced by 18% in POAG lymphoblasts and by 29% in LHON lymphoblasts. We also assessed complex-I ATP synthesis, which was 19% decreased in POAG patients and 17% decreased in LHON patients. This study demonstrates both POAG and LHON lymphoblasts have impaired complex-I, and in the majority of aspects the functional defects in POAG were milder than LHON, which could reflect the milder disease development of POAG. This new evidence places POAG in the spectrum of mitochondrial optic neuropathies and raises the possibility for new therapeutic targets aimed at improving mitochondrial function.

  5. Measurement of Systemic Mitochondrial Function in Advanced Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Van Bergen, Nicole J; Crowston, Jonathan G.; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Kearns, Lisa S.; Sharma, Shiwani; Hewitt, Alex W.; Mackey, David A.; Trounce, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective and gradual loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Aging and increased intraocular pressure (IOP) are glaucoma risk factors; nevertheless patients deteriorate at all levels of IOP, implying other causative factors. Recent evidence presents mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex-I impairments in POAG. Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) patients suffer specific and rapid loss of RGCs, predominantly in young adult males, due to complex-I mutations in the mitochondrial genome. This study directly compares the degree of OXPHOS impairment in POAG and LHON patients, testing the hypothesis that the milder clinical disease in POAG is due to a milder complex-I impairment. To assess overall mitochondrial capacity, cells can be forced to produce ATP primarily from mitochondrial OXPHOS by switching the media carbon source to galactose. Under these conditions POAG lymphoblasts grew 1.47 times slower than controls, whilst LHON lymphoblasts demonstrated a greater degree of growth impairment (2.35 times slower). Complex-I enzyme specific activity was reduced by 18% in POAG lymphoblasts and by 29% in LHON lymphoblasts. We also assessed complex-I ATP synthesis, which was 19% decreased in POAG patients and 17% decreased in LHON patients. This study demonstrates both POAG and LHON lymphoblasts have impaired complex-I, and in the majority of aspects the functional defects in POAG were milder than LHON, which could reflect the milder disease development of POAG. This new evidence places POAG in the spectrum of mitochondrial optic neuropathies and raises the possibility for new therapeutic targets aimed at improving mitochondrial function. PMID:26496696

  6. Misdiagnosis of primary pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma of the right thigh in a young adult: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaolong; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Hucheng; Guo, Runsheng; Dai, Min

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma (PRMS) is a rare type of soft tissue tumor accounting for <2% of all adult sarcomas. The present study describes a case of a 28-year-old male patient with primary PRMS of the right thigh. The patient was initially diagnosed with a schwannoma and underwent conservative therapy at a local hospital. At the 6-month follow-up, the patient reported a marked increase in the size of the mass. Finally, the patient underwent fine-needle aspiration and total tumor resection. The tumor measured 11×9×5 cm3 in size and was located in the vastus intermedius muscle. According to histological and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of PRMS was confirmed by an expert pathology consultant. Postoperative follow-up at 3 months revealed no evidence of recurrent disease or residual side effects from therapy. However, it is imperative that such cases are closely monitored following surgery, in order to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the procedure, since misdiagnosis may increase the risk of recurrence and metastasis. The present case is noteworthy due to the misdiagnosis of PRMS, the large size of the mass and the young age of the patient. PMID:27588141

  7. A search for the primary abnormality in adult-onset type II citrullinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Keiko; Shaheen, Nazma; Saheki, Takeyori ); Kumashiro, Ryukichi; Tanikawa, Kyuichi ); O'Brien, W.E.; Beaudet, A.L. )

    1993-11-01

    Deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) causes citrullinemia in human beings. Type II citrullinemia is found in most patients with adult-onset citrullinemia in Japan, and ASS deficiency is found specifically in the liver. Previous studies have shown that the decrease of hepatic ASS activity is caused by a decrease in enzyme protein with normal kinetic properties and that there were no apparent abnormalities in the amount, translational activity, and gross structure of hepatic ASS mRNA. In the present work, the authors show by sequencing analysis that there was no mutation in the ASS mRNA from two patients with type II citrullinemia. The authors also report RFLP analysis of a consanguineous family with type II citrullinemia, by using three DNA polymorphisms located within the ASS gene locus. In spite of having consanguineous parents, the patient was not a homozygous haplotype for the ASS gene. The RFLP analysis of 16 affected patients from consanguineous parents showed that 5 of 16 patients had the heterozygous pattern for one of the three DNA probes and that the frequency of the heterozygous haplotype was not different from the control frequency. These results suggest that the primary defect of type II citrullinemia is not within the ASS gene locus. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Uncommon primary pelvic retroperitoneal masses in adults: a pattern-based imaging approach.

    PubMed

    Shanbhogue, Alampady K; Fasih, Najla; Macdonald, David B; Sheikh, Adnan M; Menias, Christine O; Prasad, Srinivasa R

    2012-01-01

    There is a broad spectrum of primary pelvic retroperitoneal masses in adults that demonstrate characteristic epidemiologic and histopathologic features and natural histories. These masses may be classified into five distinct subgroups using a pattern-based approach that takes anatomic distribution and certain imaging characteristics into account, allowing greater accuracy in their detection and characterization and helping to optimize patient management. The five groups are cystic (serous and mucinous epithelial neoplasms, pelvic lymphangioma, tailgut cyst, ancient schwannoma), vascular or hypervascular (solitary fibrous tumor, paraganglioma, pelvic arteriovenous malformation, Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome, extraintestinal GIST [gastrointestinal stromal tumor]), fat-containing (lipoma, liposarcoma, myelolipoma, presacral teratoma), calcified (calcified lymphocele, calcified rejected transplant kidney, rare sarcomas), and myxoid (schwannoma, plexiform neurofibroma, myxoma).Cross-sectional imaging modalities help differentiate the more common gynecologic neoplasms from more unusual masses. In particular, the tissue-specific multiplanar capability of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging permits better tumor localization and internal characterization, thereby serving as a road map for surgery.

  9. Toxic effects of bortezomib on primary sensory neurons and Schwann cells of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Alé, Albert; Bruna, Jordi; Herrando, Mireia; Navarro, Xavier; Udina, Esther

    2015-05-01

    The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is nowadays first line treatment for multiple myeloma. One of the most significant adverse events is peripheral neuropathy, mainly involving sensory nerve fibers that can lead to withdrawal of treatment. Here we develop an in vitro model to compare the effects of bortezomib on primary sensory neurons and Schwann cells of adult mice. We observed that sensory neurons were more susceptible to bortezomib, and their viability was reduced at a concentration of 6 nM, that only affected Schwann cell proliferation but not survival. At concentration higher than 8 nM Schwann cell viability was also compromised. Already at low concentrations, surviving neurons presented alterations in neurite outgrowth. Neurites were shorter and had dystrophic appearance, with alterations in neurofilament staining. However, neurites were able to regrow after removing bortezomib from the medium, thus indicating reversibility of the neurotoxicity. We confirmed in vivo that bortezomib produced alterations in neurofilaments at early stages of the treatment. After an accumulated dose of 2 mg/kg bortezomib, dorsal root ganglia neurons of treated animals showed accumulation of neurofilament in the soma. To evaluate if this accumulation was related with alterations in axonal transport, we tested the ability of sensory neurons to retrogradely transport a retrotracer applied at the distal nerve. Treated animals showed a lower amount of retrotracer in the soma 24 h after its application to the tibial nerve, therefore suggesting that axonal transport was affected by bortezomib.

  10. Secondary malignant neoplasms following radiotherapy for primary cancer in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Harbron, Richard W; Feltbower, Richard G; Glaser, Adam; Lilley, John; Pearce, Mark S

    2014-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN) occurrence following radiotherapy (RT) for cancer in children and young adults, to examine the spatial distribution of SMNs in relation to the irradiated field, and to evaluate a possible role of bystander effects in SMN distribution. Forty-two SMNs were identified among 7257 subjects diagnosed with cancer while living in Yorkshire, UK. Thirty-two of these occurred in patients receiving RT. Distances between SMN locations and RT field edge were estimated along with dose at SMN site. Expected radiation-induced SMN frequency in remote tissues receiving less than 0.1 Gy was predicted using risk estimates based on atomic bombing data. After a median follow-up period of 7.58 years, patients treated with RT were at a nearly five-fold increased risk of developing a subsequent primary neoplasm than the general population in the 0-29 years age range. The most common type of secondary malignancy associated with RT was of the central nervous system (28%), followed by sarcoma (25%) and leukemia (19%). Considering only solid SMNs developing 5 years or more from treatment, the spatial distribution showed a strong pattern of proximity to the irradiated field, with 68% occurring in-field or within 8 cm of the field edge. The SMN frequency in distant tissues receiving doses of less than 0.1 Gy was low but compatible with local absorbed dose.

  11. [Primary immune thrombocytopenia in adults in Mexico: national characteristics and the relation to international literature].

    PubMed

    Meillón-García, Luis Antonio; García-Chávez, Jaime; Gómez-Almaguer, David; Gutiérrez-Espíndola, Guillermo R; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the clinical approach of a sample of Mexican hematologists for primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in adults in Mexico, we applied an electronic survey via the internet to identify common practices for the diagnosis and treatment of ITP and draw a comparison between the information from these hematologists with international guidelines or the international literature. The results were analyzed using measures of central tendency. The sample was 21 medical hematologists, predominantly from Mexico City (average age: 51.4 years). A total of 66.7% of the surveyed physicians use international guidelines to make therapeutic decisions, and 43% defined ITP including the numerical concept (< 100 x 10(9)/l). We found some differences between requested clinical exams and tests indicated by the guidelines. In first-line treatment (except emergency), 91% of the participants start with prednisone and 24% use dexamethasone. Danazol is used in persistent ITP by most (41%) of the specialists. In second-line treatment, 67% would indicate splenectomy. Some differences were found between clinical practice of the hematologists in Mexico versus guidelines recommendations.

  12. Sleep time and pattern of adult individuals in primary care in an Asian urbanized community

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Tan, Mui Suan; Hwang, Siew Wai; Teo, Chia Chia; Lee, Zhi Kang Niccol; Soh, Jing Yao Jonathan; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; How, Choon How

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sleep norms vary between individuals, being affected by personal, communal, and socioeconomic factors. Individuals with sleep time which deviate from the population norm are at risks of adverse mental, cardiovascular, and metabolic health. Sleep-related issues are common agenda for consultation in primary care. This study aimed to determine the sleep time, pattern, and behavior of multiethnic Asian individuals who attended public primary care clinics in an urban metropolitan city-state. Standardized questionnaires were assistant-administered to adult Asian individuals who visited 2 local public primary care clinics in north-eastern and southern regions of Singapore. The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, self-reported sleep time, patterns, and behavior and those originated from the American National Sleep Foundation Sleep Diary. The data were collated, audited, rectified, and anonymized before being analyzed by the biostatistician. Individuals with 7 h sleep time or longer were deemed getting adequate sleep. Chi-squared or Fisher exact test was used to test the association between the demographic and behavioral variables and sleep time. Next, regression analysis was performed to identify key factors associated with their sleep time. A total of 350 individuals were recruited, with higher proportion of those of Chinese ethnicity reporting adequate sleep. Almost half (48.1%) of those who slept <7 h on weekdays tended to sleep ≥7 h on weekends. More individuals who reported no difficulty falling asleep, had regular sleep hours and awakening time, tended to sleep adequately. Those who slept with children, studied, read leisurely, used computer or laptops in their bedrooms, drank caffeinated beverages or smoked had inadequate sleep. Those who perceived sufficient sleep and considered 8 h as adequate sleep time had weekday and weekend sleep adequacy. Sleep time varied according to ethnicity, employment status, personal

  13. Bilateral simultaneous optic neuropathy in adults: clinical, imaging, serological, and genetic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, S P; Borruat, F X; Miller, D H; Moseley, I F; Sweeney, M G; Govan, G G; Kelly, M A; Francis, D A; Harding, A E; McDonald, W I

    1995-01-01

    To elucidate the cause(s) of acute or subacute bilateral simultaneous optic neuropathy (BSON) in adult life, a follow up study of 23 patients was performed with clinical assessment, brain MRI, HLA typing, and mitochondrial DNA analysis. The results of CSF electrophoresis were available from previous investigations in 11 patients. At follow up, five (22%) had developed clinically definite multiple sclerosis, four (17%) had mitochondrial DNA point mutations indicating a diagnosis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The remaining 14 patients (61%) still had clinically isolated BSON a mean of 50 months after the onset of visual symptoms: three of 14 (21%) had multiple MRI white matter lesions compatible with multiple sclerosis, three of 14 (21%) had the multiple sclerosis associated HLA-DR15/DQw6 haplotype, and one of seven tested had CSF oligoclonal IgG bands; in total only five (36%) had one or more of these risk factors. The low frequency of risk factors for the development of multiple sclerosis in these 14 patients suggests that few will develop multiple sclerosis with more prolonged follow up. It is concluded that: (a) about 20% of cases of BSON without affected relatives are due to LHON; (b) multiple sclerosis develops after BSON in at least 20% of cases, but the long term conversion rate is likely to be considerably less than the rate of over 70% seen after an episode of acute unilateral optic neuritis in adult life. PMID:7823072

  14. Precision Linear Actuators for the Spherical Primary Optical Telescope Demonstration Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinoff, Jason; Pfenning, David

    2006-01-01

    The Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT) is an ongoing research effort at Goddard Space Flight Center developing wavefront sensing and control architectures for future space telescopes. The 03.5-m SPOT telescope primary mirror is comprise9 of six 0.86-m hexagonal mirror segments arranged in a single ring, with the central segment missing. The mirror segments are designed for laboratory use and are not lightweighted to reduce cost. Each primary mirror segment is actuated and has tip, tilt, and piston rigid-body motions. Additionally, the radius of curvature of each mirror segment may be varied mechanically. To provide these degrees of freedom, the SPOT mirror segment assembly requires linear actuators capable of

  15. Detection of occlusal caries in primary teeth using swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yukie; Shimada, Yasushi; Sadr, Alireza; Wada, Ikumi; Miyashin, Michiyo; Takagi, Yuzo; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) as a detecting tool for occlusal caries in primary teeth. At the in vitro part of the study, 38 investigation sites of occlusal fissures (noncavitated and cavitated) were selected from 26 extracted primary teeth and inspected visually using conventional dental equipment by six examiners without any magnification. SS-OCT cross-sectional images at 1330-nm center wavelength were acquired on the same locations. The teeth were then sectioned at the investigation site and directly viewed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) by two experienced examiners. The presence and extent of caries were scored in each observation. The results obtained from SS-OCT and conventional visual inspections were compared with those of CLSM. Consequently, SS-OCT could successfully detect both cavitated and noncavitated lesions. The magnitude of sensitivity for SS-OCT was higher than those for visual inspection (sensitivity of visual inspection and SS-OCT, 0.70 versus 0.93 for enamel demineralization, 0.49 versus 0.89 for enamel cavitated caries, and 0.36 versus 0.75 for dentin caries). Additionally, occlusal caries of a few clinical cases were observed using SS-OCT in vivo. The results indicate that SS-OCT has a great detecting potential for occlusal caries in primary teeth.

  16. Creating an optical spectroscopy system for use in a primary care clinical setting (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshein, Adam; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Gould, Bradley; Wu, Wenli; Konda, Vani; Yang, Leslie W.; Koons, Ann; Feder, Seth; Valuckaite, Vesta; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2016-03-01

    While there are a plethora of in-vivo spectroscopic techniques that have demonstrated the ability to detect a number of diseases in research trials, very few techniques have successfully become a fully realized clinical technology. This is primarily due to the stringent demands on a clinical device for widespread implementation. Some of these demands include: simple operation requiring minimal or no training, safe for in-vivo patient use, no disruption to normal clinic workflow, tracking of system performance, warning for measurement abnormality, and meeting all FDA guidelines for medical use. Previously, our group developed a fiber optic probe-based optical sensing technique known as low-coherence enhanced backscattering spectroscopy (LEBS) to quantify tissue ultrastructure in-vivo. Now we have developed this technique for the application of prescreening patients for colonoscopy in a primary care (PC) clinical setting. To meet the stringent requirements for a viable medical device used in a PC clinical setting, we developed several novel components including an automated calibration tool, optical contact sensor for signal acquisition, and a contamination sensor to identify measurements which have been affected by debris. The end result is a state-of-the-art medical device that can be realistically used by a PC physician to assess a person's risk for harboring colorectal precancerous lesions. The pilot study of this system shows great promise with excellent stability and accuracy in identifying high-risk patients. While this system has been designed and optimized for our specific application, the system and design concepts are universal to most in-vivo fiber optic based spectroscopic techniques.

  17. A prototype, glassless densitometer traceable to primary optical standards for quantitative radiochromic film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, B. S. Hammer, C. G.; Kunugi, K. A.; DeWerd, L. A.; Soares, C. G.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a prototype densitometer traceable to primary optical standards and compare its performance to an EPSON Expression{sup ®} 10000XL flatbed scanner (the Epson) for quantitative radiochromic film (RCF) dosimetry. Methods: A prototype traceable laser densitometry system (LDS) was developed to mitigate common film scanning artifacts, such as positional scan dependence and high noise in low-dose regions, by performing point-based measurements of RCF suspended in free-space using coherent light. The LDS and the Epson optical absorbance scales were calibrated up to 3 AU, using reference materials calibrated at a primary standards laboratory and a scanner calibration factor (SCF). Calibrated optical density (OD) was determined for 96 Gafchromic{sup ®} EBT3 film segments before and after irradiation to one of 16 dose levels between 0 and 10 Gy, exposed to {sup 60}Co in a polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) phantom. The sensitivity was determined at each dose level and at two rotationally orthogonal readout orientations to obtain the sensitometric response of each RCF dosimetry system. LDS rotational scanning dependence was measured at nine angles between 0°and 180°, due to the expected interference between coherent light and polarizing EBT3 material. The response curves were fit to the analytic functions predicted by two physical response models: the two-parameter single-hit model and the four-parameter percolation model. Results: The LDS and the Epson absorbance measurements were linear to primary optical standards to within 0.2% and 0.3% up to 2 and 1 AU, respectively. At higher densities, the LDS had an over-response (2.5% at 3 AU) and the Epson an under-response (3.1% and 9.8% at 2 and 3 AU, respectively). The LDS and the Epson SCF over the applicable range were 0.968% ± 0.2% and 1.561% ± 0.3%, respectively. The positional scan dependence was evaluated on each digitizer and shown to be mitigated on the LDS, as compared to the Epson. Maximum EBT3

  18. Economic burden to primary informal caregivers of hospitalized older adults in Mexico: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden of out of pocket spending for the Mexican population is high compared to other countries. Even patients insured by social security institutions have to face the cost of health goods, services or nonmedical expenses related to their illness. Primary caregivers, in addition, experience losses in productivity by taking up responsibilities in care giving activities. This situation represents a mayor economic burden in an acute care setting for elderly population. There is evidence that specialized geriatric services could represent lower overall costs in these circumstances and could help reduce these burdens. The aim of this study was to investigate economic burden differences in caregivers of elderly patients comparing two acute care services (Geriatric and Internal Medicine). Specifically, economic costs associated with hospitalization of older adults in these two settings by evaluating health care related out of pocket expenditures (OOPE), non-medical OOPE and indirect costs. Methods A comparative analysis of direct and indirect costs in hospitalised elderly patients (60-year or older) and their primary informal caregivers in two health care settings, using a prospective cohort was performed. Economic burden was measured by out of pocket expenses and indirect costs (productivity lost) due to care giving activities. The analysis included a two-part model, the first one allowing the estimation of the probability of observing any health care related and non-medical OOPE; and the second one, the positive observations or expenditures. Results A total of 210 subjects were followed during their hospital stay. Of the total number of subjects 95% reported at least one non-medical OOPE, being daily transportation the most common expense. Regarding medical OOPE, medicines were the most common expense, and the mean numbers of days without income were 4.12 days. Both OOPE and indirect costs were significantly different between type of services, with less

  19. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex improves word-retrieval in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Meinzer, Marcus; Lindenberg, Robert; Sieg, Mira M.; Nachtigall, Laura; Ulm, Lena; Flöel, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Language facilitation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in healthy individuals has generated hope that tDCS may also allow improving language impairment after stroke (aphasia). However, current stimulation protocols have yielded variable results and may require identification of residual language cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which complicates incorporation into clinical practice. Based on previous behavioral studies that demonstrated improved language processing by motor system pre-activation, the present study assessed whether tDCS administered to the primary motor cortex (M1) can enhance language functions. This proof-of-concept study employed a sham-tDCS controlled, cross-over, within-subject design and assessed the impact of unilateral excitatory (anodal) and bihemispheric (dual) tDCS in 18 healthy older adults during semantic word-retrieval and motor speech tasks. Simultaneous fMRI scrutinized the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS effects. Both active tDCS conditions significantly improved word-retrieval compared to sham-tDCS. The direct comparison of activity elicited by word-retrieval vs. motor-speech trials revealed bilateral frontal activity increases during both anodal- and dual-tDCS compared to sham-tDCS. This effect was driven by more pronounced deactivation of frontal regions during the motor-speech task, while activity during word-retrieval trials was unaffected by the stimulation. No effects were found in M1 and secondary motor regions. Our results show that tDCS administered to M1 can improve word-retrieval in healthy individuals, thereby providing a rationale to explore whether M1-tDCS may offer a novel approach to improve language functions in aphasia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed neural facilitation specifically during motor speech trials, which may have reduced switching costs between the overlapping neural systems for lexical retrieval and speech processing, thereby resulting in

  20. A new type of Schwann cell graft transplantation to promote optic nerve regeneration in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Mo, Xiaofen; Guo, Wenyi; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Peihua; Wang, Yan; Rong, Xianfang; Tian, Jie; Sun, Xinghuai

    2010-12-01

    Like other parts of the central nervous system, the adult mammalian optic nerve is difficult to regenerate after injury. Transplantation of the peripheral nerve or a Schwann cell (SC) graft can promote injured axonal regrowth. We tried to develop a new type of tissue-engineered SC graft that consisted of SCs seeded onto a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduit. Meanwhile, SCs were transfected along the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene in vitro by electroporation to increase their neurotrophic effect. Four weeks after transplantation, GAP-43 labelled regenerating axons were found in the SC grafts, and axons in the CNTF-SC graft were longer than those in the SC graft. Tissue-engineered SC grafts can provide a feasible environment for optic nerve regeneration and may become an alternative for bridging damaged nerves and repairing nerve defects in the future.

  1. Primary ciliary dyskinesia assessment by means of optical flow analysis of phase-contrast microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, Eduardo; Armengot, Miguel; Mata, Manuel; Sánchez-Vílchez, José Manuel; Cortijo, Julio; Hueso, José L; Riera, Jaime; Moratal, David

    2014-04-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia implies cilia with defective or total absence of motility, which may result in sinusitis, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis and male infertility. Diagnosis can be difficult and is based on an abnormal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and beat pattern. In this paper, we present a method to determine CBF of isolated cells through the analysis of phase-contrast microscopy images, estimating cilia motion by means of an optical flow algorithm. After having analyzed 28 image sequences (14 with a normal beat pattern and 14 with a dyskinetic pattern), the normal group presented a CBF of 5.2 ± 1.6 Hz, while the dyskinetic patients presented a 1.9 ± 0.9 Hz CBF. The cutoff value to classify a dyskinetic specimen was set to 3.45 Hz (sensitivity 0.86, specificity 0.93). The presented methodology has provided excellent results to objectively diagnose PCD. PMID:24438822

  2. Primary Mature Cystıc Teratoma Mimickıng an Adrenal Mass in an Adult Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ener, Kemal; Aldemir, Mustafa; Isik, Evren; Irkkan, Cigdem; Kayigil, Onder

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are bizarre neoplasms derived from embryonic tissues that are typically found only in the gonadal and sacrococcygeal regions of adults. Primary retroperitoneal teratomas are rare and present challenging management options. We report a case of a unilateral primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma mimicking an adrenal mass in a 54-year-old male patient. Complete resection of the adrenal mass was performed by the flank approach by using the 11th rib resection. Because of the risk of malignancy, follow-up radiographic studies were performed to ensure the oncologic efficacy of resection. The patient has been free of recurrence for longer than 12 months. PMID:24578814

  3. Optimized mirror supports, active primary mirrors and adaptive secondaries for the Optical Very Large Array (OVLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Luc

    1994-06-01

    This article first deals with general aspects of optimizing mirror supports. A wide variety of support topologies have been optimized by Nelson et al for unobscured entrance pupils. Optical forces and locations of point supports have been calculated here for annular pupils. Efficient topologies introducing a small amount of defocusing are also proposed for unobscured and annular pupils. Support efficiencies are given for each topology. Wavefront errors are estimated in the case of a defective cell, in order to specify tolerances on forces and geometries. The OVLA active optics is then discussed. The very thin, meniscus-shaped primary will be actively supported by 29 actuators and 3 fixed points. Actuator locations and forces have been calculated to minimize the mirror deflection under its own weight but also to allow a good control of astigmatism. We finally present a study of a concave adaptive secondary for the OVLA telescopes. As an initial result, we propose a defocus adaptive corrector with a variable thickness distribution. Conditions of use are defined, and performances are evaluated.

  4. Adapting evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral interventions for anxiety for use with adults in integrated primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Shepardson, Robyn L; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Weisberg, Risa B

    2016-06-01

    Evidence-based treatments for adult patients with anxiety are greatly needed within primary care settings. Psychotherapy protocols, including those for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), are often disorder-specific and were developed for specialty mental health settings, rendering them infeasible in primary care. Behavioral health consultants (BHCs) integrated into primary care settings are uniquely positioned to provide anxiety treatment. However, due to the dearth of empirically supported brief treatments for anxiety, BHCs are tasked with adapting existing treatments for use in primary care, which is quite challenging due to the abbreviated format and population-based approach to care. CBT protocols are highly effective in the treatment of anxiety and fit well with the self-management emphasis of integrated primary care. We review the rationale and procedure for 6 evidence-based CBT intervention techniques (psycho-education, mindfulness and acceptance-based behavioral techniques, relaxation training, exposure, cognitive restructuring, and behavioral activation) that can be adapted for use in the brief format typical of integrated primary care. We offer tips based on our clinical experience, highlight resources (e.g., handouts, websites, apps), and discuss 2 case examples to aid BHCs in their everyday practice. Our goal is to provide BHCs with practical knowledge that will facilitate the use of evidence-based interventions to improve the treatment of anxiety in primary care settings. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27064434

  5. FOXL2 molecular status in adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: A study of primary and metastatic cases

    PubMed Central

    Zannoni, Gian Franco; Improta, Giuseppina; Petrillo, Marco; Pettinato, Angela; Scambia, Giovanni; Fraggetta, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary are uncommon neoplasms, accounting for ~5% of all malignant ovarian tumors. GCTs are a relatively homogeneous group of tumors, categorized into two distinct subtypes, juvenile GCT and adult GCT (AGCT), likely arising from a limited set of molecular events usually involving the disruption of pathways that regulate granulosa cell proliferation. In the present study, the presence of forkheadbox L2 (FOXL2) c.402C>G mutation was investigated in a series of 42 samples of primary and metastatic AGCT of the ovary. The samples consisted of 37 primary and 5 metastatic ovarian AGCTs from 37 patients. FOXL2 mutational status was evaluated using a pyrosequencing approach on 2.5-µm sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. FOXL2 c.402C>G mutation was found in 33/37 (89.2%) primary AGCTs and in 4/5 (80.0%) metastases, with the molecular status of the metastases recapitulating that of the primary tumors (4 mutated cases and 1 wild-type case). Overall, FOXL2 mutation is present in the majority of primary and metastatic AGCTs, and could be used as a valid tool in the diagnosis of the disease and in cases of metastatic lesions from an unknown primary origin. Moreover the concordance of FOXL2 molecular status in primary and associated metastases suggests its early appearance and genomic stability in AGCT tumorigenesis. PMID:27446412

  6. Prevalence, diagnosis, and disease course of pertussis in adults with acute cough: a prospective, observational study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Teepe, Jolien; Broekhuizen, Berna DL; Ieven, Margareta; Loens, Katherine; Huygen, Kris; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; de Melker, Hester; Butler, Chris C; Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Coenen, Samuel; Goossens, Herman; Verheij, Theo JM

    2015-01-01

    Background Most cases of adult pertussis probably remain undiagnosed. Aim To explore the prevalence, diagnosis, and disease course of acute pertussis infection in adult patients presenting with acute cough. Design and setting Prospective observational study between 2007 and 2010 in primary care in 12 European countries. Method Adults presenting with acute cough (duration of ≤28 days) were included. Bordetella pertussis infection was determined by polymerase chain reaction (from nasopharyngeal flocked swabs and sputa) and by measurement of immunoglobulin G antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) in venous blood at day 28. An antibody titre to PT of ≥125 IU/ml or PCR positive result in a respiratory sample defined recent infection. Patients completed a symptom diary for 28 days. Results Serum and/or respiratory samples were obtained in 3074 patients. Three per cent (93/3074) had recent B. pertussis infection. Prior cough duration >2 weeks discriminated to some extent between those with and without pertussis (adjusted odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.17 to 3.07; P = 0.010). Median cough duration after presentation was 17 and 12 days in patients with and without pertussis, respectively (P = 0.008). Patients with pertussis had longer duration of phlegm production (P = 0.010), shortness of breath (P = 0.037), disturbed sleep (P = 0.013) and interference with normal activities or work (P = 0.033) after presentation. Conclusion Pertussis infection plays a limited role among adults presenting with acute cough in primary care, but GPs should acknowledge the possibility of pertussis in uncomplicated lower respiratory tract infection. As in children, pertussis also causes prolonged symptoms in adults. However, pertussis is difficult to discern from other acute cough syndromes in adults at first presentation. PMID:26412843

  7. Primary adult human astrocytes as an ex vivo vehicle for beta-glucuronidase delivery in the brain.

    PubMed

    Serguera, C; Sarkis, C; Ridet, J L; Colin, P; Moullier, P; Mallet, J

    2001-06-01

    Astrocytes are a good candidate cell type for brain transplantation: They are endogenous to the CNS, they have efficient secretory machinery, and they play a major role in neuronal support. We assessed the potential of genetically modified primary adult human astrocytes as vehicles for the delivery of secreted molecules in the mammalian CNS. We report that such cells can be efficiently transduced by a recombinant adenoviral vector carrying the human beta-glucuronidase cDNA (Ad/CMV*beta-glu) and that the transduced astrocytes produce large amounts of the enzyme. Released beta-glucuronidase could be captured, in vitro, by primary neurons and astrocytes and by a neuroblastoma cell line and beta-glucuronidase-deficient fibroblasts. Following grafting into the mouse striatum, adult human astrocytes survived and expressed the transgene for at least 8 weeks. Moreover, the dosage of beta-glucuronidase activity within the grafted brains revealed high enzymatic levels at a long distance from the graft. These experiments document the grafting of engineered primary adult human astrocytes, allowing the release of a secreted therapeutic factor throughout the brain.

  8. Systematic Review of Interventions to Improve the Provision of Information for Adults with Primary Brain Tumors and Their Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Langbecker, Danette; Janda, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adults with primary brain tumors and their caregivers have significant information needs. This review assessed the effect of interventions to improve information provision for adult primary brain tumor patients and/or their caregivers. Methods: We included randomized or non-randomized trials testing educational interventions that had outcomes of information provision, knowledge, understanding, recall, or satisfaction with the intervention, for adults diagnosed with primary brain tumors and/or their family or caregivers. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Reviews databases were searched for studies published between 1980 and June 2014. Results: Two randomized controlled, 1 non-randomized controlled, and 10 single group pre–post trials enrolled more than 411 participants. Five group, four practice/process change, and four individual interventions assessed satisfaction (12 studies), knowledge (4 studies), and information provision (2 studies). Nine studies reported high rates of satisfaction. Three studies showed statistically significant improvements over time in knowledge and two showed greater information was provided to intervention than control group participants, although statistical testing was not performed. Discussion: The trials assessed intermediate outcomes such as satisfaction, and only 4/13 reported on knowledge improvements. Few trials had a randomized controlled design and risk of bias was either evident or could not be assessed in most domains. PMID:25667919

  9. Structural, electronic and optical properties of well-known primary explosive: Mercury fulminate

    SciTech Connect

    Yedukondalu, N.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2015-11-28

    Mercury Fulminate (MF) is one of the well-known primary explosives since 17th century and it has rendered invaluable service over many years. However, the correct molecular and crystal structures are determined recently after 300 years of its discovery. In the present study, we report pressure dependent structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of MF. Non-local correction methods have been employed to capture the weak van der Waals interactions in layered and molecular energetic MF. Among the non-local correction methods tested, optB88-vdW method works well for the investigated compound. The obtained equilibrium bulk modulus reveals that MF is softer than the well known primary explosives Silver Fulminate (SF), silver azide and lead azide. MF exhibits anisotropic compressibility (b > a > c) under pressure, consequently the corresponding elastic moduli decrease in the following order: C{sub 22} > C{sub 11} > C{sub 33}. The structural and mechanical properties suggest that MF is more sensitive to detonate along c-axis (similar to RDX) due to high compressibility of Hg⋯O non-bonded interactions along that axis. Electronic structure and optical properties were calculated including spin-orbit (SO) interactions using full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within recently developed Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. The calculated TB-mBJ electronic structures of SF and MF show that these compounds are indirect bandgap insulators. Also, SO coupling is found to be more pronounced for 4d and 5d-states of Ag and Hg atoms of SF and MF, respectively. Partial density of states and electron charge density maps were used to describe the nature of chemical bonding. Ag—C bond is more directional than Hg—C bond which makes SF to be more unstable than MF. The effect of SO coupling on optical properties has also been studied and found to be significant for both (SF and MF) of the compounds.

  10. Long term measurements of aerosol optical properties at a primary forest site in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, L. V.; Artaxo, P.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Paixão, M.; Cirino, G. G.; Arana, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Roldin, P.; Fors, E. O.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Leal, L. S. M.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-03-01

    A long term experiment was conducted in a primary forest area in Amazonia, with continuous in-situ measurements of aerosol optical properties between February 2008 and April 2011, comprising, to our knowledge, the longest database ever in the Amazon Basin. Two major classes of aerosol particles, with significantly different optical properties were identified: coarse mode predominant biogenic aerosols in the wet season (January-June), naturally released by the forest metabolism, and fine mode dominated biomass burning aerosols in the dry season (July-December), transported from regional fires. Dry particle median scattering coefficients at the wavelength of 550 nm increased from 6.3 Mm-1 to 22 Mm-1, whereas absorption at 637 nm increased from 0.5 Mm-1 to 2.8 Mm-1 from wet to dry season. Most of the scattering in the dry season was attributed to the predominance of fine mode (PM2) particles (40-80% of PM10 mass), while the enhanced absorption coefficients are attributed to the presence of light absorbing aerosols from biomass burning. As both scattering and absorption increased in the dry season, the single scattering albedo (SSA) did not show a significant seasonal variability, in average 0.86 ± 0.08 at 637 nm for dry aerosols. Measured particle optical properties were used to estimate the aerosol forcing efficiency at the top of the atmosphere. Results indicate that in this primary forest site the radiative balance was dominated by the cloud cover, particularly in the wet season. Due to the high cloud fractions, the aerosol forcing efficiency absolute values were below -3.5 W m-2 in 70% of the wet season days and in 46% of the dry season days. Besides the seasonal variation, the influence of out-of-Basin aerosol sources was observed occasionally. Periods of influence of the Manaus urban plume were detected, characterized by a consistent increase on particle scattering (factor 2.5) and absorption coefficients (factor 5). Episodes of biomass burning and mineral dust

  11. Automatic quantitative analysis of experimental primary and secondary retinal neurodegeneration: implications for optic neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, B M; Guo, L; Brenton, J; Langley, L; Normando, E M; Cordeiro, M F

    2016-01-01

    Secondary neurodegeneration is thought to play an important role in the pathology of neurodegenerative disease, which potential therapies may target. However, the quantitative assessment of the degree of secondary neurodegeneration is difficult. The present study describes a novel algorithm from which estimates of primary and secondary degeneration are computed using well-established rodent models of partial optic nerve transection (pONT) and ocular hypertension (OHT). Brn3-labelled retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were identified in whole-retinal mounts from which RGC density, nearest neighbour distances and regularity indices were determined. The spatial distribution and rate of RGC loss were assessed and the percentage of primary and secondary degeneration in each non-overlapping segment was calculated. Mean RGC number (82 592±681) and RGC density (1695±23.3 RGC/mm2) in naïve eyes were comparable with previous studies, with an average decline in RGC density of 71±17 and 23±5% over the time course of pONT and OHT models, respectively. Spatial analysis revealed greatest RGC loss in the superior and central retina in pONT, but significant RGC loss in the inferior retina from 3 days post model induction. In comparison, there was no significant difference between superior and inferior retina after OHT induction, and RGC loss occurred mainly along the superior/inferior axis (~30%) versus the nasal–temporal axis (~15%). Intriguingly, a significant loss of RGCs was also observed in contralateral eyes in experimental OHT. In conclusion, a novel algorithm to automatically segment Brn3a-labelled retinal whole-mounts into non-overlapping segments is described, which enables automated spatial and temporal segmentation of RGCs, revealing heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of primary and secondary degenerative processes. This method provides an attractive means to rapidly determine the efficacy of neuroprotective therapies with implications for any

  12. Adult Visual Experience Promotes Recovery of Primary Visual Cortex from Long-Term Monocular Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Quentin S.; Aleem, Salman; Zhou, Hongyi; Pham, Tony A.

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged visual deprivation from early childhood to maturity is believed to cause permanent visual impairment. However, there have been case reports of substantial improvement of binocular vision in human adults following lifelong visual impairment or deprivation. These observations, together with recent findings of adult ocular dominance…

  13. Applications of hybrid diffuse optics for clinical management of adults after brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Meeri Nam

    Information about cerebral blood flow (CBF) is valuable for clinical management of patients after severe brain injury. Unfortunately, current modalities for monitoring brain are often limited by hurdles that include high cost, low throughput, exposure to ionizing radiation, probe invasiveness, and increased risk to critically ill patients when transportation out of their room or unit is required. A further limitation of current technologies is an inability to provide continuous bedside measurements that are often desirable for unstable patients. Here we explore the clinical utility of diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) as an alternative approach for bedside CBF monitoring. DCS uses the rapid intensity fluctuations of near-infrared light to derive a continuous measure of changes in blood flow without ionizing radiation or invasive probing. Concurrently, we employ another optical technique, called diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS), to derive changes in cerebral oxyhemoglobin ( HbO2) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. Our clinical studies integrate DCS with DOS into a single hybrid instrument that simultaneously monitors CBF and HbO2/Hb in the injured adult brain. The first parts of this dissertation present the motivations for monitoring blood flow in injured brain, as well as the theory underlying diffuse optics technology. The next section elaborates on details of the hybrid instrumentation. The final chapters describe four human subject studies carried out with these methods. Each of these studies investigates an aspect of the potential of the hybrid monitor in clinical applications involving adult brain. The studies include: (1) validation of DCS-measured CBF against xenon-enhanced computed tomography in brain-injured adults; (2) a study of the effects of age and gender on posture-change-induced CBF variation in healthy subjects; (3) a study of the efficacy of DCS/DOS for monitoring neurocritical care patients during various medical interventions such

  14. An Update of the Mayo Clinic Cohort of Patients With Adult Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Salvarani, Carlo; Brown, Robert D.; Christianson, Teresa; Miller, Dylan V.; Giannini, Caterina; Huston, John; Hunder, Gene G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) is an uncommon condition in which lesions are limited to vessels of the brain and spinal cord. Because the clinical manifestations are not specific, the diagnosis is often difficult, and permanent disability and death are frequent outcomes. This study is based on a cohort of 163 consecutive patients with PCNSV who were examined at the Mayo Clinic over a 29-year period from 1983 to 2011. The aim of the study was to define the characteristics of these patients, which represents the largest series in adults reported to date. A total of 105 patients were diagnosed by angiographic findings and 58 by biopsy results. The patients diagnosed by biopsy more frequently had at presentation cognitive dysfunction, greater cerebrospinal fluid total protein concentrations, less frequent cerebral infarcts, and more frequent leptomeningeal gadolinium-enhanced lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with less mortality and disability at last follow-up. The patients diagnosed by angiograms more frequently had at presentation hemiparesis or a persistent neurologic deficit or stroke, more frequent infarcts on MRI and an increased mortality. These differences were mainly related to the different size of the vessels involved in the 2 groups. Although most patients responded to therapy with glucocorticoids alone or in conjunction with cyclophosphamide and tended to improve during the follow-up period, an overall increased mortality rate was observed. Relapses occurred in one-quarter of the patients and were less frequent in patients treated with prednisone and cyclophosphamide compared with those treated with prednisone alone. The mortality rate and degree of disability at last follow-up were greater in those with increasing age, cerebral infarctions on MRI, angiographic large vessel involvement, and diagnosis made by angiography alone, but were lower in those with gadolinium-enhanced lesions on MRI and in those with

  15. Effects of optic flow speed and lateral flow asymmetry on locomotion in younger and older adults: a virtual reality study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ying-Hui; Wagenaar, Robert C; Saltzman, Elliot; Giphart, J Erik; Young, Daniel; Davidsdottir, Rosa; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate whether there are age-related differences in locomotion due to changes in presence of vision, optic flow speed, and lateral flow asymmetry using virtual reality technology. Gait kinematics and heading direction were measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Although older and younger adults were affected differentially by the availability of vision, a greater dependence on optic flow information in older adults during walking was not found. Linear relations were observed between walking performance and flow speed as well as heading direction and flow asymmetry. The findings suggest that the ability to integrate optic flow information into the multimodal system for assessment of walking speed and heading direction is comparable in older and younger adults.

  16. Constructivist Learning and Teaching of Optics Concepts Using ICT Tools in Greek Primary School: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekos, George; Solomonidou, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study documents the design and evaluation results of an innovative teaching approach with the use of ICT regarding the optics concepts of light reflection and diffusion, and vision in Greek primary school. First there was a survey of 140 students to ascertain their initial ideas regarding these concepts. On the basis of the results of…

  17. Fructose metabolism in the adult mouse optic nerve, a central white matter tract.

    PubMed

    Meakin, Paul J; Fowler, Maxine J; Rathbone, Alex J; Allen, Lynne M; Ransom, Bruce R; Ray, David E; Brown, Angus M

    2007-01-01

    Our recent report that fructose supported the metabolism of some, but not all axons, in the adult mouse optic nerve prompted us to investigate in detail fructose metabolism in this tissue, a typical central white matter tract, as these data imply efficient fructose metabolism in the central nervous system (CNS). In artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10 mmol/L glucose or 20 mmol/L fructose, the stimulus-evoked compound action potential (CAP) recorded from the optic nerve consisted of three stable peaks. Replacing 10 mmol/L glucose with 10 mmol/L fructose, however, caused delayed loss of the 1st CAP peak (the 2nd and 3rd CAP peaks were unaffected). Glycogen-derived metabolic substrate(s) temporarily sustained the 1st CAP peak in 10 mmol/L fructose, as depletion of tissue glycogen by a prior period of aglycaemia or high-frequency CAP discharge rendered fructose incapable of supporting the 1st CAP peak. Enzyme assays showed the presence of both hexokinase and fructokinase (both of which can phosphorylate fructose) in the optic nerve. In contrast, only hexokinase was expressed in cerebral cortex. Hexokinase in optic nerve had low affinity and low capacity with fructose as substrate, whereas fructokinase displayed high affinity and high capacity for fructose. These findings suggest an explanation for the curious fact that the fast conducting axons comprising the 1st peak of the CAP are not supported in 10 mmol/L fructose medium; these axons probably do not express fructokinase, a requirement for efficient fructose metabolism.

  18. Sex-specific associations between birth weight and adult primary liver cancer in a large cohort of Danish children.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Esther; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2016-03-15

    Whether the prenatal period is critical for the development of adult primary liver cancer (PLC) is sparsely investigated. Recently, attention has been drawn to potential sex-differences in the early origins of adult disease. The association between birth weight and adult PLC, separately in men and women was investigated, using a large cohort of 217,227 children (51% boys), born from 1936 to 1980, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, and followed them until 2010 in national registers. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of PLC (30 years or older) were estimated by Cox regression models stratified by birth cohort. During 5.1 million person-years of follow-up, 185 men and 65 women developed PLC. Sex modified the association between birth weight and adult PLC (p values for interaction = 0.0005). Compared with a sex-specific reference group of birth weights between 3.25 and 3.75 kg, men with birth weights between 2.00 and 3.25 kg and 3.75-5.50 kg, had HRs of 1.48 (1.06-2.05) and 0.85 (0.56-1.28), respectively. Among women the corresponding HRs were 1.71 (0.90-3.29) and 3.43 (1.73-6.82). Associations were similar for hepatocellular carcinoma only, across year of birth, and after accounting for diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders, viral hepatitis and biliary cirrhosis. Prenatal exposures influenced the risk of adult PLC, and the effects at the high birth weight levels appeared to be sex-specific. These findings underscore the importance of considering sex-specific mechanisms in the early origins of adult PLC.

  19. Knee pain and osteoarthritis in older adults: a review of community burden and current use of primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Peat, G; McCarney, R; Croft, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Osteoarthritis is the single most common cause of disability in older adults, and most patients with the condition will be managed in the community and primary care.
AIM—To discuss case definition of knee osteoarthritis for primary care and to summarise the burden of the condition in the community and related use of primary health care in the United Kingdom.
DESIGN—Narrative review.
METHOD—A literature search identified studies of incidence and prevalence of knee pain, disability, and radiographic osteoarthritis in the general population, and data related to primary care consultations. Findings from UK studies were summarised with reference to European and international studies.
RESULTS—During a one year period 25% of people over 55 years have a persistent episode of knee pain, of whom about one in six in the UK and the Netherlands consult their general practitioner about it in the same time period. The prevalence of painful disabling knee osteoarthritis in people over 55 years is 10%, of whom one quarter are severely disabled.
CONCLUSION—Knee osteoarthritis sufficiently severe to consider joint replacement represents a minority of all knee pain and disability suffered by older people. Healthcare provision in primary care needs to focus on this broader group to impact on community levels of pain and disability.

 PMID:11156538

  20. FDG-PET/CT Imaging Predicts Histopathologic Treatment Responses after Neoadjuvant Therapy in Adult Primary Bone Sarcomas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Benz, Matthias R.; Czernin, Johannes; Tap, William D.; Eckardt, Jeffrey J.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Allen-Auerbach, Martin S.; Dry, Sarah M.; Phelps, Michael E.; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Eilber, Fritz C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose . Tmore » he aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether FDG-PET allows an accurate assessment of histopathologic response to neoadjuvant treatment in adult patients with primary bone sarcomas. Methods . Twelve consecutive patients with resectable, primary high grade bone sarcomas were enrolled prospectively. FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed prior to the initiation and after completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Imaging findings were correlated with histopathologic response. Results . Histopathologic responders showed significantly more pronounced decreases in tumor FDG-SUVmax from baseline to late follow up than non-responders ( 64 ± 19 % versus 29 ± 30 %, resp.; P = .03 ). Using a 60% decrease in tumor FDG-uptake as a threshold for metabolic response correctly classified 3 of 4 histopathologic responders and 7 of 8 histopathologic non-responders as metabolic responders and non-responders, respectively (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 88%). Conclusion . These results suggest that changes in FDG-SUVmax at the end of neoadjuvant treatment can identify histopathologic responders and non-responders in adult primary bone sarcoma patients.« less

  1. Adult rhabdomyoma with oncocytic changes affecting the floor of the mouth: optical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Vera-Sirera, Beatriz; Vera-Sempere, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    Adult rhabdomyoma (AR) is an extremely uncommon benign neoplasm with mature skeletal muscle differentiation comprising approximately 2% of muscle tumors, usually affecting the soft tissue of the head and neck. Although histology of AR is characteristic, several differential diagnoses (granular cell tumor, hibernoma, oncocytoma) should be considered, and one needs to be familiar with this rare entity to exclude other neoplastic diseases. We present a case of AR, in a 54-year-old man, affecting the floor of the mouth, and call attention to the oncocytic appearance (including antimitochondrial and peroxiredoxin I immunoreactivity) of this case and its differential diagnosis analyzed at the optical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural level, showing the morphological and immunohistochemical features that can be confused with a salivary oncocytoma.

  2. Retrobulbar haemodynamics and morphometric optic disc analysis in primary open‐angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Plange, N; Kaup, M; Weber, A; Arend, K O; Remky, A

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies confirmed reduced retrobulbar haemodynamics in primary open‐angle glaucoma (POAG). Aim To investigate a correlation between retrobulbar haemodynamics and morphometric neuroretinal rim analysis in patients with POAG. Methods 51 patients with POAG (mean (standard deviation (SD)) age 65 (11) years) were included in this clinical study. Blood flow velocities (peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end‐diastolic velocity (EDV)) of the ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery (CRA), posterior ciliary arteries (PCA) and central retinal vein were measured using colour Doppler imaging (Siemens Sonoline Sienna, Erlangen, Germany). Optic disc morphometry was carried out using scanning laser tomography (Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II Heidelberg Egineering Heidelberg, Germany). The stereometric parameters of the neuroretinal rim (rim area, rim volume, cup shape measure and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) cross‐sectional area) were used for analysis. Results The PSV of the CRA was significantly (p<0.001) correlated with rim area (r = 0.50) and rim volume (r = 0.51). The minimum velocities of the central retinal vein were significantly (p<0.001) correlated with rim volume (r = 0.56) and RNFL cross‐sectional area (r = 0.49). No correlations were found for the flow velocities of the ophthalmic artery and PCAs. Conclusion Retrobulbar haemodynamics of the central retinal artery and vein are correlated with the neuroretinal rim damage in POAG. PMID:16914471

  3. A review of primary care interventions to improve health outcomes in adult survivors of adverse childhood experiences.

    PubMed

    Korotana, Laurel M; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis; Josephson, Trevor

    2016-06-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a link between the experience of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult health conditions, including mental and physical health problems. While a focus on the prevention or mitigation of adversity in childhood is an important direction of many programs, many individuals do not access support services until adulthood, when health problems may be fairly engrained. It is not clear which interventions have the strongest evidence base to support the many adults who present to services with a history of ACEs. The current review examines the evidence base for psychosocial interventions for adults with a history of ACEs. The review focuses on interventions that may be provided in primary care, as that is the setting where most patients will first present and are most likely to receive treatment. A systematic review of the literature was completed using PsycInfo and PubMed databases, with 99 studies identified that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. These studies evaluated a range of interventions with varying levels of supportive evidence. Overall, cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) have the most evidence for improving health problems - in particular, improving mental health and reducing health-risk behaviors - in adults with a history of ACEs. Expressive writing and mindfulness-based therapies also show promise, whereas other treatments have less supportive evidence. Limitations of the current literature base are discussed and research directions for the field are provided. PMID:27179348

  4. Evaluation of health care services provided for older adults in primary health care centers and its internal environment

    PubMed Central

    Alhamdan, Adel A.; Alshammari, Sulaiman A.; Al-Amoud, Maysoon M.; Hameed, Tariq A.; Al-Muammar, May N.; Bindawas, Saad M.; Al-Orf, Saada M.; Mohamed, Ashry G.; Al-Ghamdi, Essam A.; Calder, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the health care services provided for older adults by primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and the ease of use of these centers by older adults. Methods: Between October 2013 and January 2014, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 15 randomly selected PHCCs in Riyadh City, KSA. The evaluation focused on basic indicators of clinical services offered and factors indicative of the ease of use of the centers by older adults. Evaluations were based upon the age-friendly PHCCs toolkit of the World Health Organization. Results: Coverage of basic health assessments (such as blood pressure, diabetes, and blood cholesterol) was generally good. However, fewer than half of the PHCCs offered annual comprehensive screening for the common age-related conditions. There was no screening for cancer. Counseling on improving lifestyle was provided by most centers. However, there was no standard protocol for counseling. Coverage of common vaccinations was poor. The layout of most PHCCs and their signage were good, except for lack of Braille signage. There may be issues of access of older adults to PHCCs through lack of public transport, limited parking opportunities, the presence of steps, ramps, and internal stairs, and the lack of handrails. Conclusions: Clinical services and the internal environment of PHCCs can be improved. The data will be useful for health-policy makers to improve PHCCs to be more age-friendly. PMID:26318467

  5. A review of primary care interventions to improve health outcomes in adult survivors of adverse childhood experiences.

    PubMed

    Korotana, Laurel M; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis; Josephson, Trevor

    2016-06-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a link between the experience of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult health conditions, including mental and physical health problems. While a focus on the prevention or mitigation of adversity in childhood is an important direction of many programs, many individuals do not access support services until adulthood, when health problems may be fairly engrained. It is not clear which interventions have the strongest evidence base to support the many adults who present to services with a history of ACEs. The current review examines the evidence base for psychosocial interventions for adults with a history of ACEs. The review focuses on interventions that may be provided in primary care, as that is the setting where most patients will first present and are most likely to receive treatment. A systematic review of the literature was completed using PsycInfo and PubMed databases, with 99 studies identified that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. These studies evaluated a range of interventions with varying levels of supportive evidence. Overall, cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) have the most evidence for improving health problems - in particular, improving mental health and reducing health-risk behaviors - in adults with a history of ACEs. Expressive writing and mindfulness-based therapies also show promise, whereas other treatments have less supportive evidence. Limitations of the current literature base are discussed and research directions for the field are provided.

  6. [Role of the general practitioner or primary care physician in the management of adult congenital heart disease].

    PubMed

    Thambo, Jean-Benoît

    2013-03-01

    Congenital heart diseases are the most common inborn defect, occurring approximately 0.8% according to the last European Union count. This rate is stable for decades. Nowadays, up to 90% of children born with congenital heart diseases underwent surgical correction and reach adulthood, gratefully to the surgery and interventional cardiology advances, in conjunction to the post-surgery and following cares improvement. Both of this facts results to a growing population of adults with congenital heart diseases, actually exceeding the infant population. This arising population will lead general practitioners and primary care physicians to face more often this kind of patient. The needed cares are specifics, regarding the typical evolutions of this pathologies, as well as because congenital heart diseases wil impact other pathologies or usual cares. The need of an extended knowledge of the adult patients with congenital heart diseases is clearly emerging, and should lead the whole medical corps to work in close network. PMID:23687765

  7. Roles of primary care physicians in managing bipolar disorders in adults.

    PubMed

    Awaluddin, A; Jali, N; Bahari, R; Jamil, Z; Haron, N

    2015-01-01

    Management of bipolar disorder (BD) is challenging due to its multiple and complex facets of presentations as well as various levels of interventions. There is also limitation of treatment accessibility especially at the primary care level. Local evidence-based clinical practice guidelines address the importance of integrated care of BD at various levels. Primary care physicians hold pertinent role in maintaining remission and preventing relapse by providing systematic monitoring of people with BD. Pharmacological treatment in particular mood stabilisers remain the most effective management with psychosocial interventions as adjunct. This paper highlights the role of primary care physicians in the management of BD.

  8. Point-of-care and point-of-procedure optical imaging technologies for primary care and global health

    PubMed Central

    Boppart, Stephen A.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Leveraging advances in consumer electronics and wireless telecommunications, low-cost, portable optical imaging devices have the potential to improve screening and detection of disease at the point of care in primary health care settings in both low- and high-resource countries. Similarly, real-time optical imaging technologies can improve diagnosis and treatment at the point of procedure by circumventing the need for biopsy and analysis by expert pathologists, who are scarce in developing countries. Although many optical imaging technologies have been translated from bench to bedside, industry support is needed to commercialize and broadly disseminate these from the patient level to the population level to transform the standard of care. This review provides an overview of promising optical imaging technologies, the infrastructure needed to integrate them into widespread clinical use, and the challenges that must be addressed to harness the potential of these technologies to improve health care systems around the world. PMID:25210062

  9. [The primary study of articulation effect on the adults with cleft palate undergoing palatopharyngoplasty

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Yao, L H; Wang, G M; Yu, C Q

    1997-03-01

    A retrospective study was performed in 15 adults with cleft palate who operated with palato-pharyngoplasty.Using frequency spectrum analyser to describe their Chinese vowel frequency spectrum curve character.Their articulation effect after sugery was analyzed.The result shows:The excellent rate of the articulation on effect appears 46.67%.The author believes that:the palato-pharyngoplasty can be utilized as a manner to cure the adults with cleft palate and the advanced effect is needed to be continuously studied. PMID:15159955

  10. The effect of pharmacist-led interventions in optimising prescribing in older adults in primary care: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, David O; Walsh, Kieran A; Galvin, Rose; Sinnott, Carol; Kearney, Patricia M; Byrne, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate studies of pharmacist-led interventions on potentially inappropriate prescribing among community-dwelling older adults receiving primary care to identify the components of a successful intervention. Data sources: An electronic search of the literature was conducted using the following databases from inception to December 2015: PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE (through Ovid), Trip, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ISI Web of Science, ScienceDirect, ClinicalTrials.gov, metaRegister of Controlled Trials, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database (Theses in Great Britain, Ireland and North America). Review methods: Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised studies involving a pharmacist-led intervention compared to usual/routine care which aimed to reduce potentially inappropriate prescribing in older adults in primary care. Methodological quality of the included studies was independently assessed. Results: A comprehensive literature search was conducted which identified 2193 studies following removal of duplicates. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Four studies involved a pharmacist conducting a medication review and providing feedback to patients or their family physician. One randomised controlled trial evaluated the effect of a computerised tool that alerted pharmacists when elderly patients were newly prescribed potentially inappropriate medications. Four studies were associated with an improvement in prescribing appropriateness. Conclusion: Overall, this review demonstrates that pharmacist-led interventions may improve prescribing appropriateness in community-dwelling older adults. However, the quality of evidence is low. The role of a pharmacist working as part of a multidisciplinary primary care team requires further investigation to optimise prescribing in this group of patients. PMID

  11. How Adults' Access to Outpatient Physician Services Relates to the Local Supply of Primary Care Physicians in the Rural Southeast

    PubMed Central

    Pathman, Donald E; Ricketts, Thomas C; Konrad, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine how access to outpatient medical care varies with local primary care physician densities across primary care service areas (PCSAs) in the rural Southeast, for adults as a whole and separately for the elderly and poor. Data Sources Access data from a 2002 to 2003 telephone survey of 4,311 adults living in 298 PCSAs within 150 rural counties in eight Southeastern states were linked geographically with physician practice location data from the American Medical and American Osteopathic Associations and population data from the U.S. Census. Study Design In a cross-sectional study design, we used a series of logistic regression models to assess how 26 measures of various aspects of access to outpatient physician services varied for subjects arranged into five groups based on the population-per-physician ratios of the PCSAs where they lived. Principal Findings Among adults as a whole, more individuals reported traveling over 30 minutes for outpatient care in PCSAs with more than 3,500 people per physician than in PCSAs with fewer than 1,500 people per physician (39.1 versus 18.5 percent, p<.001) and more reported travel difficulties. Otherwise, PCSA density of primary care physicians was unrelated to reported barriers to care, unrelated to people's satisfaction with care, and unrelated to indicators of people's use of services. Use rates of six recommended preventive health services varied in no consistent direction with physician densities. Among the elderly, only the proportion traveling over 30 minutes for care was greater in areas with lowest physician densities. Among subjects covered under Medicaid or uninsured, lower local physician densities were associated with longer travel time, difficulties with travel and reaching one's physician by phone, and two areas of dissatisfaction with care. Conclusions For adults as a whole in the rural South and for the elderly there, low local primary care physician densities are associated with travel

  12. The Role of National Adult Education Centre in Curriculum Development in Somalia in Selected Government Primary Adult Schools of Mogadisho. African Studies in Curriculum Development and Evaluation, No. 109.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Ismail F. S.

    A study of curriculum development in Somalia focused on the role of the National Adult Education Centre (NAEC) and involvement of teachers and inspectors. The sample consisted of 80 Mogadisho primary adult school teachers. Information sources were related literature, teacher questionnaires, and unstructured interviews with school inspectors,…

  13. Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zeff, Benjamin W.; White, Brian R.; Dehghani, Hamid; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Culver, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging is a vital element of neuroscience and cognitive research and, increasingly, is an important clinical tool. Diffuse optical imaging is an emerging, noninvasive technique with unique portability and hemodynamic contrast capabilities for mapping brain function in young subjects and subjects in enriched or clinical environments. We have developed a high-performance, high-density diffuse optical tomography (DOT) system that overcomes previous limitations and enables superior image quality. We show herein the utility of the DOT system by presenting functional hemodynamic maps of the adult human visual cortex. The functional brain images have a high contrast-to-noise ratio, allowing visualization of individual activations and highly repeatable mapping within and across subjects. With the improved spatial resolution and localization, we were able to image functional responses of 1.7 cm in extent and shifts of <1 cm. Cortical maps of angle and eccentricity in the visual field are consistent with retinotopic studies using functional MRI and positron-emission tomography. These results demonstrate that high-density DOT is a practical and powerful tool for mapping function in the human cortex. PMID:17616584

  14. Primary Prevention for Mental Health: A Stress Inoculation Training Course for Functioning Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiraldi, Glenn R.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a college course that taught preventive mental health skills to adults by exploring diverse cognitive-behavioral skills that facilitate coping, are preventive in nature, and are suitable for learning by healthy individuals in educational settings. It focused on anger management, anxiety and worry management, self-esteem enhancement,…

  15. The Impact of Checking the Health of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities on Primary Care Consultation Rates, Health Promotion and Contact with Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, David; Baxter, Helen; Lowe, Kathy; Dunstan, Frank; Houston, Helen; Jones, Glyn; Grey, Jill; Felce, Janet; Kerr, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: Studies have found that health checking in primary care led to the identification of previously unrecognized morbidity among adults with intellectual disabilities. The aim here was to evaluate whether health checking stimulated increased consultation with the general practitioner or another member of the primary care team, increased…

  16. Primary Cutaneous Lymphoma-Associated Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia Masquerading as Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Young Adult.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mahsa; Azmoodeh Ardalan, Farid; Najafi, Masoumeh; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Ghanadan, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a T-cell malignancy with atypical CD30 positive lymphocytes. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is an uncommon finding in primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and may mimic squamous cell carcinoma as pseudomalignancy. Careful attention of a pathologist to correct diagnosis of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and its underlying causes will help physicians to avoid inappropriate management. Here, we present a 22-year-old man referred to our hospital with a solitary nodule persistent on his forearm which was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma in the first biopsy. The lesion recurred after two months and histopathologic and immunohistochemistry examination revealed anaplastic large cell lymphoma with florid pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia which masquerading as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Diagnosis of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia must guide the pathologist to search for underlying causes, such as primary cutaneous lymphoma. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia may mimic squamous cell carcinoma and this can result in inappropriate diagnosis and management. PMID:26749237

  17. Adult Primary Spinal Epidural Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Cheddhi; Modrek, Aram S.; Bayin, N. Sumru; Snuderl, Matija; Schiff, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare malignancy, especially in adults. Case Presentation. A 40-year-old male presented with back pain and urinary hesitancy. MRI revealed a thoracic extradural mass with no osseous involvement. He underwent surgery for gross total resection of the mass, which was diagnosed as Ewing's sarcoma. He was subsequently treated with chemoradiotherapy. He remains disease-free 1 year after surgery. Review of the literature indicated only 45 previously reported cases of spinal epidural extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in adults. Conclusions. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare clinical entity that should be included in the differential for spinal epidural masses. Its treatment is multidisciplinary but frequently requires surgical intervention due to compressive neurologic symptoms. Gross total resection appears to correlate with improved outcomes. PMID:27610254

  18. Adult Primary Spinal Epidural Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Bustoros, Mark; Thomas, Cheddhi; Frenster, Joshua; Modrek, Aram S; Bayin, N Sumru; Snuderl, Matija; Rosen, Gerald; Schiff, Peter B; Placantonakis, Dimitris G

    2016-01-01

    Background. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare malignancy, especially in adults. Case Presentation. A 40-year-old male presented with back pain and urinary hesitancy. MRI revealed a thoracic extradural mass with no osseous involvement. He underwent surgery for gross total resection of the mass, which was diagnosed as Ewing's sarcoma. He was subsequently treated with chemoradiotherapy. He remains disease-free 1 year after surgery. Review of the literature indicated only 45 previously reported cases of spinal epidural extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in adults. Conclusions. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare clinical entity that should be included in the differential for spinal epidural masses. Its treatment is multidisciplinary but frequently requires surgical intervention due to compressive neurologic symptoms. Gross total resection appears to correlate with improved outcomes. PMID:27610254

  19. A genetic platform to model sarcomagenesis from primary adult mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Guarnerio, Jlenia; Riccardi, Luisa; Taulli, Riccardo; Maeda, Takahiro; Wang, Guocan; Hobbs, Robin M.; Song, Min Sup; Sportoletti, Paolo; Bernardi, Rosa; Bronson, Roderick T.; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory factors governing adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) physiology and their tumorigenic potential are still largely unknown, which substantially delays the identification of effective therapeutic approaches for the treatment of aggressive and lethal form of MSC-derived mesenchymal tumors, such as undifferentiated sarcomas. Here we have developed a novel platform to screen and quickly identify genes and pathways responsible for adult MSCs transformation, modeled undifferentiated sarcoma in vivo, and, ultimately, tested the efficacy of targeting the identified oncopathways. Importantly, by taking advantage of this new platform, we demonstrate the key role of an aberrant LRF-DLK1-SOX9 pathway in the pathogenesis of undifferentiated sarcoma with important therapeutic implications. PMID:25614485

  20. Adult Primary Spinal Epidural Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Cheddhi; Modrek, Aram S.; Bayin, N. Sumru; Snuderl, Matija; Schiff, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare malignancy, especially in adults. Case Presentation. A 40-year-old male presented with back pain and urinary hesitancy. MRI revealed a thoracic extradural mass with no osseous involvement. He underwent surgery for gross total resection of the mass, which was diagnosed as Ewing's sarcoma. He was subsequently treated with chemoradiotherapy. He remains disease-free 1 year after surgery. Review of the literature indicated only 45 previously reported cases of spinal epidural extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in adults. Conclusions. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare clinical entity that should be included in the differential for spinal epidural masses. Its treatment is multidisciplinary but frequently requires surgical intervention due to compressive neurologic symptoms. Gross total resection appears to correlate with improved outcomes.

  1. Comparative effects of contraction and angiotensin II on growth of adult feline cardiocytes in primary culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, H.; Zile, M. R.; Ivester, C. T.; Cooper, G. 4th; McDermott, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether angiotensin II causes growth of adult feline cardiocytes in long-term culture, 2) to compare the growth effects of angiotensin II with those resulting from electrically stimulated contraction, and 3) to determine whether the anabolic effects of contraction are exerted via the angiotensin type 1 receptor. Adult feline cardiocytes were cultured on laminin-coated trays in a serum-free medium. Cardiocytes were either electrically stimulated to contract (1 Hz, 5-ms pulse duration, alternating polarity) or were nonstimulated and quiescent. Quiescent cells were studied as controls and after treatment with angiotensin II (10(-8) M), losartan (10(-6) M; an angiotensin type 1-receptor antagonist), or angiotensin II plus losartan. Contracting cells were studied in the presence and absence of angiotensin II or losartan. In quiescent cardiocytes, angiotensin II treatment on day 7 significantly increased protein synthesis rates by 22% and protein content per cell by 17%. The effects of angiotensin II were completely blocked by losartan. Electrically stimulated contraction on days 4 and 7 in culture significantly increased protein synthesis rate by 18 and 38% and protein content per cell by 19 and 46%, respectively. Angiotensin II treatment did not further increase protein synthesis rate or protein content in contracting cardiocytes. Furthermore, losartan did not block the anabolic effects of contraction on protein synthesis rates or protein content. In conclusion, angiotensin II can exert a modest anabolic effect on adult feline cardiocytes in culture. In contracting feline cardiocytes, angiotensin II has no effect on growth. Growth caused by electrically stimulated contraction occurs more rapidly and is greater in magnitude than that caused by angiotensin II. Growth of contracting adult feline cardiocytes is not dependent on activation of the angiotensin receptor.

  2. A Systematic Review of Depression Treatments in Primary Care for Latino Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Hansen, Marissa C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: A systematic literature review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing depression treatments in primary care for Latinos is conducted. The authors rate the methodological quality of studies, examine cultural and linguistic adaptations, summarize clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness findings, and draw conclusions for improving…

  3. Real-life management of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in adult patients and adherence to practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lozano, María Luisa; Revilla, N; Gonzalez-Lopez, T J; Novelli, S; González-Porras, J R; Sánchez-Gonzalez, B; Bermejo, N; Pérez, S; Lucas, F J; Álvarez, M T; Arilla, M J; Perera, M; do Nascimento, J; Campos, R M; Casado, L F; Vicente, V

    2016-06-01

    Very few data exist on the management of adult patients diagnosed with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). The objectives of this study were to describe the diagnostic and treatment patterns for ITP and to compare the findings to recent ITP guidelines. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of adult ITP patients diagnosed with primary ITP between January 2011 and June 2012 and examined whether management strategies were consistent or not with eight recent guideline-recommended practices. Overall, median age at the diagnosis of the disease (n = 101) was 58 years and median platelet count 12 × 10(9)/L with 75.2 % of patients having symptoms of ITP. The study perceived two major shortcomings in the diagnostic approach: (1) failure to perform peripheral blood film examination in 22.8 % of patients, a test that is mandatory by all guidelines, and (2) ordinary bone marrow assessment in more than half of the patients at diagnosis (50.5 %), a test not routinely recommended by guidelines. Low appropriateness in therapeutic management of patients included (1) unjustified use of intravenous immunoglobulin in the absence of bleeding in 54.8 % of patients and (2) splenectomy not being deferred until 6-12 months from diagnosis (median 161 days). Data also reflect a trend towards the early use of thrombopoietin receptor agonists in the treatment of patients who are refractory to any first-line therapy. We have recognized important areas of inapropriateness in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of adult ITP patients. Compliance with established guidelines should be encouraged in order to improve patient outcomes. PMID:27098812

  4. Comparison of quadriceps strength and handgrip strength in their association with health outcomes in older adults in primary care.

    PubMed

    Chan, On Ying A; van Houwelingen, Anne H; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Blom, Jeanet W; den Elzen, Wendy P J

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia is thought to play a major role in the functional impairment that occurs with old age. In clinical practice, sarcopenia is often determined by measuring handgrip strength. Here, we compared the lower limb quadriceps strength to the handgrip strength in their association with health outcomes in older adults in primary care. Our study population consisted of older adults (n = 764, 68.2% women, median age 83) that participated in the Integrated Systemic Care for Older People (ISCOPE) study. Participants were visited at baseline to measure quadriceps strength and handgrip strength. Data on health outcomes were obtained at baseline and after 12 months (including life satisfaction, disability in daily living, GP contact-time and hospitalization). Quadriceps strength and handgrip strength showed a weak association (β = 0.42 [95% CI 0.33-0.50]; R (2) = 0.17). Quadriceps strength and handgrip strength were independently associated with health outcomes at baseline, including quality of life, disability in daily living, GP contact-time, hospitalization, and gait speed. Combined weakness of the quadriceps and handgrip distinguished a most vulnerable subpopulation that presented with the poorest health outcomes. At follow-up, handgrip strength showed an association with quality of life (β = 0.05; P = 0.002) and disability in daily living (β = -0.5; P = 0.004). Quadriceps weakness did not further contribute to the prediction of the measured health outcomes. We conclude that quadriceps strength is only moderately associated with handgrip strength in an older population and that the combination of quadriceps strength and handgrip strength measurements may aid in the identification of older adults in primary care with the poorest health outcomes. In the prediction of poor health outcomes, quadriceps strength measurements do not show an added value to the handgrip strength.

  5. Assessment of primary production and optical variability in shelf and slope waters near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Redalje, Donald G.; Lohrenz, Stevern E.

    2001-02-12

    In this project we determined primary production and optical variability in the shelf and slope waters off of Cape Hatteras, N.C. These processes were addressed in conjunction with other Ocean Margins Program investigators, during the Spring Transition period and during Summer. We found that there were significant differences in measured parameters between Spring and Summer, enabling us to develop seasonally specific carbon production and ecosystem models as well as seasonal and regional algorithm improvements for use in remote sensing applications.

  6. Primary and Specialty Medical Care Among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of randomly selected African American (n = 220), Native American (n = 181), and white (n = 297) Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 years old with diabetes in 2 rural counties in central North Carolina. Participants were asked about utilization of a primary care doctor and of specialists (nutritionist, diabetes specialist, eye doctor, bladder specialist, kidney specialist, heart specialist, foot specialist) in the past year. Findings Virtually all respondents (99.0%) reported having a primary care doctor and seeing that doctor in the past year. About 42% reported seeing a doctor for diabetes-related care. On average, participants reported seeing 2 specialists in the past year, and 54% reported seeing >1 specialist. Few reported seeing a diabetes specialist (5.7%), nutritionist (10.9%), or kidney specialist (17.5%). African Americans were more likely than others to report seeing a foot specialist (P<.01), while men were more likely than women to have seen a bladder specialist (P =.02), kidney specialist (P =.001), and heart specialist (P =.004), after adjusting for potential confounders. Predictors of the number of specialists seen include gender, education, poverty status, diabetes medication use, and self-rated health. Conclusions These data indicate low utilization of specialty diabetes care providers across ethnic groups and reflect the importance of primary care providers in diabetes care in rural areas. PMID:16092292

  7. Challenges in Identifying and Managing Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults in the Primary Care Setting: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine how to screen for and establish a correct diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and to identify the outcomes associated with untreated ADHD. Data Sources: PubMed was searched using the key words ADHD, adult, diagnosis, and primary care from the years 1999 to 2009. Study Selection: This search produced 50 publications. Data Extraction: Publications were screened for data specific to the diagnosis or management of adult patients with ADHD in the primary care setting. Data Synthesis: The estimated prevalence of ADHD in adults throughout the United States is 4.4% or approximately 10 million adults. Adults with ADHD by definition must experience impairment from the symptoms of ADHD in at least 2 areas of their life. Despite significant impairment, only 1 in 10 adults with ADHD have received ADHD treatment within the past year. Given the high rates of undertreatment, primary care physicians, who provide much of the general adult mental health care in the United States, are increasingly charged with making the diagnosis of ADHD in adults. ADHD symptoms are often masked by comorbid psychiatric conditions or patient adaptations such as choice of occupation. One of the ADHD assessment tools, a short 6-item screener, can simplify identification and management of ADHD in adults and help identify which patients may require further evaluation. Conclusions: Primary care physicians should consult with other members of the health care community such as psychiatrists and psychologists when necessary, but should also develop a level of comfort with diagnosing and treating ADHD. PMID:21494335

  8. Corticosteroid Risk Function of Severe Infection in Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia Adults. A Nationwide Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Moulis, Guillaume; Palmaro, Aurore; Sailler, Laurent; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    Corticosteroid (CS)-related infection risk in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the adjusted CS risk function of severe infection in persistent or chronic primary ITP adults. We designed a nested case-control study in the FAITH cohort. This cohort is built through the French national health insurance database named SNIIRAM and includes all treated incident persistent or chronic primary ITP adults in France (ENCePP n°4574). Patients who entered the FAITH cohort between 2009 and 2012 were eligible (n = 1805). Cases were patients with infection as primary diagnosis code during hospitalization. Index date was the date of first hospitalization for infection. A 2:1 matching was performed on age and entry date in the cohort. Various CS exposure time-windows were defined: current user, exposure during the 1/3/6 months preceding index date and from the entry date. CS doses were converted in prednisone equivalent (PEQ). The cumulative CS doses were averaged in each time-window to obtain daily PEQ dosages. Each CS exposure definition was assessed using multivariate conditional regression models. During the study period, 161 cases (9 opportunistic) occurred. The model with the best goodness of fit was CS exposure during the month before the index date (OR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.61-3.83). The dose-effect relation showed that the risk existed from averaged daily doses ≥5 mg PEQ (vs. <5 mg: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.17-3.71). The risk of infection was mainly supported by current or recent exposure to CS, even with low doses.

  9. Corticosteroid Risk Function of Severe Infection in Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia Adults. A Nationwide Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Moulis, Guillaume; Palmaro, Aurore; Sailler, Laurent; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    Corticosteroid (CS)-related infection risk in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the adjusted CS risk function of severe infection in persistent or chronic primary ITP adults. We designed a nested case-control study in the FAITH cohort. This cohort is built through the French national health insurance database named SNIIRAM and includes all treated incident persistent or chronic primary ITP adults in France (ENCePP n°4574). Patients who entered the FAITH cohort between 2009 and 2012 were eligible (n = 1805). Cases were patients with infection as primary diagnosis code during hospitalization. Index date was the date of first hospitalization for infection. A 2:1 matching was performed on age and entry date in the cohort. Various CS exposure time-windows were defined: current user, exposure during the 1/3/6 months preceding index date and from the entry date. CS doses were converted in prednisone equivalent (PEQ). The cumulative CS doses were averaged in each time-window to obtain daily PEQ dosages. Each CS exposure definition was assessed using multivariate conditional regression models. During the study period, 161 cases (9 opportunistic) occurred. The model with the best goodness of fit was CS exposure during the month before the index date (OR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.61–3.83). The dose-effect relation showed that the risk existed from averaged daily doses ≥5 mg PEQ (vs. <5 mg: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.17–3.71). The risk of infection was mainly supported by current or recent exposure to CS, even with low doses. PMID:26559054

  10. Corticosteroid Risk Function of Severe Infection in Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia Adults. A Nationwide Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Moulis, Guillaume; Palmaro, Aurore; Sailler, Laurent; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    Corticosteroid (CS)-related infection risk in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the adjusted CS risk function of severe infection in persistent or chronic primary ITP adults. We designed a nested case-control study in the FAITH cohort. This cohort is built through the French national health insurance database named SNIIRAM and includes all treated incident persistent or chronic primary ITP adults in France (ENCePP n°4574). Patients who entered the FAITH cohort between 2009 and 2012 were eligible (n = 1805). Cases were patients with infection as primary diagnosis code during hospitalization. Index date was the date of first hospitalization for infection. A 2:1 matching was performed on age and entry date in the cohort. Various CS exposure time-windows were defined: current user, exposure during the 1/3/6 months preceding index date and from the entry date. CS doses were converted in prednisone equivalent (PEQ). The cumulative CS doses were averaged in each time-window to obtain daily PEQ dosages. Each CS exposure definition was assessed using multivariate conditional regression models. During the study period, 161 cases (9 opportunistic) occurred. The model with the best goodness of fit was CS exposure during the month before the index date (OR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.61-3.83). The dose-effect relation showed that the risk existed from averaged daily doses ≥5 mg PEQ (vs. <5 mg: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.17-3.71). The risk of infection was mainly supported by current or recent exposure to CS, even with low doses. PMID:26559054

  11. Suicide risk in older adults: evaluating models of risk and predicting excess zeros in a primary care sample.

    PubMed

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Jahn, Danielle R; Graham, Ryan D; Poindexter, Erin K; Williams, Ryan B

    2013-11-01

    Research is needed that examines theory-based risk factors for suicide in older adults. The interpersonal theory of suicide (Joiner, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2010) provides specific hypotheses regarding variables that contribute to the development and variability in death ideation and suicide ideation; however, data suggest that older adults may not report suicide ideation in research settings or to treatment providers even when they experience it (Heisel et al., 2006). The purpose of this study was to test theory-based predictions regarding variables that contribute to death ideation (i.e., a passive wish to die) and suicide ideation in older adults. This study introduces the application of zero-inflated negative binomial regression (ZINB) to the study of suicidal behavior. ZINB was used to test theory-based predictions, while also testing a hypothesis regarding variables associated with denial of suicide ideation among participants who endorsed risk factors associated with suicide risk. Participants included 239 adults aged 60 and older recruited from primary care clinics who completed a variety of self-report instruments. The results of this study indicated that perceived burdensomeness and hopelessness were significantly associated with variability in death ideation. Additional results indicated that elevated scores on thwarted belonging, the interaction between perceived burdensomeness and hopelessness, and the interaction between thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness were associated with a significant reduction in the probability of a participant being a suicide ideator. These results offer substantial support for the interpersonal theory of suicide. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24364604

  12. Predictors of treatment satisfaction among older adults with anxiety in a primary care psychology program.

    PubMed

    Hundt, Natalie E; Armento, Maria E A; Porter, Bennett; Cully, Jeffrey A; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda

    2013-04-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are treated in integrated primary care mental health programs. The current study examined predictors of satisfaction with treatment in patients from a randomized clinical trial of late-life generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in primary care. Higher treatment satisfaction was associated with receiving CBT rather than enhanced usual care. Treatment credibility, treatment expectancies, social support, and improvements in depression and anxiety symptoms predicted higher treatment satisfaction in the total sample. In the CBT group, only credibility and adherence with treatment predicted satisfaction. This suggests that older patients receiving CBT who believe more strongly in the treatment rationale and follow the therapist's recommendations more closely are likely to report satisfaction at the end of treatment. In addition, this study found that adherence mediated the relationship between treatment credibility and treatment satisfaction. In other words, patients' perceptions that the treatment made sense for them led to greater treatment adherence which then increased their satisfaction with treatment. PMID:23434724

  13. Primary retroperitoneal teratoma in an adult: ultrasonographic, computer tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrations.

    PubMed

    Hirano, S; Kawaguchi, S; Mikawa, I; Karino, T; Kitagawa, K; Saito, K

    1988-11-01

    A 25-year-old male patient with a primary retroperitoneal teratoma is described. The chief complaint was right hypochondralgia during exercise for seven days. Various diagnostic imagings disclosed an expansive, heterogeneous and fat-rich mass associated with multiple cystic lesions in the right suprarenal fossa. Sagittal, transaxial and coronal magnetic resonance imaging scan visualized the extent and character of the tumor very clearly. Histological examination of the tumor removed through a thoracoabdominal approach showed cystic teratoma with out malignant transformations.

  14. Office-Based Case Finding for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Older Adults in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda; Patel, Tejal; Hillier, Loretta M; Milligan, James

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is underdiagnosed in primary care. Aim. To explore the utility of proactive identification of COPD in patients 75 years of age and older in a Canadian primary care setting. Methods. Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) screening questions were administered to patients with a smoking history of 20 pack-years or more; those with a positive screen were referred for postbronchodilator spirometry. Results. A total of 107 patients (21%), of 499 screened, had a 20-pack-year smoking history; 105 patients completed the CTS screening. Forty-four (42%) patients were positive on one or more questions on the screening; significantly more patients with a previous diagnosis of COPD (64%) were positive on the CTS compared to those without a previous diagnosis of COPD (30%). Of those who were not previously diagnosed with COPD (N = 11), four (36%) were newly diagnosed with COPD. Conclusion. A systematic two-stage method of screening for COPD, using CTS screening questions followed by spirometric confirmation, is feasible in the context of a busy primary care setting. More research is needed to assess the value of restricting screening to patients with a smoking history of 20 pack-years and on the sensitivity and specificity of these measures. PMID:27445513

  15. Primary Care Opportunities to Prevent Unintentional Home Injuries: A Focus on Children and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Eileen M.; Mack, Karin; Shields, Wendy C.; Lee, Robin P.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are a persistent public health problem in the United States. A new health care landscape has the potential to create a clinical environment that fosters greater involvement by health care providers in injury prevention. The aim of this article is to provide evidence supporting the need for engagement by primary care providers in unintentional home injury prevention along with examples of how this could be accomplished. We know a great deal about what population groups are at risk for certain types of injuries. We also know that many injuries can be prevented through policies, programs, and resources that ensure safe environments and promote safe behaviors. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s STEADI (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries) initiative comprises clinical decision support tools and educational materials for health care providers. Two effective interventions that have demonstrated a reduction in falls among children are the redesign of baby walkers (engineering) and the mandated use of window guards (enforcement). Primary care clinicians can play a key role in promoting their patient’s safety. Taken collectively, a focused attention on preventing unintentional home injuries by primary care providers can contribute to the reduction of injuries and result in optimal health for all. PMID:27141210

  16. Office-Based Case Finding for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Older Adults in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is underdiagnosed in primary care. Aim. To explore the utility of proactive identification of COPD in patients 75 years of age and older in a Canadian primary care setting. Methods. Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) screening questions were administered to patients with a smoking history of 20 pack-years or more; those with a positive screen were referred for postbronchodilator spirometry. Results. A total of 107 patients (21%), of 499 screened, had a 20-pack-year smoking history; 105 patients completed the CTS screening. Forty-four (42%) patients were positive on one or more questions on the screening; significantly more patients with a previous diagnosis of COPD (64%) were positive on the CTS compared to those without a previous diagnosis of COPD (30%). Of those who were not previously diagnosed with COPD (N = 11), four (36%) were newly diagnosed with COPD. Conclusion. A systematic two-stage method of screening for COPD, using CTS screening questions followed by spirometric confirmation, is feasible in the context of a busy primary care setting. More research is needed to assess the value of restricting screening to patients with a smoking history of 20 pack-years and on the sensitivity and specificity of these measures. PMID:27445513

  17. Violence victimization after HIV infection in a US probability sample of adult patients in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Zierler, S; Cunningham, W E; Andersen, R; Shapiro, M F; Nakazono, T; Morton, S; Crystal, S; Stein, M; Turner, B; St Clair, P; Bozzette, S A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the proportion of HIV-infected adults who have been assaulted by a partner or someone important to them since their HIV diagnosis and the extent to which they reported HIV-seropositive status as a cause of the violence. METHODS: Study participants were from a nationally representative probability sample of 2864 HIV-infected adults who were receiving medical care and were enrolled in the HIV Costs and Service Utilization Study. All interviews (91% in person, 9% by telephone) were conducted with computer-assisted personal interviewing instruments. Interviews began in January 1996 and ended 15 months later. RESULTS: Overall, 20.5% of the women, 11.5% of the men who reported having sex with men, and 7.5% of the heterosexual men reported physical harm since diagnosis, of whom nearly half reported HIV-seropositive status as a cause of violent episodes. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-related care is an appropriate setting for routine assessment of violence. Programs to cross-train staff in antiviolence agencies and HIV care facilities need to be developed for men and women with HIV infection. PMID:10667181

  18. GD3+ cells in the adult rat optic nerve are ramified microglia rather than O-2Aadult progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Wolswijk, G

    1994-04-01

    The adult central nervous system (CNS) contains a population of adult oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (O-2A) progenitor cells (O-2Aadult progenitor cells). These cells may provide a source of the new oligodendrocytes that are needed to repair demyelinated lesions. In order to examine the role of O-2Aadult progenitor cells in the regeneration of the oligodendrocyte population following demyelinating damage, it is essential to be able to identify such cells unambiguously in sections of adult CNS tissue. The present study examined whether antibodies to the ganglioside GD3 specifically label O-2Aadult progenitor cells in cultures and sections of adult optic nerve, since previous studies on the developing CNS had suggested that O-2Aperinatal progenitor cells were GD3+ in vitro and in vivo. Evidence is presented indicating that, although O-2Aadult progenitor cells in vitro were labelled with the R24 mAb (an anti-GD3 mAb), all GD3+ cells in sections of adult optic nerve bound the OX-42 mAb and the B4 isolectin derived from Griffonia Simplicifolia, and thus were not O-2Aadult progenitor cells, but ramified microglia. The data suggest that O-2Aadult progenitor cells become GD3+ when placed in culture and that ramified microglia lose GD3-expression in vitro.

  19. Infections of neonatal and adult mice with murine CMV HaNa1 strain upon oronasal inoculation: New insights in the pathogenesis of natural primary CMV infections.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Shunchuan; Nauwynck, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, naturally acquired infections of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are generally asymptomatic. Animal models mimicking the natural primary HCMV infections in infants and adults are scarce. Here, neonatal and adult BALB/c mice were inoculated oronasally with a Belgian isolate HaNa1 of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). None of the mice showed clinical symptoms. In neonatal mice, a typical systemic infection occurred. In adult mice, viral replication was restricted to the nasal mucosa and submandibular glands. Infectious virus was not detected in trachea, oral mucosa, pharynx, esophagus, small intestines of both neonatal and adult mice at all time points. Nose was demonstrated to be the entry site. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that in nose infected cells were olfactory neurons and sustentacular cells in olfactory epithelium and were macrophages and dendritic cells in nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT). Neonatal and adult mice developed similar antibody response pattern, though former magnitude was lower. In summary, we have established intranasal (without anesthesia) infections of neonatal and adult mice with murine CMV HaNa1 strain, which mimic the range and extent of virus replication during natural primary HCMV infections in healthy infants and adults. These findings might bring new insights in the pathogenesis of natural primary CMV infections. PMID:26474525

  20. Primary Intra-Abdominal Rhabdomyosarcoma in an Adult: an Unusual Presentation and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjay Kumar; Sinha, Dipendra Kumar; Ahmed, Aftab; Azhar, T; Sinha, Mini

    2015-06-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas, the commonest soft tissue sarcoma in paediatric age group, represent 5-10 % of all solid tumors in childhood. These tumors are rare in adult population. There are sporadic case reports of intra-abdominal rhabdomyosarcoma, but mostly in paediatric age group. Here we are reporting an unsual case of intra abdominal rhabdomyosarcoma in an elderly which presented with acute intestinal obstruction. CECT abdomen showed a solid mass in retroperitoneum compressing adjacent bowel loops. Upon emergency exploratory laparotomy a hard mass was found to be compressing the ascending colon and infiltrating into duodenum, pancreas and liver. No specific organ of origin could be identified. Biopsy was taken, as the mass was unresectable and ileostomy was done. Histopthological examination revealed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Rarity of this disease and unusual presentation prompted us to report this case. PMID:26405418

  1. Adult-onset nemaline myopathy in a dog presenting with persistent atrial standstill and primary hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, R K; Russell, N J; Shelton, G D

    2012-06-01

    A nine-year-old neutered female mixed breed dog presented for evaluation following a five-day history of lethargy, inappetence, weakness, abdominal distension and generalised muscle atrophy. Persistent vatrial standstill with a junctional rhythm was identified on electrocardiogram. Echocardiogram identified moderate dilation of all cardiac chambers and mild thickening of the mitral and tricuspid valves. Serology was negative for Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Permanent pacemaker implantation was performed in addition to endomyocardial and skeletal muscle biopsies. Cryosections from the biceps femoris muscle showed numerous nemaline rod bodies while endomyocardial biopsies were possibly consistent with end-stage myocarditis. Rod bodies have rarely been reported in the veterinary literature. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of adult-onset nemaline rod myopathy and hypothyroidism with concurrent cardiac disease in a dog. PMID:22647214

  2. Localization of a locus (GLC1B) for adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma to the 2cen-q13 region

    SciTech Connect

    Stoilova, D.; Trifan, O.C.; Sarfarazi, M.

    1996-08-15

    Primary open angle glaucoma (GLC1) is a common ocular disorder with a characteristic degeneration of the optic nerve and visual field defects that is often associated with an elevated intraocular pressure. The severe but rare juvenile-onset type has previously been mapped to 1q21-q31, and its genetic heterogeneity has been established. Herein, we present a new locus (GLC1B) for one form of GLC1 on chromosome 2cen-q13 with a clinical presentation of low to moderate intraocular pressure, onset in late 40s, and a good response to medical treatment. Two-point and haplotype analyses of affected and unaffected meioses in six families provided maximum linkage information with D2S417, GATA112EO3, D2S113, D2S373, and D2S274 (lod scores ranging from 3.11 to 6.48) within a region of 8.5 cM that is flanked by D2S2161 and D2S2264. Analysis of affected meioses alone revealed no recombination with an additional two markers (D2S2264 and D2S135) in a region of 11.2 cM that is flanked by D2S2161 and D2S176. Analysis of unaffected meioses identified only one healthy 86-year-old male who has inherited the entire affected haplotype and, hence, is a gene carrier for this condition. Eight additional families with similar and/or different clinical presentation did not show any linkage to this region and, therefore, provided evidence for genetic heterogeneity of adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma. 63 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Characterizing Adults Receiving Primary Medical Care in New York City: Implications for Using Electronic Health Records for Chronic Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Romo, Matthew L.; Lurie-Moroni, Elizabeth; Perlman, Sharon E.; Newton-Dame, Remle; Thorpe, Lorna E.; McVeigh, Katharine H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electronic health records (EHRs) from primary care providers can be used for chronic disease surveillance; however, EHR-based prevalence estimates may be biased toward people who seek care. This study sought to describe the characteristics of an in-care population and compare them with those of a not-in-care population to inform interpretation of EHR data. Methods We used data from the 2013–2014 New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NYC HANES), considered the gold standard for estimating disease prevalence, and the 2013 Community Health Survey, and classified participants as in care or not in care, on the basis of their report of seeing a health care provider in the previous year. We used χ2 tests to compare the distribution of demographic characteristics, health care coverage and access, and chronic conditions between the 2 populations. Results According to the Community Health Survey, approximately 4.1 million (71.7%) adults aged 20 or older had seen a health care provider in the previous year; according to NYC HANES, approximately 4.7 million (75.1%) had. In both surveys, the in-care population was more likely to be older, female, non-Hispanic, and insured compared with the not-in-care population. The in-care population from the NYC HANES also had a higher prevalence of diabetes (16.7% vs 6.9%; P < .001), hypercholesterolemia (35.7% vs 22.3%; P < .001), and hypertension (35.5% vs 26.4%; P < .001) than the not-in-care population. Conclusion Systematic differences between in-care and not-in-care populations warrant caution in using primary care data to generalize to the population at large. Future efforts to use primary care data for chronic disease surveillance need to consider the intended purpose of data collected in these systems as well as the characteristics of the population using primary care. PMID:27126554

  4. Adoption of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Practices in Primary Care for Older Adults with a History of Falls

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Aerts, Sally; Dowler, David; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Casey, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    A multifactorial approach to assess and manage modifiable risk factors is recommended for older adults with a history of falls. Limited research suggests that this approach does not routinely occur in clinical practice, but most related studies are based on provider self-report, with the last chart audit of United States practice published over a decade ago. We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the extent to which patients aged 65+ years with a history of repeated falls or fall-related health-care use received multifactorial risk assessment and interventions. The setting was an academic primary care clinic in the Pacific Northwest. Among the 116 patients meeting our inclusion criteria, 48% had some type of documented assessment. Their mean age was 79 ± 8 years; 68% were female, and 10% were non-white. They averaged six primary care visits over a 12-month period subsequent to their index fall. Frequency of assessment of fall-risk factors varied from 24% (for home safety) to 78% (for vitamin D). An evidence-based intervention was recommended for identified risk factors 73% of the time, on average. Two risk factors were addressed infrequently: medications (21%) and home safety (24%). Use of a structured visit note template independently predicted assessment of fall-risk factors (p = 0.003). Geriatrics specialists were more likely to use a structured note template (p = 0.04) and perform more fall-risk factor assessments (4.6 vs. 3.6, p = 0.007) than general internists. These results suggest opportunities for improving multifactorial fall-risk assessment and management of older adults at high fall risk in primary care. A structured visit note template facilitates assessment. Given that high-risk medications have been found to be independent risk factors for falls, increasing attention to medications should become a key focus of both public health educational efforts and fall prevention in primary care practice. PMID:27660753

  5. Adoption of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Practices in Primary Care for Older Adults with a History of Falls

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Aerts, Sally; Dowler, David; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Casey, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    A multifactorial approach to assess and manage modifiable risk factors is recommended for older adults with a history of falls. Limited research suggests that this approach does not routinely occur in clinical practice, but most related studies are based on provider self-report, with the last chart audit of United States practice published over a decade ago. We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the extent to which patients aged 65+ years with a history of repeated falls or fall-related health-care use received multifactorial risk assessment and interventions. The setting was an academic primary care clinic in the Pacific Northwest. Among the 116 patients meeting our inclusion criteria, 48% had some type of documented assessment. Their mean age was 79 ± 8 years; 68% were female, and 10% were non-white. They averaged six primary care visits over a 12-month period subsequent to their index fall. Frequency of assessment of fall-risk factors varied from 24% (for home safety) to 78% (for vitamin D). An evidence-based intervention was recommended for identified risk factors 73% of the time, on average. Two risk factors were addressed infrequently: medications (21%) and home safety (24%). Use of a structured visit note template independently predicted assessment of fall-risk factors (p = 0.003). Geriatrics specialists were more likely to use a structured note template (p = 0.04) and perform more fall-risk factor assessments (4.6 vs. 3.6, p = 0.007) than general internists. These results suggest opportunities for improving multifactorial fall-risk assessment and management of older adults at high fall risk in primary care. A structured visit note template facilitates assessment. Given that high-risk medications have been found to be independent risk factors for falls, increasing attention to medications should become a key focus of both public health educational efforts and fall prevention in primary care practice.

  6. Adoption of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Practices in Primary Care for Older Adults with a History of Falls.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Elizabeth A; Aerts, Sally; Dowler, David; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Casey, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    A multifactorial approach to assess and manage modifiable risk factors is recommended for older adults with a history of falls. Limited research suggests that this approach does not routinely occur in clinical practice, but most related studies are based on provider self-report, with the last chart audit of United States practice published over a decade ago. We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the extent to which patients aged 65+ years with a history of repeated falls or fall-related health-care use received multifactorial risk assessment and interventions. The setting was an academic primary care clinic in the Pacific Northwest. Among the 116 patients meeting our inclusion criteria, 48% had some type of documented assessment. Their mean age was 79 ± 8 years; 68% were female, and 10% were non-white. They averaged six primary care visits over a 12-month period subsequent to their index fall. Frequency of assessment of fall-risk factors varied from 24% (for home safety) to 78% (for vitamin D). An evidence-based intervention was recommended for identified risk factors 73% of the time, on average. Two risk factors were addressed infrequently: medications (21%) and home safety (24%). Use of a structured visit note template independently predicted assessment of fall-risk factors (p = 0.003). Geriatrics specialists were more likely to use a structured note template (p = 0.04) and perform more fall-risk factor assessments (4.6 vs. 3.6, p = 0.007) than general internists. These results suggest opportunities for improving multifactorial fall-risk assessment and management of older adults at high fall risk in primary care. A structured visit note template facilitates assessment. Given that high-risk medications have been found to be independent risk factors for falls, increasing attention to medications should become a key focus of both public health educational efforts and fall prevention in primary care practice. PMID:27660753

  7. Primary hyperoxaluria in an adult male: A rare cause of end-stage kidney disease yet potentially fatal if misdiagnosed.

    PubMed

    El-Reshaid, Kamel; Al-Bader, Dalal; Madda, John P

    2016-05-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to a deficiency in the activity of the peroxisomal hepatic enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase. It is a common cause of urolithiasis and end-stage kidney disease in children contrary to the adult phenotypic presentation which is considered a mild disorder with occasional urolithiasis. In this case report, we describe a 25-year-old man who presented with advanced and irreversible kidney failure within three months following strenuous physical training in the police academy. He had nephrocalcinosis and stones in one kidney. Diagnosis was confirmed by establishing the existence of extensive tubular and interstitial crystal deposition in his kidneys and molecular genetic testing. The case illustrates the need to establish an early diagnosis of this disorder to prevent the need for combined liver and kidney transplantation. PMID:27215260

  8. HEALTH LITERACY, MEDICATION ADHERENCE, AND BLOOD PRESSURE LEVEL AMONG HYPERTENSIVE OLDER ADULTS TREATED AT PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS.

    PubMed

    Wannasirikul, Phitchayaphat; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Sujirarat, Dusit; Benjakul, Sarunya; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this study to explore the causal relationships between health literacy, individual characteristics, literacy, culture and society, cognitive ability, medication adherence, and the blood pressure levels of hypertensive older adults receiving health care services at Primary Health Care Centers in Sa Kaeo Province, Thailand. Six hundred hypertensive older adults had their blood pressure level recorded and were interviewed using questionnaires. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to determine the effect size, both direct and indirect, among factors. Almost half (48.7%) of studied subjects had inadequate health literacy, 98.3% had good medication adherence, and 80% had good blood pressure levels. The highest effect size on health literacy was literacy, followed by cognitive ability, and culture and society. Medication adherence was affected directly and indirectly by cognitive ability, literacy, and culture and society. Health literacy had not only a direct effect on medication adherence but was also the mediator. Finally, the highest effect size on blood pressure level was critical and communicative health literacy. These findings suggest that health literacy should be considered in the Health Literacy Program of the National Public Health Policy and Plan, Ministry of Public Health. PMID:27086432

  9. HEALTH LITERACY, MEDICATION ADHERENCE, AND BLOOD PRESSURE LEVEL AMONG HYPERTENSIVE OLDER ADULTS TREATED AT PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS.

    PubMed

    Wannasirikul, Phitchayaphat; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Sujirarat, Dusit; Benjakul, Sarunya; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this study to explore the causal relationships between health literacy, individual characteristics, literacy, culture and society, cognitive ability, medication adherence, and the blood pressure levels of hypertensive older adults receiving health care services at Primary Health Care Centers in Sa Kaeo Province, Thailand. Six hundred hypertensive older adults had their blood pressure level recorded and were interviewed using questionnaires. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to determine the effect size, both direct and indirect, among factors. Almost half (48.7%) of studied subjects had inadequate health literacy, 98.3% had good medication adherence, and 80% had good blood pressure levels. The highest effect size on health literacy was literacy, followed by cognitive ability, and culture and society. Medication adherence was affected directly and indirectly by cognitive ability, literacy, and culture and society. Health literacy had not only a direct effect on medication adherence but was also the mediator. Finally, the highest effect size on blood pressure level was critical and communicative health literacy. These findings suggest that health literacy should be considered in the Health Literacy Program of the National Public Health Policy and Plan, Ministry of Public Health.

  10. Acceptance and commitment therapy program for distressed adults with a primary brain tumor: a case series study.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Maria; McDonald, Skye; Williams, Janet R; Smee, Robert I

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that adults diagnosed with a primary brain tumor (BT) are susceptible to experiencing anxiety and depressive problems post-diagnosis. However, there is a notable paucity of psychological interventions which have been tested with adult BT patients. An acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)-based manualized program was developed for anxious and/or depressed BT patients. The preliminary efficacy of this program was initially tested using a proof-of-concept study design based on a case series of four clinically distressed BT patients. Three of the four participants no longer met criteria for anxiety and/or depressive disorders at post-therapy, and these effects were maintained at 3 months of follow-up. The fourth participant, who had a premorbid psychiatric history, experienced a stabilization of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Given the current dearth of studies which have tested psychological interventions for distressed BT survivors, these preliminary findings have promising clinical utility. However, the efficacy of psychological interventions tailored for clinically distressed BT patients needs to be further tested using larger-scale controlled trial designs.

  11. Audit and comprehensive health assessment programme in the primary healthcare of adults with intellectual disability: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lennox, N G; Green, M; Diggens, J; Ugoni, A

    2001-06-01

    International research has demonstrated significant shortcomings in the health of adults with intellectual disability (ID). Because general practitioners (GPs) are the main providers of primary healthcare for this population, strategies to improve general practice care are an important aspect of rectifying these shortcomings. The present pilot study aimed to determine the effect of various interventions on health maintenance activities and to assess their acceptability to GPs, with a view to informing larger scale studies. The GPs were recruited through an earlier questionnaire-based postal survey. The GPs identified all their adult patients with ID, then obtained consent for participation from three patients randomly selected by the investigators. The GPs completed two self-evaluation forms and case note audits 12 months apart, read a synopsis of the relevant literature provided by the researchers, and completed a comprehensive health assessment (CHA) of their three patients. Forty-five GPs agreed to participate in the CHA programme (CHAP), and 15 completed the project. Thirty-eight patients completed the project. The number of patient-GP dyads who completed the project was too small to demonstrate statistically significant changes in health issues over time. The GPs found that the synopsis of the literature was the best intervention for increasing knowledge and was also the most practical to use in general practice. The CHAP was the intervention that prompted the most action from the GP which would not have been undertaken otherwise. The CHAP appeared to provide a superior review process compared to the other interventions used in the present study. The numbers of health maintenance activities found to be overdue and the number of health issues detected as a result of the process were considerable. The CHAP served as a communication tool and an educative instrument, providing a basis for future studies and strategies to improve the general practice care of adults

  12. Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (incomplete form) in young adults: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Hemanta K; Rajkumar, Vangipuram Deepak; Kumar, Naresh; Kar, Premashis

    2012-01-01

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is characterised by digital clubbing and periosteal reaction of long bones. Most cases are associated with malignancy or other conditions such as congenital heart disease, liver cirrhosis, pulmonary fibrosis, biliary atresia and inflammatory bowel diseases. We report a middle-aged man found to have 15-year history of clubbing of the fingers and toes on his routine check-up for dyspepsia. Skiagram of hand joints showed periosteal apposition without any periosteal reaction of long bones. The search for a secondary cause of clubbing remained negative. The primary or idiopathic form is rare and has a good prognosis and has to be differentiated from secondary form. He was eradicated successfully with Pylori kit for his antral predominant Helicobacter-induced gastritis. PMID:23242097

  13. Primary adrenal teratoma: Clinical characteristics and retroperitoneal laparoscopic resection in five adults

    PubMed Central

    LI, SHUQIANG; LI, HANZHONG; JI, ZHIGANG; YAN, WEIGANG; ZHANG, YUSHI

    2015-01-01

    Primary adrenal teratoma is extremely rare. To investigate the clinical characteristics and further enrich the limited knowledge on its diagnosis and treatment, the present study retrospectively analyzed the detailed clinical data of five patients with primary adrenal teratomas treated in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China) between March 2009 and February 2014. The five patients were female, aged from 16 to 51 years (mean, 36.0±16.3 years), with solitary lesions that were incidentally found on routine physical examinations. The tumor size ranged from 2.4 to 9.0 cm (mean, 6.0±2.7 cm). Ultrasonography revealed a mixed echo in four patients, and computed tomography showed mixed density masses with fat components and calcification in three patients. Adrenal-related endocrine tests were normal in all five patients, and no abnormalities were found in the three patients who underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy examination. All patients were treated with retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery, with no complications, and the resected tumors were identified as mature cystic teratomas pathologically. To date, the patients have been followed up for 4–60 months post-operatively, with no recurrence. In conclusion, this rare adrenal teratoma is an occult entity to which reproductive females are susceptible. The tumor exhibits no typical clinical manifestations or adrenal-related laboratory abnormalities, and the pre-operative diagnosis mainly relies on imaging characteristics of a heterogeneous lesion containing fat components with scattered and marginal calcifications. The preferred treatment is retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery, and the prognosis is good. PMID:26722254

  14. Pain measurement as part of primary healthcare of adult patients with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Signorelli, Andreza Aparecida Felix; Ribeiro, Sonia Beatriz Felix; Moraes-Souza, Helio; de Oliveira, Lucas Felix; Ribeiro, João Batista; da Silva, Sheron Hellen; de Oliveira, Daniel Fachinelli Felix; Ribeiro, Matheus Fernando Felix

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this exploratory, cross-sectional study was to evaluate pain in sickle cell disease patients and aspects related to primary healthcare. Methods Data were obtained through home interviews. The assessment instruments (body diagram, Numerical Pain Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire) collected information on the underlying disease and on pain. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program for Windows. Associations between the subgroups of sickle cell disease patients (hemoglobin SS, hemoglobin SC, sickle β-thalassemia and others) and pain were analyzed using contingency tables and non-parametric tests of association (classic chi-square, Fisher's and Kruskal-Wallis) with a level of 5% (p-value < 0.05) being set for the rejection of the null hypothesis. Results Forty-seven over 18-year-old patients with sickle cell disease were evaluated. Most were black (78.7%) and female (59.6%) and the mean age was 30.1 years. The average number of bouts of pain annually was 7.02; pain was predominantly reported by individuals with sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin SS). The intensity of pain (Numeric Pain Scale) was 5.5 and the quantitative index (McGill) was 35.9. This study also shows that patients presented a high frequency of moderately painful crises in their own homes. Conclusion According to these facts, it is essential that pain related to sickle cell disease is properly identified, quantified, characterized and treated at the three levels of healthcare. In primary healthcare, accurate measurement of pain combined with better care may decrease acute painful episodes and consequently minimize tissue damage, thus improving the patient's overall health. PMID:24106446

  15. [Early detection of chronic liver disease in primary care in the apparently health adult population].

    PubMed

    Caballería, Llorenç; Torán, Pere

    2012-12-01

    Liver diseases are highly prevalent and are a major health problem as they progress to more severe forms. In the west, cirrhosis and primitive liver cancer are among the first 10 causes of death in adults. Moreover, chronic liver inflammation, irrespective of cause, is usually asymptomatic. Consequently diagnosis tends to be established when the disease is in the advanced stages and is thus irreversible and with few treatment possibilities. Therefore, ideally, diagnosis would be established in the initial phases of chronic liver inflammation, which would allow the natural history of the disease to be altered by either halting or delaying progression. To date, physicians have been guided by alterations in liver function tests to identify the etiology of liver disease or-depending on the severity of involvement-the presence of liver disease. Abdominal ultrasound findings can also reveal alterations suggesting the presence of chronic liver disease. However, in the last few years, noninvasive methods have been designed. These include serological markers (direct and indirect) of fibrosis and radiological tests (especially elastography) based on measuring liver elasticity, which allow noninvasive quantification of the degree of fibrous tissue in the liver. The use of noninvasive methods may be highly useful in the early detection of liver diseases.

  16. Maintenance of Glia in the Optic Lamina Is Mediated by EGFR Signaling by Photoreceptors in Adult Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yuan-Ming; Sun, Y. Henry

    2015-01-01

    The late onset of neurodegeneration in humans indicates that the survival and function of cells in the nervous system must be maintained throughout adulthood. In the optic lamina of the adult Drosophila, the photoreceptor axons are surrounded by multiple types of glia. We demonstrated that the adult photoreceptors actively contribute to glia maintenance in their target field within the optic lamina. This effect is dependent on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands produced by the R1-6 photoreceptors and transported to the optic lamina to act on EGFR in the lamina glia. EGFR signaling is necessary and sufficient to act in a cell-autonomous manner in the lamina glia. Our results suggest that EGFR signaling is required for the trafficking of the autophagosome/endosome to the lysosome. The loss of EGFR signaling results in cell degeneration most likely because of the accumulation of autophagosomes. Our findings provide in vivo evidence for the role of adult neurons in the maintenance of glia and a novel role for EGFR signaling in the autophagic flux. PMID:25909451

  17. Tai Chi Chuan for the Primary Prevention of Stroke in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guohua; Liu, Feiwen; Li, Shuzhen; Tao, Jing; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Background. Stroke is a major healthcare problem with serious long-term disability and is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Prevention of stroke is considered an important strategy. Methods. Seven electronic databases were searched. Results. 36 eligible studies with a total of 2393 participants were identified. Primary outcome measures, TCC exercise combined with other intervention had a significant effect on decreasing the incidence of nonfatal stroke (n = 185, RR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.85, P = 0.03) and CCD (n = 125, RR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.96, P = 0.04). For the risk factors of stroke, pooled analysis demonstrated that TCC exercise was associated with lower body weight, BMI, FBG level, and decreasing SBP, DBP, plasma TC, and LDL-C level regardless of the intervention period less than half a year or more than one year and significantly raised HDL-C level in comparison to nonintervention. Compared with other treatments, TCC intervention on the basis of the same other treatments in patients with chronic disease also showed the beneficial effect on lowering blood pressure. Conclusion. The present systematic review indicates that TCC exercise is beneficially associated with the primary prevention of stroke in middle-aged and elderly adults by inversing the high risk factors of stroke. PMID:25784950

  18. Validity of symptom and clinical measures of asthma severity for primary outpatient assessment of adult asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, T P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Symptom and pulmonary function measures of asthma severity are used for severity classification in practice guidelines. However, there is limited methodological evidence in support of their validity and utility. AIM: To validate initial symptom and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) measures of asthma severity with the subsequent risks of exacerbations resulting in emergency room (ER) visits, hospitalisation, and sickness absence from work. In addition, symptom-based measures of change in asthma severity were also evaluated against the concurrent risks of asthma exacerbations. METHOD: A cohort of 361 adult asthmatic patients in general outpatient clinics was studied. At initial interview, frequencies of asthmatic symptoms and nocturnal exacerbations, FEV1, and a severity score combining these measures, were recorded. At re-interview in the third year, the frequencies of asthma exacerbations resulting in ER visits, hospitalisation, and sickness absence, and a self-assessed global measure of change in severity and serially-assessed change in symptom frequencies, were measured. RESULTS: All individual symptom and FEV1 measures were strongly related to the subsequent risks of ER visits, hospitalisation, and sick absence. A severity score of more than 3 (moderate to severe asthma) and self-assessed change in asthma severity were most strongly and significantly associated with greatly increased risks of all outcomes. Individual symptoms and FEV1 measures alone did not show high sensitivities, but the severity score combining these measures gave much more satisfactory validity. Perhaps not surprisingly, self-assessed change in asthma appeared to give the most satisfactory validity. CONCLUSION: These results support the validity and clinical utility of a simple clinical score based on symptom and FEV1 measures, and self-assessed measure of change in severity, for risk classification in contemporary clinical practice guidelines. PMID:10695059

  19. Sexual violence against adult women primary care attenders in east London.

    PubMed Central

    Coid, Jeremy; Petruckevitch, Ann; Chung, Wai-Shan; Richardson, Jo; Moorey, Stirling; Cotter, Sarah; Feder, Gene S

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual violence against women is common. The prevalence appears to be higher in north America than Europe. However, not all surveys have differentiated the experience of forced sex by a current or former partner. Few women are thought to report these experiences to their general practitioner (GP). AIM: To measure the prevalence of rape, sexual assault, and forced sexual intercourse by a partner among women attending general practices, to test the association between these experiences of sexual violence and demographic factors, and to assess the acceptability to women of screening for sexual violence by GPs. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross-sectional survey. METHOD: A self-administered questionnaire survey of 1207 women aged over 15 years was carried out in 13 general practices in Hackney, east London. RESULTS: Eight per cent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.2 to 9.6) of women have experienced rape, 9% (95% CI = 7.0 to 10.6) another type of sexual assault, and 16% (95% CI = 13.6 to 18.1) forced sex by a partner in adulthood: 24% (95% CI = 21.2 to 26.5) have experienced one or more of these types of sexual violence. Experiences of sexual violence demonstrated high levels of lifetime co-occurrence. Women forced to have sex by partners experienced the most severe forms of domestic violence. One in five women would object to routine questioning about being raped and/or sexually assaulted, and one in nine about being forced to have sex by a partner. CONCLUSION: Experiences of sexual violence are common in the lives of adult women in east London, and they represent a significant public health problem. Those women who have one experience appear to be at risk of being victims again. A substantial minority object to routine questions about sexual violence. PMID:14702905

  20. Prospective assessment of quality of life in adult patients with primary brain tumors in routine neurooncology practice.

    PubMed

    Budrukkar, Ashwini; Jalali, Rakesh; Dutta, Debnarayan; Sarin, Rajiv; Devlekar, Rashmi; Parab, Sachin; Kakde, Anagha

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate and assess the impact of various factors on quality of life (QOL) in adult patients with primary brain tumors seen consecutively in routine neurooncology practice. Two hundred and fifty-seven adult patients, after undergoing surgical intervention and histologically proven primary brain neoplasms were registered in the NeuroOncology Clinic at our centre during 1 full calendar year. The study included detailed neurological assessment, evaluation of QOL using EORTC questionnaire (QLQ-30) and specific Brain Cancer module (BN 20). In the present analysis, QOL scores before starting adjuvant treatment were measured and impact of patient and tumor related factors were analyzed. Baseline global QOL data of all patients (available in 243) was relatively low including in all histological tumor types. Physical function, role function, emotion function, cognitive and social function scores were 80, 78, 65.7, 70 and 70.5 (higher values better), respectively. Domains of future uncertainty, visual disorder, motor deficit, communication deficit, headache, seizures and drowsiness scores were 19.6, 18.2, 28.5, 30.7, 21, 31.8 and 16 (lower values better), respectively. Elderly patients had poorer global score (21 points difference; p = 0.161). Patients with lower performance status (KPS < 70) had a lower global QOL (KPS >or= 80 vs. primary brain tumours before starting adjuvant therapy have

  1. Disease characteristics and outcomes in younger adults with primary and secondary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Beauverd, Yan; Alimam, Samah; McLornan, Donal P; Radia, Deepti H; Harrison, Claire N

    2016-10-01

    Myelofibrosis (MF) is a rare haematopoietic disorder, commonly diagnosed in the 6th decade: less than 20% are diagnosed before the age of 50 years. In this retrospective study we included all patients given a diagnosis of World Health Organization-defined primary or secondary MF when aged ≤50 years. Forty-three patients with a median age of 43 years were included. Median follow up was 44 months. Twenty-two (51%) harboured the JAK2 V617F mutation, 18/43 (42%) CALR, 0/43 (0%) MPL mutations and 3/43 (7%) were 'Triple Negative' (TN). At the time of diagnosis, no significant differences existed in haematological and clinical phenotypes between JAK2, CALR and TN patients. The frequency of splenomegaly was greater (P = 0·047) in the JAK2-mutated group compared to CALR-mutated patients. In the whole cohort, the 5-year probability of developing anaemia, thrombocytopenia and marked leucocytosis was 24%, 10% and 13% respectively. Finally, the cumulative incidence of thrombotic events and progression to acute myeloid leukaemia was 1% and 0·5% patient-year respectively. No death was reported during the follow-up. These findings suggest that MF in younger patients may have a more indolent course when compared to older patients.

  2. Emphysema in an adult with galactosialidosis linked to a defect in primary elastic fiber assembly.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Anna; Mattman, Andre; Sin, Don; Pare, Peter; Zong, Zheyuan; d'Azzo, Alessandra; Campos, Yvan; Sirrs, Sandra; Hinek, Aleksander

    2012-05-01

    Galactosialidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by loss of function of protective protein cathepsin A, which leads to secondary deficiencies of β-galactosidase and neuraminidase-1. Emphysema has not been previously reported as a possible complication of this disorder, but we now describe this condition in a 41-year-old, non-smoking male. Our patient did not display deficiency in α-1-antitrypsin, the most common cause of emphysema in non-smokers, which brings about disseminated elastolysis. We therefore hypothesized that loss of cathepsin A activity was responsible because of previously published evidence showing it is prerequisite for normal elastogenesis. We now present experimental evidence to support this theory by demonstrating impaired primary elastogenesis in cultures of dermal fibroblasts from our patient. The obtained data further endorse our previous finding that functional integrity of the cell surface-targeted molecular complex of cathepsin A, neuraminidase-1 and the elastin-binding protein (spliced variant of β-galactosidase) is prerequisite for the normal assembly of elastic fibers. Importantly, we also found that elastic fiber production was increased after exposure either to losartan, spironolactone, or dexamethasone. Of immediate clinical relevance, our data suggest that surviving patients with galactosialidosis should have periodic assessment of their pulmonary function. We also encourage further experimental exploration of therapeutic potential of the afore-mentioned elastogenesis-stimulating drugs for the alleviation of pathological processes in galactosialidosis that could be mechanistically linked to impaired deposition of elastic fibers.

  3. Prevalence of undifferentiated fever in adults of Rawalpindi having primary dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Humaira; Hayyat, Abbas; Akhtar, Naeem; Rizwan, Syeda Fatima

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to highlight early subclinical presentation of dengue viral infection (DVI) as an undifferentiated febrile illness. The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Microbiology Department, Rawalpindi Medical College from March to September 2009. Stratified random sampling was used to select subjects from various urban and rural areas of Rawalpindi, and Serum IgG anti-dengue antibodies were detected by using 3rd generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Out of the total 240 subjects, 69 (28.75%) were found to be positive for anti-dengue IgG antibodies. Of the positive cases, 41 (59.4%) - comprising 31 (44.9%) urban residents - and 10 (14.4%) rural residents presented with a previous history of undifferentiated fever (p<0.05). It was concluded that primary DVI can present as subclinical form in healthy population residing in rural and urban areas of Rawalpindi, which is an alarming situation indicating the spread of disease in the study area.

  4. Risk of Shingles in Adults with Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome and Treatments: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jen-Yin; Wang, Li-Kai; Feng, Ping-Hsun; Chu, Chin-Chen; Cheng, Tain-Junn; Weng, Shih-Feng; Wu, Su-Zhen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Chang, Chia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is associated with immunological dysfunctions—a well-known risk factor of shingles. This study aimed to examine the incidence and risk of shingles in adults with pSS and pharmacological treatments. Methods This retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted using National Health Insurance claims data. Using propensity scores, 4,287 pSS adult patients and 25,722-matched cohorts by age, gender, selected comorbidities and Charlson comorbidity index scores were identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were conducted to compare the differences in developing shingles. In pSS, oral and eye dryness are treated with substitute agents. Extraglandular features are often treated with pharmacological drugs including steroids and immunosuppressants. pSS patients were grouped as follows: no pharmacological drugs, steroids alone; immunosuppressants alone; combined therapies. Results During the follow-up, 463 adults with pSS (10.80%) and 1,345 control cohorts (5.23%) developed shingles. The cumulative incidence of shingles in pSS patients (18.74/1,000 patient-years) was significantly higher than controls (8.55/1,000 patient-years). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of shingles was 1.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50–1.90). In age-subgroup analyses, incidences of shingles in pSS increased with age and peaked in pSS patients aged ≧60; however, adjusted HRs decreased with age. Compared to control cohorts with no drugs, adjusted HRs for shingles in pSS patients were ranked from high to low as: combined therapies (4.14; 95% CI 3.14–5.45) > immunosuppressants alone (3.24; 95% CI 2.36–4.45) > steroids alone (2.54; 95% CI 2.16–2.97) > no pharmacological drugs (2.06; 95% CI 1.76–2.41). Rates of shingles-associated hospitalization and postherpetic neuralgia were 5.62% and 24.41%, both of which were significantly higher than those (2.60%; 13.01%) in the control cohorts. Conclusions Adults with pSS were at

  5. Exclusion of one pedigree affected by adult onset primary open angle glaucoma from linkage to the juvenile glaucoma locus on chromosome 1q21-q31.

    PubMed Central

    Avramopoulos, D; Kitsos, G; Economou-Petersen, E; Grigoriadou, M; Vassilopoulos, D; Papageorgiou, C; Psilas, K; Petersen, M B

    1996-01-01

    A locus for autosomal dominant juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) was recently assigned to chromosome region 1q21-q31. In the present study, a large Greek family with autosomal dominant adult onset POAG was investigated using microsatellite markers. Exclusion of linkage of the adult onset POAG gene to the region D1S194-D1S191 was obtained in this pedigree. Therefore, the data provide evidence that juvenile and adult onset POAG are genetically distinct disease entities. PMID:9004141

  6. Lead decreases cell survival, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of primary cultured adult neural precursor cells through activation of the JNK and p38 MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Anna; Wang, Hao; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-08-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is the process whereby adult neural precursor cells (aNPCs) in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) generate adult-born, functional neurons in the hippocampus. This process is modulated by various extracellular and intracellular stimuli, and the adult-born neurons have been implicated in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. However, studies on how neurotoxic agents affect this process and the underlying mechanisms are limited. The goal of this study was to determine whether lead, a heavy metal, directly impairs critical processes in adult neurogenesis and to characterize the underlying signaling pathways using primary cultured SGZ-aNPCs isolated from adult mice. We report here that lead significantly increases apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in SGZ-aNPCs. In addition, lead significantly impairs spontaneous neuronal differentiation and maturation. Furthermore, we found that activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways are important for lead cytotoxicity. Our data suggest that lead can directly act on adult neural stem cells and impair critical processes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which may contribute to its neurotoxicity and adverse effects on cognition in adults.

  7. A retrospective clinical study of 98 adult idiopathic primary intraventricular hemorrhage cases

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Ma, Lu; Shrestha, Bal Krishna; Yu, Zhiyuan; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to define the clinical features, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of idiopathic primary intraventricular hemorrhage (IPIVH). We retrospectively collected the data of consecutively admitted patients who were diagnosed and treated for IPIVH in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2014. The clinical information, treatment, and prognosis at the 6-month follow-up were analyzed. Among the 3798 cases of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), 98 IPIVH (2.58%) patients were recruited for the study. The study population consisted of 60 males and 38 females, with an average age (± standard deviation, SD) of 51.20 ± 15.48 years. The initial symptoms were headache (75 cases) and impaired consciousness (23 cases). The surgical treatments included hematoma evacuation under a microscope or an endoscope in 8 cases (8.16%), external ventricular drainage (EVD) in 11 cases (11.22%), lumbar drainage (LD) in 10 cases (10.20%), and a combination of EVD and LD in 11 cases (11.22%). In total, 4 patients died in the hospital (4.08%). At the 6-month follow-up, 73 patients (74.49%) had an improved outcome (modified Rankin scale [mRS] < 3), and 21 patients (21.43%) had a poor outcome (mRS ≥ 3 points) at the end of the 6-month follow-up. IPIVH is rare in clinical practice, and hypertension is the most common risk factor. Furthermore, the treatment of IPIVH is still controversial. Hematoma evacuation under a microscope or an endoscope, EVD, LD and a combination of EVD and LD could be surgical options for the treatment of IPIVH patients. The outcomes for IPIVH patients could be relatively favorable with individualized treatment. PMID:27759637

  8. The Role of Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Primary Adult High Grade Gliomas: Assessment of Patients for These Treatment Approaches and the Common Immediate Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Philip-Ephraim, E. E.; Eyong, K. I.; Williams, U. E.; Ephraim, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas are the commonest primary brain tumours in adults. They are usually classified and graded according to the criteria by the World Health Organisation. High-grade gliomas are the most malignant primary brain tumours. Conventional therapies include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The tumours often demonstrate high levels of resistance to these conventional therapies, and in spite of treatment advances the prognosis remains poor. PMID:23304556

  9. Performance of the Primary Mirror Center-of-Curvature Optical Metrology System during Cryogenic Testing of the JWST Pathfinder Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Wells, Conrad; Olczak, Gene; Waldman, Mark; Whitman, Tony; Cosentino, Joseph; Connolly, Mark; Chaney, David; Telfer, Randal

    2016-01-01

    The JWST primary mirror consists of 18 1.5 m hexagonal segments, each with 6-DoF and RoC adjustment. The telescope will be tested at its cryogenic operating temperature at Johnson Space Center. The testing will include center-of-curvature measurements of the PM, using the Center-of-Curvature Optical Assembly (COCOA) and the Absolute Distance Meter Assembly (ADMA). The performance of these metrology systems, including hardware, software, procedures, was assessed during two cryogenic tests at JSC, using the JWST Pathfinder telescope. This paper describes the test setup, the testing performed, and the resulting metrology system performance.

  10. Effectiveness of multicomponent interventions in primary healthcare settings to promote continuous smoking cessation in adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Martín Cantera, Carlos; Puigdomènech, Elisa; Ballvé, Jose Luis; Arias, Olga Lucía; Clemente, Lourdes; Casas, Ramon; Roig, Lydia; Pérez-Tortosa, Santiago; Díaz-Gete, Laura; Granollers, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present review is to evaluate multicomponent/complex primary care (PC) interventions for their effectiveness in continuous smoking abstinence by adult smokers. Design A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials was undertaken. Eligibility criteria for included studies Selected studies met the following criteria: evaluated effects of a multicomponent/complex intervention (with 2 or more intervention components) in achieving at least 6-month abstinence in adult smokers who visited a PC, biochemical confirmation of abstinence, intention-to-treat analysis and results published in English/Spanish. Methods We followed PRISMA statement to report the review. We searched the following data sources: MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus (from inception to February 2014), 3 key journals and a tobacco research bulletin. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network checklists were used to evaluate methodological quality. Data selection, evaluation and extraction were done independently, using a paired review approach. Owing to the heterogeneity of interventions in the studies included, a meta-analysis was not conducted. Results Of 1147 references identified, 9 studies were selected (10 204 participants, up to 48 months of follow-up, acceptable methodological quality). Methodologies used were mainly individual or group sessions, telephone conversations, brochures or quit-smoking kits, medications and economic incentives for doctors and no-cost medications for smokers. Complex interventions achieved long-term continuous abstinence ranging from 7% to 40%. Behavioural interventions were effective and had a dose–response effect. Both nicotine replacement and bupropion therapy were safe and effective, with no observed differences. Conclusions Multicomponent/complex interventions in PC are effective and safe, appearing to achieve greater long-term continuous smoking cessation than usual care and counselling alone. Selected

  11. Public Stigma towards Older Adults with Depression: Findings from the São Paulo-Manaus Elderly in Primary Care Study

    PubMed Central

    Kester, Rachel; Braga, Patrícia Emília; Peluso, Érica T. P.; Blay, Sérgio L.; R. Menezes, Paulo; E. Ribeiro, Euler

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates three domains of public stigma (perceived negative reactions, perceived discrimination, and dangerousness) against older adults with depression. The sample comprised of older adults registered with primary care clinics (n = 1,291) and primary health care professionals (n = 469) from São Paulo and Manaus, Brazil. Participants read a vignette describing a 70-year-old individual (Mary or John) with a depressive disorder and answered questions measuring stigma. The prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 30.2 and 37.6% among older participants from São Paulo and between 27.6 and 35.4% among older participants from Manaus. Older adults from both cities reported similar prevalence of perceived stigma. Key factors associated with stigmatizing beliefs among older participants were reporting depressive symptoms, having physical limitations, and identifying the case of the vignette as a case of mental disorder. Among health professionals, the prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 19.8 and 34.8% in São Paulo and 30.2 and 44.6% in Manaus. The key factor associated with stigma among primary health care professionals was city, with consistently higher risk in Manaus than in São Paulo. Findings confirm that public stigma against older adults in Brazil is common. It is important to educate the public and primary health care providers in Brazil on stigma related to mental illness in order to reduce barriers to adequate mental health treatment. PMID:27352293

  12. Public Stigma towards Older Adults with Depression: Findings from the São Paulo-Manaus Elderly in Primary Care Study.

    PubMed

    Scazufca, Marcia; P de Paula Couto, Maria Clara; Huang, Hsiang; Kester, Rachel; Braga, Patrícia Emília; Peluso, Érica T P; Blay, Sérgio L; R Menezes, Paulo; E Ribeiro, Euler

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates three domains of public stigma (perceived negative reactions, perceived discrimination, and dangerousness) against older adults with depression. The sample comprised of older adults registered with primary care clinics (n = 1,291) and primary health care professionals (n = 469) from São Paulo and Manaus, Brazil. Participants read a vignette describing a 70-year-old individual (Mary or John) with a depressive disorder and answered questions measuring stigma. The prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 30.2 and 37.6% among older participants from São Paulo and between 27.6 and 35.4% among older participants from Manaus. Older adults from both cities reported similar prevalence of perceived stigma. Key factors associated with stigmatizing beliefs among older participants were reporting depressive symptoms, having physical limitations, and identifying the case of the vignette as a case of mental disorder. Among health professionals, the prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 19.8 and 34.8% in São Paulo and 30.2 and 44.6% in Manaus. The key factor associated with stigma among primary health care professionals was city, with consistently higher risk in Manaus than in São Paulo. Findings confirm that public stigma against older adults in Brazil is common. It is important to educate the public and primary health care providers in Brazil on stigma related to mental illness in order to reduce barriers to adequate mental health treatment. PMID:27352293

  13. Public Stigma towards Older Adults with Depression: Findings from the São Paulo-Manaus Elderly in Primary Care Study.

    PubMed

    Scazufca, Marcia; P de Paula Couto, Maria Clara; Huang, Hsiang; Kester, Rachel; Braga, Patrícia Emília; Peluso, Érica T P; Blay, Sérgio L; R Menezes, Paulo; E Ribeiro, Euler

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates three domains of public stigma (perceived negative reactions, perceived discrimination, and dangerousness) against older adults with depression. The sample comprised of older adults registered with primary care clinics (n = 1,291) and primary health care professionals (n = 469) from São Paulo and Manaus, Brazil. Participants read a vignette describing a 70-year-old individual (Mary or John) with a depressive disorder and answered questions measuring stigma. The prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 30.2 and 37.6% among older participants from São Paulo and between 27.6 and 35.4% among older participants from Manaus. Older adults from both cities reported similar prevalence of perceived stigma. Key factors associated with stigmatizing beliefs among older participants were reporting depressive symptoms, having physical limitations, and identifying the case of the vignette as a case of mental disorder. Among health professionals, the prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 19.8 and 34.8% in São Paulo and 30.2 and 44.6% in Manaus. The key factor associated with stigma among primary health care professionals was city, with consistently higher risk in Manaus than in São Paulo. Findings confirm that public stigma against older adults in Brazil is common. It is important to educate the public and primary health care providers in Brazil on stigma related to mental illness in order to reduce barriers to adequate mental health treatment.

  14. Figure control of flexible structures - Optical surfaces of thin deformable primary mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creedon, J. F.; Ostroff, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Application of a modal control design technique to achieve discrete control of distributed parameter systems is considered. Results are presented for application of the design technique to achieve diffraction limited performance from the primary mirror of a space telescope and to provide flutter suppression for an aircraft wing.

  15. Macular Pigment Optical Density in Chinese Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Using the One-Wavelength Reflectometry Method

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yuying; Zuo, Chengguo; Lin, Mingkai; Zhang, Xiongze; Li, Miaoling; Mi, Lan; Liu, Bing; Wen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and its relationship with retinal thickness in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients using the one-wavelength reflectometry method. Methods. A total of 30 eyes from 30 POAG patients (18 males and 12 females, mean age 47.27 ± 16.93) and 52 eyes from 52 controls (27 males and 25 females, mean age 49.54 ± 19.15) were included in this prospective, observational, case-control study. MPOD was measured in a 7-degree area using one-wavelength reflectometry method. Two parameters, max and mean optical density (OD), were used for analyses. Spectral-domain-optical coherence tomography was used to measure retinal thickness, including central retinal thickness (CRT), the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC), and the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Results. Both maxOD and meanOD were significantly reduced in POAG patients compared with normal subjects (P < 0.001). GCC, CRT, and RNFL thicknesses were also significantly reduced in POAG patients (P < 0.001). GCC thickness had a positive relationship with MPOD. Conclusions. MPOD within the 7-degree area was significantly lower in Chinese POAG patients than in control subjects, and GCC thickness was significantly and positively associated with MPOD. Whether the observed lower MPOD in POAG contributes to the disease process or is secondary to pathological changes caused by the disease (such as loss of ganglion cells) warrants further and longitudinal study. PMID:27144013

  16. Macular Pigment Optical Density in Chinese Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Using the One-Wavelength Reflectometry Method.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuying; Zuo, Chengguo; Lin, Mingkai; Zhang, Xiongze; Li, Miaoling; Mi, Lan; Liu, Bing; Wen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and its relationship with retinal thickness in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients using the one-wavelength reflectometry method. Methods. A total of 30 eyes from 30 POAG patients (18 males and 12 females, mean age 47.27 ± 16.93) and 52 eyes from 52 controls (27 males and 25 females, mean age 49.54 ± 19.15) were included in this prospective, observational, case-control study. MPOD was measured in a 7-degree area using one-wavelength reflectometry method. Two parameters, max and mean optical density (OD), were used for analyses. Spectral-domain-optical coherence tomography was used to measure retinal thickness, including central retinal thickness (CRT), the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC), and the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Results. Both maxOD and meanOD were significantly reduced in POAG patients compared with normal subjects (P < 0.001). GCC, CRT, and RNFL thicknesses were also significantly reduced in POAG patients (P < 0.001). GCC thickness had a positive relationship with MPOD. Conclusions. MPOD within the 7-degree area was significantly lower in Chinese POAG patients than in control subjects, and GCC thickness was significantly and positively associated with MPOD. Whether the observed lower MPOD in POAG contributes to the disease process or is secondary to pathological changes caused by the disease (such as loss of ganglion cells) warrants further and longitudinal study. PMID:27144013

  17. Development of The Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing Adult/Geriatric Primary Care Nurse Practitioner Program in HIV Prevention, Treatment, and Care.

    PubMed

    Farley, Jason E; Stewart, Jennifer; Kub, Joan; Cumpsty-Fowler, Carolyn; Lowensen, Kelly; Becker, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    In response to the call to create an AIDS Education and Training Center for Nurse Practitioner Education by the Health Resources and Services Administration, The Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing embarked on a transformative curriculum overhaul to integrate HIV prevention, treatment, and care into the Adult/Geriatric Nurse Practitioner Program. A six-step process outlined in the Curriculum Development for Medical Education was followed. A pilot cohort of Adult/Geriatric Nurse Practitioner students were enrolled, including 50% primary care setting and 50% HIV-focused primary care through a 12-month HIV continuity clinic experience. Through this pilot, substantive changes to the program were adopted. Programmatic outcomes were not compromised with the modification in clinical hours. The model of a 12-month HIV continuity clinical experience reduced the number of required preceptors. This model has important implications for the HIV workforce by demonstrating successful integration of HIV and primary care training for nurse practitioners.

  18. An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Zhongping; Lance, Veronica P.; Shang, Shaoling; Vaillancourt, Robert; Freeman, Scott; Lubac, Bertrand; Hargreaves, Bruce R.; Del Castillo, Carlos; Miller, Richard; Twardowski, Michael; Wei, Guomei

    2011-04-01

    Optical properties and primary production were measured during the Southern Ocean (SO) Gas Exchange Experiment (GasEx) (March-April 2008). To assess and evaluate these properties derived from remote sensing, absorption coefficients derived from remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) with the quasi-analytical algorithm were compared with those from in situ measurements from both an ac-9 optical instrument deployed on a profiling package and from discrete water samples analyzed using filter pad spectrophotometry. Total absorption coefficients from Rrs retrievals were found, on average, to be ˜12% less than ac-9 measurements and ˜15% less than filter pad measurements. Absorption coefficients of gelbstoff-detritus and phytoplankton pigments (at 443 nm) derived from Rrs were ˜15% and ˜25% less than ac-9 measurements, respectively. The difference can be well explained based on the determination methods and these results indicate general consistency between remote sensing retrievals and in situ measurements for these waters. Further, incorporating measured surface radiation data, water column primary production (PPeu) was estimated using chlorophyll concentration based models (Chl-PP) and a phytoplankton absorption based model (Aph-PP), where remote-sensing Chl was retrieved with an operational empirical algorithm. These estimated PPeu values were then compared with primary productivity measured using 14C incubation techniques, and coefficient of determination (R2, N = 13) of 0.74 were found for the Aph-PP results, while the R2 of the Chl-PP results were less than 0.5. Such a contrast further highlights the importance of analytically retrieving phytoplankton absorption from measurement of ocean color and the advantage of using phytoplankton absorption to represent the role of phytoplankton in photosynthesis. Spatial distribution and contrast of PPeu in the greater SO GasEx region estimated from satellite data are also presented.

  19. Vasopressin inhibits type-I collagen and albumin gene expression in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chojkier, M.; Brenner, D.A.; Leffert, H.L.

    1989-06-05

    The mechanisms that regulate collagen gene expression in hepatic cells are poorly understood. Accelerated Ca2+ fluxes are associated with inhibiting collagen synthesis selectively in human fibroblasts. In suspension cultures of isolated hepatocytes, the Ca2+ agonist vasopressin increases cytosolic levels of free Ca2+. However, whether vasopressin's interactions with plasma membrane V1 receptors attenuate hepatic collagen production is unknown. We investigated this problem by studying vasopressin's effects on collagen synthesis and Ca2+ efflux in long-term primary cultures of differentiated and proliferation-competent adult rat hepatocytes. Twelve-day-old quiescent cultures were exposed to test substances and labeled with (5-3H)proline. Determinations of radioactivity in collagenase-sensitive and collagenase-resistant proteins were used to calculate the relative levels of collagen production. Synthetic (8-arg)vasopressin stimulated 45Ca2+ efflux within 1 min and inhibited hepatocyte collagen production within 3 h by 50%; overall rates of protein synthesis were not affected significantly. In cultures labeled with (35S)methionine, vasopressin also decreased the levels of newly synthesized and secreted albumin, but not fibrinogen, detected in specific immunoprecipitates analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Northern blot analyses using specific (32P)cDNA probes revealed 70% decreases in hybridizable levels of collagen alpha 1(I) mRNA in hepatocyte cultures treated with either vasopressin or Ca2+ ionophore A23187; hybridizable levels of albumin mRNA also fell approximately 50% following vasopressin treatment.

  20. Treatment Strategies of Adult Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: A Systematic Review Focusing on the Last Two Decades

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Arno; Mayer, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Adult primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) remains a therapeutic challenge for the treating physician. With the advent of novel immunosuppressive measures, our arsenal of therapeutic options increased considerably. The aim of this review was to summarize reports published over the last two decades which reported on treatment outcome. Most reports included patients with a steroid-resistant (SR) disease course, yet the cohort with the highest unmet need, since persistent nephrotic range proteinuria is associated with a poor renal prognosis and portends a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. While in first-line treatment, steroid treatment remains the recommended standard with an overall remission rate of 50% and higher, optimal treatment strategies for steroid-dependent/multirelapsing (SD/MR) and SR patients have to be defined. In both entities, calcineurin inhibitors showed good efficacy, while mycophenolate mofetil was less effective in SR cases compared to those with SD/MR. The same was true for rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting B-cells. In resistant cases, addition of extracorporeal treatment options or treatment with alkylating agents may be considered. To shape the future for treatment of FSGS, international collaborations to conduct larger clinical trials are needed to identify potential novel efficacious immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:27144166

  1. Sleep time and pattern of adult individuals in primary care in an Asian urbanized community: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Tan, Mui Suan; Hwang, Siew Wai; Teo, Chia Chia; Lee, Zhi Kang Niccol; Soh, Jing Yao Jonathan; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; How, Choon How

    2016-08-01

    Sleep norms vary between individuals, being affected by personal, communal, and socioeconomic factors. Individuals with sleep time which deviate from the population norm are at risks of adverse mental, cardiovascular, and metabolic health. Sleep-related issues are common agenda for consultation in primary care. This study aimed to determine the sleep time, pattern, and behavior of multiethnic Asian individuals who attended public primary care clinics in an urban metropolitan city-state.Standardized questionnaires were assistant-administered to adult Asian individuals who visited 2 local public primary care clinics in north-eastern and southern regions of Singapore. The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, self-reported sleep time, patterns, and behavior and those originated from the American National Sleep Foundation Sleep Diary. The data were collated, audited, rectified, and anonymized before being analyzed by the biostatistician. Individuals with 7 h sleep time or longer were deemed getting adequate sleep. Chi-squared or Fisher exact test was used to test the association between the demographic and behavioral variables and sleep time. Next, regression analysis was performed to identify key factors associated with their sleep time.A total of 350 individuals were recruited, with higher proportion of those of Chinese ethnicity reporting adequate sleep. Almost half (48.1%) of those who slept <7 h on weekdays tended to sleep ≥7 h on weekends. More individuals who reported no difficulty falling asleep, had regular sleep hours and awakening time, tended to sleep adequately. Those who slept with children, studied, read leisurely, used computer or laptops in their bedrooms, drank caffeinated beverages or smoked had inadequate sleep. Those who perceived sufficient sleep and considered 8 h as adequate sleep time had weekday and weekend sleep adequacy.Sleep time varied according to ethnicity, employment status, personal behavior, and

  2. Sleep time and pattern of adult individuals in primary care in an Asian urbanized community: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Tan, Mui Suan; Hwang, Siew Wai; Teo, Chia Chia; Lee, Zhi Kang Niccol; Soh, Jing Yao Jonathan; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; How, Choon How

    2016-08-01

    Sleep norms vary between individuals, being affected by personal, communal, and socioeconomic factors. Individuals with sleep time which deviate from the population norm are at risks of adverse mental, cardiovascular, and metabolic health. Sleep-related issues are common agenda for consultation in primary care. This study aimed to determine the sleep time, pattern, and behavior of multiethnic Asian individuals who attended public primary care clinics in an urban metropolitan city-state.Standardized questionnaires were assistant-administered to adult Asian individuals who visited 2 local public primary care clinics in north-eastern and southern regions of Singapore. The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, self-reported sleep time, patterns, and behavior and those originated from the American National Sleep Foundation Sleep Diary. The data were collated, audited, rectified, and anonymized before being analyzed by the biostatistician. Individuals with 7 h sleep time or longer were deemed getting adequate sleep. Chi-squared or Fisher exact test was used to test the association between the demographic and behavioral variables and sleep time. Next, regression analysis was performed to identify key factors associated with their sleep time.A total of 350 individuals were recruited, with higher proportion of those of Chinese ethnicity reporting adequate sleep. Almost half (48.1%) of those who slept <7 h on weekdays tended to sleep ≥7 h on weekends. More individuals who reported no difficulty falling asleep, had regular sleep hours and awakening time, tended to sleep adequately. Those who slept with children, studied, read leisurely, used computer or laptops in their bedrooms, drank caffeinated beverages or smoked had inadequate sleep. Those who perceived sufficient sleep and considered 8 h as adequate sleep time had weekday and weekend sleep adequacy.Sleep time varied according to ethnicity, employment status, personal behavior, and

  3. Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT): An Architecture Demonstration for Cost-effective Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Hagopian, John; Budinoff, Jason; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to demonstrate a new type of space telescope architecture that builds on the rigid, segmented telescope heritage of the James Webb Space Telescope but that solves several key challenges for future space telescopes. The architecture is based on a cost-effective segmented spherical primary mirror combined with a unique wavefront sensing and control system that allows for continuous phasing of the primary mirror. The segmented spherical primary allows for cost-effective 3-meter class (eg, Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enables 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time and for a reasonable amount of money. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions in low-earth-orbit and missions that do not require expensive stable structures and thermal control systems. For the 30-meter class applications, the paper discusses considerations for assembling and testing the telescopes in space. The paper also summarizes the scientific and technological roadmap for the architecture and also gives an overview of technology development, design studies, and testbed activities underway to demonstrate it s feasibility.

  4. Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT): An Architecture Demonstration for Cost-effective Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Hagopian, John; Budinoff, Jason; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to demonstrate a new type of space telescope architecture that builds on the rigid segmented telescope heritage of the James Webb Space Telescope but that solves several key challenges for future space telescopes. The architecture is based on a cost-effective segmented spherical primary mirror combined with a unique wavefront sensing and control system that allows for continuous phasing of the primary mirror. The segmented spherical primary allows for cost-effective 3-meter class (e.g., Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enables 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time and for a reasonable amount of money. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions in low-earth-orbit and missions that do not require expensive stable structures and thermal control systems. For the 30-meter class applications, the paper discusses considerations for assembling and testing the telescopes in space. The paper also summarizes the scientific and technological roadmap for the architecture and also gives an overview of technology development, design studies, and testbed activities underway to demonstrate its feasibility.

  5. Constructing a statistical atlas of the radii of the optic nerve and cerebrospinal fluid sheath in young healthy adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrigan, Robert L.; Plassard, Andrew J.; Mawn, Louise A.; Galloway, Robert L.; Smith, Seth A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Optic neuritis is a sudden inflammation of the optic nerve (ON) and is marked by pain on eye movement, and visual symptoms such as a decrease in visual acuity, color vision, contrast and visual field defects. The ON is closely linked with multiple sclerosis (MS) and patients have a 50% chance of developing MS within 15 years. Recent advances in multi-atlas segmentation methods have omitted volumetric assessment. In the past, measuring the size of the ON has been done by hand. We utilize a new method of automatically segmenting the ON to measure the radii of both the ON and surrounding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sheath to develop a normative distribution of healthy young adults. We examine this distribution for any trends and find that ON and CSF sheath radii do not vary between 20-35 years of age and between sexes. We evaluate how six patients suffering from optic neuropathy compare to this distribution of controls. We find that of these six patients, five of them qualitatively differ from the normative distribution which suggests this technique could be used in the future to distinguish between optic neuritis patients and healthy controls

  6. Functional imaging of cat primary visual cortex with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, Uma M.; Takaoka, Hideyuki; Homma, Ryota; Kadono, Hirofumi; Tanifuji, Manabu

    2002-06-01

    We report the application of Optical coherence tomography (OCT) for visualizing a one dimensional depth resolved functional structure of cat brain in vivo. The OCT system is based on the known fact that neural activation induces structural changes such as capillary dilation and cellular swelling. Detecting these changes as an amplitude change of the scattered light, an OCT signal reflecting neural activity i.e., fOCT (functional OCT) could be obtained. Experiments have been done to obtain a depth resolved stimulus-specific profile of activation in cat visual cortex. Our results in one dimension indicate that indeed an orientation dependent functional signal could be obtained. Further, we show that this depth resolved fOCT signal is well correlated with the stimulus dependent column determined by OISI. Based on the results, the smallest functional unit in depth, resolved by the proposed system is around 40 micrometers . We are extending our system to perform two dimensional functional imaging.

  7. The Population Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Statins for Primary Prevention in Adults 75 and Older in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Odden, Michelle C.; Pletcher, Mark J.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Thekkethala, Divya; Guzman, David; Heller, David; Goldman, Lee; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over 40% of adults 75 and older are taking statins, yet there is little evidence to guide primary prevention in this population. OBJECTIVE To project the population impact and cost-effectiveness of statin therapy in adults aged 75 years and older. DESIGN Forecasting study using the Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model, a Markov model. DATA SOURCE Trial, cohort, and nationally-representative data sources. TARGET POPULATION U.S. adults aged 75–94 years. TIME HORIZON 10 years. PERSPECTIVE Health care system. INTERVENTION Statins for primary prevention based on: 1) Low density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4.91 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), 2) ≥4.14 mmol/L (160 mg/dL), 3) ≥3.36 mmol/L (130 mg/dL), 4) diabetes, 5) 10-year risk score ≥7.5% (treat all). OUTCOME MEASURES Myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD) death, disability adjusted life years, costs RESULT OF BASE-CASE ANALYSIS All adults aged 75 and older in NHANES have a 10-year risk score >7.5%. If statins have no effect on functional limitation or cognitive impairment, all primary prevention strategies would prevent MIs and CHD deaths and be cost effective. The broadest strategy, treatment of all adults aged 75–94 years would result in 8 million additional users, and prevent 105,000 (4.3%) incident MIs and 68,000 (2.3%) CHD deaths at an incremental cost per disability adjusted life year of $25,200. RESULT OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS An increased relative risk of functional limitation or mild cognitive impairment in the range of 1.10 to 1.30 could offset the cardiovascular benefits. LIMITATIONS Limited trial evidence targeting primary prevention in adults 75 and older. CONCLUSIONS At effectiveness similar to trial findings, statins are projected to be cost-effective for primary prevention in adults age 75–94 years; however, even a small increase in geriatric specific side effects could offset the cardiovascular benefit. Improved data on the potential benefits and harms of statins are needed to

  8. [Overlapping of optical answers for cross-like figures and oriented bars in the cats primary visual cortex].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, R S; Liamzin, D R; Bondar', I V; Kulikov, M A; Shevelev, I A

    2010-01-01

    For the first time by the optical method the population activity of neurons in cat primary visual cortex was observed simultaneously for detectors participating in analysis of first-order (orientation) and second-order (line intersection) features. The maps for cross-like figures and oriented single bars were compared. The comparative analysis allowed us to estimate the degree of overlapping of the activated regions and parts of cortex that were free from overlap. Overlapping zones provided the evidence for the fact that neuronal detectors for line intersections are located in the same neuronal columns as neurons detecting orientations. Differences were observed between maps for vertically oriented and oblique crosses. Those differences were pronounced not only in topography but also in degree of overlapping of activity zones. This may evidence on different contribution of neurons detecting basic and intermediate orientations. PMID:20469587

  9. Evaluation of optical remote sensing parameters to improve modeling of gross primary productivity in a heterogeneous agricultural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schickling, A.; Damm, A.; Schween, J.; Rascher, U.; Crewell, S.; Wahner, A.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial photosynthesis greatly determines plant mediated exchange processes in the vegetation atmosphere system and substantially influences patterns in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and water vapor. Therefore, an accurate quantification of photosynthetic CO2 uptake, commonly referred to as gross primary productivity (GPP), is a key parameter to distinguish those atmospheric patterns on various spatio-temporal scales. Remote sensing (RS) offers the unique possibility to determine GPP at different spatial scales ranging from the local to the global scale. Attempts to estimate GPP from RS data focus on the light use efficiency (LUE) concept of Monteith which relates GPP to the absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and the efficiency of plant canopies to utilize the absorbed radiation for photosynthesis. To reliably predict GPP on different spatio-temporal scales LUE has to be linked to optical RS parameters which detect changes in photosynthetic efficiency due to environmental conditions. In this study we evaluated two optical RS parameters, namely the sun-induced fluorescence (Fs) and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), for their potential to serve as a proxy for LUE. The parameters were derived from two ASD FieldSpec spectrometers which were operated in parallel. During several days one instrument was installed on the ground above the vegetation canopy of either a winter wheat or a sugar beet field. The second instrument was operated from a small research aircraft continuously crossing the observation sites at low altitude (< 300 m). GPP was calculated on a diurnal basis including optical parameters in Monteith's LUE concept. The calculated GPP was compared to simultaneously acquired GPP data from eddy covariance measurements. The diurnal behavior of calculated and measured GPP corresponded well indicating that optical RS parameters are able to track the diurnal response of physiological regulation of photosynthesis to changing

  10. A common gene for juvenile and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucomas confined on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Morissette, J.; Plante, M.; Raymond, V.

    1995-06-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which causes progressive loss of the visual fields, was subdivided into two groups according to age at onset: (1) chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after 40 years and (2) juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) diagnosed between 3 years of age and early adulthood. A JOAG gene (GLC1A) was recently mapped to chromosome 1q. We studied 142 members of a huge multigenerational French Canadian family affected with autosomal dominant POAG. Either JOAG or COAG was diagnosed with ocular hypertension (OHT), which may lead to POAG. To localize a common disease gene that might be responsible for both glaucoma subsets, we performed linkage analysis considering JOAG and COAG under the same phenotypic category. JOAG/COAG was tightly linked to seven microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 was obtained with AF-M278ye5. To refine the disease locus, we exploited a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect. The same characteristic haplotype, composed of 14 markers spanning 12 cM between loci D1S196 and D1S212, was recognized in all persons affected by JOAG, COAG, or OHT, but it did not occur in unaffected spouses and in normal family members >35 years of age, except for three obligatory carriers. Key combination events confined the disease region within a 9-cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S416/D1S480. These observations demonstrate that the GLC1A gene is responsible for both adult-onset and juvenile glaucomas and suggest that the JOAG and COAG categories within this family may be part of a clinical continuum artificially divided at age 40 years. 49 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. The Appropriateness of Unbiased Optical Fractionators to Assess Cell Proliferation in the Adult Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Noori, Hamid R.; Fornal, Casimir A.

    2011-01-01

    Optical fractionators have dominated the field of neural cell counting for two decades. These unbiased stereological techniques are often used for the quantification of hippocampal cell proliferation in neurogenesis experiments. However, the heterogeneous distribution of labeled cells, especially in the form of clusters, confounds the application of these techniques. A critical evaluation of the applicability of the optical fractionator suggests that absolute counting achieves higher efficiency in the quantification of cell proliferation than unbiased estimations. PMID:22207833

  12. Developing the Botswana Primary Care Guideline: an integrated, symptom-based primary care guideline for the adult patient in a resource-limited setting

    PubMed Central

    Tsima, Billy M; Setlhare, Vincent; Nkomazana, Oathokwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Botswana’s health care system is based on a primary care model. Various national guidelines exist for specific diseases. However, most of the guidelines address management at a tertiary level and often appear nonapplicable for the limited resources in primary care facilities. An integrated symptom-based guideline was developed so as to translate the Botswana national guidelines to those applicable in primary care. The Botswana Primary Care Guideline (BPCG) integrates the care of communicable diseases, including HIV/AIDS and noncommunicable diseases, by frontline primary health care workers. Methods The Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, together with guideline developers from the Knowledge Translation Unit (University of Cape Town) collaborated with the Ministry of Health to develop the guideline. Stakeholder groups were set up to review specific content of the guideline to ensure compliance with Botswana government policy and the essential drug list. Results Participants included clinicians, academics, patient advocacy groups, and policymakers from different disciplines, both private and public. Drug-related issues were identified as necessary for implementing recommendations of the guideline. There was consensus by working groups for updating the essential drug list for primary care and expansion of prescribing rights of trained nurse prescribers in primary care within their scope of practice. An integrated guideline incorporating common symptoms of diseases seen in the Botswana primary care setting was developed. Conclusion The development of the BPCG took a broad consultative approach with buy in from relevant stakeholders. It is anticipated that implementation of the BPCG will translate into better patient outcomes as similar projects elsewhere have done. PMID:27570457

  13. Constructivist Learning and Teaching of Optics Concepts Using ICT Tools in Greek Primary School: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekos, George; Solomonidou, Christina

    2009-10-01

    This pilot study documents the design and evaluation results of an innovative teaching approach with the use of ICT regarding the optics concepts of light reflection and diffusion, and vision in Greek primary school. First there was a survey of 140 students to ascertain their initial ideas regarding these concepts. On the basis of the results of that survey, a range of ICT tools were developed, including a multimedia software application and a piece of Greek physics educational software. They were then used in the classroom together with an applet on the Web and printed students' worksheets, and their effectiveness was evaluated. Teaching was implemented in four Greek primary school classes with 81 students. Another 59 students were taught the subject traditionally. Before and after instruction all students answered a written questionnaire. Data analysis revealed that students of the experimental group achieved statistically better performance and manifested conceptual change whereas students in the control group students presented only a minimal evolution in their initial ideas.

  14. Fabrication and Thermo-Optical Properties of the MLS Composite Primary Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Paul B.; Dyer, Jack; Dummer, Sam

    2000-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a limb-sounding radiometer sensing emissions in the millimeter and sub-millimeter range. MLS will contribute to an understanding of atmospheric chemistry by assessing stratospheric and tropospheric ozone depletion, climate forcings and volcanic effects. The heart of the antenna is the primary reflector, constructed from graphite/cyanate composites in a facesheet/core construction. The reflector has an aperture of one square meter, a mass of 8.7 kilos and final figure accuracy of 4.37 microns rms. The surface is also modified to ensure RF reflectivity, prevent solar concentration and provide thermal balance to the spacecraft The surface is prepared by precision beadblasting, then coated with vapor deposited aluminum (VDA) and finally a layer of silicon suboxide (SiO(x)) to control the infrared emissivity. The resulting surface has a solar absorptance of 0.43 and an absorptance/emittance ratio of 1.3. BRDF analysis shows that 93% of the incident thermal energy is reflected outside a 10 degree angle of cone. For its mass and aperture, we believe this reflector to have the highest figure accuracy yet achieved in a composite antenna construction.

  15. Integrated care as a means to improve primary care delivery for adults and adolescents in the developing world: a critical analysis of Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illness (IMAI)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More than three decades after the 1978 Declaration of Alma-Ata enshrined the goal of ‘health for all’, high-quality primary care services remain undelivered to the great majority of the world’s poor. This failure to effectively reach the most vulnerable populations has been, in part, a failure to develop and implement appropriate and effective primary care delivery models. This paper examines a root cause of these failures, namely that the inability to achieve clear and practical consensus around the scope and aims of primary care may be contributing to ongoing operational inertia. The present work also examines integrated models of care as a strategy to move beyond conceptual dissonance in primary care and toward implementation. Finally, this paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of a particular model, the World Health Organization’s Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illness (IMAI), and its potential as a guidepost toward improving the quality of primary care delivery in poor settings. Discussion Integration and integrated care may be an important approach in establishing a new paradigm of primary care delivery, though overall, current evidence is mixed. However, a number of successful specific examples illustrate the potential for clinical and service integration to positively impact patient care in primary care settings. One example deserving of further examination is the IMAI, developed by the World Health Organization as an operational model that integrates discrete vertical interventions into a comprehensive delivery system encompassing triage and screening, basic acute and chronic disease care, basic prevention and treatment services, and follow-up and referral guidelines. IMAI is an integrated model delivered at a single point-of-care using a standard approach to each patient based on the universal patient history and physical examination. The evidence base on IMAI is currently weak, but whether or not IMAI itself

  16. Systematic evaluation of a time-domain Monte Carlo fitting routine to estimate the adult brain optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selb, Juliette; Ogden, Tyler M.; Dubb, Jay; Fang, Qianqian; Boas, David A.

    2013-03-01

    Time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) offers the ability to measure the absolute baseline optical properties of a tissue. Specifically, for brain imaging, the robust assessment of cerebral blood volume and oxygenation based on measurement of cerebral hemoglobin concentrations is essential for reliable cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In adult heads, these baseline measurements are complicated by the presence of thick extra-cerebral tissue (scalp, skull, CSF). A simple semi-infinite homogeneous model of the head has proven to have limited use because of the large errors it introduces in the recovered brain absorption. Analytical solutions for layered media have shown improved performance on Monte-Carlo simulated data and layered phantom experiments, but their validity on real adult head data has never been demonstrated. With the advance of fast Monte Carlo approaches based on GPU computation, numerical methods to solve the radiative transfer equation become viable alternatives to analytical solutions of the diffusion equation. Monte Carlo approaches provide the additional advantage to be adaptable to any geometry, in particular more realistic head models. The goals of the present study were twofold: (1) to implement a fast and flexible Monte Carlo-based fitting routine to retrieve the brain optical properties; (2) to characterize the performances of this fitting method on realistic adult head data. We generated time-resolved data at various locations over the head, and fitted them with different models of light propagation: the homogeneous analytical model, and Monte Carlo simulations for three head models: a two-layer slab, the true subject's anatomy, and that of a generic atlas head. We found that the homogeneous model introduced a median 20 to 25% error on the recovered brain absorption, with large variations over the range of true optical properties. The two-layer slab model only improved moderately the results over the homogeneous one. On

  17. Long-Term Optical Device Use by Young Adults with Low Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachofer, Cynthia Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term use of optical devices by individuals who participated in a school-based comprehensive low vision program focusing on use of devices, both near and distance. Thirty-seven participants (five non-users), ages 18-28, completed phone interviews giving information on their personal…

  18. Performance of the primary mirror center-of-curvature optical metrology system during cryogenic testing of the JWST Pathfinder telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Wells, Conrad; Olczak, Gene; Waldman, Mark; Whitman, Tony; Cosentino, Joseph; Connolly, Mark; Chaney, David; Telfer, Randal

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) primary mirror (PM) is 6.6 m in diameter and consists of 18 hexagonal segments, each 1.5 m point-to-point. Each segment has a six degree-of-freedom hexapod actuation system and a radius of-curvature (RoC) actuation system. The full telescope will be tested at its cryogenic operating temperature at Johnson Space Center. This testing will include center-of-curvature measurements of the PM, using the Center-of-Curvature Optical Assembly (COCOA) and the Absolute Distance Meter Assembly (ADMA). The COCOA includes an interferometer, a reflective null, an interferometer-null calibration system, coarse and fine alignment systems, and two displacement measuring interferometer systems. A multiple-wavelength interferometer (MWIF) is used for alignment and phasing of the PM segments. The ADMA is used to measure, and set, the spacing between the PM and the focus of the COCOA null (i.e. the PM center-of-curvature) for determination of the ROC. The performance of these metrology systems was assessed during two cryogenic tests at JSC. This testing was performed using the JWST Pathfinder telescope, consisting mostly of engineering development and spare hardware. The Pathfinder PM consists of two spare segments. These tests provided the opportunity to assess how well the center-of-curvature optical metrology hardware, along with the software and procedures, performed using real JWST telescope hardware. This paper will describe the test setup, the testing performed, and the resulting metrology system performance. The knowledge gained and the lessons learned during this testing will be of great benefit to the accurate and efficient cryogenic testing of the JWST flight telescope.

  19. Performance of the Primary Mirror Center-of-curvature Optical Metrology System During Cryogenic Testing of the JWST Pathfinder Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Wells, Conrad; Olczak, Gene; Waldman, Mark; Whitman, Tony; Cosentino, Joseph; Connolly, Mark; Chaney, David; Telfer, Randal

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) primary mirror (PM) is 6.6 m in diameter and consists of 18 hexagonal segments, each 1.5 m point-to-point. Each segment has a six degree-of-freedom hexapod actuation system and a radius-of-curvature (RoC) actuation system. The full telescope will be tested at its cryogenic operating temperature at Johnson Space Center. This testing will include center-of-curvature measurements of the PM, using the Center-of-Curvature Optical Assembly (COCOA) and the Absolute Distance Meter Assembly (ADMA). The COCOA includes an interferometer, a reflective null, an interferometer-null calibration system, coarse & fine alignment systems, and two displacement measuring interferometer systems. A multiple-wavelength interferometer (MWIF) is used for alignment & phasing of the PM segments. The ADMA is used to measure, and set, the spacing between the PM and the focus of the COCOA null (i.e. the PM center-of-curvature) for determination of the ROC. The performance of these metrology systems was assessed during two cryogenic tests at JSC. This testing was performed using the JWST Pathfinder telescope, consisting mostly of engineering development & spare hardware. The Pathfinder PM consists of two spare segments. These tests provided the opportunity to assess how well the center-of-curvature optical metrology hardware, along with the software & procedures, performed using real JWST telescope hardware. This paper will describe the test setup, the testing performed, and the resulting metrology system performance. The knowledge gained and the lessons learned during this testing will be of great benefit to the accurate & efficient cryogenic testing of the JWST flight telescope.

  20. Optical coherence tomography reveals in vivo cortical structures of adult rats in response to cerebral ischemia injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yi-rong; Guo, Zhou-yi; Shu, So-yun; Bao, Xin-min

    2008-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography(OCT) is a high resolution imaging technique which uses light to directly image living tissue. we investigate the potential use of OCT for structural imaging of the ischemia injury mammalian cerebral cortex. And we examine models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats in vivo using OCT. In particular, we show that OCT can perform in vivo detection of cortex and differentiate normal and abnormal cortical anatomy. This OCT system in this study provided an axial resolution of 10~15μ m, the transverse resolution of the system is about 25 μm. OCT can provide cross-sectional images of cortical of adult rats in response to cerebral ischemia injury.We conclude that OCT represents an exciting new approach to visualize, in real-time, pathological changes in the cerebral cortex structures and may offer a new tool for Possible neuroscience clinical applications.

  1. Laterality of Stance during Optic Flow Stimulation in Male and Female Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Persiani, Michela; Piras, Alessandro; Squatrito, Salvatore; Raffi, Milena

    2015-01-01

    During self-motion, the spatial and temporal properties of the optic flow input directly influence the body sway. Men and women have anatomical and biomechanical differences that influence the postural control during visual stimulation. Given that recent findings suggest a peculiar role of each leg in the postural control of the two genders, we investigated whether the body sway during optic flow perturbances is lateralized and whether anteroposterior and mediolateral components of specific center of pressure (COP) parameters of the right and left legs differ, reexamining a previous experiment (Raffi et al. (2014)) performed with two, side-by-side, force plates. Experiments were performed on 24 right-handed and right-footed young subjects. We analyzed five measures related to the COP of each foot and global data: anteroposterior and mediolateral range of oscillation, anteroposterior and mediolateral COP velocity, and sway area. Results showed that men consistently had larger COP parameters than women. The values of the COP parameters were correlated between the two feet only in the mediolateral axis of women. These findings suggest that optic flow stimulation causes asymmetry in postural balance and different lateralization of postural controls in men and women. PMID:26539509

  2. Comparison of Schlemm's canal's biological parameters in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal human eyes with swept source optical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Shi, Guohua; Li, Xiqi; Lu, Jing; Ding, Zhihua; Sun, Xinghuai; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhang, Yudong

    2012-11-01

    Thirty-seven normal and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) subjects were noninvasively imaged by a tailor-made real-time anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to demonstrate the differences of the Schlemm's canal (SC) between POAG and normal eyes. After the cross-section images of the anterior chamber angle were acquired by SS-OCT, SC was confirmed by two independent masked observers and the average area, long diameter, and perimeter of the SC were measured. In normal subjects the circumference, area, and long diameter is 580.34±87.81 μm, 8023.89±1486.10 μ, and 272.83±49.39 μm, respectively, and these parameters were 393.25±98.04 μm, 3941.50±1210.69 μ, and 190.91±46.47 μm in the POAG subjects. The area of SC in the normal ones was significantly larger than that in POAG eyes (p<0.001), so as the long diameter and the perimeter (p<0.001 p<0.001).

  3. Inscribing Optical Excitability to Non-Excitable Cardiac Cells: Viral Delivery of Optogenetic Tools in Primary Cardiac Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinzhu; Entcheva, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    We describe in detail a method to introduce optogenetic actuation tools, a mutant version of channelrhodopsin-2, ChR2(H134R), and archaerhodopsin (ArchT), into primary cardiac fibroblasts (cFB) in vitro by adenoviral infection to yield quick, robust, and consistent expression. Instructions on adjusting infection parameters such as the multiplicity of infection and virus incubation duration are provided to generalize the method for different lab settings or cell types. Specific conditions are discussed to create hybrid co-cultures of the optogenetically modified cFB and non-transformed cardiomyocytes to obtain light-sensitive excitable cardiac syncytium, including stencil-patterned cell growth. We also describe an all-optical framework for the functional testing of responsiveness of these opsins in cFB. The presented methodology provides cell-specific tools for the mechanistic investigation of the functional bioelectric contribution of different non-excitable cells in the heart and their electrical coupling to cardiomyocytes under different conditions. PMID:26965132

  4. Inscribing Optical Excitability to Non-Excitable Cardiac Cells: Viral Delivery of Optogenetic Tools in Primary Cardiac Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinzhu; Entcheva, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    We describe in detail a method to introduce optogenetic actuation tools, a mutant version of channelrhodopsin- 2, ChR2(H134R), and archaerhodopsin (ArchT), into primary cardiac fibroblasts (cFB) in vitro by adenoviral infection to yield quick, robust, and consistent expression. Instructions on adjusting infection parameters such as the multiplicity of infection and virus incubation duration are provided to generalize the method for different lab settings or cell types. Specific conditions are discussed to create hybrid co-cultures of the optogenetically modified cFB and non-transformed cardiomyocytes to obtain light- sensitive excitable cardiac syncytium, including stencil-patterned cell growth. We also describe an all-optical framework for the functional testing of responsiveness of these opsins in cFB. The presented methodology provides cell-specific tools for the mechanistic investigation of the functional bioelectric contribution of different non-excitable cells in the heart and their electrical coupling to cardiomyocytes under different conditions. PMID:26965132

  5. Age-friendly primary health care: an assessment of current service provision for older adults in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jean; Mak, Benise; Yeung, Fannie

    2013-01-01

    There has been no study evaluating whether primary care services are sufficiently oriented towards the older population in Hong Kong, particularly those with increasing frailty. Since primary care is a key first interface in promotion and maintenance of health in older people, an assessment of the age-friendliness of service provisions is of critical importance in optimizing the health of aging populations. The age-friendliness of primary care services for older people was assessed using focus groups of elderly people and also of service providers who care for them. Discussion content was based on the WHO guidelines for age-friendly primary care in the following areas: Information, education and training, community-based health care management systems, and the physical environment. Desirable improvements were identified in all domains. The findings underscore the need for wider dissemination of health care needs of older people in the primary care setting.

  6. Vaccination coverage against 2009 seasonal influenza in chronically ill children and adults: analysis of population registries in primary care in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rieiro, Cristina; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; Sánchez-Perruca, Luis; Astray-Mochales, Jenaro; Fornies, Domingo Iniesta; Ordoñez, Dolores Barranco; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2010-08-31

    Using electronic clinical records in primary care (ECRPC) of the entire population living in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain (5,102,568 persons) as a data source, this study aimed to ascertain seasonal anti-influenza vaccination coverage in the chronically ill at-risk children (aged 6 months to 14 years) and adults (15-59 years). Of the total population aged 6 months to 59 years with a medical card in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, 10.3% (n=528,095 patients) had a chronic condition for which anti-influenza vaccination was indicated. In children with chronic conditions, coverage was 27.1% and it was particularly high among diabetics (41.1%) and particularly low in children with "other pulmonary conditions" (15.2%). In adults with chronic conditions, coverage was 22.1% and in patients with diagnosed heart failure coverage reached 39.1%; with the lowest coverage was observed in patients suffering neuromuscular diseases (12.8%). The factors associated with vaccination among children and adults suffering a chronic condition included: having been vaccinated during the previous campaign, national origin (lower among immigrants), and having more than one chronic condition. In conclusion, our study shows that vaccination coverage for 2009 seasonal influenza in children and adults with chronic conditions living in Madrid (Spain) was less than acceptable.

  7. Antigen selection for future anti-Trichuris vaccines: a comparison of cytokine and antibody responses to larval and adult antigen in a primary infection.

    PubMed

    Dixon, H; Johnston, C E; Else, K J

    2008-09-01

    Trichuriasis, caused by the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, affecting approximately 1 billion people. Child anthelminthic treatment programmes are being implemented but repeated treatments are costly, may prevent the development of acquired immunity and can lead to the development of drug resistant parasites. Thus, the development of a vaccine which would lead to the acquisition of immunity at an earlier age and reduce community faecal egg output would be beneficial. Development of subunit vaccines requires the identification of protective antigens and their formulation in a suitable adjuvant. Trichuris muris is an antigenically similar laboratory model for T. trichiura. Subcutaneous vaccination with adult excretory-secretory products (ES) protects susceptible mouse strains from T. muris. Larval stages may contain novel and more relevant antigens which when incorporated in a vaccine induce worm expulsion earlier in infection than the adult worm products. This study finds negligible difference in the cellular and humoral immune response to T. muris adult and third stage larva(e) (L3) ES during a primary T. muris infection, but identifies high molecular weight proteins in both adult and L3 ES as potential vaccine candidates.

  8. Antigen selection for future anti-Trichuris vaccines: a comparison of cytokine and antibody responses to larval and adult antigen in a primary infection.

    PubMed

    Dixon, H; Johnston, C E; Else, K J

    2008-09-01

    Trichuriasis, caused by the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, affecting approximately 1 billion people. Child anthelminthic treatment programmes are being implemented but repeated treatments are costly, may prevent the development of acquired immunity and can lead to the development of drug resistant parasites. Thus, the development of a vaccine which would lead to the acquisition of immunity at an earlier age and reduce community faecal egg output would be beneficial. Development of subunit vaccines requires the identification of protective antigens and their formulation in a suitable adjuvant. Trichuris muris is an antigenically similar laboratory model for T. trichiura. Subcutaneous vaccination with adult excretory-secretory products (ES) protects susceptible mouse strains from T. muris. Larval stages may contain novel and more relevant antigens which when incorporated in a vaccine induce worm expulsion earlier in infection than the adult worm products. This study finds negligible difference in the cellular and humoral immune response to T. muris adult and third stage larva(e) (L3) ES during a primary T. muris infection, but identifies high molecular weight proteins in both adult and L3 ES as potential vaccine candidates. PMID:18565148

  9. Morphological and electrophysiological characterization of the adult Siberian hamster optic nerve.

    PubMed

    James, Emma L; Peacock, Veronique A H; Ebling, Francis J P; Brown, Angus M

    2010-12-01

    Electrophysiological recordings and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the compound action potential (CAP) and morphology, respectively, of the optic nerve in the Siberian hamster. The CAP was polyphasic in nature, comprising four separate but overlapping peaks, thereby implying that four sub-populations of axons defined by conduction velocity are present in the nerve. The histological analysis of nerves from four animals revealed a cross-sectional area of 128,171 μm(2) containing 78,109 axons. All of the axons were myelinated, and measurements of axon surface area revealed values ranging from 0.09 to 9.92 μm(2), although 68.3% were <1 μm(2). In the regions of the nerve sampled, the area occupied by axons varied from 10.2 to 80.1%, but in 72.5% of these regions the axons occupied between 50 and 70% of the total cross-sectional area. All regions of the nerve expressed small axons, but larger axons (>2.5 μm(2)) were selectively distributed throughout the nerve. We conclude that the CAP recorded from hamster optic nerve displays four distinct peaks; however, morphological analysis failed to reveal a similar distribution of axon sizes.

  10. Enriched Environment Protects the Optic Nerve from Early Diabetes-Induced Damage in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Damián; Aranda, Marcos L.; Rosenstein, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Axoglial alterations of the distal (close to the chiasm) optic nerve (ON) could be the first structural change of the visual pathway in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on axoglial alterations of the ON provoked by experimental diabetes. For this purpose, three days after vehicle or STZ injection, animals were housed in enriched environment (EE) or remained in a standard environment (SE) for 6 weeks. Anterograde transport, retinal morphology, optic nerve axons (toluidine blue staining and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy immunoreactivity), microglia/macrophages (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) immunoreactivity), astrocyte reactivity (glial fibrillary acid protein-immunostaining), myelin (myelin basic protein immunoreactivity), ultrastructure, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed in non-diabetic and diabetic animals housed in SE or EE. No differences in retinal morphology or retinal ganglion cell number were observed among groups. EE housing which did not affect the STZ-induced weight loss and hyperglycemia, prevented a decrease in the anterograde transport from the retina to the superior colliculus, ON axon number, and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy immunoreactivity. Moreover, EE housing prevented an increase in Iba-1 immunoreactivity, and astrocyte reactivity, as well as ultrastructural myelin alterations in the ON distal portion at early stages of diabetes. In addition, EE housing avoided a decrease in BDNF levels induced by experimental diabetes. These results suggest that EE induced neuroprotection in the diabetic visual pathway. PMID:26312758

  11. Rate of bleeding-related episodes in adult patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia: a retrospective cohort study using a large administrative medical claims database in the US

    PubMed Central

    Altomare, Ivy; Cetin, Karynsa; Wetten, Sally; Wasser, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Background Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a rare disorder characterized by low platelet counts and an increased tendency to bleed. The goal of ITP therapy is to treat or prevent bleeding. Actual rates of bleeding are unknown. Clinical trial data may not reflect real-world bleeding rates because of the inclusion of highly refractory patients and more frequent use of rescue therapy. Methods We used administrative medical claims data in the US to examine the occurrence of bleeding-related episodes (BREs) – a composite end point including bleeding and/or rescue therapy use – in adults diagnosed with primary ITP (2008–2012). BRE rates were calculated overall and by ITP phase and splenectomy status. Patients were followed from ITP diagnosis until death, disenrollment from the health plan, or June 30, 2013, whichever came first. Results We identified 6,651 adults diagnosed with primary ITP over the study period (median age: 53 years; 59% female). During 13,064 patient-years of follow-up, 3,768 patients (57%) experienced ≥1 BRE (1.08 BREs per patient-year; 95% confidence interval: 1.06–1.10). The majority (58%) of BREs consisted of rescue therapy use only. Common bleeding types were gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hematuria, ecchymosis, and epistaxis. Intracranial hemorrhage was reported in 74 patients (1%). Just over 7% of patients underwent splenectomy. Newly diagnosed and splenectomized patients had elevated BRE rates. Conclusion We provide current real-world estimates of BRE rates in adults with primary ITP. The majority of ITP patients experienced ≥1 BRE, and over half were defined by rescue therapy use alone. This demonstrates the importance of examining both bleeding and rescue therapy use to fully assess disease burden. PMID:27382333

  12. Optical Imaging of Mesenchymal Epithelial Transition Factor (MET) for Enhanced Detection and Characterization of Primary and Metastatic Hepatic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Shadi A.; Heidari, Pedram; Kim, Sun A.; Ogino, Shuji; Mahmood, Umar

    2016-01-01

    specific and can be blocked when co-injected with unlabeled peptide; for instance the epifluorescence TBR is reduced from 13.5 ± 1.2 to 1.7 ± 0.3 (p < 0.05) in HT-29 and from 5.3 ± 0.8 to 1.4 ± 0.2 (p < 0.05) in Huh-7 xenografts after co-injection with unlabeled peptides. Biodistribution studies showed predominantly renal clearance of the probe. Conclusion: Optical imaging of MET resulted in high TBR in animal models of primary and metastatic hepatic tumors suggesting its utility for procedural guidance. PMID:27698938

  13. Optical Imaging of Mesenchymal Epithelial Transition Factor (MET) for Enhanced Detection and Characterization of Primary and Metastatic Hepatic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Shadi A.; Heidari, Pedram; Kim, Sun A.; Ogino, Shuji; Mahmood, Umar

    2016-01-01

    specific and can be blocked when co-injected with unlabeled peptide; for instance the epifluorescence TBR is reduced from 13.5 ± 1.2 to 1.7 ± 0.3 (p < 0.05) in HT-29 and from 5.3 ± 0.8 to 1.4 ± 0.2 (p < 0.05) in Huh-7 xenografts after co-injection with unlabeled peptides. Biodistribution studies showed predominantly renal clearance of the probe. Conclusion: Optical imaging of MET resulted in high TBR in animal models of primary and metastatic hepatic tumors suggesting its utility for procedural guidance.

  14. Prescribing Exercise for Older Adults: A Needs Assessment Comparing Primary Care Physicians, Nurse Practitioners, and Physician Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauenhauer, Jason A.; Podgorski, Carol A.; Karuza, Jurgis

    2006-01-01

    To inform the development of educational programming designed to teach providers appropriate methods of exercise prescription for older adults, the authors conducted a survey of 177 physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners (39% response rate). The survey was designed to better understand the prevalence of exercise prescriptions,…

  15. Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse Experience between Adult Hispanic and Anglo Women in a Primary Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katerndahl, David A.; Burge, Sandra K.; Kellogg, Nancy; Parra, Juan M.

    2005-01-01

    The literature on racial and ethnic factors in childhood sexual abuse is limited. The purpose of this exploratory study was to document Hispanic-Anglo differences in childhood sexual abuse experiences and assess whether these differences may be explained by socio-demographic and family environmental differences. Adult Hispanic (n = 69) and Anglo…

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Older Adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Therapist Manual for Primary Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Melinda A.; Diefenbach, Gretchen J.; Hopko, Derek R.

    2004-01-01

    At least four academic clinical trials have demonstrated the utility of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). These data may not generalize, however, to more heterogeneous and functionally impaired patients and the medical settings in which they typically receive care. A recent pilot project…

  17. Possible risk factors for primary adult onset dystonia: a case-control investigation by the Italian Movement Disorders Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Defazio, G.; Berardelli, A.; Abbruzzese, G.; Lepore, V.; Coviello, V.; Acquistapace, D.; Capus, L.; Carella, F.; De Berardinis, M. T.; Galardi, G.; Girlanda, P.; Maurri, S.; Albanese, A.; Bertolasi, L.; Liguori, R.; Rossi, A.; Santoro, L.; Tognoni, G.; Livrea, P.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Little is known about the aetiology of idiopathic adult onset dystonia. The Italian Movement Disorders Study Group promoted a case-control study on some hypothetical risk factors including past medical events, life events, life habits, occupational hazards, and family hystory of dystonia, parkinsonism, and tremor.
METHODS—Cases affected by idiopathic adult onset dystonia (age at symptom onset >20 years, duration of disease >one year and adult onset dystonia, whereas hypertension and cigarette smoking exerted a protective effect. The findings also suggested a positive association between local body injury—for example, previous ocular diseases and neck or trunk trauma—and dystonia of the same body part.
CONCLUSIONS—The results support the idea that environmental and genetic factors may both be important in the aetiology of adult onset dystonia, and suggest aetiological clues worthy of further analytical investigation.

 PMID:9436723

  18. Medication Use among Australian Adults with Intellectual Disability in Primary Healthcare Settings: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doan, Tan N.; Lennox, Nicholas G.; Taylor-Gomez, Miriam; Ware, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is concern about widespread medication use by people with intellectual disability (ID), especially psychotropic and anticonvulsant agents. However, there is sparse information on prescribing patterns in Australia. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2000 and 2002 among adults with ID who live in the community…

  19. Optic nerve atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Optic atrophy; Optic neuropathy ... There are many causes of optic atrophy. The most common is poor blood flow. This is called ischemic optic neuropathy. The problem most often affects older adults. ...

  20. Comparison of Pattern Electroretinography and Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tiryaki Demir, Semra; Oba, Mehmet Ersin; Erdoğan, Ezgi Tuna; Odabaşı, Mahmut; Dirim, Ayşe Burcu; Demir, Mehmet; Can, Efe; Kara, Orhan; Yekta Şendül, Selam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the correlation of visual field (VF), pattern electroretinography (PERG) and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) results in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT) and early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Materials and Methods: The study included 72 eyes of 37 patients with early POAG, 76 eyes of 38 patients with OHT, and 60 eyes of 30 controls. All subjects underwent full ophthalmologic examination, VF assessment with 24-2 Humphrey standard automated perimetry (Swedish Interactive Thresholding Algorithm (SITA)-Standard), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness measurement with FD-OCT, and PERG P50 and N95 wave latency and amplitude measurements with electroretinography (Nihon Kohden). Results: With the exception of the nasal quadrant, all GCC parameters and RNFL results were significantly lower in the POAG group compared to the OHT and control groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the OHT and control group. PERG amplitudes were lower in the POAG and OHT groups than in the control group. Reduction in N95 amplitude was greater than that of P50 amplitude. No difference was detected in PERG latencies among groups. GCC was significantly correlated with VF and RNFL in the POAG group. Conclusion: Significant thinning of the GCC and RNFL occurs in addition to VF pathologies in patients with early POAG, and these examinations should be concomitantly evaluated. During diagnostic assessment of patients with early POAG, GCC and RNFL analysis by FD-OCT are highly effective. GCC is as reliable as RNLF in the early diagnosis of glaucoma and there is a highly significant correlation between them. Dysfunction of ganglion cells in patients with OHT may be detected earlier using PERG amplitude analysis.

  1. Primary care-based educational interventions to decrease risk factors for metabolic syndrome for adults with major psychotic and/or affective disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with major psychotic and/or affective disorders are at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome due to lifestyle- and treatment-related factors. Numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been tested in inpatient and outpatient mental health settings to decrease these risk factors. This review focuses on primary care-based non-pharmacological (educational or behavioral) interventions to decrease metabolic syndrome risk factors in adults with major psychotic and/or affective disorders. Methods The authors conducted database searches of PsychINFO, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, as well as manual searches and gray literature searches to identify included studies. Results The authors were unable to identify any studies meeting a priori inclusion criteria because there were no primary care-based studies. Conclusions This review was unable to demonstrate effectiveness of educational interventions in primary care. Interventions to decrease metabolic syndrome risk have been demonstrated to be effective in mental health and other outpatient settings. The prevalence of mental illness in primary care settings warrants similar interventions to improve health outcomes for this population. PMID:24369749

  2. Imaging Features of Primary Tumors and Metastatic Patterns of the Extraskeletal Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors in Adults: A 17-Year Experience at a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jimi; Park, Seong Joon; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Jong Seok; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Ramaiya, Nikhil H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To comprehensively analyze the spectrum of imaging features of the primary tumors and metastatic patterns of the Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (EES) in adults. Materials and Methods We performed a computerized search of our hospital's data-warehouse from 1996 to 2013 using codes for Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors as well as the demographic code for ≥ 18 years of age. We selected subjects who were histologically confirmed to have Ewing sarcoma of extraskeletal origin. Imaging features of the primary tumor and metastatic disease were evaluated for lesion location, size, enhancement pattern, necrosis, margin, and invasion of adjacent organs. Results Among the 70 patients (mean age, 35.8 ± 15.6 years; range, 18-67 years) included in our study, primary tumors of EES occurred in the soft tissue and extremities (n = 20), abdomen and pelvis (n = 18), thorax (n = 14), paravertebral space (n = 8), head and neck (n = 6), and an unknown primary site (n = 4). Most primary tumors manifested as large and bulky soft-tissue masses (mean size, 9.0 cm; range, 1.3-23.0 cm), frequently invading adjacent organs (45.6%) and showed heterogeneous enhancement (73.7%), a well-defined (66.7%) margin, and partial necrosis/cystic degeneration (81.9%). Notably, 29 patients had metastatic disease detected at their initial diagnosis. The most frequent site of metastasis was lymph nodes (75.9%), followed by bone (31.0%), lung (20.7%), abdominal solid organs (13.8%), peritoneum (13.8%), pleura (6.9%), and brain (3.4%). Conclusion Primary tumors of EES can occur anywhere and mostly manifest as large and bulky, soft-tissue masses. Lymph nodes are the most frequent metastasis sites. PMID:26175577

  3. Evaluating a Genetically Encoded Optical Sensor of Neural Activity Using Electrophysiology in Intact Adult Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Vivek; Laurent, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Genetically encoded optical indicators hold the promise of enabling non-invasive monitoring of activity in identified neurons in behaving organisms. However, the interpretation of images of brain activity produced using such sensors is not straightforward. Several recent studies of sensory coding used G-CaMP 1.3—a calcium sensor—as an indicator of neural activity; some of these studies characterized the imaged neurons as having narrow tuning curves, a conclusion not always supported by parallel electrophysiological studies. To better understand the possible cause of these conflicting results, we performed simultaneous in vivo 2-photon imaging and electrophysiological recording of G-CaMP 1.3 expressing neurons in the antennal lobe (AL) of intact fruitflies. We find that G-CaMP has a relatively high threshold, that its signal often fails to capture spiking response kinetics, and that it can miss even high instantaneous rates of activity if those are not sustained. While G-CaMP can be misleading, it is clearly useful for the identification of promising neural targets: when electrical activity is well above the sensor's detection threshold, its signal is fairly well correlated with mean firing rate and G-CaMP does not appear to alter significantly the responses of neurons that express it. The methods we present should enable any genetically encoded sensor, activator, or silencer to be evaluated in an intact neural circuit in vivo in Drosophila. PMID:18946545

  4. [Quantitative analysis of the isthmo-optic nucleus and projection neurons to the retina in adult fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Sugita, S; Yamada, M

    1992-08-01

    Quantitative analysis of the isthmo-optic nucleus (IO) and centrifugal projection to the retina in the fowl was made using Nissl preparation and retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) methods. Seven adult fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used for Nissl stain. Serial sections were cut on a freezing microtome at 60 microns and stained with cresyl violet. IO was situated just medial to the caudal part of the tectum and laterodorsal surface of the brain stem. Rostrocaudal extension of IO was about 800-1,000 microns. The average total volume and neuronal population of the IO was 280 x 10(-3) mm3 and 5,600 neurons, respectively. Eight animals were used for HRP study. One hundred microliters of 30% HRP solution in physiological saline was injected into the vitreous body of one eye of each hen. Serial transverse sections of 60 microns were treated with tetramethyl benzidine (TMB). Many labeled neurons were found in contralateral brain stem. Average total number of contralateral HRP-labeled cells in IO and peri-IO were 5,268 and 1,492, respectively. Labeled neurons peri-IO were mainly distributed ventrally and rostrally to IO. No labeled neurons in IO, and only a few labeled neurons peri-IO were found ipsilaterally. The number of HRP-labeled neurons in IO corresponded to the neuronal population of IO in Nissl preparation, which suggested that most of isthmo-optic neurons might be projecting to the contralateral retina. In contrast to the round and small IO neurons (long axis 15-20 microns, short axis 10-20 microns), peri-IO neurons were multipolar and longer (long axis 15-30 microns, short axis 10-25 microns).

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis demonstrates a significant association of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) with primary immune thrombocytopenia among Caucasian adults.

    PubMed

    Sarpatwari, Ameet; Bussel, James B; Ahmed, Momin; Erqou, Sebhat; Semple, John W; Newland, Adrian C; Bennett, Dimitri; Pharoah, Paul; Provan, Drew

    2011-07-01

    T-helper 1 polarization in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is well documented. However, the genetic contribution to this imbalance remains unclear. To address this question, we selected six candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms within cytokine or cytokine receptor genes for association testing among Caucasian adults. Patients from the United Kingdom Adult ITP Registry were gender-matched (1:3) with healthy controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Variants IL10 -819 c>t, TNFA -308 g>a, TGFB1 -509 c>t, IL1A -889 c>t, IL10 -592 c>t, and IL4R q576r were measured in cases and retrieved for controls from the European Genome-phenome Archive. Associations were evaluated using logistic regression models. In total, 206 patients with primary ITP were matched with 618 controls. A significant per allele odds ratio of 1·34 (95% confidence interval, 1·03-1·75; P = 0·03) was observed for TNFA -308 g>a, implicating an increased disease susceptibility among Caucasian carriers of the rare allele.

  6. Induction of benzo(a)pyrene metabolism by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes: regulation by vitamin A

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    In order to develop a cellular model for studying mechanisms of enzyme induction and the effects of this induction on xenobiotic metabolism and cytotoxicity, the induction of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) metabolism by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was investigated in primary hepatocyte cultures prepared from adult male rats and maintained in chemically-defined medium containing hormones. A derepression of induction was observed during the first 3 days in culture. Addition of 0.8 to 2.0 ..mu..g/ml of retinol acetate (RA) prevented about half of the derepression of induction occurring between 36 and 60 h in culture. Horse serum (10%) also blocked up to half of the observed derepression. Serum, however, also led to a 40% reduction in the partitioning of (/sup 3/H)TCDD from the medium into the hepatocytes. The derepresion of MFO induction in primary adult hepatocyte cultures may occur partly as a result of a deficiency of retinol. RA is hypothesized to slow the time course of induction by reducing the rate of protein turnover. RA may also partially block the shift in the dose-response curve for induction by TCDD by maintaining the normal metabolic regulation of the cytosolic receptor for TCDD. Addition of a physiological level of RA to the culture medium may therefore help to maintain the hepatocytes at a level of genetic expression more nearly representative of the intact liver.

  7. Effectiveness of Nurse-Practitioner-Delivered Brief Motivational Intervention for Young Adult Alcohol and Drug Use in Primary Care in South Africa: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Jennifer R.; Ward, Catherine L.; Bresick, Graham F.; Broder, Tina; Weisner, Constance M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness of brief motivational intervention for alcohol and drug use in young adult primary care patients in a low-income population and country. Methods: A randomized controlled trial in a public-sector clinic in Delft, a township in the Western Cape, South Africa recruited 403 patients who were randomized to either single-session, nurse practitioner-delivered Brief Motivational Intervention plus referral list or usual care plus referral list, and followed up at 3 months. Results: Although rates of at-risk alcohol use and drug use did not differ by treatment arm at follow-up, patients assigned to the Brief Motivational Intervention had significantly reduced scores on ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test) for alcohol—the most prevalent substance. Conclusion: Brief Motivational Intervention may be effective at reducing at-risk alcohol use in the short term among low-income young adult primary care patients; additional research is needed to examine long-term outcomes. PMID:24899076

  8. PET-CT in Determining the Radioembolization Dose Delivered to Patients With Liver Metastasis, Primary Liver Cancer, or Biliary Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Stage D Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  9. The Impact of Adult Mortality on Primary School Enrollment in Northwestern Tanzania. Africa Region Human Development Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Martha; Beegle, Kathleen; Koda, Godlike

    The AIDS epidemic is making orphans out of many African children and threatens to reverse hard-won gains in raising school enrollments. The average gross primary enrollment ration (GPER) the number of children enrolled as a percent of the total number of children of school age was only 77% for Sub-Saharan Africa in 1996. The countries are hard-hit…

  10. Adult immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Chawla, Sumit; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequel. The primary focus of vaccination programs has historically been directed to childhood immunizations. For adults, chronic diseases have been the primary focus of preventive and medical health care, though there has been increased emphasis on preventing infectious diseases. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. Though adults are less susceptible to fall prey to traditional infectious agents, the probability of exposure to infectious agents has increased manifold owing to globalization and increasing travel opportunities both within and across the countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the problem of adult immunization. The adult immunization enterprise is more complex, encompassing a wide variety of vaccines and a very diverse target population. There is no coordinated public health infrastructure to support an adult immunization program as there is for children. Moreover, there is little coordination among adult healthcare providers in terms of vaccine provision. Substantial improvement in adult vaccination is needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Routine assessment of adult patient vaccination needs, recommendation, and offer of needed vaccines for adults should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adults. PMID:24128707

  11. Outcome and molecular characteristics of adolescent and young adult patients with newly diagnosed primary glioblastoma: a study of the Society of Austrian Neurooncology (SANO)

    PubMed Central

    Leibetseder, Annette; Ackerl, Michael; Flechl, Birgit; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Widhalm, Georg; Dieckmann, Karin; Kreinecker, Sabine-Spiegl; Pichler, Josef; Hainfellner, Johannes; Preusser, Matthias; Marosi, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background Young age is a favorable prognostic factor for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We reviewed the outcomes and molecular tumor characteristics of adolescent and young adult patients with GBM treated in 2 Austrian centers. Patients and Methods Data on patients with histologically proven primary GBM diagnosed from 18 through 40 years of age were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated with standard first-line therapy. The primary end points were overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP). IDH1-R132H mutation status was analyzed using immunohistochemistry, and MGMT promoter methylation was assessed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Results We included 70 patients (36 men and 34 women) with a median age of 33 years. IDH1-R132H mutations were detected in 22 (39.3%) of 56 cases and MGMT promoter methylation in 33 (61.1%) of 54 cases with available tissue samples. In patients with wild-type IDH, median TTP was 8.2 months and median OS was 24 months, compared with 18 months and 44 months, respectively, observed in patients with mutated IDH. Neither IDH1 nor MGMT status showed a statistically significant association with TTP or OS. Of note, the social and economical situation of the young patients with GBM was alarming, because only 17% succeeded in staying employed after receiving the diagnosis. Conclusions We found a high frequency of IDH1 mutations and MGMT promoter methylation among young adult patients with primary GBM that may contribute to the generally favorable outcome associated with young age. The social and economic coverage of patients with glioma remains an unsolved socio-ethical problem. PMID:23223340

  12. Tailored weight loss intervention in obese adults within primary care practice: rationale, design, and methods of Choose to Lose.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sheri J; Risica, Patricia M; Gans, Kim M; Marcus, Bess H; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-07-01

    Although there are efficacious weight loss interventions that can improve health and delay onset of diabetes and hypertension, these interventions have not been translated into clinical practice. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a tailored lifestyle intervention in primary care patients. Patients were recruited by their primary care physicians and eligible participants were randomized to an enhanced intervention or standard intervention. All participants met with a lifestyle counselor to set calorie and physical activity goals and to discuss behavioral strategies at baseline, 6 and 12 months. During the first year, enhanced intervention participants receive monthly counseling phone calls to assist in attaining and maintaining their goals. Enhanced intervention participants also receive weekly mailings consisting of tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos focusing on weight loss, physical activity promotion and healthy eating. The second year focuses on maintenance with enhanced intervention participants receiving tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos regularly throughout the year. Standard intervention participants receive five informational handouts on weight loss across the two years. This enhanced intervention that consists of multiple modalities of print, telephone, and video with limited face-to-face counseling holds promise for being effective for encouraging weight loss, increasing physical activity and healthy eating, and also for being cost effective and generalizable for wide clinical use. This study will fill an important gap in our knowledge regarding the translation and dissemination of research from efficacy studies to best practices in clinical settings. PMID:24937016

  13. Tailored weight loss intervention in obese adults within primary care practice: rationale, design, and methods of Choose to Lose.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sheri J; Risica, Patricia M; Gans, Kim M; Marcus, Bess H; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-07-01

    Although there are efficacious weight loss interventions that can improve health and delay onset of diabetes and hypertension, these interventions have not been translated into clinical practice. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a tailored lifestyle intervention in primary care patients. Patients were recruited by their primary care physicians and eligible participants were randomized to an enhanced intervention or standard intervention. All participants met with a lifestyle counselor to set calorie and physical activity goals and to discuss behavioral strategies at baseline, 6 and 12 months. During the first year, enhanced intervention participants receive monthly counseling phone calls to assist in attaining and maintaining their goals. Enhanced intervention participants also receive weekly mailings consisting of tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos focusing on weight loss, physical activity promotion and healthy eating. The second year focuses on maintenance with enhanced intervention participants receiving tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos regularly throughout the year. Standard intervention participants receive five informational handouts on weight loss across the two years. This enhanced intervention that consists of multiple modalities of print, telephone, and video with limited face-to-face counseling holds promise for being effective for encouraging weight loss, increasing physical activity and healthy eating, and also for being cost effective and generalizable for wide clinical use. This study will fill an important gap in our knowledge regarding the translation and dissemination of research from efficacy studies to best practices in clinical settings.

  14. Sex Differences in Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder: A Study of Treatment-Seeking Obese Adults in Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Tomoko; McKee, Sherry A.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although community-based studies suggest equivalent levels of physical and psychological impairment by BED in men and women, men with binge eating disorder (BED) are still underrepresented in clinical studies. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of sex differences in biopsychosocial correlates of treatment-seeking obese patients with BED in primary care. Method One-hundred-ninety obese adults (26% men) were recruited in primary care settings for a treatment study for obesity and BED. Results Very few significant sex differences were found in the developmental history and in current levels of eating-disorder features, as well as psychosocial factors. Women reported significantly earlier age at onset of overweight and dieting, and greater frequency of dieting. Men reported more frequent strenuous exercise. Men were more likely than women to meet criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS); men were more likely to show clinically elevated levels of triglycerides, blood pressure, and fasting glucose levels. Conclusion Despite few sex differences in behavioral and psychosocial factors, metabolic problems associated with obesity were more common among treatment-seeking obese men with BED than women. The findings highlight the importance of including men in clinical studies of BED, and active screening of BED in obese men at primary care settings. PMID:23969142

  15. The LuNa project: experimental didactic modules exploiting portable setups to teach optics in primary and secondary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondani, Maria; Allevi, Alessia; Nardo, Luca; Favale, Fabrizio

    2014-07-01

    The "LuNa" (La natura della Luce nella luce della Natura - The nature of Light in the light of Nature) Project is devoted to the experimental teaching of optics in the different school grades. The basic idea of the Project is that the history of optics and the debate about the nature of light are a meaningful example of how science proceeds in the development of a physical model. Moreover optical phenomena can be presented at different levels of complexity in order to be accessible to students of different age. At the core of the Project are several portable setups that support experimental and partially interactive lectures covering all the aspects of optical phenomena, from geometrical optics to single-photon interference passing through atmospheric optics, spectroscopy, holography and theory of perception. When possible, the setups are realized with simple and easy to find materials so as to be reproducible by teachers and students. Of course, for the most complicated setups (interferometers and holography) research materials are used. Each module is calibrated to fit teachers' requirements either to be included in the curricula of their classes or to be used as an expansion of the optics program.

  16. Tailored weight loss intervention in obese adults within primary care practice: Rationale, design, and methods of Choose to Lose

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Sheri J.; Risica, Patricia M.; Gans, Kim M.; Marcus, Bess H.; Eaton, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Although there are efficacious weight loss interventions that can improve health and delay onset of diabetes and hypertension, these interventions have not been translated into clinical practice. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a tailored lifestyle intervention in primary care patients. Patients were recruited by their primary care physicians and eligible participants were randomized to an enhanced intervention or augmented usual care. All participants met with a lifestyle counselor to set calorie and physical activity goals and to discuss behavioral strategies at baseline, 6 and 12 months. During the first year, enhanced intervention participants receive monthly counseling phone calls to assist in attaining and maintaining their goals. Enhanced intervention participants also receive weekly mailings consisting of tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos focusing on weight loss, physical activity promotion and healthy eating. The second year focuses on maintenance with enhanced intervention participants receiving tailored and non-tailored print materials and videos regularly throughout the year. Augmented usual care participants receive five informational handouts on weight loss across the two years. This enhanced intervention that consists of multiple modalities of print, telephone, and video with limited face-to-face counseling holds promise for being effective for encouraging weight loss, increasing physical activity and healthy eating, and also for being cost effective and generalizable for wide clinical use. This study will fill an important gap in our knowledge regarding the translation and dissemination of research from efficacy studies to best practices in clinical settings. PMID:24937016

  17. Cardiac arrhythmias as the initial manifestation of adult primary Sjögren's syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Liang, Minrui; Bao, Liwen; Xiong, Nanqing; Jin, Bo; Ni, Huanchun; Zhang, Jinjin; Zou, Hejian; Luo, Xinping; Li, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Two middle-aged female patients presenting with heart palpitation and electrocardiogram revealed complex cardiac arrhythmias. A review of systems was positive for dry mouth and transient arthralgia, while laboratory and instrumental tests enabled us to make the diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Cardiac electrophysiology revealed atrioventricular node dysfunction and impaired intraventricular conduction. Prednisone therapy induced a significant improvement in symptoms and electrocardiographic readings. The diagnosis of pSS should be considered in a patient presenting with complex cardiac arrhythmias.

  18. Concentrations of unmetabolized folic acid and primary folate forms in plasma after folic acid treatment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rima; Kirsch, Susanne H; Kasoha, Mariz; Eckert, Rudolf; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2011-05-01

    Folate deficiency can cause age-related disease. Folic acid (FA) has been used in studies aiming at disease prevention. Recently, unmetabolized FA in plasma raised public health concerns; but numerous studies used FA for disease prevention. Concentrations of the folate forms FA, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), and tetrahydrofolate (THF) were measured before and after 3-week placebo or FA 5 mg, vitamin B6 40 mg, and cyanocobalamin 2 mg per day administrated to 74 older adults (median age, 82 years). Concentrations of 5-MTHF and total homocysteine (tHcy) (r = -0.392) and S-adenosylmethionine (r = 0.329) were correlated at baseline. Twenty-six percent of the elderly subjects had unmetabolized FA in plasma at the start, and concentrations of FA were increased after 3 weeks of FA treatment (median FA = 0.08 nmol/L at baseline and 15.3 nmol/L at the end of the treatment in the vitamin group). Folic acid caused a 10- and a 5-fold increase in 5-MTHF and THF, respectively, and lowered tHcy (median tHcy = 17.2 μmol/L at baseline vs 9.0 μmol/L after treatment). Concentrations of unmetabolized FA were positively related to those of 5-MTHF and THF. People showed wide variations in folate forms at baseline, but these were reduced after FA treatment. Folic acid given to older adults is mostly converted to THF and 5-MTHF and lowered concentrations of tHcy, but caused a substantial increase in unmetabolized FA in the plasma.

  19. Aetiological role of viral and bacterial infections in acute adult lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Creer, D D; Dilworth, J P; Gillespie, S H; Johnston, A R; Johnston, S L; Ling, C; Patel, S; Sanderson, G; Wallace, P G; McHugh, T D

    2006-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are a common reason for consulting general practitioners (GPs). In most cases the aetiology is unknown, yet most result in an antibiotic prescription. The aetiology of LRTI was investigated in a prospective controlled study. Methods Eighty adults presenting to GPs with acute LRTI were recruited together with 49 controls over 12 months. Throat swabs, nasal aspirates (patients and controls), and sputum (patients) were obtained and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) assays were used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, influenza viruses (AH1, AH3 and B), parainfluenza viruses 1–3, coronaviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, and enteroviruses. Standard sputum bacteriology was also performed. Outcome was recorded at a follow up visit. Results Potential pathogens were identified in 55 patients with LRTI (69%) and seven controls (14%; p<0.0001). The identification rate was 63% (viruses) and 26% (bacteria) for patients and 12% (p<0.0001) and 6% (p = 0.013), respectively, for controls. The most common organisms identified in the patients were rhinoviruses (33%), influenza viruses (24%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (19%) compared with 2% (p<0.001), 6% (p = 0.013), and 4% (p = 0.034), respectively, in controls. Multiple pathogens were identified in 18 of the 80 LRTI patients (22.5%) and in two of the 49 controls (4%; p = 0.011). Atypical organisms were rarely identified. Cases with bacterial aetiology were clinically indistinguishable from those with viral aetiology. Conclusion Patients presenting to GPs with acute adult LRTI predominantly have a viral illness which is most commonly caused by rhinoviruses and influenza viruses. PMID:16227331

  20. A task shifting approach to primary mental health care for adults in South Africa: human resource requirements and costs for rural settings.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Inge; Lund, Crick; Bhana, Arvin; Flisher, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND A recent situational analysis suggests that post-apartheid South Africa has made some gains with respect to the decentralization and integration of mental health into primary health care. However, service gaps within and between provinces remain, with rural areas particularly underserved. Aim This study aims to calculate and cost a hypothetical human resource mix required to populate a framework for district adult mental health services. This framework embraces the concept of task shifting, where dedicated low cost mental health workers at the community and clinic levels supplement integrated care. METHOD The expected number and cost of human resources was based on: (a) assumptions of service provision derived from existing services in a sub-district demonstration site and a literature review of evidence-based packages of care in low- and middle-income countries; and (b) assumptions of service needs derived from other studies. RESULTS For a nominal population of 100 000, minimal service coverage estimates of 50% for schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, major depressive disorder and 30% for post-traumatic stress disorder and maternal depression would require that the primary health care staffing package include one post for a mental health counsellor or equivalent and 7.2 community mental health worker posts. The cost of these personnel amounts to £28 457 per 100 000 population. This cost can be offset by a reduction in the number of other specialist and non-specialist health personnel required to close service gaps at primary care level. CONCLUSION The adoption of the concept of task shifting can substantially reduce the expected number of health care providers otherwise needed to close mental health service gaps at primary health care level in South Africa at minimal cost and may serve as a model for other middle-income countries.

  1. Obeticholic acid for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis in adult patients: clinical utility and patient selection

    PubMed Central

    Bowlus, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary “cirrhosis”, is a rare autoimmune liver disease characterized by the hallmark autoantibodies to mitochondrial antigens and immune-mediated destruction of small bile duct epithelial cells leading to cholestasis and cirrhosis. Surprisingly, while immune modulators have not been effective in the treatment of PBC, supplementation with the hydrophilic bile acid (BA) ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been demonstrated to slow the disease progression. However, a significant minority of PBC patients do not have a complete response to UDCA and remain at risk of continued disease progression. Although the mechanisms of action are not well understood, UDCA provided proof of concept for BA therapy in PBC. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel derivative of the human BA chenodeoxycholic acid, is a potent agonist of the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor, which regulates BA synthesis and transport. A series of clinical trials of OCA in PBC, primarily in combination with UDCA, have established that OCA leads to significant reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase that are predicted to lead to improved clinical outcomes, while dose-dependent pruritus has been the most common adverse effect. On the basis of these studies, OCA was given conditional approval by the US Food and Drug Administration with plans to establish the long-term clinical efficacy of OCA in patients with advanced PBC. PMID:27621676

  2. Obeticholic acid for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis in adult patients: clinical utility and patient selection.

    PubMed

    Bowlus, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary "cirrhosis", is a rare autoimmune liver disease characterized by the hallmark autoantibodies to mitochondrial antigens and immune-mediated destruction of small bile duct epithelial cells leading to cholestasis and cirrhosis. Surprisingly, while immune modulators have not been effective in the treatment of PBC, supplementation with the hydrophilic bile acid (BA) ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been demonstrated to slow the disease progression. However, a significant minority of PBC patients do not have a complete response to UDCA and remain at risk of continued disease progression. Although the mechanisms of action are not well understood, UDCA provided proof of concept for BA therapy in PBC. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel derivative of the human BA chenodeoxycholic acid, is a potent agonist of the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor, which regulates BA synthesis and transport. A series of clinical trials of OCA in PBC, primarily in combination with UDCA, have established that OCA leads to significant reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase that are predicted to lead to improved clinical outcomes, while dose-dependent pruritus has been the most common adverse effect. On the basis of these studies, OCA was given conditional approval by the US Food and Drug Administration with plans to establish the long-term clinical efficacy of OCA in patients with advanced PBC. PMID:27621676

  3. Obeticholic acid for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis in adult patients: clinical utility and patient selection

    PubMed Central

    Bowlus, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary “cirrhosis”, is a rare autoimmune liver disease characterized by the hallmark autoantibodies to mitochondrial antigens and immune-mediated destruction of small bile duct epithelial cells leading to cholestasis and cirrhosis. Surprisingly, while immune modulators have not been effective in the treatment of PBC, supplementation with the hydrophilic bile acid (BA) ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been demonstrated to slow the disease progression. However, a significant minority of PBC patients do not have a complete response to UDCA and remain at risk of continued disease progression. Although the mechanisms of action are not well understood, UDCA provided proof of concept for BA therapy in PBC. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel derivative of the human BA chenodeoxycholic acid, is a potent agonist of the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor, which regulates BA synthesis and transport. A series of clinical trials of OCA in PBC, primarily in combination with UDCA, have established that OCA leads to significant reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase that are predicted to lead to improved clinical outcomes, while dose-dependent pruritus has been the most common adverse effect. On the basis of these studies, OCA was given conditional approval by the US Food and Drug Administration with plans to establish the long-term clinical efficacy of OCA in patients with advanced PBC.

  4. Cross-sectional study of older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in two rural public primary healthcare facilities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ooi, C P; Loke, S C; Zaiton, A; Tengku-Aizan, H; Zaitun, Y

    2011-06-01

    Knowledge of the characteristics of older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is indispensible for improvement of their care. A cross-sectional study in two rural public primary healthcare centres in Malaysia identified 170 actively engaged older patients with T2DM, with suboptimal glycaemic control and frequent hypoglycaemia. The prevalence of multiple co-morbidities, complications of T2DM, high cardiovascular risk, neurological, musculoskeletal and visual deficits suggested high risk of disabilities and dependency but not yet disabled. This short window for interventions presents as an opportunity for development of a more comprehensive approach extending beyond glycaemia control to risk management, preventing functional loss and continuity of social participation.

  5. Exogenous Modulation of Retinoic Acid Signaling Affects Adult RGC Survival in the Frog Visual System after Optic Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Duprey-Díaz, Mildred V.; Blagburn, Jonathan M.; Blanco, Rosa E.

    2016-01-01

    After lesions to the mammalian optic nerve, the great majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die before their axons have even had a chance to regenerate. Frog RGCs, on the other hand, suffer only an approximately 50% cell loss, and we have previously investigated the mechanisms by which the application of growth factors can increase their survival rate. Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A-derived lipophilic molecule that plays major roles during development of the nervous system. The RA signaling pathway is also present in parts of the adult nervous system, and components of it are upregulated after injury in peripheral nerves but not in the CNS. Here we investigate whether RA signaling affects long-term RGC survival at 6 weeks after axotomy. Intraocular injection of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) type-α agonist AM80, the RARβ agonist CD2314, or the RARγ agonist CD1530, returned axotomized RGC numbers to almost normal levels. On the other hand, inhibition of RA synthesis with disulfiram, or of RAR receptors with the pan-RAR antagonist Ro-41-5253, or the RARβ antagonist LE135E, greatly reduced the survival of the axotomized neurons. Axotomy elicited a strong activation of the MAPK, STAT3 and AKT pathways; this activation was prevented by disulfiram or by RAR antagonists. Finally, addition of exogenous ATRA stimulated the activation of the first two of these pathways. Future experiments will investigate whether these strong survival-promoting effects of RA are mediated via the upregulation of neurotrophins. PMID:27611191

  6. Exogenous Modulation of Retinoic Acid Signaling Affects Adult RGC Survival in the Frog Visual System after Optic Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Duprey-Díaz, Mildred V; Blagburn, Jonathan M; Blanco, Rosa E

    2016-01-01

    After lesions to the mammalian optic nerve, the great majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die before their axons have even had a chance to regenerate. Frog RGCs, on the other hand, suffer only an approximately 50% cell loss, and we have previously investigated the mechanisms by which the application of growth factors can increase their survival rate. Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A-derived lipophilic molecule that plays major roles during development of the nervous system. The RA signaling pathway is also present in parts of the adult nervous system, and components of it are upregulated after injury in peripheral nerves but not in the CNS. Here we investigate whether RA signaling affects long-term RGC survival at 6 weeks after axotomy. Intraocular injection of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) type-α agonist AM80, the RARβ agonist CD2314, or the RARγ agonist CD1530, returned axotomized RGC numbers to almost normal levels. On the other hand, inhibition of RA synthesis with disulfiram, or of RAR receptors with the pan-RAR antagonist Ro-41-5253, or the RARβ antagonist LE135E, greatly reduced the survival of the axotomized neurons. Axotomy elicited a strong activation of the MAPK, STAT3 and AKT pathways; this activation was prevented by disulfiram or by RAR antagonists. Finally, addition of exogenous ATRA stimulated the activation of the first two of these pathways. Future experiments will investigate whether these strong survival-promoting effects of RA are mediated via the upregulation of neurotrophins. PMID:27611191

  7. Are decreases in drug use risk associated with reductions in HIV sex risk behaviors among adults in an urban hospital primary care setting?

    PubMed

    Walter, Angela Wangari; Cheng, Debbie M; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine A; Samet, Jeffrey H; Bernstein, Judith; Saitz, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Drug use is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. We examined whether decreases in drug use risk are associated with reduction in HIV-related sex risk behaviors among adults. Data was from a cohort of participants (n = 574) identified by drug use screening in a randomized trial of brief intervention for drug use in an urban primary care setting. Inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between decreases in drug use risk and sex-related HIV risk behavior reduction from study entry to six months. Weights were derived from propensity score modeling of decreases in drug use risk as a function of potential confounders. Thirty seven percent of the study participants (213/574) reported a decrease in drug use risk, and 7% (33/505) reported decreased sex-related HIV risk behavior at the six-month follow-up point. We did not detect a difference in reduction of risky sexual behaviors for those who decreased drug use risk (unadjusted: OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.65-2.70; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.12, 95% CI 0.54-2.36). Adults who screened positive for high drug use risk had greater odds of reducing sex risk behavior in unadjusted analyses OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.81-7.60; but the results were not significant after adjusting for confounding AOR 2.50, 95% CI 0.85-7.30). In this primary care population, reductions in HIV sex risk behaviors have complex etiologies and reductions in drug use risk do not appear to be an independent predictor of them. PMID:27570734

  8. Obesity and Its Cardio-metabolic Co-morbidities Among Adult Nigerians in a Primary Care Clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in South-Eastern, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Iloh, Gabriel Uche Pascal; Ikwudinma, Austin Obiora; Obiegbu, Nnadozie Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity once thought the medical problem of affluent countries now exist in Nigeria and has been described as a time bomb for the future explosion in the frequency of cardio-metabolic diseases. The most deleterious health consequences of obesity are on the cardiovascular system and associated disorder of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Aim: This study was designed to determine the magnitude of obesity and its cardio-metabolic co-morbidities among adult Nigerians in a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital South-Eastern, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out on 2391 adult Nigerians who were assessed for obesity using body mass index (BMI) criterion. 206 patients who had BMI ≥30kg/m2 were screened for cardio-metabolic co-morbidities. The data collected included basic demographic variables, weight, height, blood pressure; fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 8.6%. Grade I obesity (67.5%) was the most common pattern; others included grade II obesity (23.3%) and grade III obesity (9.2%). Hypertension (42.7%) was the most common cardio-metabolic morbidity. Others included low HDL-cholesterol (22.8%), diabetes mellitus (15.1%), high triglyceride (12.6%), high total cholesterol (9.2%), and high LDL-cholesterol (6.8%). Conclusion: Obesity and its cardio-metabolic morbidities exist among the study population. Anthropometric determination of obesity and screening for its associated cardio-metabolic co-morbidities should constitute clinical targets for intervention in primary care clinics. PMID:24479038

  9. Erratum: Optical Observations of GRO J1655-40 in Quiescence. I. A Precise Mass for the Black Hole Primary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Jerome A.; Bailyn, Charles D.

    1997-06-01

    In the paper ``Optical Observations of GRO J1655-40 in Quiescence. I. A Precise Mass for the Black Hole Primary'' by Jerome A. Orosz and Charles D. Bailyn (ApJ, 477, 876 [1997]), some typographical errors occurred in the main text and in the Appendix that describes the eclipsing light curve code. The legend to Figure 1 should read ``open circles'' instead of ``open diamonds.'' In § A1, the definitions of the angles φ and θ are reversed: the angle φ is the colatitude, and the angle θ is the longitude. Equation (A4) should read g(x, y, z)=[(∂Ψ/∂x)2+(∂Ψ/∂y)2+(∂Ψ/∂z)2]1/2 . (A4) The equation giving the element of surface area dS(x, y, z) (eq. [A9]), while correct, contains some unclear notation. The grid spacings in the coordinate φ are equally spaced in cos φ so that Δφ = | d(cos φ) | = sin φdφ. Thus dS(x, y, z) has the correct form, and the numerical integration over the surface converges. Equation (A10) should read σ(x, y, z)=1/g(x, y, z) [lx ∂Ψ(x, y, z)/∂x+ly ∂Ψ(x, y, z)/∂y+lz ∂Ψ(x, y, z)/∂z] . (A10) Equation (A20) should read d(x, y, z)=(1+R2-2Rlx)1/2 . (A20)There are also two minor changes in the code that need to be made: An approximation was used to compute the foreshortening factor ΓX-ray(x, y, z) (eq. [A21]). The exact expression is ΓX-ray(x, y, z)=-1/d(x, y, z)g(x, y, z) [(x-1)(∂Ψ/∂x)+y(∂Ψ/∂y)+z(∂Ψ/∂z)] . (A21) Equation (A24) should read Φ(x, y, z)=arctan(z cos η/1-x) . (A24) The angle η was incorrectly defined in the code as arctan(y/x). The correct definition should be η = arctan[y/(1 - x)]. The changes in equations (A21) and (A24) alter the model light curves only for cases in which the X-ray luminosity LX is not zero. The most complete light curves were from 1966 March, and we adopted LX = 0 based on the low X-ray flux observed by ASCA during that time. Therefore, the important geometrical parameters that were derived from the modeling of the 1996 light curves are unchanged. For the model

  10. Primary mesenteric lymphangioma in a young adult with intestinal malrotation and ‘counter-clockwise barber pole sign’

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neha; Singh, Ragini; Maheswari, Udbhav; Aga, Pallavi

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteric lymphangiomas are uncommon benign lesions that usually occur in isolation but rarely may be associated with gastrointestinal (GI) malrotation. Malrotation may cause chronic and recurrent volvulus leading to chronic venous congestion and lymphatic engorgement. Interference with lymphatic drainage may result in formation of a lymphangioma or a chylous mesenteric cyst. In our case, mesenteric lymphangioma was present with partial malrotation of small and large bowel. There was no radiological and surgical evidence of volvulus, favouring the hypothesis that lymphangioma may be a primary congenital association of GI malrotation. Another interesting finding was the counter-clockwise twisting of the superior mesenteric vein around the superior mesenteric artery which has been reported only seven times in the literature. PMID:23761495

  11. Risk of second primary malignancies in a population-based study of adult patients with essential thrombocythemia

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Rajesh; Giri, Smith; Pathak, Ranjan; Bhatt, Vijaya Raj

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the risk of second primary malignancy (SPM) and survival of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET). METHODS We identified all patients with ET diagnosed during 2001 to 2011 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 18 database. Actuarial and relative survival methods were used to calculate the survival statistics. We utilized the SEER 13 database to calculate SPM. We used multiple primary standardized incidence ratio (SIR) session of the SEER*Stat software (version 8.1.5) to calculate SIR and excess risk of SPM for ET patients. RESULTS Age standardized five-year cause-specific survival was greater for patients < 50 years vs those ≥ 50 years (99.4% vs 93.5%, P < 0.01). Five-year cause-specific survival was lower for men vs women (70.2% vs 79.7%). A total of 201 patients (2.46%) developed SPM at a median age of 75 years. SPMs occurred at an observed/expected (O/E) ratio of 1.26 (95%CI: 1.09-1.45, P = 0.002) with an absolute excess risk (AER) of 37.44 per 10000 population. A significantly higher risk was noted for leukemia (O/E 3.78; 95%CI: 2.20-6.05, P < 0.001; AER 11.28/10000). CONCLUSION ET patients have an excellent cause-specific five-year survival but are at an increased risk of SPM, particularly leukemia, which may contribute to excess deaths. PMID:27579252

  12. Depression or anxiety and all-cause mortality in adults with atrial fibrillation – A cohort study in Swedish primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wändell, Per; Carlsson, Axel C.; Gasevic, Danijela; Wahlsträm, Lars; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to study depression and anxiety in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients as risk factors for all-cause mortality in a primary care setting. Methods The study population included adults (n = 12 283) of 45 years and older diagnosed with AF in 75 primary care centres in Sweden. The association between depression or anxiety and all-cause mortality was explored using Cox regression analysis, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Analyses were conducted in men and women, adjusted for age, educational level, marital status, neighborhood socio-economic status (SES), change of neighborhood status and anxiety or depression, respectively, and cardiovascular co-morbidities. As a secondary analysis, background factors and their association with depression or anxiety were explored. Results The risk of all-cause mortality was higher among men with depression compared to their counterparts without depression even after full adjustment (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.08–1.53). For anxiety among men and anxiety or depression among women with AF, no associations were found. Cerebrovascular disease was more common among depressed AF patients. Conclusions Increased awareness of the higher mortality among men with AF and subsequent depression is called for. We suggest a tight follow-up and treatment of both ailments in clinical practice. PMID:26758363

  13. Potential prescription patterns and errors in elderly adult patients attending public primary health care centers in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Corona-Rojo, José Antonio; Altagracia-Martínez, Marina; Kravzov-Jinich, Jaime; Vázquez-Cervantes, Laura; Pérez-Montoya, Edilberto; Rubio-Poo, Consuelo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Six out of every 10 elderly persons live in developing countries. Objective To analyze and assess the drug prescription patterns and errors in elderly outpatients attending public health care centers in Mexico City, Mexico. Materials and methods A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in 2007. Fourteen hundred prescriptions were analyzed. Prescriptions of ambulatory adults aged >70 years who were residents of Mexico City for at least two years were included. Prescription errors were divided into two groups: (1) administrative and legal, and (2) pharmacotherapeutic. In group 2, we analyzed drug dose strength, administration route, frequency of drug administration, treatment length, potential drug–drug interactions, and contraindications. Variables were classified as correct or incorrect based on clinical literature. Variables for each drug were dichotomized as correct (0) or incorrect (1). A Prescription Index (PI) was calculated by considering each drug on the prescription. SPSS statistical software was used to process the collected data (95% confidence interval; p <0.05). Results The drug prescription pattern in elderly outpatients shows that 12 drugs account for 70.72% (2880) of prescribed drugs. The most prescribed drugs presented potential pharmacotherapeutic errors (as defined in the present study). Acetylsalicylic acid–captopril was the most common potential interaction (not clinically assessed). Potential prescription error was high (53% of total prescriptions). Most of the prescription errors were due to omissions of dosage, administration route, and length of treatment and may potentially cause harm to the elderly outpatients. Conclusions A high number of potential prescription errors were found, mainly due to omissions. The drug prescription pattern of the study population is mainly constituted by 12 drugs. The results indicate that prescription quality depends on the number of prescribed drugs per prescription (p < 0

  14. Boerhaave's syndrome as the primary manifestation of adult eosinophilic esophagitis. Two case reports and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lucendo, A J; Friginal-Ruiz, A B; Rodríguez, B

    2011-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been associated with an increased risk of esophageal mucosal tears induced by vomiting to dislodge impacted food or following endoscopic procedures. However, Boerhaave's syndrome or transmural perforation of the organ resulting from vomiting induced to dislodge impacted food has rarely been reported. In this article, we present two male adult patients with long-term esophageal symptoms who suffered from Boerhaave's syndrome after the impaction of food in the esophagus. Both patients required surgical management because of clinical and radiological signs of perforation. This rare complication of EoE has been documented in 11 other reports, predominantly affecting young men in whom EoE had not been previously diagnosed, despite the majority having esophageal symptoms and a history of atopy. There are only two published cases of esophageal perforation that presented in children, which were managed conservatively. Our two patients and 4 out of the 11 described in literature required surgery because of esophageal perforation. Our two cases involved closure of the perforation, while in three published reports, perforation resulted in a partial or complete esophagectomy. No cases have been published on Boerhaave's syndrome caused by EoE that ended in fatalities. It is important to note that esophageal perforation caused by vomiting is a potentially severe complication of EoE that is being increasingly described in literature. Therefore, patients with non-traumatic Boerhaave's syndrome should be assessed for EoE, especially if they are young men who have a prior history of dysphagia and allergic manifestations.

  15. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF THE HIGH-MASS γ-RAY BINARY 1FGL J1018.6−5856: A PROBABLE NEUTRON STAR PRIMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Peacock, Mark; Cheung, C. C.; Salinas, Ricardo

    2015-11-10

    We present medium-resolution optical spectroscopy with the SOAR telescope of the O star secondary of the high-mass γ-ray binary 1FGL J1018.6–5856 to help determine whether the primary is a neutron star or black hole. We find that the secondary has a low radial velocity semi-amplitude of 11–12 km s{sup −1}, with consistent values obtained for H and He absorption lines. This low value strongly favors a neutron star primary: while a black hole cannot be excluded if the system is close to face on, such inclinations are disallowed by the observed rotation of the secondary. We also find the high-energy (X-ray and γ-ray) flux maxima occur when the star is behind the compact object along our line of sight, inconsistent with a simple model of anisotropic inverse Compton scattering for the γ-ray photons.

  16. Age differences in the purr call distinguished by units in the adult guinea pig primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, J M S; Palmer, A R; Wallace, M N

    2011-07-01

    Many communication calls contain information about the physical characteristics of the calling animal. During maturation of the guinea pig purr call the pitch becomes lower as the fundamental frequency progressively decreases from 476 to 261 Hz on average. Neurons in the primary auditory cortex (AI) often respond strongly to the purr and we postulated that some of them are capable of distinguishing between purr calls of different pitch. Consequently four pitch-shifted versions of a single call were used as stimuli. Many units in AI (79/182) responded to the purr call either with an onset response or with multiple bursts of firing that were time-locked to the phrases of the call. All had a characteristic frequency ≤5 kHz. Both types of unit altered their firing rate in response to pitch-shifted versions of the call. Of the responsive units, 41% (32/79) had a firing rate locked to the stimulus envelope that was at least 50% higher for one version of the call than any other. Some (14/32) had a preference that could be predicted from their frequency response area while others (18/32) were not predictable. We conclude that about 18% of stimulus-driven cells at the low-frequency end of AI are very sensitive to age-related changes in the purr call.

  17. A precocious adult visual center in the larva defines the unique optic lobe of the split-eyed whirligig beetle Dineutus sublineatus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) are aquatic insects living on the water surface. They are equipped with four compound eyes, an upper pair viewing above the water surface and a lower submerged pair viewing beneath the water surface, but little is known about how their visual brain centers (optic lobes) are organized to serve such unusual eyes. We show here, for the first time, the peculiar optic lobe organization of the larval and adult whirligig beetle Dineutus sublineatus. Results The divided compound eyes of adult whirligig beetles supply optic lobes that are split into two halves, an upper half and lower half, comprising an upper and lower lamina, an upper and lower medulla and a bilobed partially split lobula. However, the lobula plate, a neuropil that in flies is known to be involved in mediating stabilized flight, exists only in conjunction with the lower lobe of the lobula. We show that, as in another group of predatory beetle larvae, in the whirligig beetle the aquatic larva precociously develops a lobula plate equipped with wide-field neurons. It is supplied by three larval laminas serving the three dorsal larval stemmata, which are adjacent to the developing upper compound eye. Conclusions In adult whirligig beetles, dual optic neuropils serve the upper aerial eyes and the lower subaquatic eyes. The exception is the lobula plate. A lobula plate develops precociously in the larva where it is supplied by inputs from three larval stemmata that have a frontal-upper field of view, in which contrasting objects such as prey items trigger a body lunge and mandibular grasp. This precocious lobula plate is lost during pupal metamorphosis, whereas another lobula plate develops normally during metamorphosis and in the adult is associated with the lower eye. The different roles of the upper and lower lobula plates in supporting, respectively, larval predation and adult optokinetic balance are discussed. Precocious development of the upper lobula

  18. Assessment of the frequency-domain multi-distance method to evaluate the brain optical properties: Monte Carlo simulations from neonate to adult

    PubMed Central

    Dehaes, Mathieu; Grant, P. Ellen; Sliva, Danielle D.; Roche-Labarbe, Nadège; Pienaar, Rudolph; Boas, David A.; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Selb, Juliette

    2011-01-01

    The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) frequency-domain multi-distance (FD-MD) method allows for the estimation of optical properties in biological tissue using the phase and intensity of radiofrequency modulated light at different source-detector separations. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of this method to retrieve the absorption coefficient of the brain at different ages. Synthetic measurements were generated with Monte Carlo simulations in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based heterogeneous head models for four ages: newborn, 6 and 12 month old infants, and adult. For each age, we determined the optimal set of source-detector separations and estimated the corresponding errors. Errors arise from different origins: methodological (FD-MD) and anatomical (curvature, head size and contamination by extra-cerebral tissues). We found that the brain optical absorption could be retrieved with an error between 8–24% in neonates and infants, while the error increased to 19–44% in adults over all source-detector distances. The dominant contribution to the error was found to be the head curvature in neonates and infants, and the extra-cerebral tissues in adults. PMID:21412461

  19. Adaptive plasticity of the auditory space map in the optic tectum of adult and baby barn owls in response to external ear modification.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, E I; Esterly, S D; Olsen, J F

    1994-01-01

    1. This study demonstrates the influence of experience on the establishment and maintenance of the auditory map of space in the optic tectum of the barn owl. Auditory experience was altered either by preventing the structures of the external ears (the facial ruff and preaural flaps) from appearing in baby barn owls (baby ruff-cut owls) or by removing these structures in adults (adult ruff-cut owls). These structures shape the binaural cues used for localizing sounds in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions. 2. The acoustic effects of removing the external ear structures were measured using probe tube microphones placed in the ear canals. In both baby and adult ruff-cut owls, the spatial pattern of binaural localization cues was dramatically different from normal: interaural level difference (ILD) changed with azimuth instead of with elevation, the rate of change of ILD across space was decreased relative to normal, and the rate of change of interaural time difference (ITD) across frontal space was increased relative to normal. 3. The neurophysiological representations of ITD and ILD in the optic tectum were measured before and > or = 3 mo after ruff removal in adults and beginning at 4.5 months of age in baby ruff-cut owls. Multiunit tuning to ITD and to ILD was measured using dichotic stimulation in ketamine-anesthetized owls. The tectal maps of ITD and ILD were reconstructed using visual receptive field location as a marker for recording site location in the optic tectum. 4. Adjustment of the tectal map of ITD to the altered spatial pattern of acoustic ITD was essentially complete in adults as well as in baby ruff-cut owls. This adjustment changed the magnification of ITD across the tectum, with resultant changes in ITD tuning at individual tectal sites of up to approximately 25 microseconds (approximately 5% of the physiological range) relative to normal values. 5. Adaptation of the tectal ILD map to the ruff-cut spatial pattern of acoustic ILD was

  20. Genetic Variants Associated with Optic Nerve Vertical Cup-to-Disc Ratio Are Risk Factors for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in a US Caucasian Population

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bao Jian; Wang, Dan Yi; Pasquale, Louis R.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Genetically complex disorders, such as primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), may include highly heritable quantitative traits as part of the overall phenotype, and mapping genes influencing the related quantitative traits may effectively identify genetic risk factors predisposing to the complex disease. Recent studies have identified SNPs associated with optic nerve area and vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between these SNPs and POAG in a US Caucasian case-control sample. Methods. Five SNPs previously associated with optic disc area, or VCDR, were genotyped in 539 POAG cases and 336 controls. Genotype data were analyzed for single SNP associations and SNP interactions with VCDR and POAG. Results. SNPs associated with VCDR rs1063192 (CDKN2B) and rs10483727 (SIX1/SIX6) were also associated with POAG (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0043 for rs1063192 and rs10483727, respectively). rs1063192, associated with smaller VCDR, had a protective effect (odds ratio [OR] = 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58–0.90), whereas rs10483727, associated with larger VCDR, increased POAG risk (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.08–1.65). POAG risk associated with increased VCDR was significantly influenced by the C allele of rs1900004 (ATOH7), associated with increased optic nerve area (P-interaction = 0.025; OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.22–2.94). Conclusions. Genetic variants influencing VCDR are associated with POAG in a US Caucasian population. Variants associated with optic nerve area are not independently associated with disease but can influence the effects of VCDR variants suggesting that increased optic disc area can significantly contribute to POAG risk when coupled with risk factors controlling VCDR. PMID:21398277

  1. Responses of neurons in the middle temporal visual area after long-standing lesions of the primary visual cortex in adult new world monkeys.

    PubMed

    Collins, Christine E; Lyon, David C; Kaas, Jon H

    2003-03-15

    The retinotopic organization of the middle temporal visual area (MT) was determined in six adult owl monkeys and one adult marmoset 69 d to 10 months after lesions of the dorsolateral primary visual cortex (V1). The lesions removed were limited to extensive parts of the representation of the lower visual quadrant in V1. Microelectrodes were used to record from neurons at numerous sites in MT to determine whether parts of MT normally devoted to the lower visual quadrant (1) were unresponsive to visual stimuli, (2) acquired responsiveness to inputs from intact portions of V1, or (3) became responsive to some other visually driven input such as a relay from the superior colliculus via the pulvinar to MT. All monkeys (n = 6) with moderate to moderately large lesions had unresponsive portions of MT even after 10 months of recovery. These unresponsive regions were retinotopically equivalent to the removed parts of V1 in normal animals. Thus, there was no evidence for an alternative source of activation. In addition, these results indicate that any retinotopic reorganization of MT based on inputs from intact portions of V1 was not extensive, yet neurons near the margins of responsive cortex may have acquired new receptive fields, and the smallest 5 degrees lesion of V1 failed to produce an unresponsive zone. Deprived portions of MT were not remarkably changed in histological appearance in cytochrome oxidase, Nissl, and Wisteria floribunda agglutinin preparations. Nevertheless, some reduction in myelin staining and other histological changes were suggested. We conclude that MT is highly dependent on V1 for activation in these monkeys, and alternative sources do not become effective over months when normal activation is absent. Additionally, remaining V1 inputs have only a limited capacity to expand their activation territory into deprived portions of MT.

  2. Association between Body Mass Index and All-Cause Mortality in Hypertensive Adults: Results from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Li, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Fang-Fang; Xu, Xi-Ping; Wang, Bin-Yan; Xu, Xin; Qin, Xian-Hui; Xing, Hou-Xun; Tang, Gen-Fu; Zhou, Zi-Yi; Gu, Dong-Feng; Zhao, Dong; Huo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The association between elevated body mass index (BMI) and risk of death has been reported in many studies. However, the association between BMI and all-cause mortality for hypertensive Chinese adults remains unclear. We conducted a post-hoc analysis using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the significance of the association of BMI with all-cause mortality. During a mean follow-up duration of 4.5 years, 622 deaths (3.0%) occurred among the 20,694 participants aged 45–75 years. A reversed J-shaped relationship was observed between BMI and all-cause mortality. The hazard ratios (HRs) for underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), overweight (24.0–27.9 kg/m2), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m2) were calculated relative to normal weight (18.5–23.9 kg/m2). The summary HRs were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.11–2.18) for underweight, 0.78 (95% CI 0.64–0.95) for overweight and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.48–0.85) for obesity. In sex-age-specific analyses, participants over 60 years of age had optimal BMI in the obesity classification and the results were consistent in both males and females. Relative to normal weight, underweight was associated with significantly higher mortality. Excessive weight was not associated with increased risk of mortality. Chinese hypertensive adults had the lowest mortality in grade 1 obesity. PMID:27338470

  3. A Small Motor Cortex Lesion Abolished Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex and Impaired Experience-Dependent Visual Improvements.

    PubMed

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Greifzu, Franziska; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    It was previously shown that a small lesion in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) prevented both cortical plasticity and sensory learning in the adult mouse visual system: While 3-month-old control mice continued to show ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in their primary visual cortex (V1) after monocular deprivation (MD), age-matched mice with a small photothrombotically induced (PT) stroke lesion in S1, positioned at least 1 mm anterior to the anterior border of V1, no longer expressed OD-plasticity. In addition, in the S1-lesioned mice, neither the experience-dependent increase of the spatial frequency threshold ("visual acuity") nor of the contrast threshold ("contrast sensitivity") of the optomotor reflex through the open eye was present. To assess whether these plasticity impairments can also occur if a lesion is placed more distant from V1, we tested the effect of a PT-lesion in the secondary motor cortex (M2). We observed that mice with a small M2-lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers no longer expressed an OD-shift towards the open eye after 7 days of MD in V1 of the lesioned hemisphere. Consistent with previous findings about the consequences of an S1-lesion, OD-plasticity in V1 of the nonlesioned hemisphere of the M2-lesioned mice was still present. In addition, the experience-dependent improvements of both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of the open eye were severely reduced. In contrast, sham-lesioned mice displayed both an OD-shift and improvements of visual capabilities of their open eye. To summarize, our data indicate that even a very small lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers and more than 3mm anterior to the anterior border of V1 compromised V1-plasticity and impaired learning-induced visual improvements in adult mice. Thus both plasticity phenomena cannot only depend on modality-specific and local nerve cell networks but are clearly influenced by long-range interactions even from distant brain regions.

  4. A Small Motor Cortex Lesion Abolished Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex and Impaired Experience-Dependent Visual Improvements.

    PubMed

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Greifzu, Franziska; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    It was previously shown that a small lesion in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) prevented both cortical plasticity and sensory learning in the adult mouse visual system: While 3-month-old control mice continued to show ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in their primary visual cortex (V1) after monocular deprivation (MD), age-matched mice with a small photothrombotically induced (PT) stroke lesion in S1, positioned at least 1 mm anterior to the anterior border of V1, no longer expressed OD-plasticity. In addition, in the S1-lesioned mice, neither the experience-dependent increase of the spatial frequency threshold ("visual acuity") nor of the contrast threshold ("contrast sensitivity") of the optomotor reflex through the open eye was present. To assess whether these plasticity impairments can also occur if a lesion is placed more distant from V1, we tested the effect of a PT-lesion in the secondary motor cortex (M2). We observed that mice with a small M2-lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers no longer expressed an OD-shift towards the open eye after 7 days of MD in V1 of the lesioned hemisphere. Consistent with previous findings about the consequences of an S1-lesion, OD-plasticity in V1 of the nonlesioned hemisphere of the M2-lesioned mice was still present. In addition, the experience-dependent improvements of both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of the open eye were severely reduced. In contrast, sham-lesioned mice displayed both an OD-shift and improvements of visual capabilities of their open eye. To summarize, our data indicate that even a very small lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers and more than 3mm anterior to the anterior border of V1 compromised V1-plasticity and impaired learning-induced visual improvements in adult mice. Thus both plasticity phenomena cannot only depend on modality-specific and local nerve cell networks but are clearly influenced by long-range interactions even from distant brain regions

  5. Analysis of subsets of B cells, Breg, CD4Treg and CD8Treg cells in adult patients with primary selective IgM deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Ankmalika Gupta; Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    Primary selective IgM deficiency (SIGMD) is a rare and recently IUIS-recognized primary immunodeficiency disease with increased susceptibility to infections, allergy, and autoimmune diseases. The pathogenesis of selective IgM remains unclear. The objective of the study was to understand the pathogenesis of selective IgM deficiency via a comprehensive analysis of subsets of B cells, naïve and memory subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and Breg, CD4Treg, and CD8Treg cells. Twenty adult patients with SIGMD (serum IgM 4 mg/dl-32 mg/dl) and age-and gender-matched healthy controls were studied. Naïve B cells, transitional B cells, marginal zone B cells, germinal center B cells, IgM memory B cells, switched memory B cells, plasmablasts, CD21low B cells, B1 cells, CXCR3+ naive and memory B cells; naïve, central memory, and effector memory subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and CD4Treg, CD8Treg and Breg were phenotypically analyzed using multicolor flow cytometry. A significant increase in CD21low, IgM memory B cells, Breg and CD8Treg, and a significant decreased in germinal center B cells, and CXCR3+ naïve and memory B cells were observed in SIGMD. These alterations in subsets of B cells, and Breg and CD8Treg cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of SIGMD. PMID:27168952

  6. Signal Transduction Mechanism for Serotonin 5-HT2B Receptor-Mediated DNA Synthesis and Proliferation in Primary Cultures of Adult Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kota; Tanaka, Chizuru; Mitsuhashi, Manami; Moteki, Hajime; Kimura, Mitsutoshi; Natsume, Hideshi; Ogihara, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the 5-HT2 receptor subtypes in the induction of DNA synthesis and proliferation was investigated in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes to elucidate the intracellular signal transduction mechanisms. Hepatocyte parenchymal cells maintained in a serum-free, defined medium, synthesized DNA and proliferated in the presence of 5-HT or a selective 5-HT2B receptor agonist, BW723C86, but not in the presence of 5-HT2A, or 5-HT2C receptor agonists (TCB-2 and CP809101, respectively), in a time- and dose-dependent manner. A selective 5-HT2B receptor antagonist, LY272015 (10(-7) M), and a specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, U-73122 (10(-6) M), as well as specific inhibitors of growth-related signal transducers-including AG1478, LY294002, PD98059, and rapamycin-completely inhibited 5-HT (10(-6) M)- or BW723C86 (10(-6) M)-induced hepatocyte DNA synthesis and proliferation. Both 5-HT and BW723C86 were shown to significantly stimulate the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF)/transforming growth factor (TGF)-α receptor tyrosine kinase (p175 kDa) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2 on Western blot analysis. These results suggest that the proliferative mechanism of activating 5-HT is mediated mainly through 5-HT2B receptor-stimulated Gq/PLC and EGF/TGF-α-receptor/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/ERK2/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in primary cultured hepatocytes.

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with the presence of non alcoholic fatty liver disease in an apparently healthy adult population in primary care units

    PubMed Central

    Caballería, Llorenç; Auladell, Ma Antonia; Torán, Pere; Miranda, Dolores; Aznar, Jesús; Pera, Guillem; Gil, Dolors; Muñoz, Laura; Planas, Jaume; Canut, Santiago; Bernad, Jesús; Aubà, Josep; Pizarro, Gregorio; Aizpurua, Miren Maite; Altaba, Anna; Tibau, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Background Fatty liver disease is characterized by the accumulation of fat vacuoles inside of the hepatocytes. Non alcoholic fatty liver is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipemia, the intake of certain drugs and with the so-called metabolic syndrome. However, there is little information on the clinical relevance of this disorder as a healthcare problem in the general population, since the studies published generally include a limited number of patients and the diagnosis is established on the basis of clear biochemical alterations and liver biopsy. Methods/Design The aim of the study is the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a general adult population by hepatic ultrasonography. A population-based, descriptive, transversal, multicentre study. Eighteen primary care centres of the north of Barcelona and the Maresme Areas of Healthcare Management attending an urban and semi-urban population of 360.000 inhabitants. A randomized sample of 786 subjects of 15 years or older were selected from the population and assigned to the participating centres according to the Primary Care Information System (SIAP): This population is practically the same as the general population of the area. The following determinations will be carried out in all the participants: hepatic ultrasonography to detect fatty liver, a questionnaire concerning liver diseases, alcohol intake, smoking and drug use, physical examination including abdominal perimeter and body mass index and biochemical analysis including liver function tests and parameters related to the metabolic syndrome and the HAIR score. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver will be made according to established criteria (American Gastroenterology Association) and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to the criteria of the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance. Discussion This study will attempt to determine the prevalence of non alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as, the factors

  8. On the reaction of adult Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus and Hyalomma truncatum to horizontally incidenting optical radiation of various wavelengths ranges and different irradiances and to optical radiation of a sun-simulating wavelength spectrum.

    PubMed

    Leuterer, G; Gothe, R

    1991-01-01

    The valence of horizontally incidenting light/optical radiation for host-seeking-inclined ixodid ticks was investigated by exposing male and female adults of Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus and Hyalomma truncatum to narrow-band monochromatic radiation in the wavelength range of 300-801 nm at irradiances corresponding to an overcast to clear sunny day, a cloudy day and a full-moon night as well as to optical radiation of a sun-simulating wavelength spectrum of 190-2600 nm within a test chamber from which other stimuli were excluded. It was demonstrated that independent of sex, adult ticks of R. e. mimeticus and H. truncatum responded to a wide wavelength spectrum in the visible and UV range, even at irradiances corresponding to a full-moon night. Interspecific differences existed in the degree and extent of the response as well as in the spectral sensitivity. Ticks of H. truncatum consistently showed a faster and stronger response and reacted phototactically positively in higher percentages than adults of R. e. mimeticus. Independent of wavelength range and irradiance, predominantly only few R. e. mimeticus ticks were stimulated to positive phototaxis, whereas at least 33.3% (in most cases, 50%) and maximally greater than 80% of H. truncatum adults reacted phototactically positively. Spectral sensitivity maxima were demonstrated at the yellow and red light and at the UV-A waveband width for R. e. mimeticus and at the violet, blue, green and yellow light wavelength for H. truncatum. With decreasing irradiance, the spectral sensitivity shifted to the blue wavelength range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1866424

  9. [Reparative Neurogenesis in the Brain and Changes in the Optic Nerve of Adult Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after Mechanical Damage of the Eye].

    PubMed

    Puschina, E V; Varaksin, A A; Obukhov, D K

    2016-01-01

    Reparative proliferation and neurogenesis in the brain integrative centers after mechanical eye injury in an adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have been studied. We have found that proliferation and neurogenesis in proliferative brain regions, the cerebellum, and the optic tectum were significantly enhanced after the eye injury. The cerebellum showed a significant increase in the proliferative activity of the cells of the dorsal proliferative zone and parenchymal cells of the molecular and granular layers. One week after the injury, PCNA-positive radial glia cells have been identified in the tectum. We have found for the first time that the eye trauma resulted in the development of local clusters of undifferentiated cells forming so called neurogenic niches in the tectum and cerebellum. The differentiation of neuronal cells detected by labeling cells with antibodies against the protein HuC/D occurred in the proliferative zones of the telencephalon, the optic tectum, cerebellum, and medulla of a trout within 2 days after the injury. We have shown that the HuC/D expression is higher in the proliferative brain regions than in the definitive neurons of a trout. In addition, we have examined cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis caused by the eye injury in the contra- and ipsilateral optic nerves and adjacent muscle fibers 2 days after the trauma. The qualitative and quantitative assessment of proliferation and apoptosis in the cells of the optic nerve of a trout has been made using antibodies against PCNA and the TUNEL method. PMID:27149746

  10. Effects of butylated hydroxytoluene pretreatment on the metabolism and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes: selective reduction of nucleic acid binding.

    PubMed

    Salocks, C B; Hsieh, D P; Byard, J L

    1984-12-01

    To elucidate biochemical mechanisms underlying the anticarcinogenic activity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), studies were undertaken to characterize the influence of BHT pretreatment on the metabolism and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. During a 10-day pretreatment period, adult male rats were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.5% BHT. Hepatocytes were subsequently isolated from each animal and cultured in chemically defined medium. Cultures prepared from rats which had been fed BHT metabolized AFB1 more rapidly than did controls. BHT pretreatment also enhanced oxidation of AFB1 to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), and accelerated the rate of AFM1 conjugation. Covalent binding to DNA and RNA in BHT-pretreated cultures was reduced by 91 and 82%, respectively, while protein binding decreased by only 29%. AFB1 did not stimulate detectable DNA repair synthesis in BHT-pretreated cultures, although stimulation of DNA repair was clearly evident in control cultures. In a separate experiment, consistently higher baseline concentrations of reduced glutathione were observed in BHT-pretreated cells, indicating that BHT pretreatment may enhance formation of detoxified glutathione conjugates of AFB1. These findings suggest that the anticarcinogenic activity of BHT is due in part to preferential enhancement of hepatic detoxification mechanisms, with the result that intracellular concentrations of reactive metabolites are reduced and fewer covalently bound adducts are formed.

  11. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population. PMID:27547313

  12. A study on knowledge, attitude, and practice towards premarital carrier screening among adults attending primary healthcare centers in a region in Oman

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite that hereditary diseases are widespread among the Arab population due to high rates of consanguineous marriages, research regarding community awareness towards premarital carrier screening in some countries such as Oman, is extremely scarce. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and attitude towards premarital carrier screening (PMCS) in Oman. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to 400 Omani adults aged 20–35 who attended primary healthcare institutions at the South Batinah Governorate in Oman. Results The majority of the participants (84.5%) believed that PMCS was necessary, and about half of them (49.5%) supported the view of making PMCS compulsory. On the contrary, approximately one third (30.5%) of the participants reported that they were not in favor of taking the blood screening test. Overall, unwillingness to perform pre-marital testing was associated with female gender, younger age, being single, less education, and increased income. Conclusion Despite the relatively high level of knowledge, about one third of the participants were still reluctant to carry out premarital testing. Such attitude calls for immediate need for community-based campaigns to encourage the public to do premarital testing. PMID:24742222

  13. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population.

  14. Assessment of primary and secondary ambient particle trends using satellite aerosol optical depth and ground speciation data in the New England region, United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Kang, Choong-Min; Coull, Brent A; Bell, Michelle L; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of air pollution emission control policies can be evaluated by examining ambient pollutant concentration trends that are observed at a large number of ground monitoring sites over time. In this paper, we used ground monitoring measurements in conjunction with satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data to investigate fine particulate matter (PM2.5; particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) trends and their spatial patterns over a large U.S. region, New England, during 2000-2008. We examined the trends in rural and urban areas to get a better insight about the trends of regional and local source emissions. Decreases in PM2.5 concentrations (µg/m(3)) were more pronounced in urban areas than in rural ones. In addition, the highest and lowest PM2.5 decreases (µg/m(3)) were observed for winter and summer, respectively. Together, these findings suggest that primary particle concentrations decreased more relative to secondary ones. This is also supported by the analysis of the speciation data which showed that downward trends of primary pollutants including black carbon were stronger than those of secondary pollutants including sulfate. Furthermore, this study found that ambient primary pollutants decreased at the same rate as their respective source emissions. This was not the case for secondary pollutants which decreased at a slower rate than that of their precursor emissions. This indicates that concentrations of secondary pollutants depend not only on the primary emissions but also on the availability of atmospheric oxidants which might not change during the study period. This novel approach of investigating spatially varying concentration trends, in combination with ground PM2.5 species trends, can be of substantial regulatory importance.

  15. Assessment of primary and secondary ambient particle trends using satellite aerosol optical depth and ground speciation data in the New England region, United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Kang, Choong-Min; Coull, Brent A.; Bell, Michelle L.; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of air pollution emission control policies can be evaluated by examining ambient pollutant concentration trends that are observed at a large number of ground monitoring sites over time. In this paper, we used ground monitoring measurements in conjunction with satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data to investigate fine particulate matter (PM2.5; particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) trends and their spatial patterns over a large U.S. region, New England, during 2000–2008. We examined the trends in rural and urban areas to get a better insight about the trends of regional and local source emissions. Decreases in PM2.5 concentrations (μg/m3) were more pronounced in urban areas than in rural ones. In addition, the highest and lowest PM2.5 decreases (μg/m3) were observed for winter and summer, respectively. Together, these findings suggest that primary particle concentrations decreased more relative to secondary ones. This is also supported by the analysis of the speciation data which showed that downward trends of primary pollutants including black carbon were stronger than those of secondary pollutants including sulfate. Furthermore, this study found that ambient primary pollutants decreased at the same rate as their respective source emissions. This was not the case for secondary pollutants which decreased at a slower rate than that of their precursor emissions. This indicates that concentrations of secondary pollutants depend not only on the primary emissions but also on the availability of atmospheric oxidants which might not change during the study period. This novel approach of investigating spatially varying concentration trends, in combination with ground PM2.5 species trends, can be of substantial regulatory importance. PMID:24906074

  16. Optical and Physical Properties from Primary On-Road Vehicle ParticleEmissions And Their Implications for Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Strawa, A.W.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Hallar, A.G.; Ban-Weiss, G.A.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Harley, R.A.; Lunden, M.M.

    2009-01-23

    During the summers of 2004 and 2006, extinction and scattering coefficients of particle emissions inside a San Francisco Bay Area roadway tunnel were measured using a combined cavity ring-down and nephelometer instrument. Particle size distributions and humidification were also measured, as well as several gas phase species. Vehicles in the tunnel traveled up a 4% grade at a speed of approximately 60 km h{sup -1}. The traffic situation in the tunnel allows the apportionment of emission factors between light duty gasoline vehicles and diesel trucks. Cross-section emission factors for optical properties were determined for the apportioned vehicles to be consistent with gas phase and particulate matter emission factors. The absorption emission factor (the absorption cross-section per mass of fuel burned) for diesel trucks (4.4 {+-} 0.79 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}) was 22 times larger than for light-duty gasoline vehicles (0.20 {+-} 0.05 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}). The single scattering albedo of particles - which represents the fraction of incident light that is scattered as opposed to absorbed - was 0.2 for diesel trucks and 0.3 for light duty gasoline vehicles. These facts indicate that particulate matter from motor vehicles exerts a positive (i.e., warming) radiative climate forcing. Average particulate mass absorption efficiencies for diesel trucks and light duty gasoline vehicles were 3.14 {+-} 0.88 m{sup 2} g{sub PM}{sup -1} and 2.9 {+-} 1.07 m{sup 2} g{sub PM}{sup -1}, respectively. Particle size distributions and optical properties were insensitive to increases in relative humidity to values in excess of 90%, reinforcing previous findings that freshly emitted motor vehicle particulate matter is hydrophobic.

  17. Genetic heterogeneity of primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension: linkage to GLC1A associated with an increased risk of severe glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Brézin, A P; Béchetoille, A; Hamard, P; Valtot, F; Berkani, M; Belmouden, A; Adam, M F; Dupont de Dinechin, S; Bach, J F; Garchon, H J

    1997-01-01

    The GLC1A locus for autosomal dominant juvenile and middle age onset primary open angle glaucoma (OAG) has been mapped to chromosome 1q21-q31. OAG, however, is a heterogeneous disease. We tested linkage of OAG and ocular hypertension (OHT), a major risk factor for OAG, to GLC1A in eight French families with multiple cases of juvenile and middle age onset OAG. There was strong evidence of genetic heterogeneity, four families being linked to GLC1A and two or three others being unlinked, depending on whether the complete OAG phenotype was analysed alone or jointly with OHT. Peak intraocular pressure (IOP) did not differ significantly between the two groups of families, while linkage to GLC1A conferred a highly increased risk of developing OAG and of having severe glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Testing linkage of familial OAG to GLC1A may therefore have prognostic value too. PMID:9222961

  18. Partial mitochondrial complex I inhibition induces oxidative damage and perturbs glutamate transport in primary retinal cultures. Relevance to Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON).

    PubMed

    Beretta, Simone; Wood, John P M; Derham, Barry; Sala, Gessica; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Ferrarese, Carlo; Osborne, Neville N

    2006-11-01

    Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited form of visual loss, due to selective degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. Despite the established aetiological association between LHON and mitochondrial DNA mutations affecting complex I of the electron transport chain, the pathophysiology of this disorder remains obscure. Primary rat retinal cultures were exposed to increasing concentrations of rotenone to titrate complex I inhibition. Neural cells were more sensitive than Müller glial cells to rotenone toxicity. Rotenone induced an increase in mitochondrial-derived free radicals and lipid peroxidation. Sodium-dependent glutamate uptake, which is mostly mediated by the glutamate transporter GLAST expressed by Müller glial cells, was reduced dose-dependently by rotenone with no changes in GLAST expression. Our findings suggest that complex I-derived free radicals and disruption of glutamate transport might represent key elements for explaining the selective retinal ganglion cell death in LHON.

  19. [Autonomy and health needs in the systematization of nursing assistance under the optics of the primary care].

    PubMed

    Barros, Débora Gomes; Chiesa, Anna Maria

    2007-12-01

    Given recent changes in the organization of the primary health care in Brazil, it is necessary to reflect on the contributions of nursing care. This article aims to review the concepts of autonomy and health needs and its applications in different proposals for the systematization of the nursing care. It is a literature review on systematization of the nursing assistance, autonomy and health needs in databases LILACS and BDENF. The most relevant results indicate that autonomy incorporates aspects professional and patient's that are sustained by their respective categories. About needs we found that tracks biological needs and social needs, which intersect with the psychological to cover biopsychosocial needs. It was found that the application of the concepts was not present in classification systems of nursing. However, they were more related to International Classification of Nursing Practice (ICNP) and International Classification of Nursing Practice in Collective Heath (ICNPCH) projects.

  20. Secondary optic nerve tumors.

    PubMed

    Christmas, N J; Mead, M D; Richardson, E P; Albert, D M

    1991-01-01

    Secondary tumors of the optic nerve are more common than primary optic nerve tumors. The involvement of the optic nerve may arise from direct invasion from intraocular malignancies, from hematopoietic malignancy, from meningeal carcinomatosis, or from distant primary tumors. Orbital tumors rarely invade the optic nerve, and brain tumors involve it only in their late stages.

  1. Localization of the fourth locus (GLC1E) for adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma to the 10p15-p14 region.

    PubMed

    Sarfarazi, M; Child, A; Stoilova, D; Brice, G; Desai, T; Trifan, O C; Poinoosawmy, D; Crick, R P

    1998-03-01

    One of the major causes of blindness is primary open-angle glaucoma, which affects millions of elderly people worldwide. Genetic studies have so far mapped three loci for the adult-onset form of this condition to the 2cen-q13, 3q21-q24, and 8q23 regions. Herein, we report the localization of a fourth locus, to the 10p15-p14 region, in one large British family with a classical form of normal-tension open-angle glaucoma. Of the 42 meioses genotyped in this pedigree, 39 subjects (16 affected) inherited a haplotype compatible with their prior clinical designation, whereas the remaining 3 were classified as unknown. Although a maximum LOD score of 10.00 at a recombination fraction of straight theta=.00 was obtained with D10S1216, 21 other markers provided significant values, varying between 3.77 and 9.70. When only the affected meioses of this kindred were analyzed, LOD scores remained statistically significant, ranging from 3.16 (D10S527) to 3.57 (D10S506). Two critical recombinational events in the affected subjects positioned this new locus to a region of approximately 21 cM, flanked by D10S1729 and D10S1664. However, an additional recombination in a 59-year-old unaffected female suggests that this locus resides between D10S585 (or D10S1172) and D10S1664, within a genetic distance of 5-11 cM. However, the latter minimum region must be taken cautiously, because the incomplete penetrance has previously been documented for this group of eye conditions. A partial list of genes that positionally are considered as candidates includes NET1, PRKCT, ITIH2, IL2RA, IL15RA, IT1H2, hGATA3, the mRNA for open reading frame KIAA0019, and the gene for D123 protein.

  2. Application thinking on Bian-stone of the acousto-optic effect in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shu; Chen, Gui-Zhen; Liu, Song-Hao

    2009-08-01

    In order to identify the relations between the Si-Bin Bian-stone of the mineral composition characteristics and Bian-stone of the good infrared emission features. A detailed study of the Sibin Bian-stone samples was conducted by using the laser Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The study is to provide theoretical physical support for Bian-stone in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. And Thermal tomography technology (TTM) is intended to be carried out to assess the effects of Bian-stone. The Raman spectroscopic study confirmed the existence of fine-grained pyrite, anatase, calcitepyrite and graphite. It is believed that the combination of good thermal properties of the above 4 minerals make the Sibin Bian-stone as a useful material with very good physiotherapical functions. The ultrasonic has a resonance with the body's biological molecules so that it can improve meridians microcirculation. Hence, the Sibin Bian-stones can be used to make acupuncture tools for stimulating the circulation of the blood in vessels and relieving pains of human beings by utilizing its infrared thermal radiation property. TTM which accepts the heat produced by the metabolism process of life can reflect the energy status information, TTM will be introduced to evaluate effect at the overall level of the abdomen from the thermal image and analyze to derive a comprehensive diagnosis. In sum, this experiment is explored to provide a new idea for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine.

  3. Modelo Pedagogico de Educacion Primaria para Adultos: Manual para la Vinculacion y Funcionamiento de los Comites de Educacion para Adultos (A Teaching Model for Adult Primary Education: Manual for the Continuation and Operation of Adult Education Committees).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This manual is part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. This document describes the concept of a model for community adult education for the purpose of supporting local educational committees…

  4. Age-Related Prognostic Impact of Different Types of DNMT3A Mutations in Adults With Primary Cytogenetically Normal Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Marcucci, Guido; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Schwind, Sebastian; Becker, Heiko; Maharry, Kati; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Radmacher, Michael D.; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Nicolet, Deedra; Whitman, Susan P.; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Powell, Bayard L.; Carter, Thomas H.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Wetzler, Meir; Carroll, Andrew J.; Baer, Maria R.; Moore, Joseph O.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Larson, Richard A.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the frequency of DNMT3A mutations, their associations with clinical and molecular characteristics and outcome, and the associated gene- and microRNA-expression signatures in primary cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Patients and Methods Four hundred fifteen previously untreated adults were analyzed for DNMT3A mutations and established prognostic gene mutations and expression markers. Gene- and microRNA-expression profiles were derived using microarrays. Results Younger (< 60 years; n = 181) and older (≥ 60 years; n = 234) patients had similar frequencies of DNMT3A mutations (35.3% v 33.3%). Missense mutations affecting arginine codon 882 (R882-DNMT3A) were more common (n = 92; 62%) than those affecting other codons (non–R882-DNMT3A). DNMT3A-mutated patients did not differ regarding complete remission rate, but had shorter disease-free survival (DFS; P = .03) and, by trend, overall survival (OS; P = .07) than DNMT3A–wild-type patients. In multivariable analyses, DNMT3A mutations remained associated with shorter DFS (P = .01), but not with shorter OS. When analyzed separately, the two DNMT3A mutation types had different significance by age group. Younger patients with non–R882-DNMT3A mutations had shorter DFS (P = .002) and OS (P = .02), whereas older patients with R882-DNMT3A mutations had shorter DFS (P = .005) and OS (P = .002) after adjustment for other clinical and molecular prognosticators. Gene- and microRNA-expression signatures did not accurately predict DNMT3A mutational status. Conclusion DNMT3A mutations are frequent in CN-AML, and their clinical significance seems to be age dependent. DNMT3A-R882 mutations are associated with adverse prognosis in older patients, and non–R882-DNMT3A mutations are associated with adverse prognosis in younger patients. Low accuracy of gene- and microRNA-expression signatures in predicting DNMT3A mutation status suggested that the role of these mutations in AML remains to

  5. Relationship between obesity and antipsychotic drug use in the adult population: A longitudinal, retrospective claim database study in Primary Care settings

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Blanca-Tamayo, Milagrosa

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the association between obesity and the use of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in adult outpatients followed-up on in five Primary Care settings. Methods A longitudinal, retrospective design study carried out between July 2004 and June 2005, in patients who were included in a claim database and for whom an APD treatment had been registered. A body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m2 was defined as obesity. The main measurements were: use of APDs, demographics, medical background and co-morbidities, and clinical parameters. Logistic regression analysis and ANCOVA with Bonferroni adjustment were applied to correct the model. Results A total of 42,437 subjects (mean age: 50.8 (18.4) years; women: 54.5%; obesity: 27.3% [95% confidence intervals (CI), 26.9%–27.7%]) were analyzed. A total of 1.3% of the patients were receiving APDs, without statistical differences in distribution by type of drug (typical: 48.8%; atypical: 51.2%). Obesity was associated with the use of APDs [OR = 1.5 (CI: 1.3–1.8)], hypertension [OR = 2.4 (CI: 2.2–2.5)], diabetes [OR = 1.4 (CI: 1.3–1.5)] and dyslipidemia [OR = 1.3 (CI: 1.2–1.4)], p < 0.0001 in all cases. BMI was significantly higher in subjects on APDs; 28.8 vs. 27.3 kg/m2, p = 0.002, and remained higher after adjusting by age and sex (mean difference 0.4 (CI: 0.1–0.7), p < 0.01). After adjusting by age, sex and the Charlson index, obese subjects generated higher average annual total costs than nonobese subjects; 811 (CI: 787–835) vs. 694 (CI: 679–709), respectively, p < 0.001. Conclusions Obesity was associated with the use of APDs, regardless of the type of drug, and with the presence of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Obesity was also associated with substantially higher health care costs. PMID:18728769

  6. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the

  7. Proteomic identification of non-erythrocytic alpha-spectrin-1 down-regulation in the pre-optic area of neonatally estradiol-17β treated female adult rats.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Rao, Addicam Jagannadha

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that sexually dimorphic brain regions, which are critical for reproductive physiology and behavior, are organized by steroid hormones during the first 2 weeks after birth in the rodents. In our recent observation, neonatal exposure to estradiol-17β (E2) in the female rat revealed increase in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) level, sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN)-pre-optic area (POA) size and down-regulation of synaptogenesis related genes in POA in the adult stage. In the present study, using the same animal model, the protein profile of control and neonatally E2-treated POA was compared by 1D-SDS-PAGE, and the protein that shows a change in abundance was identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Results indicated that there was a single protein band, which was down-regulation in E2-treated POA and it was identified as spectrin alpha chain, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTAN1). Consistently, the down-regulation of SPTAN1 expression was also confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. The SPTAN1 was identified as a cytoskeletal protein that is involved in stabilization of the plasma membrane and organizes intracellular organelles, and it has been implicated in cellular functions including DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. The evidence shows that any mutation in spectrins causes impairment of synaptogenesis and other neurological disorders. Also, protein-protein interaction analysis of SPTAN1 revealed a strong association with proteins such as kirrel, actinin, alpha 4 (ACTN4) and vinculin (VCL) which are implicated in sexual behavior, masculinization and defeminization. Our results indicate that SPTAN1 expression in the developing rat brain is sexually dimorphic, and we suggest that this gene may mediate E2-17β-induced masculinization and defeminization, and disrupted reproductive function in the adult stage. PMID:27166725

  8. Validation of Surface Bio-Optical Properties in the Gulf of Maine as a Means for Improving Satellite Primary Production Estimates. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balch, William M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in providing sea-truth data for various ocean color sensors is climatology. This is particularly true in the Gulf of Maine since it is cloudy and foggy more than it is clear; the climatology shows on average, about one in four to five days has clear skies with clear days slightly more frequent in the late summer and early fall. Our strategy has been to use a ship of opportunity where one has choice of the sampling days. This provides much better flexibility to sample during clear periods with good satellite coverage. Our Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) contract has been to use the M/S Scotia Prince ferry as a ship of opportunity, running between Portland, Maine and Yarmouth, NS. Measurements include continuous, surface, along-track fluorescence, two independent measures of backscattering, total light scattering, absorption, beam attenuation, above-water remote sensing reflectance, calcite-dependent light scattering, temperature, and salinity. Expendable bathythermography (XBT) drops allow acquisition of vertical temperature information, useful for defining isopycnal slope, which affects primary production. These data are comparable to a previous program from early 1982, where a ship of opportunity program (SOOP) was run on the truck ferry, M/V Marine Evangeline, which ran along the same transect. These surface data were combined with satellite-derived sea surface temperature fields to examine the Maine coastal current. Unfortunately, this program stopped in 1982. The ongoing SIMBIOS results will dovetail nicely with the previous work (which also had Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) coverage) for looking at any long-term changes in the Gulf of Maine hydrography, bio-optics, and biogeochemistry.

  9. Modelo Pedagogico de Educacion Primaria para Adultos: Guia General de Apoyo para el Estudiante de Primaria (Pedagogical Model for Adult Primary Education: General Guide for the Student).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This book, part of a Mexican series of instructional materials, is directed toward people over the age of 15 who are interested in beginning, continuing or finishing their basic education. It explains the pedagogical model developed for adult education in Mexico based on the following features: (1) the content of the textbooks must be useful for…

  10. Localisation of calcium ions and calcium-ATPase activity within myelinated nerve fibres of the adult guinea-pig optic nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, W L; Watt, C; Pediani, J D; Graham, D I; Adams, J H; Gennarelli, T A

    1991-01-01

    There is no published description of the distribution of free Ca2+, nor of the distribution of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity associated with the maintenance of low axoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations, in normal central myelinated nerve fibres. We have used the oxalate-pyroantimonate technique to localise free Ca2+, together with the lead-citrate technique to localise Ca(2+)-ATPase activity within myelinated fibres from the adult guinea-pig optic nerve. Pyroantimonate precipitate occurred within the axoplasm at nodes of Ranvier and the internode, at areas of myelin disruption, within Schmidt-Lanterman incisures (SLI) and glial paranodal loops. But precipitate was absent from the axoplasm beneath SLI and at the paranode. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was localised in axonal smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), the outer membrane of mitochondria, the nodal axolemma, the glial membranes of the paranodal loops, the SLI and the external aspect of the myelin sheath. We have demonstrated large domains within the axons of CNS fibres where calcium is present or absent. Moreover, we have shown that, where calcium is absent, there is localisation of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, which would serve to remove calcium from the adjacent axoplasm. Our results are compared with information obtained from PNS fibres and some differences of distribution discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1833365

  11. A high-density EEG study of differences between three high speeds of simulated forward motion from optic flow in adult participants

    PubMed Central

    Vilhelmsen, Kenneth; van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2015-01-01

    A high-density EEG study was conducted to investigate evoked and oscillatory brain activity in response to high speeds of simulated forward motion. Participants were shown an optic flow pattern consisting of a virtual road with moving poles at either side of it, simulating structured forward motion at different driving speeds (25, 50, and 75 km/h) with a static control condition between each motion condition. Significant differences in N2 latencies and peak amplitudes between the three speeds of visual motion were found in parietal channels of interest P3 and P4. As motion speed increased, peak latency increased while peak amplitude decreased which might indicate that higher driving speeds are perceived as more demanding resulting in longer latencies, and as fewer neurons in the motion sensitive areas of the adult brain appear to be attuned to such high visual speeds this could explain the observed inverse relationship between speed and amplitude. In addition, significant differences between alpha de-synchronizations for forward motion and alpha synchronizations in the static condition were found in the parietal midline (PM) source. It was suggested that the alpha de-synchronizations reflect an activated state related to the visual processing of simulated forward motion, whereas the alpha synchronizations in response to the static condition reflect a deactivated resting period. PMID:26578903

  12. Odd-skipped labels a group of distinct neurons associated with the mushroom body and optic lobe in the adult Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Levy, Peter; Larsen, Camilla

    2013-11-01

    Olfactory processing has been intensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster. However, we still know little about the descending neural pathways from the higher order processing centers and how these connect with other neural circuits. Here we describe, in detail, the adult projections patterns that arise from a cluster of 78 neurons, defined by the expression of the Odd-skipped transcription factor. We term these neurons Odd neurons. By using expression of genetically encoded axonal and dendritic markers, we show that a subset of the Odd neurons projects dendrites into the calyx of the mushroom body (MB) and axons into the inferior protocerebrum. We exclude the possibility that the Odd neurons are part of the well-known Kenyon cells whose projections form the MB and conclude that the Odd neurons belong to a previously not described class of extrinsic MB neurons. In addition, three of the Odd neurons project into the lobula plate of the optic lobe, and two of these cells extend axons ipsi- and contralaterally in the brain. Anatomically, these cells do not resemble any previously described lobula plate tangential cells (LPTCs) in Drosophila. We show that the Odd neurons are predominantly cholinergic but also include a small number of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons. Finally, we provide evidence that the Odd neurons are a hemilineage, suggesting they are born from a defined set of neuroblasts. Our anatomical analysis hints at the possibility that subgroups of Odd neurons could be involved in olfactory and visual processing.

  13. Primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the uvea associated with massive diffuse epibulbar extension and focal infiltration of the optic nerve and meninges, clinically presented as uveitis masquerade syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rasić, D M; Stanković, Z; Terzić, T; Kovacević, D; Koturović, Z; Marković, V

    2010-09-01

    To report a clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in a case of primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the uvea associated with massive diffuse extraocular episcleral extension and focal infiltration of the optic nerve and meninges, clinically presented as longstanding uveitis masquerade syndrome. Interventional case reports with histopathological correlation. We describe a 80-year-old male patient with a 3-year history of chronic recurrent hypertensive (pan) uveitis associated with ocular pain, unresponsive to topical and systemic anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, antibiotic/antiviral and antiglaucomatous therapy. Because the eye was not salvageable with conservative treatment, enucleation of blind and painful eye was performed. Findings from histopathological and immunohistochemistry examination of the enucleated eye showed an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the uveal tract with massive epibulbar extension and optic nerve and meningeal penetration. During almost 3 years of clinical course and 6 months after the enucleation, there were no systemic manifestations of lymphoma, and patient has not required subsequent treatment. Primary lymphoproliferative lesions of the uvea, comprising the iris, ciliary body and choroid are very rare, associated with epibulbar extension extremely and with optic nerve and menigeal penetration exceptionally. Despite its rarity, primary lymphoma of the uvea should be included in the differential diagnosis particularly in older patients with longstanding recurrent uveitis.

  14. Sero-epidemiology of Hepatitis B Surface Antigenaemia among Adult Nigerians with Clinical Features of Liver Diseases Attending a Primary-Care Clinic in a Resource-Constrained Setting of Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Iloh, Gabriel Uche Pascal; Ikwudinma, Austin Obiora

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis-B infection is not commonly perceived as a serious medical problem in Nigeria. However, chronic hepatitis-B infection, which is a subject of global concern, may lead to lethal liver diseases. Aim: The study was to determine the sero-epidemiology of hepatitis-B surface antigenaemia among adult Nigerians with clinical features of liver diseases attending a primary-care clinic in a resource-constrained setting of Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 140 adult Nigerians with clinical features of liver diseases at the primary-care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Owerri. They made up three groups: 44 patients, 62 patients and 34 patients with clinical features of hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively. Hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) was assayed using an immunochromatographic method. Demographic variables were collected. Results: The overall sero-positivity rate was 50.7%. The sero-positivity rates for these patients were 23.9%, 39.5% and 36.6% for hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively. The age group 40-60 years (P = 0.048) and artisans (P = 0.019) were significantly infected. Abdominal swelling (86.4%) and ascites (67.1%) were the most common symptoms and signs, respectively. Conclusion: HBsAg prevalence was high and has significant association with age and occupation. PMID:23724405

  15. Adult lupus-prone MRL/MpJ2+ mice express a primary antibody repertoire that differs in CDR-H3 length distribution and hydrophobicity from that expressed in the C3H parental strain.

    PubMed

    Zemlin, Michael; Ippolito, Gregory C; Zemlin, Cosima; Link, Jason; Monestier, Marc; Schroeder, Harry W

    2005-05-01

    Anti-dsDNA antibodies tend to be enriched for heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR-H3) intervals of above average length that contain an increased frequency of charged amino acids. It is unclear whether these types of CDR-H3s are more common in the primary B-cell repertoire of auto-immune prone strains or whether their increased prevalence in affected individuals reflects positive selection and expansion of atypical CDR-H3s in the pathogenic response to self-antigen. Here, we present evidence that when compared to C3H, a MRL/MpJ(2+) parental strain, CDR-H3 intervals from pre-B cells of adult lupus-prone MRL/MpJ(2+) mice are longer on average and are enriched for charged amino acids. The predicted prevalence of deformed loops per Shirai H3 criteria is also higher. In contrast, the frequency of charge, the distribution of length, and the pattern of predicted deformed loop structures did not differ in sequences obtained from neonates of the same two strains. These observations suggest that the mechanisms that serve to shape the initial CDR-H3 repertoire in adults, but not neonates, are being regulated differently in C3H versus MRL/MpJ(2+). Dysregulation of the adult pre-B CDR-H3 antibody repertoire could be a contributing factor for the development of florid auto-immune disease in MRL/MpJ(2+) mice.

  16. The optical and physiological properties of phytoplankton - base of model for estimation of primary production in the sea from satellite data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finenko, Z. Z.; Churilova, T. Ya.

    An assessment of the spatial and temporal variation in the photo physiological parameters and chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of marine phytoplankton is essential for estimate of global primary production by satellite data. Relationships of photosynthesis rate on light intensity have been used for estimation of two photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton in the Black Sea: light saturated photosynthesis intensity (Pb/max, mgC mg Chl-1 h-1) and photosynthesis efficiency (alpha/b mgC mg Chl -1 h-1/ W m-2). The results have shown that variability of photosynthetic parameters of surface phytoplankton during the year varied by one order of values: Pb/max - from 1 to 11 mg C mg Chl-1 h-1 and (alpha/b - from 0.04 to 0.35 mg C mg Chl-1 h-1/Wm-2. Temporal dynamics was characterised by increasing of the values from winter to summer and decreasing to the end of the year. The vertical profiles of Pb/max and alpha/b had opposite character of change: values of Pb/max decreased with depth, alpha/b - increased. Photosynthetic parameters changed with depth more significantly at time of stratification, than - without stratification. The influence of temperature, nitrate concentration and light intensity on Pb/max rather evidence, but temperature and optical depth effect on Pb/max more significantly. Depth-dependent variability of photosynthesis efficiency is generally effected of nutrient concentration. Vertical uniformity of maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Fm) and spectral mean absorption coefficient of phytoplankton (aph) in euphotic zone were obtained for cold period of year. In summer - Fm increased from surface to bottom of euphotic zone, aph - decrease. Fm and aph values of surface phytoplankton depended on chlorophyll concentration but their changes had opposite direction: Fm - increased and aph - decreased when chlorophyll concentration grew. As a result Pb/max = Z Fm aph Ik T and alpha/b = Z Fm aph T (where Z - a dimensional constant equal to the

  17. A real-time ARMS PCR/high-resolution melt curve assay for the detection of the three primary mitochondrial mutations in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Fergus; O’Dwyer, Veronica; Neylan, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Approximately 95% of patients who are diagnosed with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) have one of three mitochondrial point mutations responsible for the disease, G3460A, G11778A, and T14484C. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel multiplex real-time amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR combined with high-resolution melt curves to identify the individual mutations involved. The study aimed to provide a more robust, cost- and time-effective mutation detection strategy than that offered with currently available methods. The assay reported in this study will allow diagnostic laboratories to avoid costly next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays for most patients with LHON and to focus resources on patients with unknown mutations that require further analysis. Methods The test uses a combination of multiplex allele-specific PCR (ARMS PCR) in combination with a high-resolution melt curve analysis to detect the presence of the mutations in G3460A, G11778A, and T14484C. PCR primer sets were designed to produce a control PCR product and PCR products only in the presence of the mutations in 3460A, 11778A, and 14484C in a multiplex single tube format. Products produce discrete well-separated melt curves to clearly detect the mutations. Results This novel real-time ARMS PCR/high-resolution melt curve assay accurately detected 95% of the mutations that cause LHON. The test has proved to be robust, cost- and time-effective with the real-time closed tube system taking approximately 1 h to complete. Conclusions A novel real-time ARMS PCR/high-resolution melt curve assay is described for the detection of the three primary mitochondrial mutations in LHON. This test provides a simple, robust, easy-to-read output that is cost- and time-effective, thus providing an alternative method to individual endpoint PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), PCR followed by Sanger sequencing or pyrosequencing, and next-generation sequencing

  18. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and may improve the opportunities

  19. MR Imaging Evaluation of Intracerebral Hemorrhages and T2 Hyperintense White Matter Lesions Appearing after Radiation Therapy in Adult Patients with Primary Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Tae Jin; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Se-Hoon; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sung-Hye; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Il Han; Choi, Seung Hong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the frequency and severity of intracerebral hemorrhages and T2 hyperintense white matter lesions (WMLs) following radiation therapy for brain tumors in adult patients. Of 648 adult brain tumor patients who received radiation therapy at our institute, magnetic resonance (MR) image data consisting of a gradient echo (GRE) and FLAIR T2-weighted image were available three and five years after radiation therapy in 81 patients. Intracerebral hemorrhage was defined as a hypointense dot lesion appearing on GRE images after radiation therapy. The number and size of the lesions were evaluated. The T2 hyperintense WMLs observed on the FLAIR sequences were graded according to the extent of the lesion. Intracerebral hemorrhage was detected in 21 (25.9%) and 35 (43.2) patients in the three- and five-year follow-up images, respectively. The number of intracerebral hemorrhages per patient tended to increase as the follow-up period increased, whereas the size of the intracerebral hemorrhages exhibited little variation over the course of follow-up. T2 hyperintense WMLs were observed in 27 (33.3%) and 32 (39.5) patients in the three and five year follow-up images, respectively. The age at the time of radiation therapy was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the patients with T2 hyperintense WMLs than in those without lesions. Intracerebral hemorrhages are not uncommon in adult brain tumor patients undergoing radiation therapy. The incidence and number of intracerebral hemorrhages increased over the course of follow-up. T2 hyperintense WMLs were observed in more than one-third of the study population. PMID:26322780

  20. Primary Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults as a Risk Factor for Pulmonary Embolism: An Up-to-Date Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Ali, Alaa M.; Barbaryan, Aram; Prueksaritanond, Suartcha; Hussain, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Patients with nephrotic syndrome are at an increased risk for thrombotic events; deep venous thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism are quite common in patients with nephrotic syndrome. It is important to note that nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy may impose a greater thrombotic risk for unclear reasons. Increased platelet activation, enhanced red blood cell aggregation, and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors are thought to underlie the excessive thrombotic risk in patients with nephrotic syndrome. The current scientific literature suggests that patients with low serum albumin levels and membranous nephropathy may benefit from primary prophylactic anticoagulation. A thorough approach which includes accounting for all additional thrombotic risk factors is, therefore, essential. Patient counseling regarding the pros and cons of anticoagulation is of paramount importance. Future prospective randomized studies should address the question regarding the utility of primary thromboprophylaxis in patients with nephrotic syndrome. PMID:24829800

  1. Absolute measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in old and young adults with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Sassaroli, Angelo; Wysocki, Michael; Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Schnaider Beeri, Michal; Haroutunian, Vahram; Shaul, Merav; Rosenberg, Irwin H.; Troen, Aron M.; Fantini, Sergio

    2012-08-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of absolute cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a large sample of 36 healthy elderly (mean age, 85±6 years) and 19 young adults (mean age, 28±4 years). Non-invasive measurements were obtained on the forehead using a commercially available multi-distance frequency-domain system and analyzed using a diffusion theory model for a semi-infinite, homogeneous medium with semi-infinite boundary conditions. Our study included repeat measurements, taken five months apart, on 16 elderly volunteers that demonstrate intra-subject reproducibility of the absolute measurements with cross-correlation coefficients of 0.9 for absorption coefficient (μa), oxy-hemoglobin concentration ([HbO2]), and total hemoglobin concentration ([HbT]), 0.7 for deoxy-hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), 0.8 for hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2), and 0.7 for reduced scattering coefficient (). We found significant differences between the two age groups. Compared to young subjects, elderly subjects had lower cerebral [HbO2], [Hb], [HbT], and StO2 by 10±4 μM, 4±3 μM, 14±5 μM, and 6%±5%, respectively. Our results demonstrate the reliability and robustness of multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy measurements based on a homogeneous model in the human forehead on a large sample of human subjects. Absolute, non-invasive optical measurements on the brain, such as those presented here, can significantly advance the development of NIRS technology as a tool for monitoring resting/basal cerebral perfusion, hemodynamics, oxygenation, and metabolism.

  2. Optical detection of intravenous infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchester, Leonard W.; Chou, Nee-Yin

    2006-02-01

    Infiltration of medications during infusion therapy results in complications ranging from erythema and pain to tissue necrosis requiring amputation. Infiltration occurs from improper insertion of the cannula, separation of the cannula from the vein, penetration of the vein by the cannula during movement, and response of the vein to the medication. At present, visual inspection by the clinical staff is the primary means for detecting intravenous (IV) infiltration. An optical sensor was developed to monitor the needle insertion site for signs of IV infiltration. Initial studies on simulated and induced infiltrations on a swine model validated the feasibility of the methodology. The presence of IV infiltration was confirmed by visual inspection of the infusion site and/or absence of blood return in the IV line. Potential sources of error due to illumination changes, motion artifacts, and edema were also investigated. A comparison of the performance of the optical device and blinded expert observers showed that the optical sensor has higher sensitivity and specificity, and shorter detection time than the expert observers. An improved model of the infiltration monitoring device was developed and evaluated in a clinical study on induced infiltrations of healthy adult volunteers. The performance of the device was compared with the observation of a blinded expert observer. The results show that the rates of detection of infiltrations are 98% and 82% for the optical sensor and the observer, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the optical sensor are 0.97 and 0.98, respectively.

  3. Fine mapping of juvenile primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) on 1q21-q31 and exculsion of adult-POAG from the respective region

    SciTech Connect

    Child, A.; Sarfarazi, M.; Crick, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    Juvenile POAG is an autosomal dominant eye disorder which has recently been mapped to 1q21-q24, in a region of 14-23 cM. We report here linkage analysis of 9 microsatellite repeat markers spanning this region in families from England, Scotland and Sardinia. We have observed no recombinants with D1S433 (Z=2.86) and obtained looser linkage with D1S196 ({theta}=0.03; Z=6.38), D1S431 ({theta}=0.14; Z=2.74), D1S210 ({theta}=0.06; Z=1.32), D1S452 ({theta}=0.18; Z=0.729) and D1S242 ({theta}=0.08; Z=2.29). In one family, a critical recombinant in an affected individual localizes the J-POAG locus between D1S452 and D1S242 in a 3 cM region. However, other recombinants in two normal individuals from different families suggests that J-POAG may be localized in a 1 cM distance between D1S433 and D1S431. These unaffected individuals have well passed the age-of-onset in their respective pedigrees. This result suggests that either these two recombinant individuals are gene carriers (i.e., non-penetrants) or there are more than one gene in this region causing the same disease. The possibility of the latter is less likely, since in addition to a total of 4 non-penetrant individuals in our panel, other such cases have also been reported previously. This in turn suggests that the precentage of non-penetrant cases in J-POAG may be considerably higher than it was previously appreciated. Study of 14 families with adult-onset POAG revealed no segregation with the above-mentioned linked microsatellite markers. Our findings confirm, for the first time, that adult-POAG is genetically distinct from the J-POAG. Genetic linkage study of adult families with additional STRPs is currently in progress.

  4. Evaluation of a multidisciplinary Tier 3 weight management service for adults with morbid obesity, or obesity and comorbidities, based in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, A; Hughes, C A; Kumaravel, B; Bachmann, M O; Steel, N; Capehorn, M; Cheema, K

    2014-01-01

    A multidisciplinary Tier 3 weight management service in primary care recruited patients with a body mass index ≥40 kg·m−2, or 30 kg·m−2 with obesity-related co-morbidity to a 1-year programme. A cohort of 230 participants was recruited and evaluated using the National Obesity Observatory Standard Evaluation Framework. The primary outcome was weight loss of at least 5% of baseline weight at 12 months. Diet was assessed using the two-item food frequency questionnaire, activity using the General Practice Physical Activity questionnaire and quality of life using the EuroQol-5D-5L questionnaire. A focus group explored the participants' experiences. Baseline mean weight was 124.4 kg and mean body mass index was 44.1 kg·m−2. A total of 102 participants achieved 5% weight loss at 12 months. The mean weight loss was 10.2 kg among the 117 participants who completed the 12-month programme. Baseline observation carried forward analysis gave a mean weight loss of 5.9 kg at 12 months. Fruit and vegetable intake, activity level and quality of life all improved. The dropout rate was 14.3% at 6 months and 45.1% at 1 year. Focus group participants described high levels of satisfaction. It was possible to deliver a Tier 3 weight management service for obese patients with complex co-morbidity in a primary care setting with a full multidisciplinary team, which obtained good health outcomes compared with existing services. PMID:25825858

  5. Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Adults with Transposition of the Great Arteries: A Review of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement

    PubMed Central

    Cedars, Ari M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposition of the great arteries encompasses a set of structural congenital cardiac lesions that has in common ventriculoarterial discordance. Primarily because of advances in medical and surgical care, an increasing number of children born with this anomaly are surviving into adulthood. Depending upon the subtype of lesion or the particular corrective surgery that the patient might have undergone, this group of adult congenital heart disease patients constitutes a relatively new population with unique medical sequelae. Among the more common and difficult to manage are cardiac arrhythmias and other sequelae that can lead to sudden cardiac death. To date, the question of whether implantable cardioverter-defibrillators should be placed in this cohort as a preventive measure to abort sudden death has largely gone unanswered. Therefore, we review the available literature surrounding this issue. PMID:26413012

  6. Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Adults with Transposition of the Great Arteries: A Review of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Sandeep S; Cedars, Ari M

    2015-08-01

    Transposition of the great arteries encompasses a set of structural congenital cardiac lesions that has in common ventriculoarterial discordance. Primarily because of advances in medical and surgical care, an increasing number of children born with this anomaly are surviving into adulthood. Depending upon the subtype of lesion or the particular corrective surgery that the patient might have undergone, this group of adult congenital heart disease patients constitutes a relatively new population with unique medical sequelae. Among the more common and difficult to manage are cardiac arrhythmias and other sequelae that can lead to sudden cardiac death. To date, the question of whether implantable cardioverter-defibrillators should be placed in this cohort as a preventive measure to abort sudden death has largely gone unanswered. Therefore, we review the available literature surrounding this issue. PMID:26413012

  7. What do we need for airway management of adult casualties on the Primary Casualty Receiving Facility? A review of airway management on Role 3 Afloat.

    PubMed

    Mercer, S; Read, J; Sudheer, S; Risdall, J E; Connor, D

    2015-01-01

    The Primary Casualty Receiving Facility (PCRF) of the Royal Navy (RN) is currently based on Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) ARGUS and provides a functioning hospital with surgical teams and a CT scanner (Role 3) within the maritime environment. The case mix could include complex trauma, critically ill patients returning to theatre several times, as well as non-battle injury procedures. This paper describes how we have used national guidelines, evidence from recent military experience, and the Clinical Guidelines for Operations (CGOs) to review and rationalise the airway equipment that is available and that would be required for the PCRF in its current configuration, whilst maintaining capability in a deployed setting. PMID:26867417

  8. A Study of the Infant Nasal Microbiome Development over the First Year of Life and in Relation to Their Primary Adult Caregivers Using cpn60 Universal Target (UT) as a Phylogenetic Marker.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Shelley W; Knox, Natalie C; Golding, George R; Tyler, Shaun D; Tyler, Andrea D; Mabon, Philip; Embree, Joanne E; Fleming, Fiona; Fanella, Sergio; Van Domselaar, Gary; Mulvey, Michael R; Graham, Morag R

    2016-01-01

    Whereas the infant gut microbiome is the subject of intense study, relatively little is known regarding the nares microbiome in newborns and during early life. This study aimed to survey the typical composition and diversity of human anterior nare microflora for developing infants over time, and to explore how these correlate to their primary caregivers. Single nare swabs were collected at five time points over a one-year period for each subject from infant-caregiver pairs. Our study comprised of 50 infants (recruited at 2 weeks, post delivery) and their 50 primary caregivers. Applying the chaperonin-60 (cpn60) universal target (UT) amplicon as our molecular barcoding marker to census survey the microbial communities, we longitudinally surveyed infant nares microbiota at 5 time points over the course of the first year of life. The inter- and intra-subject diversity was catalogued and compared, both longitudinally and relative to their adult primary caregivers. Although within-subject variability over time and inter-subject variability were both observed, the assessment detected only one or two predominant genera for individual infant samples, belonging mainly to phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Consistent with previously observed microbial population dynamics in other body sites, the diversity of nares microflora increased over the first year of life and infants showed differential operational taxonomic units (OTUs) relative to their matched primary caregiver. The collected evidence also support that both temporal and seasonal changes occur with respect to carriage of potentially pathogenic bacteria (PPBs), which may influence host predisposition to infection. This pilot study surveying paired infant/caregiver nare microbiomes provides novel longitudinal diversity information that is pertinent to better understanding nare microbiome development in infants.

  9. A Study of the Infant Nasal Microbiome Development over the First Year of Life and in Relation to Their Primary Adult Caregivers Using cpn60 Universal Target (UT) as a Phylogenetic Marker

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Shelley W.; Knox, Natalie C.; Golding, George R.; Tyler, Shaun D.; Tyler, Andrea D.; Mabon, Philip; Embree, Joanne E.; Fleming, Fiona; Fanella, Sergio; Van Domselaar, Gary; Mulvey, Michael R.; Graham, Morag R.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas the infant gut microbiome is the subject of intense study, relatively little is known regarding the nares microbiome in newborns and during early life. This study aimed to survey the typical composition and diversity of human anterior nare microflora for developing infants over time, and to explore how these correlate to their primary caregivers. Single nare swabs were collected at five time points over a one-year period for each subject from infant-caregiver pairs. Our study comprised of 50 infants (recruited at 2 weeks, post delivery) and their 50 primary caregivers. Applying the chaperonin-60 (cpn60) universal target (UT) amplicon as our molecular barcoding marker to census survey the microbial communities, we longitudinally surveyed infant nares microbiota at 5 time points over the course of the first year of life. The inter- and intra-subject diversity was catalogued and compared, both longitudinally and relative to their adult primary caregivers. Although within-subject variability over time and inter-subject variability were both observed, the assessment detected only one or two predominant genera for individual infant samples, belonging mainly to phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Consistent with previously observed microbial population dynamics in other body sites, the diversity of nares microflora increased over the first year of life and infants showed differential operational taxonomic units (OTUs) relative to their matched primary caregiver. The collected evidence also support that both temporal and seasonal changes occur with respect to carriage of potentially pathogenic bacteria (PPBs), which may influence host predisposition to infection. This pilot study surveying paired infant/caregiver nare microbiomes provides novel longitudinal diversity information that is pertinent to better understanding nare microbiome development in infants. PMID:27019455

  10. Modeling the Chronic Loss of Optic Nerve Axons and the Effects on the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Structure in Primary Disorder of Myelin

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Leandro B. C.; Ver Hoeve, James N.; Mayer, Joshua A.; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Smith, Chelsey M.; Radcliff, Abigail B.; Duncan, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We determined whether the chronic lack of optic nerve myelination and subsequent axon loss is associated with optical coherence tomography (OCT) changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and whether this models what occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS) and confers its use as a surrogate marker for axon degeneration. Methods Using an animal model of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (shp) bilateral longitudinal measurements of the peripapillary RNFL (spectral-domain OCT), electroretinograms (ERG), and visual evoked potentials (VEP) were performed in affected and control animals from 5 months to 2 years and in individual animals at single time points. Light and electron microscopy of the optic nerve and retina and histomorphometric measurements of the RNFL were compared to OCT data. Results Of the shp animals, 17% had an average reduction of OCT RNFL thickness on the superior retinal quadrant compared to controls (P < 0.05). Electroretinograms showed normal photopic A- and B-waves but flash VEPs were disorganized in shp animals. Morphologically, the shp retinas and optic nerves revealed significant RNFL thinning (P < 0.001) without retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, decrease total and relative retinal axonal area, and loss of optic nerve axons. There was strong positive correlation between OCT and morphometric RNFL thickness measurements (r = 0.878, P = 0.004). Conclusion The loss of optic nerve axons demonstrated in the shp model resulted in moderate thinning of the RNFL confirmed by OCT and histology. These results indicate that OCT-derived RNFL measurement can be a useful surrogate biomarker of optic nerve axon loss and potentially disease progression in demyelinating diseases. PMID:27654412

  11. Management of the clinical issue of constipation with abdominal complaints in adults. A national survey of Primary Care physicians and gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    Rey Díaz-Rubio, Enrique; Mascort Roca, Juan José; Peña Forcada, Enrique; Cañones Garzón, Pedro; Tenias Burillo, Jose María; Júdez Gutiérrez, Francisco Javier

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation represent a relevant and common health issue. However, real-world clinical practice includes patients with constipation who may or may not have other abdominal complaints (pain, bloating, abdominal discomfort) with variable frequency. The goal of the present study was to obtain information on the workload entailed by patients with constipation and associated abdominal complaints, predominant clinical behaviors, education needs, and potential daily practice aids both in Primary Care and gastroenterology settings. The clinical behavior of doctors is generally similar at both levels, despite differences in healthcare approach: use of empiric therapies and clinically guided diagnostic tests, with some differences in colonoscopy use (not always directly accessible from Primary Care). Regarding perceptions, general support and osmotic laxatives are most valued by PC doctors, whereas osmotic laxatives, combined laxatives, and linaclotide are most valued by GE specialists. Furthermore, over half of respondents considered differentiating both diagnoses as challenging. Finally, considerable education needs are self-acknowledged at both levels, as is a demand for guidelines and protocols to help in managing this issue in clinical practice. A strength of this study is its providing a joint photograph of the medical approach and the perceptions of constipation with abdominal discomfort from a medical standpoint. Weaknesses include self-declaration (no formal validation) and a response rate potentially biased by professional motivation. PMID:27165279

  12. Management of the clinical issue of constipation with abdominal complaints in adults. A national survey of Primary Care physicians and gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    Rey Díaz-Rubio, Enrique; Mascort Roca, Juan José; Peña Forcada, Enrique; Cañones Garzón, Pedro; Tenias Burillo, Jose María; Júdez Gutiérrez, Francisco Javier

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation represent a relevant and common health issue. However, real-world clinical practice includes patients with constipation who may or may not have other abdominal complaints (pain, bloating, abdominal discomfort) with variable frequency. The goal of the present study was to obtain information on the workload entailed by patients with constipation and associated abdominal complaints, predominant clinical behaviors, education needs, and potential daily practice aids both in Primary Care and gastroenterology settings. The clinical behavior of doctors is generally similar at both levels, despite differences in healthcare approach: use of empiric therapies and clinically guided diagnostic tests, with some differences in colonoscopy use (not always directly accessible from Primary Care). Regarding perceptions, general support and osmotic laxatives are most valued by PC doctors, whereas osmotic laxatives, combined laxatives, and linaclotide are most valued by GE specialists. Furthermore, over half of respondents considered differentiating both diagnoses as challenging. Finally, considerable education needs are self-acknowledged at both levels, as is a demand for guidelines and protocols to help in managing this issue in clinical practice. A strength of this study is its providing a joint photograph of the medical approach and the perceptions of constipation with abdominal discomfort from a medical standpoint. Weaknesses include self-declaration (no formal validation) and a response rate potentially biased by professional motivation.

  13. A Primary Care Nurse-Delivered Walking Intervention in Older Adults: PACE (Pedometer Accelerometer Consultation Evaluation)-Lift Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Tess; Kerry, Sally M.; Victor, Christina R.; Ekelund, Ulf; Woodcock, Alison; Iliffe, Steve; Whincup, Peter H.; Beighton, Carole; Ussher, Michael; Limb, Elizabeth S.; David, Lee; Brewin, Debbie; Adams, Fredrika; Rogers, Annabelle; Cook, Derek G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Brisk walking in older people can increase step-counts and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) in ≥10-minute bouts, as advised in World Health Organization guidelines. Previous interventions have reported step-count increases, but not change in objectively measured MVPA in older people. We assessed whether a primary care nurse-delivered complex intervention increased objectively measured step-counts and MVPA. Methods and Findings A total of 988 60–75 year olds, able to increase walking and randomly selected from three UK family practices, were invited to participate in a parallel two-arm cluster randomised trial; randomisation was by household. Two-hundred-ninety-eight people from 250 households were randomised between 2011 and 2012; 150 individuals to the intervention group, 148 to the usual care control group. Intervention participants received four primary care nurse physical activity (PA) consultations over 3 months, incorporating behaviour change techniques, pedometer step-count and accelerometer PA intensity feedback, and an individual PA diary and plan. Assessors were not blinded to group status, but statistical analyses were conducted blind. The primary outcome was change in accelerometry assessed average daily step-counts between baseline and 3 months, with change at 12 months a secondary outcome. Other secondary outcomes were change from baseline in time in MVPA weekly in ≥10-minute bouts, accelerometer counts, and counts/minute at 3 months and 12 months. Other outcomes were adverse events, anthropometric measures, mood, and pain. Qualitative evaluations of intervention participants and practice nurses assessed the intervention’s acceptability. At 3 months, eight participants had withdrawn or were lost to follow-up, 280 (94%) individuals provided primary outcome data. At 3 months changes in both average daily step-counts and weekly MVPA in ≥10-minute bouts were significantly higher in the intervention than control

  14. Optic nerve sheath diameter threshold by ocular ultrasonography for detection of increased intracranial pressure in Korean adult patients with brain lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Un; Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Lee, Hannah; Han, Jung Ho; Seo, Mingu; Byoun, Hyoung Soo; Cho, Won-Sang; Ryu, Ho Geol; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Heung Cheol; Jang, Kyung-Sool

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) seen on ocular US has been associated with increased intracranial pressure (IICP). However, most studies have analyzed normal range of ONSD and its optimal cut-off point for IICP in Caucasian populations. Considering ONSD differences according to ethnicity, previous results may not accurately reflect the association between IICP and ONSD in Koreans. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate normal range of ONSD and its optimal threshold for detecting IICP in Korean patients. This prospective multicenter study was performed for patients with suspected IICP. ONSD was measured 3 mm behind the globe using a 13-MHz US probe. IICP was defined as significant brain edema, midline shift, compression of ventricle or basal cistern, effacement of sulci, insufficient gray/white differentiation, and transfalcine herniation by radiologic tests. The results of the ONSD are described as the median (25th–75th percentile). The differences of ONSD according to disease entity were analyzed. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to determine the optimal cut-off point for identifying IICP. A total of 134 patients were enrolled. The patients were divided into 3 groups as follows: patients with IICP, n = 81 (60.5%); patients without IICP, n = 27 (20.1%); and control group, n = 26 (19.4%). ONSD in patients with IICP (5.9 mm [5.8–6.2]) is significantly higher than those without IICP (5.2 mm [4.8–5.4]) (P < 0.01) and normal control group (4.9 mm [4.6–5.2]) (P < 0.001). Between patients without IICP and normal control group, the difference of ONSD did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.31). ONSD >5.5 mm yielded a sensitivity of 98.77% (95% CI: 93.3%–100%) and a specificity of 85.19% (95% CI: 66.3%–95.8%). In conclusion, the optimal cut-off point of ONSD for identifying IICP was 5.5 mm. ONSD seen on ocular US can be a feasible method for detection and serial monitoring of ICP in

  15. A feasibility study of a telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression among adults with a comorbid chronic physical illness in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective We assessed the feasibility and acceptability to patients of a telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression among adults aged 40 years or over with one of six targeted chronic physical illnesses and comorbid depressive symptoms in family practice settings. Methods An open, uncontrolled trial (feasibility study) was conducted among patients treated in Montreal family practices. Eligible patients were aged 40 years or over, had one or more of the targeted chronic physical illnesses for at least 6 months (arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and were evaluated as having at least mild depressive symptoms (a score of ≥ 5 on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9). Participants received a package of six self-care tools (information booklet, video, Internet programme, action plan, workbook and mood-monitoring tool) with telephone support by a lay coach for up to 6 months. Results In total, 63 eligible patients provided written consent and completed the baseline interview; 57 (90%) and 55 (87%) patients completed 2-month and 6-month follow-up interviews, respectively. The mean number of telephone calls made by coaches to participants was 10.5 (SD 4.0), and the average length of these calls was 10.6 minutes. At the 6-month follow-up, 83.6% of the participants reported that one or more of the tools were helpful. Clinically significant improvements were seen in depressive symptoms (as assessed by the PHQ-9) at 6 months, with an effect size of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.55, 1.14). Conclusion A telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression was feasible, was acceptable to patients, and was associated with a significant 6-month improvement in depressive symptoms. A randomised trial of this intervention is justified. PMID:24294301

  16. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  17. Development and evaluation of information resources for patients, families, and healthcare providers addressing behavioral and cognitive sequelae among adults with a primary brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kylie M; Simpson, Grahame K; Koh, Eng-Siew; Whiting, Diane L; Gillett, Lauren; Simpson, Teresa; Firth, Rochelle

    2015-06-01

    Behavioral and cognitive changes in patients with primary brain tumor (PBT) are common and may be distressing to patients and their family members. Healthcare professionals report a strong need for information, practical strategies, and training to assist consumers and better address management issues. A literature review by the current project found that 53% of the information resources currently available to consumers and health professionals contained minimal or no information about cognitive/behavioral changes after PBT, and 71% of the resources contained minimal or no information on associated strategies to manage these changes. This project aimed to develop an information resource for patients, carers, and health professionals addressing the behavioral and cognitive sequelae of PBT, including strategies to minimize the disabling impact of such behaviors. In consultation with staff and patient groups, 16 key information topics were identified covering cognitive and communication changes and challenging behaviors including executive impairment, behavioral disturbance, and social/emotional dysfunction. Sixteen fact sheets and 11 additional resource sheets were developed and evaluated according to established consumer communication guidelines. Preliminary data show that these resources have been positively received and well utilized. These sheets are the first of their kind addressing challenging behaviors in the neuro-oncology patient group and are a practical and useful information resource for health professionals working with these patients and their families. The new resource assists in reinforcing interventions provided to individual patients and their relatives who are experiencing difficulties in managing challenging behaviors after PBT. PMID:25827649

  18. Culturally Sensitive Approaches to Identification and Treatment of Depression among HIV Infected African American Adults: A Qualitative Study of Primary Care Providers’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Le, Huynh-Nhu; Hipolito, Maria Mananita S; Lambert, Sharon; Terrell-Hamilton, Flora; Rai, Narayan; McLean, Charlee; Kapetanovic, Suad; Nwulia, Evaristus

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals, and is associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and accelerated disease progression. MDD is underdiagnosed and undertreated among low-income African Americans, who are disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. To improve detection and treatment of depression among African Americans living with HIV/AIDS, it is important to understand culturally and contextually relevant aspects of MDD and attitudes about mental health treatment. Methods A focus group session was conducted with seven providers and staff at a primary care center that serves a largely African-American community heavily impacted by the HIV epidemic in Washington, DC. Data were analyzed using an inductive approach to distill prominent themes, perspectives, and experiences among participating providers. Results Five themes emerged to characterize the lived experiences of HIV+ African-American patients: (a) Changes in perceptions of HIV over time; (b) HIV is comorbid with mental illness, particularly depression and substance abuse; (c) Stigma is associated with both HIV and depression; (d) Existing mental health services vary and are insufficient and (e) Suggestions for optimal treatment for comorbid HIV and depression. Limitation This study reflects the views of providers from one clinic in this community. Conclusion Substantial economic disadvantage, pervasive childhood adversity, limited education and limited resources jointly put members of this community at risk for acquisition of HIV and for development of depression and addictions. These contextual factors provide an important reminder that any patient-level depression identification or intervention in this community will have to be mindful of such circumstances. PMID:27347445

  19. Evaluation of time-resolved multi-distance methods to retrieve absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of adult heads in vivo: Optical parameters dependences on geometrical structures of the models used to calculate reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanifuji, T.

    2016-03-01

    Time-resolved multi-distance measurements are studied to retrieve absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of adult heads, which have enough depth sensitivity to determine the optical parameters in superficial tissues and brain separately. Measurements were performed by putting the injection and collection fibers on the left semi-sphere of the forehead, with the injection fiber placed toward the temporal region, and by moving the collection fiber between 10 and 60 mm from the central sulcus. It became clear that optical parameters of the forehead at all collection fibers were reasonably determined by selecting the appropriate visibility length of the geometrical head models, which is related to head surface curvature at each position.

  20. Development of transrectal diffuse optical tomography combined with 3D-transrectal ultrasound imaging to monitor the photocoagulation front during interstitial photothermal therapy of primary focal prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jie; Weersink, Robert; Veilleux, Israel; Mayo, Kenwrick; Zhang, Anqi; Piao, Daqing; Alam, Adeel; Trachtenberg, John; Wilson, Brian C.

    2013-03-01

    Interstitial near-infrared laser thermal therapy (LITT) is currently undergoing clinical trials as an alternative to watchful waiting or radical surgery in patients with low-risk focal prostate cancer. Currently, we use magnetic resonance image (MRI)-based thermography to monitor treatment delivery and determine indirectly the completeness of the target tissue destruction while avoiding damage to adjacent normal tissues, particularly the rectal wall. However, incomplete tumor destruction has occurred in a significant fraction of patients due to premature termination of treatment, since the photocoagulation zone is not directly observed. Hence, we are developing transrectal diffuse optical tomography (TRDOT), in combination with transrectal 3D ultrasound (3D-TRUS), to address his limitation. This is based on the large changes in optical scattering expected upon tissue coagulation. Here, we present forward simulations of a growing coagulated lesion with optical scattering contrast, using an established finite element analysis software platform (NIRFAST). The simulations were validated in tissue-simulating phantoms, with measurements acquired by a state-of-the-art continuous wave (CW) TRDOT system and a recently assembled bench-top CW-DOT system, with specific source-detector configurations. Two image reconstruction schemes were investigated and evaluated, specifically for the accurate delineation of the posterior boundary of the coagulation zone as the critical parameter for treatment guidance in this clinical application.

  1. Therapeutic Assessment of Chloroquine-Primaquine Combined Regimen in Adult Cohort of Plasmodium vivax Malaria from Primary Care Centres in Southwestern India

    PubMed Central

    Saravu, Kavitha; Kumar, Rishikesh; Ashok, Herikudru; Kundapura, Premananda; Kamath, Veena; Kamath, Asha; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2016-01-01

    Background Several reports of chloroquine treatment failure and resistance in Plasmodium vivax malaria from Southeast Asian countries have been published. Present study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of chloroquine-primaquine (CQ-PQ) combined regimen for the treatment of P. vivax malaria patients who were catered by the selected primary health centres (PHCs) of Udupi taluk, Udupi district, Karnataka, India. Method Five PHCs were selected within Udupi taluk based on probability proportional to size. In-vivo therapeutic efficacy assessment of CQ (1500 mg over three days) plus PQ (210 mg over 14 days) regimen was carried out in accordance with the World Health Organization’s protocol of 28 days follow-up among microscopically diagnosed monoinfection P. vivax cohort. Results In total, 161 participants were recruited in the study of which, 155 (96.3%) participants completed till day 28 follow-up, fully complied with the treatment regimen and showed adequate clinical and parasitological response. Loss to follow up was noted with 5 (3.1%) participants and non-compliance with treatment regimen occurred with one participant (0.6%). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd, <30% of normal mean activity) was noted among 5 (3.1%) participants and one of them did develop PQ induced dark-brown urination which subsided after PQ discontinuation. G6PDd patients were treated with PQ 45 mg/week for eight weeks while PQ was discontinued in one case with G6PD 1.4 U/g Hb due to complaint of reddish-brown coloured urine by 48 hours of PQ initiation. Nested polymerase chain reaction test revealed 45 (28%) cases as mixed (vivax and falciparum) malaria. Conclusions The CQ-PQ combined regimen remains outstandingly effective to treat uncomplicated P. vivax malaria in Udupi taluk and thus it should continue as first line regimen. For all P. vivax cases, G6PD screening before PQ administration must be mandatory and made available in all PHCs. PMID:27315280

  2. Optical signal processing: Musical score for optical signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testorf, Markus

    2012-07-01

    Phase-space optics is an indispensable tool for optical imaging and sensing. New optical hardware for light-field photography and pupil engineering for imaging with extended depth of field promote the use of phase-space representations as the primary object of optical signal processing.

  3. Fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, J.; Sohler, W.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the developments in the field of fiber optics sensor technology is presented along with a discussion of the advantages of optical measuring instruments as compared with electronic sensors. The two primary types of fiber optics sensors, specifically those with multiwave fibers and those with monowave fibers, are described. Examples of each major sensor type are presented and discussed. Multiwave detectors include external and internal fiber optics sensors. Among the monowave detectors are Mach-Zender interferometers, Michelson interferometers, Sagnac interferometers (optical gyroscopes), waveguide resonators, and polarimeter sensors. Integrated optical sensors and their application in spectroscopy are briefly discussed.

  4. Gregorian optical system with non-linear optical technology for protection against intense optical transients

    DOEpatents

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Diels, Jean-Claude M.

    2007-06-26

    An optical system comprising a concave primary mirror reflects light through an intermediate focus to a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror re-focuses the image to a final image plane. Optical limiter material is placed near the intermediate focus to optically limit the intensity of light so that downstream components of the optical system are protected from intense optical transients. Additional lenses before and/or after the intermediate focus correct optical aberrations.

  5. Weight loss referrals for adults in primary care (WRAP): protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing the clinical and cost-effectiveness of primary care referral to a commercial weight loss provider for 12 weeks, referral for 52 weeks, and a brief self-help intervention [ISRCTN82857232

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent trials demonstrate the acceptability and short term efficacy of primary care referral to a commercial weight loss provider for weight management. Commissioners now need information on the optimal duration of intervention and the longer term outcomes and cost effectiveness of such treatment to give best value for money. Methods/Design This multicentre, randomised controlled trial with a parallel design will recruit 1200 overweight adults (BMI ≥28 kg/m2) through their primary care provider. They will be randomised in a 2:5:5 allocation to: Brief Intervention, Commercial Programme for 12 weeks, or Commercial Programme for 52 weeks. Participants will be followed up for two years, with assessments at 0, 3, 12 and 24 months. The sequential primary research questions are whether the CP interventions achieve significantly greater weight loss from baseline to 12 months than BI, and whether CP52 achieves significantly greater weight loss from baseline to 12 months than CP12. The primary outcomes will be an intention to treat analysis of between treatment differences in body weight at 12 months. Clinical effectiveness will be also be assessed by measures of weight, fat mass, and blood pressure at each time point and biochemical risk factors at 12 months. Self-report questionnaires will collect data on psychosocial factors associated with adherence, weight-loss and weight-loss maintenance. A within-trial and long-term cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted from an NHS perspective. Qualitative methods will be used to examine the participant experience. Discussion The current trial compares the clinical and cost effectiveness of referral to a commercial provider with a brief intervention. This trial will specifically examine whether providing longer weight-loss treatment without altering content or intensity (12 months commercial referral vs. 12 weeks) leads to greater weight loss at one year and is sustained at 2 years. It will also

  6. Bay 11-7082 inhibits transcription factor NF-kappaB and induces apoptosis of HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines and primary adult T-cell leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Mori, Naoki; Yamada, Yasuaki; Ikeda, Shuichi; Yamasaki, Yoshihiro; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Tomonaga, Masao; Yamamoto, Naoki; Fujii, Masahiro

    2002-09-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the causative agent of an aggressive form of leukemia designated adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). We have previously demonstrated that all T-cell lines infected with HTLV-I and primary leukemic cells from ATL patients display constitutively high activity of transcription factor NF-kappaB. In this study we showed that Bay 11-7082, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB, induced apoptosis of HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines but only negligible apoptosis of HTLV-I-negative T cells. Bay 11-7082 rapidly and efficiently reduced the DNA binding of NF-kappaB in HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines and down-regulated the expression of the antiapoptotic gene, Bcl-x(L), regulated by NF-kappaB, whereas it had little effect on the DNA binding of another transcription factor, AP-1. Although the viral protein Tax is an activator of NF-kappaB, Bay 11-7082-induced apoptosis of HTLV-I-infected cells was not associated with reduced expression of Tax. Furthermore, Bay 11-7082- induced apoptosis of primary ATL cells was more prominent than that of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and apoptosis of these cells was also associated with down-regulation of NF-kappaB activity. Our results indicate that NF-kappaB plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of HTLV-I-infected leukemic cells and that it is a suitable target for the prevention and treatment of ATL.

  7. Autologous Tax-specific CTL therapy in a primary adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma cell-bearing NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγnull mouse model.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Ayako; Ishida, Takashi; Suzuki, Susumu; Ito, Asahi; Mori, Fumiko; Sato, Fumihiko; Narita, Tomoko; Yamada, Tomiko; Ri, Masaki; Kusumoto, Shigeru; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Niimi, Akio; Inagaki, Hiroshi; Iida, Shinsuke; Ueda, Ryuzo

    2013-07-01

    We expanded human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax-specific CTL in vitro from PBMC of three individual adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) patients and assessed their therapeutic potential in an in vivo model using NOG mice bearing primary ATL cells from the respective three patients (ATL/NOG). In these mice established with cells from a chronic-type patient, treatment by i.p. injection of autologous Tax-CTL resulted in greater infiltration of CD8-positive T cells into each ATL lesion. This was associated with a significant decrease of ATL cell infiltration into blood, spleen, and liver. Tax-CTL treatment also significantly decreased human soluble IL-2R concentrations in the sera. In another group of ATL/NOG mice, Tax-CTL treatment led to a significant prolongation of survival time. These findings show that Tax-CTL can infiltrate the tumor site, recognize, and kill autologous ATL cells in mice in vivo. In ATL/NOG mice with cells from an acute-type patient, whose postchemotherapeutic remission continued for >18 mo, antitumor efficacy of adoptive Tax-CTL therapy was also observed. However, in ATL/NOG mice from a different acute-type patient, whose ATL relapsed after 6 mo of remission, no efficacy was observed. Thus, although the therapeutic effects were different for different ATL patients, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that adoptive therapy with Ag-specific CTL expanded from a cancer patient confers antitumor effects, leading to significant survival benefit for autologous primary cancer cell-bearing mice in vivo. The present study contributes to research on adoptive CTL therapy, which should be applicable to several types of cancer. PMID:23733874

  8. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine for adults and children in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2015/16 end-of-season results.

    PubMed

    Pebody, Richard; Warburton, Fiona; Ellis, Joanna; Andrews, Nick; Potts, Alison; Cottrell, Simon; Johnston, Jillian; Reynolds, Arlene; Gunson, Rory; Thompson, Catherine; Galiano, Monica; Robertson, Chris; Byford, Rachel; Gallagher, Naomh; Sinnathamby, Mary; Yonova, Ivelina; Pathirannehelage, Sameera; Donati, Matthew; Moore, Catherine; de Lusignan, Simon; McMenamin, Jim; Zambon, Maria

    2016-09-22

    The United Kingdom (UK) is in the third season of introducing universal paediatric influenza vaccination with a quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). The 2015/16 season in the UK was initially dominated by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and then influenza of B/Victoria lineage, not contained in that season's adult trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV). Overall adjusted end-of-season vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 52.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 41.0-61.6) against influenza-confirmed primary care consultation, 54.5% (95% CI: 41.6-64.5) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 54.2% (95% CI: 33.1-68.6) against influenza B. In 2-17 year-olds, adjusted VE for LAIV was 57.6% (95% CI: 25.1 to 76.0) against any influenza, 81.4% (95% CI: 39.6-94.3) against influenza B and 41.5% (95% CI: -8.5 to 68.5) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. These estimates demonstrate moderate to good levels of protection, particularly against influenza B in children, but relatively less against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Despite lineage mismatch in the trivalent IIV, adults younger than 65 years were still protected against influenza B. These results provide reassurance for the UK to continue its influenza immunisation programme planned for 2016/17. PMID:27684603

  9. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine for adults and children in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2015/16 end-of-season results.

    PubMed

    Pebody, Richard; Warburton, Fiona; Ellis, Joanna; Andrews, Nick; Potts, Alison; Cottrell, Simon; Johnston, Jillian; Reynolds, Arlene; Gunson, Rory; Thompson, Catherine; Galiano, Monica; Robertson, Chris; Byford, Rachel; Gallagher, Naomh; Sinnathamby, Mary; Yonova, Ivelina; Pathirannehelage, Sameera; Donati, Matthew; Moore, Catherine; de Lusignan, Simon; McMenamin, Jim; Zambon, Maria

    2016-09-22

    The United Kingdom (UK) is in the third season of introducing universal paediatric influenza vaccination with a quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). The 2015/16 season in the UK was initially dominated by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and then influenza of B/Victoria lineage, not contained in that season's adult trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV). Overall adjusted end-of-season vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 52.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 41.0-61.6) against influenza-confirmed primary care consultation, 54.5% (95% CI: 41.6-64.5) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 54.2% (95% CI: 33.1-68.6) against influenza B. In 2-17 year-olds, adjusted VE for LAIV was 57.6% (95% CI: 25.1 to 76.0) against any influenza, 81.4% (95% CI: 39.6-94.3) against influenza B and 41.5% (95% CI: -8.5 to 68.5) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. These estimates demonstrate moderate to good levels of protection, particularly against influenza B in children, but relatively less against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Despite lineage mismatch in the trivalent IIV, adults younger than 65 years were still protected against influenza B. These results provide reassurance for the UK to continue its influenza immunisation programme planned for 2016/17.

  10. Induction of digitoxigenin monodigitoxoside UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity by glucocorticoids and other inducers of cytochrome P-450p in primary monolayer cultures of adult rat hepatocytes and in human liver.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, E G; Hazelton, G A; Hall, J; Watkins, P B; Klaassen, C D; Guzelian, P S

    1986-06-25

    We have recently proposed that glucocorticoids induce cytochrome P-450p, a liver microsomal hemoprotein originally isolated from rats treated with the antiglucocorticoid pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), through a mechanism that involves a stereospecific recognition system clearly distinguishable from the classic glucocorticoid receptor (Schuetz, E. G., Wrighton, S. A., Barwick, J. L., and Guzelian, P. S. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 1999-2012). We now report that digitoxigenin monodigitoxoside UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (DIG UDP-glucuronosyltransferase), a liver microsomal enzyme activity induced by PCN in rats, is also inducible, as is P-450p, in primary monolayer cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. DIG UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity closely resembled reported characteristics of induction of P-450p in its time course of induction, concentration-response relationships, exclusivity of induction by steroids with glucocorticoid properties, unusual rank order of potency of glucocorticoid agonists, unusually high ED50 for induction by glucocorticoids, enhanced induction rather than inhibition by anti-glucocorticoids in the presence of glucocorticoids, and finally, induction by nonsteroidal inducers of P-450p. DIG UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity was also readily detected in human liver microsomes and was elevated in two patients who had received inducers of P-450p. We conclude that the liver enzymes controlled by the postulated PCN recognition system include not only P-450p but also one or more UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

  11. Research study to determine critical optical/mechanical properties of materials considered for selection as substrates for the primary mirror on a large telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slomba, A. F.; Goggin, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the stability of a specific low expansion glass-ceramic material relative to its use as a large, lightweight mirror substrate for diffraction-limited spaceborne optical applications. These evaluations were made on a segment (0.44 meter diameter by 0.31 meter thick) of a 2 to 3 meter diameter mirror blank. The dimensional stability of this mirror was measured interferometrically before and after lightweighting, as a function of rough machining, etching, thermal environment, and support configuration. A special computer analysis program was used to plot the coefficients corresponding to aberrations with sixfold symmetry (caused by the mirror's self-weight deflection on a three point support). The objective was to enhance the test sensitivity. Results indicate that any such effects due to self-weight deflection are of the order of 0.015 lambda rms. The rms and peak-to-peak figure changes associated with each processing operation are summarized.

  12. Absolute measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in old and young adults with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of absolute cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a large sample of 36 healthy elderly (mean age, 85 ± 6 years) and 19 young adults (mean age, 28 ± 4 years). Non-invasive measurements were obtained on the forehead using a commercially a...

  13. Clinical features, molecular genetics, and pathophysiology of dominant optic atrophy.

    PubMed

    Votruba, M; Moore, A T; Bhattacharya, S S

    1998-10-01

    Inherited optic neuropathies are a significant cause of childhood and adult blindness and dominant optic atrophy (DOA) is the most common form of autosomally inherited (non-glaucomatous) optic neuropathy. Patients with DOA present with an insidious onset of bilateral visual loss and they characteristically have temporal optic nerve pallor, centrocaecal visual field scotoma, and a colour vision deficit, which is frequently blue-yellow. Evidence from histological and electrophysiological studies suggests that the pathology is confined to the retinal ganglion cell. A gene for dominant optic atrophy (OPA1) has been mapped to chromosome 3q28-qter, and studies are under way to refine the genetic interval in which the gene lies, to map the region physically, and hence to clone the gene. A second locus for dominant optic atrophy has recently been shown to map to chromosome 18q12.2-12.3 near the Kidd blood group locus. The cloning of genes for dominant optic atrophy will provide important insights into the pathophysiology of the retinal ganglion cell in health and disease. These insights may prove to be of great value in the understanding of other primary ganglion cell diseases, such as the mitochondrially inherited Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and other diseases associated with ganglion cell loss, such as glaucoma.

  14. Comparative study of optical absorption and circular dichroism of bacteriochlorophyll oligomers in Triton X-100, the antenna pigment B850, and the primary donor P-860 of photosynthetic bacteria indicates that all are similar dimers of bacteriochlorophyll a

    PubMed Central

    Scherz, A.; Rosenbach-Belkin, V.

    1989-01-01

    Dimers of bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchla) with optical absorption maximum at 853 nm and a nonconservative circular dichroism spectrum are formed in a solution of formamide/water that contains micelles of Triton X-100. The apparent equilibrium constant and the corresponding Gibbs energy change for the Bchl self-organization are 4.9 × 106 M-1 and -9.2 kcal/mol, respectively. The experimental absorption and circular dichroism spectra of the in vitro Bchl dimer (termed Bchl-853) are similar to the spectra of the bacterial light-harvesting complex B850 and the primary electron donor P-860 and probably point to a common structural motif. Indeed, simulation of the dimers' spectra (optical absorption and circular dichroism), achieved by using an extended version of the exciton theory, suggests the same geometry as recently elucidated for P-860 by x-ray diffraction crystallography. The proposed geometry is predicted to have the minimum energy in the gas phase. In conclusion, the spectral properties of the bathochromically shifted forms of Bchla are likely a result of strong dipolar interactions in self-organized structures of Bchls. PMID:16578840

  15. Primary Care Endocrinology in the Adult Woman.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Celeste C; Zeytinoglu, Meltem

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorders, and osteoporosis are endocrine conditions affecting a significant proportion of women presenting to the obstetrician-gynecologist. Obstetrician-gynecologists are often the first health-care providers that young women see in adulthood, and thus, have a critical opportunity to identify women at risk for gestational and overt diabetes and manage the condition in those who have developed it. The obstetrician-gynecologist should be aware of the appropriate therapeutic options and treatment goals (eg, hemoglobin A1c) for women with diabetes. Thyroid disorders often present with menstrual irregularities or infertility, can affect pregnancy outcomes, and contribute to cardiovascular and bone disorders as women age. Finally, osteoporosis and low bone mineral density affect a substantial proportion of older women and some younger women with risk factors for secondary osteoporosis. The morbidity and mortality of osteoporotic fractures is substantial. There are many lifestyle interventions and therapeutic options available for these conditions, and the gynecologist plays a key role in optimizing risk factor assessment, screening, and providing treatment when appropriate.

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Primary Liver Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... picture of the tumor and shapes the radiation beams to fit the tumor. This allows a high ... tissue. This procedure is also called stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy and stereotaxic radiation therapy. Proton beam ...

  17. Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... picture of the tumor and shapes the radiation beams to fit the tumor. This allows a high ... tissue. This procedure is also called stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy and stereotaxic radiation therapy. Proton beam ...

  18. Treatment Options for Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... picture of the tumor and shapes the radiation beams to fit the tumor. This allows a high ... tissue. This procedure is also called stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy and stereotaxic radiation therapy. Proton beam ...

  19. [Treatment of primary hypothyroidism in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Salmela, Pasi; Metso, Saara; Moilanen, Leena; Niskanen, Leo; Nuutila, Pirjo; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is based on the findings of an increased serum TSH (above the reference range) and decreased serum free T4 (below the reference range) concentration. Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism is indicated if serum THS is above 10 mU/l. For less severe forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, the treatment should be individually tailored. The treatment of choice is synthetic human levothyroxine. The goals for treatment are amelioration of symptoms and normalization of TSH and free T4 concentrations.

  20. Syphilis - primary

    MedlinePlus

    Primary syphilis; Secondary syphilis; Late syphilis; Tertiary syphilis ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum . This bacterium causes ...

  1. A primate genesis model of focal dystonia and repetitive strain injury: I. Learning-induced dedifferentiation of the representation of the hand in the primary somatosensory cortex in adult monkeys.

    PubMed

    Byl, N N; Merzenich, M M; Jenkins, W M

    1996-08-01

    In this study we tested a neuroplasticity/learning origins hypothesis for repetitive strain injuries (RSIs), including occupationally induced focal dystonia. Repetitive movements produced in a specific form and in an appropriate behavioral context cause a degradation of the sensory feedback information controlling fine motor movements, resulting in the "learned" genesis of RSIs. Two adult New World owl monkeys were trained at a behavioral task that required them to maintain an attended grasp on a hand grip that repetitively and rapidly (20 msec) opened and closed over short distances. The monkeys completed 300 behavioral trials per day (1,100 to 3,000 movement events) with an accuracy of 80 to 90%. A movement control disorder was recorded in both monkeys. Training was continued until the performance accuracy dropped to below 50%. We subsequently conducted an electrophysiologic mapping study of the representations of the hand within the primary somatosensory (SI) cortical zone. The hand representation in the true primary somatosensory cortical field, SI area 3b, was found to be markedly degraded in these monkeys, as characterized by (1) a dedifferentiation of cortical representations of the skin of the hand manifested by receptive fields that were 10 to 20 times larger than normal, (2) the emergence of many receptive fields that covered the entire glabrous surface of individual digits or that extended across the surfaces of two or more digits, (3) a breakdown of the normally sharply segregated area 3b representations of volar glabrous and dorsal hairy skin of the hand, and (4) a breakdown of the local shifted-overlap receptive field topography of area 3b, with many digital receptive fields overlapping the fields of neurons sampled in cortical penetrations up to more than four times farther apart than normal. Thus, rapid, repetitive, highly stereotypic movements applied in a learning context can actively degrade cortical representations of sensory information guiding

  2. Optic glioma

    MedlinePlus

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  3. Cardiac safety screens: molecular, cellular, and optical advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaestner, Lars; Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Identifying cardiac safety is becoming increasingly important for new drugs under development, since it is compulsory for the approval of almost all pharmaceutical drugs. In contrast to conventional electrophysiological in vitro assays that are based on a single entity, the hERG channel, primary cardiomyocytes based readouts seem to be more comprehensive. Such an action potential readout for those cells can be performed with contact-free optical methods. Here we reveal the details of both, the optical arrangement and the procedure to screen cardiac myocytes based on naïve action potentials. Furthermore we evaluate the differences between neonatal and adult cardiac myocytes from rats based on a selection of test substances (quinidine, 4-aminopyridine and E-4031) and relate it to the human situation. Finally the results are discussed in the context of emerging genetically encoded potential sensors and latest development in optical detection technologies.

  4. Primary immune deficiency in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Ozerovitch, Lorraine

    The primary purpose of the immune system is to protect the body from infection. Failure of the immune system can lead to repeated infections. The aim of this review is to discuss primary immune deficiency (PID) and its relationship with bronchiectasis in adults. It examines treatment options for patients with PID and provides practical details of how nurses can empower these patients to reduce their risk of respiratory infections.

  5. Primary immune deficiency in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Ozerovitch, Lorraine

    The primary purpose of the immune system is to protect the body from infection. Failure of the immune system can lead to repeated infections. The aim of this review is to discuss primary immune deficiency (PID) and its relationship with bronchiectasis in adults. It examines treatment options for patients with PID and provides practical details of how nurses can empower these patients to reduce their risk of respiratory infections. PMID:27400622

  6. Positional and Curvature Difference of Lamina Cribrosa According to the Baseline Intraocular Pressure in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Woo; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the variation of lamina cribrosa (LC) structure based on the baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and healthy individuals using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods A total of 108 eyes with POAG and 61 healthy eyes were recruited. Based on the baseline IOP, the POAG eyes were divided into higher-baseline IOP (HTG; baseline IOP > 21 mmHg, n = 38 eyes) and lower-baseline IOP (NTG; baseline IOP ≤ 21 mmHg, n = 70 eyes). The anterior laminar insertion depth (ALID), mean LC depth (mLCD), and the LC curvature index (mLCD–ALID) were measured, and compared among the three groups. The regional variation of LC structure was evaluated by vertical-horizontal ALID difference. Results The mLCD and LC curvature index were greatest in HTG eyes (520.3 ± 123.0 and 80.9 ± 30.7 μm), followed by NTG (463.2 ± 110.5 and 64.5 ± 30.7 μm) and healthy eyes (382.9 ± 107.6 and 47.6 ± 25.7 μm, all P < 0.001). However, there were no significant difference in ALID between HTG and NTG eyes. The vertical-horizontal ALID difference was larger in NTG eyes (72.8 ± 56.2 μm) than in HTG (32.7 ± 61.4 μm, P = 0.004) and healthy eyes (25.5 ± 34.8 μm, P < 0.001). Conclusions Lamina cribrosa position and curvature differed in POAG eyes with low and high IOP. This would support the theory that IOP induced biomechanical effects on the optic play a role on glaucoma. PMID:27611970

  7. Hyphenation of a EC / OC thermal-optical carbon analyzer to photo-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: an off-line aerosol mass spectrometric approach for characterization of primary and secondary particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diab, J.; Streibel, T.; Cavalli, F.; Lee, S. C.; Saathoff, H.; Mamakos, A.; Chow, J. C.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Watson, J. G.; Sippula, O.; Zimmermann, R.

    2015-08-01

    Source apportionment and characterization of primary and secondary aerosols remains a challenging research field. In particular, the organic composition of primary particles and the formation mechanism of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) warrant further investigations. Progress in this field is strongly connected to the development of novel analytical techniques. In this study an off-line aerosol mass spectrometric technique based on filter samples, a hyphenated thermal-optical analyzer photo-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PI-TOFMS) system, was developed. The approach extends the capability of the widely used particulate matter (PM) carbon analysis (for elemental / organic carbon, EC / OC) by enabling the investigation of evolved gaseous species with soft and selective (resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization, REMPI) and non-selective photo-ionization (single-photon ionization, SPI) techniques. SPI was tuned to be medium soft to achieve comparability with results obtained by the electron ionization aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Different PM samples including wood combustion emission samples, smog chamber samples from the reaction of ozone with different SOA precursors, and ambient samples taken at Ispra, Italy, in winter as well as in summer were tested. The EC / OC-PI-TOFMS technique increases the understanding of the processes during thermal-optical analysis and identifies marker substances for the source apportionment. Composition of oligomeric or polymeric species present in PM can be investigated by the analysis of the thermal breakdown products. In the case of wood combustion, in addition to the well-known markers at m/z ratios of 60 and 73, two new characteristic masses (m/z 70 and 98) have been revealed as potentially linked to biomass burning. All four masses were also the dominant signals in an ambient sample taken in winter time in Ispra, Italy, confirming the finding that wood burning for residential heating is a major source of PM

  8. Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: The Mitochondrial Connection Revisited.

    PubMed

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K

    2011-01-01

    Our current understanding of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)-mitochondrial connection falls short of comprehensive. Twenty years of intensive investigation have yielded a wealth of information about mitochondria, the mitochondrial genome, the metabolism of the optic nerve and other structures, and the phenotypic variability of classic LHON. However, we still cannot completely explain how primary LHON mutations injure the optic nerve or why the optic nerve is particularly at risk. We cannot explain the incomplete penetrance or the male predominance of LHON, the typical onset in young adult life without warning, or the synchronicity of visual loss. Moreover, primary LHON mutations clearly are not present in every family with the LHON phenotype (including multigenerational maternal inheritance), and they are present in only a minority of individuals who have the LHON optic neuropathy phenotype without a family history. All lines of evidence point to abnormalities of the mitochondria as the direct or indirect cause of LHON. Therefore, the mitochondria-LHON connection needs to be revisited and examined closely. This review will attempt to do that and provide an update on various aspects of LHON.

  9. [Primary hyperparathyroidism].

    PubMed

    Maruani, G; Cornière, N; Nicolet, L; Baron, S; Courbebaisse, M; Renaud, S; Houillier, P

    2013-10-01

    For the past 40 years, primary hyperparathyroidism has been recognized as a common endocrine disease which is, most often, "non-symptomatic", without the occurrence of nephrolithiasis or osteitis fibrosa cystica. Our knowledge in the pathophysiology has increased largely and diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism is usually easy. The only radical treatment is surgery and the surgical indications have been codified by several consensus conferences. For patients who do not undergo surgery, prolonged medical monitoring is needed.

  10. Primary thrombocytosis in children

    PubMed Central

    Kucine, Nicole; Chastain, Katherine M.; Mahler, Michelle B.; Bussel, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms are uncommon disorders in children, for which we have limited understanding of the pathogenesis and optimal management. JAK2 and MPL mutations, while common drivers of myeloproliferative neoplasms in adult patients, are not clearly linked to pediatric disease. Management and clinical outcomes in adults have been well delineated with defined recommendations for risk stratification and treatment. This is not the case for pediatric patients, for whom there is neither a standard approach to workup nor any consensus regarding management. This review will discuss thrombocytosis in children, including causes of thrombocytosis in children, the limited knowledge we have regarding pediatric primary thrombocytosis, and our thoughts on potential risk stratification and management, and future questions to be answered by laboratory research and collaborative clinical study. PMID:24688110

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A ... weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can cause AIDS ( ...

  12. Optic neuritis

    MedlinePlus

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  13. Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1-infected cell lines and primary adult T-cell leukaemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Mariko; Semenza, Gregg L.; Michiels, Canine; Matsuda, Takehiro; Uchihara, Jun-Nosuke; Okudaira, Taeko; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Taira, Naoya; Ohshiro, Kazuiku; Mori, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    HTLV-1 (human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1) is the causative agent for ATL (adult T-cell leukaemia). HTLV-1 Tax can activate the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt signalling pathway, which is responsible for survival of HTLV-1-infected T-cells. HIFs (hypoxia-inducible factors) are transcriptional regulators that play a central role in the response to hypoxia. Overexpression of HIF-1α in many cancers is associated with a poor response to treatment and increased patient mortality. Our objectives in the present study were to investigate whether HIF-1 was activated in HTLV-1-infected T-cells and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of HIF-1 activation by focusing on the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. We detected a potent pathway that activated HIF-1 in the HTLV-1-infected T-cells under a normal oxygen concentration. Enhanced HIF-1α protein expression and HIF-1 DNA-binding activity were exhibited in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. Knockdown of HIF-1α by siRNA (small interfering RNA) suppressed the growth and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) expression of the HTLV-1-infected T-cell line. HIF-1 protein accumulation and transcriptional activity were enhanced by Tax, which was inhibited by dominant-negative Akt. Importantly, mutant forms of Tax that are defective in activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway failed to induce HIF-1 transcriptional activity. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 suppressed HIF-1α protein expression, HIF-1 DNA-binding and HIF-1 transcriptional activity in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. In primary ATL cells, HIF-1α protein levels were strongly correlated with levels of phosphorylated Akt. The results of the present study suggest that PI3K/Akt activation induced by Tax leads to activation of HIF-1. As HIF-1 plays a major role in tumour progression, it may represent a molecular target for the development of novel ATL therapeutics. PMID:17576198

  14. Black Sea spectral bio-optical models based on satellite data and their applications for assessment of spatial and temporal variability in waters transparency, chlorophyll a content and primary production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churilova, T.; Suslin, V.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite observations of ocean color provide a unique opportunity in oceanography to assess productivity of the sea on different spatial and temporal scales. However it has been shown that the standard SeaWiFS algorithm generally overestimates summer chlorophyll concentration and underestimates pigment content during spring phytoplankton bloom in comparison with in situ measurements. It is required to develop regional algorithms which are based on biooptical characteristics typical for the Sea and consequently could be used for correct transformation of spectral features of water-leaving radiance to chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl), light absorption features of suspended and dissolved organic matter (CDM), downwelling light attenuation coefficient/euphotic zone depth (PAR1%) and rate of primary synthesis of organic substances (PP). The numerous measurements of light absorption spectra of phytoplankton, non-algal particles and coloured dissolved organic matter carried out since 1996 in different seasons and regions of the Black Sea allowed to make a parameterization of the light absorption by all optically active components. Taking into account regional peculiarities of the biooptical parameters, their difference between seasons, shallow and deep-waters, their depth-dependent variability within photosynthetic zone regional spectral models for estimation of chlorophyll a concentration (Chl Model), colored dissolved and suspended organic matter absorption (CDM Model), downwelling irradiance (PAR Model) and primary production (PP Model) have been developed based on satellite data. Test of validation of models showed appropriate accuracy of the models. The developed models have been applied for estimation of spatial/temporal variability of chlorophyll a, dissolved organic matter concentrations, waters transparency, euphotic zone depth and primary production based on SeaWiFS data. Two weeks averaged maps of spatial distribution of these parameters have been composed

  15. General Information about Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  16. Acute neurological visual loss in young adults: causes, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, R; El Ayoubi, N; Hamam, R

    2015-12-01

    Visual loss in the young adult can be caused by demyelinating diseases, inflammatory and autoimmune processes, infections, ischaemic events, and compressive lesions of the optic nerve. Diagnosis of the aetiologies of visual loss is reached by combining data from radiological studies, electrophysiological tests, and blood and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Treatment is primarily aimed at decreasing the insult on the optic nerve and eventually controlling the primary disorder. The literature discusses separately the different aetiologies of visual loss. We present a review of the clinical characteristics of visual loss in the young adult, the different diagnostic measures, and the latest therapeutic strategies. The aim of this work is to summarise this entity in a practical way to guide clinicians in the diagnosis and management of this disorder. PMID:26504248

  17. PILOT optical alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longval, Y.; Mot, B.; Ade, P.; André, Y.; Aumont, J.; Baustista, L.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Bray, N.; de Bernardis, P.; Boulade, O.; Bousquet, F.; Bouzit, M.; Buttice, V.; Caillat, A.; Charra, M.; Chaigneau, M.; Crane, B.; Crussaire, J.-P.; Douchin, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubois, J.-P.; Engel, C.; Etcheto, P.; Gélot, P.; Griffin, M.; Foenard, G.; Grabarnik, S.; Hargrave, P..; Hughes, A.; Laureijs, R.; Lepennec, Y.; Leriche, B.; Maestre, S.; Maffei, B.; Martignac, J.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Masi, S.; Mirc, F.; Misawa, R.; Montel, J.; Montier, L.; Narbonne, J.; Nicot, J.-M.; Pajot, F.; Parot, G.; Pérot, E.; Pimentao, J.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rodriguez, L.; Roudil, G.; Salatino, M.; Savini, G.; Simonella, O.; Saccoccio, M.; Tapie, P.; Tauber, J.; Torre, J.-P.; Tucker, C.

    2016-07-01

    PILOT is a balloon-borne astronomy experiment designed to study the polarization of dust emission in the diffuse interstellar medium in our Galaxy at wavelengths 240 μm with an angular resolution about two arcminutes. Pilot optics is composed an off-axis Gregorian type telescope and a refractive re-imager system. All optical elements, except the primary mirror, are in a cryostat cooled to 3K. We combined the optical, 3D dimensional measurement methods and thermo-elastic modeling to perform the optical alignment. The talk describes the system analysis, the alignment procedure, and finally the performances obtained during the first flight in September 2015.

  18. Primary hypertension in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Barbara S; Ferrarini, Alessandra; Weber, Nico; Bullo, Marina; Bianchetti, Mario G; Simonetti, Giacomo D

    2013-10-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure in children and adolescents, because of its association with the obesity epidemic. Moreover, cardiovascular function and blood pressure level are determined in childhood and track into adulthood. Primary hypertension in childhood is defined by persistent blood pressure values ≥ the 95th percentile and without a secondary cause. Preventable risk factors for elevated blood pressure in childhood are overweight, dietary habits, salt intake, sedentary lifestyle, poor sleep quality and passive smoking, whereas non-preventable risk factors include race, gender, genetic background, low birth weight, prematurity, and socioeconomic inequalities. Several different pathways are implicated in the development of primary hypertension, including obesity, insulin resistance, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, alterations in sodium homeostasis, renin-angiotensin system and altered vascular function. Prevention of adult cardiovascular disease should begin in childhood by regularly screening for high blood pressure, counseling for healthy lifestyle and avoiding preventable risk factors.

  19. Primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Madkhali, Tarıq; Alhefdhi, Amal; Chen, Herbert; Elfenbein, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder caused by overactivation of parathyroid glands resulting in excessive release of parathyroid hormone. The resultant hypercalcemia leads to a myriad of symptoms. Primary hyperparathyroidism may increase a patient’s morbidity and even mortality if left untreated. During the last few decades, disease presentation has shifted from the classic presentation of severe bone and kidney manifestations to most patients now being diagnosed on routine labs. Although surgery is the only curative therapy, many advances have been made over the past decades in the diagnosis and the surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism. The aim of this review is to summarize the characteristics of the disease, the work up, and the treatment options. PMID:26985167

  20. Functional effects of unilateral open-angle glaucoma on the primary and extrastriate visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Borges, Victor M; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; Black, Joanna M; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the response of the visual cortex to unilateral primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Specifically, we assessed whether regions of V1 and V2 with lost input from the glaucomatous eye had a greater response to input from the nonaffected fellow eye. Nine participants with unilateral POAG causing paracentral visual field defects and four controls participated in the study. We found no evidence for an increased response to the fellow eye in glaucoma-affected regions of the visual cortex; however, in agreement with previous studies, there was a pronounced, retinotopically localized reduction of activation in both the primary (V1) and extrastriate visual cortex (V2), when participants viewed through their glaucomatous eye. Our results suggest a remarkable level of stability within the adult primary and extrastriate visual cortex in response to unilateral neurodegeneration of the optic nerve. PMID:26575195

  1. Secondary hypertension in adults

    PubMed Central

    Puar, Troy Hai Kiat; Mok, Yingjuan; Debajyoti, Roy; Khoo, Joan; How, Choon How; Ng, Alvin Kok Heong

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hypertension occurs in a significant proportion of adult patients (~10%). In young patients, renal causes (glomerulonephritis) and coarctation of the aorta should be considered. In older patients, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnoea and renal artery stenosis are more prevalent than previously thought. Primary aldosteronism can be screened by taking morning aldosterone and renin levels, and should be considered in patients with severe, resistant or hypokalaemia-associated hypertension. Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea should be sought. Worsening of renal function after starting an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor suggests the possibility of renal artery stenosis. Recognition, diagnosis and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension lead to good clinical outcomes and the possible reversal of end-organ damage, in addition to blood pressure control. As most patients with hypertension are managed at the primary care level, it is important for primary care physicians to recognise these conditions and refer patients appropriately. PMID:27211205

  2. Primary hepatic angiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, P; Bhadana, U; Singh, R A K; Ahuja, A

    2015-09-01

    Primary hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare, aggressive tumor; composed of spindle or pleomorphic cells that line, or grow into, the lumina of pre-existing vascular spaces like sinusoids and terminal hepatic venules; with only about 200 cases diagnosed annually worldwide but it is the most common primary malignant mesenchymal tumor of the liver in adults and accounts for 2% of all primary hepatic malignancies. HAS occurs in association with known chemical carcinogens, but 75% of the tumors have no known etiology. Patients present with vague symptoms like abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue or an abdominal mass. Hepatic angiosarcoma is usually multicentric and involves both lobes, entire liver may also found to be involved. CD31 is the most reliable marker. These tumors lack specific features on imaging, so, pathological diagnosis is necessary. There are no established treatment guidelines because of low frequency and aggressive nature of tumor, chemotherapy is only palliative, liver resection is indicated for solitary mass and liver transplant is contraindicated. The aim of this article is to comprehensively review all the available literature and to present detailed information and an update on primary hepatic angiosarcoma. PMID:26008857

  3. Optics outreach in Irish context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, Emer; Smith, Arlene

    2009-06-01

    The Applied Optics Group, National University of Ireland Galway is a research centre involved in programmes that cover a wide variety of topics in applied optics and imaging science, including smart optics, adaptive optics, optical scattering and propagation, and engineering optics. The Group have also developed significant outreach programmes both in Primary and Post-Primary schools. It is recognised that there is a need for innovation in Science Education in Ireland and we are committed to working extensively with schools. The main aim of these outreach programmes is to increase awareness and interest in science with students and enhance the communication skills of the researchers working in the Group. The education outreach team works closely with the relevant teachers in both Primary and Post-Primary schools to design and develop learning initiatives to match the needs of the target group of students. The learning programmes are usually delivered in the participating schools during normal class time by a team of Applied Optics specialists. We are involved in running these programmes in both Primary and Post-Primary schools where the programmes are tailored to the curriculum and concentrating on optics and light. The students may also visit the Groups research centre where presentations and laboratory tours are arranged.

  4. Optical frequency-modulated continuous-wave interferometers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jesse

    2006-04-20

    I discuss optical frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) interferometers, including their principles, characteristics, specific requirements, procedure for their construction, optical configurations, primary applications, optical sources, resolution, measurement range, and stability. PMID:16633422

  5. Reading Their World: The Young Adult Novel in the Classroom. Second Edition. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R., Ed.; Salvner, Gary M., Ed.

    This book was born of a desire to provide students, teachers, and all interested readers with a collection of essays that address issues of selection, pedagogy, and worth of the young adult novel. A primary purpose of the book is to enter the world of young adult readers through a literary form they know well, the modern young adult novel. Another…

  6. Adult onset retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab; Khetan, Vikas

    2016-07-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood presenting usually before 5 years of age. RB in adults older than 20 years is extremely rare. A literature search using PubMed/PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases revealed only 45 cases till date. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of such reports, indicating heightened level of suspicion among ophthalmologists. Compared to its pediatric counterpart, adult onset RB poses unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. This article summarizes available literature on adult onset RB and its clinical and pathologic profile, genetics, association with retinocytoma, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:27609158

  7. Adult onset retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab; Khetan, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood presenting usually before 5 years of age. RB in adults older than 20 years is extremely rare. A literature search using PubMed/PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases revealed only 45 cases till date. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of such reports, indicating heightened level of suspicion among ophthalmologists. Compared to its pediatric counterpart, adult onset RB poses unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. This article summarizes available literature on adult onset RB and its clinical and pathologic profile, genetics, association with retinocytoma, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:27609158

  8. Rhinitis in older adults.

    PubMed

    Nyenhuis, Sharmilee M; Mathur, Sameer K

    2013-04-01

    Rhinitis symptoms of rhinorrhea, congestion, sneezing, nasal/ocular pruritis, and postnasal drainage can significantly affect the quality of life for older adults. As the US population ages, it will be increasingly important for health-care providers to effectively diagnose and manage rhinitis. Rhinitis is categorized broadly into allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis. Environmental changes and avoidance measures are a primary means of intervention. In addition, there are several topical therapies (nasal sprays) that can be effective for symptom control.

  9. Measurement of the absolute optical properties and cerebral blood volume of the adult human head with hybrid differential and spatially resolved spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Terence S.; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Smith, Martin; Delpy, David T.; Elwell, Clare E.

    2006-02-01

    A hybrid differential and spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) technique has been developed to measure absolute absorption coefficient (μa), reduced scattering coefficient (μ's) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) in the adult human head. A spectrometer with both differential and SRS capabilities has been used to carry out measurements in 12 subjects. Two versions of the calculation have been considered using the hybrid technique, with one considering water as a chromophore as well as oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin, and one ignoring water. The CBV has also been measured using a previously described technique based on changing the arterial saturation (SaO2) measured separately by a pulse oximeter, resulting in mean ± SD CBVa (intra-individual coefficient of variation) = 2.22 ± 1.06 ml/100 g (29.9%). (The superscript on CBV indicates the different calculation basis.) Using the hybrid technique with water ignored, CBV0 = 3.18 ± 0.73 ml/100 g (10.0%), μ0a(813 nm) = 0.010 ± 0.003 mm-1 and μ'0s(813 nm) = 1.19 ± 0.55 mm-1 (data quoted at 813 nm). With water considered, CBVw = 3.05 ± 0.77 ml/100 g (10.5%), μwa(813 nm) = 0.010 ± 0.003 mm-1 and μ'ws(813 nm) = 1.28 ± 0.56 mm-1. The mean biases between CBV0/CBVw, CBV0/CBVa and CBVw/CBVa are 0.14 ± 0.09, 0.79 ± 1.22 and 0.65 ± 1.24 ml/100 g. The mean biases between μ0a(813 nm)/μwa(813 nm) and μ'0s(813 nm)/μ'ws(813 nm) are (5.9 ± 10.0) × 10-4 mm-1 and -0.084 ± 0.266 mm-1, respectively. The method we describe extends the functionality of the current SRS instrumentation.

  10. Chemometric evaluation of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) and Pb (graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry) concentrations in lipstick samples intended to be used by adults and children.

    PubMed

    Batista, Érica Ferreira; Augusto, Amanda dos Santos; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    A method was developed for determining the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb in lipstick samples intended to be used by adults and children using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) after treatment with dilute HNO3 and hot block. The combination of fractional factorial design and Desirability function was used to evaluate the ICP OES operational parameters and the regression models using Central Composite and Doehlert designs were calculated to stablish the best working condition for all analytes. Seventeen lipstick samples manufactured in different countries with different colors and brands were analyzed. Some samples contained high concentrations of toxic elements, such as Cr and Pb, which are carcinogenic and cause allergic and eczematous dermatitis. The maximum concentration detected was higher than the permissible safe limits for human use, and the samples containing these high metal concentrations were intended for use by children. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a chemometrics tool for exploratory analysis to observe the similarities between samples relative to the metal concentrations (a correlation between Cd and Pb was observed).

  11. Chemometric evaluation of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) and Pb (graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry) concentrations in lipstick samples intended to be used by adults and children.

    PubMed

    Batista, Érica Ferreira; Augusto, Amanda dos Santos; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    A method was developed for determining the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb in lipstick samples intended to be used by adults and children using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) after treatment with dilute HNO3 and hot block. The combination of fractional factorial design and Desirability function was used to evaluate the ICP OES operational parameters and the regression models using Central Composite and Doehlert designs were calculated to stablish the best working condition for all analytes. Seventeen lipstick samples manufactured in different countries with different colors and brands were analyzed. Some samples contained high concentrations of toxic elements, such as Cr and Pb, which are carcinogenic and cause allergic and eczematous dermatitis. The maximum concentration detected was higher than the permissible safe limits for human use, and the samples containing these high metal concentrations were intended for use by children. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a chemometrics tool for exploratory analysis to observe the similarities between samples relative to the metal concentrations (a correlation between Cd and Pb was observed). PMID:26838401

  12. Fiber optics for controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1987-11-01

    The challenge of those involved in control-system hardware development is to accommodate an ever-increasing complexity in aircraft control, while limiting the size and weight of the components and improving system reliability. A technology that displays promise towards this end is the area of fiber optics for controls. The primary advantages of employing optical fibers, passive optical sensors, and optically controlled actuators are weight and volume reduction, immunity from electromagnetic effects, superior bandwidth capabilities, and freedom from short circuits and sparking contacts. Since 1975, NASA Lewis has performed in-house, contract, and grant research in fiber optic sensors, high-temperature electro-optic switches, and fly-by-light control-system architecture. Passive optical sensor development is an essential yet challenging area of work and has therefore received much attention during this period. A major effort to develop fly-by-light control-system technology, known as the Fiber-Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program, was initiated in 1985 as a cooperative effort between NASA and DOD. Phase 1 of FOCSI, completed in 1986, was aimed at the design of a fiber-optic integrated propulsion/flight control system. Phase 2, yet to be initiated, will provide subcomponent and system development, and a system engine test. In addition to a summary of the benefits of fiber optics, the FOCSI program, sensor advances, and future directions in the NASA Lewis program will be discussed.

  13. Fiber optics for controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1987-01-01

    The challenge of those involved in control-system hardware development is to accommodate an ever-increasing complexity in aircraft control, while limiting the size and weight of the components and improving system reliability. A technology that displays promise towards this end is the area of fiber optics for controls. The primary advantages of employing optical fibers, passive optical sensors, and optically controlled actuators are weight and volume reduction, immunity from electromagnetic effects, superior bandwidth capabilities, and freedom from short circuits and sparking contacts. Since 1975, NASA Lewis has performed in-house, contract, and grant research in fiber optic sensors, high-temperature electro-optic switches, and fly-by-light control-system architecture. Passive optical sensor development is an essential yet challenging area of work and has therefore received much attention during this period. A major effort to develop fly-by-light control-system technology, known as the Fiber-Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program, was initiated in 1985 as a cooperative effort between NASA and DOD. Phase 1 of FOCSI, completed in 1986, was aimed at the design of a fiber-optic integrated propulsion/flight control system. Phase 2, yet to be initiated, will provide subcomponent and system development, and a system engine test. In addition to a summary of the benefits of fiber optics, the FOCSI program, sensor advances, and future directions in the NASA Lewis program will be discussed.

  14. South Pole Telescope optics.

    PubMed

    Padin, S; Staniszewski, Z; Keisler, R; Joy, M; Stark, A A; Ade, P A R; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Hills, R E; Holzapfel, W L; Lawrie, C; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Vieira, J D

    2008-08-20

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, millimeter-wave, bolometer array receiver. The telescope has an unusual optical system with a cold stop around the secondary. The design emphasizes low scattering and low background loading. All the optical components except the primary are cold, and the entire beam from prime focus to the detectors is surrounded by cold absorber. PMID:18716649

  15. South Pole Telescope optics.

    PubMed

    Padin, S; Staniszewski, Z; Keisler, R; Joy, M; Stark, A A; Ade, P A R; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Hills, R E; Holzapfel, W L; Lawrie, C; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Vieira, J D

    2008-08-20

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, millimeter-wave, bolometer array receiver. The telescope has an unusual optical system with a cold stop around the secondary. The design emphasizes low scattering and low background loading. All the optical components except the primary are cold, and the entire beam from prime focus to the detectors is surrounded by cold absorber.

  16. Primary Retroperitoneal Myxoid Liposarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Setsu, Nokitaka; Miyake, Mototaka; Wakai, Susumu; Nakatani, Fumihiko; Kobayashi, Eisuke; Chuman, Hirokazu; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Kawai, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Myxoid liposarcomas (MLSs) are genetically defined by the presence of DDIT3 gene fusions and most commonly arise in the extremities of young adults. Whether MLSs develop primarily in the retroperitoneum is controversial, and a recent retrospective study found no molecularly confirmed examples. Because MLSs tend to metastasize to deep soft tissues, purported examples of primary retroperitoneal lesions might represent distant metastasis, most commonly from extremities. In addition, well-differentiated or dedifferentiated liposarcomas, which are characterized by MDM2 amplifications, may exhibit prominent myxoid changes and mimic MLSs. Here, we document 5 cases of MLSs that originated in the retroperitoneum that were identified through critical clinicopathologic reevaluation. These cases accounted for 2.3% of 214 primary retroperitoneal liposarcomas and 3.2% of 156 MLSs in our database. They occurred in 3 men and 2 women with a median age of 32 years. All tumors were localized to the retroperitoneum at presentation, and no patient developed extra-abdominal recurrences during the clinical course (median, 50 mo). All 5 cases exhibited at least focal classic histologic findings. All harbored DDIT3 gene rearrangements, and none harbored MDM2 amplifications according to fluorescence in situ hybridization. This study demonstrates that primary MLSs can occur in the retroperitoneum, albeit rarely, and can be accurately diagnosed through combined clinicopathologic and molecular analysis. PMID:27158758

  17. CELT optics Alignment Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, Terry S.; Nelson, Jerry E.; Chanan, Gary A.; Noethe, Lothar

    2003-01-01

    The California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) is a project to build a 30-meter diameter telescope for research in astronomy at visible and infrared wavelengths. The current optical design calls for a primary, secondary, and tertiary mirror with Ritchey-Chretién foci at two Nasmyth platforms. The primary mirror is a mosaic of 1080 actively-stabilized hexagonal segments. This paper summarizes a CELT report that describes a step-by-step procedure for aligning the many degrees of freedom of the CELT optics.

  18. Primary glomerulonephritides.

    PubMed

    Floege, Jürgen; Amann, Kerstin

    2016-05-14

    Most glomerulonephritides, even the more common types, are rare diseases. They are nevertheless important since they frequently affect young people, often cannot be cured, and can lead to chronic kidney disease, including end-stage renal failure, with associated morbidity and cost. For example, in young adults, IgA nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. In this Seminar, we summarise existing knowledge of clinical signs, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment of glomerulonephritides, with a particular focus on data published between 2008 and 2015, and the most common European glomerulonephritis types, namely IgA nephropathy, membranous glomerulonephritis, minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and the rare complement-associated glomerulonephritides such as dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis. PMID:26921911

  19. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  20. Modelo Pedagogico de Educacion Primaria para Adultos: Manual para el Asesor de Estudiantes Libres. Primera Parte (A Pedagogical Model for Adult Primary Education: Manual for the Student Advisor. Part One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This guide, part of a Mexican series of instructional materials, is intended for advisors of students participating in an adult education program offered through public and private organizations in communities in Mexico. The first part of the program comprises Spanish and math; the second, education for family life, education for community life,…

  1. The Effect of the Presence of Two Adults--Chaperones or Teachers--on the Content of the Conversations of Primary School Groups during School Visits To a Natural History Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the content of conversations of three groups: (1) pupils and teacher; (2) pupils and chaperone; and (3) pupils alone during museum and zoo visits. Results indicate that children-only groups commented on behaviors and generated knowledge source remarks significantly less than those groups containing adults, and the presence of an adult…

  2. Care of adults with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Robert; Wood, Jessica; Lunsky, Yona; Isaacs, Barry; Ouellette-Kuntz, Hélène; Sullivan, William

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effects of an interdisciplinary, guideline-based continuing education course on measures related to the care of adults with developmental disabilities (DD). Design Before-and-after study with a control group. Setting Ontario. Participants Forty-seven primary care providers (physicians, registered nurses, and nurse practitioners). Intervention Participants either only received reference material about primary care of people with DD (control group) or participated in a continuing education course on primary care of people with DD in addition to receiving the reference material (intervention group). Main outcome measures Participants reported on 5 key measures related to care of adults with DD: frequency of using guidelines, frequency of performing periodic health examinations, frequency of assessing patients who present with behaviour changes, level of comfort while caring for adults with DD, and knowledge of primary care related to adults with DD. Results Over time, the intervention group showed significant increases in 4 of the 5 key measures of care compared with the control group: the frequency of guideline use (P < .001), frequency of assessment of patients’ behaviour change (P = .03), comfort level in caring for people with DD (P = .01), and knowledge of primary care related to adults with DD (P = .01). Conclusion A continuing education course on primary care of adults with DD is a useful interdisciplinary model to train health professionals who provide primary care services to these patients. PMID:26380855

  3. Primary liposarcoma of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Saurbhi; Gupta, Anoop K; Sen, Seema; Kashyap, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Liposarcoma is the most common sarcoma in adults, but is an extremely rare tumor of the orbit. We report 4 cases of primary orbital liposarcoma treated at our center. All cases had tumor localized to the orbit and underwent exenteration followed by radiotherapy in one patient. None of the patients had a recurrence until a follow-up of 1-5 years (mean: 4 years).

  4. Primary and secondary hypohedonia.

    PubMed

    Meehl, P E

    2001-02-01

    Having shown taxometrically that there exists a hypohedonic schizotypal taxon in a college population, J. J. Blanchard, S. W. Gangestad, S. A. Brown, and W. P. Horan (2000) suggested that P. E. Meehl erred in revising his 1962 theory by postulating a normal-range individual differences variable of hedonic capacity that potentiates schizotypy into schizophrenia. The aversive drift and secondary anhedonia of Meehl's theory imply that the schizotypal taxon will generate hypohedonic taxonicity in an adult population. Psychometrically measurable hedonic disposition (as distinguished from genetic primary hedonic capacity) is "dragged along" by the schizogene, especially in the social domain. To choose between causal interpretations, it could be ascertained whether the schizotypal anhedonic taxon is composed of individuals who are schizotaxic on the basis of psychophysiological, cognitive, and soft neurologic indicators.

  5. Transition from Pediatric to Adult OI Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... what OI is and the medical and life style issues involved. • Being comfortable speaking directly to doctors ... the adult years especially if there is good communication between the center and the hometown primary care ...

  6. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  7. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-08-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  8. Effective literacy instruction for adults with specific learning disabilities: implications for adult educators.

    PubMed

    Hock, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level. In addition, large numbers of adults perform at the lowest skill levels on quantitative tasks. Clearly, significant instructional challenges exist for adults who struggle with literacy issues, and those challenges can be greater for adults with LD. In this article, the literature on adults with LD is reviewed, and evidenced-based instructional practices that significantly narrow the literacy achievement gap for this population are identified. Primary attention is given to instructional factors that have been shown to affect literacy outcomes for adults with LD. These factors include the use of explicit instruction, instructional technology, and intensive tutoring in skills and strategies embedded in authentic contexts.

  9. NGO Perspectives on Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2004-01-01

    Since 2000, the only serious attempt to mobilise new resources for education has been the World Bank's co-ordinated "Fast Track Initiative (FTI)." However, the FTI only raises funds for achieving universal completion of primary school and it does not address early childhood education or adult literacy. To date the Global Campaign for Education has…

  10. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review We review the primary immunodeficiencies underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. Recent findings An increasing number of primary immunodeficiencies are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of IL-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of CARD9 immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. Summary Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by primary immunodeficiencies. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of primary immunodeficiency. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases. PMID:24240293

  11. Primary hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Víctor; Torres, Armando; Salido, Eduardo

    2014-05-21

    Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) occurs due to an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder of the metabolism of glyoxylate, which causes excessive oxalate production. The most frequent and serious disorder is due to enzyme deficit of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (PH type I) specific to hepatic peroxisome. As oxalate is not metabolised in humans and is excreted through the kidneys, the kidney is the first organ affected, causing recurrent lithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and early renal failure. With advance of renal failure, particularly in patients on haemodialysis (HD), calcium oxalate is massively deposited in tissues, which is known as oxalosis. Diagnosis is based on family history, the presence of urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis, hyperoxaluria, oxalate deposits in tissue forming granulomas, molecular analysis of DNA and enzyme analysis if applicable. High diagnostic suspicion is required; therefore, unfortunately, in many cases it is diagnosed after its recurrence following kidney transplantation. Conservative management of this disease (high liquid intake, pyridoxine and crystallisation inhibitors) needs to be adopted early in order to delay kidney damage. Treatment by dialysis is ineffective in treating excess oxalate. After the kidney transplant, we normally observe a rapid appearance of oxalate deposits in the graft and the results of this technique are discouraging, with very few exceptions. Pre-emptive liver transplantation, or simultaneous liver and kidney transplants when there is already irreversible damage to the kidney, is the treatment of choice to treat the underlying disease and suppress oxalate overproduction. Given its condition as a rare disease and its genetic and clinical heterogeneity, it is not possible to gain evidence through randomised clinical trials. As a result, the recommendations are established by groups of experts based on publications of renowned scientific rigour. In this regard, a group of European experts (OxalEurope) has

  12. Adult orbital trapdoor fracture.

    PubMed

    Kum, Clarissa; McCulley, Timothy J; Yoon, Michael K; Hwang, Thomas N

    2009-01-01

    Trapdoor fractures occur almost exclusively in the pediatric population. The authors describe an adult with an entrapped inferior rectus muscle sheath in a trapdoor fracture. A 37-year-old man presented with persistent diplopia 3 weeks after blunt right orbital trauma. The only abnormal findings on clinical examination were limited vertical ductions. No bony defect or displacement was evident on CT. However, several small pockets of air were visible adjacent to the inferior rectus muscle. On surgical exploration, a linear nondisplaced orbital floor fracture was confirmed, and the entrapped inferior rectus muscle was released. One month postoperatively, extraocular motility had improved with no diplopia in primary or reading positions. This case demonstrates that trapdoor fractures can occur in adults and should be considered when suggestive findings are encountered. Clinicians should be aware of this because timely diagnosis and treatment might achieve more favorable outcomes.

  13. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

  14. Adult intussusception.

    PubMed Central

    Azar, T; Berger, D L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to review adult intussusception, its diagnosis, and its treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Adult intussusception represents 1% of all bowel obstructions, 5% of all intussusceptions, and 0.003%-0.02% of all hospital admissions. Intussusception is a different entity in adults than it is in children. METHODS: The records of all patients 18 years and older with the postoperative diagnosis of intussusception at the Massachusetts General Hospital during the years 1964 through 1993 were reviewed retrospectively. The 58 patients were divided into those with benign enteric, malignant enteric, benign colonic, and malignant colonic lesions associated with their intussusception. The diagnosis and treatment of each were reviewed. RESULTS: In 30 years at the Massachusetts General Hospital, there are 58 cases of surgically proven adult intussusception. The patients' mean age was 54.4 years. Most patients presented with symptoms consistent with bowel obstruction. There were 44 enteric and 14 colonic intussusceptions. Ninety-three percent of the intussusceptions were associated with a pathologic lesion. Forty-eight percent of the enteric lesions were malignant and 52% were benign. Forty-three percent of the colonic lesions were malignant and 57% were benign. CONCLUSIONS: Intussusception occurs rarely in adults. It presents with a variety of acute, intermittent, and chronic symptoms, thus making its preoperative diagnosis difficult. Computed tomography scanning proved to be the most useful diagnostic radiologic method. The diagnosis and treatment of adult intussusception are surgical. Surgical resection of the intussusception without reduction is the preferred treatment in adults, as almost half of both colonic and enteric intussusceptions are associated with malignancy. PMID:9296505

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror being polished at the the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025-micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This photograph shows engineers inspecting the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror at the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025- micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror being ground at the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025-micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  18. The VST active primary mirror support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, Pietro; Capaccioli, Massimo; D'Orsi, Sergio; Ferragina, Luigi; Marty, Laurent; Molfese, Cesare; Perrotta, Francesco; De Paris, Giacinto; Fierro, Davide; Tomelleri, Raffaele; Rossettini, Pierfrancesco; Perina, Francesco; Recchia, Stefano; Magrin, Demetrio

    2010-07-01

    The 2.6-m primary mirror of the VST telescope is equipped with an active optics system in order to correct low-order aberrations, constantly monitoring the optical quality of the image and controlling the relative position and the shape of the optical elements. Periodically an image analyser calculates the deviation of the image from the best quality. VST is equipped with both a Shack-Hartmann in the probe system and a curvature sensor embedded in the OmegaCAM instrument. The telescope control software decomposes the deviation into single optical contributions and calculates the force correction that each active element has to perform to achieve the optimal quality. The set of correction forces, one for each axial actuator, is computed by the telescope central computer and transmitted to the local control unit of the primary mirror system for execution. The most important element of the VST active optics is the primary mirror, with its active support system located within the primary mirror cell structure. The primary mirror support system is composed by an axial and a lateral independent systems and includes an earthquake safety system. The system is described and the results of the qualification test campaign are discussed.

  19. Optic neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Pau, D; Al Zubidi, N; Yalamanchili, S; Plant, G T; Lee, A G

    2011-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study is to provide a clinical update on optic neuritis (ON), its association with multiple sclerosis (MS), and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Methods This study included a PubMed review of the literature written in the English language. Results ON in adults is typically idiopathic or demyelinating, and is characterised by unilateral, subacute, painful loss of vision that is not associated with any systemic or other neurological symptoms. Demyelinating ON is associated with MS, and we review the key studies of ON including the ON treatment trial and several other MS treatment trials and NMO. Conclusion Acute demyelinating ON can occur in isolation or be associated with MS. Typical ON does not require additional evaluation other than cranial magnetic resonance imaging. NMO is likely a separate disorder from MS and the ON in NMO has a different treatment and prognosis. Methodology The authors conducted an English language search using Pubmed from the years 1964 to 2010 using the search terms ‘ON', ‘MS' and ‘NMO'. The authors included original articles, review articles, and case reports, which revealed new aspects as far as epidemiology, histopathology, clinical manifestations, imaging, genetics, and treatment of ON. Titles were reviewed for topicality and full references were obtained. Letters to the editor, unpublished work, and abstracts were not included in this review. PMID:21527960

  20. Primary song by a juvenile willow flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The timing of song development in suboscines, in which song appears not to be learned from other adults is poorly known. The Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a suboscine with a primary song typically referred to as fitz-bew. I report here an instance of very early singing by a 6-8-wk-old Willow Flycatcher, which sang in an aggressive context in response to a recording of adult flycatcher song. This is exceptionally early development of primary song, even among suboscines. Early song development may assist in the defense of winter territories.

  1. Research in optical sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R. R.

    1990-03-01

    The primary goal of this project is to examine the surface characteristics of mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) infrared detectors to determine the source of performance-limiting dark current in those detectors. This report discusses research progress in the optical sciences, including the areas of scanning tunneling microscopy in the evaluation of HgCdTe material; optical elements for x-ray and uv wavelengths; interaction of a single semiconductor cluster with intense laser beams; coherent and nonlinear effects in semiconductors; nonlinear organics for guided wave devices; nonlinear propagation and wave mixing in sodium vapor; gain/feedback approach to optical instabilities; conical emission; kaleidoscopic spatial instability; nonlinear dynamics and chaos in cavity QED; origin and application of four-wave mixing in semiconductors; theory of the semiconductor laser; nonlinear theory of phase conjugate optics; polishing of diamond films with argon and oxygen ion beams; and chemical vapor deposition of diamond and diamond-like films.

  2. Electro-Optical Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    In the Electro-Optical Characterization group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we use various electrical and optical experimental techniques to relate photovoltaic device performance to the methods and materials used to produce them. The types of information obtained by these techniques range from small-scale atomic-bonding information to large-scale macroscopic quantities such as optical constants and electron-transport properties. Accurate and timely measurement of the electro-optical properties as a function of device processing provides researchers and manufacturers with the knowledge needed to troubleshoot problems and develop the knowledge base necessary for reducing cost, maximizing efficiency, improving reliability, and enhancing manufacturability. We work collaboratively with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes our primary techniques and capabilities.

  3. Protein and older adults.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, Ronni

    2004-12-01

    Body composition changes as people get older. One of the noteworthy alterations is the reduction in total body protein. A decrease in skeletal muscle is the most noticeable manifestation of this change but there is also a reduction in other physiologic proteins such as organ tissue, blood components, and immune bodies as well as declines in total body potassium and water. This contributes to impaired wound healing, loss of skin elasticity, and an inability to fight infection. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adults for protein is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. Protein tissue accounts for 30% of whole-body protein turnover but that rate declines to 20% or less by age 70. The result of this phenomenon is that older adults require more protein/kilogram body weight than do younger adults. Recently, it has become clear that the requirement for exogenous protein is at least 1.0 gram/kilogram body weight. Adequate dietary intake of protein may be more difficult for older adults to obtain. Dietary animal protein is the primary source of high biological value protein, iron, vitamin B(12), folic acid, biotin and other essential nutrients. In fact, egg protein is the standard against which all other proteins are compared. Compared to other high-quality protein sources like meat, poultry and seafood, eggs are the least expensive. The importance of dietary protein cannot be underestimated in the diets of older adults; inadequate protein intake contributes to a decrease in reserve capacity, increased skin fragility, decreased immune function, poorer healing, and longer recuperation from illness.

  4. Adult Education as Seen through a Global Kaleidoscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Connie

    1995-01-01

    Participants in a seminar exploring adult education from multicultural perspectives developed consensus on these issues: adult education is not politically neutral; culture, religion, and economy influence the cost/value perspective of adult education; learner needs as they perceive them should be primary; and global expectations of adult…

  5. Metaphors of Adult Education: Beyond Penance toward Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Russell F., II

    1991-01-01

    Focus group interviews with 18 adults in a weekend degree program produced metaphoric themes. Adult education was compared to "blessing" or "penance"; the primary difference between traditional and adult education was seen as a "juggling act"; and "addiction to learning" appeared to be a motivator. The metaphor of family was considered ideal for…

  6. Treatment of primary refractory and relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children and adults: the GIMEMA/AIEOP experience. Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche Maligne dell'Adulto. Associazione Italiana Ematologìa ed Ocologia Pediatrica.

    PubMed

    Giona, F; Testi, A M; Annino, L; Amadori, S; Arcese, W; Camera, A; Di Montezemolo, L C; Ladogana, S; Liso, V; Meloni, G

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and forty-seven patients aged < 55 years with advanced acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were enrolled in an Italian cooperative study (ALL R-87). This protocol consists of an induction phase with idarubicin (IDA) plus intermediate-dose cytarabine (IDARA-C), followed by a consolidation phase and bone marrow transplant (BMT). Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 97/147 patients (66%) with a CR rate of 77% in children versus 51% in adults (P < 0.01). 48 responders (50%) underwent BMT. Probability of event-free survival (EFS +/- SE) was 10.2 +/- 3.1% at 56 months. EFS was 14.3 +/- 4.51% at 56 months for children versus 3.8 +/- 3.41% at 37 months for adults (P < 0.0001). Among patients treated in first relapse, EFS was 14.2 +/-7.79% for patients with CR > 18 months verus 6.6 +/- 3.17% for those with CR < 18 months (P < 0.0001). Projected disease-free survival (DFS +/- SE) was 15.4 +/- 4.61% at 55 months for all responders and 43.3 +/- 14.34% at 52 months for allografted patients. Projected overall probability of survival +/- SE for all patients was 18.8 +/- 4.13% at 56 months. This study confirms the efficacy of IDA plus IDARA-C in poor-risk. ALL patients. A more intensive post-remission therapy or alternative approach must be designed to improve long-term results.

  7. Optical microspectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2004-05-25

    An optical microspectrometer comprises a grism to disperse the spectra in a line object. A single optical microspectrometer can be used to sequentially scan a planar object, such as a dye-tagged microchip. Because the optical microspectrometer is very compact, multiple optical microspectrometers can be arrayed to provide simultaneous readout across the width of the planar object The optical microspectrometer can be fabricated with lithographic process, such as deep X-ray lithography (DXRL), with as few as two perpendicular exposures.

  8. Adult Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on adult children. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the…

  9. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

  10. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  11. Astronomical telescope with holographic primary objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Content, David A.

    2011-09-01

    A dual dispersion telescope with a plane grating primary objective was previously disclosed that can overcome intrinsic chromatic aberration of dispersive optics while allowing for unprecedented features such as million object spectroscopy, extraordinary étendue, flat primary objective with a relaxed figure tolerance, gossamer membrane substrate stowable as an unsegmented roll inside a delivery vehicle, and extensibility past 100 meter aperture at optical wavelengths. The novel design meets many criteria for space deployment. Other embodiments are suitable for airborne platforms as well as terrestrial and lunar sites. One problem with this novel telescope is that the grazing exodus configuration necessary to achieve a large aperture is traded for throughput efficiency. Now we show how the hologram of a point source used in place of the primary objective plane grating can improve efficiency by lowering the diffraction angle below grazing exodus. An intermediate refractive element is used to compensate for wavelength dependent focal lengths of the holographic primary objective.

  12. [Adult twins].

    PubMed

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  13. Primary splenic lymphoma with filiform ultrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, U R; Eyden, B P; Banerjee, S S; Reeve, N L

    1993-01-01

    A case of primary large cell splenic lymphoma of B lineage exhibiting filiform cell appearance is reported. The patient presented with massive splenomegaly, and following spontaneous splenic rupture, died of adult respiratory distress syndrome. The clinical aspects of the case, notably a lymphoma arising as a primary tumour in the spleen, with spontaneous spleen rupture and rapid fatal outcome, in combination with the filiform appearance of the lymphoma on electron microscopic examination, constitute an unusual combination of features. As far as is known, this B cell neoplasm is only the second primary splenic lymphoma of filiform type to be recorded. Images PMID:8331186

  14. Aging mourning doves by outer primary wear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wight, H.M.; Blankenship, L.H.; Tomlinson, R.E.

    1967-01-01

    Many immature mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) cannot be aged by the conventional white-tipped primary covert method if molt has proceeded beyond the 7th primary. A new method of aging doves in this group is based on the presence (immature) or absence (adult) of a buff-colored fringe on the tips of the 9th and 10th primaries. Experienced biologists were nearly 100 percent accurate in aging wings of 100 known-age doves from eastern and midwestern states. The technique is not as reliable for doves from southwestern United States because of added feather wear, apparently from harsh vegetative and soil conditions.

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  16. Primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Mirzoyan, Michael; Muslimani, Ala'a; Setrakian, Sebouh; Swedeh, Mohamed; Daw, Hamed A

    2008-09-01

    Pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma (PPSS) is increasingly recognized as a subtype of sarcoma because of the recent identification of a distinctive chromosomal translocation specific to synovial sarcoma. Soft-tissue synovial sarcoma is far more common than PPSS and typically develops in para-articular locations of the extremities, affects young and middle-aged adults, with no difference in distribution between the sexes, and has well-documented radiologic manifestations. Pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma can arise in the chest wall, heart, mediastinum, pleura, or lung, and it shares patient demographics and several imaging features with its soft-tissue counterpart. Patients present with a cough, chest pain, or dyspnea. On chest radiographs, PPSS typically appears as a sharply marginated mass with uniform opacity, based in the pleura or in the lung, and often accompanied by an ipsilateral pleural effusion. Computed tomographic images show a well-circumscribed, heterogeneously enhanced lesion without associated involvement of bone and without calcifications (except in the case of a chest wall primary tumor). Magnetic resonance imaging provides superior demonstration of nodular soft tissue and multilocular fluid-filled internal components of PPSS, in addition to peripheral rim enhancement after the intravenous administration of a gadoliniumbased contrast material such as gadopentetate dimeglumine. Current treatment consists of surgical resection followed by chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both. PMID:18824448

  17. Optical probe

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  18. Optical Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Matt

    1973-01-01

    Describes the characteristics and operational problems of optical waveguides, and concludes that the wide use of optical communications can be expected if difficulties in commercial production of components can be eliminated. (CC)

  19. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and aging.

    PubMed

    Klempin, Friederike; Kempermann, Gerd

    2007-08-01

    The demographic changes in the foreseeable future stress the need for research on successful cognitive aging. Advancing age constitutes a primary risk factor for disease of the central nervous system most notably neurodegenerative disorders. The hippocampus is one of the brain regions that is prominently affected by neurodegeneration and functional decline even in what is still considered "normal aging". Plasticity is the basis for how the brain adapts to changes over time. The discovery of adult hippocampal neurogenesis has added a whole new dimension to research on structural plasticity in the adult and aging hippocampus. In this article, we briefly summarize and discuss recent findings on the regulation of adult neurogenesis with relevance to aging. Aging is an important co-variable for many regulatory mechanisms affecting adult neurogenesis but so far, only few studies have specifically addressed this interaction. We hypothesize that adult neurogenesis contributes to a neural reserve, i.e. the maintained potential for structural plasticity that allows compensation in situations of functional losses with aging. As such we propose that adult neurogenesis might contribute to the structural correlates of successful aging. PMID:17401726

  20. Optical keyboard

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.; Feichtner, John D.; Phillips, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

  1. Teaching Adults. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    The question of how adult educators can make their teaching of adults more effective is explored in the context of recent work on adult lifelong learning. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) modes of adult education and the shift in focus from adult education to lifelong learning; (2) the contract between adult student and adult…

  2. Doctoral Clinical Geropsychology Training in a Primary Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Richard A.; Siegel, Lawrence; Hahn, Steven; Kuslansky, Gail; Byrne, Kathy; Fyffe, Denise; Passman, Vicki; Stewart, Douglas; Hinrichsen, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    Most older adults diagnosed with a mental disorder receive treatment in primary care settings that lack personnel skilled in geropsychological diagnosis and treatment. The Ferkauf Older Adult Program of Yeshiva University endeavors to bridge this gap by providing training in geriatric psychology, through coursework and diverse clinical practica,…

  3. Glioblastoma multiforme of the optic chiasm: A rare case of common pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lyapichev, Kirill A.; Bregy, Amade; Cassel, Adrienne; Handfield, Chelsea; Velazquez-Vega, Jose; Kay, Matthew D.; Basil, Gregory; Komotar, Ricardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malignant optic and chiasmatic gliomas are extremely rare, and are classified pathologically as anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Approximately 40 cases of optic GBM in adults have been reported in the literature, and only five of them were described to originate from the optic chiasm. Case Description: An 82-year-old male patient with a past medical history of diabetes mellitus type 2, melanoma, and bladder cancer presented with gradual vision loss of the left eye in a period of 1 month. After neuro-ophthalmological examination, the decision of thither magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies was made. It showed a contrast enhancing mass in the region of the optic chiasm. In this case, imaging study was not enough to establish an accurate diagnosis and a left pterional craniotomy for biopsy and resection of the optic chiasmal mass was performed. After histological evaluation of the mass tissue, the diagnosis of GBM was made. Taking into account the patient's poor condition and unfavorable prognosis he was moved to inpatient hospice. The patient deceased within 2 months after surgery. Conclusion: Chiasmal GBM is an extremely rare condition where a biopsy is necessary for accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment. Differential diagnosis for such lesions can be very difficult and include demyelinating optic neuritis and non-demyelinating inflammatory optic neuropathy (e.g., sarcoid), vascular lesions (e.g., cavernoma), compressive lesions of the optic apparatus, metastatic malignancy, and primary tumors of the anterior optic pathway. The role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy including novel stereotaxic radiosurgery methods is still unclear and will need to be evaluated. PMID:27512611

  4. A Dose-Escalation Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of 2 and 4 Weeks of Twice-Daily Ocular Trabodenoson in Adults with Ocular Hypertension or Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Sall, Kenneth N.; DuBiner, Harvey; Slomowitz, Natanya; McVicar, William; Rich, Cadmus C.; Baumgartner, Rudolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the safety and ocular hypotensive efficacy of 4 trabodenoson doses administered twice daily over 14 or 28 days in subjects with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation Phase 2 study, patients received unilateral topical twice-daily trabodenoson (50, 100, or 200 mcg) or placebo for 14 days, or 500 mcg trabodenoson or placebo for 28 days. Ocular and systemic safety and tolerability were assessed by examinations, clinical and laboratory studies. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was assessed using Goldmann tonometry. Results: Trabodenoson was well tolerated; no clinically meaningful ocular or systemic side effects were identified. Trabodenoson produced a dose-dependent IOP reduction. IOP reductions in the 500 mcg group were significantly greater than placebo at all time points at Day 28. Mean IOP reductions from diurnal baseline ranged from −3.5 to −5.0 mmHg with a mean change of −4.1 mmHg in the 500 mcg group compared −1.0 to −2.5 mmHg with a mean change of −1.6 mmHg for the placebo group, and the Day 28 drop was significantly greater than at Day 14 (P = 0.0163) indicating improvement in IOP lowering with longer treatment time. IOP remained significantly reduced 24 h after the final 500 mcg dose (P = 0.048). Conclusion: Twice-daily ocular doses of trabodenoson, from 50 to 500 mcg, were well tolerated and showed a dose-related decrease in IOP that was statistically significant and clinically relevant at 500 mcg in patients with ocular hypertension or POAG. PMID:27002298

  5. Optical Micromachining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) with Marshall Space Flight Center, Potomac Photonics, Inc., constructed and demonstrated a unique tool that fills a need in the area of diffractive and refractive micro-optics. It is an integrated computer-aided design and computer-aided micro-machining workstation that will extend the benefits of diffractive and micro-optic technology to optical designers. Applications of diffractive optics include sensors and monitoring equipment, analytical instruments, and fiber optic distribution and communication. The company has been making diffractive elements with the system as a commercial service for the last year.

  6. Recommended routine vaccinations for older adults.

    PubMed

    Planton, Jonathan; Meyer, Jennifer O; Edlund, Barbara J

    2012-07-01

    A goal of primary prevention is to avoid the development of disease. Immunizations are one of several strategies used by clinicians in primary prevention. Influenza and pneumococcal disease--both preventable--cause significant morbidity and mortality in older adults who have an altered immune system, often have several chronic health problems, and are at higher risk for complications. Tetanus, while not as common in older adults, carries a high mortality rate in those 65 and older. These infections are associated with significant disability that results from hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, hip fracture, stroke, and pneumonia. The goal of immunizing older adults is to decrease functional decline and disability, as well as potential hospital admissions linked to these preventable diseases, which often exacerbate underlying health problems. Age-defined recommendations are available to guide clinicians on the appropriate vaccinations and schedules for administration to older adults. PMID:22715960

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - ...

  8. IRIS Optical Instrument and Light Paths

    NASA Video Gallery

    The optical portion of the instrument and the light paths from the primary and secondary mirror of the telescope assembly into the spectrograph. The spectrograph then breaks the light into 2 Near U...

  9. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified.

  10. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified. PMID:25595429

  11. Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orvil Scully, Marlan; Zubairy, Muhammad Suhail

    1997-09-01

    Quantum optics has witnessed significant theoretical and experimental developments in recent years. This book provides an in-depth and wide-ranging introduction to the subject, emphasizing throughout the basic principles and their applications. The book begins by developing the basic tools of quantum optics, and goes on to show the application of these tools in a variety of quantum optical systems, including lasing without inversion, squeezed states, and atom optics. The final four chapters discuss quantum optical tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics, and particular aspects of measurement theory. Assuming only a background of standard quantum mechanics and electromagnetic theory, and containing many problems and references, this book will be invaluable to graduate students of quantum optics, as well as to researchers in this field.

  12. Geometrical Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindlein, Norbert; Leuchs, Gerd

    This chapter shall discuss the basics and the applications of geometrical optical methods in modern optics. Geometrical optics has a long tradition and some ideas are many centuries old. Nevertheless, the invention of modern personal computers which can perform several million floating-point operations in a second also revolutionized the methods of geometrical optics and so several analytical methods lost importance whereas numerical methods such as ray tracing became very important. Therefore, the emphasis in this chapter is also on modern numerical methods such as ray tracing and some other systematic methods such as the paraxial matrix theory.

  13. Optical trapping

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Keir C.; Block, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    Since their invention just over 20 years ago, optical traps have emerged as a powerful tool with broad-reaching applications in biology and physics. Capabilities have evolved from simple manipulation to the application of calibrated forces on—and the measurement of nanometer-level displacements of—optically trapped objects. We review progress in the development of optical trapping apparatus, including instrument design considerations, position detection schemes and calibration techniques, with an emphasis on recent advances. We conclude with a brief summary of innovative optical trapping configurations and applications. PMID:16878180

  14. Primary Care of the Patient with Asthma.

    PubMed

    Lenaeus, Michael J; Hirschmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Obstructive lung disease includes asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because a previous issue of Medical Clinics of North America (2012;96[4]) was devoted to COPD, this article focuses on asthma in adults, and addresses some topics about COPD not addressed previously. Asthma is a heterogeneous disease marked by variable airflow obstruction and bronchial hyperreactivity. Onset is most common in early childhood, although many people develop asthma later in life. Adult-onset asthma presents a particular challenge in the primary care clinic because of incomplete understanding of the disorder, underreporting of symptoms, underdiagnosis, inadequate treatment, and high rate of comorbidity.

  15. 10 Practice Recommendations in Adult Vaccination Administration.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Benjamin J; Stewart, Rosalyn W

    2016-02-01

    Although the provision of immunoprophylaxis to children has become routine in the practice of pediatric preventive care, the same is not true in adult primary care. Contributing to this problem is a lack of knowledge among providers of adult preventive care. This review aimed to bolster providers' understanding of adult vaccinations by highlighting changes in vaccination recommendations and addressing common knowledge gaps. This is not a comprehensive list of vaccination recommendations, but rather the "top 10" common misconceptions, advancements, and updates we have found in our reading of the vaccination literature and in our own experience in a training institution.

  16. 10 Practice Recommendations in Adult Vaccination Administration.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Benjamin J; Stewart, Rosalyn W

    2016-02-01

    Although the provision of immunoprophylaxis to children has become routine in the practice of pediatric preventive care, the same is not true in adult primary care. Contributing to this problem is a lack of knowledge among providers of adult preventive care. This review aimed to bolster providers' understanding of adult vaccinations by highlighting changes in vaccination recommendations and addressing common knowledge gaps. This is not a comprehensive list of vaccination recommendations, but rather the "top 10" common misconceptions, advancements, and updates we have found in our reading of the vaccination literature and in our own experience in a training institution. PMID:26840962

  17. Optical alignment of high resolution Fourier transform spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Ocallaghan, F. G.; Cassie, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing, high resolution FTS instruments often contain three primary optical subsystems: Fore-Optics, Interferometer Optics, and Post, or Detector Optics. We discuss the alignment of a double-pass FTS containing a cat's-eye retro-reflector. Also, the alignment of fore-optics containing confocal paraboloids with a reflecting field stop which relays a field image onto a camera is discussed.

  18. Testing the James Webb Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    JWST in-process optical testing and cryogenic requirement compliance certification, verification andvalidation was probably the most difficult metrology job of our generation in astronomical optics. But, the challenge was met: by hard work of dozens of optical metrologists; development and qualification of multiple custom test setups; and several new inventions, including 4D PhaseCam and Leica Absolute Distance Meter. This paper summarizes the metrology tools, test setups and processes used to characterize the JWST primary mirror.

  19. A mitochondrial mutation at nt 9101 in the ATP synthase 6 gene associated with deficient oxidative phosphorylation in a family with leber hereditary optic neuroretinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Lamninen, T.; Junoven, V.; Aula, P.; Savontaus, M.L.; Majander, A.; Wikstroem, M.

    1995-05-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuroretinopathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited ocular disease resulting in bilateral optic atrophy in young adults. Several mtDNA point mutations have been proposed as being causative for LHON, all in complex I, III, or IV of the respiratory chain. The ND4/11778 mutation accounts for {approximately}50% of all LHON families, the ND1/3460 mutation is detected in {approximately}15% of cases, and {approximately}10% of LHON families have the ND6/14484 mutation. All these mutations are restricted to LHON families, and they change evolutionary conserved amino acids. Furthermore, these primary mutations have never been observed to occur simultaneously. Besides the primary mutations, several other replacement mutations have been found in LHON families. These mutations are also detected at low frequency in control individuals, and they change evolutionarily less conserved amino acids. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Optical source and apparatus for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, Donald Barry (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An optical amplifier is configured to amplify an injected seed optical pulse. The optical amplifier may include two or more gain sections coupled to form a continuous solid waveguide along a primary optical path. Each gain section may include: (i) an optical isolator forming an input to that gain section; (ii) a doped optical fiber having a first end coupled to the optical isolator and having a second end; (iii) a plurality of pump laser diodes; (iv) a controller providing drive signals to each of the plurality, the controller being configured to provide at least pulsed drive signals; and (v) an optical coupler having a first input port coupled to the second end, and a second input port coupled to the plurality and an output port.