Science.gov

Sample records for primary cervical carcinoma

  1. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Magaldi, Thomas G.; Almstead, Laura L.; Bellone, Stefania; Prevatt, Edward G.; Santin, Alessandro D.; DiMaio, Daniel

    2012-01-05

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 that is limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells.

  2. Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Cervical Spine and Pelvic Bone Metastases Presenting as Unknown Primary Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sea Won; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jung Min; Hong, Sook Hee; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Chun, Ho Jong; Lee, Sung Hak; Jung, Eun Sun

    2015-07-01

    The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is closely associated with viral hepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis. Although active surveillance is ongoing in Korea, advanced or metastatic HCC is found at initial presentation in many patients. Metastatic HCC presents with a hypervascular intrahepatic tumor and extrahepatic lesions such as lung or lymph node metastases. Cases of HCC presenting as carcinoma of unknown primary have been rarely reported. The authors experienced a case of metastatic HCC in a patient who presented with a metastatic bone lesion but no primary intrahepatic tumor. This case suggests that HCC should be considered as a differential diagnosis when evaluating the primary origin of metastatic carcinoma.

  3. Cervical carcinoma: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Cowan, M E; Skinner, G R

    1988-01-01

    A mouse model system was used to investigate the preventive efficacy of a subunit herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine on the development of HSV induced cervical carcinoma. Ten groups of mice were vaccinated before receiving repeated intravaginal exposure to HSV-type 2 inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation. At 20 months postvaccination, neutralizing antibody activity to herpes simplex viruses was detected in the sera of the mice which had received the highest vaccine dose. Although three experimental mice and one control mouse developed cervical tumours and five mice developed preinvasive malignant changes, 87% of cervices were of normal or koilocytotic appearance on histological examination. There was therefore no evidence from this study that repeated exposure of mouse cervices to inactivated HSV-2 induced a significant incidence of preinvasive or invasive cervical carcinoma.

  4. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With High Risk Primary or Recurrent Gynecologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-15

    Cervical Carcinoma; Ovarian Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Vulvar Carcinoma; Uterine Corpus Cancer; Vulvar Carcinoma; Peritoneal Neoplasms

  5. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Upper Genital Tract: Utility of p16INK4a Expression and HPV DNA Status in its Differential Diagnosis from Extended Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Su Hyun; Son, Eun-Mi; Sung, Chang Okh

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper genital tract, including the endometrium, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, is extremely rare. It must be distinguished from the mucosal extension of primary cervical SCC because determination of the primary tumor site is important for tumor staging. However, patients with SCC of the fallopian tubes or ovarian surface have often undergone prior hysterectomy with inadequate examination of the cervix, making it difficult to determine the primary site. Methods We compared histologic findings, p16INK4a expression, and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA status in four patients with primary SCC of the upper genital tract and five patients with primary cervical SCC extending to the mucosa of the upper genital tract. Results All five SCCs of cervical origin showed strong expression of p16INK4a, whereas all four SCCs of the upper genital tract were negative, although one showed weak focal staining. Three of the five cervical SCCs were positive for HPV16 DNA, whereas all four primary SCCs of the upper genital tract were negative for HPV DNA. Conclusions Although a thorough histological examination is important, immunonegativity for p16INK4a and negative for HPV DNA may be useful adjuncts in determining primary SCCs of the upper genital tract. PMID:24421848

  6. Genetic events in cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, S.; Tai, C.C.; Mowatt, J.

    1994-09-01

    Cervical carcinoma is the fifth most common cancer world-wide and the second major cause of cancer related death in women. Recent studies have suggested that chromosome 10, particularly the short arm, may be significant in the pathogenesis of the disease. The relationship has not, however, been investigated directly in cervical tumor material. We analyzed 21 paired blood and tumor samples from patients with cervical carcinoma for allele loss on chromosome 10. Ten polymorphic loci spanning the length of chromosome 10 were used including 4 RFLPs and 4 microsatellite markers. Tumor samples were carefully dissected to remove the majority of contaminating normal tissue. Twenty of the 21 pairs were heterozygous for at least one locus. Loss of heterozygosity for one or more chromosome 10 loci was observed in 5 out of the 20 informative cases (25%). One sample showed the apparent loss of an entire copy of chromosome 10. In 3 cases allele loss was confined to loci on the short arm of chromosome 10. We are currently using further markers mapped to chromosome 10p to define the shortest consistent region of allele loss. We suggest that this region may contain one or more tumor suppressor genes involved in the development and/or progression of cervical carcinoma.

  7. Papillomavirus sequences integrate near cellular oncogenes in some cervical carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Duerst, M.; Croce, C.M.; Gissmann, L.; Schwarz, E.; Huebner, K.

    1987-02-01

    The chromosomal locations of cellular sequences flanking integrated papillomavirus DNA in four cervical cell lines and a primary cervical carcinoma have been determined. The two human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 flanking sequences derived from the tumor were localized to chromosomes regions 20pter..-->..20q13 and 3p25..-->..3qter, regions that also contain the protooncogenes c-src-1 and c-raf-1, respectively. The HPV 16 integration site in the SiHa cervical carcinoma-derived cell line is in chromosome region 13q14..-->..13q32. The HPV 18 integration site in SW756 cervical carcinoma cells is in chromosome 12 but is not closely linked to the Ki-ras2 gene. Finally, in two cervical carcinoma cell lines, HeLa and C4-I, HPV 18 DNA is integrated in chromosome 8, 5' of the c-myc gene. The HeLaHPV 18 integration site is within 40 kilobases 5' of the c-myc gene, inside the HL60 amplification unit surrounding and including the c-myc gene. Additionally, steady-state levels of c-myc mRNA are elevated in HeLa and C4-I cells relative to other cervical carcinoma cell lines. Thus, in at least some genital tumors, cis-activation of cellular oncogenes by HPV may be involved in malignant transformation of cervical cells.

  8. Ossification of the cervical ligamentum flavum and osseous brown tumor: late manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism misdiagnosed in a case of parathyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sampanis, Nikolaos; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Paschou, Eleni; Kalaitzoglou, Asterios; Vasileiou, Sotirios

    2016-01-01

    Summary Parathyroid carcinoma represents an extremely rare neoplasm with diverse clinical manifestations. Herein we aimed at presenting an unique case of a young patient with late manifestations of parathyroid cancer and reviewing the relevant literature. A 45-year-old male patient presented in the Outpatient Clinic with an episode of nephrolithiasis. His personal medical history includes: recurrent episodes of nephrolithiasis, laminectomy in the cervical spine due to ossification of the cervical ligamentum flavum and surgical resection of a giant cell tumor of the brain. Laboratory testing revealed findings of primary hyperparathyroidism (serum calcium 16,0 mmol/l phosphorus 1,46 mg/dl and parathyroid hormone/PTH 8560 pg/ml). Neck ultrasound and technetium-99 m sestamibi scan were performed showing a parathyroid tumor. Due to the persistently high serum calcium and PTH levels, the high alkaline phosphatase levels (440 IU/L) and the late manifestations of HPT, surgical excision of the tumor was performed. The tumor was identified as parathyroid carcinoma. Immediately after surgery serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normalized. The patient is on a regular follow-up program with no signs of recurrence or metastasis one year after the excision. We describe the coexistence of rare late manifestations of HPT, which had not been adequately investigated at their onset in this young patient. Therefore, increased awareness is needed in order to recognize and further investigate signs or symptoms of HPT. PMID:27252748

  9. MR imaging of uterine cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Waggenspack, G A; Amparo, E G; Hannigan, E V

    1988-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of 20 consecutive patients with primary untreated carcinoma of the cervix who underwent surgery and one patient who underwent percutaneous needle biopsy of enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. Most of the patients were clinical Stage IB. The clinical assessment of the parametria in these patients was more accurate than the MR assessment of the parametria (95 versus 79%). Magnetic resonance was valuable for detecting metastatic pelvic lymphadenopathy. Enlarged pelvic lymph nodes (greater than 1.5 cm in diameter) were demonstrated by MR in all three patients with histologic verification of metastatic lymphadenopathy. In summary, the major therapeutic value of MR in patients with untreated cervical carcinoma is in assessing the pelvic lymph nodes. In patients with clinical Stage IB disease, MR assessment of the parametria does not add useful additional information.

  10. Effect of different segmentation algorithms on metabolic tumor volume measured on 18F-FDG PET/CT of cervical primary squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weina; Yu, Shupeng; Ma, Ying; Liu, Changping

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose It is known that fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (CT) segmentation algorithms have an impact on the metabolic tumor volume (MTV). This leads to some uncertainties in PET/CT guidance of tumor radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of segmentation algorithms on the PET/CT-based MTV and their correlations with the gross tumor volumes (GTVs) of cervical primary squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and methods Fifty-five patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage Ia∼IIb and histologically proven cervical squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT scan was performed before definitive surgery. GTV was measured on surgical specimens. MTVs were estimated on PET/CT scans using different segmentation algorithms, including a fixed percentage of the maximum standardized uptake value (20∼60% SUVmax) threshold and iterative adaptive algorithm. We divided all patients into four different groups according to the SUVmax within target volume. The comparisons of absolute values and percentage differences between MTVs by segmentation and GTV were performed in different SUVmax subgroups. The optimal threshold percentage was determined from MTV20%∼MTV60%, and was correlated with SUVmax. The correlation of MTViterative adaptive with GTV was also investigated. Results MTV50% and MTV60% were similar to GTV in the SUVmax up to 5 (P>0.05). MTV30%∼MTV60% were similar to GTV (P>0.05) in the 50.05) in the 100.05) in the SUVmax of at least 15 group. MTViterative adaptive was similar to GTV in both total and different SUVmax groups (P>0.05). Significant differences were observed among the fixed percentage method and the optimal threshold percentage was inversely correlated with SUVmax. The iterative adaptive segmentation algorithm led

  11. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis.

  12. [Multiple primary pulmonary carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Guitart, A C; Gómez, G; Estrada, G; Rodríguez, C; León, C; Cornudella, R

    1991-02-01

    Three cases of multiple simultaneous primary lung carcinomas are presented, in which diagnosis was established by post-surgery pathological exam. In all three cases, chest X-ray showed pulmonary masses suggestive or clinical malignancy, and pre-surgery pathological diagnosis or squamous lung carcinoma. During thoracotomy or in the resected segment, a second lesion we confirmed which made resection necessary being this second lesion classified as lung adenocarcinoma.

  13. Preoperative Prediction of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis Using Primary Tumor SUVmax on 18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji-hoon; Kim, Choon-Young; Son, Seung Hyun; Kim, Do-Hoon; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the current study was to evaluate the value of preoperative 18F-FDG (FDG) PET/CT in predicting cervical lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods One hundred and ninety-three newly diagnosed PTC patients (M: F = 25:168, age = 46.8 ± 12.2) who had undergone pretreatment FDG PET/CT and had neck node dissection were included in this study. The FDG avidity of the primary tumor and the SUVmax of the primary tumor (pSUVmax) were analyzed for prediction of LN metastasis. Detectability by ultrasonography (US) and FDG PET/CT for cervical LN metastasis were also assessed and compared with the pSUVmax. Results The FDG avidity of the primary tumor was identified in 118 patients (FDG avid group: 61.0%, M: F = 16:102, age 47.0 ± 12.7 years) and pSUVmax ranged from 1.3 to 35.6 (median 4.6) in the FDG avid group. The tumor size in the FDG avid group was bigger and there was a higher incidence of LN metastasis compared to the FDG non-avid group (0.93 vs. 0.59 cm, p <0.001 and 49.2 vs. 33.3%, p <0.05). In the FDG avid group, patients with LN metastasis had higher pSUVmax than patients without LN metastasis (8.7 ± 8.3 vs. 5.7 ± 5.1, p <0.001). The incidence of central LN metastasis in patients with a pSUVmax >4.6 was 54%; however, the detectability of central LN metastasis by US and FDG PET/CT were 10.3% and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusion A high FDG avidity of the primary tumor was related to LN metastasis in PTC patients. Therefore, patients with a high pSUVmax should be cautiously assessed for LN metastasis and might need a more comprehensive surgical approach. PMID:26636824

  14. Carcinoma of the cervical esophagus: diagnosis, management, and results

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.J.; Harris, A.; Gillette, A.; Munoz, L.; Kashima, H.

    1984-11-01

    Nine of 168 patients (5.3%) with carcinoma of the esophagus had primary tumors in the cervical esophagus. The principal symptoms and signs of carcinoma of the cervical esophagus were dysphagia, hoarseness, neck mass, and weight loss. The esophagogram was a very reliable study, revealing the abnormality in all nine patients. The true extent of the disease was better delineated by computerized tomography which demonstrated not only the intraluminal mass but also the extraesophageal spread. Endoscopic examination of the cervical esophagus was the definitive procedure to establish the diagnosis. All nine patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy, three surviving two to five years. The major cause of death was the failure to control local disease. 14 references, 3 tables.

  15. The molecular genetics of cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lazo, P A

    1999-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma there are three major components, two of them related to the role of human papillomaviruses (HPV). First, the effect of viral E6 and E7 proteins. Second, the integration of viral DNA in chromosomal regions associated with well known tumour phenotypes. Some of these viral integrations occur recurrently at specific chromosomal locations, such as 8q24 and 12q15, both harbouring HPV18 and HPV16. And third, there are other recurrent genetic alterations not linked to HPV. Recurrent losses of heterozygosity (LOH) have been detected in chromosome regions 3p14–22, 4p16, 5p15, 6p21–22, 11q23, 17p13.3 without effect on p53, 18q12–22 and 19q13, all of them suggesting the alteration of putative tumour suppressor genes not yet identified. Recurrent amplification has been mapped to 3q+ arm, with the common region in 3q24–28 in 90% of invasive carcinomas. The mutator phenotype, microsatellite instability, plays a minor role and is detected in only 7% of cervical carcinomas. The development of cervical carcinoma requires the sequential occurrence and selection of several genetic alterations. The identification of the specific genes involved, and their correlation with specific tumour properties and stages could improve the understanding and perhaps the management of cervical carcinoma. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471054

  16. Cervical Spinal Cord Compression: A Rare Presentation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chime, Chukwunonso; Arjun, Shiva; Reddy, Pavithra; Niazi, Masooma

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of liver. Distant metastasis to various organs is well known. Skeletal metastasis is also reported to various locations. Vertebral metastasis has been reported mostly to thoracic spine. However, cervical spinal cord involvement leading to cord compression has been reported very rarely in literature. We present a case of 58-year-old male with liver cirrhosis presenting as neck pain. Further work-up revealed metastatic HCC to cervical spinal cord resulting in acute cord compression. Patient has been treated with neurosurgical intervention. PMID:28299213

  17. [Radiotherapy for primary lung carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Giraud, P; Lacornerie, T; Mornex, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, technique of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy, for primary lung carcinoma are presented. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed.

  18. High expression of CRAM correlates with poor prognosis in patients with cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Teng; Liang, Dongxia; Yang, Dong; He, Jiehua; Huang, Yongwen; Zhang, Yanna

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Atypical chemokine receptors (ACRs) have been reported to scavenge or alter the localization of their chemokine ligands. However, CRAM, a newly identified ACR member, is lack of ligand scavenging properties. The present study was to investigate the clinical significance of CRAM in cervical carcinoma. Methods: The expression of CRAM in primary cervical cancer and paired normal tissues from adjacent regions was examined using Real time PCR. Moreover, CRAM protein expression was analyzed in 272 cervical specimens including 50 normal cervical tissues, 40 cases of carcinoma in situ of cervix (CIS), and 182 cases of cervical cancer by immunohistochemistry. Results: Real time PCR showed that the expression level of CRAM was markedly higher in cervical cancer than that in normal cervical tissues. The expression rate of CRAM in normal cervical tissues, CIS, and cervical cancer increased gradually (p < 0.01). In addition, the expression level of CCL19 was positively associated with that of CRAM (p < 0.05). Moreover, high expression level of CRAM was correlated with lymph node metastasis and histological subtype. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, high expression level of CRAM was a negative indicator for both overall (p = 0.028) and recurrence-free survival (p = 0.010). Conclusion: The present study suggested that CRAM could be a clinical prognostic marker for patients with cervical cancer and might be a potential therapeutic target for cervical cancer. Our data extended previous research on the predictive value of ACRs. PMID:24695578

  19. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervical Node Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastases From Unknown Head-and-Neck Primary Site: M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Outcomes and Patterns of Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Steven J.; Rosenthal, David I.; Petsuksiri, Janjira; Ang, K. Kian; Morrison, William H.; Weber, Randal S.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Garden, Adam S.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Conventional therapy for cervical node squamous cell carcinoma metastases from an unknown primary can cause considerable toxicity owing to the volume of tissues to be irradiated. In the present study, hypothesizing that using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) would provide effective treatment with minimal toxicity, we reviewed the outcomes and patterns of failure for head-and-neck unknown primary cancer at a single tertiary cancer center. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 52 patients who had undergone IMRT for an unknown primary at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1998 and 2005. The patient and treatment characteristics were extracted and the survival rates calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Of the 52 patients, 5 presented with Stage N1, 11 with Stage N2a, 23 with Stage N2b, 6 with Stage N2c, 4 with Stage N3, and 3 with Stage Nx disease. A total of 26 patients had undergone neck dissection, 13 before and 13 after IMRT; 14 patients had undergone excisional biopsy and presented for IMRT without evidence of disease. Finally, 14 patients had received systemic chemotherapy. All patients underwent IMRT to targets on both sides of the neck and pharyngeal axis. The median follow-up time for the surviving patients was 3.7 years. The 5-year actuarial rate of primary mucosal tumor control and regional control was 98% and 94%, respectively. Only 3 patients developed distant metastasis with locoregional control. The 5-year actuarial disease-free and overall survival rate was 88% and 89%, respectively. The most severe toxicity was Grade 3 dysphagia/esophageal stricture, experienced by 2 patients. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that IMRT can produce excellent outcomes for patients who present with cervical node squamous cell carcinoma metastases from an unknown head-and-neck primary tumor. Severe late complications were uncommon.

  20. Veliparib, Topotecan Hydrochloride, and Filgrastim or Pegfilgrastim in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-07

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  1. Cervical carcinoma: prognosis in younger patients.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J M; Blair, V; Hunter, R D

    1987-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of 2870 patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix treated by radiotherapy from 1971 to 1978 showed that the prognosis for younger patients (defined as either under 35 or under 40) was better than that for older age groups, but young patients presented with earlier disease. When the effect of stage on prognosis was also considered the improved survival of patients under 35 was confirmed, although the result was of only borderline significance. The better survival of younger patients was particularly noticeable for stage IB disease, the corrected five year survival of those under 35 being 93% compared with 79% for those over 35. On the basis of this analysis and a review of previous reports it is concluded that age alone is a poor indicator of prognosis and should not be used as an indication for adjuvant treatment. There is no evidence in this series of an aggressive form of cervical carcinoma in younger patients during the 1970s. PMID:3115418

  2. [Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Campos Arbulú, Ana L; Sadava, Emmanuel E; Sánchez Ruiz, Alejandro; Fernández Vila, Juan M; Dillon, Horacio S; Mezzadri, Norberto A

    2017-01-01

    Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis.

  3. Modern management of locally advanced cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Cetina, Lucely; Mariscal, Ignacio; de la Garza, Jaime

    2003-10-01

    Radiation was until recently the key and only modality for the routine treatment of locally advanced cervical carcinoma. However after years of studying multi-modality treatments as an alternative to radiation alone in randomized phase III trials, the standard treatment has changed to chemo-radiation based on cisplatin. Three recent meta-analyses have confirmed that cisplatin-based chemo-radiation adds an absolute 12% benefit in five-year survival over radiation therapy alone. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiation has not been of proven benefit, but when neoadjuvant chemotherapy is followed by surgery, an absolute increase of 15% in five-year survival over radiation alone is seen. This benefit in survival is comparable to that obtained with the current chemo-radiation schedules based on cisplatin. Despite these encouraging results there remains room for improvement as the five-year survival of patients treated with chemo-radiation ranges from nearly 80% in bulky IB tumours to only 25% in stage IVA disease. Other therapeutic approaches need to be fully evaluated including the use of chemo-radiation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy; the use of new drug combinations and the multi-modality combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery plus adjuvant chemo-radiation. Likewise, the addition of radiosensitizers to cisplatin, preoperative chemo-radiation and/or adjuvant chemotherapy may eventually improve the currents results of cisplatin-based chemo-radiation. Nevertheless, it is hard to foresee a dramatic increase in cure rate, even with the most optimal combination of cytotoxic drugs, surgery and radiation, and thus the testing of molecular targeted therapies against cervical cancer is a logical step to follow.

  4. Persistence of endometrial activity after radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, D.; Heller, P.; Dames, J.; Hoskins, W.; Gallup, D.; Park, R.

    1985-12-01

    Radiation therapy is a proved treatment for cervical carcinoma; however, it destroys ovarian function and has been thought to ablate the endometrium. Estrogen replacement therapy is often prescribed for patients with cervical carcinoma after radiation therapy. A review of records of six teaching hospitals revealed 16 patients who had endometrial sampling for uterine bleeding after standard radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. Fifteen patients underwent dilatation and curettage, and one patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy when a dilatation and curettage was unsuccessful. Six patients had fibrosis and inflammation of the endometrial cavity, seven had proliferative endometrium, one had cystic hyperplasia, one had atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, and one had adenocarcinoma. Although the number of patients who have an active endometrium after radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma is not known, this report demonstrates that proliferative endometrium may persist, and these patients may develop endometrial hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma. Studies have indicated that patients with normal endometrial glands have an increased risk of developing endometrial adenocarcinoma if they are treated with unopposed estrogen. Patients who have had radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma should be treated with estrogen and a progestational agent to avoid endometrial stimulation from unopposed estrogen therapy.

  5. Epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nahmias, A J; Naib, Z M; Josey, W E

    1974-05-01

    Epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma are reviewed. The high frequency of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antibodies in young women (21 years or younger) with cervical carcinoma in situ and in women with dysplasia or carcinoma in situ, matched for various sexual attributes to control women, provide support for a causal relation. However, various laboratory, histopathological, and statistical problems associated with all epidemiological studies do not yet permit a firm conclusion as to the etiological role to the genital virus in cervical carcinogenesis. With the use of herpes-related cancer antigens or purified HSV-2 type-specific antigens, and with the possible development of protective HSV-2 vaccines, the application of epidemiological approaches may be necessary to provide the most finite evidence of causality.

  6. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery. PMID:26283859

  7. [Human papillomavirus: a vaccine against cervical carcinoma uterine].

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Silvia

    2002-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified in fewer than 20 years as the central cause of cervical carcinoma and one of the most powerful known human carcinogens. At least 20 different types of HPV have been associated with relative risks of approximately 100 for both squamous-cell carcinoma and the rarer adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri. Cytologic screening programs have contributed to the decline of cervical cancer mortality in Europe and the United States. Long-term screening programs remain, however, outside the reach of the poorest countries, where 80% of deaths for cervical carcinoma occurs. More than 20 different types of prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccines against HPV are being evaluated in clinical or preclinical studies. One such type, a prophylactic vaccine based on the marked immunogenicity and safety of the empty viral capsid, will start being evaluated in 2002 in 3 phase-III randomized studies, mostly in the United States and Latin America. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and World Health Organization are planning, in parallel with the studies above, a double blind randomized phase IV study of approximately 40,000 adolescent and young women in Asia. Such study, which should include a cluster randomization (by village of birth); a comparison with another vaccine (rather than with placebo); and, possibly, the inclusion of adolescents and young adults of male sex. Such trial may accelerate by many years the availability of an anti-HPV vaccine among populations at highest risk for cervical carcinoma.

  8. Primary Health Care and Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Thumé, Elaine; Staton, Catherine; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common neoplasm that is responsible for nearly 230 000 deaths annually in Brazil. Despite this burden, cervical cancer is considered preventable with appropriate care. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study from 2002 to 2012 to examine the relationship between the delivery of preventive primary care and cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil. Brazilian states and the federal district were the unit of analysis (N = 27). Results suggest that primary health care has contributed to reducing cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil; however, the full potential of preventive care has yet to be realized. PMID:28252500

  9. The prognostic significance of beta human chorionic gonadotrophin and its metabolites in women with cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, R A; Iles, R K; Carter, P G; Caldwell, C J; Shepherd, J H; Chard, T

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To examine long term survival of women with primary and recurrent cervical carcinoma in relation to (1) excretion of beta-core (a urinary metabolite of beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta hCG)) and (2) beta hCG immunostaining of the tumours, to determine the suitability of these markers for assessing prognosis. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study undertaken in a gynaecological oncology centre: 57 women with primary cervical cancer and 42 with recurrent disease were recruited between January 1990 and September 1992. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with the log rank test was used to assess survival differences with survival rate given per year of follow up. RESULTS: In primary disease, the four year survival for the beta-core negative group was 79%, compared with 14% for the beta-core positive group (p = 0.001). This was still significant for early stage disease or squamous lesions alone. In recurrent disease, beta-core positivity was not prognostically significant. Immunohistochemistry was of no prognostic significance in either group. CONCLUSIONS: beta-core excretion appears to be useful in assessing prognosis of primary cervical cancer but not of recurrent disease. A large prospective study of urinary beta-core in early stage cervical cancer is needed to determine whether it can be used as an index for modifying treatment. PMID:9930074

  10. Detection of Human Papillomavirus in Chronic Cervicitis, Cervical Adenocarcinoma, Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Squamus Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaie-Kashani, Elahe; Bouzari, Majid; Talebi, Ardeshir; Arbabzadeh-Zavareh, Farahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Recent studies show that human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is present in all cervical carcinomas and in some cervicitis cases, with some geographical variation in viral subtypes. Therefore determination of the presence of HPV in the general population of each region can help reveal the role of these viruses in tumors. Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the frequency of infection with HPV in cervicitis, cervical adenocarcinoma, intraepithelial neoplasia and squamus cell carcinoma samples from the Isfahan Province, Iran. Patients and Methods: One hundred and twenty two formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples of crevicitis cases and different cervix tumors including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (I, II, III), squamus cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma were collected from histopathological files of Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan. Data about histopathological changes were collected by reexamination of the hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. DNA was extracted and subjected to Nested PCR using consensus primers, MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+, designed for amplification of a conserved region of the genome coding for L1 protein. Results: In total 74.5% of the tested samples were positive for HPV. Amongst the tested tumors 8 out of 20 (40%) of CIN (I, II, III), 5 out of 21 (23.8%) of adenocarcinoma cases and 78 out of 79 chronic cervicitis cases were positive for HPV. Conclusions: The rate of different carcinomas and also the rate of HPV infection in each case were lower than other reports from different countries. This could be correlated with the social behavior of women in the area, where they mostly have only one partner throughout their life, and also the rate of smoking behavior of women in the studied population. On the other hand the rate of HPV infection in chronic cervicitis cases was much higher than cases reported by previous studies. This necessitates more

  11. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma as a cause of cervical spinal injury.

    PubMed

    Masmiquel, L; Simó, R; Galofré, P; Mesa, J

    1995-01-01

    Cervical cord compression due to local extension of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is an extremely rare condition and, to our knowledge, only one case has been reported in the literature. Among 256 patients with DTC treated at our hospital, we have observed 3 cases of spinal injury due to local extension of DTC. A Brown-Séquard syndrome was detected at physical examination in 2 cases. In both patients, cervical cord compression precipitated a fatal event. In the remaining patient, a radiculopathy C5-C7 was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging was very successful in outlining the mass, clearly differentiating the extrinsic invasion from a metastasis, and allowing the surgical possibilities to be evaluated. Poor cervical uptake of 131I was observed on scans performed in two cases, suggesting a certain degree of cell dedifferentiation. We suggest that cervical spinal injury due to local extension of DTC may be an underreported complication of DTC that seems to condition the patient's outcome. Careful neurological examination is warranted in patients with DTC at stages III-IV and magnetic resonance imaging must be performed when spinal injury is suspected.

  12. Atezolizumab and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent, Persistent, or Metastatic Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  13. Inhibitory effects of Arhgap6 on cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Junping; Liu, Yang; Yin, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    Ras homology GTPase activation protein 6 (Arhgap6), as a member of the rhoGAP family of proteins, performs vital functions on the regulation of actin polymerization at the plasma membrane during several cellular processes. The role of Arhgap6 in the progression and development of cancer remains nearly unknown. This study aimed at exploring the effects of Arhgap6 on cervical carcinoma. Human cervical cancer cells HeLa and SiHa were transduced with a lentivirus targeting Arhgap6 (Arhgap6+), while CaSki and C4-1 cells were transfected with miRNA. Cell proliferation was identified by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis were identified by flow cytometry. The capacity of cell migration, invasion, and adhesion were detected by Transwell assay. Further, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to analyze the expression levels of Arhgap6 and several tumor-related genes. Co-immunoprecipitation assay was performed to validate the interaction between Arhgap6 and Rac3 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3). Results showed that Arhgap6 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and adhesion of cervical carcinoma, induced cell apoptosis, and caused cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase (n = 3, p < 0.05). Expression of the tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes were up- and down-regulated respectively by Arhgap6, and Rac3 was proved to be the target of Arhgap6. Besides, in in vivo assays, tumor size and weight were destructed in Arhgap6+ athymic nude mouse. This study indicated that Arhgap6 may play a role in the treatment of cervical cancer as a tumor supressor.

  14. Primary cutaneous adenoid carcinoma of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Keck, Meike; Ueberreiter, Klaus; Tanzella, Ursula; Doll, Dietrich; Krapohl, Björn Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Primary adenoid carcinoma are rare skin tumors. We present a 75-year-old female with this primary cutaneous tumor of the scalp with additional bone involvement. Wide scalp excision with bone enclosure, latissimus-dorsi-free-flap defect overage, and subsequent radiation slowed down the disease but could not prevent further skull infiltration.

  15. [Primary radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Rübe, C; Grevers, G; Grimminger, H; Wendt, T; Rohloff, R

    1995-02-01

    One hundred twenty-one patients treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiation therapy were analyzed; 85 were male, 36 were female. Twenty-one percent had tumour stage T0/T1; 32.5%, T2; 27.5%, T3; and 19%, T4. In 75% of the cases, the lymph nodes were involved. Twelve patients underwent a neck dissection. Histology showed squamous cell carcinoma in 38%, lymphoepitheloid carcinoma in 41.4%, undifferentiated carcinoma in 19%, and adenocarcinoma in 2%. Beginning in 1980, a modified radiation technique with large portals and an increase of the dose from 57.1 Gy to 61.5 Gy targe volume dose was used. Five year overall survival was 32.1%, recurrence-free survival, 30.7%; and local recurrence free survival, 45.8%. Age, sex, and T stage had no significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis (Cox model) showed that involvement of the lymph nodes, histology, and the new irradiation technique with the higher total dose significantly influenced survival.

  16. Bevacizumab, Radiation Therapy, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-22

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer

  17. [A Case of Cystic Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of HPV-positive Tonsil Cancer, Being Discriminated as the Branchiogenic Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kambara, Rumi; Tamai, Masamitsu; Horii, Arata

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas have been increasing. The first manifestation of these tumors is frequently as cystic metastasis to cervical lymph nodes that may precede recognition of the primary tumor, so, they often result in misdiagnosis as branchial cleft cysts. We report a case of cystic cervical lymph node metastasis of HPV-positive tonsil cancer. The patient was a 70-years-old man who noticed a mass on his left neck. The tumor was large and soft, and it was diagnosed as benign in fine-needle aspiration cytology. We diagnosed the tumor as a branchial cleft cyst and undertook surgery. The histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma arising from a branchiogenic cyst. However, because it did not satisfy the diagnostic criteria, we diagnosed the tumor as an unknown primary tumor. One year later, left tonsil cancer was suspected based on PET-CT imaging and a left tonsillectomy was undertaken, whereafter tonsil cancer was found. In p16 immunostaining, it was positive in both cystic mass and tonsil. The cervical mass was cystic lymph node metastasis of HPV-positive tonsil cancer. It is important to investigate the oropharynx, when we found cystic cervical mass, because HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma frequently results in cystic neck metastasis.

  18. Acrokeratosis Paraneoplastica Associated with Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Daveluy, Steven D.; Joiner, Michael C.; Hurst, Newton; Bishop, Michael; Miller, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica, or Bazex syndrome, is a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by cutaneous psoriasiform lesions with associated acral erythema and scale, as well as nail changes, including onycholysis and ungual dystrophy. Its most advanced, severe form involves the trunk, elbows, and knees. It is typically associated with upper aerodigestive tract malignancies in males. Rare cases associated with gynecological cancers have been reported, including uterine adenocarcinoma, as well as ovarian and vulvar squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous manifestations often precede cancer diagnosis. In most reported cases, skin changes resolve when the underlying malignancy is adequately treated. Main Observations. We present the case of a 56-year-old female diagnosed with acrokeratosis paraneoplastica following the discovery of FIGO stage IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Scaling, hyperpigmentation, xerosis, and fissuring were noted on the patient's hands, feet, legs, arms, and lower back. Pitting was noted on her fingernails. Her cervical cancer was successfully treated with chemoradiotherapy, after which her cutaneous lesions persisted for two months before resolving. Conclusions. The presentation of acrokeratosis paraneoplastica in this context is atypical. Reports of associations with gynecological cancers, as in our patient's case, are exceedingly rare. PMID:28101384

  19. ADXS11-001 High Dose HPV+ Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Effects of Immunotherapy; Metastatic/Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  20. Cervical lymph node metastases from remote primary tumor sites

    PubMed Central

    López, Fernando; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Silver, Carl E.; Haigentz, Missak; Bishop, Justin A.; Strojan, Primož; Hartl, Dana M.; Bradley, Patrick J.; Mendenhall, William M.; Suárez, Carlos; Takes, Robert P.; Hamoir, Marc; Robbins, K. Thomas; Shaha, Ashok R.; Werner, Jochen A.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    Although most malignant lymphadenopathy in the neck represent lymphomas or metastases from head and neck primary tumors, occasionally, metastatic disease from remote, usually infraclavicular, sites presents as cervical lymphadenopathy with or without an obvious primary tumor. In general, these tumors metastasize to supraclavicular lymph nodes, but occasionally may present at an isolated higher neck level. A search for the primary tumor includes information gained by histology, immunohistochemistry, and evaluation of molecular markers that may be unique to the primary tumor site. In addition, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglocose positron emission tomography combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) has greatly improved the ability to detect the location of an unknown primary tumor, particularly when in a remote location. Although cervical metastatic disease from a remote primary site is often incurable, there are situations in which meaningful survival can be achieved with appropriate local treatment. Management is quite complex and requires a truly multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26713674

  1. Comprehensive mapping of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA integration sites in cervical carcinomas by HPV capture technology

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ruiping; Ke, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into the host genome can be a driver mutation in cervical carcinoma. Identification of HPV integration at base resolution has been a longstanding technical challenge, largely due to sensitivity masking by HPV in episomes or concatenated forms. The aim was to enhance the understanding of the precise localization of HPV integration sites using an innovative strategy. Using HPV capture technology combined with next generation sequencing, HPV prevalence and the exact integration sites of the HPV DNA in 47 primary cervical cancer samples and 2 cell lines were investigated. A total of 117 unique HPV integration sites were identified, including HPV16 (n = 101), HPV18 (n = 7), and HPV58 (n = 9). We observed that the HPV16 integration sites were broadly located across the whole viral genome. In addition, either single or multiple integration events could occur frequently for HPV16, ranging from 1 to 19 per sample. The viral integration sites were distributed across almost all the chromosomes, except chromosome 22. All the cervical cancer cases harboring more than four HPV16 integration sites showed clinical diagnosis of stage III carcinoma. A significant enrichment of overlapping nucleotides shared between the human genome and HPV genome at integration breakpoints was observed, indicating that it may play an important role in the HPV integration process. The results expand on knowledge from previous findings on HPV16 and HPV18 integration sites and allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma. PMID:26735580

  2. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma with Cystic Cervical Metastasis Masquerading as Branchial Cleft Cyst: A Potential Pitfall in Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Sai-Guan, Lum; Min-Han, Kong; Kah-Wai, Ngan; Mohamad-Yunus, Mohd-Razif

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Most metastatic lymph nodes from head and neck malignancy are solid. Cystic nodes are found in 33% - 61% of carcinomas arise from Waldeyer’s ring, of which only 1.8% - 8% originate are from the nasopharynx. Some cystic cervical metastases were initially presumed to be branchial cleft cyst. This case report aims to highlight the unusual presentation of cystic cervical metastasis secondary to nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a young adult. The histopathology, radiological features and management strategy were discussed. Case Report: A 36-year-old man presented with a solitary cystic cervical swelling, initially diagnosed as branchial cleft cyst. Fine needle aspiration yielded 18 ml of straw-coloured fluid. During cytological examination no atypical cells were observed. Computed tomography of the neck showed a heterogeneous mass with multiseptation medial to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Histopathological examination of the mass, post excision, revealed a metastatic lymph node. A suspicious mucosal lesion at the nasopharynx was detected after repeated thorough head and neck examinations and the biopsy result confirmed undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Conclusion: Cystic cervical metastasis may occur in young patients under 40 years. The primary tumour may not be obvious during initial presentation because it mimicks benign branchial cleft cyst clinically. Retrospective review of the computed tomography images revealed features that were not characteristic of simple branchial cleft cyst. The inadequacy of assessment and interpretation had lead to the error in diagnosis and subsequent management. Metastatic head and neck lesion must be considered in a young adult with a cystic neck mass.

  3. Comprehensive mapping of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA integration sites in cervical carcinomas by HPV capture technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Lu, Zheming; Xu, Ruiping; Ke, Yang

    2016-02-02

    Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into the host genome can be a driver mutation in cervical carcinoma. Identification of HPV integration at base resolution has been a longstanding technical challenge, largely due to sensitivity masking by HPV in episomes or concatenated forms. The aim was to enhance the understanding of the precise localization of HPV integration sites using an innovative strategy. Using HPV capture technology combined with next generation sequencing, HPV prevalence and the exact integration sites of the HPV DNA in 47 primary cervical cancer samples and 2 cell lines were investigated. A total of 117 unique HPV integration sites were identified, including HPV16 (n = 101), HPV18 (n = 7), and HPV58 (n = 9). We observed that the HPV16 integration sites were broadly located across the whole viral genome. In addition, either single or multiple integration events could occur frequently for HPV16, ranging from 1 to 19 per sample. The viral integration sites were distributed across almost all the chromosomes, except chromosome 22. All the cervical cancer cases harboring more than four HPV16 integration sites showed clinical diagnosis of stage III carcinoma. A significant enrichment of overlapping nucleotides shared between the human genome and HPV genome at integration breakpoints was observed, indicating that it may play an important role in the HPV integration process. The results expand on knowledge from previous findings on HPV16 and HPV18 integration sites and allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.

  4. Rare Intradural Cervical Nerve Root Metastasis of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Milosavljevic, Elena; Hanna, George; Gospodarev, Vadim; Raghavan, Ravi; Ghostine, Samer

    2016-01-01

    Intradural extramedullary nerve root metastasis is extremely unusual with only a handful of cases reported, and it presents most commonly in the thoracic and lumbosacral regions. We report the first case of metastasis to a ventral cervical nerve root in a patient with low-grade follicular thyroid carcinoma thought to be in remission for several years. Histopathology demonstrated malignant transformation and invasion of the nerve root. This case underscores that any history of malignancy regardless of staging, grading, or remission status should raise the suspicion of metastasis as it can mimic other spine and nerve sheath tumors and represent malignant transformation. Gross total resection can be safely achieved with intraoperative neuromonitoring and result in improved function; however, treatment is likely palliative. PMID:28018768

  5. Hypoxia downregulates Ku70/80 expression in cervical carcinoma tumors.

    PubMed

    Lara, Pedro Carlos; Lloret, Marta; Clavo, Bernardino; Apolinario, Rosa Maria; Bordón, Elisa; Rey, Agustin; Falcón, Orlando; Alonso, Ana Ruiz; Belka, Claus

    2008-11-01

    Hypoxia may inhibits the NHEJ DNA repair through downregulating Ku70/80 expression and combined with an increased angiogenesis and altered p53 expression would be responsible for tumor progression in cervical carcinoma.

  6. Clinical features of multiple primary carcinomas of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya-Dong; Ma, Xin; Han, Yao-Lun; Peng, Li-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the clinical characteristics of multiple primary carcinomas of the oral cavity. The clinical records of 1,024 patients who were treated during follow-up for oral cancer at the Department of Stomatology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, between March 2013 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical characteristics of 961 patients who developed single primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) during follow-up and 54 patients who subsequently developed multiple primary carcinomas in the oral cavity were compared. Multiple primary carcinomas exhibited a female predilection, were most prevalent in the gingiva, and tended to show earlier tumor and nodal stages, as compared with single primary carcinomas. The local recurrence rate was higher for multiple primary carcinomas, as compared with single primary carcinomas, and was demonstrated to increase with the number of multiple primary occurrences. The cumulative incidence rates for metachronous second primary carcinomas following the onset of the first carcinoma at 10 years was 8.0%. Recurrence of multiple primary carcinomas did not decrease the survival rates of the patients assessed in the present study. Furthermore, differences were detected in the clinical characteristics between patients with single oral SCC and those with multiple primary oral carcinomas. The results of the present study indicated that early diagnosis and treatment and close long-term follow-up are required for patients with multiple primary oral carcinomas.

  7. Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in primary cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Davare, Marco; Sadnicka, Anna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Edwards, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation rely on overlapping circuits predominantly involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Given the importance of these brain regions to the pathophysiology of primary dystonia, and the previous finding of abnormal motor sequence learning in DYT1 gene carriers, we explored motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in patients with primary cervical dystonia. We recruited 12 patients with cervical dystonia and 11 healthy controls matched for age. Subjects used a joystick to move a cursor from a central starting point to radial targets as fast and accurately as possible. Using this device, we recorded baseline motor performance, motor sequence learning and a visuomotor adaptation task. Patients with cervical dystonia had a significantly higher peak velocity than controls. Baseline performance with random target presentation was otherwise normal. Patients and controls had similar levels of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. Our patients had significantly higher peak velocity compared to controls, with similar movement times, implying a different performance strategy. The preservation of motor sequence learning in cervical dystonia patients contrasts with the previously observed deficit seen in patients with DYT1 gene mutations, supporting the hypothesis of differing pathophysiology in different forms of primary dystonia. Normal motor adaptation is an interesting finding. With our paradigm we did not find evidence that the previously documented cerebellar abnormalities in cervical dystonia have a behavioral correlate, and thus could be compensatory or reflect "contamination" rather than being directly pathological.

  8. Cervical dystonia mimicking dropped-head syndrome after radiotherapy for laryngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Astudillo, Leonardo; Hollington, L; Game, X; Benyoucef, A; Boladeras, A M; Delisle, M B; Simonetta-Moreau, M

    2003-12-01

    We report a case of cervical dystonia mimicking dropped-head syndrome (DHS) in a 57-year-old man treated for laryngeal carcinoma by radiotherapy (74.4 Gy) 3 months before. Cervical computerized tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not find any muscle fat changes but found a high-intensity signal on T2 weighted images in the cervical spinal cord. Clinical and electromyographic findings were consistent with cervical dystonia. A trapezius biopsy was normal. Spontaneous remission of the dystonia was observed for 1 month whereas the laryngeal carcinoma progressed. The link between cervical dystonia and radiotherapy might be acute radiation-induced damage to the cervical spinal cord.

  9. Therapy for Primary Vulvar Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Herr, D; Juhasz-Boess, I; Solomayer, E F

    2014-03-01

    The rather rare vulvar cancer is almost always a squamous cell carcinoma that mostly develops from an underlying VIN or HPV infection. In addition, lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, immune deficiency, nicotine abuse or anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias may play a role in the pathogenesis. Surgical therapy aims at an R0 resection in the sense of a complete vulvectomy or a radical local excision with, if necessary, plastic reconstruction. Also, the vulvar field resection with consideration of the compartment model has been discussed. Besides the classic inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, in selected cases of vulvar cancer sentinel biopsies are performed by experienced surgeons in the larger centres. In contrast, systemic therapy plays only a subordinate role; in isolated cases down-staging by means of neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be useful. However, there is at present no indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy is also not to be recommended on account of its unfavourable ratio of efficacy to side effects. On the other hand adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated in cases of positive inguinal lymph nodes. According to the current data the indication should be made generously in such cases.

  10. Therapy for Primary Vulvar Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Herr, D.; Juhasz-Boess, I.; Solomayer, E. F.

    2014-01-01

    The rather rare vulvar cancer is almost always a squamous cell carcinoma that mostly develops from an underlying VIN or HPV infection. In addition, lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, immune deficiency, nicotine abuse or anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias may play a role in the pathogenesis. Surgical therapy aims at an R0 resection in the sense of a complete vulvectomy or a radical local excision with, if necessary, plastic reconstruction. Also, the vulvar field resection with consideration of the compartment model has been discussed. Besides the classic inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, in selected cases of vulvar cancer sentinel biopsies are performed by experienced surgeons in the larger centres. In contrast, systemic therapy plays only a subordinate role; in isolated cases down-staging by means of neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be useful. However, there is at present no indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy is also not to be recommended on account of its unfavourable ratio of efficacy to side effects. On the other hand adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated in cases of positive inguinal lymph nodes. According to the current data the indication should be made generously in such cases. PMID:24882877

  11. Primary cutaneous histiocytoid carcinoma with distant metastasis.

    PubMed

    Philips, Rebecca; Langston, Leila; Hwang, Helena; Vandergriff, Travis; Trynosky, Tanya; Berlingeri-Ramos, Alma C

    2017-04-01

    Distinguishing primary cutaneous adnexal carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary can be a diagnostic challenge due to the frequent overlap of histologic and immunohistochemical features. A 58-year-old man presented with a tender, indurated plaque on axillary skin. Biopsy revealed infiltrating atypical cells throughout the dermis, without connection to the epidermis. Tumor cells had a histiocytoid appearance and displayed mild pleomorphism. The tumor was discohesive and had areas with a single file pattern. Signet ring cells were also present. Cells were reactive with CK7, CK5/6, p63, GATA3, GCDFP-15 and Her 2-neu. Additional studies were negative, including TTF-1, CDX2, E-cadherin, mammaglobin, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor. Thorough clinical and radiologic evaluation failed to identify an occult primary extracutaneous malignancy; however, regional lymphadenopathy, widespread osteoblastic lesions and multiple subcentimeter liver hypodensities were noted. Considering the clinical and histopathologic features, the diagnosis of primary cutaneous histiocytoid carcinoma with distant metastasis was favored.

  12. Nucleotide sequences and further characterization of human papillomavirus DNA present in the CaSki, SiHa and HeLa cervical carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Meissner, J D

    1999-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) variants present in the CaSki and SiHa cervical carcinoma cell lines and the primary subgenomic HPV-18 variant present in the HeLa cervical carcinoma cell line were determined using overlapping bulk PCR products as templates. PCR-based methods were also used to characterize five previously unreported CaSki HPV-16 genomic disruptions and the 5' cellular-viral junction common to all HeLa HPV-18 subgenomic structures.

  13. EGFR Promoter Methylation, EGFR Mutation, and HPV Infection in Chinese Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yinghao; Yu, Qingmiao; Qiang, Shaoying; Liang, Ping; Gao, Yane; Zhao, Xingye; Liu, Wenchao; Zhang, Ju

    2015-10-01

    Therapy strategy toward epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition in cervical cancer has been ongoing. EGFR promoter methylation status and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-sensitive mutations in cervical cancer may be significant for clinical outcome prediction using anti-EGFR treatment. In this study, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-sensitive mutations, EGFR exons 18, 19, and 21 mutations, were detected by sequencing in a total of 293 Chinese cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples. EGFR promoter methylation status was detected by an EGFR asymmetric PCR and hybridization-fluorescence polarization assay and sequencing in 293 Chinese cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in 293 Chinese cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples were detected by an asymmetric GP5+/6+ PCR and hybridization-fluorescence polarization assay. No EGFR exons 18, 19, and 21 mutations were detected, EGFR promoter methylation status was identified in 98 samples, and HPV 16 infection was the first frequent HPV genotype. The methylated EGFR promoter was identified most frequently in cervical squamous cell carcinoma samples with HPV 16 infection (53.4%). Statistical significant difference of EGFR promoter methylation prevalence was found between HPV 16 and other HPV genotypes (P<0.01). This study suggested that there was no EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-sensitive mutation in EGFR exons 18, 19, and 21 in Chinese cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples. EGFR promoter methylation was common and it might be associated with HPV 16 infection in Chinese cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The results provided a novel understanding and an applicable pharmacogenomic tool for individualized management of cervical cancer patients.

  14. Large primary leiomyoma causing progressive cervical deformity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Habib, Amro; Elgamal, Essam A.; Aldhahri, Saleh; Alokaili, Riyadh; AlShamrani, Rami; Abobotain, Abdulaziz; AlRaddadi, Khulood; Alkhalidi, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are benign smooth tumors that rarely affect the neck area. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Here, we describe a 13-year-old girl with a large leiomyoma of the neck, which increased in size after incomplete resection. The tumor caused progressive cervical kyphotic deformity, difficulty breathing and severe malnourishment. The tumor was resected successfully in a second surgery, and the patient is stable after 3 years of follow-up. Histopathologically, the tumor was consistent with leiomyoma and showed strong reactivity to specific smooth muscle markers, such as desmin and caldesmon. This is the second reported case demonstrating massive growth of a leiomyoma, with emphasis on complete resection from the beginning. PMID:27887011

  15. Primary herpes simplex virus infection mimicking cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Andrew; White, Catherine; Higgins, Stephen Peter

    2015-06-02

    We report the case of an 18-year-old woman presenting with ulceration of the cervix caused by primary type 2 herpes simplex infection in the absence of skin lesions. The differential diagnosis included cervical cancer and we referred the patient for urgent colposcopy. However, laboratory tests proved the viral aetiology of the cervical ulceration and the cervix had healed completely 3 weeks later. The case highlights the need to consider herpes simplex infection in the differential diagnosis of ulceration of the cervix even when there are no cutaneous signs of herpes.

  16. Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  17. Docetaxel as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Carlos T; Machiavelli, Mario R; Pérez, Juan E; Romero, Alberto O; Bologna, Fabrina; Vicente, Hernán; Lacava, Juan A; Ortiz, Eduardo H; Cubero, Alberto; Focaccia, Guillermo; Suttora, Guillermo; Scenna, Mirna; Boughen, José M; Leone, Bernardo A

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel as single-agent neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locoregionally advanced cervical carcinoma. Between April 1998 and August 2000, 38 untreated patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IIB to IVA were entered onto this study. The median age was 44 years (range: 25-66 years). Stages: IIB 22 patients, IIIB 15 patients, and IVA 1 pt. Treatment consisted of docetaxel 100 mg/m2 IV infusion during 1 hour. Standard premedication with dexamethasone, diphenhydramine, and ranitidine was used. Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks for three courses, followed by radical surgery when it was judged appropriate, or definitive radiotherapy. Both staging and response assessment were performed by a multidisciplinary team. 106 cycles of therapy were administered; all patients were evaluable for TX, whereas 35 were evaluable for response (3 patients refused further treatment after the first cycle of therapy). Complete response (CR): 1 patient (3%); partial response: 11 patients (31%), for an overall objective response rate of 34% (95% CI: 15-53%); no change (NC): 16 patients (46%); and progressive disease: 7 patients (20%). Six patients (17%) underwent surgery and a pathologic CR was confirmed in 1 of them. The median time to treatment failure and the median survival have not been reached yet. The limiting toxicity was leukopenia in 25 patients (69%) (G1-G2: 14 patients, G3: 10 patients, and G4: 1 patient). Neutropenia: 28 patients (78%) (G1-G2: 10 patients, G3: 8 and G4: 10). Myalgias: 17 patients (47%) (G1-G2: 15 patients and G3: 2 patients). Emesis: 21 patients (55%) (G1-G2: 19 patients and G3: 2 patients). Alopecia G3: 13 patients (36%); rash cutaneous 26 patients (68%) (G1-G2: 22 patients and G3: 4 patients). There were no hypersensitivity reactions or fluid-retention syndrome. The received dose intensity was 91% of that projected. Docetaxel is an active drug against advanced

  18. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  19. High-dose-rate brachytherapy in uterine cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Firuza D. . E-mail: patelfd@glide.net.in; Rai, Bhavana; Mallick, Indranil; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is in wide use for curative treatment of cervical cancer. The American Brachytherapy Society has recommended that the individual fraction size be <7.5 Gy and the range of fractions should be four to eight; however, many fractionation schedules, varying from institution to institution, are in use. We use 9 Gy/fraction of HDR in two to five fractions in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We found that our results and toxicity were comparable to those reported in the literature and hereby present our experience with this fractionation schedule. Methods and Materials: A total of 121 patients with Stage I-III carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated with HDR brachytherapy between 1996 and 2000. The total number of patients analyzed was 113. The median patient age was 53 years, and the histopathologic type was squamous cell carcinoma in 93% of patients. The patients were subdivided into Groups 1 and 2. In Group 1, 18 patients with Stage Ib-IIb disease, tumor size <4 cm, and preserved cervical anatomy underwent simultaneous external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis to a dose of 40 Gy in 20 fractions within 4 weeks with central shielding and HDR brachytherapy of 9 Gy/fraction, given weekly, and interdigitated with external beam radiotherapy. The 95 patients in Group 2, who had Stage IIb-IIIb disease underwent external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis to a dose of 46 Gy in 23 fractions within 4.5 weeks followed by two sessions of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy of 9 Gy each given 1 week apart. The follow-up range was 3-7 years (median, 36.4 months). Late toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The 5-year actuarial local control and disease-free survival rate was 74.5% and 62.0%, respectively. The actuarial local control rate at 5 years was 100% for Stage I, 80% for Stage II, and 67.2% for Stage III patients. The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival rate was 88.8% for

  20. Primary oat cell carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, E.A. III; Robbins, K.T.; Stephens, J.; Dimery, I.W.; Batsakis, J.G.

    1987-02-01

    The aggressiveness of small (oat) cell carcinoma of the larynx presents a therapeutic challenge to the oncologist. Since the first description of this type of carcinoma in 1972, 52 patients have been reported in the literature and a variety of treatment regimens have been used. The purpose of this study was to report two new cases and review all previous reports to determine the disease's biological behavior, clinical manifestations, and optimum treatment. Thirty-five percent of the tumors were transglottic, and 27% were supraglottic. Fifty-four percent of patients had regional metastases at initial presentation and 17.6% had distant metastases. The median survival was 10 months for all patients. Patients who were treated with chemotherapy with or without other modalities had the best 2-year survival rates (52.2%). Forty-one percent of patients had regional recurrence only, 12.5% had regional recurrence and distant metastases, and 2% developed distant metastases only. We conclude that patients with oat cell carcinoma of the larynx should be treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is best reserved for persistent and recurrent disease at the primary site and neck.

  1. Application of a cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection of thyroid papillary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    XU, JIAJIE; CHEN, CHAO; ZHENG, CHUANMING; WANG, KEJING; SHANG, JINBIAO; FANG, XIANHUA; GE, MINGHUA; TAN, ZHUO

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to discuss the advantage of the application of a cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma. The study was a retrospective analysis of 87 thyroid papillary carcinoma patients; cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection was applied for 47 cases and the classic ‘L’ incision was applied for 40 cases. The different integrity, surgical time, blood loss and the aesthetic property of the incision were compared between the cervical low incision and the classic ‘L’ incision for lateral neck dissection of thyroid cancer. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was that the average total amount and the region II lymph nodes of the unilateral neck dissection were 33 and 10 for the cervical low incision group, and 32 and 11 for the classic ‘L’ incision group, respectively (P>0.05). The average unilateral neck dissection times were 87 and 58 min for the cervical low incision group and the classic ‘L’ incision group, respectively (P<0.05). The blood loss of the cervical low incision group was 67 ml, while the loss for the classic ‘L’ incision group was 61 ml (P>0.05). The postoperative incision of the cervical low incision group was smaller and more concealing. Additionally, the cosmetic deformities were milder for an inconspicuous cervical scar, and the sensation was improved for the patients in comparison with the classic ‘L’ incision group. These results suggest that the application of cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in thyroid papillary carcinoma patients aids in reducing postoperative complications, without increasing recurrence rates. Therefore, the classic ‘L’ incision can be replaced by the cervical low incision. PMID:27073645

  2. Application of a cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection of thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiajie; Chen, Chao; Zheng, Chuanming; Wang, Kejing; Shang, Jinbiao; Fang, Xianhua; Ge, Minghua; Tan, Zhuo

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to discuss the advantage of the application of a cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma. The study was a retrospective analysis of 87 thyroid papillary carcinoma patients; cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection was applied for 47 cases and the classic 'L' incision was applied for 40 cases. The different integrity, surgical time, blood loss and the aesthetic property of the incision were compared between the cervical low incision and the classic 'L' incision for lateral neck dissection of thyroid cancer. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was that the average total amount and the region II lymph nodes of the unilateral neck dissection were 33 and 10 for the cervical low incision group, and 32 and 11 for the classic 'L' incision group, respectively (P>0.05). The average unilateral neck dissection times were 87 and 58 min for the cervical low incision group and the classic 'L' incision group, respectively (P<0.05). The blood loss of the cervical low incision group was 67 ml, while the loss for the classic 'L' incision group was 61 ml (P>0.05). The postoperative incision of the cervical low incision group was smaller and more concealing. Additionally, the cosmetic deformities were milder for an inconspicuous cervical scar, and the sensation was improved for the patients in comparison with the classic 'L' incision group. These results suggest that the application of cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in thyroid papillary carcinoma patients aids in reducing postoperative complications, without increasing recurrence rates. Therefore, the classic 'L' incision can be replaced by the cervical low incision.

  3. [Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: rare form carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Sinisa

    2009-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare form of breast carcinoma. Incidence is reported to be 0.1-3.6%. We report a case of a young woman, 37-year-old, with history of a lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast with ulceration of the skin surface. Menarche occurred at age of 12. The patient was married, had two deliveries and had her first child at age of 26. She did not use contraceptive pills. Diagnosis of the tumour of the breast was made at the Department of surgery in General Hospital in Bijeljina in September 2007. Clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography were performed. Physical examination revealed a circumscribed and firm mass measuring 60 x 60 x 80 mm. Mammogram showed a round, high-density mass with almost regular but partially irregular margin. Ultrasonogram of the left breast tumor identified an irregularly shaped hypoechoic lesion. After clinical staging of the disease, we performed incision biopsy of the skin and tumour of the left breast with histopathology examination (standard hematoxylin and eosin). Patient had estrogen and progesteron receptors negative and was HER2/neu negative. After histopathology, patient's case was presented to the working group for breast tumors which decided to start with the neoadjuvant chemotherapy using platinum. After six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, regression of breast tumor was confirmed. Working group decided that radical mastectomy of left breast should be performed.

  4. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Epoetin Alfa in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer and Anemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Anemia; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Drug Toxicity; Radiation Toxicity; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  5. Assessment of Hypoxia in Human Cervical Carcinoma Xenografts by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingsen, Christine; Egeland, Tormod A.M.; Gulliksrud, Kristine M.Sc.; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Mathiesen, Berit; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Patients with advanced cervical cancer and highly hypoxic primary tumors show increased frequency of locoregional treatment failure and poor disease-free and overall survival rates. The potential usefulness of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-based dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in assessing tumor hypoxia noninvasively was investigated in the present preclinical study. Methods and Materials: CK-160 and TS-415 human cervical carcinoma xenografts transplanted intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) in BALB/c nu/nu mice were subjected to DCE-MRI and measurement of fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. Tumor images of K{sup trans} (the volume transfer constant of Gd-DTPA) and v{sub e} (the extracellular volume fraction of the imaged tissue) were produced by pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE-MRI data. Fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells was measured by using the paired survival curve method. Results: Fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells differed significantly among the four tumor groups. The mean values {+-} SE were determined to be 44% {+-} 7% (i.m. CK-160), 77% {+-} 10% (s.c. CK-160), 23% {+-} 5% (i.m. TS-415), and 52% {+-} 6% (s.c. TS-415). The four tumor groups differed significantly also in K{sup trans}, and there was an unambiguous inverse relationship between K{sup trans} and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. On the other hand, significant differences among the groups in v{sub e} could not be detected. Conclusions: The study supports the clinical development of DCE-MRI as a method for assessing the extent of hypoxia in carcinoma of the cervix.

  6. Survivin Overexpression Is Associated with Aggressive Clinicopathological Features in Cervical Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ke-yan; Wang, Zhi-lian; Gu, Qian-yun; Hao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective Overexpression of survivin has been reported in many human tumors. However, the clinicopathological features associated with survivin overexpression in cervical carcinoma remain controversial. Thus, the current meta-analysis was performed to assess the clinicopathological significance of survivin in cervical carcinoma. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant studies published through November 1, 2015. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between survivin expression and clinicopathological outcome in cervical carcinoma. Results Eleven eligible studies with a total of 865 patients were included. Survivin overexpression was closely related to lymph node metastasis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.679, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.509–0.905, P = 0.008) but was not significantly associated with tumor FIGO stage (I+II vs. III+IV) (OR = 0.843, 95% CI: 0.626–1.137, P = 0.264), tumor grade (G1+G2 vs. G3) (OR = 0.913, 95% CI: 0.689–1.210, P = 0.527), tumor size (>4 vs. ≤4 cm) (OR = 0.825, 95% CI: 0.434–1.570, P = 0.559), or stromal involvement (OR = 0.820, 95% CI: 0.545–1.233, P = 0.340). The correlation between survivin expression and overall survival was evaluated among a total of 238 patients from three eligible studies. The pooled HR was 1.129 (95% CI: 0.597–1.661; P = 0.000), indicating that survivin expression was significantly associated with poor survival in cervical carcinoma. Conclusions Based on the current meta-analysis, survivin is strongly associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. Additionally, survivin is a novel clinicopathological marker of cervical carcinoma and thus may be a therapeutic target for cervical carcinoma. PMID:27764228

  7. Overexpressed active Notch1 induces cell growth arrest of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Qin, H; Chen, B; Xin, X; Li, J; Han, H

    2007-01-01

    Human cervical carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors, but the mechanisms that orchestrate the multiple oncogenic insults required for initiation and progression are not clear. Notch signaling plays a critical role in maintaining the balance between cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, but perturbed Notch signaling may contribute to tumorigenesis. We now show that Notch1 is detected in all cervical cancer, including advanced diseases. We also constitutively overexpressed active Notch1 in human cervical carcinoma to explore the effects of Notch1 signaling on human cervical carcinoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. The signaling may participate in the development of human cervical carcinoma cells, but overexpressed active Notch1 inhibits their growth through induction of cell cycle arrest. Increased Notch1 signaling induced a downmodulation of human papillomavirus transcription through suppression of activator protein (AP)-1 activity by upregulation of c-Jun and the decreased expression of c-Fos. Thus, Notch1 signaling plays a key role and exerts dual effects, functioning in context-specific manner.

  8. Glycoprotein and Glycan in Tissue and Blood Samples of Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  9. Behavioral factors explaining the low risk for cervical carcinoma in Utah Mormon women.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J W; Sanborn, J S; Slattery, M L

    1995-03-01

    We used data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Utah from 1984 to 1987 to determine whether the low incidence of cervical carcinoma in Mormon women can be explained by adherence to their religious teachings, which proscribe smoking and extramarital sexual relations. Mormon women had substantially lower risk for cervical carcinoma than non-Mormons [odds ratio (OR) = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28-0.54]; this low risk was confined to those who attended church frequently. The protective effect disappeared after controlling for differences in age, sexual behavior, and smoking (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 0.80-1.87).

  10. Cervical osteomyelitis after carbon dioxide laser excision of recurrent carcinoma of the posterior pharyngeal wall.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, A Jacqueline; Brandsma, Dieta; Smeele, Ludi E; Rosingh, Andert W; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Lohuis, Peter J F M

    2013-04-01

    Two patients with recurrent carcinoma of the posterior pharyngeal wall, previously treated with carbon dioxide (CO2) laser excision and (chemo)radiotherapy, presented with neck pain due to cervical osteomyelitis. In one patient this led to cervical spine instability, for which a haloframe was applied. Our working hypothesis was that cervical osteomyelitis was caused by an infected wound bed induced by CO2 laser excision of the tumor in the already vascular-compromised area of the irradiated posterior pharyngeal wall. We discuss the risks of leaving a wound for secondary granulation after CO2 laser excision of the posterior pharyngeal wall and prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  11. Survival and prognostic factors comparing stage IB 1 versus stage IB 2 cervical cancer treated with primary radical hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Srisomboon, Jatupol; Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Suprasert, Prapaporn; Manopanya, Manatsawee; Siriaree, Sitthicha; Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Cheewakriangkrai, Chalong; Sae-Teng, Charuwan

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the survival rates of stage IB 1 versus stage IB 2 cervical cancer patients and to evaluate the prognostic factors after treatment primarily with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (RHPL). Patients with stage IB cervical cancer undergoing primary RHPL at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January 2002 and December 2009 were evaluated for survival and recurrence. Clinicopathological variables were analyzed to identify the prognostic factors affecting the survival of the patients. During the study period, RHPL was performed on 570 stage IB 1 and 110 stage IB 2 cervical cancer patients. With a median follow-up of 48 months, the 5-year disease-free survivals were 98.1% and 82.8% respectively (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis identified four significant prognostic factors affecting survival including sub-staging, non-squamous cell carcinoma histology, lymph node metastasis and the presence of lymph-vascular space invasion. In conclusion, with a primary radical hysterectomy, stage IB 1 cervical cancer patients have a significantly better survival rate than those with stage IB 2. Significant prognostic factors for stage IB cervical cancer include tumor histology, nodal status, and the presence of lymph-vascular space invasion.

  12. Unusual Presentation of Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugasundaram, Karpagavalli; Subramanian, Sathasiva; Kumar, Vimal

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma arising primarily from the jaw is a locally aggressive lesion with poor prognosis. Primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) lesion develops either de novo remnants of odontogenic epithelium, odontogenic cyst/tumor, epithelium remnants, or/and salivary gland residues. We describe very interesting case of primary intraosseous carcinoma of mandible. This extensive lesion was sent for oncological opinion and further management. Due to the uncertainty of diagnostic criteria of PIOC, only few cases of this lesion with a typical presentation have been reported. This article presents a case of primary intraosseous carcinoma with a unique appearance and detailed review stating its clinicopathological correlation. PMID:28078158

  13. HPV-16 E2 physical status and molecular evolution in vivo in cervical carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kahla, Saloua; Kochbati, Lotfi; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis; Maalej, Mongi; Oueslati, Ridha

    2014-03-24

    A key event in the development of cervical carcinoma is the deregulated expression of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) oncogenes, most commonly due to HPV integration into host DNA. Here we explored whether HPV-16 E2 gene integrity is a biomarker of progressive disease with oncogenes expression. HPV-16 genome disruption was assessed by amplification of the entire E2 gene, while mRNA expression patterns of the E1, E2, E6, and E7 genes were evaluated by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). As expected, E2 disruption was significantly higher among patients with cervical cancers than subjects with benign lesions (p=0.02). The status of the E2 gene correlated with tumorogenesis, and seemed also to correlate with the stage of the carcinomas, since integrated HPV-16 DNA was frequently detected in patients with advanced cancer stages (75% of stage III vs 60% stages I and II). In bivariate analysis, the lesions’ grade was most significantly associated with HPV-16 DNA disruption (p<0.05). In cervical carcinoma the deletion pattern involved more frequently the E2 gene rather than the E1 gene (62.5% vs 45.8%). The prevalence of the E6/E7 HPV-16 transcripts in cervical carcinoma specimens and in benign cervical lesions were detected with frequencies of, respectively, 91.6% and 45.4%. The mRNA levels of the HPV-16 E6/E7 genes were expressed at approximately the same levels in each physical state. We consistently observed that E6/E7 were absent or weakly detectable in the presence of E2. However, in the absence of E2 the levels of E6/E7 markedly increased (p<0.05). This study underscores the significance of investigating alternative mechanisms of E2 expression and oncogenes E6/E7 transcripts in vivo as biomarkers for disease severity in cervical carcinomas.

  14. Genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in histological sections of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical carcinoma in Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical specimens from the city of Madrid (Spain), as a contribution to the knowledge of Human Papillomavirus genotype distribution and prevalence of carcinogenic HPV types in cervical lesions in Spain. Methods A total of 533 abnormal specimens, from the Hospital General Universitario “Gregorio Marañón” of Madrid, were studied. These included 19 benign lesions, 349 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias 1 (CIN1), 158 CIN2-3 and 7 invasive cervical carcinomas (ICC). HPV genotyping was performed using PCR and tube array hybridization. Results We detected 20 different HPV types: 13 carcinogenic high-risk HPV types (HR-HPVs), 2 probably carcinogenic high-risk HPV types (PHR-HPVs) and 5 carcinogenic low-risk HPV types (LR-HPVs). The most frequent HPV genotypes found in all specimens were HPV16 (26.0%), 31 (10.7%) and 58 (8.0%). HPV 18 was only detected in 5.0%. Co-infections were found in 30.7% of CIN 1 and 18.4% cases of CIN2-3. The highest percentage of HR HPVs was found in those specimens with a CIN2-3 lesion (93.7%). Conclusion As our study shows the current tetravalent vaccine could be effective in our geographical area for preventing all the invasive cervical carcinomas. In addition, upon the estimates of the important presence of other HR-HPV types – such as 31, 58, 33 and 52 – in different preneoplasic lesions the effectiveness of HPV vaccination in our geographical area, and others with similar genotype distribution, should be limited. PMID:23167826

  15. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  16. Coexistence of placental site nodule and cervical squamous carcinoma in a 72-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Luna, Darling Valverde; Dulcey, Isabel; Nogales, Francisco F

    2013-05-01

    We report a unique case of the coexistence of cervical cancer and placental site nodule (PSN) in a 72-year-old multiparous woman presenting with vaginal bleeding. She had undergone tubal sterilization 30 years before. On admission, she had profuse vaginal bleeding, and a bulky cervical mass was seen on vaginal examination. Histology revealed the coexistence of a moderately differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma with a PSN in its stroma. Its immunohistochemistry revealed characteristic phenotypes for both lesions--the squamous carcinoma was strongly positive for p16. The intermediate trophoblasts of the PSN showed a diffuse positivity for CAM 5.2, human placental lactogen, CD10, and α-inhibin and, focally, for human chorionic gonadotropin. This is the first report on the coexistence of these 2 lesions in an elderly postmenopausal patient and demonstrates that PSN can be found after the menopause as an unexpected lesion in this age group, mimicking various cervical malignancies.

  17. Treatment of cervical carcinoma employing a template for transperineal interstitial Ir192 brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, O; Morrow, C P; Klement, V; Schlaerth, J B; Nalick, R H

    1983-06-01

    The development of a template technique at this institution for transperineal interstitial-intracavitary brachytherapy employing Ir192 wire has previously been reported. In this paper we report the results of radiation treatment of 84 women with fresh, primary squamous carcinoma of the cervix admitted to the Los Angeles County--University of Southern California Medical Center from April, 1975 to September, 1979 who received at least one transperineal template implant as part of their initial treatment. The 75 evaluable patients were followed 3 to 60 months, with a median of 17 months. Recurrence rates in the pelvic treatment field by clinical (FIGO) stage grouping were 35.7% (5/14) Stage IB;0% (0/8) Stage IIA; 20% (5/25) Stage IIB; 46.2% (12/26) Stage III; and 0% (0/2) Stage IVA. The overall failure rate within the treatment field was 29.3% (22/75). The non-tumor associated rectovaginal and vesicovaginal fistula rate was 14.3% (2/14) in Stage IB; 0% (0/8) in Stage IIA; 16.0% (4/25) in Stage IIB; 15.4% (4/26) in Stage III; and 0% (0/2) in Stage IVA. The non-tumor associated fistula rate for all stages was 13.3% (10/75). Severe or grade III nonfistulous, delayed adverse effects (proctosigmoiditis, cystitis, vault necrosis) occurred in an additional 6 patients. Thus, 21.3% (16/75) of all evaluable patients experienced severe adverse radiation effects during the follow-up period. Pre-radiation staging laparotomy was performed on 31 patients. It had no obvious effect on the pattern or rate of radiation complications. The role of the interstitial-intracavitary template in the treatment of primary cervical carcinoma is discussed.

  18. Prognostic significance of the bcl-2 apoptotic family of proteins in primary and recurrent cervical cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, R. A.; Caldwell, C.; Iles, R. K.; Lowe, D.; Shepherd, J. H.; Chard, T.

    1998-01-01

    bcl-2 is one of a family of genes that control the apoptotic threshold of a cell. bcl-2 protein and its anti-apoptotic homologue, mcl-1, with the pro-apoptotic protein, bax, are thought to function by forming homo- and heterotypic dimers that then control the progression to apoptosis. p53 is also involved as a down-regulator of bcl-2 and a promoter of bax. To determine the effect of these apoptotic mechanisms, we used immunohistochemistry to determine the prognostic significance of the expression of bcl-2, mcl-1, bax and p53 in primary and recurrent cervical cancer. Tissues from 46 patients with primary cervical cancer and 28 women with recurrent carcinoma were stained for bcl-2, mcl-1, bax and p53. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed using the log-rank test for differences between groups. In the primary disease group, positive staining for bcl-2 was associated with a better 5-year survival (bcl-2 +ve, 84% vs bcl-2 -ve, 53%, P = 0.03). Positive staining for p53 was associated with a survival disadvantage (p53 +ve, 4-year survival 38% vs p53 -ve, 4-year survival 78%, P = 0.02). mcl-1 and bax staining were not useful as prognostic indicators in primary disease. No marker was prognostic in recurrent disease. Positive bcl-2 staining defines a group of patients with primary disease with a good prognosis. p53, an activator of the bax promoter, identifies a group with a worse outcome. In recurrent disease, none of the markers reflected prognosis. PMID:9683295

  19. Human papillomavirus cervical infection and associated risk factors in a region of Argentina with a high incidence of cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Tonon, S A; Picconi, M A; Zinovich, J B; Liotta, D J; Bos, P D; Galuppo, J A; Alonio, L V; Ferreras, J A; Teyssié, A R

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical infection among women residing in a region of northeastern Argentina with a high incidence of cervical cancer. METHODS: A case-control study of 330 women participating in a cervical cytological screening program conducted in Posadas city, Misiones, Argentina, from February 1997 to November 1998 was carried out. Standardized questionnaires were administered, and clinical examination including colposcopy was performed. Fresh endocervical specimens for HPV DNA detection by generic polymerase chain reaction were collected and the products typed by dot-blot hybridization. RESULTS: Human papillomavirus DNA was found in 61% of samples analyzed (185/301). Samples with normal cytology had a 43% infection rate (85/199), while those classified as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and invasive cervical carcinoma had an infection rate of 96% (53/55), 100% (29/29), and 100% (18/18), respectively. Human papillomavirus typing showed a 64% (118/185) prevalence of type 16 among all the infected population analyzed; type 16 was detected among 49% (42/85) of infected samples with normal cytology and in an average of 74% (74/100) with abnormal cytology. Sexual behavior, residence in southern Paraguay, and history of a previous sexually transmitted diseases were the main risk factors associated with high-grade cervical lesions. CONCLUSIONS: An elevated prevalence of HPV infection was detected in this population, which also has a high incidence of cervical cancer. The broad distribution of high-risk HPV type 16 in women with normal cytology and colposcopy suggests that viral infection is an important determinant of regional cancer incidence. PMID:10524669

  20. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with nedaplatin in patients with stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Toru; Yasuoka, Toshiaki; Koizumi, Masae; Tanaka, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Nabeta, Motoo; Koizumi, Koji; Matsubara, Yuko; Hamada, Katsuyuki; Matsubara, Keiichi; Katayama, Tomihiro; Nawa, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of nadaplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma. Patients with an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma were treated with nadaplatin-based CCRT, using high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) or radiotherapy (RT) alone, in patients with FIGO stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma. CCRT with nedaplatin (80 mg/m(2)) was administered on Days 1 and 29. The records of 17 women treated either with nadaplatin-based CCRT using HSR-ICBT (n=8) or RT alone (n=9), for stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. The activity and toxicity were compared in the two treatment groups. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were the main endpoints. The 5-year overall survival rates in the CCRT and RT groups were 68.6 and 77.8%, respectively. The median OS of the CCRT and RT groups was 38.5 and 27.3 months, respectively. There was no significant difference in either PFS (P=0.618) or OS (P= 0.231). The most common grade 3-4 or higher toxicities in the CCRT groups were leuko-/neutropenia (37.5%). The frequency of acute grade 3-4 toxicity was higher in the CCRT compared to the RT group. However, no statistically significant difference was observed. Nedaplatin-based CCRT was safely performed. Although the prognosis of patients with FIGO stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma was not significantly improved, fewer distant relapses were observed in this treatment. Consequently, nedaplatin-based CCRT may be considered as a potential alternative to cisplatin-based CCRT in this patient population.

  1. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  2. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Tirapazamine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  3. Primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma and tracheal tumors during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abike, Faruk; Bingol, Banu; Temizkan, Osman; Dunder, Ilkkan; Kilic, Gokhan Sami; Cetin, Guven; Gundogdu, Cem

    2011-01-01

    Cancer complicates approximately 0.1% of all pregnancies. Primary tracheal carcinoma is one of very rarely seen tumors and the rate of its being seen makes up approximately % 0.2 of all tumors of respiratory tract. The patient, 28 years old, who has 28-weeks-pregnant, was diagnosed with primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma. Patient was made operation as thoracotomy and tracheal tumor was removed at the 28th week of pregnancy. Patient was delivered with sectio abdominale at the 39th week of pregnancy. Primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma is very rarely seen tumors and it is the first tracheal ACC with pregnancy case in literature to have been detected and surgically treated during pregnancy. We discussed primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma and tracheal tumors during pregnancy with literature. PMID:22066040

  4. [Etiology and pathogenesis of precancerous lesions and invasive cervical carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Panjković, Milana; Ivković-Kapicl, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common gynecological malignancy in the world. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is the leading ethiologic agent in the development of premalignant and malignant cervical diseases. HPV is a member of the Papovaviridae family and until now over 100 types have been recognized There are two types of viral infection: latent and productive. Virus induced oncogenesis is the result of interaction between virus oncoproteins E6 and E7 and tumor supresor host genes p53 and Rb. Many cofactors such as immunosuppression, early sexual relationship, multiple sexual partners, other sexualy transsmited infections and smoking are contributing factors of the precancerous and invasive cervical lesions. According to the oncogenic potential HPV are divided into three groups: low, intermediate and high oncogenic risk viruses. Molecular technics which are used for the virus detection are: In situ hibridisation, Hyybrid capture test and polymerasa chain reaction. Human papilloma virus testing has an important role in the follow up and treatment of women with "atypical squamous cells of unknown significant" changes in cervical smears and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, changes in punch biopsy.

  5. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Andolino, David L.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Maluccio, Mary; Kwo, Paul; Tector, A. Joseph; Zook, Jennifer; Johnstone, Peter A.S.; Cardenes, Higinia R.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2009, 60 patients with liver-confined HCC were treated with SBRT at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center: 36 Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) Class A and 24 CTP Class B. The median number of fractions, dose per fraction, and total dose, was 3, 14 Gy, and 44 Gy, respectively, for those with CTP Class A cirrhosis and 5, 8 Gy, and 40 Gy, respectively, for those with CTP Class B. Treatment was delivered via 6 to 12 beams and in nearly all cases was prescribed to the 80% isodose line. The records of all patients were reviewed, and treatment response was scored according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Local control (LC), time to progression (TTP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier. Results: The median follow-up time was 27 months, and the median tumor diameter was 3.2 cm. The 2-year LC, PFS, and OS were 90%, 48%, and 67%, respectively, with median TTP of 47.8 months. Subsequently, 23 patients underwent transplant, with a median time to transplant of 7 months. There were no {>=}Grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities. Thirteen percent of patients experienced an increase in hematologic/hepatic dysfunction greater than 1 grade, and 20% experienced progression in CTP class within 3 months of treatment. Conclusions: SBRT is a safe, effective, noninvasive option for patients with HCC {<=}6 cm. As such, SBRT should be considered when bridging to transplant or as definitive therapy for those ineligible for transplant.

  6. Differences in MHC and TAP-1 expression in cervical cancer lymph node metastases as compared with the primary tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Cromme, F. V.; van Bommel, P. F.; Walboomers, J. M.; Gallee, M. P.; Stern, P. L.; Kenemans, P.; Helmerhorst, T. J.; Stukart, M. J.; Meijer, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    In previous studies we have shown down-regulation of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression in a significant proportion of primary cervical carcinomas, which was found to be strongly correlated with loss of expression of the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP). By contrast, class II MHC expression was frequently up-regulated on neoplastic keratinocytes in these malignancies. In order to investigate whether these changes are associated with biological behaviour of the tumours, 20 cervical carcinomas were analyzed for MHC (HLA-A, HLA-B/C, HLA-DR) and TAP-1 expression in the primary tumours and in lymph node metastases by immunohistochemistry. The results showed a significant increase in the prevalence of HLA-A and HLA-B/C down-regulation in metastasised neoplastic cells as compared with the primary tumour (P = 0.01). In all cases this was accompanied by loss of TAP-1 expression. Up-regulated HLA-DR expression was found exclusively in primary tumours and was absent in the corresponding metastases (P = 0.002). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that loss of TAP-1 and the consequent down-regulation of class I MHC expression provides a selective advantage for neoplastic cervical cells during metastasis. Furthermore, the lack of class II MHC expression in metastasised cells either reflects a different local lymphokine production or indicates that these cells may have escaped CD4+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8198988

  7. Carcinoma of the cervical stump: comparison of radiation therapy factors, survival and patterns of failure with carcinoma of the intact uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Igboeli, P.; Kapp, D.S.; Lawrence, R.; Schwartz, P.E.

    1983-02-01

    Eighty-nine patients with previously untreated invasive carcinoma of the cervical stump were seen at Yale-New Haven Hospital from 1953 through 1977. This represented 9.4% of the carcinomas of the cervix seen during this time period. Eighty-five of the 89 patients (95.5%) had ''true'' cancers of the cervical stump diagnosed 2 years or more after subtotal hysterectomy, while 4 of the 89 patients (4.5%) had ''coincident'' cancers diagnosed within 2 years of the subtotal hysterectomy. All cervical cancers were staged by the F.I.G.O. classification. Patient characteristics, methods of management, failure sites and survival of patients with carcinoma of the cervical stump were compared to those patients with carcinoma in the intact uterus. Patients with cervical stump cancers were treated in a similar manner to those with carcinomas of the intact uterus, using a combination of external beam irradiation and intracavitary radium. The stump cancer patients had a similar stage distribution to the patients with cancers of the intact uterus but, on the average, they were older and received less irradiation. The patterns of failure were similar on a stage for stage basis, but the survival and disease-free survival for stump cancer patients were superior to those of the patients with carcinoma of the intact uterus.

  8. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix Presented as Submucosal Tumor Arising From a Background of Cervical Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Mariko; Kai, Keita; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Nakao, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Masatoshi; Aishima, Shinichi

    2017-03-08

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the uterine cervix without prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure is rare, and its etiology is unclear. We present a case of cervical CCC presenting as a submucosal tumor, which strongly suggests an association between cervical endometriosis and cervical CCC. A 56-year-old postmenopausal Japanese woman visited a gynecologic clinic with a complaint of watery vaginal discharge. A few atypical cells suggesting adenocarcinoma were detected in a cervical cytologic specimen. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion with a solid component at the uterine cervix. Under a tentative diagnosis of cervical cancer, surgery was performed. Although a freshly resected specimen initially showed no tumorous lesion in the cervical mucosa, cutting of the mucosa revealed a solid tumor with a final diagnosis of CCC. The findings of aggregation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and ectopic endometrium adjacent to the tumor strongly suggest that this tumor arose from cervical endometriosis.

  9. [Carcinoma of unknown origin++ with latero-cervical metastasis. Diagnostic problems. Retrospective analysis of 110 cases of latero-cervical tumefaction].

    PubMed

    Santacroce, L; Luperto, P; Fiorella, M L; Losacco, T

    2000-01-01

    The cervical region, despite to its little extension, is very important by the surgical and anatomical point of view. This region, occupied by a lot of organs, sometimes is the site of metastasis from carcinomas located in various parts of the body. In some cases the origin site of cancer stays unknown. The aim of this paper is the retrospective analysis of 110 cases of latero cervical swellings and the related problems of differential diagnosis.

  10. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of cervix: Cytological Features on Conventional Cervical Smear.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Ruchi; Arora, Vinod K; Singh, Bharat

    2017-03-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare neoplasm of the cervix. The importance of distinguishing this undifferentiated carcinoma with a predominant lymphocytic infiltrate lies in the fact that despite being poorly differentiated they have a better prognosis. The diagnosis however becomes more challenging when the pathologist is provided with a small cervical biopsy or a Papanicolaou smear. While the reports describing histology and their relation to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are many, there are only few case reports describing the cytology of these tumors. We describe the cytological features of LELC of cervix on conventional smear and correlate it with the histopathological findings of the same. A 67-year-old multiparous Hindu woman presented to the gynecology outpatient department with the history of postmenopausal bleeding for the past six months. The cytological examination of the cervical smear (Papanicolaou stain) was done followed by cervical and endometrial biopsy. Based on Papanicolaou smear and biopsy suggestive of a poorly differentiated carcinoma a radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Hysterectomy specimen showed the morphology of LELC and was then correlated with the cervical smears retrospectively. On review of cytological smears it was seen that the tumor cell clusters had an abundant lymphoid background, which was overlooked earlier. Immunohistochemistry for EBV was negative. We conclude that the presence of undifferentiated tumor cell clusters with ill-defined cell borders and large number of lymphoid cells in the background suggest the diagnosis of LELC on cervical cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:239-242. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A polycomb-mediated epigenetic field defect precedes invasive cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wijetunga, Neil Ari; Ben-Dayan, Miriam; Tozour, Jessica; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Einstein, Mark H.; Greally, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical carcinoma is preceded by stages of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) that can variably progress to malignancy. Understanding the different molecular processes involved in the progression of pre-malignant CIN is critical to the development of improved predictive and interventional capabilities. We tested the role of regulators of transcription in both the development and the progression of HPV-associated CIN, performing the most comprehensive genomic survey to date of DNA methylation in HPV-associated cervical neoplasia, testing ~2 million loci throughout the human genome in biopsies from 78 HPV+ women, identifying changes starting in early CIN and maintained through carcinogenesis. We identified loci at which DNA methylation is consistently altered, beginning early in the course of neoplastic disease and progressing with disease advancement. While the loss of DNA methylation occurs mostly at intergenic regions, acquisition of DNA methylation is at sites involved in transcriptional regulation, with strong enrichment for targets of polycomb repression. Using an independent cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we validated the loci with increased DNA methylation and found that these regulatory changes were associated with locally decreased gene expression. Secondary validation using immunohistochemistry showed that the progression of neoplasia was associated with increasing polycomb protein expression specifically in the cervical epithelium. We find that perturbations of genomic regulatory processes occur early and persist in cervical carcinoma. The results indicate a polycomb-mediated epigenetic field defect in cervical neoplasia that may represent a target for early, topical interventions using polycomb inhibitors. PMID:27557505

  12. Papillary thyroid carcinoma involving cervical neck lymph nodes: correlations with lymphangiogenesis and ultrasound features.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonjung; Park, Kyung Joo; Ryu, Seungho; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Yun, Jisup; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Chun, Mison

    2012-01-01

    Stratification of risk factors for cervical lymph node metastasis (LNM) in thyroid papillary carcinoma is important for providing standards for post-operative adjuvant radio-iodine therapy and for patient prognosis. We investigated pathological factors based on the lymphatic vessel system and radiological features associated with tumor with cervical neck LNM. Among patients who had undergone thyroidectomy confirmed to be papillary thyroid carcinoma, we selected 126 age-sex matched paired patients without cervical LNM (group 1) and with LNM (group 2) to evaluate risk factors. Pathological factors evaluated were size, multiplicity, and extra thyroid extension state, based on the pathological reports using stored data. The lymphatic vessel density (LVD) of each tumor was evaluated by staining for VEGFR-3 and D2-40 and correlated with cervical LNM state. Malignant ultrasound features were evaluated to compare the differences between these two groups. Larger tumor size, multiplicity, extrathyroid extension were more common in group 2 (p<0.05). The median percentage of VEGFR-3 for group 1 was 20 (range 0-30) and D2-40 was 13 (range 7-23) while for group 2, VEGFR-3 was 80 (70-90) and D2-40 was 78 (54-114). LVD measured by intratumoral D2-40 staining was 20.6% and 79.4% for group 1 and group 2, respectively. Intra-tumoral lymphatics measured by D2-40 stain had a strong correlation with cervical LNM (Odds 1.230, CI 1.01.-1.499 p value 0.040). Ultrasound (US) features had no significant differences between the two groups although calcifications tended to be higher in group 2 (84% vs. 76% p=0.264). Lymphatic vessel density and nodule echogenicity were not associated with LNM. Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis was most strongly associated with LNM and thus, could be a useful predictive marker for cervical LNM.

  13. Oncostatin M receptor is a novel therapeutic target in cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Caffarel, Maria M; Coleman, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Treatments have not changed for decades and survival rates for advanced disease remain low. An exciting new molecular target for the treatment of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and possibly for SCCs at other anatomical sites, is the oncostatin M receptor (OSMR). This cell surface cytokine receptor is commonly copy number gained and overexpressed in advanced cervical SCC, changes that are associated with significantly worse clinical outcomes. OSMR overexpression in cervical SCC cells results in enhanced responsiveness to the major ligand oncostatin M (OSM), which induces several pro-malignant effects, including a pro-angiogenic phenotype and increased cell migration and invasiveness. OSMR is a strong candidate for antibody-mediated inhibition, a strategy that has had a major impact on haematological malignancies and various solid tumours such as HER2-positive breast cancers. © 2013 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:24659184

  14. Prognostic Value of Baseline Lymphocyte Count in Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Chel Hun; Kang, Heeseok; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Lee, Je-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: This study examined factors predicting tumor response and progression-free survival in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 143 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB2 to IVA) treated with CCRT were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to retrospectively evaluate prognostic factors, including baseline lymphocyte count, that affect tumor response and progression-free survival. Results: Of the variables evaluated, greater baseline lymphocyte count was the factor most predictive of a complete clinical response, followed by smaller tumor size (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed baseline lymphocyte count, which was treated as a continuous variable with every 1 x 10{sup 9} lymphocytes/L, to remain a prognostic factor with an odds ratio of 3.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-7.23). In addition, a statistically significant association (p = 0.023) was found between baseline lymphocyte count and progression-free survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.89) in the Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusions: Despite the small number of patients and possible biologic variation existing in lymphocyte subset number and activity, these findings highlight the strong prognostic value of baseline lymphocyte count in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with CCRT. Therefore, a larger number of patients and analysis of lymphocyte subsets are needed.

  15. Differential effects of lipid fractions from silver carp brain on human cervical carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caixia; Xia, Wenshui; Jiang, Qixing; Xu, Yanshun; Yu, Peipei

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has revealed that n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exhibit anticancer activities. Lipids from a fish brain contain substantial n3 PUFAs. However, no research has been conducted on the action and mechanism of their potent anticancer activities. In this study, total lipids (TLs) from silver carp brain were isolated into polar lipids (PLs) and neutral lipids (NLs), and the anticancer potential of the lipid fractions (LFs) was investigated using the human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line. LFs effectively inhibited the cell proliferation of HeLa cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner by cell cycle arrest at the S stage and by inducing apoptosis. Further analyses indicated that the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential could be one of mechanisms of apoptosis induced by LFs. Among the TLs, PLs have proven to be more effective in inducing cervical carcinoma cell death than NLs. This work will play a role in promoting lipids from silver carp brain as a potential preventive and therapeutic agent against human cervical carcinoma.

  16. Stat3 induces oncogenic Skp2 expression in human cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hanhui; Zhao, Wenrong; Yang, Dan

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of Skp2 by IL-6 or Stat3 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activates Skp2 expression through bound to its promoter region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activates Skp2 expression through recruitment of P300. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activation decreases the P27 stability. -- Abstract: Dysregulated Skp2 function promotes cell proliferation, which is consistent with observations of Skp2 over-expression in many types of human cancers, including cervical carcinoma (CC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying elevated Skp2 expression have not been fully explored. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced Stat3 activation is viewed as crucial for multiple tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that Skp2 is a direct transcriptional target of Stat3 in the human cervical carcinoma cells. Our data show that IL-6 administration or transfection of a constitutively activated Stat3 in HeLa cells activates Skp2 mRNA transcription. Using luciferase reporter and ChIP assays, we show that Stat3 binds to the promoter region of Skp2 and promotes its activity through recruiting P300. As a result of the increase of Skp2 expression, endogenous p27 protein levels are markedly decreased. Thus, our results suggest a previously unknown Stat3-Skp2 molecular network controlling cervical carcinoma development.

  17. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET Scan, CT Scan, and Ferumoxtran-10 MRI Scan Before Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Finding Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer or High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  18. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid.

  19. Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon and rectum.

    PubMed

    Arifi, Samia; Elmesbahi, Omar; Amarti Riffi, Afaf

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal primary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare entity accounting for nearly 1% of all colorectal carcinomas. It is an independent prognostic factor associated with less favorable outcome. This aggressiveness is mainly due to the intrinsic biology of these tumors. Here is an overview of the literature related to clinicopathological features, molecular biology, and management of SRCC of the colon and the rectum.

  20. Primary small-cell carcinoma of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Tuoc; Howard, Evan; Bredeweg, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Early diagnosis of rare breast cancers is expected to occur more frequently as screening compliance improves and diagnostic modalities become more sensitive. Well-defined treatment algorithms exist for the management of ductal and lobular carcinomas; however, less information is available to guide the treatment of atypical breast cancers. This case report describes a 38-year-old African American woman with primary small cell carcinoma of the breast and her treatment.

  1. Gingival metastasis from primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Wedgwood, D; Rusen, D; Balk, S

    1979-03-01

    A case of primary hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the gingiva is described. Hepatocellular carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy, generally occurring in a cirrhotic liver, which rarely metastasizes to the maxillofacial area. Of eight such cases in the English-language literature, the present case is the fourth involving metastasis to the gingiva. Hepatocellular carcinoma would seem to metastasize with equal frequency to the gingiva and to the mandibular bone. In the case described, histologic examination of the gingival lesion definitively established the diagnosis following somewhat equivocal results of needle biopsy of the liver.

  2. RNA interference targeting CD147 inhibits the invasion of human cervical squamous carcinoma cells by downregulating MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaobin; Wu, Weiguang; Shi, Haixia; Han, Jianqiu

    2013-07-01

    Cervical squamous carcinoma is a highly invasive tumour that has a great capacity to metastasise. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN or CD147), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein. It is highly expressed on malignant tumour cell surfaces, including human cervical squamous carcinoma. It also plays a critical role in the invasive and metastatic activity of malignant cells by stimulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The anti-invasive effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against CD147 on human cervical squamous carcinoma cells and its possible pathways has been investigated. The downregulation of CD147 by transfection with siRNA resulted in MMP-9 expression and decreased activity in the cervical squamous carcinoma cell line SiHa. In vitro analysis showed that the invasive capacity of SiHa cells decreased. Thus CD147 inhibition and subsequent MMP-9 deletion may have anti-tumour effects by inhibiting the invasiveness of human cervical squamous carcinoma cells.

  3. Cervical metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate and maxillary alveolus.

    PubMed

    Koshkareva, Yekaterina; Liu, Jeffrey C; Lango, Miriam; Galloway, Thomas; Gaughan, John P; Ridge, John A

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to determine the incidence and treatment outcomes of neck metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the hard palate and/or maxillary alveolus after surgical excision of the primary tumor. We also sought to identify any risk factors for recurrence. Our study population was made up of 20 patients-9 men and 11 women, aged 46 to 88 years (mean: 72.6)-who had undergone excision of an SCC of the hard palate and/or maxillary alveolus at a tertiary care cancer center over a 7-year period. Half of all patients were former tobacco users. Of the 20 tumors, 10 involved the maxillary alveolus, 4 involved the hard palate, and 6 involved both sites. Three patients were clinically categorized as T1, 9 as T2, 6 as T3, and 2 as T4; pathologically, 8 tumors were categorized as T4a. In addition to maxillectomy, a neck dissection was performed in 7 patients-4 therapeutically and 3 electively. Eight of 20 patients experienced a recurrence: 4 local, 6 regional, and 2 distant (several patients had a recurrence at more than one site). Univariate analysis identified perineural invasion (p = 0.04) as a statistically significant risk factor for recurrence. Of 14 patients with a clinicopathologically negative neck, 5 (36%) developed a cervical recurrence, and 4 of them died of their disease. An advanced stage (T4 vs.

  4. HPV vaccination: The most pragmatic cervical cancer primary prevention strategy.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-10-01

    The evidence that high-risk HPV infections cause cervical cancers has led to two new approaches for cervical cancer control: vaccination to prevent HPV infections, and HPV screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. Two vaccines are currently available: quadrivalent vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 6, and 11, and bivalent vaccine targeting HPV 16 and 18. Both vaccines have demonstrated remarkable immunogenicity and substantial protection against persistent infection and high-grade cervical cancer precursors caused by HPV 16 and 18 in HPV-naïve women, and have the potential to prevent 70% of cervical cancers in adequately vaccinated populations. HPV vaccination is now implemented in national programs in 62 countries, including some low- and middle-income countries. The early findings from routine national programs in high-income countries are instructive to encourage low- and middle-income countries with a high risk of cervical cancer to roll out HPV vaccination programs and to introduce resource-appropriate cervical screening programs.

  5. Late metastatic colon cancer masquerading as primary jejunal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Meshikhes, A-WN; Joudeh, AA

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis to the small bowel from a previously resected colorectal cancer is rare and may erroneously be diagnosed as a primary small bowel carcinoma. It usually occurs several years after the primary resection. We present the case of a 67-year-old man who had undergone left hemicolectomy for colon cancer 3 years earlier and returned with subacute small bowel obstruction. This was initially thought, based on preoperative radiological findings and normal colonoscopic examination, to be due a primary jejunal cancer. Even at surgery, the lesion convincingly appeared as an obstructing primary small bowel carcinoma. However, the histology of the resected small bowel revealed metastatic colon cancer. This rare and an unusual metastatic occurrence some years after the primary resection is described and reviewed. PMID:26890851

  6. SU-E-P-18: Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Cervical Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, W; Qiao, X; Zhou, Z; Song, Y; Zhang, R; Zhen, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze the outcomes and prognostic factors of cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: Thirty-seven patients with cervical esophageal SCC treated with IMRT were analyzed retrospectively. They received 54–66 Gy in 27–32 fractions. Nineteen patients received concurrent (n=12) or sequential (n=7) platinum-based two drugs chemoradiotherapy. Overall survival (OS), local control rates (LCR) and prognostic factors were evaluated. Acute toxicities and patterns of first failures were observed. Results: The median follow-up was 46 months for alive patients. The l-, 3-, 4- and 5-year OS of the all patients were 83.8%, 59.1%, 47.5% and 32.6% respectively. The median survival time was 46 months. The l-, 3-,4- and 5-year LCR were 82.9%, 63.0%, 54.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Univariate and Multivariate analysis all showed that size of GTV was an independent prognostic factor (p=0.033, p=0.039). There were no patients with Grade 3 acute radiation esophagitis and Grade 2–4 acute pneumonitis. The local failure accounted for 70.0% of all treatment-related failures. Conclusion: IMRT is safe and effective in the treatment of cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Size of GTV is an independent prognostic factor. Local failure still remains the main reason of treatment failures. The authors declare no conflicts of interest in preparing this article.

  7. Concurrent primary peritoneal low-grade serous carcinoma and endometrial high-grade serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lockyer, Megan G; Deavers, Michael T; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda

    2015-05-01

    A 64-yr-old postmenopausal woman with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and atypical glandular cell of undetermined significance on her Pap test was found to have endometrial serous carcinoma (high grade) involving a polyp in a subsequent endometrial biopsy. She underwent hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with multiple biopsies of the peritoneum. Microscopic examination of the entirely submitted uterus showed no residual serous carcinoma. Multiple foci of low-grade serous tumor with extensive calcifications and psammoma bodies were identified on the surfaces of the left fallopian tube, ovaries, and biopsies of the peritoneum, consistent with peritoneal primary low-grade serous carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of low-grade serous carcinoma of the peritoneum with a concurrent (high-grade) serous carcinoma of the endometrium arising from an endometrial polyp.

  8. A Rare Breast Tumor Confused with Ductal Carcinoma in Situ, Primary Solid Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alıcı, Ömer; Aydoğdu, Serap Korkmaz

    2014-01-01

    The concept of pure neuroendocrine breast tumors was initially defined by Sapino et al. There are three sub-types of these tumors: solid, small cell/oat cell, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. To diagnose neuroendocrine tumors, more than half of the tumor cells must have neuroendocrine differentiation. The possibility of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma must always be excluded in the differential diagnosis. In addition, it should be considered that solid neuroendocrine (NE) carcinomas can be confused with ductal carcinoma in situ due to their similar morphologic appearance. In this article, a patient with primary solid neuroendocrine breast cancer who had been diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ at another center was presented along with morphological and immunohistochemical features.

  9. The state of the p53 and retinoblastoma genes in human cervical carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffner, M.; Muenger, K.; Byrne, J.C.; Howley, P.M. )

    1991-07-01

    Human cervical carcinoma cell lines that were either positive or negative for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences were analyzed for evidence of mutation of the p53 and retinoblastoma genes. Each of five HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines expressed normal pRB and low levels of wild-type p53 proteins, which are presumed to be altered in function as a consequence of association with HPV E7 and E6 oncoproteins, respectively. In contrast, mutations were identified in the p53 and RB genes expressed in the C-33A and HT-3 cervical cancer cell lines, which lack HPV DNA sequences. Mutations in the p53 genes mapped to codon 273 and codon 245 in the C33-A and HT-3 cell lines, respectively, located in the highly conserved regions of p53, where mutations appear in a variety of human cancers. Mutations in RB occurred at splice junctions, resulting in in-frame deletions, affecting exons 13 and 20 in the HT-3 and C-33A cell lines, respectively. These mutations resulted in aberrant proteins that were not phosphorylated and were unable to complex with the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein. These results support the hypothesis that the inactivation of the normal functions of the tumor-suppressor proteins pRB and p53 are important steps in human cervical carcinogenesis, either by mutation or from complex formation with the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins.

  10. Evaluation of Rectal Dose During High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, Rajib Lochan; Reddy, Palreddy Yadagiri; Rao, Ramakrishna; Muralidhar, Kanaparthy R.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

    2011-01-01

    High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for carcinoma of the uterine cervix often results in high doses being delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) such as the rectum and bladder. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine and closely monitor the dose delivered to these OARs. In this study, we measured the dose delivered to the rectum by intracavitary applications and compared this measured dose to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements rectal reference point dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). To measure the dose, we inserted a miniature (0.1 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber into the rectum of 86 patients undergoing radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. The response of the miniature chamber modified by 3 thin lead marker rings for identification purposes during imaging was also characterized. The difference between the TPS-calculated maximum dose and the measured dose was <5% in 52 patients, 5-10% in 26 patients, and 10-14% in 8 patients. The TPS-calculated maximum dose was typically higher than the measured dose. Our study indicates that it is possible to measure the rectal dose for cervical carcinoma patients undergoing HDR-ICBT. We also conclude that the dose delivered to the rectum can be reasonably predicted by the TPS-calculated dose.

  11. Alterations of chromosome 11q13 in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, N.C.; Zimonjic, D.B.

    1996-02-01

    In cervical cancer, evidence for the existence of a tumor-suppressor gene on chromosome 11 has been generated from studies with somatic cell hybrids, chromosome microcell transfer, or deletion analysis of DNA markers. As suggested by somatic cell hybrids analysis, chromosome 11 harbors at least three distinctive tumor-suppressor genes, two on the short arm and one on the long arm. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis using 16 markers, 10 of which were microsatellite-based, placed the region of a putative tumor-suppressor gene to 11q22-24. Recently, 11q13 was assigned as another possible site on the basis of molecular rearrangements, deletions, and translocations, nonrandomly involving this region in four of eight cervical carcinoma cell lines. Abnormal chromosomes 11 were found in HeLa, SiHa, and Caski lines and in C33A, a human papilloma virus-negative cell line. 18 refs.

  12. Rigosertib is a more effective radiosensitizer than cisplatin in concurrent chemo-radiation treatment of cervical carcinoma, in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Agoni, Lorenzo; Basu, Indranil; Gupta, Seema; Alfieri, Alan; Gambino, Angela; Goldberg, Gary L.; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Guha, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Rigosertib is a novel anti-mitotic agent that induces selective G2/M arrest in cancer cells. Our study shows that rigosertib, when administered concurrently with radiotherapy, acts as a radiosensitizer with greater efficacy than cisplatin, the standard drug in concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for cervical malignancies. Rigosertib, combined with radiotherapy, appears to be a potential therapeutic agent for the clinical management of cervical carcinoma. Rigosertib as a radiosensitizer for cervical carcinoma PMID:24529717

  13. Human Papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus co-infection in Cervical Carcinoma in Algerian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that the implication of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the carcinogenesis and prognosis of cervical cancer is well established, the impact of a co-infection with high risk HPV (HR-HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is still not fully understood. Methods Fifty eight randomly selected cases of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix, 14 normal cervices specimens, 21 CIN-2/3 and 16 CIN-1 cases were examined for EBV and HPV infections. Detection of HR-HPV specific sequences was carried out by PCR amplification using consensus primers of Manos and by Digene Hybrid Capture. The presence of EBV was revealed by amplifying a 660 bp specific EBV sequence of BALF1. mRNA expression of LMP-1 in one hand and protein levels of BARF-1, LMP-1 and EBNA-1 in the other hand were assessed by RT-PCR and immunoblotting and/or immunohischemistry respectively. Results HR-HPV infection was found in patients with SCC (88%), low-grade (75%) and high grade (95%) lesions compared to only 14% of normal cervix cases. However, 69%, 12.5%, 38.1%, and 14% of SCC, CIN-1, CIN-2/3 and normal cervix tissues, respectively, were EBV infected. The highest co-infection (HR-HPV and EBV) was found in squamous cell carcinoma cases (67%). The latter cases showed 27% and 29% expression of EBV BARF-1 and LMP-1 oncogenes respectively. Conclusion The high rate of HR-HPV and EBV co-infection in SCC suggests that EBV infection is incriminated in cervical cancer progression. This could be taken into account as bad prognosis in this type of cancer. However, the mode of action in dual infection in cervical oncogenesis needs further investigation. PMID:24252325

  14. Differences in genetic variation in antigen-processing machinery components and association with cervical carcinoma risk in two Indonesian populations.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Akash M; Spaans, Vivian M; Mahendra, Nyoman Bayu; Osse, Elisabeth M; Vet, Jessica N I; Purwoto, Gatot; Surya, I G D; Cornian, Santoso; Peters, Alexander A; Fleuren, Gert J; Jordanova, Ekaterina S

    2015-06-01

    Genetic variation of antigen-processing machinery (APM) components has been shown to be associated with cervical carcinoma risk and outcome in a genetically homogeneous Dutch population. However, the role of APM component single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetically heterogeneous populations with different distributions of human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes remains unclear. Eleven non-synonymous, coding SNPs in the TAP1, TAP2, LMP2, LMP7 and ERAP1 genes were genotyped in cervical carcinoma patients and healthy controls from two distinct Indonesian populations (Balinese and Javanese). Individual genotype and allele distributions were investigated using single-marker analysis, and combined SNP effects were assessed by haplotype construction and haplotype interaction analysis. Allele distribution patterns in Bali and Java differed in relation to cervical carcinoma risk, with four ERAP1 SNPs and one TAP2 SNP in the Javanese population showing significant association with cervical carcinoma risk, while in the Balinese population, only one TAP2 SNP showed this association. Multimarker analysis demonstrated that in the Javanese patients, one specific haplotype, consisting of the ERAP1-575 locus on chromosome 5 and the TAP2-379 and TAP2-651 loci on chromosome 6, was significantly associated with cervical carcinoma risk (global P = 0.008); no significant haplotype associations were found in the Balinese population. These data indicate not only that genetic variation in APM component genes is associated with cervical carcinoma risk in Indonesia but also that the patterns of association differ depending on background genetic composition and possibly on differences in HPV type distribution.

  15. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Madani, Indira Vakaet, Luc; Bonte, Katrien; Boterberg, Tom; Neve, Wilfried de

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional (two-dimensional) radiotherapy in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer (UPC). Methods and Materials: Between February 2003 and September 2006, 23 patients with UPC of squamous cell carcinoma were treated with IMRT. Extended putative mucosal and bilateral nodal sites were irradiated to a median dose of 66 Gy. In 19 patients, IMRT was performed after lymph node dissection, and in 4 patients primary radiotherapy was given. The conventional radiotherapy group (historical control group) comprised 18 patients treated to a median dose of 66 Gy between August 1994 and October 2003. Results: Twenty patients completed treatment. As compared with conventional radiotherapy, the incidence of Grade 3 acute dysphagia was significantly lower in the IMRT group (4.5% vs. 50%, p = 0.003). By 6 months, Grade 3 xerostomia was detected in 11.8% patients in the IMRT group vs. 53.4% in the historical control group (p = 0.03). No Grade 3 dysphagia or skin fibrosis was observed after IMRT but these were noted after conventional radiotherapy (26.7%, p = 0.01) and 26.7%, p = 0.03) respectively). With median follow-up of living patients of 17 months, there was no emergence of primary cancer. One patient had persistent nodal disease and another had nodal relapse at 5 months. Distant metastases were detected in 4 patients. The 2-year overall survival and distant disease-free probability after IMRT did not differ significantly from those for conventional radiotherapy (74.8% vs. 61.1% and 76.3% vs. 68.4%, respectively). Conclusions: Use of IMRT for UPC resulted in lower toxicity than conventional radiotherapy, and was similar in efficacy.

  16. Cytogenetic characterization of three cell lines derived from primary cervical tumors of different histologic grade

    SciTech Connect

    Hann, E.; Beauregard, L.; Mikumo, R.

    1994-09-01

    Braum et al.(1993) established three cell lines from keratinizing and nonkeratinizing cervical carcinomas. These cell lines were subsequently analyzed for growth properties and the physical state of the human papillomavirus type 16 genome. TC140, derived from a keratinizing cervical tumor, contains human papillomavirus type 16 in the episomal state. TC-146A and TC-146B, derived from a nonkeratinizing large-cell cervical carcinoma, contain human papillomavirus type 16 in the integrated state. The goal of the present study was to cytogenetically characterize these cell lines, developed from cervical carcinoma with a defined histopathology, in order to shed additional light on the biological basis of the histological and clinical heterogeneity of cervical cancers. Information on solid tumors has been limited because they are often difficult to culture and the karyotypes on the available metaphases are often complex with unidentifiable markers. The chromosomes of these three cell lines were characterized in the present study using GTG-banding. For cell line 140, the most striking chromosomal abnormalities noted were the presence of an i(5p) or i(12p) marker, an isochromosome 8q marker and multiple copies of chromosome 9. For cell line 146A, the most notable chromosomal abnormalities noted were the presence of a marker chromosome 7 with additional materials present on the long arms, an isochomosome of the long arms of chromosome 8 and a question of chromosome 19 markers. For cell line 146B, the most notable chromosomal abnormalities were found to be a deleted X chromosome, a marker chromosome 7 with additional material on the long arm, an isochromosome 8q marker, and isochromosome 16q marker and one or more copies of an isochromosome 17q marker. Fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments performed using select probes further corroborate the results of the above-mentioned conventional cytogenetic studies.

  17. Identification of a proliferation gene cluster associated with HPV E6/E7 expression level and viral DNA load in invasive cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rosty, Christophe; Sheffer, Michal; Tsafrir, Dafna; Stransky, Nicolas; Tsafrir, Ilan; Peter, Martine; de Crémoux, Patricia; de La Rochefordière, Anne; Salmon, Rémy; Dorval, Thierry; Thiery, Jean Paul; Couturier, Jérôme; Radvanyi, François; Domany, Eytan; Sastre-Garau, Xavier

    2005-10-27

    Specific HPV DNA sequences are associated with more than 90% of invasive carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Viral E6 and E7 oncogenes are key mediators in cell transformation by disrupting TP53 and RB pathways. To investigate molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of invasive cervical carcinoma, we performed a gene expression study on cases selected according to viral and clinical parameters. Using Coupled Two-Way Clustering and Sorting Points Into Neighbourhoods methods, we identified a 'cervical cancer proliferation cluster' composed of 163 highly correlated transcripts. Most of these transcripts corresponded to E2F pathway genes controlling cell division or proliferation, whereas none was known as TP53 primary target. The average expression level of the genes of this cluster was higher in tumours with an early relapse than in tumours with a favourable course (P = 0.026). Moreover, we found that E6/E7 mRNA expression level was positively correlated with the expression level of the cluster genes and with viral DNA load. These findings suggest that HPV E6/E7 expression level plays a key role in the progression of invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix via the deregulation of cellular genes controlling tumour cell proliferation. HPV expression level may thus provide a biological marker useful for prognosis assessment and specific therapy of the disease.

  18. Anticancer studies of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles against human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2016-05-01

    A metal oxide nanoparticle has been widely investigated for its potential use in the biomedical application. The present study investigates the cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticle in human cervical carcinoma cells. Cell viability was determined, and it showed the possible cytotoxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles. The characteristic apoptotic features such as rounding and loss of adherence were observed in the treated cells. Fluorescence and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) studies have showed reduced nuclear volume and condensed cytoplasm. The mRNA expression of apoptotic gene p53 and caspase 3 was up-regulated following ZnO nanoparticle exposure, which confirms the occurrence of apoptosis at the transcriptional level. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased in a dose-dependent manner, and initiate lipid peroxidation of the liposomal membrane, which in turn regulate several signaling pathways and influencing the cytokinetic movements of cells. ZnO nanoparticles showed a dynamic cytotoxic effect in cervical carcinoma cells. ZnO nanoparticle might induce the apoptosis through increased intracellular ROS level. Moreover, up-regulated apoptotic gene expression confirms the occurrence of apoptosis. Taking all these data together, it may be concluded that ZnO nanoparticle may exert cytotoxicity on HeLa cell through the apoptotic pathway, implies the probable utility of ZnO nanoparticle in the cancer treatment and therapy.

  19. Anticancer properties of extracts from Opuntia humifusa against human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Sahng-Wook; Park, Jieun; Oh, Se-Yeong; Lee, Chul-Won; Park, Kun-Young; Kim, Hyunggee; Son, Yong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we found that the total polyphenol and ascorbic acid levels in the fruit of Opuntia humifusa are higher than those in other parts of the plant. We further hypothesized that antioxidants in O. humifusa might affect the growth or survival of cancer cells. Hexane extracts of seeds and ethyl acetate extracts of fruits and stems significantly suppressed the proliferation of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, but did not affect the proliferation of normal human BJ fibroblasts. Additionally, the extracts of O. humifusa induced G1 phase arrest in HeLa cells. The O. humifusa extracts reduced the levels of G1 phase-associated cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), and phosphorylated retinoblastoma proteins. Moreover, p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p53 expression significantly increased after treatment. We examined the effects of ethyl acetate extracts of O. humifusa fruit (OHF) on HeLa cells xenograft tumor growth. OHF treatment significantly reduced tumor volume and this decrease was correlated with decreased Cdk4 and cyclin D1 expression. Furthermore, flavonoids, trans Taxifolin, and dihydrokaempferol, were isolated from OHF. Thus, this extract may be a promising candidate for treating human cervical carcinoma.

  20. SOX18 Is a Novel Target Gene of Hedgehog Signaling in Cervical Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Jelena; Schwirtlich, Marija; Rankovic, Branislava; Stevanovic, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Although there is much evidence showing functional relationship between Hedgehog pathway, in particular Sonic hedgehog, and SOX transcription factors during embryonic development, scarce data are available regarding their crosstalk in cancer cells. SOX18 protein plays an important role in promoting tumor angiogenesis and therefore emerged as a promising potential target in antiangiogenic tumor therapy. Recently it became evident that expression of SOX18 gene in tumors is not restricted to endothelium of accompanying blood and lymphatic vessels, but in tumor cells as well.In this paper we have identified human SOX18 gene as a novel target gene of Hedgehog signaling in cervical carcinoma cell lines. We have presented data showing that expression of SOX18 gene is regulated by GLI1 and GLI2 transcription factors, final effectors of Hedgehog signaling, and that modulation of Hedgehog signaling activity in considerably influence SOX18 expression. We consider important that Hedgehog pathway inhibitors reduced SOX18 expression, thus showing, for the first time, possibility for manipulationwith SOX18 gene expression. In addition, we analyzed the role of SOX18 in malignant potential of cervical carcinoma cell line, and showed that its overexpression has no influence on cells proliferation and viability, but substantially promotes migration and invasion of cells in vitro. Pro-migratory effect of SOX18 suggests its role in promoting malignant spreading, possibly in response to Hedgehog activation. PMID:26588701

  1. Prevention of type 2 herpes simplex virus induced cervical carcinoma in mice by prior immunization with a vaccine prepared from type 1 herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, M H; Dong, C Y; Liu, Z H; Skinner, G R; Hartley, C E

    1983-12-01

    Repeated intra-vaginal inoculation of mice with inactivated type 2 herpes simplex virus induced cervical carcinoma in approximately 50% of mice. Prior immunization with subunit vaccine Ac NFU1(S-) BHK reduced the frequency of cervical carcinoma to 19%. Inoculation of mice with a control preparation of uninfected cell extract never induced preinvasive or invasive cervical cancer. There was evidence of an antibody response in every vaccinated and/or innoculated animal. Mice developing cervical cancer had a significantly higher antibody titre to type 2 herpes virus than mice not developing cancer. These results are in general accord with sero-epidemiological studies of preinvasive and invasive cervical carcinoma in human subjects and suggests that this experimental model may be appropriate for further investigation of prevention of human cervical cancer by vaccination.

  2. Sonoporation of Cervical Carcinoma Cells Affected with E6-Oncoprotein for the Treatment of Uterine Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curiel, Laura; Lee, Kyle; Pichardo, Samuel; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2010-03-01

    Cervical cancer has been identified as the third leading cause of average years of life lost per person dying of cancer. Since essentially all cervical cancers contain copies of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, we propose a treatment that targets HPV-infected cells using strategies that re-introduce normal functions into the infected cells while sparing healthy cells. We propose the use of focused ultrasound in combination with microbubbles as means to deliver antibodies against the E6 protein present only in HPV positive cells. We conducted in vitro studies with cell cultures of SiHa cervical carcinoma cells seeded into Opticell™ chambers. An in-house ultrasound excitation apparatus was used to control and explore the optimal acoustic parameters in order to maximize delivery. We first validated the possibility of delivering the EX-EGFP-M02 vector (Genecopoeia) into the cells; 1.2 μL of activated microbubbles (Definity®) and 50 μg of the vector were mixed in media and then injected into the Opticell™ chamber. We used 32 μs pulses at a central frequency of 930 KHz with a repetition frequency of 1.5 kHz and total exposure duration of 30 s; six pressure values were tested (0 to 1 MPa). Fluorescence imaging was used to determine the levels of intracellular proteins and assess delivery. The delivery of an anti-α-Tubulin antibody was next tested and confirmed that the delivery into HPV16 positive cells was successful.

  3. Microvascular Reconstruction of Free Jejunal Graft in Larynx-preserving Esophagectomy for Cervical Esophageal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Natori, Yuhei; Komoto, Masakazu; Matsumura, Takashi; Horiguchi, Masatoshi; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Iwanuma, Yoshimi; Tsurumaru, Masahioko; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Losing the ability to speak severely affects the quality of life, and patients who have undergone laryngectomy tend to become depressed, which may lead to social withdrawal. Recently, with advancements in chemoradiotherapy and with alternative perspectives on postoperative quality of life, larynx preservation has been pursued; however, the selection of candidates and the optimal reconstructive procedure remain controversial. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed our experience with free jejunal graft for larynx-preserving cervical esophagectomy (LPCE), focusing on microvascular reconstruction. Methods: Seven patients underwent LPCE for cervical esophageal carcinoma, and defects were reconstructed by free jejunal transfer subsequently. We collected preoperative and postoperative data of the patients and assessed the importance of the procedure. Results: We mostly used the transverse cervical artery as the recipient, and a longer operative time was required, particularly for the regrowth cases. The operative field for microvascular anastomosis was more limited and deeper than those in the laryngectomy cases. Two graft necrosis cases were confirmed at postoperative day 9 or 15, and vessels contralateral from the graft were chosen as recipients in both patients. Conclusions: Microvascular reconstruction for free jejunal graft in LPCE differed in several ways from the procedure combined with laryngectomy. Compression from the tracheal cartilage to the pedicle was suspected as the reason of the necrosis clinically and pathologically. Therefore, we should select recipient vessels from the ipsilateral side of the graft, and careful and extended monitoring of the flap should be considered to make this procedure successful. PMID:27257562

  4. Primary care residents' characteristics and motives for providing differential medical treatment of cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo, Elva M.; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Costanzo, Philip; McNeilly, Maya; Myers, Evan

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer screening rates in the United States are sub-optimal. Physician factors likely contribute to these lower rates. Previous studies provide inconclusive evidence about the association between physician characteristics and the likelihood of addressing cervical cancer. This report assesses potential mechanisms that explain why certain providers do not address cervical cancer screening. METHODS: One hundred primary care residents from various specialties were asked to indicate the preventive topics they would address with a hypothetical white female in her early 20s, who was portrayed as living a "high risk" lifestyle, and visiting her provider only for acute care reasons. RESULTS: Among the provider characteristics assessed, only residents' ethnicity was associated with the likelihood of and time spent addressing cervical cancer screening. In particular, Asian-American residents were least likely to address cervical cancer, while African-American residents were most likely. A mediation analyses revealed that perceived barriers for addressing cervical cancer accounted for this difference. CONCLUSIONS: Study results suggest that there may be cultural factors among health care providers that may account for differential referral and treatment practices. Findings from this study may help identify factors that explain why cervical cancer screening rates are not higher. PMID:12911255

  5. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of breast: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Vs; Geethamala, K; Kumar, Bd; Sudharao, M

    2013-11-01

    Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) of breast was an unknown pathologic entity till recently due its rare incidence and lack of definitive criteria for diagnosis. We present a case of PNEC of breast in a middle aged lady. A 34 years lady presented with a breast lump since 1 month, who underwent modified radical mastectomy with axillary clearance. Histopathological diagnoses were infiltrating ductal carcinoma-neuroendocrine (NE) type. Immunohistochemistry showed estrogen, progesterone positivity and NE markers positivity in more than 50% of tumor cells for chromogranin, synaptophysin, neuron specific enolase. On further investigation by whole body computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no extra mammary primary tumor. Hence the diagnosis of PNEC of breast was confirmed. Patient received chemo and hormonal therapy and doing well after 6 months of follow up.

  6. Pipeline embolization device as primary treatment for cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Arthur; Santarelli, Justin; Stiefel, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limited data exists on the durability and occlusion rate of treating extracranial cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms using the pipeline embolization device (PED) flow-diverting stent. Methods: Three patients presenting with dissecting cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms were treated with the PED as the sole treatment modality. Results: In all three patients, successful aneurysmal occlusion and parent vessel reconstruction occurred on immediate angiography and continued on 6-month follow-up. No immediate or delayed complications were seen, and all patients remained neurologically intact. Conclusion: Complete aneurysmal occlusion and long-term angiographic occlusion can occur after PED treatment of cervical carotid pseudoaneurysms. In select patients, the PED can be a suitable primary treatment modality with good neurological outcome for cervical carotid pseudoaneurysms. PMID:28217382

  7. pO{sub 2} Fluctuation Pattern and Cycling Hypoxia in Human Cervical Carcinoma and Melanoma Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingsen, Christine; Ovrebo, Kirsti Marie; Galappathi, Kanthi; Mathiesen, Berit; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Blood perfusion in tumors is spatially and temporally heterogeneous, resulting in local fluctuations in tissue oxygen tension (pO{sub 2}) and tissue regions showing cycling hypoxia. In this study, we investigated whether the pO{sub 2} fluctuation pattern and the extent of cycling hypoxia differ between tumor types showing high (e.g., cervical carcinoma xenograft) and low (e.g., melanoma xenograft) fractions of connective tissue-associated blood vessels. Methods and Materials: Two cervical carcinoma lines (CK-160 and TS-415) and two melanoma lines (A-07 and R-18) transplanted into BALB/c nu/nu mice were included in the study. Tissue pO{sub 2} was measured simultaneously in two positions in each tumor by using a two-channel OxyLite fiber-optic oxygen-sensing device. The extent of acute and chronic hypoxia was assessed by combining a radiobiological and a pimonidazole-based immunohistochemical assay of tumor hypoxia. Results: The proportion of tumor regions showing pO{sub 2} fluctuations, the pO{sub 2} fluctuation frequency in these regions, and the relative amplitude of the pO{sub 2} fluctuations were significantly higher in the melanoma xenografts than in the cervical carcinoma xenografts. Cervical carcinoma and melanoma xenografts did not differ significantly in the fraction of acutely hypoxic cells or the fraction of chronically hypoxic cells. However, the ratio between fraction of acutely hypoxic cells and fraction of chronically hypoxic cells was significantly higher in melanoma than in cervical carcinoma xenografts. Conclusions: Temporal heterogeneity in blood flow and tissue pO{sub 2} in tumors may depend on tumor histology. Connective tissue surrounding microvessels may stabilize blood flow and pO{sub 2} and, thus, protect tumor tissue from cycling hypoxia.

  8. ZEB1 promotes the progression and metastasis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma via the promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yihui; Zheng, Xiangyu; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Kuisheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) clearly contributes to cancer metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the EMT-related transcription repressor ZEB1 and the expression of EMT-associated markers (E-cadherin, β-catenin and N-cadherin) in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, the role of ZEB1 and these EMT-associated markers in the progression and metastasis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma was explored. Methods: The expression of ZEB1, E-cadherin, β-catenin and N-cadherin was evaluated in 81 specimens of cervical squamous cell carcinoma by immunohistochemistry; the clinicopathological significance of these markers was then analyzed. Results: 1) Of the 81 samples, 37 cases (45.7%) were positive for ZEB1, and nuclear expression of ZEB1 in tumor cells was positively associated with the differentiation status of the tumor tissue (P < 0.05), vascular invasion (P < 0.05) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). 2) The loss of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression in tumor cells and the acquisition of N-cadherin expression were positively associated with the differentiation status of the tumor tissue (P < 0.05) and with the occurrence of vascular invasion (P < 0.05). 3) A significant negative correlation was observed between ZEB1 and E-cadherin expression (Spearman = -0.636, P < 0.05) and between ZEB1 and β-catenin expression (Spearman = -0.417, P < 0.05). Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between ZEB1 and N-cadherin expression (Spearman = 0.557, P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results emphasize the role of EMT in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The upregulation of ZEB1 is associated with the abnormal expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin and N-cadherin, which might promote the progression and metastasis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26617850

  9. Establishment of an animal model of spontaneous cervical lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and obtaining laryngocarcinoma cells with high metastatic potential.

    PubMed

    Chen, L W; Wang, J L; Zhang, L Y; Yang, S M; Li, C S; Yu, N; Zhao W, J D; Zhao, L D; Li, K; Liu, M B; Zhai, S Q

    2013-01-01

    To establish an animal model of spontaneous cervical lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and obtain laryngocarcinoma cells with high metastatic potential, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HEP-2 in logarithmic phase were inoculated under the lingual margin mucosa of nude mice. HEP-2 cells metastasized to the cervical lymph nodes were isolated, cultured, and re-inoculated under the lingual margin mucosa of nude mice twice. The tumor formation in the tongue and in the cervical lymph nodes was confirmed by pathological examination. Carcinoma cells' ability of invasion and migration was detected by transwell assay. Human specific Alu sequences were detected by PCR, which indicated that the tumor cells originated from human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HEP-2. Finally, an animal model of spontaneous lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma was successfully established. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells with high metastatic potential to lymph nodes were obtained through repeated inoculations. .

  10. Impact of histological subtype on survival in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer that were treated with definitive radiotherapy: adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Hiromasa; Kimura, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the survival outcomes of patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma (AC/ASC) among patients with locally advanced cervical cancer that were treated with definitive radiotherapy. Methods The baseline characteristics and outcome data of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who were treated with definitive radiotherapy between November 1993 and February 2014 were collected and retrospectively reviewed. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to investigate the prognostic significance of AC/ASC histology. Results The patients with AC/ASC of the cervix exhibited significantly shorter overall survival (OS) (p=0.004) and progression-free survival (PFS) (p=0.002) than the patients with SCC of the cervix. Multivariate analysis showed that AC/ASC histology was an independent negative prognostic factor for PFS. Among the patients who displayed AC/ASC histology, larger tumor size, older age, and incomplete response to radiotherapy were found to be independent prognostic factors. PFS was inversely associated with the number of poor prognostic factors the patients exhibited (the estimated 1-year PFS rates; 100.0%, 77.8%, 42.8%, 0.0% for 0, 1, 2, 3 factors, respectively). Conclusion Locally advanced cervical cancer patients with AC/ASC histology experience significantly worse survival outcomes than those with SCC. Further clinical studies are warranted to develop a concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) protocol that is specifically tailored to locally advanced cervical AC/ASC. PMID:28028992

  11. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Huh, Warner K; Ault, Kevin A; Chelmow, David; Davey, Diane D; Goulart, Robert A; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kinney, Walter K; Massad, L Stewart; Mayeaux, Edward J; Saslow, Debbie; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lawson, Herschel W; Einstein, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    In 2011, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology updated screening guidelines for the early detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Recommended screening strategies were cytology and cotesting (cytology in combination with hrHPV testing). These guidelines also addressed the use of hrHPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, which was not recommended for use at that time. There is now a growing body of evidence for screening with primary hrHPV testing, including a prospective US-based registration study. Thirteen experts including representatives from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Cancer Society, American Society of Cytopathology, College of American Pathologists, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology, convened to provide interim guidance for primary hrHPV screening. This guidance panel was specifically triggered by an application to the FDA for a currently marketed HPV test to be labeled for the additional indication of primary cervical cancer screening. Guidance was based on literature review and review of data from the FDA registration study, supplemented by expert opinion. This document aims to provide information for healthcare providers who are interested in primary hrHPV testing and an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this strategy for screening as well as to highlight areas in need of further investigation.

  12. Reduced expression of autophagy markers correlates with high-risk human papillomavirus infection in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HUA-YI; YANG, GUI-FANG; HUANG, YAN-HUA; HUANG, QI-WEN; GAO, JUN; ZHAO, XIAN-DA; HUANG, LI-MING; CHEN, HONG-LEI

    2014-01-01

    Infection by an oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), in particular HPV16 and 18, is a high risk factor for developing cervical cancer; however, viral infection alone is not sufficient for cancer progression. Autophagy is hypothesized to be an important process during carcinogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between autophagy and high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection in human cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), and to analyze the clinical significance of this association. Quantum dot (QD)-based immunofluorescence histochemistry was used to detect the expression of autophagy markers, Beclin-1 and microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3B) proteins, in 104 cases of cervical cancer (including 80 SCCs and 24 adenocarcinomas) and 20 normal cervical tissues. hrHPV (HPV16/18) infection was detected by QDs based fluorescence in situ hybridization in cervical cancers. The results revealed that the expression levels of Beclin-1 and LC3B were significantly lower in cervical cancer cells when compared with those of normal cervical squamous epithelial cells, and were found to negatively correlate with hrHPV infection. The expression levels of Beclin-1 and LC3B were not associated with age, tumor grade, tumor stage, tumor node metastasis stage or lymph node metastasis. However, a positive correlation was identified between Beclin-1 and LC3B protein expression. In addition, the absence of autophagy in combination with hrHPV infection may accelerate the progression of cervical SCC. In conclusion, decreased expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B may be important in cervical carcinogenesis. The hrHPV-host cell interaction may inhibit autophagy, which may aid virus duplication and infection, as well as cervical cancer development. PMID:25202355

  13. A literature overview of primary cervical malignant melanoma: an exceedingly rare cancer.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Sara; Bajetta, Emilio; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Formisano, Barbara; Ducceschi, Monika; Buzzoni, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    Primary malignant melanoma (MM) of the uterine cervix is an extremely rare neoplasm, with about 78 cases described in the literature. Since traces of melanocytes in normal cervical epithelium were found in 3.5% of cases primary origin of melanoma at this site cannot be ruled out. It occurs mainly in the sixth decade of life, and it is five time less common than primary vaginal or vulvar MM. Clinical history usually includes abnormal genital bleeding; and physical examination frequently reveals a pigmented, exophytic cervical mass. Diagnosis is confirmed by immuno-histochemical methods and by exclusion of any other primary site of melanoma. Treatment of this condition is not yet standardized, and the overall prognosis is very poor. Diagnostic approaches and therapeutic procedures on primary MM of the uterine cervix are discussed following a review of the literature encompassing more than one century.

  14. Cervical Screening for Women with Learning Disability: Current Practice and Attitudes within Primary Care in Edinburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Rachael; Douglas, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate current practice in, and to explore primary care professionals' views about, providing cervical screening to women with learning disability, in two areas of Edinburgh. A postal questionnaire was sent to all 24 GP practices in the project area: 20 responded. Seven respondents were invited to participate in follow up…

  15. Cloning of monomeric human papillomavirus type 16 DNA integrated within cell DNA from a cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsukura, T.; Kanda, T.; Furuno, A.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kawana, T.; Yoshiike, K.

    1986-06-01

    The authors have molecularly cloned and characterized monomeric human papillomavirus type 16 DNA with flanking cell DNA sequences from a cervical carcinoma. Determination of nucleotide sequence around the junctions of human papillomavirus and cell DNAs revealed that at the site of integration within cell DNA the cloned viral DNA had a deletion between nucleotides 1284 and 4471 (numbering system from K. Seedorf, G. Kraemmer, M. Duerst, S. Suhai, and W.G. Roewkamp), which includes the greater part of E1 gene and the entire E2 gene. In the remaining part of the E1 gene, three guanines were found at the location where two guanines at nucleotides 1137 and 1138 have been recorded. This additional guanine shifted the reading frame and erased an interruption in the E1 gene. The data strongly suggest that, like other papillomaviruses, human papillomavirus type 16 has an uninterrupted E1 gene.

  16. Anti-Proliferative Effect of Copper Oxide Nanorods Against Human Cervical Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Nagajyothi, P C; Shim, Jaesool; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2016-09-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles have been widely investigated for its use in the pharmacological field. The present study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of copper oxide nanorods in human cervical carcinoma cells. The effect of copper oxide nanorods on cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay. The fluorescence and confocal microscopy analyzes showed the cell rounding and nuclear fragmentation following exposure of copper oxide nanorods. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased and could initiate membrane lipid peroxidation, which in turn regulate cytokinetic movements of cells. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of p53 and caspase 3 was increased, which further confirms the occurrence of apoptosis at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, caspase-3 enzyme activity was increased, which also confirms the occurrence of apoptosis in tumor cells at the translational level. Taking all our experimental results together, it may suggest that the copper oxide nanorods could be a potential anti-tumor agent to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.

  17. Anticancer activity of Moringa oleifera mediated silver nanoparticles on human cervical carcinoma cells by apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Vasanth, Karunamoorthy; Ilango, Kaliappan; MohanKumar, Ramasamy; Agrawal, Aruna; Dubey, Govind Prasad

    2014-05-01

    Silver nanomaterial plays a crucial role in the growing field of nanotechnology as there is an increasing commercial demand for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) owing to their wide biological applications. The present investigation aims at developing anti-cancerous colloidal silver using Moringa olifera stem bark extract. Electron and atomic force microscopic images were taken to analyze the surface morphology of the synthesized AgNPs. The effects of synthesized AgNPs were tested against human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) and cell morphology was further evaluated using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. The efficiency of green synthesized AgNPs was studied with the help of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and was shown to induce apoptosis through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HeLa cells.

  18. Pure Primary Ovarian Squamous Cell Carcinoma Perforating the Rectum

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Aiko; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Tomimatsu, Takuji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Rectal perforation is uncommon in ovarian cancer, even in advanced stages. Pure primary ovarian squamous cell carcinoma is a very rare subtype of ovarian cancer and has not been reported to cause rectal perforation. A 50-year-old woman presented with rectal bleeding. Rectosigmoidoscopy suggested perforation of a pelvic tumor into the rectum. Abdominopelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 9 cm heterogeneous mass in the pouch of Douglas. We performed complete cytoreduction, including an en-bloc resection of the tumor and rectosigmoid colon. Histopathology showed squamous cell carcinoma of the left ovary penetrating the rectal wall. A common symptom of rectal bleeding was caused by a very rare entity of ovarian cancer penetrating the rectal wall, but thorough evaluation led to its accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:28316851

  19. Cervicitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... results from a sexually transmitted infection, such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. Cervicitis can develop from noninfectious causes, ... from common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and genital herpes. Allergic reactions. An allergy, ...

  20. Cervicitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... much growth of normal bacteria in the vagina (bacterial vaginosis) can also cause cervicitis. ... under a microscope (may show candidiasis , trichomoniasis , or bacterial vaginosis) Pap test Tests for gonorrhea or chlamydia Rarely, ...

  1. Results of salvage radiotherapy after inadequate surgery in invasive cervical carcinoma patients: A retrospective analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saibishkumar, Elantholi P. . E-mail: drsaibish@rediffmail.com; Patel, Firuza D.; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Kumar, Vinay; Karunanidhi, Gunaseelan; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of salvage radiotherapy (RT) after inadequate surgery in patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2001, 105 invasive cervical carcinoma patients were treated at our center with external beam RT with or without intracavitary RT after having undergone total/subtotal hysterectomy at outside institutions. Results: The median follow-up was 34 months. The gap between surgery and RT was 23-198 days (median, 80). Clinically visible residual disease was present in 81 patients (77.1%). Total hysterectomy had been done in 82 patients (78%) and subtotal hysterectomy in 23 patients (22%). The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and pelvic control rates of all patients were 55.2%, 53.3%, and 72.4%, respectively. On univariate analysis, older age, total hysterectomy, hemoglobin level >10 g% before RT, nonsquamous histologic type, use of intracavitary RT, a shorter gap between surgery and RT, and the absence of, or a small volume of, residual disease favorably affected the outcome. The 5-year actuarial rate of late toxicity (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Criteria) was 19% in the rectum, 4.8% in the bladder, 24.8% in the skin, and 14.3% in the small intestine. Conclusions: Inadequate and inappropriate surgery in invasive cervical cancer with resulting gross residual disease is common in India. Factors such as the use of intracavitary RT, the correction of anemia, and a shorter gap between surgery and RT will enable postoperative RT to achieve acceptable results with minimal morbidity.

  2. Deletion and translocation of chromosome 11q13 sequences in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Jesudasan, R.A.; Srivatsan, E.S.; Rahman, R.A.; Chandrashekharappa, S.; Evans, G.A.

    1995-03-01

    Molecular genetic studies on HeLa cell-derived nontumorigenic and tumorigenic hybrids have previously localized the HeLa cell tumor-suppressor gene to the long arm of chromosome 11. Extensive molecular and cytogenetic studies on HeLa cells have shown chromosome band 11q13 to be rearranged in this cell line. To determine whether q13 rearrangement is a nonrandom event in cervical carcinomas, six different human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive (HeLa, SiHa, Caski, C4-I, Me180, and Ms751) and two different HPV-negative (C33A and HT3) cell lines were studied. Long-range restriction mapping using a number of q13-specific probes showed molecular arrangements within 75 kb of INT2 probe in three HPV-positive cell lines (HeLa, SiHa, and Caski) and in an HPV-negative cell line (HT3). FISH using an INT2 YAC identified a breakpoint within the sequences spanned by this YAC in two of the cell lines, HeLa and Caski. INT2 cosmid derived from this YAC showed deletion of cosmid sequences in two other cell lines, SiHa and C33A. These two cell lines, however, retained cosmid sequences of Cyclin D1, a probe localized 100 kb proximal to INT2. Deletions being the hallmark of a tumor-suppressor gene, we conclude that the 100-kb interval between the two cosmids might contain sequences of the cervical carcinoma tumor-suppressor gene. 28 refs., 9 figs.

  3. The role of p53 inactivation in human cervical cell carcinoma development.

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, K.; Miyamoto, S.; Kato, H.; Imamura, T.; Nishida, M.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Nagata, Y.; Wake, N.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and p53 gene mutation in 47 primary uterine cervical cancers. HPV DNA sequences were present in 43 cancers (91.5%), and one of these cancers contained a p53 gene mutation. In addition, one of the remaining four HPV-negative cancers also contained a p53 gene mutation. As a result, p53 inactivation corresponded to the development of 44 of the primary uterine cervical cancers studied (93.6%). We obtained both primary and recurrent tumours from four cases. In two of these cases, the HPV genomes that were present in an episomal state in the primary tumours were observed to have disappeared in the recurrent tumours. One of these recurrent tumours also contained a p53 gene mutation, which suggested the possibility that p53 inactivation was required in order to maintain the aggressive behaviour in this cancer either by an HPV infection or by a p53 gene mutation. No MDM2 gene amplification was observed in the tumours that carried neither HPV DNAs nor p53 gene mutations. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7841033

  4. Metabonomic signature analysis of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions in women by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    HASIM, AYSHAMGUL; ALI, MAYINUER; MAMTIMIN, BATUR; MA, JUN-QI; LI, QIAO-ZHI; ABUDULA, ABULIZI

    2012-01-01

    1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics has been used to characterize the metabolic profiles of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to model the systematic variation related to patients with CIN or CSCC with healthy controls. Potential metabolic biomarkers were identified using database comparisons, and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to examine the significance of the metabolites. Compared with plasma obtained from the healthy controls, plasma from patients with CIN had higher levels of very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL), acetone, unsaturated lipid and carnitine, together with lower levels of creatine, lactate, isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamine, histidine, glycine, acetylcysteine, myo-inositol, choline and glycoprotein. Plasma from patients with CSCC had higher levels of acetate and formate, together with lower levels of creatine, lactate, isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamine, histidine and tyrosine compared with the plasma of the healthy controls. In addition, compared with the plasma of patients with CIN, the plasma of CSCC patients had higher levels of acetate, formate, lactate, isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamine, histidine, tyrosine, acetylcysteine, myo-inositol, glycoprotein, α-glucose and β-glucose, together with lower levels of acetone, unsaturated lipid and carnitine. Moreover, the profiles showed high feasibility and specificity by statistical analysis with OPLS-DA compared to the Thinprep cytology test (TCT) by setting the histopathological outcome as standard. The metabolic profile obtained for cervical cancer is significant, even for the precancerous disease. This suggests a systemic metabolic response to cancer, which may be used to identify potential early diagnostic biomarkers of the cancer and to establish

  5. High Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinomas With Lower Vaginal Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Kazumoto, Tomoko Kato, Shingo; Tabushi, Katsuyoshi; Kutsutani-Nakamura, Yuzuru; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Michiko; Shiromizu, Kenji; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: This report presents the clinical applications of an automated treatment-planning program of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for advanced uterine cervical cancer infiltrating the parametrium and the lower vagina. Methods and Materials: We adopted HDR-ICBT under optimized dose distribution for 22 cervical cancer patients with tumor infiltration of the lower half of the vagina. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics clinical stages IIB-IVA. After whole pelvic external beam irradiation with a median dose of 30.6 Gy, a conventional ICBT was applied as 'pear-shaped' isodose curve. Then 3-4 more sessions per week of this new method of ICBT were performed. With a simple determination of the treatment volume, the cervix-parametrium, and the lower vagina were covered automatically and simultaneously by this program, that was designated as 'utero-vaginal brachytherapy'. The mean follow-up period was 87.4 months (range, 51.8-147.9 months). Results: Isodose curve for this program was 'galaxy-shaped'. Five-year local-progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 90.7% and 81.8%, respectively. Among those patients with late complications higher than Grade 2 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer morbidity score, only one (4.5%) developed severe proctitis. Conclusions: Because of the favorable treatment outcomes, this treatment-planning program with a simplified target-volume based dosimetry was proposed for cervical cancer with lower vaginal infiltration.

  6. Cooccurrence of Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Salmonella Induced Neck Abscess in a Cervical Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Myung; Jung, Eun Jung; Song, Eun Jin; Kim, Dong Chul; Jeong, Chi-Young; Ju, Young-Tae; Lee, Young-Joon; Hong, Soon-Chan; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Ha, Woo-Song

    2017-01-01

    Cervical lymph node metastasis is common in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Salmonella species are rarely reported as causative agents in focal infections of the head and neck. The cooccurrence of lymph node metastasis from PTC and a bacterial infection is rare. This report describes a 76-year-old woman with a cervical lymph node metastasis from PTC and Salmonella infection of the same lymph node. The patient presented with painful swelling in her left lateral neck region for 15 days, and neck ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a cystic mass along left levels II–IV. The cystic mass was suspected of being a metastatic lymph node; modified radical neck dissection was performed. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of PTC in the resected node and laboratory examination of the combined abscess cavity confirmed the presence of Salmonella Typhi. Following antibiotic sensitivity testing of the cultured Salmonella Typhi, she was treated with proper antibiotics. Cystic lesions in lymph nodes with metastatic cancer may indicate the presence of cooccurring bacterial infection. Thus, culturing of specimen can be option to make accurate diagnosis and to provide proper postoperative management. PMID:28261270

  7. Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated incompletely with radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Yub; Ryu, Woo Sang; Woo, Sang Uk; Son, Gil Soo; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Jae Bok; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2010-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of malignancy, later referred and treated with robotic surgery successfully. We can learn the following lessons from our case; (1) the RFA for operable primary thyroid malignancy should be avoided, because of the possibility of remnant viable cancer and undetectable nodal metastasis, and (2) robotic or endoscopic thyroid surgery may be a feasible operative method for benign or malignant thyroid nodules previously treated with RFA.

  8. Primary retroperitoneal Merkel cell carcinoma: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz-Sandoval, Osvaldo A.; Cuellar-Hubbe, Mario; Lino-Silva, Leonardo S.; Salcedo-Hernández, Rosa A.; López-Basave, Horacio N.; Padilla-Rosciano, Alejandro E.; León-Takahashi, Alberto M.; Herrera-Gómez, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma that affects elderly patients and typically arises in sun-exposed skin. The disease is very rare and only few cases present with no apparent skin lesion. In the retroperitoneum there are only two cases reported in the literature. Case presentation We report a case of a 54-year-old Mexican male with MCC, which presented as a large retroperitoneal mass. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the transabdominal CT-guided biopsy specimen revealed a MCC. The patient underwent preoperative chemotherapy followed by a laparotomy and the mass was successfully excised. Discussion There are two possible explanations for what occurred in our patient. The most plausible theory is the retroperitoneal mass could be a massively enlarged lymph node where precursor cells became neoplastic. This would be consistent with a presumptive diagnosis of primary nodal disease. Moreover, metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes has been reported as relatively common when compared to other sites such as liver, bone, brain and skin. The less probable theory is the non-described “regression” phenomena of a cutaneous MCC, but we are not found a primary skin lesion. Conclusion Preoperative chemotherapy and excision of the primary tumor is the surgical treatment of choice for retroperitoneal MCC. We propose that further studies are needed to elucidate the true efficacy of chemotherapy in conventional and unconventional patients with MCC. PMID:26708276

  9. The role of interstitial brachytherapy in the management of primary radiation therapy for uterine cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuma; Kato, Tomoyasu; Nakamura, Satoshi; Wakita, Akihisa; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Shima, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Keisuke; Kashihara, Tairo; Harada, Ken; Takahashi, Kana; Umezawa, Rei; Inaba, Koji; Ito, Yoshinori; Igaki, Hiroshi; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to report the clinical results of uterine cervical cancer patients treated by primary radiation therapy including brachytherapy, and investigate the role of interstitial brachytherapy (ISBT). Material and methods All consecutive uterine cervical cancer patients who were treated by primary radiation therapy were reviewed, and those who were treated by ISBT were further investigated for clinical outcomes and related toxicities. Results From December 2008 to October 2014, 209 consecutive uterine cervical cancer patients were treated with primary radiation therapy. Among them, 142 and 42 patients were treated by intracavitary and hybrid brachytherapy, respectively. Twenty-five patients (12%) were treated by high-dose-rate (HDR)-ISBT. Five patients with distant metastasis other than para-aortic lymph node were excluded, and 20 patients consisted of the analysis. Three-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) rate were 44.4%, 38.9%, and 87.8%, respectively. Distant metastasis was the most frequent site of first relapse after HDR-ISBT. One and four patients experienced grade 3 and 2 rectal bleeding, one grade 2 cystitis, and two grade 2 vaginal ulcer. Conclusions Feasibility and favorable local control of interstitial brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer was demonstrated through a single institutional experience with a small number of patients. PMID:27895680

  10. Studying the Physical Function and Quality of Life Before and After Surgery in Patients With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lymphedema; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IB1 Cervical Cancer

  11. The late occurrence of urinary tract damage in patients successfully treated by radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zoubek, J.; McGuire, E.J.; Noll, F.; DeLancey, J.O.

    1989-06-01

    Urinary tract complications apparently resulting from radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix can occur as long as 30 years after cessation of such treatment. Patients generally present with urinary incontinence and often are treated by standard operative methods that usually are unsuccessful. Incontinence is related to bladder fibrosis, urethral nonfunction and vesicovaginal fistuLa formation, and may be accompanied by bilateral ureteral obstruction. Of 11 patients with late complications of radiotherapy 4 had upper tract deterioration, 4 had vesicovaginal fistulas, 5 had an incompetent urethra aNd 9 had a fibrotic, noncompliant areflexive bladder. Treatment was aimed at providing adequate low pressure storage capacity and consisted of augmentation cystoplasty in 5 patients, repair of the fistula in 4 and correction of urethral dysfunction in 5. Women who complain of incontinence and/or irritable bladder symptoms with a history of radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma should be evaluated for fistuLa formation, urethral incompetence, and detrusor areflexia and fibrosis before treatment is done.

  12. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. Initial assessment and follow-up using (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Caballero Gullón, L; Carmona González, E; Martínez Estévez, A; Gómez Camarero, M P; Corral, J J; Borrego Dorado, I

    2017-02-16

    Squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid is an uncommon, very aggressive neoplasm, having a poor prognosis and poor response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Surgery is the initial treatment of choice, although it often presents as a widespread disease at the time of diagnosis, usually with cervical swelling that causes most of the symptoms due to local infiltration or metastasis. Local infiltration from adjacent tumour and metastatic disease needs to be excluded from other primary epidermoid carcinomas, in order to make a correct diagnosis. This also requires the typical cytokeratin pattern seen in histological studies. The case is presented of a 53 year-old man with a medical history of hepatocarcinoma, with a cervical hypermetabolic lesion detected in an (18)F-FDG PET/CT performed to exclude widespread disease. The follow-up of this lesion with this technique and its usefulness is also described.

  13. Tissue transglutaminase mediates the pro-malignant effects of oncostatin M receptor over-expression in cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Caffarel, Maria M; Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; Araujo, Angela M; Bauer, Julien; Scarpini, Cinzia G; Coleman, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Oncostatin M receptor (OSMR) is commonly over-expressed in advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), producing a significantly worse clinical outcome. Cervical SCC cells that over-express OSMR show enhanced responsiveness to the major ligand OSM, which induces multiple pro-malignant effects, including increased cell migration and invasiveness. Here, we show that tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) is an important mediator of the ligand-dependent phenotypic effects of OSMR over-expression in SCC cells. TGM2 expression correlated with disease progression and with OSMR levels in clinical samples of cervical and oral SCC. TGM2 depletion in cervical SCC cells abrogated OSM-induced migration on fibronectin-coated surfaces and invasiveness through extracellular matrix, while ectopic expression of TGM2 increased cell motility and invasiveness. Confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that TGM2 interacted with integrin–α5β1 in the presence of fibronectin in cervical SCC cells, with OSM treatment strengthening the interaction. Importantly, integrin–α5β1 and fibronectin were also over-expressed in cervical and oral SCC, where levels correlated with those of OSMR and TGM2. This combined tissue and in vitro study demonstrates for the first time that stimulation of over-expressed OSMR in cervical SCC cells activates TGM2/integrin-α5β1 interactions and induces pro-malignant changes. We conclude that an OSMR/TGM2/integrin-α5β1/fibronectin pathway is of biological significance in cervical SCC and a candidate for therapeutic targeting. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2013 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:23765377

  14. Coincidence of Inflamed Conjunctival Carcinoma in situ and Primary Pterygium

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Hiroaki; Kase, Satoru; Suzuki, Yasuo; Kase, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Background We report a rare case of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in conjunction with a primary pterygium that exhibited characteristic angiographic and histopathological findings. Case A 78-year-old man presented with a pterygium and a whitish tumor adjacent to the pterygium in his right eye. Indocyanine green angiography displayed that feeder vessels within the primary pterygium spread to the whitish tumor. The tumor and pterygial tissues were surgically removed. Histologically, the resected tissue contained CIS as well as squamous metaplasia. There was a marked inflammatory cell infiltration within the tumor and beneath the epithelium. Topical interferon alfa-2b was given 4 times per day for 2 months. The patient has been well without local recurrence of tumor or distal metastases to 54 follow-up months after surgery. Conclusions Because CIS can occur adjacent to pterygial tissues, long-term follow-up is necessary in patients with pterygia. PMID:28105011

  15. Immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes by various human papillomavirus DNAs corresponds to their association with cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, C.D.; Doniger, J.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Normal human foreskin keratinocytes cotransfected with the neomycin resistance gene and recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) DNAs (types 16, 18, 31, and 33) that have a high or moderate association with cervical malignancy acquired immortality and contained integrated and transcriptionally active viral genomes. Only transcripts from the intact E6 and E7 genes were detected in at least one cell line, suggesting that one or both of these genes are responsible for immortalization. Recombinant HPV DNAs with low or no oncogenic potential for cervical cancer (HPV1a, -5, -6b, and -11) induced small G418-resistant colonies that senesced as did the nontransfected cells. These colonies contained only episomal virus DNA; therefore, integration of HPV sequences is important for immortalization of keratinocytes. This study suggests that the virus-encoded immortalization function contributes to the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.

  16. Advanced primary peritoneal carcinoma: clinicopathological and prognostic factor analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Xiao-ping; Cui, Heng; Shen, Dan-hua; Wei, Li-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors favoring a positive prognosis for advanced primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC). Methods: Twenty-four cases meeting the criteria for PPC were analyzed retrospectively for the clinicopathologic profiles. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expressions of p53, Top2α, Ki-67 and Her-2/neu. Then all these clinicopathological factors and molecular markers were correlated with the prognosis. Results: There were 15 cases of primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma (PPSPC), 6 cases of mixed epithelial carcinoma (MEC) and 3 cases of malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT). All patients underwent cytoreductive surgery with optimal debulking achieved in 3 cases. Among those receiving first-line chemotherapy, 13 patients received the TP regimen (paclitaxel-cisplatin or carboplatin) and 7 patients received the PAC regimen (cisplatin-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide). The median overall survival of all patients was 42 months, while the breakdown for survival time for patients with PPSPC, MMT and MEC was 44, 13 and 19 months, respectively. The expressions of p53, Top2α and Ki-67 were all demonstrated in 11 cases respectively. None showed the expression of Her-2/neu. There were significant differences in the median survival between patients with PPSPC and those with MMMT (44 months vs 13 months, P<0.05), also between patients receiving TP combination and those receiving the PAC regimen (75 months vs 28 months, P<0.05). Another significant difference in the median progression-free survival (PFS) was identified between patients with positive p53 immunostaining and those with negative p53 immunostaining (15 months vs 47 months, P<0.05), whereas age, menopausal status, residual tumor size and the other molecular factors did not significantly impact survival. Conclusion: Patients with PPC should be treated with a comprehensive management plan including appropriate cytoreductive surgery and responsive chemotherapy. Overestimating an

  17. Prognostic impact of the expression of Wnt-signaling proteins in cervical carcinoma FIGO stage I-IV treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mordhorst, Louise Bohr; Ahlin, Cecilia; Sorbe, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Wnt signaling proteins were assessed in patients with primary cervical carcinomas who received chemoradiation. The associations between three Wnt signaling proteins and prognosis were assessed. Specimens from 122 patients with cervical carcinomas (FIGO stage I-IV) were immunohistochemically (IHC) analyzed for β-catenin, APC and axin protein expression. Associations between these Wnt-protein expressions, clinicopathological factors, and clinical outcome data were examined. Positive IHC staining for the β-catenin protein (cell-membranes, cytoplasm and nuclei) was recorded in 88%, 58% and 5%, respectively. There was a strong association between β-catenin staining of the cell-membranes and prediction of recurrences and prognosis (p = 0. 002). Tumors with > 5% of nuclear β-catenin staining were associated with inferior cancer-specific survival (p = 0.048) compared with no staining. The overall recurrence rate was significantly higher in the group with increased nuclear staining (67%) compared with the group with no staining (33%). Nuclear APC staining of high intensity was associated with a significantly worse cancer-specific survival and increased overall recurrence rate compared to tumors with weak staining. Distant recurrences were recorded in 29% of cases with intense staining and in 14% of cases with low staining. The Wnt signaling pathway seems to be of importance in the process of cervical oncogenesis. A predictive and prognostic value was found for β-catenin, where strong cell-membrane staining was favorable, and > 5% positive nuclear staining was associated with poorer cancer-specific survival and overall recurrence rate. Nuclear APC staining intensity was also associated with a less favorable prognosis. PMID:27577083

  18. Characterization of primary pulmonary adenosquamous carcinoma-associated pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jennifer; Holloway, Andrew; Rasotto, Roberta; Bowlt, Kelly

    2016-03-01

    A 10-year-old, female spayed Shih Tzu was presented due to weight loss, increased respiratory effort and lethargy, determined to be secondary to a congenital para-esophageal diaphragmatic defect with partial herniation of the stomach and spleen. Four days following reduction surgery of the displaced abdominal organs thoracic effusion developed. Thoracic fluid evaluation revealed a cell-rich, protein-poor modified transudate with neutrophils, reactive mesothelial cells, and atypical epitheloid cells which occasionally appeared to be keratinizing, consistent with neoplastic exfoliation. Thoracic effusion recurred 2 days later, with similar characteristics as the initial sample. Computed tomography (CT) indicated consolidation and displacement of the right middle and accessory lung lobes. Exploratory thoracic surgery demonstrated a thickened, hyperemic right middle lung lobe, and thickened pericardial diaphragmatic ligament. Histologic evaluation of these tissues identified a primary pulmonary adenosquamous carcinoma with intravascular and pleural invasion. Based on these cytologic, histologic, and clinical findings, we conclude that primary pulmonary carcinomas may involve superficial thoracic structures and exfoliate into a thoracic effusion.

  19. Genomic alterations in cervical carcinoma: Losses of chromosome heterozygosity (LOH) correlated with cytogenetic, HPV, and p53 evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, H.P.; Mullokandov, M.; Khollodilov, N.G.

    1994-09-01

    This study was undertaken to obtain indications of chromosomes likely to carry tumorigenicity suppressor genes the loss of function of which play a role in the origin or progression of cervical carcinomas. PCR and electrophoresis with primers for 73 highly polymorphic microsatellite chromosome markers were used to determine the incidence of LOH of all of the autosomes in 38 cervical carcinomas. According to these criteria 14 of the autosomes are involved in LOH in 24% to 42% of the tumors. This involves chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 16, 18 and 19. Most frequently involved are chromosomes 3 and 6 with LOH in 42% of the tumors. The chromosomes next most frequently involved are 4, 7, 11 and 18, with LOH in 31-32% of cases. Chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 8 and 16 each had LOH in 29% of the tumors; 9 and 13 each in 26%; and 19 in 24% of the tumors. All other autosomes had LOH in 18% or fewer of the tumors. Cytogenetic analyses performed on direct preparations from many of the same tumors agreed well with the molecular LOH assays. Correlation of the information obtained with both of these methods provides considerable insight into the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of these chromosome alterations. Chromosome 3 is the third most frequent chromosome involved in LOH in all types of cancer. In cervical carcinomas the region most frequently involved is 3p13-p25, which is a segment within which suppressors have been implicated in several other types of malignancies. Chromosome 6 on the other hand is rarely involved in other neoplasias and this appears to be unique to cervical carcinomas. Of interest was the finding that many of the HPV-negative tumors had LOH of chromosome 17 and many of these expressed mutant p53. The latter tumors occur in older women and are on the average much more aggressive than the HPV-positive tumors.

  20. SU-E-J-88: The Study of Setup Error Measured by CBCT in Postoperative Radiotherapy for Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Runxiao, L; Aikun, W; Xiaomei, F; Jing, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare two registration methods in the CBCT guided radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma, analyze the setup errors and registration methods, determine the margin required for clinical target volume(CTV) extending to planning target volume(PTV). Methods: Twenty patients with cervical carcinoma were enrolled. All patients were underwent CT simulation in the supine position. Transfering the CT images to the treatment planning system and defining the CTV, PTV and the organs at risk (OAR), then transmit them to the XVI workshop. CBCT scans were performed before radiotherapy and registered to planning CT images according to bone and gray value registration methods. Compared two methods and obtain left-right(X), superior-inferior(Y), anterior-posterior (Z) setup errors, the margin required for CTV to PTV were calculated. Results: Setup errors were unavoidable in postoperative cervical carcinoma irradiation. The setup errors measured by method of bone (systemic ± random) on X(1eft.right),Y(superior.inferior),Z(anterior.posterior) directions were(0.24±3.62),(0.77±5.05) and (0.13±3.89)mm, respectively, the setup errors measured by method of grey (systemic ± random) on X(1eft-right), Y(superior-inferior), Z(anterior-posterior) directions were(0.31±3.93), (0.85±5.16) and (0.21±4.12)mm, respectively.The spatial distributions of setup error was maximum in Y direction. The margins were 4 mm in X axis, 6 mm in Y axis, 4 mm in Z axis respectively.These two registration methods were similar and highly recommended. Conclusion: Both bone and grey registration methods could offer an accurate setup error. The influence of setup errors of a PTV margin would be suggested by 4mm, 4mm and 6mm on X, Y and Z directions for postoperative radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma.

  1. Sensory tricks in primary cervical dystonia depend on visuotactile temporal discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kägi, Georg; Katschnig, Petra; Fiorio, Mirta; Tinazzi, Michele; Ruge, Diane; Rothwell, John; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2013-03-01

    A characteristic feature of primary cervical dystonia is the presence of "sensory tricks" as well as the impairment of temporal and spatial sensory discrimination on formal testing. The aim of the present study was to test whether the amount of improvement of abnormal head deviation due to a sensory trick is associated with different performance of temporal sensory discrimination in patients with cervical dystonia. We recruited 32 patients with cervical dystonia. Dystonia severity was assessed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale. Patients were rated according to clinical improvement to a sensory trick and assigned to 1 of the following groups: (1) no improvement (n = 6), (2) partial improvement (n = 17), (3) complete improvement (n = 9). Temporal discrimination thresholds were assessed for visual, tactile, and visuotactile modalities. Disease duration was shorter (P = .026) and dystonia severity lower (P = .033) in the group with complete improvement to sensory tricks compared with the group with partial improvement to sensory tricks. A significant effect for group and modality and a significant interaction between group × modality were found, with lower visuotactile discrimination thresholds in the group with complete improvement to sensory tricks compared with the other groups. In primary cervical dystonia, a complete resolution of dystonia during a sensory trick is associated with better visuotactile discrimination and shorter disease duration compared with patients with less effective sensory tricks, which may reflect progressive loss of adaptive mechanisms to basal ganglia dysfunction.

  2. Cripto-1-induced increase in vimentin expression is associated with enhanced migration of human Caski cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ebert, A D; Wechselberger, C; Nees, M; Clair, T; Schaller, G; Martinez-Lacaci, I; Wallace-Jones, B; Bianco, C; Weitzel, H K; Salomon, D S

    2000-05-25

    Cripto-1 (CR-1), a member of the EGF-CFC peptide family, plays an essential role during mesoderm formation in vertebrates as well as in cancer development. Using cDNA gene expression array, Western blot, and indirect immunofluorescence, an increase in vimentin expression was demonstrated in CR-1-transfected human Caski cervical carcinoma cells compared to control vector-transfected cells. In parental Caski cells, recombinant CR-1 induced a dose-dependent increase of vimentin protein expression within 24 h. Since vimentin expression has been demonstrated to correlate with a more aggressive phenotype in human cervical cancer, the migration capacity of CR-1-transfected or CR-1-treated Caski cells was studied in the Boyden chamber assay. Compared to the vector-transfected or untreated Caski cells, CR-1-transfected cells or cells treated with recombinant CR-1 exhibit enhanced migration, both through collagen- and through gelatin-coated membranes. Additionally, CR-1 can function as a chemoattractant for Caski cells. These findings are of biological significance since CR-1 is overexpressed in several types of human carcinomas. The present data demonstrate that CR-1 can increase vimentin expression and modulate migration in human cervical carcinoma cells.

  3. Crk-like adapter protein is overexpressed in cervical carcinoma, facilitates proliferation, invasion and chemoresistance, and regulates Src and Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hong; Li, Bo; Zhang, Shitai; He, Zheng; Zhou, Yang; Ouyang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of Crk-like (CrkL) adapter protein has been implicated in a number of types of human cancer. However, its involvement in human cervical carcinoma remains unclear. The present study aimed to explore the clinical significance and biological characteristics of CrkL in human cervical carcinoma. CrkL protein expression was examined in tissue samples from 92 cases of cervical carcinoma using immunohistochemistry, and was found to be overexpressed in 48.9% (45/92 cases). CrkL was transfected into HeLa and CaSki cervical carcinoma cell lines and its effects on biological behavior were examined. CrkL overexpression was revealed to promote cell proliferation, invasion and chemoresistance. In addition, CrkL overexpression increased the level of Src and Akt phosphorylation. Treatment with the Src inhibitor dasatinib eliminated the effect of CrkL on cell invasion. In conclusion, the current results demonstrate that CrkL is an oncoprotein overexpressed in cervical carcinoma which contributes to malignant cell growth and chemoresistance. In addition, the findings indicate that CrkL promotes cervical cancer cell invasion through a Src-dependent pathway. PMID:27895735

  4. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Huh, Warner K; Ault, Kevin A; Chelmow, David; Davey, Diane D; Goulart, Robert A; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kinney, Walter K; Massad, L Stewart; Mayeaux, Edward J; Saslow, Debbie; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lawson, Herschel W; Einstein, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    In 2011, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology updated screening guidelines for the early detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Recommended screening strategies were cytology or cotesting (cytology in combination with high-risk human papillomavirus [hrHPV] testing). These guidelines also addressed the use of hrHPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, which was not recommended for use at that time. There is now a growing body of evidence for screening with primary hrHPV testing, including a prospective U.S.-based registration study. Thirteen experts, including representatives from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Cancer Society, the American Society of Cytopathology, the College of American Pathologists, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology, convened to provide interim guidance for primary hrHPV screening. This guidance panel was specifically triggered by an application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for a currently marketed HPV test to be labeled for the additional indication of primary cervical cancer screening. Guidance was based on literature review and review of data from the FDA registration study, supplemented by expert opinion. This document aims to provide information for health care providers who are interested in primary hrHPV testing and an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this strategy for screening as well as to highlight areas in need of further investigation.

  5. HPV16 E6 regulates annexin 1 (ANXA1) protein expression in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas; Sichero, Laura; Boccardo, Enrique; Villa, Luisa Lina; Rahal, Paula

    2016-09-15

    Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a substrate for E6AP mediated ubiquitylation. It has been hypothesized that HPV 16 E6 protein redirects E6AP away from ANXA1, increasing its stability and possibly contributing to viral pathogenesis. We analyzed ANXA1 expression in HPV-positive and negative cervical carcinoma-derived cells, in cells expressing HPV-16 oncogenes and in cells transduced with shRNA targeting E6AP. We observed that ANXA1 protein expression increased in HPV-16-positive tumor cells, in keratinocytes expressing HPV-16 E6wt (wild-type) or E6/E7 and C33 cells expressing HPV-16 E6wt. ANXA1 protein expression decreased in cells transfected with E6 Dicer-substrate RNAs (DsiRNA) and C33 cells cotransduced with HPV-16 E6wt and E6AP shRNA. Moreover, colony number and proliferation rate decreased in HPV16-positive cells transduced with ANXA1 shRNA. We observed that in cells infected with HPV16, the E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1. We suggest that ANXA1 may play a role in HPV-mediated carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • ANXA1 upregulation requires the presence of E6 and E6AP and is dependent on E6 integrity. • E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1 in cells infected with HPV16. • ANXA1 plays a role in cell proliferation in HPV-positive cervical cells.

  6. Potential impact of mTOR inhibitors on cervical squamous cell carcinoma: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Assad, Daniele Xavier; Elias, Silvia Taveira; Melo, Andréia Cristina; Ferreira, Carlos Gil; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to analyze the potential impact of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors on the treatment of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, PMC, Scopus, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Web of Science, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect on January 19, 2015, without time and language restrictions. Studies that evaluated women of any age with CSCC and who received mTOR inhibitors alone or in association with other treatments were considered. Randomized and non-randomized clinical trials were included, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist was followed. Selected studies were methodologically appraised according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation method to assess the quality of evidence. Of 642 identified citations, 43 studies were fully reviewed; however, only 3 studies met the inclusion criteria and were used for qualitative analysis. Of these, two studies were phase 1 and one was a phase 2 clinical trial. The studies included were not conclusive with regard to the association between mTOR inhibitor treatment and cervical cancer. The main analysis of secondary endpoints revealed that individuals treated with other drugs in association with mTOR inhibitors achieved partial responses (15.4–33.3%) or stable disease (17.6–28%). Treatment with mTOR inhibitors in general was well tolerated in patients with metastatic disease. The predominant toxicities were grade 1 and 2. The phase 1 trials included in this review demonstrated that mTOR inhibitor treatments are feasible and safe. However, the currently available evidence is insufficient to determine the effect of mTOR inhibitors on CSCC, and further investigation in high-quality, randomized clinical trials is required. PMID:27895779

  7. The variability and complexity of ameloblastoma: carcinoma ex ameloblastoma or primary ameloblastic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zitong; Chen, Fei; Wang, Tiemei; Hu, Qingang; Sun, Guowen

    2013-04-01

    Ameloblastoma is characterized by slow-growing, local invasiveness and high incidence of local recurrence. It usually presents with a benign histological appearance. However, ameloblastoma occasionally demonstrates a clinical course that is characteristic of malignant transformation. Here, we present a case of ameloblastoma with an aggressive clinical course, including multiple recurrences, a short disease-free interval, pulmonary metastasis and extensive skull-base infiltration. With a careful re-evaluation of the histology and cytology of the specimens of primary and recurrent ameloblastoma in 2006 and 2007, malignant transformation was observed and carcinoma ex ameloblastoma was ultimately diagnosed.

  8. Girdin expression in cervical carcinoma and its role in the malignant properties of HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Ren, Ya-Li; Li, Jia-Liang; Luo, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality in females worldwide, with the majority of cases reported in developing countries. The molecular mechanisms of this disease are unclear. However, increasing evidence indicates that the expression or overexpression of Girdin is associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of cancer types. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential association between Girdin expression, and malignant properties of cervical cancer lesions and HeLa cells. Girdin protein expression was examined in 87 samples of cervical squamous cell lesions, including intraepithelial neoplasia (grades I and III) and invasive carcinoma, using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. A short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) approach was employed to specifically suppress the expression of Girdin mRNA in HeLa cells in vitro, allowing the role of Girdin in a number of malignant properties to be evaluated. Girdin protein was observed in the cytoplasm of 79/87 (90.8%) cervical cancer lesion specimens. However, no positive Girdin signals were identified in healthy cervical squamous epithelium samples. Furthermore, a significant correlation between Girdin expression and lesion grade was identified (Spearman's correlation coefficient, 0.566; P<0.001). When Girdin was suppressed by Girdin shRNA, the rate of HeLa cell growth was significantly reduced in vitro (P<0.05). Additional analysis determined that Girdin was associated with serum-deprived induced HeLa apoptosis. Thus, patients with high-grade cervical cancer tumors exhibited a strong expression for Girdin, and Girdin appears to key in HeLa cell proliferation and serum-deprived induced apoptosis, supporting the hypothesis that Girdin may be important in the process of cervical carcinogenesis.

  9. BRCA1 mutations in primary breast and ovarian carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Futreal, P.A.; Cochran, C.; Bennett, L.M.; Haugen-Strano, A.; Terry, L.; Barrett, J.C.; Wiseman, R.; Liu, Q.; Shattuck-Eidens, D.; Harshman, K.

    1994-10-07

    Loss of heterozygosity data from familial tumors suggested that BRCA1, a gene that confers susceptibility to ovarian and early-onset breast cancer, encodes a tumor suppressor. The BRCA1 region is also subject to allelic loss in sporadic breast and ovarian cancers, an indication that BRCA1 mutations may occur somatically in these tumors. The BRCA1 coding region was examined for mutations in primary breast and ovarian tumors that show allele loss at the BRCA1 locus. Mutations were detected in 3 of 32 breast and 1 of 12 ovarian carcinomas; all four mutations were germline alterations and occurred in early-onset cancers. These results suggest that mutation of BRCA1 may not be critical in the development of the majority of breast and ovarian cancers that arise in the absence of a mutant germline allele.

  10. Hepatitis B virus infection and primary hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Feitelson, M

    1992-01-01

    For many years, epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC). Other hepatocarcinogens such as hepatitis C virus and aflatoxin also contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis either in conjunction with HBV infection or alone. Cellular and molecular biological studies are providing explanations for the HBV-PHC relationship, and models are now being formulated to further test the relative importance of various factors such as viral DNA integration, activation of oncogenes, genetic instability, loss of tumor suppressor genes, and trans-activating properties of HBV to the pathogenesis of PHC. Further research will probably define more than a single mechanism whereby chronic HBV infection results in PHC. PMID:1323384

  11. Primary carcinoma of the ureter: a prognostic study.

    PubMed

    Batata, M A; Whitmore, W F; Hilaris, B S; Tokita, N; Grabstald, H

    1975-06-01

    Fourty-one patients with primary invasive carcinomas of the ureter were seen at Memorial Hospital from 1947 to 1972. Overall survuval patterns were similiar in 19 patients with and 22 patients without prior or concomitant urothelial cancers elsewhere in the urinary tract, with 5-year survival rates, as estimated by the product-limit methos, of41% for both groups. Prognosis was determined primarily by anatomical stage of ureteral cancer. In 11 Stage A (submucosal) patients, 7 Stage B (muscular), 12 Stage C (periureteric fat), and 9Stage D (extraureteral), the similarly estimated 5-year survival rates were 91%, 43%, 23%, and nil, respectively. None of Stage A cases had metastases for periods ranging from 5 to 11 years after surgery alone. Seventy-eight percent of patients with more advanced stages died within 3 years of treatment, withmetastases mainly in pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes.

  12. Differential targets of CpG island hypermethylation in primary and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)

    PubMed Central

    Smiraglia, D; Smith, L; Lang, J; Rush, L; Dai, Z; Schuller, D; Plass, C

    2003-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) often metastasise to the cervical lymph nodes. It is known for HNSCC as well as other cancers that progression from normal tissue to primary tumour and finally to metastatic tumour is characterised by an accumulation of genetic mutations. DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification, can result in loss of gene function in cancer, similar to genetic mutations such as deletions and point mutations. We have investigated the DNA methylation phenotypes of both primary HNSCC and metastatic tumours from 13 patients using restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS). With this technique, we were able to assess the methylation status of an average of nearly 1300 CpG islands for each tumour. We observed that the number of CpG islands hypermethylated in metastatic tumours is significantly greater than what is found in the primary tumours overall, but not in every patient. Interestingly, the data also clearly show that many loci methylated in a patient's primary tumour are no longer methylated in the metastatic tumour of the same patient. Thus, even though metastatic HNSCC methylate a greater proportion of CpG islands than do the primary tumours, they do so at different subsets of loci. These data show an unanticipated variability in the methylation state of loci in primary and metastatic HNSCCs within the same patient. We discuss two possible explanations for how different epigenetic events might arise between the primary tumour and the metastatic tumour of a person. PMID:12525538

  13. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in primary and metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Joachims, Zohar; Feinmesser, Raphael; Purim, Ofer; Halpern, Marisa; Brenner, Baruch; Fenig, Eyal; Roizman, Pepi; Sulkes, Jaqueline; Feinmesser, Meora

    2008-10-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in the development and progression of many tumors, and its inhibition has been shown to block tumor growth. This study examined COX-2 expression in primary and metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 26 primary MCCs and 7 lymph node metastases were stained immunohistochemically with a monoclonal antibody directed against COX-2, and the percentage and intensity of staining were analyzed semiquantitatively. Immunopositivity for COX-2 was found in 20 primary tumors (77%), and was diffuse in 16 of them (80%). Staining intensity was strong in 5 tumors (19%), moderate in 6 (23%), and weak in 9 (35%). Five metastases (71%) showed similar staining. Prominent mitotic activity was associated with more diffuse COX-2 immunopositivity. No association was found between COX-2 expression and outcome. This study confirms that most MCCs express COX-2 and shows that COX-2 expression is related to one parameter of aggressive behavior--a high mitotic rate--but not to any others. The possibility of treating MCC with COX-2 inhibitors should be considered.

  14. Are primary renal cell carcinoma and metastases of renal cell carcinoma the same cancer?

    PubMed

    Semeniuk-Wojtaś, Aleksandra; Stec, Rafał; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-05-01

    Metastasis is a process consisting of cells spreading from the primary site of the cancer to distant parts of the body. Our understanding of this spread is limited and molecular mechanisms causing particular characteristics of metastasis are still unknown. There is some evidence that primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and metastases of RCC exhibit molecular differences that may effect on the biological characteristics of the tumor. Some authors have detected differences in clear cell and nonclear cell component between these 2 groups of tumors. Investigators have also determined that primary RCC and metastases of RCC diverge in their range of renal-specific markers and other protein expression, gene expression pattern, and microRNA expression. There are also certain proteins that are variously expressed in primary RCCs and their metastases and have effect on clinical outcome, e.g., endothelin receptor type B, phos-S6, and CD44. However, further studies are needed on large cohorts of patients to identify differences representing promising targets for prognostic purposes predicting disease-free survival and the metastatic burden of a patient as well as their suitability as potential therapeutic targets. To sum up, in this review we have attempted to summarize studies connected with differences between primary RCC and its metastases and their influence on the biological characteristics of renal cancer.

  15. Inflammatory Cell Distribution in Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, Rachel; Roberts, Claudia; Waterboer, Tim; Steele, Jane; Marsden, Jerry; Steven, Neil M.; Blackbourn, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma associated with older age, immunodeficiency and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrated within malignant cells. The presence of intra-tumoural CD8+ lymphocytes reportedly predicts better MCC-specific survival. In this study, the distribution of inflammatory cells and properties of CD8+ T lymphocytes within 20 primary MCC specimens were characterised using immunohistochemistry and multicolour immunofluorescent staining coupled to confocal microscopy. CD8+ cells and CD68+ macrophages were identified in 19/20 primary MCC. CD20+ B cells were present in 5/10, CD4+ cells in 10/10 and FoxP3+ cells in 7/10 specimens. Only two specimens had almost no inflammatory cells. Within specimens, inflammatory cells followed the same patchy distribution, focused at the edge of sheets and nodules and, in some cases, more intense in trabecular areas. CD8+ cells were outside vessels on the edge of tumour. Those few within malignant sheets typically lined up in fine septa not contacting MCC cells expressing MCPyV large T antigen. The homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was expressed outside malignant nodules whereas its receptor CXCR4 was identified within tumour but not on CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells lacked CXCR3 and granzyme B expression irrespective of location within stroma versus malignant nodules or of the intensity of the intra-tumoural infiltrate. In summary, diverse inflammatory cells were organised around the margin of malignant deposits suggesting response to aberrant signaling, but were unable to penetrate the tumour microenvironment itself to enable an immune response against malignant cells or their polyomavirus. PMID:24961933

  16. Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Villeneuve, Hugo; Despres, Philippe; Fortin, Bernard; Filion, Edith; Donath, David; Soulieres, Denis; Guertin, Louis; Ayad, Tarek; Christopoulos, Apostolos; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the effectiveness and rate of complications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Between February 2005 and November 2008, 25 patients with an unknown primary cancer underwent IMRT, with a median radiation dose of 70 Gy. The bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa were included in the target volume. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma, except for 1 patient who had adenosquamous differentiation. They were all treated with curative intent. Of the 25 included patients, 20 were men and 5 were women, with a median age of 54 years. Of these patients, 3 had Stage III, 18 had Stage IVa, and 4 had Stage IVb. Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) received platinum-based chemotherapy in a combined-modality setting. Neck dissection was reserved for residual disease after definitive IMRT. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: With a median follow-up of 38 months, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control rates were all 100% at 3 years. No occurrence of primary cancer was observed during the follow-up period. The reported rates of xerostomia reduced with the interval from the completion of treatment. Nine patients (36%) reported Grade 2 or greater xerostomia at 6 months, and only 2 (8%) of them reported the same grade of salivary function toxicity after 24 months of follow-up. Conclusion: In our institution, IMRT for unknown primary cancer has provided good overall and disease-free survival in all the patients with an acceptable rate of complications. IMRT allowed us to address the bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa with minimal late salivary function toxicity. The use of concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for more advanced disease led to good clinical results with reasonable toxicities.

  17. [Intradural and cervical primary malignant melanoma. Case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Mlaiki, A; Ksira, I; Ladib, M; Guesmi, H; Krifa, H

    2004-03-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system is an uncommon localization, first reported by Hirsberg in 1906. Since then, to our knowledge, only 39 cases have been reported in the literature. We present a case of primary intradural extra-medullary melanoma which developed in a 51-Year-old man who complained of pain in the lower cervical spine, difficulties in micturition and sexual impotence. The diagnosis was suspected at the MRI which showed a lesion with a paramagnetic signal and was confirmed by the histological examination. The resection was complete and the course has been satisfactory after 19 months follow-up.

  18. Diazene JK-279 induces apoptosis-like cell death in human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jakopec, S; Dubravcic, K; Polanc, S; Kosmrlj, J; Osmak, M

    2006-03-01

    Diazene N-phenyl-2-(2-pyridinyl)diazenecarboxamide (JK-279) is a newly synthesized compound, cytotoxic for several tumor cell lines and their drug-resistant sublines. In human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa), this compound reduced intracellular glutathione content and increased sensitivity to cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effect of diazene JK-279 on HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT method. Flow cytometry analysis showed that diazene JK-279 induces G(2)/M phase arrest, mediated by the increase in p21 expression, and accompanied by an alteration in the expression of survivin. The highest concentration of JK-279 altered nuclear morphology in intact cells, showing "apoptosis-like" features. No cleavage of procaspase-3, procaspase-9 and PARP, or altered expression of apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bax were detected. At the same time, PS externalization and internucleosomal DNA cleavage were observed. Partial necrosis was detected as well. Our results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of diazene JK-279 is mostly the consequence of caspase-independent cell death, which is in some aspects "apoptosis-like". Taking into account the multiplicity of mechanisms used by cancer cells to prevent apoptosis, the drugs (like diazene JK-279) that would activate alternative cell death pathways could provide a useful tool for new types of cancer therapy.

  19. Chromoendoscopy to detect early synchronous second primary esophageal carcinoma in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck?

    PubMed

    Komínek, Pavel; Vítek, Petr; Urban, Ondřej; Zeleník, Karol; Halamka, Magdaléna; Feltl, David; Cvek, Jakub; Matoušek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the use of flexible esophagoscopy and chromoendoscopy with Lugol's solution in the detection of early esophageal carcinomas (second primary carcinomas) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). Methods. All patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC underwent office-based Lugol's chromoendoscopy. After flexible esophagoscopy with white light, 3.0% Lugol's iodine solution was sprayed over the entire esophageal mucosa. Areas with less-intense staining (LVLs) were evaluated and biopsies taken. Results. 132 patients with HNSCC were enrolled in this study. The most frequent primary tumors were oropharyngeal (49/132), tumors of the oral cavity (36/132), and larynx (35/132). The majority of subjects (107/132 patients, 81.1%) had advanced HNSCC carcinomas (stages III and IV). Multiple LVLs were discovered in 24 subjects (18.2%) and no LVLs in 108 (81.8%) subjects. Fifty-five LVL biopsy specimens were obtained and assessed. Squamous cell carcinomas were detected in two patients, peptic esophagitis in 11 patients, gastric heterotopic mucosa in two patients, hyperplasia in two patients, and low- and high-grade dysplasia in three patients. Conclusion. Although only two patients with synchronous primary carcinomas were found among the patients, esophagoscopy should be recommended after detection of HNSCC to exclude secondary esophageal carcinoma or dysplasia.

  20. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  1. Co-expression of CD147 and GLUT-1 indicates radiation resistance and poor prognosis in cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-Qiong; Chen, Xiang; Xie, Xiao-Xue; Zhou, Qin; Li, Kai; Li, Shan; Shen, Liang-Fang; Su, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CD147 and GLUT-1, which play important roles in glycolysis in response to radiotherapy and clinical outcomes in patients with locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma (LACSCC). The records of 132 female patients who received primary radiation therapy to treat LACSCC at FIGO stages IB-IVA were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-seven patients with PFS (progression-free survival) of less than 36 months were regarded as radiation-resistant. Eighty-five patients with PFS longer than 36 months were regarded as radiation-sensitive. Using pretreatment paraffin-embedded tissues, we evaluated CD147 and GLUT-1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Overexpression of CD147, GLUT-1, and CD147 and GLUT-1 combined were 44.7%, 52.9% and 36.5%, respectively, in the radiation-sensitive group, and 91.5%, 89.4% and 83.0%, respectively, in the radiation-resistant group. The 5-year progress free survival (PFS) rates in the CD147-low, CD147-high, GLUT-1-low, GLUT-1-high, CD147- and/or GLUT-1-low and CD147- and GLUT-1- dual high expression groups were 66.79%, 87.10%, 52.78%, 85.82%, 55.94%, 82.90% and 50.82%, respectively. CD147 and GLUT-1 co-expression, FIGO stage and tumor diameter were independent poor prognostic factors for patients with LACSCC in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Patients with high expression of CD147 alone, GLUT-1 alone or co-expression of CD147 and GLUT-1 showed greater resistance to radiotherapy and a shorter PFS than those with low expression. In particular, co-expression of CD147 and GLUT-1 can be considered as a negative independent prognostic factor.

  2. Combination of external beam radiotherapy and Californium (Cf)-252 neutron intracavity brachytherapy is more effective in control of cervical squamous cell carcinoma than that of cervical adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yanli; Liu, Jia; Chen, Shu; Zhou, Qian; Xu, Wenjing; Tang, Chen; Chen, Yonghong; Yang, Mei; Lei, Xin

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of combined external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and Californium (Cf)-252 neutron intracavity brachytherapy (ICBT) on cervical squamous versus adenocarcinoma. A total of 106 patients with stage IB-IIIB cervical cancer were accrued between January 2005 and May 2011 and divided into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) as a pair with 53 patients in each group according to tumor size, stage, age, and hemoglobin level using matched-pair design. The whole pelvic EBRT was performed with 2 Gy/fraction, 4 fractions/week. The total dose was 48-54 Gy (the center of whole pelvic field was blocked by 4 cm in width after 20-36 Gy). Cf-252 neutron ICBT was delivered with 11 and 12 Gy-eq/f with the total dose at point A of 44 and 48 Gy-eq for SCC and AC patients, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 43 months. The 5-year LC, OS, DFS, LAC rates, and mean survival time were 66.0, 56.6, 52.8.0, 17.0%, and 76.4 ± 6.2 months, respectively, for AC patients, whereas they were 81.1, 69.8, 67.9, 11.3%, and 93.3 ± 4.3 months, respectively, for SCC patients. Furthermore, the early treatment toxicity was mild in both groups, the late treatment complications were mainly radiation-induced proctitis and cystitis, and there were no grade 3 or higher complications. Although the combination of Cf-252 neutron ICBT and EBRT was effective in both histology types of cervical cancer, a more aggressive strategy is needed to control cervical AC.

  3. Synergistic combination of valproic acid and oncolytic parvovirus H-1PV as a potential therapy against cervical and pancreatic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Li, Junwei; Bonifati, Serena; Hristov, Georgi; Marttila, Tiina; Valmary-Degano, Séverine; Stanzel, Sven; Schnölzer, Martina; Mougin, Christiane; Aprahamian, Marc; Grekova, Svitlana P; Raykov, Zahari; Rommelaere, Jean; Marchini, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    The rat parvovirus H-1PV has oncolytic and tumour-suppressive properties potentially exploitable in cancer therapy. This possibility is being explored and results are encouraging, but it is necessary to improve the oncotoxicity of the virus. Here we show that this can be achieved by co-treating cancer cells with H-1PV and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) such as valproic acid (VPA). We demonstrate that these agents act synergistically to kill a range of human cervical carcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines by inducing oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis. Strikingly, in rat and mouse xenograft models, H-1PV/VPA co-treatment strongly inhibits tumour growth promoting complete tumour remission in all co-treated animals. At the molecular level, we found acetylation of the parvovirus nonstructural protein NS1 at residues K85 and K257 to modulate NS1-mediated transcription and cytotoxicity, both of which are enhanced by VPA treatment. These results warrant clinical evaluation of H-1PV/VPA co-treatment against cervical and pancreatic ductal carcinomas.

  4. Primary seminal vesicle carcinoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of four cases.

    PubMed

    Ormsby, A H; Haskell, R; Jones, D; Goldblum, J R

    2000-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is an extremely rare neoplasm. Because prompt diagnosis and treatment are associated with improved long-term survival, accurate recognition of this neoplasm is important, particularly when evaluating limited biopsy material. Immunohistochemistry can be used to rule out neoplasms that commonly invade the seminal vesicles, such as prostatic adenocarcinoma. Previous reports have shown that seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma (SVCA) is negative for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PAP); however, little else is known of its immunophenotype. Consequently, we evaluated the utility of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) and cytokeratin (CK) subsets 7 and 20 for distinguishing SVCA from other neoplasms that enter the differential diagnosis. Four cases of SVCA-three cases of bladder adenocarcinoma and a rare case of adenocarcinoma arising in a mullerian duct cyst-were immunostained for CA-125, CK7, and CK20. Three of four cases of SVCA were CA-125 positive and CK7 positive. All four cases were CK20 negative. All bladder adenocarcinomas and the mullerian duct cyst adenocarcinoma were CK7 positive and negative for CA-125 and CK20. In addition, CA-125 immunostaining was performed in neoplasms that commonly invade the seminal vesicles, including prostatic adenocarcinoma (n = 40), bladder transitional cell carcinoma (n = 32), and rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 10), and all were negative for this antigen. In conclusion, the present study has shown that the CK7-positive, CK20-negative, CA-125-positive, PSA/PAP-negative immunophenotype of papillary SVCA is unique and can be used in conjunction with histomorphology to distinguish it from other tumors that enter the differential diagnosis, including prostatic adenocarcinoma (CA-125 negative, PSA/PAP positive), bladder transitional cell carcinoma (CK20 positive, CA-125 negative), rectal adenocarcinoma (CA-125 negative, CK7 negative, CK20 positive), bladder

  5. Cell survival curve for primary hepatic carcinoma cells and relationship between SF2 of hepatic carcinoma cells and radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Zhong; Huang, Wen-Ying; Lin, Ju-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Sheng; Lan, Xiao; Cai, Xiao-Kun; Liang, Kuo-Huan; Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish the cell survival curve for primary hepatic carcinoma cells and to study the relationship between SF2 of primary hepatic carcinoma cells and radiosensitivity. METHODS: Hepatic carcinoma cells were cultured in vitro using 39 samples of hepatic carcinoma at stages II-IV. Twenty-nine samples were cultured successfully in the fifth generation cells. After these cells were radiated with different dosages, the cell survival ratio and SF2 were calculated by clonogenic assay and SF2 model respectively. The relationship between SF2 and the clinical pathological feature was analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-nine of thirty-nine samples were successfully cultured. After X-ray radiation of the fifth generation cells with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Gy, the cell survival rate was 41%, 36.5%, 31.0%, 26.8%, and 19%, respectively. There was a negative correlation between cell survival and irradiation dosage (r = -0.973, P<0.05). SF2 ranged 0.28-0.78 and correlated with the clinical stage and pathological grade of hepatic carcinoma (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between SF2 and D0.5 (r = 0.773, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: SF2 correlates with the clinical stage and pathological grade of hepatic carcinoma and is a marker for predicting the radiosensitivity of hepatic carcinomas. PMID:16437614

  6. Clinical Effect of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Patients With Cervical Cancer Undergoing Primary Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chun-Chieh; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Huang, Huei-Jean; Chao, Angel; Chang, Chee-Jen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Hong, Ji-Hong

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of the human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in cervical cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: A total of 1,010 patients with cervical cancer after radiotherapy between 1993 and 2000 were eligible for this study. The HPV genotypes were determined by a genechip, which detects 38 types of HPV. The patient characteristics and treatment outcomes were analyzed using the Cox regression hazard model and classification and regression tree decision tree method. Results: A total of 25 genotypes of HPV were detected in 992 specimens (98.2%). The leading 8 types were HPV16, 58, 18, 33, 52, 39, 31, and 45. These types belong to two high-risk HPV species: alpha-7 (HPV18, 39, 45) and alpha-9 (HPV16, 31, 33, 52, 58). Three HPV-based risk groups, which were independent of established prognostic factors, such as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, age, pathologic features, squamous cell carcinoma antigen, and lymph node metastasis, were associated with the survival outcomes. The high-risk group consisted of the patients without HPV infection or the ones infected with the alpha-7 species only. Patients co-infected with the alpha-7 and alpha-9 species belonged to the medium-risk group, and the others were included in the low-risk group. Conclusion: The results of the present study have confirmed the prognostic value of HPV genotypes in cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy. The different effect of the alpha-7 and alpha-9 species on the radiation response deserves additional exploration.

  7. Kidney-Sparing Methods for Extended-Field Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) in Cervical Carcinoma Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kunogi, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Nanae; Terao, Yasuhisa; Sasai, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Coplanar extended-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (EF-IMRT) targeting the whole-pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes in patients with advanced cervical cancer results in impaired creatinine clearance. An improvement in renal function cannot be expected unless low-dose (approximately 10 Gy) kidney exposure is reduced. The dosimetric method should be considered during EF-IMRT planning to further reduce low-dose exposure to the kidneys. To assess the usefulness of non-coplanar EF-IMRT with kidney-avoiding beams to spare the kidneys during cervical carcinoma treatment in dosimetric analysis between non-coplanar and coplanar EF-IMRT, we compared the doses of the target organ and organs at risk, including the kidney, in 10 consecutive patients. To estimate the influence of EFRT on renal dysfunction, creatinine clearance values after treatment were also examined in 18 consecutive patients. Of these 18 patients, 10 patients who were included in the dosimetric analysis underwent extended field radiation therapy (EFRT) with concurrent chemotherapy, and eight patients underwent whole-pelvis radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy to treat cervical carcinoma between April 2012 and March 2015 at our institution. In the dosimetric analysis, non-coplanar EF-IMRT was effective at reducing low-dose (approximately 10 Gy) exposure to the kidneys, thus maintaining target coverage and sparing other organs at risk, such as the small bowel, rectum, and bladder, compared with coplanar EF-IMRT. Renal function in all 10 patients who underwent EFRT, including coplanar EF-IMRT (with kidney irradiation), was low after treatment, and differed significantly from that of the eight patients who underwent WPRT (no kidney irradiation) 6 months after the first day of treatment (P = 0.005). In conclusion, non-coplanar EF-IMRT should be considered in patients with advanced cervical cancer, particularly in patients with a long life expectancy or with pre-existing renal dysfunction. PMID

  8. The clinical impact of p16 status in fine-needle aspirates of cervical lymph node metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Jakscha, Jens; Zlobec, Inti; Storck, Claudio; Obermann, Ellen C; Tornillo, Luigi; Terracciano, Luigi M; Fischer, Claude A

    2013-02-01

    Lymph node involvement is prognostically the most determinant clinical factor for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Ultrasound of the neck and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is one of the first diagnostic procedures and the most accurate diagnostic staging tool for the neck. Patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas (OPSCC) show a significantly better prognosis when compared with HPV-negative OPSCC. P16 overexpression is accepted as surrogate marker for HPV-positive in OPSCC. These HPV/p16-positive OPSCC are localized either in the palatal tonsils or the base of tongue and frequently present with lymph node metastases. We analyzed the correlation and reliability of p16 expression of the FNA of the lymph node metastasis with the immunohistochemical expression of p16 of the same lymph node metastasis and its corresponding primary tumor, as it could be of importance for determining the localization and different prognosis of the primary tumor. 54 HNSCC patients were evaluated, p16 expression of the primary tumors and their lymph node metastases correlated precisely. In 25 of the 54 HNSCC patients, a FNA of the lymph node metastases was taken before the treatment. The positive cytological and immunohistochemical p16 staining correlated exactly. Of the 17 histologically p16-negative lymph node metastases 15 FNA were p16-negative, whereas two samples were p16-positive. In our view, a cytological p16 analysis of cervical lymph node metastasis can facilitate the correct localization of the primary tumor and discriminate reliably HPV-positive OPSCC from HPV-negative HNSCC with their significantly diverse prognosis.

  9. Profiling protein markers associated with the sensitivity to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in human cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Pei, Hai-ping; Zeng, Shan; Chen, Jia; Shen, Liang-fang; Zhong, Mei-zuo; Yao, Ruo-jing; Shen, Hong

    2009-08-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is recently recommended as the primary and standard treatment modality for cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the protein biomarkers associated with CCRT sensitivity, so as to better understand the mechanisms underlying CCRT resistance. Fresh tumor tissues from five cases for each group of CCRT-highly sensitive (CCRT-HS) and CCRT-lowly sensitive (CCRT-LS) were analyzed by 2-D electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS, followed by Western blot for four candidate proteins including S100A9, galectin-7, nuclear matrix protein-238 (NMP-238), and heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70). In randomly selected CCRT-HS (n = 60) and CCRT-LS (n = 35) cases, these four differentially expressed proteins were detected by tissue microarray with immunohistochemistry staining to explore the association between these interested proteins and CCRT sensitivity. Nineteen proteins differentially expressed more than four times between two groups were identified. An association was revealed between CCRT sensitivity and increased S100A9 and galectin-7, but decreased NMP-238 and HSP-70 expression (p < 0.001, respectively). Although none of these four protein markers could be used as an independent predictive factor, a recurrence prediction model was generated by combining S100A9, galectin-7, NMP-238, and HSP-70 as a full predictive factor. The proteomic analysis combined with tissue microarray provides us a dramatic tool in predicting CCRT response. The increased expression of S100A9 and galectin-7, but decreased expression of NMP-238 and HSP-70, suggests a significantly increased sensitivity to CCRT in cervical cancer.

  10. Regulator role of HPV E7 protein on miR-21 expression in cervical carcinoma cells and its functional implication

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qingqin; Wang, Wenfeng; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading malignant tumor in women. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is one risk factor for cervical cancer, with its expressed E7 protein can facilitate the transformation of cervical epithelial cells. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is one important tumor growth regulatory factor involving in angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. This study thus aimed to investigate the role of high-risk HPV16 E7 protein in regulating miR-21 expression in cervical carcinoma and its related functions. Hela cells were transfected with pcDNA-HPV16 E7 expressing vectors. The expression level of E7 was determined by Western blotting, while miR-21 level was quantified by real-time PCR. The alternation of tumor cell proliferation is determined by transfecting miR-21 inhibitor into E7-overexpressing Hela cells. Cell apoptosis was studied by caspase-3 assay, while cell invasion was illustrated in Transwell chamber. The overexpression of HPV E7 protein facilitated the expression of miR-21, which potentiated Hela cell proliferation and invasion. The inhibition of miR-21 in E7-overexpressin Hela cells can inhibit both proliferation and invasion, but without significant effects on caspase-3 activity. HPV16 E7 protein can up-regulate host miR-21 expression, thus elevating cervical carcinoma cell growth, proliferation and invasion. Therefore, E7 protein is one critical factor in occurrence and progression of cervical carcinoma. PMID:26884851

  11. Megavoltage computed tomography image-based low-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy planning for cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Thomas H; Langen, Katja M; Meeks, Sanford L; Willoughby, Twyla R; Zeidan, Omar A; Staton, Robert J; Shah, Amish P; Manon, Rafael R; Kupelian, Patrick A

    2009-04-01

    Initial results of megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) brachytherapy treatment planning are presented, using a commercially available helical tomotherapy treatment unit and standard low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy applicators used for treatment of cervical carcinoma. The accuracy of MVCT imaging techniques, and dosimetric accuracy of the CT based plans were tested with in-house and commercially-available phantoms. Three dimensional (3D) dose distributions were computed and compared to the two dimensional (2D) dosimetry results. Minimal doses received by the 2 cm3 of bladder and rectum receiving the highest doses (D(B2cc) and D(R2cc), respectively) were computed from dose-volume histograms and compared to the doses computed for the standard ICRU bladder and rectal reference dose points. Phantom test objects in MVCT image sets were localized with sub-millimetric accuracy, and the accuracy of the MVCT-based dose calculation was verified. Fifteen brachytherapy insertions were also analyzed. The ICRU rectal point dose did not differ significantly from D(R2cc) (p=0.749, mean difference was 24 cGy +/- 283 cGy). The ICRU bladder point dose was significantly lower than the D(B2cc) (p=0.024, mean difference was 291 cGy +/- 444 cGy). The median volumes of bladder and rectum receiving at least the corresponding ICRU reference point dose were 6.1 cm(3) and 2.0 cm(3), respectively. Our initial experience in using MVCT imaging for clinical LDR gynecological brachytherapy indicates that the MVCT images are of sufficient quality for use in 3D, MVCT-based dose planning.

  12. Induction of apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma Hela cells with active components of Menispermum dauricum.

    PubMed

    Wang, J Y; Sun, S; Liu, L; Yang, W S

    2014-02-13

    Menispermum dauricum DC possesses a wide range of pharmacological effects. In this study, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by active components of M. dauricum was investigated in the human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line. HeLa cells were treated with different M. dauricum concentrations over different time periods. The proliferation-inhibitory rate and cytotoxic effect of HeLa cells were measured by using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the apoptotic rate was detected by flow cytometry. Expressions of caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Fas proteins, in the apoptotic pathway, and the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were detected by SP immunocytochemistry. The MTT assay showed that active components of M. dauricum could significantly inhibit the growth of HeLa cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.01). The Sub-Gl peak was found by flow cytometry, and the maximal apoptosis rate was 24.93%. Immunocytochemistry showed that after treatment with M. dauricum, the expressions of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, Fas protein, and NF-κB all increased, and the expression of the Bcl-2 protein decreased, with significant differences relative to the control group (P<0.01). Apoptosis in HeLa cells could be induced by active components of M. dauricum through the NF-κB signal transduction pathway and the caspase pathway, which was related to the downregulation of Bcl-2 expression and the upregulation of Fas expression.

  13. Primary human papillomavirus DNA screening for cervical cancer prevention: Can the screening interval be safely extended?

    PubMed

    Vink, Margaretha A; Bogaards, Johannes A; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berkhof, Johannes

    2015-07-15

    Cytological screening has substantially decreased the cervical cancer incidence, but even better protection may be achieved by primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) screening. In the Netherlands, five-yearly cytological screening for women aged 30-60 years will be replaced by primary hrHPV screening in 2016. The new screening guidelines involve an extension of the screening interval from 5 to 10 years for hrHPV-negative women aged 40 or 50 years. We investigated the impact of this program change on the lifetime cancer risks in women without an hrHPV infection at age 30, 35, 40, 45 or 50 years. The time to cancer was estimated using 14-year follow-up data from a population-based screening intervention trial and the nationwide database of histopathology reports. The new screening guidelines are expected to lead to a reduced cervical cancer risk for all age groups. The average risk reduction was 34% and was smallest (25%) among women aged 35 years. The impact of hrHPV screening on the cancer risk was sensitive to the duration from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3) to cancer; a small increase in the cancer risk was estimated for women aged 35 or 40 years in case a substantial proportion of CIN2/3 showed fast progression to cancer. Our results indicate that primary hrHPV screening with a ten-yearly interval for hrHPV-negative women of age 40 and beyond will lead to a further reduction in lifetime cancer risk compared to five-yearly cytology, provided that precancerous lesions progress slowly to cancer.

  14. Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Breast: Histopathological Criteria, Prognostic Factors, and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Marinova, Lena; Vicheva, Snezhinka

    2016-01-01

    We present here a case of a 42-year-old woman diagnosed with primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NECB). We discuss the importance of histological criteria for primary neuroendocrine mammary carcinoma, established by WHO in 2003 and 2012. After an overview of different cases of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast published in the literature, we present information about differential diagnosis, prognostic factors, and surgical and adjuvant treatment. Prognosis of NECB is not different from that of other invasive breast carcinomas and the most important prognostic factor is tumor grade (G). There is no standard treatment and patients should be treated similarly to patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, NOS (not otherwise specified), whose choice of therapy depends on tumor's size, degree of differentiation, clinical stage, and hormonal status. PMID:27840759

  15. Primary bony non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cervical spine: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Non-Hodgkin lymphoma primarily originating from the bone is exceedingly rare. To our knowledge, this is the first report of primary bone lymphoma presenting with progressive cord compression from an origin in the cervical spine. Herein, we discuss the unusual location in this case, the presenting symptoms, and the management of this disease. Case presentation We report on a 23-year-old Caucasian-American man who presented with two months of night sweats, fatigue, parasthesias, and progressive weakness that had progressed to near quadriplegia. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated significant cord compression seen primarily at C7. Surgical management, with corpectomy and dorsal segmental fusion, in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy, halted the progression of the primary disease and preserved neurological function. Histological analysis demonstrated an aggressive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Conclusion Isolated primary bony lymphoma of the spine is exceedingly rare. As in our case, the initial symptoms may be the result of progressive cervical cord compression. Anterior corpectomy with posterolateral decompression and fusion succeeded in preventing progressive neurologic decline and maintaining quality of life. The reader should be aware of the unique presentation of this disease and that surgical management is a successful treatment strategy. PMID:20205845

  16. [Importance of immunohistochemical studies in the diagnosis and the prognostic evaluation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Review].

    PubMed

    García-Tamayo, Jorge; Molina, Julia; Blasco-Olaetxea, Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical carcinoma are evaluated in this review. A variety of proteins like p53, bcl2, C-Myc, Ki 67, Cyclines, P16 INK4a, p21, p27, beta-catenin, Wnt and MCM, have been related to the development of cervical neoplasia and human papilloma virus infection. It is described how transcriptional factors of genes induce loss of heterozygosity, numerical chromosome abnormality and inactivation of gene products or the partial loss of some membrane glycoproteins induced by oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV).

  17. Primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma in a dog treated with surgical excision.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Janet A; Pagano, Candace J; Boudreaux, Bonnie B

    2017-01-01

    An 8-year-old castrated male mixed breed dog was presented for a squamous cell carcinoma of the left frontal sinus. A partial craniectomy was performed and polytetrafluoroethylene mesh was placed over the craniectomy site. The dog recovered well with a good cosmetic outcome. Histopathology confirmed primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. Pelvic inflammatory disease increases the risk of a second primary malignancy in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chien-An; Lee, Moon-Sing; Lin, Hon-Yi; Li, Chung-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Hung, Shih-Kai

    2016-11-01

    As the number of long-term cervical cancer survivors continues to increase because of improvements in treatment, concerns about second primary malignancy have grown. The high-risk area of second primary cancers in cervical cancer survivors is the pelvis. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) could be a useful marker for gynecological cancers. Thus, we designed a large-scale, nationwide, controlled cohort study to investigate whether PID or other risk factors increased the risk of second primary cancers in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone.Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 24,444 cervical cancer patients were identified using the Registry Data for Catastrophic Illness and the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Patients who received definite surgery were selected. To exclude the effect on second primary malignancy by treatment modalities, all cervical patients who ever having received adjuvant or definite radiotherapy or chemotherapy for primary cervical cancer were excluded. Finally, 3860 cervical cancer patients treated by surgery alone without adjuvant treatments were analyzed.Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the cumulative risks. Regarding the incidence of second primary cancers, the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was used.The median follow-up time was 56.6 months. The 6-year cumulative risk of second primary cancers is 0.16% and 0.12% for PID and without PID, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, age of less than 50 years, the presence of diabetes mellitus, and PID were significantly positivity associated with the risk of second primary cancers. The hazard ratios (HRs) of age less than 50 years, diabetes mellitus, and PID were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.11-2.04), 1.40 (95% CI = 1.06-1.85), and 1.35 (95% CI = 1.00-1.81), respectively. A higher incidence of second primary cancers was observed in the genitals, bladder, and

  19. Poorer Prognosis of Primary Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Breast Compared with Mucinous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qingzhong; Chen, Gang; Lu, Jianping; Zeng, Yi; Hu, Dan; Huang, Kai; Lin, Zhiwu; Yan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma (PSRCC) of the breast is a rare entity and classified under mucin producing tumors in the WHO classification. However, little is known about the clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes of PSRCC as opposed to mucinous carcinoma. Eleven patients with PSRCC in our center from 1995 to 2010 were evaluated in this study, as compared to 50 cases of mucinous breast cancer (MBC) during the same period. The clinicopathologic features of PSRCC compared to MBC were assessed. Furthermore, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated at 5 years of follow up. Patients with PSRCC showed more frequent lymphatic metastasis, higher Ki67 labeling index and more advanced stage disease than that of MBC (P = 0.018, p = 0.023, P = 0.000, respectively), although there was no difference in age, tumor size, and ER, PR expression between PSRCC and MBC. In addition, PSRCC was associated with simultaneous vimentin upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation. The 5-year OS of PSRCC (54.5%) was significantly lower than that of MBC (88%) (P = 0.004). Similarly, the DFS of PSRCC was poorer than that of MBC significantly (5-year DFS: 27.3% vs. 80%, P = 0.000). Conclusions Our results confirmed the more aggressive behavior of PSRCC compared to MBC. This tumor is frequently associated with more frequent lymphatic metastasis, higher Ki67 labeling index, more advanced stage disease as well as simultaneous vimentin upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation. Different management guidelines should be considered for the two types. PMID:27583684

  20. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Stages IB2-IIB or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Node; Positive Pelvic Lymph Node; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  1. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate: a case report of a rare clinical entity

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Tithi; Podder, Tarun; Lepera, Pamela A; Walker, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate is a unique and rare clinicopathological entity with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature. Because of its rarity, the optimal management is not well known. Here, we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate which was treated with definitive concurrent chemo-radiotherapy with excellent outcome along with a brief review of the literature. PMID:28031893

  2. Primary candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Cho, Hyong Ho

    2013-02-01

    Primary candidiasis is rare and often confused with a pre-cancerous lesion, squamous cell carcinoma, or verrucous carcinoma. We report an extremely rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cord following primary candidiasis. A 62-year-old man presented to our department reporting a 1-month history of hoarseness. He underwent laryngeal microscopic surgery for a presumptive diagnosis of glottic carcinoma. Histopathologic examination revealed candidiasis and scattered moderate dysplasia. He was treated with itraconazole for 4 weeks, and followed up without any recurrence of candidiasis. However, the 42-month follow-up examination revealed a focal whitish lesion on the right true vocal cord, and a repeat biopsy of this area revealed squamous cell carcinoma without evidence of candidiasis. The patient was treated with radiotherapy and remains well with no signs of tumor recurrence or candidiasis.

  3. Differential role of gene hypermethylation in adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and cervical intraepithelial lesions of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Luquin, Idoia; Guarch, Rosa; Ojer, Amaya; Pérez-Janices, Noemí; Martín-Sánchez, Esperanza; Maria-Ruiz, Sergio; Monreal-Santesteban, Iñaki; Blanco-Fernandez, Laura; Pernaut-Leza, Eduardo; Escors, David; Guerrero-Setas, David

    2015-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. The hypermethylation of P16, TSLC-1 and TSP-1 genes was analyzed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) and adenocarcinomas (ADC) of the uterine cervix (total 181 lesions). Additionally human papillomavirus (HPV) type, EPB41L3, RASSF1 and RASSF2 hypermethylation were tested in ADC and the results were compared with those obtained previously by our group in SCC. P16, TSLC-1 and TSP-1 hypermethylation was more frequent in SCCs than in CINs. These percentages and the corresponding ones for EPB41L3, RASSF1 and RASSF2 genes were also higher in SCCs than in ADCs, except for P16. The presence of HPV in ADCs was lower than reported previously in SCC and CIN. Patients with RASSF1A hypermethylation showed significantly longer disease-free survival (P = 0.015) and overall survival periods (P = 0.009) in ADC patients. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the EPB41L3 and RASSF2 hypermethylation in ADCs. These results suggest that the involvement of DNA hypermethylation in cervical cancer varies depending on the histological type, which might contribute to explaining the different prognosis of patients with these types of tumors.

  4. Role of Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From an Unknown Primary Site: Retrospective Analysis of 113 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Beldi, Debora; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A.; D'Onofrio, Alberto; Gambaro, Giuseppina; Fiore, Maria Rosaria; Pia, Francesco; Chiesa, Fausto; Orecchia, Roberto; Krengli, Marco

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: The management of patients with cervical lymph-node metastases from unknown primary site (UPS) remains a matter of discussion. This study aimed to analyze the results and prognostic factors in a series of patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Data from 113 patients who presented with cervical lymph nodes metastases from UPS treated from 1980 to 2004 were reviewed. Eighty-seven patients (77.0%) were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Ninety-one patients were treated with curative and 22 with palliative intent. Fifty-nine of 113 patients (52.2%) received surgery followed by radiotherapy and 54 of 113 (47.8%) received radiotherapy alone. Radiotherapy was delivered to the neck and pharyngeal mucosa in 67 patients and to the ipsilateral or bilateral neck in 45 patients. Twenty-one patients (18.5%) also received chemotherapy. Results: The 5-year overall survival rates were 40.7% for the entire group and 46.6% for the SCC subgroup. The occurrence of the occult primary was observed in 23 of 113 patients (20.3%), 19 (82.6%) within the head and neck region. At multivariate analysis, treatment with curative intent and extensive irradiation of bilateral neck and pharyngeal mucosa were favorable prognostic factors for the whole series, and treatment with curative intent, extensive irradiation of bilateral neck and pharyngeal mucosa, and absence of extracapsular spread were favorable prognostic factors for the SCC subgroup. Conclusions: Patients with cervical lymph node metastases from UPS have a similar prognosis to those affected by other head and neck malignancies. Curative treatment strategies including neck dissection and extensive irradiation by three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy resulted in significantly better outcomes.

  5. Proteomics-based identification of VDAC1 as a tumor promoter in cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Hu, Zheng; Zhu, Da; Wang, Xiaoli; Yu, Lan; Wang, Liming; Shen, Hui; Zhang, Weican; Ren, Ci; Li, Kezhen; Weng, Danhui; Deng, Wuguo; Ma, Ding; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    We used oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT) to investigate the global redox status of proteins in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical cancer cells, in order to identify a potential target for gene therapy. Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) was found to be highly oxidized in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. VDAC1 expression correlated significantly with the invasion of cervical cancer, the grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and the expression of HPV16 E7 in CIN. Knockdown of VDAC1 in cell lines increased the rate of apoptosis, while overexpression of the VDAC1 (respectively) partly reversed the effect. Thus, VDAC1 may promote the malignant progression of HPV-related disease, and treatments designed to suppress VDAC1 could prevent the progression of HPV-induced cervical disease. PMID:27419626

  6. Giant cystic primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of mandible: a rare case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Roshan Kumar; Sunku, Satheesh Kumar; Bal, Amanjeet; Panda, Naresh K

    2014-01-01

    Primary intra-osseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from jaw is an extremely rare condition accounting to less than 2% of all mucoepidermoid carcinomas. In the jaw, it occurs more commonly in mandible than maxilla. They are low-grade cancers and affect jaw as uni- or multi-locular radiographic lesions. Here we discuss a rare case of giant cystic primary intra-cystic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the mandible which was excised in toto. Here we discuss the clinical features, radiological and histological characteristics of this rare lesion, and review the literature.

  7. Primary sources of pelvic serous cancer in patients with endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Yuan, Zeng; Wang, Yiying; Cragun, Janiel M; Kong, Beihua; Zheng, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma is often associated with extrauterine disease. It is currently unclear where does the extrauterine disease come from. This study addressed this issue. A total of 135 samples from 21 serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma patients were studied. Cellular lineage relationships between intrauterine and extrauterine serous carcinomas were determined by TP53-mutation analysis and correlated to the clinicopathologic features. There were three conditions contributing the extrauterine disease: metastasis from serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (n=10) showed identical TP53 mutation between intrauterine lesions and extrauterine disease, cases of adnexal origin (n=5) had discordant TP53 mutations, and the mixed cellular origin cases (n=6) with both identical and discordant mutation status. Patients with extrauterine disease from serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma metastasis typically had small tumor masses (<2 cm) in extrauterine sites and without finding of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, while extrauterine disease with adnexal or tubal origin commonly had larger tumor masses in extrauterine sites including ovary and omentum and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. The majority of extrauterine diseases associated with serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma are metastasized from the endometrium. Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma is frequently associated with serous cancers of adnexal or tubal origin, indicating that endometrial and adnexal or tubal serous cancers may share similar etiologies. TP53-mutation analysis provides a strong linkage for cellular lineage analysis. Tumor size in extrauterine disease and presence of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or not are useful clinicopathologic features to determine primary cancer site, which helps in clinical management.

  8. Sex-determining region Y-related high mobility group box (SOX)-2 is overexpressed in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and contributes cervical cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Chenglin; Pang, Xiaoao; Luo, Qingshuang; Zhang, Huijie; Zhang, Shulan

    2015-09-01

    Sex-determining region Y-related high mobility group box 2 (SOX-2) is a key pluripotency-associated transcription factor and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The aim of this study was to explore SOX-2 expression in cervical SCC tissues and to examine whether and how SOX-2 regulates the malignant behaviors of cervical SCC cells in vitro. We here found that SOX-2 expression in the examined cervical SCC tissues was higher than that in the normal cervical and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) tissues. Higher protein level of SOX-2 (nuclear positive staining cells ≥50 %) was detected in 34.9 % (29 out of 83 cases) of cervical SCC patients. We also noted that 100 % of well-differentiated and 66.7 % of moderately differentiated cervical SCCs showed lower SOX-2 expression (nuclear positive staining cells <50 %), while 58.8 % of poorly differentiated tumors had higher SOX-2 expression (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the migratory and invasive capabilities of SiHa cervical cancer cells were enhanced when SOX-2 was upregulated whereas suppressed when SOX-2 was downregulated. Also, the phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) 1/2 were increased in SOX-2-overexpressed cancer cells but decreased in SOX-2-depleted cells. Additionally, LY294002 (Akt pathway inhibitor) or U0126 (ERK pathway inhibitor) significantly suppressed SOX-2-overexpression-induced migration and invasion in SiHa cells. Our results indicate that differentially expressed SOX-2 is associated with tumor differentiation (P < 0.05) and that SOX-2 contributes to the migratory and invasive behaviors of cervical SCC in vitro.

  9. Type-specific human papillomavirus distribution in invasive cervical carcinomas in Paraguay. A study of 432 cases.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Elena; Cubilla, Antonio L; Alemany, Laia; Chaux, Alcides; Tous, Sara; Mendoza, Laura; Paez, Malvina; Klaustermeier, Jo Ellen; Quint, Wim; Lloveras, Belen; de Sanjose, Silvia; Muñoz, Nubia; Bosch, Francisco Xavier

    2012-10-01

    Cervical carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor among woman in Paraguay. Cytological screening programs have not been successful and a plan for human papillomavirus (HPV) based-screening program and/or vaccination is under evaluation. This study aimed to identify the contribution of HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Paraguay to provide essential background data to guide and assess the introduction and impact of new preventive strategies based on HPV. Four hundred thirty two histologically confirmed cases (1960-2004) were analyzed. HPV detection in paraffin blocks was performed at the Catalan Institute of Oncology using PCR with SPF-10 broad spectrum primers followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping with a reverse hybridization line probe analysis. The majority of cases were squamous cell carcinoma (92.8%). Mean patients age was 48 years old. HPV DNA was detected in 73.1% of the cases and single infections were predominant (97.8%). The most common HPV single types were 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 35, and 39. 73.1% of HPV positive cases had an HPV 16, 18 as single infection. HPV16 was frequent in SCC whereas HPV 18 and 45 were prevalent in glandular tumors. Significant decrease of HPV 16 with age groups (P-trend = 0.022) and increase in other HPV types (P-trend > 0.001) were observed. The potential impact of HPV 16 and 18 for a vaccination program was 73.1%. The study provide a profile of the HPV situation in the country, with robust clinical, pathological and virological data which would permit a better cervical cancer screening and vaccination programs.

  10. Vaginal self-sampling for HPV infection as a primary cervical cancer screening tool in a Haitian population

    PubMed Central

    Boggan, Joel C.; Walmer, David K.; Henderson, Gregory; Chakhtoura, Nahida; McCarthy, Schatzi H.; Beauvais, Harry J.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as primary cervical cancer screening has not been studied in Caribbean women. We tested vaginal self-collection versus physician cervical sampling in a population of Haitian women. Methods Participants were screened for high-risk HPV with self-performed vaginal and clinician-collected cervical samples using Hybrid Capture 2 assays (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, Maryland). Women positive by either method then underwent colposcopy with biopsy of all visible lesions. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were calculated for each sample method compared to biopsy results, with kappa statistics performed for agreement. McNemar’s tests were performed for differences in sensitivity at ≥ cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)-I and ≥ CIN-II. Results Of 1845 women screened, 446 (24.3%) were HPV-positive by either method, including 105 (5.7%) only by vaginal swab and 53 (2.9%) only by cervical swab. Vaginal and cervical samples were 91.4% concordant (κ= 0.73 [95% CI: 0.69 – 0.77], p < 0.001). Overall, 133 HPV-positive women (29.9%) had CIN-I, while 32 (7.2%) had ≥ CIN-II. The sensitivity of vaginal swabs was similar to cervical swabs for detecting ≥ CIN-I (89.1% vs 87.9%, respectively, p=0.75) lesions and ≥ CIN-II disease (87.5% vs 96.9%, p=0.18). Eighteen of 19 cases of CIN-III and invasive cancer were found by both methods. Conclusions HPV screening via self-collected vaginal swabs or physician-collected cervical swabs are feasible options in this Haitian population. The agreement between cervical and vaginal samples was high, suggesting vaginal sample-only algorithms for screening could be effective for improving screening rates in this under-screened population. PMID:26462192

  11. Intensity Modulated Proton Beam Radiation for Brachytherapy in Patients With Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Clivio, Alessandro; Kluge, Anne; Cozzi, Luca; Köhler, Christhardt; Neumann, Oliver; Vanetti, Eugenio; Wlodarczyk, Waldemar; Marnitz, Simone

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in patients with cervical cancer in terms of coverage, conformity, and dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters correlated with recommendations from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven patients with histologically proven cervical cancer underwent primary chemoradiation for the pelvic lymph nodes, the uterus, the cervix, and the parametric region, with a symmetric margin of 1 cm. The prescription was for 50.4 Gy, with 1.8 Gy per fraction. The prescribed dose to the parametria was 2.12 Gy up to 59.36 Gy in 28 fractions as a simultaneous boost. For several reasons, the patients were unable to undergo brachytherapy. As an alternative, IMPT was planned with 5 fractions of 6 Gy to the cervix, including the macroscopic tumor with an MRI-guided target definition, with an isotropic margin of 5 mm for planning target volume (PTV) definition. Groupe-Europeen de Curietherapie and European society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) criteria were used for DVH evaluation. Reference comparison plans were optimized for volumetric modulated rapid arc (VMAT) therapy with the RapidArc (RA). Results: The dose to the high-risk volume was calculated with α/β = 10 with 89.6 Gy. For IMPT, the clinical target volume showed a mean dose of 38.2 ± 5.0 Gy (35.0 ±1.8 Gy for RA). The D{sub 98%} was 31.9 ± 2.6 Gy (RA: 30.8 ± 1.0 Gy). With regard to the organs at risk, the 2Gy Equivalent Dose (EQD2) (α/β = 3) to 2 cm{sup 3} of the rectal wall, sigmoid wall, and bladder wall was 62.2 ± 6.4 Gy, 57.8 ± 6.1 Gy, and 80.6 ± 8.7 Gy (for RA: 75.3 ± 6.1 Gy, 66.9 ± 6.9 Gy, and 89.0 ± 7.2 Gy, respectively). For the IMPT boost plans in combination with external beam radiation therapy, all DVH parameters correlated with <5% risk for grades 2 to 4 late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity. Conclusion: In patients who are not eligible for brachytherapy, IMPT as a boost

  12. Cervical nodal necrosis is an independent survival predictor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yangkun; Ren, Jing; Zhou, Peng; Gao, Yang; Yang, Guangquan; Lang, Jinyi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Most nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients present with locoregionally advanced disease at the time of diagnosis; however, there is a lack of consensus on specific prognostic factors potentially improving overall survival, especially in late-stage disease. Herein, we conducted a retrospective study to evaluate various potential prognostic factors in order to provide useful information for clinical treatment of T3/T4-stage NPC. Patients and methods A total of 189 previously untreated NPC patients were enrolled in the current study. All patients received intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Survival, death, relapse-free survival (both local and regional), and metastasis were recorded during follow-up. Factors affecting patient survival were assessed by using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The median follow-up time was 69 months. The 5-year local-regional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) of the entire group were 89.8%, 71.5%, 66.3%, and 68.9%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in the 5-year PFS (58.5% vs 72.5%, P=0.015) and OS (59.5% vs 75.8%, P=0.033) rates of patients with and without cervical nodal necrosis (CNN). Subgroup analyses revealed that CNN was associated with poorer distant metastasis-free survival and PFS among patients with N2 stage (P=0.046 and P=0.005) and with poorer PFS among patients with T3 or III stage (all P=0.022). Multivariate analysis revealed CNN to be an independent prognostic factor for PFS and OS (PFS: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.860; 95% CI: 1.134–3.051; P=0.014; OS: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.754; 95% CI: 1.061–2.899; P=0.028). Conclusion CNN is a potential independent negative prognostic factor in NPC patients. Our results suggest that stratification of NPC patients based on their CNN status should be considered as part of NPC disease management. PMID:27843328

  13. Efficacy of vaccination with Skinner vaccine towards the prevention of herpes simplex virus induced cervical carcinoma in an experimental mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chen, M H; Zhou, Z; Hartley, C E; Cowan, M; Skinner, G R

    1986-12-01

    The incidence of cervical carcinoma, which had been induced by vaginal application of inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) with 20% croton oil, was significantly reduced in mice prevaccinated with the Skinner herpes vaccine. There was evidence of an immunological response in both vaccinated and unvaccinated mice.

  14. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature.

  15. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature. PMID:26980976

  16. WNT2 Promotes Cervical Carcinoma Metastasis and Induction of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Jianhua; Huang, Long; Huang, Shuting; Yuan, Linjing; Jia, Weihua; Yu, Xingjuan; Luo, Rongzhen; Zheng, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously, we found an 11-gene signature could predict pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM), and WNT2 is one of the key genes in the signature. This study explored the expression and underlying mechanism of WNT2 in PLNM of cervical cancer. Methods WNT2 expression level in cervical cancer was detected using western blotting, quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Two WNT2-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were used to explore the effects of WNT2 on invasive and metastatic ability of cancer cells, and to reveal the possible mechanism of WNT2 affecting epithelial—mesenchymal transition (EMT). The correlation between WNT2 expression and PLNM was further investigated in clinical cervical specimens. Results Both WNT2 mRNA and protein expression was upregulated in cervical cancer. High WNT2 expression was significantly associated with tumor size, lymphovascular space involvement, positive parametrium, and most importantly, PLNM. PLNM and WNT2 expression were independent prognostic factors for overall survival and disease-free survival. WNT2 knockdown inhibited SiHa cell motility and invasion and reversed EMT by inhibiting the WNT2/β-catenin pathway. WNT2 overexpression in cervical cancer was associated with β-catenin activation and induction of EMT, which further contributed to metastasis in cervical cancer. Conclusion WNT2 might be a novel predictor of PLNM and a promising prognostic indicator in cervical cancer. PMID:27513465

  17. Primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ugurlu, Seyda; Ekin, Meryem Altin; Altinboga, Aysegul Aksoy

    2014-01-01

    A case of primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle is presented and patients presented in the literature reviewed. Clinical features and outcome of a patient with primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle is described. Review of 8 other cases identified through literature search with the keywords of "basal cell carcinoma" and "caruncle" is presented.A 67-year-old male patient presented with a 12 months' history of a lesion over the caruncular region. Incisional biopsy of the lesion revealed primary basal cell carcinoma of nodular type. MRI of the orbit identified extension of the lesion into the medial orbit. The tumor was excised, and reconstructive surgery was performed. The patient declined subsequent radiotherapy. No recurrence was detected during the follow up of 33 months. The current patient and 8 other patients with primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle were reviewed.The main therapeutic approach for primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle is complete excision with tumor-free surgical margins. Adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy may be administered when deemed necessary.

  18. Blocking Modification of Eukaryotic Initiation 5A2 Antagonizes Cervical Carcinoma via Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK Signal Transduction Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Dong; Liu, Jiamei; Chu, Zhangtao; Liu, Dongli

    2016-09-07

    Cervical carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death for female worldwide. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 belongs to the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A family and is proposed to be a key factor involved in the development of diverse cancers. In the current study, a series of in vivo and in vitro investigations were performed to characterize the role of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in oncogenesis and metastasis of cervical carcinoma. The expression status of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in 15 cervical carcinoma patients was quantified. Then, the effect of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown on in vivo tumorigenicity ability, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and cell mobility of HeLa cells was measured. To uncover the mechanism driving the function of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in cervical carcinoma, expression of members within RhoA/ROCK pathway was detected, and the results were further verified with an RhoA overexpression modification. The level of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in cervical carcinoma samples was significantly higher than that in paired paratumor tissues (P < .05). And the in vivo tumorigenic ability of HeLa cells was reduced by inhibition of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2. Knockdown of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in HeLa cells decreased the cell viability compared with normal cells and induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest (P < .05). Moreover, the cell migration ability of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown cells was dramatically inhibited. Associated with alterations in phenotypes, RhoA, ROCK I, and ROCK II were downregulated. The above-mentioned changes in eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown cells were alleviated by the overexpression of RhoA. The major findings outlined in the current study confirmed the potential of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 as a promising prognosis predictor and therapeutic target for cervical carcinoma treatment. Also, our data inferred that

  19. Heterogeneity between primary colon carcinoma and paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases.

    PubMed

    Lan, Huanrong; Jin, Ketao; Xie, Bojian; Han, Na; Cui, Binbin; Cao, Feilin; Teng, Lisong

    2012-11-01

    Heterogeneity is one of the recognized characteristics of human tumors, and occurs on multiple levels in a wide range of tumors. A number of studies have focused on the heterogeneity found in primary tumors and related metastases with the consideration that the evaluation of metastatic rather than primary sites could be of clinical relevance. Numerous studies have demonstrated particularly high rates of heterogeneity between primary colorectal tumors and their paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases. It has also been proposed that the heterogeneity between primary colon carcinomas and their paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases may result in different responses to anticancer therapies. The heterogeneity in primary colon carcinoma and corresponding metastases by genome‑wide gene expression analysis has not been extensively studied. In the present study, we investigated the differentially expressed genes between a primary colon carcinoma specimen (obtained from a 40-year-old female colon carcinoma patient with lymphatic and hepatic metastases) and its paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases by genome-wide gene expression analysis using GeneChip HGU133Plus2.0 expression arrays. Our results demonstrate that genome-wide gene expression varies between primary colon carcinoma and its paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases.

  20. Which high-risk HPV assays fulfil criteria for use in primary cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed

    Arbyn, M; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M; Berkhof, J; Cuschieri, K; Kocjan, B J; Poljak, M

    2015-09-01

    Several countries are in the process of switching to high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing for cervical cancer screening. Given the multitude of available tests, validated assays which assure high-quality screening need to be identified. A systematic review was conducted to answer the question which hrHPV tests fulfil the criteria defined by an international expert team in 2009, based on reproducibility and relative sensitivity and specificity compared to Hybrid Capture-2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-enzyme immunoassay. These latter two hrHPV DNA assays were validated in large randomized trials and cohorts with a follow-up duration of 8 years or more. Eligible studies citing the 2009 guideline were retrieved from Scopus (http://www.scopus.com) and from a meta-analysis assessing the relative accuracy of new hrHPV assays versus the standard comparator tests to detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer in primary screening. The cobas 4800 HPV test and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test were consistently validated in two and three studies, respectively, whereas the PapilloCheck HPV-screening test, BD Onclarity HPV assay and the HPV-Risk assay were validated each in one study. Other tests which partially fulfil the 2009 guidelines are the following: Cervista HPV HR Test, GP5+/6+ PCR-LMNX, an in-house E6/E7 RT quantitative PCR and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight). The APTIMA HPV assay targeting E6/E7 mRNA of hrHPV was also fully validated. However, the cross-sectional equivalency criteria of the 2009 guidelines were set up for HPV DNA assays. Demonstration of a low risk of CIN3+ after a negative APTIMA test over a longer period is awaited to inform us about its utility in cervical cancer screening at 5-year or longer intervals.

  1. High Expression of KIF20A Is Associated with Poor Overall Survival and Tumor Progression in Early-Stage Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haifeng; Li, Min; Liu, Zhimin; Feng, Yanling; Zheng, Nianzhen; Xie, Chuanmiao; Zhang, Yanna

    2016-01-01

    Background The kinesin family member 20a (KIF20A) protein has been implicated in the development and progression of many human cancers; however, its precise function and role in cervical cancer remain largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the expression profile and prognostic value of KIF20A in patients with early-stage cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Methods We examined the mRNA and protein levels of KIF20A in eight cervical cancer cell lines and eight paired cervical cancer samples, compared with normal cervical epithelial cells and adjacent normal cervical tissues, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of KIF20A in paraffin-embedded specimens from 169 early-stage cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients. Statistical analyses were applied to analyze the association between KIF20A expression and clinical variables, as well with patient survival. Results The mRNA and protein expression levels of KIF20A were significantly elevated in cervical cancer cell lines and lesions compared with normal cells and corresponding normal tissues (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analysis in 169 cervical cancer cases revealed that increased KIF20A expression was strongly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (P = 0.008), clinical stage (P = 0.001), tumor recurrence (P = 0.016), vital status (P < 0.001), the property of the surgical margin (P = 0.032), the lymphovascular space involvement (P = 0.014), and pelvic lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). The overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with high levels of KIF20A expression were significantly poorer than those with low KIF20A expression. KIF20A was an independent survival prognostic factor, as evidenced by univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions Our results illustrate that elevated KIF20A expression correlates with HPV infection, clinical stage, tumor recurrence, lymphovascular space involvement, pelvic lymph node metastasis, and poor outcome

  2. MicroRNA-21 promotes cell proliferation and down-regulates the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Qing; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2009-10-23

    MicroRNAs are involved in cancer-related processes. The microRNA-21(miR-21) has been identified as the only miRNA over-expressed in a wide variety of cancers, including cervical cancer. However, the function of miR-21 is unknown in cervical carcinomas. In this study, we found that the inhibition of miR-21 in HeLa cervical cancer cells caused profound suppression of cell proliferation, and up-regulated the expression of the tumor suppressor gene PDCD4. We also provide direct evidence that PDCD4-3'UTR is a functional target of miR-21 and that the 18 bp putative target site can function as the sole regulatory element in HeLa cells. These results suggest that miR-21 may play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of cervical cancer and may serve as a target for effective therapies.

  3. Association between FOXM1 and hedgehog signaling pathway in human cervical carcinoma by tissue microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Hong; Chen, Dan; Li, Panpan

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway are implicated in the formation and development of human tumors, including cervical cancer. Previous studies have indicated that FOXM1 may be a downstream target gene of the Hh signaling pathway, but their association in cervical cancer is largely unknown. In the present study, the expression of FOXM1 and Hh signaling molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis in a tissue microarray that contained 70 cervical cancer tissues and 10 normal cervical tissues. In addition, the association of these molecules with clinicopathological parameters, and the association between FOXM1 and various molecules involved in the Hh signaling pathway was investigated. The results indicated that FOXM1 and Hh signaling molecules were overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues. The protein expression levels of FOXM1, glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1) and smoothened (SMO) correlated with the clinical stage of the tumors, while the protein expression levels of Sonic Hh (SHh), patched 1 (PTCH1) and GLI1 correlated with the pathological grade of the tumors. The expression levels of GLI1 were lower in tissues without lymph node metastasis than in tissues with lymph node metastasis. In addition, FOXM1 expression correlated with GLI1, SHh and PTCH1 expression in cancer tissues. These findings confirmed the participation of FOXM1 and the Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer. Furthermore, the finding that FOXM1 may be a downstream target gene of the Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer provides a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for cervical cancer. PMID:27698840

  4. A Challenging Surgical Approach to Locally Advanced Primary Urethral Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Spilotros, Marco; Vavallo, Antonio; Palazzo, Silvano; Miacola, Carlos; Forte, Saverio; Matera, Matteo; Campagna, Marcello; Colamonico, Ottavio; Schiralli, Francesco; Sebastiani, Francesco; Di Cosmo, Federica; Bettocchi, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Vincenti, Leonardo; Ludovico, Giuseppe; Ditonno, Pasquale; Battaglia, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is a rare and aggressive cancer, often underdetected and consequently unsatisfactorily treated. We report a case of advanced PUC, surgically treated with combined approaches. A 47-year-old man underwent transurethral resection of a urethral lesion with histological evidence of a poorly differentiated squamous cancer of the bulbomembranous urethra. Computed tomography (CT) and bone scans excluded metastatic spread of the disease but showed involvement of both corpora cavernosa (cT3N0M0). A radical surgical approach was advised, but the patient refused this and opted for chemotherapy. After 17 months the patient was referred to our department due to the evidence of a fistula in the scrotal area. CT scan showed bilateral metastatic disease in the inguinal, external iliac, and obturator lymph nodes as well as the involvement of both corpora cavernosa. Additionally, a fistula originating from the right corpus cavernosum extended to the scrotal skin. At this stage, the patient accepted the surgical treatment, consisting of different phases. Phase I: Radical extraperitoneal cystoprostatectomy with iliac-obturator lymph nodes dissection. Phase II: Creation of a urinary diversion through a Bricker ileal conduit. Phase III: Repositioning of the patient in lithotomic position for an overturned Y skin incision, total penectomy, fistula excision, and “en bloc” removal of surgical specimens including the bladder, through the perineal breach. Phase IV: Right inguinal lymphadenectomy. The procedure lasted 9-and-a-half hours, was complication-free, and intraoperative blood loss was 600 mL. The patient was discharged 8 days after surgery. Pathological examination documented a T4N2M0 tumor. The clinical situation was stable during the first 3 months postoperatively but then metastatic spread occurred, not responsive to adjuvant chemotherapy, which led to the patient's death 6 months after surgery. Patients with advanced stage tumors of

  5. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid arising in Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Sosa, Sergio; Rios-Luna, Nina Paola; Tamayo, Bricia del Rosario; Simpson, Karen; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is a rare thyroid neoplasm that has been described exclusively in adults. We report what appears to be the first example of a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland arising in a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an adolescent female. The tumor was well demarcated, confined to the right thyroid lobe, and did not metastasize, although follow up has been limited. The squamous cell carcinoma was well to moderately differentiated, and the stroma contained an abundant inflammatory infiltrate rich in lymphocytes and eosinophils. The lack of goblet cells, extracellular mucin, and extensive stromal sclerosis excluded the diagnosis of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia. Immunohistochemical staining revealed focal expression of cytokeratin 7 and diffuse labeling with cytokeratin AE1/AE3. The squamous cell carcinoma overexpressed p53 protein and showed increased proliferative activity, as evidenced by the high MIB-1 labeling index. In contrast, the tumor did not show immunoreactivity for thyroglobulin or thyroid transcription factor 1.

  6. Primary Biliary Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma (MANEC): A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Andres M; Wiley, Elizabeth Louise

    2016-10-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs) are composite neoplasms with areas of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma intermingled with neuroendocrine carcinoma or neuroendocrine tumor, each composing at least 30% of the neoplasm. MANECs are very infrequent overall, and they are more commonly diagnosed in the appendix, colon, and stomach. Biliary MANECs are particularly rare, and their histogenesis is debated because neuroendocrine cells are seldom identified in the normal biliary tract. They can show one of the 3 different architectural patterns described in Lewin's original classification: collision tumors, combined lesions, or amphicrine neoplasms. The neuroendocrine component is usually of a high grade, with small or large cell cytomorphology, whereas the adenocarcinoma component is either an intestinal or biliary type. Clinical presentation is characterized by locally advanced disease at the time of initial diagnosis. Recent studies suggest that treatment should be guided by the most aggressive histologic component.

  7. Primary invasive ocular squamous cell carcinoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    Kaps, Simone; Richter, Marianne; Philipp, Martin; Bart, Madeleine; Eule, Corinna; Spiess, Bernhard M

    2005-01-01

    A 12-year-old Haflinger gelding was presented to the veterinary medical teaching hospital of the University of Zurich with a light-pink raised mass on the temporal limbus and conjunctiva of the left eye. Squamous cell carcinoma was confirmed histologically after keratectomy and cryotherapy. Seven months later, a smooth pink, progressively enlarging mass was observed within the cornea of the left eye. Ultrasonographically, the mass was not only infiltrating the corneal stroma but seemed to protrude into the anterior chamber. The globe was surgically removed and submitted for pathology. A histologic diagnosis of corneal ocular squamous cell carcinoma with deep stromal invasion, infiltration of the uveoscleral meshwork and iridocorneal angle and resulting intraocular extension was made. This is the first detailed description of a limbal squamous cell carcinoma with invasion into the cornea and uvea in the horse.

  8. In silico pathway analysis in cervical carcinoma reveals potential new targets for treatment

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Peter A.; van Dam, Pieter-Jan H. H.; Rolfo, Christian; Giallombardo, Marco; van Berckelaer, Christophe; Trinh, Xuan Bich; Altintas, Sevilay; Huizing, Manon; Papadimitriou, Kostas; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; van Laere, Steven

    2016-01-01

    An in silico pathway analysis was performed in order to improve current knowledge on the molecular drivers of cervical cancer and detect potential targets for treatment. Three publicly available Affymetrix gene expression data-sets (GSE5787, GSE7803, GSE9750) were retrieved, vouching for a total of 9 cervical cancer cell lines (CCCLs), 39 normal cervical samples, 7 CIN3 samples and 111 cervical cancer samples (CCSs). Predication analysis of microarrays was performed in the Affymetrix sets to identify cervical cancer biomarkers. To select cancer cell-specific genes the CCSs were compared to the CCCLs. Validated genes were submitted to a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and Expression2Kinases (E2K). In the CCSs a total of 1,547 probe sets were identified that were overexpressed (FDR < 0.1). Comparing to CCCLs 560 probe sets (481 unique genes) had a cancer cell-specific expression profile, and 315 of these genes (65%) were validated. GSEA identified 5 cancer hallmarks enriched in CCSs (P < 0.01 and FDR < 0.25) showing that deregulation of the cell cycle is a major component of cervical cancer biology. E2K identified a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of 162 nodes (including 20 drugable kinases) and 1626 edges. This PPI-network consists of 5 signaling modules associated with MYC signaling (Module 1), cell cycle deregulation (Module 2), TGFβ-signaling (Module 3), MAPK signaling (Module 4) and chromatin modeling (Module 5). Potential targets for treatment which could be identified were CDK1, CDK2, ABL1, ATM, AKT1, MAPK1, MAPK3 among others. The present study identified important driver pathways in cervical carcinogenesis which should be assessed for their potential therapeutic drugability. PMID:26701206

  9. Primary HPV testing: a proposal for co-testing in initial rounds of screening to optimise sensitivity of cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Herbert, A

    2017-02-01

    As explained by Kitchener in a previous issue of Cytopathology (2015;26:4-6), primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is likely to be introduced in the UK for all women aged 25-64 years following pilot site studies already in place. This will be necessary when the prevalence of cervical cancer and its precursors declines when vaccination takes effect but there is a risk in abandoning cytology as a primary test: a risk that would be most apparent in the present unvaccinated population in which the prevalence of cervical cancer and its precursors is exceptionally high. HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology but has a significant false-negative rate that could be detrimental to a successful screening programme if introduced without cytology backup. Accurate cytology would be needed for triage and could be compromised if HPV-negative tests were excluded from examination. This article proposes a compromise: cytology and HPV co-testing for the first two screening tests to optimise the sensitivity of the test as a whole. Registrations of invasive and in situ carcinoma of the uterine cervix in England indicate that the prevalence of the disease is highest in young women in the early rounds of screening. Calculations of the likely impact on the workload of this proposal have been based on a service evaluation of 295 cytology tests received at St Thomas' Hospital, which suggests that the volume of cytology tests would be reduced by approximately 60% compared with 80% for primary HPV testing alone. This proposal should be debated openly before irrevocable changes are made to a skilled workforce.

  10. The Correlation between NK Cell and Liver Function in Patients with Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Min, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to detect the expression of natural killer (NK) cell receptor natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) in the peripheral blood of patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma and to discuss the correlation between NK cell cytotoxicity and liver function. Methods The number of NK cells and the expression of NK cell receptor NKG2D in peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis B cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B, and healthy controls. Results When compared with patients in the healthy and the chronic hepatitis B groups, the primary hepatocellular carcinoma group showed significant decreases in all parameters, including the cytotoxicity of NK cells on K562 cells, expression rate of NKG2D in NK cells, number of NKG2D+ NK cells, expression level of NKG2D, and number of NK cells (p<0.05). The activity of NK cells showed a positive correlation, whereas the Child-Pugh scores in the primary hepatocellular carcinoma and the hepatitis B cirrhosis groups showed a negative correlation with all parameters detected above. Conclusions The decrease of NK cell activity in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma is closely related to their lower expression of NKG2D. Liver function affects the expression of NKG2D and the activity of NK cells. PMID:24827627

  11. [Primary carcinoma of the thyroid growing in thyroglossal duct cyst: presentation of two cases].

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Paulina; Bruszewska, Elzbieta; Kozłowicz-Gudzińska, Izabella; Prokurat, Andrzej I; Chrupek, Małgorzata; Zegadło-Mylik, Maria A; Kluge, Przemysław

    2007-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct remnants (TGDR), most often cysts, are the most common type of developmental abnormalities of the thyroid gland. In about 1 to 2% of TGDR neoplastic transformation occurs. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid may be encountered in over 90% of such cases. Two cases of primary papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in TGDR in young girls are presented. The diagnostic and therapeutic problems are shared, and up-to-date management guidelines in similar cases are discussed.

  12. Colorectal Liver Metastasis, Primary Gallbladder Carcinoma and Myelofibrosis Present Simultaneously in a Liver Resection Specimen

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sophie A.; Raber, Menno H.; Provoost, Esther; Toes, Gert-Jan; Klaase, Joost M.

    2015-01-01

    Myelofibrosis and gallbladder carcinoma are both very rare diseases. This case report describes a patient with a history of myelofibrosis and colorectal carcinoma who was diagnosed with colorectal liver metastases. Surgery was performed to remove the metastases, and on site, the gallbladder was removed because of involvement in one of the liver lesions. After pathological examination, a primary gallbladder carcinoma and myelofibrosis were found in addition to the liver metastases. The combination of diseases was not likely to be interconnected but rather an unlucky course of events for the patient. PMID:26600770

  13. Primary leptomeningeal melanoma of the cervical spine mimicking a meningioma-a case report.

    PubMed

    Marx, Sascha; Fleck, Steffen K; Manwaring, Jotham; Vogelgesang, Silke; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W S

    2014-08-01

    Background and Importance Primary leptomeningeal melanoma (PLM) is highly malignant and exceedingly rare. Due to its rarity, diagnostic and treatment paradigms have been slow to evolve. We report the first case of a PLM that mimics a cervical spine meningioma and then discuss the current clinical, radiologic, and pathologic diagnostic methodologies as well as expected outcomes related to this disease. Clinical Presentation A 54-year-old woman presented a dural-based extramedullary solid mass ventral to the C2-C3 spinal cord causing spinal cord compression without cord signal changes, characteristic of meningioma. Intraoperative microscopic inspection revealed numerous black spots littering the surface of the dura; the tumor itself was yellow in appearance and had a soft consistency. Pathologic analysis of the specimen revealed a malignant melanin-containing tumor. No primary site was found, so a diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal melanoma was made, and the patient subsequently received interferon therapy. To date (2 years postoperatively), no local or systemic recurrence of the tumor has been identified. Conclusion As with most rare tumors, case reports constitute the vast majority of references to PLM. Only an increased awareness and an extensive report of each individual case can help diagnose and clarify the nature of PLM. Clinicians need to be aware of such malignant conditions when diagnosing benign tumoral lesions of the spine such as meningiomas.

  14. Triapine With Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With IB2-IVA Cervical or Vulvar Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Vulvar Adenocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  15. Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinoma: a case report and literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Valentim, Maria Helena; Monteiro, Vanessa; Marques, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a case of a neuroendocrine carcinoma in an asymptomatic 75-year-old woman, detected in routine breast screening. The lesion was visible at mammography as a well circumscribed, medium density nodule, with no associated microcalcifications, and at ultrasonography as a hypoechoic nodule, with irregular shape and ill-defined margins. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed findings consistent with malignancy. PMID:25741062

  16. Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinoma: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Valentim, Maria Helena; Monteiro, Vanessa; Marques, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a case of a neuroendocrine carcinoma in an asymptomatic 75-year-old woman, detected in routine breast screening. The lesion was visible at mammography as a well circumscribed, medium density nodule, with no associated microcalcifications, and at ultrasonography as a hypoechoic nodule, with irregular shape and ill-defined margins. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed findings consistent with malignancy.

  17. Quantitative keratinocyte assay detects two biological activities of human papillomavirus DNA and identifies viral types associated with cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, R; Phelps, W C; Zhang, Y L; Barbosa, M

    1988-01-01

    Keratinocytes electroporated with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA (HPV-6, 11, 16 and 18) exhibited an increased cellular proliferation which was quantitated as microcolony and macrocolony formation. However, only macrocolonies induced by HPV-16 or HPV-18 DNA (the two viral types most commonly found in human cervical carcinomas) gave rise to proliferating, poorly-stratified colonies when grown in the presence of serum and calcium. Hydrocortisone increased the frequency of these differentiation-resistant colonies, and studies showed that they were immortalized, contained one copy of viral DNA per cell, expressed three discrete species of viral RNA and synthesized the viral E7 protein. HPV-induced cellular proliferation and altered differentiation are therefore separable events and may represent the activity of different viral genes. Images PMID:2460337

  18. SU-E-T-580: Comparison of Cervical Carcinoma IMRT Plans From Four Commercial Treatment Planning Systems (TPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Y; Li, R; Chi, Z; Zhu, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Different treatment planning systems (TPS) use different treatment optimization and leaf sequencing algorithms. This work compares cervical carcinoma IMRT plans optimized with four commercial TPSs to investigate the plan quality in terms of target conformity and delivery efficiency. Methods: Five cervical carcinoma cases were planned with the Corvus, Monaco, Pinnacle and Xio TPSs by experienced planners using appropriate optimization parameters and dose constraints to meet the clinical acceptance criteria. Plans were normalized for at least 95% of PTV to receive the prescription dose (Dp). Dose-volume histograms and isodose distributions were compared. Other quantities such as Dmin(the minimum dose received by 99% of GTV/PTV), Dmax(the maximum dose received by 1% of GTV/PTV), D100, D95, D90, V110%, V105%, V100% (the volume of GTV/PTV receiving 110%, 105%, 100% of Dp), conformity index(CI), homogeneity index (HI), the volume of receiving 40Gy and 50 Gy to rectum (V40,V50) ; the volume of receiving 30Gy and 50 Gy to bladder (V30,V50) were evaluated. Total segments and MUs were also compared. Results: While all plans meet target dose specifications and normal tissue constraints, the maximum GTVCI of Pinnacle plans was up to 0.74 and the minimum of Corvus plans was only 0.21, these four TPSs PTVCI had significant difference. The GTVHI and PTVHI of Pinnacle plans are all very low and show a very good dose distribution. Corvus plans received the higer dose of normal tissue. The Monaco plans require significantly less segments and MUs to deliver than the other plans. Conclusion: To deliver on a Varian linear-accelerator, the Pinnacle plans show a very good dose distribution. Corvus plans received the higer dose of normal tissue. The Monaco plans have faster beam delivery.

  19. Detection, genotyping and quantitation of multiple hpv infections in south African women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lebelo, Ramokone L; Bogers, Johannes J; Thys, Sofie; Depuydt, Christophe; Benoy, Ina; Selabe, S Gloria; Bida, Meshack N; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    In Africa, data is limited on quantitation of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with multiple infections. This study applied a real time PCR (qPCR) assay for detection, genotyping and quantitation of multiple HPV infections in 90 tissue blocks of South African women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma. One sample with multiple HPV types was subjected to laser micro-dissection and qPCR. Four samples were negative for β-globin and these were excluded from the analysis. The HPV DNA positivity rate was 93.0% (80/86). All 80 positives showed the presence of HR HPV types; HPV 68 was the only type negative in all the samples. Overall, HPV 16 was positive in most of the samples (88.8%), followed by HPV 56 (28.7%), HPV 18 (20.0%) and HPV 39 (18.7%). More than half of the samples (65.0%) had multiple infections. HPV 16 was present in majority of single (85.7%) and multiple infections (90.4%). HPV 16 showed higher viral loads in 70.3% of the HPV 16 co-infected samples. In one multiple infected sample laser micro-dissection and qPCR identified HPV 18 with higher viral load as the most likely cause of the invasive lesion. There is large number of multiple HPV infections in South African women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma. HPV 16 is the most frequently detected type and often presents with higher viral load, suggesting it could be responsible for pathogenesis of the lesions in the majority of cases.

  20. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  1. Transient increase in squamous cell carcinoma antigen expression in cultured cervical carcinoma CaSki cells in response to exposure to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum.

    PubMed

    Tateiwa, Y; Yoshida, S; Miyahara, Y; Hamana, S; Motoyama, S; Maruo, T

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the transient increase in circulating squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) levels in response to CIS-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP) infusion using an in vitro model. The uterine cervical squamous carcinoma CaSki cells were cultured for 72 h after 3 h exposure to 5.0 microg/ml CDDP. The effects of CDDP exposure on the proliferative activity and apoptosis in cultured CaSki cells were determined by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake and cell counting and by the TUNEL assay, respectively. SCC Ag levels in cultured CaSki cells and culture media were determined with the use of SCC-RIA kit. The expression of SCC Ag-1 mRNA and SCC Ag-2 mRNA in cultured CaSki cells was assessed using semiquantitative RT-PCR with Southern blot analysis. The number of BrdU-positive CaSki cells significantly decreased 6 h after exposure to CDDP, whereas the apoptosis-positive rate of cultured CaSki cells significantly increased 12 h after the CDDP exposure. The number of cultured CaSki cells significantly decreased 72 h after the CDDP exposure. The total SCC Ag protein levels in both cultured CaSki cells and the culture media after the 3-hour CDDP exposure increased in a time-dependent manner during the subsequent incubation for 48 h. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression levels of both SCC Ag-1 and SCC Ag-2 mRNA increased (1.7- and 2.7-fold, respectively) 12 h after the exposure to CDDP relative to those before the subsequent cultures. Exposure of uterine cervical squamous carcinoma CaSki cells to CDDP resulted in a transient increase in SCC Ag protein and mRNA expression in those cells during the initial 12 h after the exposure, being associated with decreased proliferative activity and increased apoptosis of those cells.

  2. Asperlin induces G{sub 2}/M arrest through ROS generation and ATM pathway in human cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    He, Long; Nan, Mei-Hua; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Young Ho; Jang, Jae Hyuk; Erikson, Raymond Leo; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Bo Yeon

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} A new anti-cancer effect of an antibiotics, asperlin, is exploited. {yields} Asperlin induced human cervical cancer cell apoptosis through ROS generation. {yields} Asperlin activated DNA-damage related ATM protein and cell cycle associated proteins. {yields} Asperlin could be developed as a new anti-cancer therapeutics. -- Abstract: We exploited the biological activity of an antibiotic agent asperlin isolated from Aspergillus nidulans against human cervical carcinoma cells. We found that asperlin dramatically increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation accompanied by a significant reduction in cell proliferation. Cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP and reduction of Bcl-2 could also be detected after asperlin treatment to the cells. An anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), however, blocked all the apoptotic effects of asperlin. The involvement of oxidative stress in asperlin induced apoptosis could be supported by the findings that ROS- and DNA damage-associated G2/M phase arrest and ATM phosphorylation were increased by asperlin. In addition, expression and phosphorylation of cell cycle proteins as well as G2/M phase arrest in response to asperlin were significantly blocked by NAC or an ATM inhibitor KU-55933 pretreatment. Collectively, our study proved for the first time that asperlin could be developed as a potential anti-cancer therapeutics through ROS generation in HeLa cells.

  3. Detection of primary breast cancer presenting as metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary origin by 111In-pentetreotide scan.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, R; Kim, E E; Raber, M N; Abbruzzese, J L

    1998-02-01

    Women with isolated metastatic carcinoma or adenocarcinoma involving axillary lymph nodes are a well-recognized group of unknown primary carcinoma (UPC) patients with a favorable prognosis. This group of patients are generally treated based on the assumption that they have occult breast cancer. However, to facilitate patient access to the whole spectrum of therapies available for patients with breast cancer, including strategies involving the use of high-dose chemotherapy, a precise diagnosis is increasingly important. In this clinical case we report the detection of a primary breast cancer by 111In-pentetreotide scanning in a woman who presented with metastatic carcinoma in axillary nodes, no palpable breast lesion, a nondiagnostic mammogram, and negative breast ultrasonography. Previous outcomes analysis of patients with UPC have emphasized the value of identifying women with breast cancer. This report suggests that the 111In-pentetreotide scan can contribute specific, clinically useful information in the evaluation of women presenting with metastatic carcinoma in axillary nodes and an occult primary and deserves prospective study in women with UPC presenting with isolated axillary metastases.

  4. Primary pure squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Graur, Florin; Mois, Emil; Al Hajjar, Nadim

    2014-09-01

    Primary pure squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum is a very rare type of duodenal neoplasm and is more likely to be presented as a metastatic tumor. The literature offers little information on this subject and includes very few articles and case reports. Laboratory tests, CT and ultrasound examinations, x-rays and immunohistochemical markers assisted us in making this rare diagnosis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum in a 47 year old female patient, who presented with weight loss and melena. The 8 cm duodenal tumor with pancreas invasion was resected by a cephalic duodenopancreatectomy. The pathology examination revealed a primary duodenal squamous cell carcinoma moderately differentiated (G2), invasive in the head of the pancreas, with keratinization, stage II B (pT4N0MxL0V0R0). Positive outcome after surgery was highlighted, no recurrence being registered at the 6 month CT scan follow-up.

  5. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Del Sordo, Rachele; Bellezza, Guido; Colella, Renato; Mameli, Maria Grazia; Sidoni, Angelo; Cavaliere, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare histologic variant of adenocarcinoma. Generally, this neoplasm occurs in middle age and the clinical presentation does not differ from the most frequent transitional cell carcinomas. The prognosis is frequently poor as at diagnosis it is often in an advanced phase. It is essential to distinguish this carcinoma from metastases, as different therapeutic strategies are often necessary. We present 5 cases of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and we used a panel of histochemical and immunohistochemical markers for differential diagnosis from secondary carcinoma in an attempt to elucidate the histogenetic derivation of this neoplasia.

  6. A Rare Cause of the Cough: Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of Esophagus—Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yekeler, Erdal; Koca, Timur; Vural, Semra

    2012-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a relatively rare malignancy. It is highly progressive and poorly prognostic in untreated conditions. In the western populations, the rate of primary small cell carcinoma in all esophageal cancer types is between 0.05% and 2.4%, while it is endemically increasing up to 7.6% in the eastern populations. Most of the cases are in extensive stage at the time of diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice in limited stages, but treatment must be multimodal in primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus. A 47-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with gradually increasing severe dry cough and slight difficulty in swallowing for 20 days. Chest X-ray graphy was normal, and computed tomography of the chest showed multiple mediastinal lymph nodes and hepatic metastases. Her endoscopic examination revealed an endoluminal vegetative mass between 20 cm and 23 cm of her esophagus. The case was reported as small cell carcinoma of the esophagus on histopathological examination. The case was assumed inoperable, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy were planned. We presented a rare cause of the cough and primary esophageal small cell carcinoma in this paper. PMID:22461794

  7. Prediction of thyroid extracapsular extension with cervical lymph node metastases (ECE-LN) by CEUS and BRAF expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xi; Li, Ying; Zhang, Sheng; Gao, Ming

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our study was to find a specific imaging (contrast-enhanced ultrasound, CEUS) to detect extracapsular extension and cervical lymph node metastases (ECE-LNM) that associated with BRAF protein expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Preoperative utrasonography (US) or CEUS was performed in the diagnosis of extracapsular extension (ECE) in 317 patients with 369 PTC. BRAF protein status was tested on the primary tumor and lymph node involvement. The diagnostic accuracy of CEUS and US was evaluated after thyroid surgery. The association between CEUS and BRAF expression were then analyzed to investigate the diagnostic value of ECE-LNM in PTC. The sensitivity and specificity of CEUS were higher than those in US in the diagnosis of ECE in patients with PTC (91.1, 86.5 vs 49, 55 %). BRAF protein overexpression were significantly associated with ECE (P = 0.0003) and lymph node metastasis (LNM) positive cases (P = 0.0014). The results of CEUS, not US, have a significant correlation with BRAF expression status in PTC samples (P < 0.0001). Associated with BRAF protein expression status, the routine preoperative CEUS could have a good value in the diagnosis of ECE-LNM in PTC and facilitate a surgeon to improve further clinical management.

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of MRI, DWI MRI, FDG-PET/CT and FEC PET/CT in the Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Surgically Staged Endometrial and Cervical Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-21

    Surgically Staged Endometrial and Cervical Carcinoma; Cervical Cancer: Invasive Disease, FIGO Stage 1B1 or Higher; Endometrial Cancer:; Stage 1A With Myometrial Invasion or Any Higher Stage and Grade 3; Stage 1A With Myometrial Invasion or Any Other Higher Stage and Serous Papillary or Clear Cell Sub-types; Stage II Disease or Above and Any Histology Grade

  9. Liquid-based cytology for primary cervical cancer screening: a multi-centre study

    PubMed Central

    Monsonego, J; Autillo-Touati, A; Bergeron, C; Dachez, R; Liaras, J; Saurel, J; Zerat, L; Chatelain, P; Mottot, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this six-centre, split-sample study was to compare ThinPrep fluid-based cytology to the conventional Papanicolaou smear. Six cytopathology laboratories and 35 gynaecologists participated. 5428 patients met the inclusion criteria (age > 18 years old, intact cervix, informed consent). Each cervical sample was used first to prepare a conventional Pap smear, then the sampling device was rinsed into a PreservCyt vial, and a ThinPrep slide was made. Screening of slide pairs was blinded (n = 5428). All non-negative concordant cases (n = 101), all non-concordant cases (n = 206), and a 5% random sample of concordant negative cases (n = 272) underwent review by one independent pathologist then by the panel of 6 investigators. Initial (blinded) screening results for ThinPrep and conventional smears were correlated. Initial diagnoses were correlated with consensus cytological diagnoses. Differences in disease detection were evaluated using McNemar's test. On initial screening, 29% more ASCUS cases and 39% more low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and more severe lesions (LSIL+) were detected on the ThinPrep slides than on the conventional smears (P = 0.001), including 50% more LSIL and 18% more high-grade SIL (HSIL). The ASCUS:SIL ratio was lower for the ThinPrep method (115:132 = 0.87:1) than for the conventional smear method (89:94 = 0.95:1). The same trend was observed for the ASCUS/AGUS:LSIL ratio. Independent and consensus review confirmed 145 LSIL+ diagnoses; of these, 18% more had been detected initially on the ThinPrep slides than on the conventional smears (P = 0.041). The ThinPrep Pap Test is more accurate than the conventional Pap test and has the potential to optimize the effectiveness of primary cervical cancer screening. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11161401

  10. Primary gastric adenosquamous carcinoma in an Indian male.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Rinkesh Kumar; Sharma, Praveen; Kaur, Ramneet; Arora, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the stomach is a very rare tumor comprising less than 0.5% of all stomach malignancies. Here, we report a case of a 37-year-old male, who presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the form of hematemesis and malena. A subtotal gastrectomy was done in view of massive uncontrolled bleed. Histology showed evidence of ASC of the body and antrum with metastasis to the liver, perigastric lymph nodes and peritoneal and pleural cavity.

  11. The Clinical and Economic Benefits of Co-Testing Versus Primary HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Juan C.; Lacey, Michael J.; Lenhart, Gregory M.; Spitzer, Mark; Kulkarni, Rucha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Consensus United States cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend use of combination Pap plus human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for women aged 30 to 65 years. An HPV test was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for primary cervical cancer screening in women age 25 years and older. Here, we present the results of clinical-economic comparisons of Pap plus HPV mRNA testing including genotyping for HPV 16/18 (co-testing) versus DNA-based primary HPV testing with HPV 16/18 genotyping and reflex cytology (HPV primary) for cervical cancer screening. Methods: A health state transition (Markov) model with 1-year cycling was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from healthcare databases and published literature. A hypothetical cohort of one million women receiving triennial cervical cancer screening was simulated from ages 30 to 70 years. Screening strategies compared HPV primary to co-testing. Outcomes included total and incremental differences in costs, invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases, ICC deaths, number of colposcopies, and quality-adjusted life years for cost-effectiveness calculations. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: In a simulation cohort of one million 30-year-old women modeled up to age 70 years, the model predicted that screening with HPV primary testing instead of co-testing could lead to as many as 2,141 more ICC cases and 2,041 more ICC deaths. In the simulation, co-testing demonstrated a greater number of lifetime quality-adjusted life years (22,334) and yielded $39.0 million in savings compared with HPV primary, thereby conferring greater effectiveness at lower cost. Conclusions: Model results demonstrate that co-testing has the potential to provide improved clinical and economic outcomes when compared with HPV primary. While actual cost and outcome data are evaluated, these findings are relevant to U.S. healthcare payers and women's health policy advocates

  12. HPV testing for primary cervical screening: Laboratory issues and evolving requirements for robust quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Cuschieri, Kate; Frayle, Helena; Sani, Cristina; Burroni, Elena

    2016-03-01

    This review aims to highlight the importance of Quality Assurance for Laboratories performing HPV test for Cervical Cancer Screening. An HPV test, to be used as primary screening test, must be validated according to international criteria, based on comparison of its clinical accuracy to HC2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-EIA tests. The number of validated platforms is increasing and appropriate Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs) which can interrogate longitudinal robustness and quality are paramount. This document describes the following topics: (1) the characteristics of an HPV laboratory and the personnel training needs, to ensure an elevated quality of the entire process and the optimal use of the resources; (2) the Quality Assurance, as both internal (IQA) and external quality assessment (EQA) systems, to be implemented and performed, and the description of the existing EQAs, including limitations; (3) general considerations for an optimal EQA program for hrHPV primary screening Due to the importance of Quality Assurance for this field, international efforts are necessary to improve QA International Collaboration.

  13. A Case of Primary Small-Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Ashita; Hirasawa, Yosuke; Yamashina, Mitsumasa; Kaburagi, Naoto; Mima, Takashi; Sugihara, Toru; Hamada, Riu; Gondo, Tatsuo; Ohori, Makoto; Nagao, Toshitaka; Ohno, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Primary small-cell carcinoma arising from the bladder (SmCCB) is uncommon. It differs from urothelial carcinoma (UC), the most common type of bladder cancer, with respect to its cell of origin, biology, and prognosis. Biologically, prostatic SmCCB is much more aggressive than UC, and the prognosis for cases with distant metastasis is especially poor. We report here a case of primary SmCCB (cT3bN1M0) treated with radical cystectomy. PMID:27920687

  14. Unusual primary tumors presenting as papillary carcinomas metastatic to the neck.

    PubMed

    Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Wilt, Marc; Kennel, Pierre; Charpiot, Anne; Rodier, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a metastatic papillary carcinoma in the neck is presumptive evidence of a primary thyroid neoplasm since neck metastases of other primary tumors are uncommon. Immunohistochemical studies may be required to diagnose these metastases. We report 2 cases in which an unrelated tumor mimicked a thyroid malignancy. Both patients had been referred for evaluation of enlarged lymph neck nodes without any other symptoms. In both cases, a lymph node biopsy identified a metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma that was believed to be consistent with a thyroid primary. Thyroidectomy was not performed in either case. Further investigations led to the diagnosis of other primary tumors that were unrelated to the thyroid; the unrelated primaries were an ovarian serous tumor in one patient and a papillary renal cell carcinoma in the other.

  15. Developing a prognostic micro-RNA signature for human cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    How, Christine; Pintilie, Melania; Bruce, Jeff P; Hui, Angela B Y; Clarke, Blaise A; Wong, Philip; Yin, Shaoming; Yan, Rui; Waggott, Daryl; Boutros, Paul C; Fyles, Anthony; Hedley, David W; Hill, Richard P; Milosevic, Michael; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains the third most frequently diagnosed and fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. We sought to develop a micro-RNA signature that was prognostic for disease-free survival, which could potentially allow tailoring of treatment for cervical cancer patients. A candidate prognostic 9-micro-RNA signature set was identified in the training set of 79 frozen specimens. However, three different approaches to validate this signature in an independent cohort of 87 patients with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, were unsuccessful. There are several challenges and considerations associated with developing a prognostic micro-RNA signature for cervical cancer, namely: tumour heterogeneity, lack of concordance between frozen and FFPE specimens, and platform selection for global micro-RNA expression profiling in this disease. Our observations provide an important cautionary tale for future miRNA signature studies for cervical cancer, which can also be potentially applicable to miRNA profiling studies involving other types of human malignancies.

  16. Introduction of molecular HPV testing as the primary technology in cervical cancer screening: Acting on evidence to change the current paradigm.

    PubMed

    Tota, Joseph E; Bentley, James; Blake, Jennifer; Coutlée, François; Duggan, Máire A; Ferenczy, Alex; Franco, Eduardo L; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael; Gotlieb, Walter; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; McLachlin, Meg; Murphy, Joan; Ogilvie, Gina; Ratnam, Sam

    2017-05-01

    Since being introduced in the 1940s, cervical cytology - despite its limitations - has had unequivocal success in reducing cervical cancer burden in many countries. However, we now know that infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and there is overwhelming evidence from large-scale clinical trials, feasibility studies and real-world experience that supports the introduction of molecular testing for HPV as the primary technology in cervical cancer screening (i.e., "HPV primary screening"). While questions remain about the most appropriate age groups for screening, screening interval and triage approach, these should not be considered barriers to implementation. Many countries are in various stages of adopting HPV primary screening, whereas others have not taken any major steps towards introduction of this approach. As a group of clinical experts and researchers in cervical cancer prevention from across Canada, we have jointly authored this comprehensive examination of the evidence to implement HPV primary screening. Our intention is to create a common understanding among policy makers, agencies, clinicians, researchers and other stakeholders about the evidence concerning HPV primary screening to catalyze the adoption of this improved approach to cervical cancer prevention. With the first cohort of vaccinated girls now turning 21, the age when routine screening typically begins, there is increased urgency to introduce HPV primary screening, whose performance may be less adversely affected compared with cervical cytology as a consequence of reduced lesion prevalence post-vaccination.

  17. Collision tumor of the thyroid gland: primary squamous cell and papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Warman, Meir; Lipschitz, Noga; Ikher, Sergey; Halperin, Doron

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Collision tumor of the thyroid gland is defined when independent and histologically distinct tumors coexist within the gland. The presence of both papillary and squamous cell carcinoma in the thyroid gland is unusual. Suggested etiologies include embryonic remanents of squamous epithelium, chronic inflammation, or thyroid malignancies promoting squamous metaplasia. Case Presentation. An elderly patient presented with a rapid enlargement of a long-standing right thyroid nodule. The tumor was locally invasive and unresectable. Pathology revealed the diagnosis of papillary and squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Possible primary sites for squamous cell carcinoma in upper aerodigestive tract were excluded. The patient outcome was fatal although palliative chemoradiotherapy. Discussion. Collision tumor of papillary and squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a rare entity that may imply bad prognosis, as to the presence of the squamous portion. The best treatment includes resection of the tumor; unfortunately it is not possible in most cases.

  18. Primary salivary duct carcinoma of the lung, mucin-rich variant.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Gregory A; Grimes, Brandon S; Xian, Rena R; Lee, Jay M; Barjaktarevic, Igor; Xu, Haodong

    2016-01-01

    Primary salivary gland-type lung cancer is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising from the seromucinous glands of the respiratory tract. Histopathologically, they are identical to salivary gland neoplasms of the head and neck. While mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are overwhelmingly the most common subtypes found in the lung, reports of uncommon subtypes can be found in the literature. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman with primary lung salivary duct carcinoma, mucin-rich variant--an exceedingly rare subtype of an already rare malignant salivary-type neoplasm. One case of primary lung salivary duct carcinoma has been reported in the literature; however, the mucin-rich variant has never been described in the lung. Furthermore, the tumor in our case bears a rare BRAF G464V mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a BRAF G464V mutation detected in a salivary duct carcinoma or any other salivary-type neoplasm.

  19. A Rare Entity of Breast Cancer: Primary Neuroendocrin Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Mehmet Abdussamet; Kocataş, Ali; Özkan, Yasemin; Kalaycı, Mustafa Uygar; Alış, Halil

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer throughout the world, however neuroendocrine tumors of the breast are rarely encountered. Herein we present a 75-year-old patient who was admitted to our clinic due to a mass in her breast and was operated on with a preliminary diagnosis of invasive breast carcinoma, However she was diagnosed with a neuroendocrine tumor after pathologic evaluation. The patient is the oldest one among others with a neuroendocrine tumor in the breast reported in the literature.

  20. Increasing attendance in a cervical cancer screening programme by personal invitation: experience of a Lithuanian primary health care centre

    PubMed Central

    Rūta, Kurtinaitienė; Jolita, Rimienė; Ingrida, Labanauskaitė; Nadežda, Lipunova; Giedrė, Smailytė

    2016-01-01

    Background. High participation rates are an essential component of an effective screening programme and many approaches were introduced as being successful for enhancing compliance to screening guidelines. The aim of this study was to evaluate to which extent a personal invitation by mail increases the rate of attendance in a cervical cancer screening programme in a primary health care centre. Materials and methods. The study was carried out as a pilot project to gain insight into feasibility of applying a well-known compliance increasing measure in Lithuanian population. The study included a sample of women registered at the primary health care centre in Panevėžys who had not participated in the cervical cancer screening programme for six and more years. Personal registered invitation letters to attend the primary health care centre for a Pap smear were sent out to 1789 women by mail. Results. In total, 2195 women were tested during 2011 at the primary health care centre. 487 (22.2%) of them attended the screening programme after receiving a personal invitation letter. Response rate for attending screening after receiving a personal invitation letter was 27.3%. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that personal invitation letters addressed to long-term non-attendees could markedly increase participation in cervical cancer screening in Lithuania. PMID:28356807

  1. Optimal Management Strategies for Primary HPV Testing for Cervical Screening: Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation for the National Cervical Screening Program in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michaela; Lew, Jie-Bin; Hughes, Suzanne; Yuill, Susan; Hammond, Ian; Saville, Marion; Canfell, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Background Several countries are implementing a transition to HPV testing for cervical screening in response to the introduction of HPV vaccination and evidence indicating that HPV screening is more effective than cytology. In Australia, a 2017 transition from 2-yearly conventional cytology in 18–20 to 69 years to 5-yearly primary HPV screening in 25 to 74 years will involve partial genotyping for HPV 16/18 with direct referral to colposcopy for this higher risk group. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal management of women positive for other high-risk HPV types (not 16/18) ('OHR HPV'). Methods We used a dynamic model of HPV transmission, vaccination, natural history and cervical screening to determine the optimal management of women positive for OHR HPV. We assumed cytology triage testing was used to inform management in this group and that those with high-grade cytology would be referred to colposcopy and those with negative cytology would receive 12-month surveillance. For those with OHR HPV and low-grade cytology (considered to be a single low-grade category in Australia incorporating ASC-US and LSIL), we evaluated (1) the 20-year risk of invasive cervical cancer assuming this group are referred for 12-month follow-up vs. colposcopy, and compared this to the risk in women with low-grade cytology under the current program (i.e. an accepted benchmark risk for 12-month follow-up in Australia); (2) the population-level impact of the whole program, assuming this group are referred to 12-month surveillance vs. colposcopy; and (3) the cost-effectiveness of immediate colposcopy compared to 12-month follow-up. Evaluation was performed both for HPV-unvaccinated cohorts and cohorts offered vaccination (coverage ~72%). Findings The estimated 20-year risk of cervical cancer is ≤1.0% at all ages if this group are referred to colposcopy vs. ≤1.2% if followed-up in 12 months, both of which are lower than the ≤2.6% benchmark risk in women with low

  2. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cantril, S.T.; Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N/sub 0/ patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease.

  3. Caspase-independent autophagic cytotoxicity in etoposide-treated CaSki cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Baek; Tong, Seo-Yun; Kim, Jung-Jin; Um, Soo-Jong; Park, Jong-Sup

    2007-10-01

    We studied the in vitro mechanism of etoposide-induced cell death in cervical cancer cells. Etoposide is cytotoxic to these cells, causing cell death by both apoptosis and autophagy, which has recently been described as a possible mechanism for nonapoptotic cell death. Electron microscopy revealed that autophagosomes/autolysosomes exhibited an autophagic appearance in the presence of etoposide. When autophagy was blocked by inhibitors of autophagy, including 3-methyladenine, both the expression of beclin 1 protein and the antitumor effect of etoposide were suppressed. Benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, a pan-caspase inhibitor, reduced etoposide-induced cytotoxicity in CaSki cells. Hence, autophagy and apoptosis likely occur concurrently in etoposide-treated cervical cancer cells.

  4. Primary Cutaneous Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma With ETV6-NTRK3 Translocation.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sapna M; Beattie, Adam; Ling, Xia; Jennings, Lawrence J; Guitart, Joan

    2016-11-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described tumor of the salivary glands named for its morphological and molecular similarity to secretory carcinoma of the breast. Many primary carcinomas arising from the adnexal glands also share similar morphology to those arising from the breast. Brandt et al first described primary cutaneous MASC in 2009 and since then only 2 other cases have been reported. Herein, we describe a long-standing mass on the arm of an otherwise healthy 40-year-old female. Histologic examination revealed a circumscribed but unencapsulated, nodular tumor composed of bland epithelial cells arranged in solid and microcystic growth patterns. The cells showed vacuolated cytoplasm and round to oval nuclei with vesicular chromatin. Intraluminal homogenous eosinophilic secretions were present. Mitotic figures were not identified. The tumor cells stained positive for CK8/18, CK7, and S100 but were negative for other markers performed, including estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2/neu, paired box 8 (PAX8), and thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1). As the patient clinically had no other masses or known carcinomas, a diagnosis of primary cutaneous MASC was rendered. The ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was subsequently detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification, further supporting the diagnosis. We present this case to review the histologic features of MASC and highlight the importance of recognizing this lesion not only as a possible cutaneous metastasis but also as a primary cutaneous tumor.

  5. Osteoradionecrosis of the subaxial cervical spine following treatment for head and neck carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Khorsandi, A S; Mourad, W F; Urken, M L; Persky, M S; Lazarus, C L; Jacobson, A S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the subaxial cervical spine, a serious long-term complication of radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancers that can lead to pain, vertebral instability, myelopathy and cord compression. Methods: This is a single-institution retrospective review of patients diagnosed and treated for ORN of the subaxial cervical spine following surgery and radiation for head and neck cancer. Results: We report PET/CT imaging and MRI for four patients, each with extensive treatment for recurrent head and neck cancer. Osteomyelitis (OM) and discitis are the end-stage manifestations of ORN of the subaxial spine. Conclusion: ORN of the subaxial spine has variable imaging appearance and needs to be differentiated from recurrent or metastatic disease. Surgical violation of the posterior pharyngeal wall on top of the compromised vasculature in patients treated heavily with RT may pre-dispose the subaxial cervical vertebrae to ORN, with possible resultant OM and discitis. MRI and PET/CT imaging are complimentary in this setting. PET/CT images may be misinterpreted in view of the history of head and neck cancer. MRI should be utilized for definitive diagnosis of OM and discitis in view of its imaging specificity. Advances in knowledge: We identify the end-stage manifestation of ORN in the sub-axial spine on PET/CT and MRI to facilitate its correct diagnosis. PMID:25375626

  6. Expression of HIF-2α and VEGF in Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Its Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lixia; Chen, Qiang; Hu, Jing; Chen, Yue; Liu, Chenglong; Xu, Changshui

    2016-01-01

    CSCC is a systemic disease involving polygenic alteration and multiple steps, and HIF and VEGF are closely associated with tumorigenesis. Specimens surgically resected from 64 cases of CSCC and 22 cases of normal cervical tissue were selected randomly to detect the expression of HIF-2α and VEGF in CSCC for exploring their clinical significance; information regarding the age, lymph node metastasis, and FIGO staging were collected as well; expression of HIF-2α and VEGF was detected by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that the expression of HIF-2α and VEGF mRNA in CSCC was significantly higher than that of normal cervical tissues and showed a positive correlation between them. The positive rates of HIF-2α and VEGF protein expression in CSCC and normal cervical tissues were 93.8% and 18.2%, respectively, with correlation between them. The expression of both HIF-2α and VEGF mRNA did not relate closely to age but the FIGO staging and lymph node metastasis. Compared with the counterpart control group, CSCC tissues with high FIGO staging and lymph node metastasis had a higher level of HIF-2α and VEGF mRNA expression. So, HIF-2α and VEGF were overexpressed in CSCC, which has a great clinical significance for its diagnosis. PMID:27413748

  7. Increased expression of long non-coding RNA XIST predicts favorable prognosis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma subsequent to definitive chemoradiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Reiko; Miyagawa, Ryu; Yamashita, Hideomi; Morikawa, Teppei; Okuma, Kae; Fukayama, Masashi; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    The present retrospective study aimed to examine the association between the expression of long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and clinical prognosis in the pretreatment formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients that underwent platinum-based chemoradiation therapy. Between 2001 and 2013, 49 consecutive patients with squamous cell cervical carcinoma were selected for the present study (median follow-up period, 44.1 months). The patients possessed an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage of IB1/IIA1 (with pelvic lymph node metastasis), IB2 or IIA2-IVA, and had been treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy. The pretreatment FFPE tumor biopsies of the patients obtained diagnosis were used for analysis. Total RNAs were extracted from the FFPE tumor tissues and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine the expression level of lncRNAs. The expression level of X inactive-specific transcript (XIST) demonstrated a significant association with the overall survival rate (P=0.014). The 4-year overall survival rates were 87.1 and 54.4% in the high and low XIST expression groups, respectively. Since the expression of XIST is associated with the overall survival rate, this lncRNA has the potential to become a predictor for the prognosis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients that are treated with chemoradiation therapy. Additional studies are required to investigate the underlying mechanisms of XIST that are associated with prognosis. PMID:27899965

  8. Adding Maximum Standard Uptake Value of Primary Lesion and Lymph Nodes in 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET Helps Predict Distant Metastasis in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjian; Hu, Chaosu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find out the most valuable parameter of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for predicting distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods From June 2007 through December 2010, 43 non-metastatic NPC patients who underwent 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) before radical Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy were enrolled and reviewed retrospectively. PET parameters including maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glucose (TLG) of both primary tumor and cervical lymph nodes were calculated. Total SUVmax were recorded as the sum of SUVmax of primary tumor and cervical lymph nodes. Total SUVmean, Total MTV and Total TLG were calculated in the same way as Total SUVmax. Results The median follow-up was 32 months (range, 23–68 months). Distant metastasis was the main pattern of treatment failure. Univariate analysis showed higher SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV, and TLG of primary tumor, Total SUVmax, Total MTV, Total TLG, and stage T3-4 were factors predicting for significantly poorer distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.042, p = 0.008, p = 0.023, p = 0.023, p = 0.024, p = 0.033, p = 0.016, p = 0.015). In multivariate analysis, Total SUVmax was the independent predictive factor for distant metastasis (p = 0.046). Spearman Rank correlation analysis showed mediate to strong correlationship between Total SUVmax and SUVmax-T, and between Total SUVmax and SUVmax-N(Spearman coefficient:0.568 and 0.834;p = 0.000 and p = 0.000). Conclusions Preliminary results indicated that Total SUVmax was an independently predictive factor for distant metastasis in patients of nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy. PMID:25068373

  9. [Challenges to implement strategies for the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Allen, Betania; Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofia; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    Mortality due to cervical cancer (CC) has decreased in developed countries given extensive screening and effective coverage. In developing countries mortality rates due to CC remain high. Since the mid-nineties there has been a decrease in mortality due to CC in Mexico, which can be attributed to the increase in coverage of the Papanicolaou (PAP) (beta -.195, IC95% -.274, -.117) and the decrease in the birth rate (beta -.407, IC95% -.632, -.182). The use of the PAP in conjunction with an HPV test within the early CC detection program would have a synergistic effect; HPV testing should be combined with the Pap test. Primary prevention of CC is possible with the HPV vaccine. This vaccine will be an additional tool for reducing CC-related morbidity and mortality, but will not replace screening and treatment. To adopt a prevention policy that includes an HPV vaccine we will need to: determine the burden of HPV-related disease; have sufficient epidemiological evidence and data about technical aspects of the vaccine; take into account the psyschosocial and ethical aspects of the vaccine and guarantee good organization of vaccine implementation.

  10. HPV16 Oncoproteins Induce MMPs/RECK-TIMP-2 Imbalance in Primary Keratinocytes: Possible Implications in Cervical Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cardeal, Laura Beatriz da Silva; Boccardo, Enrique; Termini, Lara; Rabachini, Tatiana; Andreoli, Maria Antonieta; di Loreto, Celso; Filho, Adhemar Longatto; Villa, Luisa Lina; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types, principally HPV16 and 18 is the main risk factor for the development of this malignancy. However, the onset of invasive tumor occurs many years after initial exposure in a minority of infected women. This suggests that other factors beyond viral infection are necessary for tumor establishment and progression. Tumor progression is characterized by an increase in secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by either the tumor cells themselves or tumor-associated fibroblasts or macrophages. Increased MMPs expression, including MMP-2, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP, has been observed during cervical carcinoma progression. These proteins have been associated with degradation of ECM components, tumor invasion, metastasis and recurrence. However, few studies have evaluated the interplay between HPV infection and the expression and activity of MMPs and their regulators in cervical cancer. We analyzed the effect of HPV16 oncoproteins on the expression and activity of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, and their inhibitors TIMP-2 and RECK in cultures of human keratinocytes. We observed that E7 expression is associated with increased pro-MMP-9 activity in the epithelial component of organotypic cultures, while E6 and E7 oncoproteins co-expression down-regulates RECK and TIMP-2 levels in organotypic and monolayers cultures. Finally, a study conducted in human cervical tissues showed a decrease in RECK expression levels in precancer and cancer lesions. Our results indicate that HPV oncoproteins promote MMPs/RECK-TIMP-2 imbalance which may be involved in HPV-associated lesions outcome. PMID:22438955

  11. Determining the potential of desmoglein 3 as a sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for the detection of micrometastasis in patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Spadigam, Anita; Dhupar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Despite advances in surgical and radiotherapy techniques, the presence of lymph node metastasis drastically decreases the survival rate of patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Thus the accurate pathological staging of the neck is critical. Desmoglein 3 (DSG3), a desmosomal cadherin protein is said to be highly expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and in metastatic cervical lymph nodes, but absent in non-invaded nodes. With an aim to improve the sensitivity of tumour cell detection, we investigated the potential of DSG3 as an immunohistochemical marker for the detection of occult lymph node metastasis in patients with primary OSCC. Material and methods Forty-seven lymph node specimens from 10 patients who underwent neck dissection for primary OSCC were immunostained with DSG3. Results The DSG3 positivity was noted in the six positive lymph nodes. However, when using DSG3 as an immunohistochemical marker, no additional micrometastatic deposits were evident in the histologically negative nodes. Interestingly, tumour marker DSG3-positive macrophages could be identified within the subcapsular sinuses, medullary sinuses, and the interfollicular areas. Conclusions Our findings suggest that although DSG3 is overexpressed in HNSCC, it is not specific and may not prove to be a potent immunohistochemical marker to detect micrometastasis. The role of tumour marker-positive macrophages within the lymph nodes needs to be investigated further.

  12. Evidence for early neurodegeneration in the cervical cord of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Khaled; Schneider, Torben; Solanky, Bhavana S; Yiannakas, Marios C; Altmann, Dan R; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Peters, Amy L; Day, Brian L; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-06-01

    Spinal neurodegeneration is an important determinant of disability progression in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Advanced imaging techniques, such as single-voxel (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging, have increased pathological specificity for neurodegeneration, but are challenging to implement in the spinal cord and have yet to be applied in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis. By combining these imaging techniques with new clinical measures, which reflect spinal cord pathology more closely than conventional clinical tests, we explored the potential for spinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging to detect early spinal neurodegeneration that may be responsible for clinical disability. Data from 21 patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis within 6 years of disease onset, and 24 control subjects were analysed. Patients were clinically assessed on grip strength, vibration perception thresholds and postural stability, in addition to the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Nine Hole Peg Test, Timed 25-Foot Walk Test, Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, and Modified Ashworth Scale. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging of the cervical cord and conventional brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. Multivariate analyses and multiple regression models were used to assess the differences in imaging measures between groups and the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging measures and clinical scores, correcting for age, gender, spinal cord cross-sectional area, brain T2 lesion volume, and brain white matter and grey matter volume fractions. Although patients did not show significant cord atrophy when compared with healthy controls, they had significantly lower total N-acetyl-aspartate (mean 4.01 versus 5.31 mmol/l, P = 0.020) and glutamate-glutamine (mean 4.65 versus 5.93 mmol/l, P = 0.043) than controls. Patients showed an increase in q

  13. Evidence for early neurodegeneration in the cervical cord of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Torben; Solanky, Bhavana S.; Yiannakas, Marios C.; Altmann, Dan R.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; Peters, Amy L.; Day, Brian L.; Thompson, Alan J.; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Spinal neurodegeneration is an important determinant of disability progression in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Advanced imaging techniques, such as single-voxel 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging, have increased pathological specificity for neurodegeneration, but are challenging to implement in the spinal cord and have yet to be applied in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis. By combining these imaging techniques with new clinical measures, which reflect spinal cord pathology more closely than conventional clinical tests, we explored the potential for spinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging to detect early spinal neurodegeneration that may be responsible for clinical disability. Data from 21 patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis within 6 years of disease onset, and 24 control subjects were analysed. Patients were clinically assessed on grip strength, vibration perception thresholds and postural stability, in addition to the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Nine Hole Peg Test, Timed 25-Foot Walk Test, Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, and Modified Ashworth Scale. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging of the cervical cord and conventional brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. Multivariate analyses and multiple regression models were used to assess the differences in imaging measures between groups and the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging measures and clinical scores, correcting for age, gender, spinal cord cross-sectional area, brain T2 lesion volume, and brain white matter and grey matter volume fractions. Although patients did not show significant cord atrophy when compared with healthy controls, they had significantly lower total N-acetyl-aspartate (mean 4.01 versus 5.31 mmol/l, P = 0.020) and glutamate-glutamine (mean 4.65 versus 5.93 mmol/l, P = 0.043) than controls. Patients showed an increase in q

  14. Intrameningioma Metastasis: Clinical Manifestation of Occult Primary Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Nasir, Humaira; Mansoor, Salman; Khan, Innayatullah; Manzoor, Hana; Kiani, Immad; Raja, Avais; Sulehria, Touqeer

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lung carcinoma metastasizing into a meningioma in a 68-year-old female, who presented with progressively worsening right-sided hemiparesis and multiple episodes of adult onset epilepsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an oval-shaped extra-axial hypointense lesion with a central hyperintense nodule in the left frontal region favoring a most probable diagnosis of a meningioma. Left frontoparietal craniotomy and excision of the tumor were carried out and histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin stain revealed a meningioma with metastatic adenocarcinoma and was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The origin of metastasis was presumed to be from the lungs. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest with contrast showed a 3.1 x 2.9 cm mass with spiculated margins in the left lower lobe. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) proved it to be adenocarcinoma. PMID:27588225

  15. Primary colonic signet ring cell carcinoma in a young patient

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Raghunath; Kumar, Neha; Krishna, Sunil; Shenoy, Rajgopal

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with colicky abdominal pain for 3 months. Pain was associated with episodes of vomiting, abdominal distension and constipation. She also had loss of weight for this duration. General physical examination was unremarkable and the abdomen was soft, with no palpable organomegaly. A CT of the abdomen showed small bowel and ascending colon dilation with multiple air fluid levels. There was also a short segment of circumferential bowel wall thickening and luminal narrowing in the hepatic flexure with sudden transition of bowel diameter. She underwent a right hemicolectomy after necessary preoperative investigations. Histopathology revealed signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). This case highlights the importance of detecting such a lesion in a young, otherwise fit woman. The challenge lies in early diagnosis and awareness of general practitioners about this aggressive form of colonic tumours. PMID:24654235

  16. Primary adenosquamous carcinoma of the liver: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyung Han; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma of the liver is a rare variant of cholangiocarcinoma. It is known to be a highly aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis, but its pathogenesis remains unclear owing to limited data in the literature. We report a case of 56-year-old woman who presented with a 1-week history of epigastric pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6.5-cm ill-defined mass with low signal intensity in the left lobe of the liver, which was suspicious of cholangiocarcinoma. The patient underwent left hemihepatectomy. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of malignant glandular and squamous components and staged as pT2aN1. Despite postoperative chemoradiation, the patient had recurrence 8 months after surgery. PMID:28081592

  17. SU-E-T-36: An Investigation of the Margin From CTV to PTV Using Retraction Method for Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D; Chen, J; Hao, Y; Liao, C; Huang, Y; Mo, Y; Wei, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This work employs the retraction method to compute and evaluate the margin from CTV to PTV based on the influence of target dosimetry of setup errors during cervical carcinoma patients treatment. Methods: Sixteen patients with cervical cancer were treated by Elekta synergy and received a total of 305 KV-CBCT images. The iso-center of the initial plans were changed according to the setup errors to simulate radiotherapy and then recalculated the dose distribution using leaf sequences and MUs for individual plans. The margin from CTV to PTV will be concluded both by the method of retracting (Fixed the PTV of the original plan, and retract PTV a certain distance defined as simulative organization CTVnx. The minimum distance value from PTV to CTVnx which get specified doses, namely guarantee at least 99% CTV volume can receive the dose of 95%, is the margin CTV to PTV we found) and the former formula method. Results: (1)The setup errors of 16 patients in X, Y and Z directions were(1.13±2.94) mm,(−1.63±7.13) mm,(−0.65±2.25) mm. (2) The distance between CTVx and PTV was 5, 9 and 3mm in X, Y and Z directions According to 2.5+0.7σ. (3) Transplantation plans displayed 99% of CTVx10- CTVx7 and received 95% of prescription dose, but CTVx6- CTVx3 departed from standard of clinic.In order to protect normal tissues, we selected 7mm as the minimum value of the margin from CTV to PTV. Conclusion: We have test an retraction method for the margin from CTV to PTV evaluation. The retraction method is more reliable than the formula method for calculating the margin from the CTV to the PTV, because it represented practice of treatment, and increasing a new method in this field.

  18. Prognostic implication of human papillomavirus types and species in cervical cancer patients undergoing primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yat Ming; Cheung, Tak Hong; Yeo, Winnie; Mo, Frankie; Yu, Mei Yung; Lee, Kun Min; Ho, Wendy C S; Yeung, Apple C M; Law, Priscilla T Y; Chan, Paul K S

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types are associated with cervical cancer. It is well established that individual HPV types vary in oncogenicity, but current data on their prognostic implication remain controversial. We examined the association between HPV types/species and the survival of 236 Chinese women aged 26-87 (mean 54.4) years after receiving primary treatment for cervical cancer. Overall, 45.8% were of FIGO stage I, 41.9% stage II, and 12.3% stage III. The four most prevalent types found were HPV-16 (60.2%), HPV-18 (21.6%), HPV-52 (11.9%), and HPV-58 (9.3%). Overall, 19.5% of patients had multiple-type infections, 78.4% harboured one or more alpha-9 species, and 28.8% harboured one or more alpha-7 species. After a median follow-up of 8.0 years, 156 (66.1%) patients survived. The 3-year overall survival rate was 75.5%. Factors independently associated with a poorer 3-year overall survival were age >60 years, tumour size >4 cm, lymph node involvement and treatment with radiotherapy+/-chemotherapy. Univariate analysis showed HPV-16 single-type infection was associated with a marginally poorer disease-specific survival (71.6% vs. 87.0%, HR: 1.71, 95% CI = 1.01-2.90), whereas non-HPV-16 alpha-9 species was associated with a better disease-specific survival (90.0% vs. 76.2%, HR: 0.36, 95% CI = 0.16-0.79). However, on multivariate analysis, HPV infection status irrespective of different grouping methods, including individual types, species, single-type or co-infection, did not carry any significant prognostic significance. In conclusion, we did not observe any association between infection with a particular HPV type/species and survival. An HPV type-based stratification in treatment and follow-up plan could not be recommended.

  19. Clinical impact of cervical lymph node involvement and central neck dissection in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of 368 cases.

    PubMed

    Bozec, Alexandre; Dassonville, Olivier; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Poissonnet, Gilles; Sudaka, Anne; Peyrottes, Isabelle; Ettore, Francette; Haudebourg, Juliette; Bussière, Françoise; Benisvy, Danielle; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Sadoul, Jean Louis; Hofman, Paul; Lassale, Sandra; Vallicioni, Jacques; Demard, François; Santini, José

    2011-08-01

    The impact of cervical lymph node metastases and the optimal surgical management of the neck in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remain controversial. The objectives of this retrospective study were to determine, in patients with PTC, the predictive factors and the impact on tumor recurrence rate of cervical lymph node involvement, and to evaluate the oncologic results and the morbidity of central neck dissection (CND). We reviewed the records of patients who had undergone surgical treatment for PTC at our institution between 1990 and 2000. A total of 368 patients (86 men and 282 women) were included in this study. Young age (p = 0.02), tumor size (p = 0.001) and extrathyroidal tumor extension (p = 0.003) were significant predictive factors of cervical lymph node metastatic involvement (multivariate analysis). Initial metastatic cervical lymph node involvement was identified as an independent risk factor of tumor recurrence (multivariate analysis, p = 0.01). Metastatic lymph node(s) were found in prophylactic CND specimens in 31% of the patients. CND increased the risk of postoperative hypocalcemia (p = 0.008) and of permanent hypoparathyroidism (p = 0.002). In conclusion, cervical lymph node metastatic involvement at the time of initial surgery is an independent risk factor of tumor recurrence. CND provided an up-staging of more than 30% of patients with a clinically N0 neck, but was associated with significant morbidity regarding parathyroid function.

  20. Disagreement between Human Papillomavirus Assays: An Unexpected Challenge for the Choice of an Assay in Primary Cervical Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the disagreement in primary cervical screening between four human papillomavirus assays: Hybrid Capture 2, cobas, CLART, and APTIMA. Material from 5,064 SurePath samples of women participating in routine cervical screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, was tested with the four assays. Positive agreement between the assays was measured as the conditional probability that the results of all compared assays were positive given that at least one assay returned a positive result. Of all 5,064 samples, 1,679 (33.2%) tested positive on at least one of the assays. Among these, 41% tested positive on all four. Agreement was lower in women aged ≥30 years (30%, vs. 49% at <30 years), in primary screening samples (29%, vs. 38% in follow-up samples), and in women with concurrent normal cytology (22%, vs. 68% with abnormal cytology). Among primary screening samples from women aged 30–65 years (n = 2,881), 23% tested positive on at least one assay, and 42 to 58% of these showed positive agreement on any compared pair of the assays. While 4% of primary screening samples showed abnormal cytology, 6 to 10% were discordant on any pair of assays. A literature review corroborated our findings of considerable disagreement between human papillomavirus assays. This suggested that the extent of disagreement in primary screening is neither population- nor storage media-specific, leaving assay design differences as the most probable cause. The substantially different selection of women testing positive on the various human papillomavirus assays represents an unexpected challenge for the choice of an assay in primary cervical screening, and for follow up of in particular HPV positive/cytology normal women. PMID:24466262

  1. Anterior Urethrectomy for Primary Carcinoma of the Female Urethra Mimicking a Urethral Caruncle

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Ji Sung; Oh, Mi Mi; Lee, Jeong Gu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report a case of primary carcinoma of the female urethra. A 52-year-old woman presented with a palpable urethral mass associated with intermittent pain that she first experienced a few months prior. Clinical examination showed a urethral mass that appeared to be a caruncle; therefore, simple carunclectomy was performed. However, on histological examination, the mass was revealed to be a squamous cell carcinoma; therefore, anterior urethrectomy was performed. During a 4-year follow-up period, the patient has been well with no dysuria, dyspareunia, or incontinence. PMID:24466468

  2. Anterior urethrectomy for primary carcinoma of the female urethra mimicking a urethral caruncle.

    PubMed

    Shim, Ji Sung; Oh, Mi Mi; Lee, Jeong Gu; Bae, Jae Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Here we report a case of primary carcinoma of the female urethra. A 52-year-old woman presented with a palpable urethral mass associated with intermittent pain that she first experienced a few months prior. Clinical examination showed a urethral mass that appeared to be a caruncle; therefore, simple carunclectomy was performed. However, on histological examination, the mass was revealed to be a squamous cell carcinoma; therefore, anterior urethrectomy was performed. During a 4-year follow-up period, the patient has been well with no dysuria, dyspareunia, or incontinence.

  3. Early-stage primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Moon, Won; Kim, Sung Eun

    2013-01-01

    Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colorectum detected at an early stage is very rare; most cases are detected at an advanced stage. Therefore, its prognosis is poorer than that of ordinary colorectal cancer. A 56-year-old Korean man was seen at this hospital for management of signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon. Colonoscopic examination revealed a IIa-like, ill-defined and flatly elevated 9-mm residual tumor in the cecum. Endoscopic mucosal resection was preformed. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed signet ring cell carcinoma that had invaded the lamina propria without venous or perineural invasion. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and positron CT showed no evidence of primary lesions or distant metastasis. An additional laparoscopic right-hemicolectomy was performed; no residual tumor or lymph node metastasis was found. We report a case of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon detected at an early stage and provide a review of the literature. PMID:23840131

  4. Syzygium cumini inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines: a primary study

    PubMed Central

    Barh, D; Viswanathan, G

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is common among women in the Indian subcontinent and the incidences and death rates are gradually increasing over the years. Several dietary phytochemicals have been reported to have growth inhibitory and apoptotic effect on HeLa and other cervical cell lines. In this study, using Hoechst 33342 staining, MTT, Annexin V-FLUOS/PI and TUNEL assays we demonstrated that Syzygium cumini extract inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The phytochemical, its mode of action and safety issues are yet to be determined. PMID:22275971

  5. Syzygium cumini inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines: a primary study.

    PubMed

    Barh, D; Viswanathan, G

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is common among women in the Indian subcontinent and the incidences and death rates are gradually increasing over the years. Several dietary phytochemicals have been reported to have growth inhibitory and apoptotic effect on HeLa and other cervical cell lines. In this study, using Hoechst 33342 staining, MTT, Annexin V-FLUOS/PI and TUNEL assays we demonstrated that Syzygium cumini extract inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The phytochemical, its mode of action and safety issues are yet to be determined.

  6. [Magnetotherapy designed to affect cervical sympathetic ganglia for the treatment of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Veselova, E V; Kamenskikh, T G; Raĭgorodkiĭ, Iu M; Kolbenev, I O; Myshkina, E S

    2010-01-01

    The traveling magnetic field was used to treat primary open-angle glaucoma. The field was applied to the projection of cervical sympathetic ganglia of the patients. Hemodynamic parameters of posterior short ciliary arteries and central retinal artery were analysed along with visual evoked potentials, visual field limits, and visual acuity. It was shown that magnetotherapy with the use of an AMO-ATOS apparatus produces better clinical results in patients with stage I and II primary open-angle glaucoma compared with medicamentous therapy (intake of trental tablets).

  7. An animal model of buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis induced by U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Pang, Liang; Qian, Yu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yong; Wu, Mingyi; Ouyang, Zilan; Gao, Zhi; Qiu, Lihua

    2013-04-01

    The buccal mucosa is the site with the highest risk of contracting a malignancy in habitual betel quid chewers who expose the buccal mucosa to high doses of carcinogens. Of all oral cancers, those of the buccal mucosa are associated with the poorest prognoses. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an animal model to evaluate new treatment modalities for buccal mucosa cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the imprinting control region (ICR) mouse animal model could be employed as a cancer model for buccal mucosa cancer. Sixty male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups, a normal group (n=10) and a cancer-induced group (n=50). Each mouse in the cancer group was inoculated with 0.05 ml U14 cancer cell suspension (1×10(7)/ml) on the buccal mucosa. Histological staining and gene expression assays revealed that neck lymph node metastasis animal models were established. After 20 days, the cheek tumor formation rate of the ICR mice reached 100%. Furthermore, the neck lymph node metastasis rate was 53%. We identified that U14 cells produce strong metastasis in ICR mice. Metastasis of the tumor to the lymph node began with carcinoma metastasis encroaching on the marginal sinus. Then it infiltrated to the cortex and medulla and the infiltration continued until the normal lymph node structure was completely damaged. This animal model may be employed in medical research on buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that U14 cell-induced mouse buccal mucosa cancer may be a potential cancer model for human buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma.

  8. External ultrasonography of the neck does not add diagnostic value to integrated positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scanning in the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Blom, R L G M; Vliegen, R F A; Schreurs, W M J; Belgers, H J; Stohr, I; Oostenbrug, L E; Sosef, M N

    2012-08-01

    One of the objectives of preoperative imaging in esophageal cancer patients is the detection of cervical lymph node metastases. Traditionally, external ultrasonography of the neck has been combined with computed tomography (CT) in order to improve the detection of cervical metastases. In general, integrated positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has been shown to be superior to CT or PET regarding staging and therefore may limit the role of external ultrasonography of the neck. The objective of this study was to determine the additional value of external ultrasonography of the neck to PET-CT. This study included all patients referred our center for treatment of esophageal carcinoma. Diagnostic staging was performed to determine treatment plan. Cervical lymph nodes were evaluated by external ultrasonography of the neck and PET-CT. In case of suspect lymph nodes on external ultrasonography or PET-CT, fine needle aspiration (FNA) was performed. Between 2008 and 2010, 170 out of 195 referred patients underwent both external ultrasonography of the neck and PET-CT. Of all patients, 84% were diagnosed with a tumor at or below the distal esophagus. In 140 of 170 patients, the cervical region was not suspect; no FNA was performed. Seven out of 170 patients had suspect nodes on both PET-CT and external ultrasonography. Five out of seven patients had cytologically confirmed malignant lymph nodes, one of seven had benign nodes, in one patient FNA was not performed; exclusion from esophagectomy was based on intra-abdominal metastases. In one out of 170 patients, PET-CT showed suspect nodes combined with a negative external ultrasonography; cytology of these nodes was benign. Twenty-two out of 170 patients had a negative PET-CT with suspect nodes on external ultrasonography. In 18 of 22 patients, cervical lymph nodes were cytologically confirmed benign; in four patients, FNA was not possible or inconclusive. At a median postoperative follow-up of 15 months

  9. [A case of primary carcinoma associated with anal fistula].

    PubMed

    Nushijima, Youichirou; Nakano, Katsutoshi; Sugimoto, Keishi; Nakaguchi, Kazunori; Kan, Kazuomi; Maruyama, Hirohide; Doi, Sadayuki; Okamura, Shu; Murata, Kohei

    2014-11-01

    A 47-year-old man with no history of anal fistula was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of perianal pain. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed perianal abscess. Incision and drainage were performed under spinal anesthesia. Ten months after drainage, magnetic resonance imaging revealed anal fistula on the left side of the anus. Subsequently, core-out and seton procedures were performed for ischiorectalis type III anal fistula. Pathological examination of the resected specimen of anal fistula revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, leading to the diagnosis of carcinoma associated with anal fistula. No distant metastases or enlarged lymph nodes were observed on positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. We performed abdominoperineal resection with wide resection of ischiorectalis fat tissue. The pathology results were tub2, A, ly0, v0, n0, PM0, DM0, RM0, H0, P0, M0, Stage II. Negative pressure wound therapy was performed for perineum deficiency, after which rapid wound healing was observed. Left inguinal lymph node recurrence was detected 8 months after surgery, for which radiotherapy was administered. Distant metastasis was detected 11 months after surgery. The patient died 21 months after surgery.

  10. Radiation changes in vaginal and cervical cytology in carcinoma of the cervix uteri

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Gupta, Y.N.; Sanyal, B.

    1982-02-01

    Radiation changes are observed in all postirradiated smears of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix from 56 females, although to a variable degree. After 1 year the changes subside gradually. A high cornification index is a good guide for recurrence. The significance of dysplastic cells as premonition for recurrence is debatable. The presence of malignant cells at any stage was considered of grave significance, and indicates poor radiation response or recurrence.

  11. Primary retroperitoneal transitional cell carcinoma presenting as a dumb-bell tumour.

    PubMed

    Basu, S; Ansari, M; Gupta, S; Kumar, A

    2009-11-01

    We report a retroperitoneal transitional cell carcinoma arising from the primitive urogenital remnants of a 56-year-old married Indian woman. She presented with a huge cystic mass in the hypogastrium and right iliac fossa, which extended into the right thigh as a massive dumb-bell tumour. On exploration, it was found not to be arising from any known retroperitoneal structure. The mass was excised, and the histopathology confirmed transitional cell carcinoma with positive margins. Though she received postoperative chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin and cisplatin, she developed extensive local recurrence and hepatic secondaries, and succumbed to the disease after ten months of follow-up. We highlight the rarity of the disease, its atypical presentation as a cystic dumb-bell lump, its diagnostic challenges and aggressive behaviour, and review the literature on primary retroperitoneal transitional cell carcinomas.

  12. Ductal Breast Carcinoma Metastatic to the Stomach Resembling Primary Linitis Plastica in a Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Giulia Costanza; Ravaioli, Noemi; De Giglio, Andrea; Brambilla, Marta; Prosperi, Enrico; Ribacchi, Franca; Meacci, Marialuisa; Crinò, Lucio; Maiettini, Daniele; Chiari, Rita; Metro, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the gastrointestinal tract are very rare occurrences. Among the histological subtypes of breast cancer, invasive lobular carcinomas have a high capacity of metastasis to uncommon sites including the stomach. Conversely, there has not been sufficient evidence supporting the gastric metastasis of invasive ductal carcinoma. Herein, we report a unique case of metastatic ductal breast carcinoma mimicking primary linitis plastica in a male patient, particularly focusing on the clinical and pathological features of presentation. Moreover, we propose a immunohistochemical panel of selected antibodies including those for cytokeratin 20, cytokeratin 7, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, E-cadherin, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, and GATA binding protein 3 for an accurate differential diagnosis. PMID:27721883

  13. Preoperative evaluation of cervical lymph nodes for metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma: A comparative study of efficacy of palpation, ultrasonography and computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Niranjan; Rath, Krushna Chandra; Upadhyay, Upendra Nath; Raut, Subhrajit; Baig, Shadab Ali; Birmiwal, Krishna Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Oral cancer is a major health threat in a country like India, where patients frequently present with advanced disease with regional dissemination to cervical lymph nodes. The management and prognosis depend on the status of cervical lymph nodes. Thus, it becomes imperative to diagnose and evaluate them preoperatively. Aim: This study aims to compare the efficacy of palpation, ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) in the preoperative evaluation of cervical lymph node for metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Settings: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, SCB Dental College and Hospital, Cuttack, Odisha, India. Methodology: A total of thirty patients of either sex of age group 20–70 years, diagnosed with oral cancer were randomly selected for the study and subjected to palpation, USG and computer tomography followed by histopathology for confirmation. The results were evaluate statistically by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value and accuracy. Results: For level IA palpation, USG and CT were equally sensitive (100%) and specific (100%). Although palpation, USG and CT were equally sensitive (80%) for level IB, the specificity of palpation (70%) cervical lymph nodes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. CT along with USG should be used for accurate preoperative evaluation of cervical lymph node. PMID:28356691

  14. The Characteristic of S100A7 Induction by the Hippo-YAP Pathway in Cervical and Glossopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Enze; Wang, Rui; Wang, Junhao; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Jinsan; He, Dacheng; Xiao, Xueyuan

    2016-01-01

    S100A7 is expressed in many squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Our previous study revealed that S100A7 was dramatically induced in several SCC cells and activation of the Hippo pathway significantly promoted S100A7 in epidermoid carcinoma cells. However, whether the Hippo pathway regulates S100A7 expression in SCCs remains largely unknown. Here, we uncover that S100A7 induction by the Hippo-YAP pathway displays different characteristic in cervical and glossopharyngeal SCC. In well differentiated HCC94 cervical cells and FaDu pharyngeal cells, S100A7 is easily induced by both suspension and dense culture, which is accompanied by an increase in YAP phosphorylation and a decrease in nuclear YAP. Strikingly, these correlations of S100A7 and YAP reverse after recovery of cell attachment or relief from dense culture. Further examination finds that S100A7 induction is significantly repressed by nuclear YAP, which is validated by activation or inhibition of the Hippo pathway via loss- and/or gain-of- LATS1 and MST1 function. Subsequently, we prove that TEAD1 is required for YAP transcriptional repression of S100A7. However, S100A7 is hardly induced in poorly differentiated SiHa cervical cells and NCI-H226 pulmonary cells even in suspension or activation of the Hippo pathway. More importantly, cervical and lingual SCC tissues array analyses show that S100A7 expression displays the positive correlation with pYAP-S127 and the negative correlation with nuclear YAP in the majority of well differentiated but not in poorly differentiated tissues. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the different induction of S100A7 toward activation of the Hippo pathway mainly depends on the degree of cell differentiation in cervical and glossopharyngeal SCC. PMID:27907036

  15. Apoptosis in cervical squamous carcinoma: predictive value for survival following radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, J; Bolger, B; Armour, A; Symonds, R; Mao, J; Burnett, R

    2000-01-01

    Background—Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, can be induced by radiotherapy. The extent of apoptosis in a tumour before treatment may have important implications for response to radiotherapy and long term survival. Aim—To examine the extent of apoptosis in tumour tissue from patients with squamous carcinoma of the cervix before radiotherapy, and to correlate this with response to treatment and prognosis. Methods—The percentage of apoptotic cells was assessed in 146 carcinomas of the cervix from patients scheduled to receive radiotherapy. The CAS 200 static image analysis system was used to count the number of tumour nuclei per high power field, while the numbers of apoptotic cells in the same field were visualised simultaneously on the image analyser and recorded manually. Results—The median apoptotic level was 0.73%. Patients were divided into two groups around the median. There was no statistically significant difference in outcome between the two groups as determined by long term survival following radiotherapy. Conclusions—The CAS 200 static image analyser system can be used to assist in the rapid semiautomated assessment of apoptosis in conventionally prepared tissue. The results suggest that the apoptotic state of a tumour before treatment is of no value in predicting response to radiotherapy and subsequent prognosis. Tumour stage, size, and BrdU labelling index, as a measure of proliferation rate, remain the most important prognostic factors in terms of predicting local tumour control. Key Words: apoptosis • uterine cervix • squamous cell carcinoma PMID:10823138

  16. Minimally-invasive endoscopically-assisted neck dissection for lateral cervical metastases of thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zongmin; Xu, Zhengang; Li, Zhengjiang; An, Changming; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Yiming; Ni, Song; Tang, Pingzhang; Sayan, Anna; Ilankovan, Velupillai

    2014-11-01

    Traditional open operations for lateral neck dissection in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma leave an unsightly scar. We report complete lateral neck dissection and thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma using an endoscopically-assisted approach through a small incision, and evaluate its feasibility and safety. Between March 2010 and January 2013, 6 patients with no definite metastases to the lymph nodes at levels II-IV, and 20 with definite metastases to the lymph nodes at levels II-V were selected. Thyroidectomy, dissection of the central compartment (level VI), and ipsilateral level II-IV and II-V neck dissections were done through a small incision in the neck. The steps of endoscopic lateral neck dissection were similar to those of conventional operations. The mean operating time for the whole procedure was 3.57 hours (range 2.5 - 5.0). It was successful in all patients and there were no serious complications or serious blood loss. A total of 21 patients had lymph node metastases in the central and lateral zones. The mean yield of lymph nodes was 38.6 (range 16-61). There was no evidence of residual or recurrent disease at follow-up, and the cosmetic result was excellent. Minimally invasive, video-assisted comprehensive neck dissection for metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma is feasible and safe, and has excellent cosmetic results. Further studies with a larger number of patients and long-term follow-up are needed to verify its oncological validity.

  17. Primary culture of glial cells from mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion: a valuable tool for studying glial cell biology.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Leite, Camila Megale; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves

    2010-12-15

    Central nervous system glial cells as astrocytes and microglia have been investigated in vitro and many intracellular pathways have been clarified upon various stimuli. Peripheral glial cells, however, are not as deeply investigated in vitro despite its importance role in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Based on our previous experience of culturing neuronal cells, our objective was to standardize and morphologically characterize a primary culture of mouse superior cervical ganglion glial cells in order to obtain a useful tool to study peripheral glial cell biology. Superior cervical ganglia from neonatal C57BL6 mice were enzymatically and mechanically dissociated and cells were plated on diluted Matrigel coated wells in a final concentration of 10,000cells/well. Five to 8 days post plating, glial cell cultures were fixed for morphological and immunocytochemical characterization. Glial cells showed a flat and irregular shape, two or three long cytoplasm processes, and round, oval or long shaped nuclei, with regular outline. Cell proliferation and mitosis were detected both qualitative and quantitatively. Glial cells were able to maintain their phenotype in our culture model including immunoreactivity against glial cell marker GFAP. This is the first description of immunocytochemical characterization of mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion glial cells in primary culture. This work discusses the uses and limitations of our model as a tool to study many aspects of peripheral glial cell biology.

  18. Human papillomavirus testing versus cytology in primary cervical cancer screening: End-of-study and extended follow-up results from the Canadian cervical cancer screening trial.

    PubMed

    Isidean, Sandra D; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Gilbert, Laura; Reid, Stephanie L; Rodrigues, Isabel; Ferenczy, Alex; Ratnam, Sam; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial was a randomized controlled trial comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and Papanicolaou cytology to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grades 2 or worse (CIN2+) among women aged 30-69 years attending routine cervical cancer screening in Montreal and St. John's, Canada (n = 10,154). We examined screening and prognostic values of enrollment cytologic and HPV testing results. Extended follow-up data were available for St. John's participants (n = 5,754; 501,682.6 person-months). HPV testing detected more CIN2+ than cytology during protocol-defined (82.9 vs. 44.4%) and extended (54.2 vs. 19.3%) follow-up periods, respectively. Three-year risks ranged from 0.87% (95% CI: 0.37-2.05) for HPV-/Pap- women to 35.77% (95% CI: 25.88-48.04) for HPV+/Pap+ women. Genotype-specific risks ranged from 0.90% (95% CI: 0.40-2.01) to 43.84% (95% CI: 32.42-57.24) among HPV- and HPV16+ women, respectively, exceeding those associated with Pap+ or HPV+ results taken individually or jointly. Ten-year risks ranged from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.60-2.19) for HPV-/Pap- women to 26.05% (95% CI: 15.34-42.13) for HPV+/Pap+ women and genotype-specific risks ranged from 1.13% (95% CI: 0.59-2.14) to 32.78% (95% CI: 21.15-48.51) among women testing HPV- and HPV16+, respectively. Abnormal cytology stratified risks most meaningfully for HPV+ women. Primary HPV testing every 3 years provided a similar or greater level of reassurance against disease risks as currently recommended screening strategies. HPV-based cervical screening may allow for greater disease detection than cytology-based screening and permit safe extensions of screening intervals; genotype-specific testing could provide further improvement in the positive predictive value of such screening.

  19. The Prognostic Value of Baseline Lymphocyte, Neutrophil, and Monocyte Counts in Locally Advanced Cervical Carcinoma Treated with Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Himler, Justin; Nagel, Christa I.; Resnick, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Background. To determine the prognostic significance of pretreatment levels of circulating lymphocyte (CLC), neutrophil (CNC), and monocyte (CMC) counts in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (CC) treated with definitive radiation. Methods. A retrospective, dual-institution review of patients with Stage IB2-IVA CC from 2005 to 2015. Progression-free (PFS) and Overall Survival (OS) were determined for high and low CLC, CNC, and CMC groups. Multivariate analysis was used to confirm prognostic value of baseline leukocyte counts. Results. 181 patients were included. Median follow-up time was 26 (3–89) months. CNC had no effect on PFS or OS. PFS was similar between CMC groups; however, OS was significantly improved for patients with low CMC (62.5 versus 45.3 months, p = 0.016). High CLC was associated with improved PFS (48.5 versus 27.8 months, p = 0.048) and OS (58.4 versus 34.9 months, p = 0.048). On multivariate analysis, high CNC was associated with increased relapse risk (HR 1.12, p = 0.006) and low CLC was associated with increased mortality risk (HR 0.67, p = 0.027). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that leukocyte values can provide prognostic information in CC. These hypothesis-generating findings warrant further prospective investigations. PMID:28239396

  20. Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland: a report of three cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Nada A; Faquin, William C; Sadow, Peter M

    2013-12-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common salivary gland malignancy and it may arise anywhere that salivary tissue is present. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma has been reported to arise de novo within the thyroid gland, and here, we describe three cases of primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid, including clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and clinical follow-up, along with a discussion of tumor origin and a review of the literature.

  1. Gene expression profiling allows distinction between primary and metastatic squamous cell carcinomas in the lung.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Simon G; Estilo, Cherry; Maghami, Ellie; Sarkaria, Inderpal S; Pham, Duy Khanh; O-charoenrat, Pornchai; Socci, Nicholas D; Ngai, Ivan; Carlson, Diane; Ghossein, Ronald; Viale, Agnes; Park, Bernard J; Rusch, Valerie W; Singh, Bhuvanesh

    2005-04-15

    Lung neoplasms commonly develop in patients previously treated for head and neck carcinomas. The derivation of these tumors, either as new primary lung cancers or as metastatic head and neck cancers, is difficult to establish based on clinical or histopathologic criteria since both are squamous cell carcinomas and have identical features under light microscopy. However, this distinction has significant treatment and prognostic implications. Gene expression profiling was performed on a panel of 52 sequentially collected patients with either primary lung (n = 21) or primary head and neck (n = 31) carcinomas using the Affymetrix HG_U95Av2 high-density oligonucleotide microarray. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering with Ward linkage and the Pearson correlation metric was performed. To assess robustness, bootstrap resampling was performed with 1,000 iterations. A t test of the normalized values for each gene was used to determine the genes responsible for segregating head and neck from lung primary carcinomas, and those with the most differential expression were used for later analyses. In the absence of a large "test" set of tumors, we used a supervised leave-one-out cross-validation to test how well we could predict the tumor origin. Once a gene expression profile was established, 12 lung lesions taken from patients with previously treated head and neck cancers were similarly analyzed by gene expression profiling to determine their sites of origin. Unsupervised clustering analysis separated the study cohort into two distinct groups which reliably remained segregated with bootstrap resampling. Group 1 consisted of 30 tongue carcinomas. Group 2 consisted of 21 lung cancers and 1 tongue carcinoma. The clustering was not changed even when normal lung or tongue profiles were subtracted from the corresponding carcinomatous lesions, and a leave-one-out cross-validation showed a 98% correct prediction (see Supplementary Data 1). A minimum set of 500 genes required to

  2. Mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma arising from primary sclerosing cholangitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yokomuro, Shigeki; Arima, Yasuo; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Kannda, Tomohiro; Arai, Masao; Uchida, Eiji; Akimaru, Koho; Tajiri, Takashi

    2007-02-01

    A 60-year-old woman with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and high levels of ALP, gamma-GTP, and DUPAN-2 was admitted to our institution for examination. The patient did not have ulcerative colitis or pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Imaging studies revealed atypical dilation of bile ducts in the left lobe of the liver. Repeated cytologic examinations of the bile showed atypical cells consistent with adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent extended resection of the left lobe of the liver and was found to have intraductal papillary carcinoma with associated mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma. This carcinoma fills dilated bile duct lumens with mucin. This tumor differs morphologically from typical cholangiocarcinoma, which is usually seen in the late stages of PSC. Just one case of mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma arising from PSC has been reported worldwide. The patient has had no signs of recurrence after 27 months. Patients with mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma, as in the case of its pancreatic counterpart, may have a better prognosis and a higher survival rate than patients with typical cholangiocarcinomas.

  3. FIGO stage IB1 cervical carcinoma: Place and principles of brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Huertas, A; Oldrini, S; Nesseler, J-P; Courrech, F; Rétif, P; Charra-Brunaud, C; Peiffert, D

    2017-02-20

    The treatment of cervical cancers according to FIGO staging is well defined. For FIGO stage IB2 or more, chemoradiotherapy followed by uterovaginal brachytherapy boost is the standard treatment. Surgery is the preferred choice for less advanced tumors. However, most French institutions propose preoperative brachytherapy followed by hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy for FIGO stage IB1 tumors over 2cm. Brachytherapy is also used for the boost after adjuvant pelvic external beam radiotherapy. Tridimensional dosimetry with optimization allows better treatment planning, delivering high doses to target volumes with limited irradiation to the organs at risk. We will discuss the indications of brachytherapy for FIGO stage IB1 tumors and the principles of pulsed-dose rate and high-dose rate techniques.

  4. Influence of chromosomal integration on glucocorticoid-regulated transcription of growth-stimulating papillomavirus genes E6 and E7 in cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Von Knebel Doeberitz, M.; Bauknecht, T.; Bartsch, D.; Zur Hausen, H. )

    1991-02-15

    In most cervical carcinoma cells the E6 and E7 genes of specific human papillomaviruses are transcribed from viral sequences integrated into host cell chromosomes. Glucocorticoids activate the promoter elements of various human papillomaviruses in transient-expression assays. The authors have analyzed the effect of dexamethasone on the transcription rate of human papillomaviruses 18 E6 and E7 genes integrated at different chromosomal sites in four cervical cancer cell lines. Dexamethasone led to an increase in the transcription rate of the integrated E6-E7 sequences in C4-1 and C4-2 cells but led to a decrease in SW 756 cells and did not affect the transcription rate in HeLa cells. It thus appears that dominant regulatory mechanisms presumably depending on the chromosomal integration site are able to override the response of the viral promoter to steroid hormones. The growth rate of all dexamethasone-treated cell lines correlated consistently with the expression of the papillomavirus E6 and E7 genes, supporting their role in the maintenance of the proliferative phenotype of cervical carcinoma cells. Since human papillomaviruses are integrated into the host cell genome at variable, presumably randomly selected chromosomal loci, regulatory mechanisms that influence viral gene expression, and hence cell growth, may differ among cancers of independent clonal origin.

  5. IPA Analysis of Cervicovaginal Fluid from Precancerous Women Points to the Presence of Biomarkers for the Precancerous State of Cervical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Van Ostade, Xaveer; Dom, Martin; Van Raemdonck, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Despite large gaps in our knowledge on the intracellular mechanism leading to cervical cancer, the pathways induced by oncogenic high-risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and those finally causing cervical cancer are increasingly being unraveled. Assuming that precancerous tissue is recognized and lysed by the immune system—which is in many cases incomplete because of the counteraction by the HPV virus—we hypothesize that several intracellular factors, involved in induction and development of precancerous lesions and/or cervical cancer are being released into the cervicovaginal fluid (CVF). These factors can then be seen as markers for the precancerous state, and when they persist they are indicative for an increased risk for cervical carcinoma. In a previous study, we analyzed the proteomic profiles of six CVF samples from women with different stages of precancerous lesions and compared these with the CVF proteomes from healthy women. Here, we extend these observations by investigating these proteomes by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). We show that proteins in CVF from precancerous women are clearly more involved in pathways that make up the ‘hallmarks of cancer’, as compared to CVF proteins from healthy persons. Moreover, after literature search, proteins classified by IPA in the ‘cancer’ category, were more correlated with cervical cancer when they originated from CVF from precancerous women. Many of these proteins formed a network with angiotensin II as central mediator. The search for ‘network biomarkers’, rather than single biomarkers, could drastically increase specificity, sensitivity and prognostic value of cervical cancer diagnosis, making use of an easy to handle fluid, the CVF. PMID:28250389

  6. Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Breast: A Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Faruk; Gündeş, Ebubekir; Vatansev, Celalettin; Çakır, Murat; Toy, Hatice; Emlik, Ganime Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast is extremely rare. More than 97% of neuroendocrine tumors occur in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Three cases that have been operated in our clinic and had a diagnosis of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast were assessed, along with literature data. Histopathological diagnoses were obtained by preoperative core needle biopsy. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in two cases, and modified radical mastectomy in one. In all cases, immunohistochemical studies were positive for neuron-specific enolase and synaptophysin. All patients received adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and one patient received additional radiotherapy (RT). Recurrence or distant metastasis was not detected during long-term follow-up after surgery.

  7. Primary Pure Keratinising Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Rare Malignancy with Aggressive Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Leela; Garg, Malini; Singh, Garima; Singh, Sompal

    2016-01-01

    Primary well differentiated keratinising Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) is a rare gall bladder malignancy accounting for 3.3% of all gall bladder carcinomas. Here we present a case of a 70-year-old female with complaints of dyspepsia and right upper quadrant pain for 3 months. Ultrasonography showed gall stones along with thickened and irregular gall bladder wall. Grossly an exophytic growth was noted involving large part of the body of gall bladder. Histological features were of well differentiated SCC with extensive keratinisation involving full thickness of the wall. No glandular component was seen. Metastasis from other primary was ruled out after thorough work-up. SCC of gall bladder has an infiltrative growth pattern and behaves aggressively. Early diagnosis plays the most important role in increasing the survival. PMID:27790451

  8. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult. PMID:23798840

  9. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult.

  10. Retroperitoneal and intrahepatic metastasis from primary clear cell carcinoma of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Junjie; He, Du; Hu, Weiming; Liu, Xubao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and the incidence is increasing as a result of growing hepatitis B and C virus infections. Primary clear cell carcinoma of the liver (PCCCL) is a rare subgroup of primary HCC, which has low metastatic potential and infrequently reported in literature. Retroperitoneal and intrahepatic metastasis of PCCCL has not been reported previously. Case Summary: Here, we present a 55-year-old male with retroperitoneal and intrahepatic metastasis of PCCCL who is managed with surgical method and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) at our institution. When the patient is followed up in 16 months after surgery and TACE, he is alive without any extrahepatic metastasis and abnomal liver function. Conclusion: We concluded that surgical resection of retroperitoneal metastasis and TACE of the intrahepatic tumors provided an appropriate strategy for the patient with unresectable PCCCL accompanied with extra-hepatic metastasis. PMID:28328858

  11. Rigosertib Is a More Effective Radiosensitizer Than Cisplatin in Concurrent Chemoradiation Treatment of Cervical Carcinoma, In Vitro and In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Agoni, Lorenzo; Basu, Indranil; Gupta, Seema; Alfieri, Alan; Gambino, Angela; Goldberg, Gary L.; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Guha, Chandan

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To compare rigosertib versus cisplatin as an effective radiosensitizing agent for cervical malignancies. Methods and Materials: Rigosertib and cisplatin were tested in cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and C33A. A 24-hour incubation with rigosertib and cisplatin, before irradiation (2-8 Gy), was used for clonogenic survival assays. Cell cycle analysis (propidium iodide staining) and DNA damage (γ-H2AX expression) were evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorter cytometry. Rigosertib was also tested in vivo in tumor growth experiments on cervical cancer xenografts. Results: Rigosertib was demonstrated to induce a G{sub 2}/M block in cancer cells. Survival curve comparison revealed a dose modification factor, as index of radiosensitization effect, of 1.1-1.3 for cisplatin and 1.4-2.2 for rigosertib. With 6-Gy irradiation, an increase in DNA damage of 15%-25% was achieved in both HeLa and C33A cells with cisplatin pretreatment, and a 71-108% increase with rigosertib pretreatment. In vivo tumor growth studies demonstrated higher performance of rigosertib when compared with cisplatin, with 53% longer tumor growth delay. Conclusions: Rigosertib was more effective than cisplatin when combined with radiation and caused minimal toxicity. These data support the need for clinical trials with rigosertib in combination therapy for patients with cervical carcinoma.

  12. Primary Bilateral Fallopian Tube Carcinoma The Report of a Single Case with Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hariprasad, Prajna; S., Hariprasad; Srinivas, Teerthanath; Shetty K., Jayrama

    2013-01-01

    Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is an extremely uncommon neoplasm of the female genital tract. Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma (PFTC) has a clinical and a histological resemblance to Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC). We are reporting a case of PFTC in a 55 year old tubectomized, postmenopausal woman with the non-specific complaints of a watery vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain. The clinical and radiological findings suggested a bilateral tubo-ovarian abscess. On laprotomy, a bilateral fallopian tube tumour was seen, with a focal extension to the surface of the right ovary from the right fallopian tube. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral adnexectomy andomentectomy, along with excision of the draining lymph nodes, was done. The histopathological examination revealed a bilateral papillary serous carcinoma of the fallopian tube. The patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy with Paclitaxel. There was no evidence of any recurrence, after 2 years of regular follow up. The clinical signs and symptoms of fallopian tube neoplasms are usually non-specific. The primary treatment remains a surgical resection, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation. The prognosis is poor, although long-term survivors have been reported. PMID:23814748

  13. Primary ameloblastic carcinoma of the maxilla: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    UZAWA, NARIKAZU; SUZUKI, MIHO; MIURA, CHIKA; TOMOMATSU, NOBUYOSHI; IZUMO, TOSHIYUKI; HARADA, KIYOSHI

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma (AC) is a rare malignant odontogenic neoplasm that tends to occur in the mandible rather than in the maxilla. This malignancy is classified as a tumor that combines the morphological features of ameloblastoma and carcinoma, regardless of the presence or absence of metastasis. In addition, AC has been classified into two types, primary and secondary. The former develops de novo and the latter develops by malignant transformation of a pre-existing benign ameloblastoma. The present study describes the case of a 22-year-old patient with primary AC of the maxilla. A review of the literature focusing on the clinical details, treatment results and histopathological and phenotypic information available for ameloblastic carcinoma of the maxilla from a 60-year period was also performed. As a result, it was found that primary AC is dominant in the maxilla and does not exhibit an aggressive phenotype compared with secondary AC. In addition, the presence of recurrence was found to correlate with mortality, indicating that early, aggressive and complete removal of the tumor is the best treatment for survival. PMID:25436009

  14. Differential tissue-specific protein markers of vaginal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hellman, K; Alaiya, A A; Becker, S; Lomnytska, M; Schedvins, K; Steinberg, W; Hellström, A-C; Andersson, S; Hellman, U; Auer, G

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to identify proteins differentially expressed in vaginal cancer to elucidate relevant cancer-related proteins. A total of 16 fresh-frozen tissue biopsies, consisting of 5 biopsies from normal vaginal epithelium, 6 from primary vaginal carcinomas and 5 from primary cervical carcinomas, were analysed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Of the 43 proteins identified with significant alterations in protein expression between non-tumourous and tumourous tissue, 26 were upregulated and 17 were downregulated. Some were similarly altered in vaginal and cervical carcinoma, including cytoskeletal proteins, tumour suppressor proteins, oncoproteins implicated in apoptosis and proteins in the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. Three proteins were uniquely altered in vaginal carcinoma (DDX48, erbB3-binding protein and biliverdin reductase) and five in cervical carcinoma (peroxiredoxin 2, annexin A2, sarcomeric tropomyosin kappa, human ribonuclease inhibitor and prolyl-4-hydrolase beta). The identified proteins imply involvement of multiple different cellular pathways in the carcinogenesis of vaginal carcinoma. Similar protein alterations were found between vaginal and cervical carcinoma suggesting common tumourigenesis. However, the expression level of some of these proteins markedly differs among the three tissue specimens indicating that they might be useful molecular markers. PMID:19367286

  15. Two Different Cell Populations Is an Important Clue for Diagnosis of Primary Cutaneous Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Banu Ince; Karadeniz, Müjde; Bozdoğan, Nazan

    2017-01-01

    Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma (PCACC) is a very rare malignancy. The differential diagnosis of PCACCs in pathology practice can be difficult and a group of primary and metastatic lesions, including adenoid basal cell carcinoma of the skin, should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Besides histomorphological clues, immunohistochemistry studies are very helpful in the differential diagnosis of PCACC. We report herein a case of PCACC with extensive immunohistochemical studies and review the literature from an immunohistochemistry perspective. PMID:28243477

  16. Sclerosing sweat duct carcinoma of the nose with multiple cervical lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Moon, Mi-Jin; Cho, Kyu-Sup; Lee, Yoon-Se; Nam, Su-Bong

    2012-08-01

    Sclerosing sweat duct carcinoma (SSDC) in the nose, a rare occurrence with no specific symptoms, is frequently confused with rhinophyma or other inflammatory disease. In this report, we describe a 64-year-old woman who presented with a mass on her nasal dorsum for 1 year. Initially, the tumor had been misdiagnosed as a rhinophyma and followed-up for 1 year. She was referred due to a persistent nasal and neck mass. Deep incisional biopsy was performed to produce sufficient tissue and the histopathologic results showed SSDC. We performed wide local excision and reconstruction using radial forearm musculocutaneous free flaps with a costal cartilage framework followed by bilateral neck dissection. SSDC is seldom recognized and is frequently clinically confused with benign syringoma prior to pathologic diagnosis. Wide and deep incisional biopsy is necessary for the correct diagnosis and successful treatment of SSDC.

  17. Dosimetric comparison between step-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy for upper thoracic and cervical esophageal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Min; Li, Qilin; Ning, Zhonghua; Gu, Wendong; Huang, Jin; Mu, Jinming; Pei, Honglei

    2016-07-01

    To compare and analyze the dosimetric characteristics of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) vs step-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (sIMRT) for upper thoracic and cervical esophageal carcinoma. Single-arc VMAT (VMAT1), dual-arc VMAT (VMAT2), and 7-field sIMRT plans were designed for 30 patients with upper thoracic or cervical esophageal carcinoma. Planning target volume (PTV) was prescribed to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions, and PTV1 was prescribed to 60 Gy in 28 fractions. The parameters evaluated included dose homogeneity and conformality, dose to organs at risk (OARs), and delivery efficiency. (1) In comparison to sIMRT, VMAT provided a systematic improvement in PTV1 coverage. The homogeneity index of VMAT1 was better than that of VMAT2. There were no significant differences among sIMRT, VMAT1, and VMAT2 in PTV coverage. (2) VMAT1 and VMAT2 reduced the maximum dose of spinal cord as compared with sIMRT (p < 0.05). The rest dose-volume characteristics of OARs were similar. (3) Monitor units of VMAT2 and VMAT1 were more than sIMRT. However, the treatment time of VMAT1, VMAT2, and sIMRT was (2.0 ± 0.2), (2.8 ± 0.3), and (9.8 ± 0.8) minutes, respectively. VMAT1 was the fastest, and the difference was statistically significant. In the treatment of upper thoracic and cervical esophageal carcinoma by the AXESSE linac, compared with 7-field sIMRT, VMAT showed better PTV1 coverage and superior spinal cord sparing. Single-arc VMAT had similar target volume coverage and the sparing of OAR to dual-arc VMAT, with shortest treatment time and highest treatment efficiency in the 3 kinds of plans.

  18. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage IB2, II, or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  19. Phototoxicity of Liposomal Zn- and Al-phthalocyanine Against Cervical and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jason; Yee, Michael; Kim, Hayoung; Cheung, Jennifer; Chino, Takahiro; Düzgüneş, Nejat; Konopka, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes light to activate a photosensitizer in the presence of oxygen, and leads to local photodamage by the generation of highly reactive oxygen species (ROS). Liposomal delivery of photosensitizers is adaptable to the treatment of cancers. We examined the phototoxicity of free or liposome-embedded phthalocyanine photosensitizers using HeLa cervical carcinoma and HSC-3 oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Material/Methods Liposomes were composed of palmitoyloleoyphosphatidylcholine (POPC): phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and contained either zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) or aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPc). Free or liposomal ZnPc and AlPc were incubated with cells for 24 h at 37°C. Cells incubated with ZnPc were exposed to broadband visible light (350–800 nm; light dose 43.2 J/cm2), whereas cells treated with AlPc were exposed to light at 690 nm (light dose 3.6 J/cm2). The effect of folate receptor-targeted liposomal ZnPc was evaluated with HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity was analyzed by the Alamar Blue assay. Results Cell viability, expressed as a percentage of control cells, was calculated according to the formula [(A570–A600) of test cells]×100/[(A570–A600) of control cells]. The relative percentage changes then defined the phototoxic efficacy of the experimental conditions. In HeLa cells, 1 μM free ZnPc and AlPc, reduced cell viability to 52.7±2.1 and 15.4±8.0%, respectively. Liposomal phthalocyanines, at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 μM, reduced the viability to 68.0±8.6, 15.1±9.9 and 0% (ZnPc), and to 25.8±8.2, 0 and 0% (AlPc), respectively. In HSC-3 cells, 1 μM free ZnPc and AlPc, reduced cell viability to 22.1±2.8 and 56.6±8.6%, respectively. With 1 μM liposomal ZnPc and AlPc, the viability was reduced to 0 and 21.3±0.3%, respectively. Conclusions The embedding of phthalocyanines in liposomes enhanced their phototoxicity and this effect was dependent on cell type. PMID:27932777

  20. Primary corneal papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma associated with pigmentary keratitis in four dogs.

    PubMed

    Bernays, M E; Flemming, D; Peiffer, R L

    1999-01-15

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and squamous papilloma are rarely reported as primary lesions of the cornea in dogs. One case of corneal papilloma and 3 cases of SCC, each arising as a primary central corneal neoplasm rather than spreading from adjacent limbal conjunctiva, were reviewed. The most common cause of SCC in animals is chronic exposure of lightly pigmented epithelium to UV light; however, all dogs in this study had a history of chronic pigmentary keratitis. Three of the 4 dogs were of brachycephalic breeds with naturally proptotic eyes and oversized palpebral fissures that may have exposed the cornea to greater excessive solar radiation. Alternatively, mechanical factors that caused chronic changes in the cornea may have been causative factors for induction of primary dysplastic or neoplastic changes. Primary corneal neoplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of corneal masses.

  1. Intracranial hypertension as the primary symptom of gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jiali; Xu, Lingjia; Yin, Xinzhen; Zhang, Baorong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intracranial hypertension (IH) is a neurological disorder characterized by increased intracranial pressure. It is a poorly understood syndrome that most commonly manifests nonspecific symptoms such as stroke-like headache, vision changes, nausea, vomiting, and papilledema. IH has been reported in young cancer patients but never in association with gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma. Methods: Here, we discuss the case of an 18-year-old girl with gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma in which IH was the primary symptom accompanied by the even rarer symptom of cutaneous metastases. We also present a review of the relevant literature. The patient experienced frequent headaches, vomiting, and blurred vision but showed no abnormal findings on cranial imaging studies. Further examination showed multiple skin nodules on the abdomen. Then pathological and immunohistochemical examination of gastroscopic specimens and the biopsied subcutaneous nodules were done. Results: Pathological and immunohistochemical examination of gastroscopic specimens and the biopsied subcutaneous nodules confirmed gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma with skin metastases. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma primarily presenting IH and accompanied by subcutaneous metastases. This case emphasizes the importance of excluding malignancy from the differential diagnosis of IH. PMID:27583897

  2. Expression of c-erbB3 protein in primary breast carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, R.; Yadav, M.; Nair, S.; Kutty, M. K.

    1998-01-01

    Expression of c-erbB3 protein was investigated in 104 primary breast carcinomas comprising nine comedo ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 91 invasive ductal carcinomas and four invasive lobular carcinomas using two monoclonal antibodies, RTJ1 and RTJ2. Of the 91 invasive ductal carcinomas, seven contained the comedo DCIS component adjacent to the invasive component. An immunohistochemical technique was used to evaluate the association between expression of c-erbB3 and clinical parameters and tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), c-erbB2, cathepsin-D and p53 in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissues. Our results indicated that RTJ1 and RTJ2 gave identical staining patterns and concordant results. It was found that the overexpression of c-erbB3 protein was observed in 67% (6/9) of comedo DCIS, 52% (44/84) of invasive ductal carcinomas, 71% (5/7) of carcinomas containing both the in situ and invasive lesions and 25% (1/4) of invasive lobular carcinomas. A significant relationship (P < 0.05) was observed between strong immunoreactivity of c-erbB3 protein and histological grade, EGFR and cathepsin-D, but not with expression of c-erbB2, p53, oestrogen receptor status, lymph node metastases or age of patient. However, we noted that a high percentage of oestrogen receptor-negative tumours (59%), lymph node-positive tumours (63%) and c-erbB2 (63%) were strongly positive for c-erbB3 protein. We have also documented that a high percentage of EGFR (67%), c-erbB2 (67%), p53 (75%) and cathepsin-D-positive DCIS (60%) were strongly positive for c-erbB3. These observations suggest that overexpression of c-erbB3 protein could play an important role in tumour progression from non-invasive to invasive and, also, that it may have the potential to be used as a marker for poor prognosis of breast cancer. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9823984

  3. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with cervical nodal necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Mei; Chen, Chunyan; Huang, Ying; Tian, Li; Duan, Zhijun; Han, Fei; Liao, Junfang; Deng, Meiling; Sio, Terence T.; Prayongrat, Anussara; Zheng, Lie; Wu, Shaoxiong; Lu, Taixiang

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) compared with CCRT alone in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who presented with cervical nodal necrosis (CNN) is unknown. A total of 792 patients with stage T1-4N1-3M0 NPC and presented with CNN based on magnetic resonance imaging were retrospectively reviewed. Propensity score matching method was used to balance treatment arms for baseline characteristics. Eventually, 508 patients were propensity-matched on a 1:1 basis to create two groups (NACT + CCRT and CCRT groups). Survival rates were calculated by Kaplan–Meier method and differences were compared by using the log-rank test. The 5-year disease specific survival, disease-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival were significantly higher in NACT + CCRT group relative to the matched CCRT group (82.1% vs. 72.5%, P = 0.021; 70.3% vs. 54.1%, P < 0.001; 81.9% vs. 67.3%, P < 0.001, respectively). Although the rates of grade 3–4 leucopenia and mucositis were higher in NACT + CCRT group than CCRT group, compliance with the combined treatment was good and no significant difference was observed between two groups. NACT followed by CCRT was relatively safe and could achieve better survival than CCRT alone in NPC patients with CNN by reducing the risk of death, tumor progression and distant metastasis. PMID:28211482

  4. Gene Expression Changes in Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma After Initiation of Chemoradiation and Correlation With Clinical Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Klopp, Ann H.; Jhingran, Anuja Ramdas, Latha; Story, Michael D.; Broadus, Russell R.; Lu, Karen H.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate early gene expression changes after chemoradiation in a human solid tumor, allowing identification of chemoradiation-induced gene expression changes in the tumor as well as the tumor microenvironment. In addition we aimed to identify a gene expression profile that was associated with clinical outcome. Methods and Materials: Microarray experiments were performed on cervical cancer specimens obtained before and 48 h after chemoradiation from 12 patients with Stage IB2 to IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix treated between April 2001 and August 2002. Results: A total of 262 genes were identified that were significantly changed after chemoradiation. Genes involved in DNA repair were identified including DDB2, ERCC4, GADD45A, and XPC. In addition, significantly regulated cell-to-cell signaling pathways included insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), interferon, and vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. At a median follow-up of 41 months, 5 of 12 patients had experienced either local or distant failure. Supervised clustering analysis identified a 58-gene set from the pretreatment samples that were differentially expressed between patients with and without recurrence. Genes involved in integrin signaling and apoptosis pathways were identified in this gene set. Immortalization-upregulated protein (IMUP), IGF-2, and ARHD had particularly marked differences in expression between patients with and without recurrence. Conclusions: Genetic profiling identified genes regulated by chemoradiation including DNA damage and cell-to-cell signaling pathways. Genes associated with recurrence were identified that will require validation in an independent patient data set to determine whether the 58-gene set associated with clinical outcome could be useful as a prognostic assay.

  5. High expression of TGF-β1 in the vaginal incisional margin predicts poor prognosis in patients with stage Ib-IIa cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dong-Mei; Wang, Xin-Jun; He, Tao; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Dan; Kong, Guo-Qiang; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Mei-Mei

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between altered cytoplasmic expression of TGF-β1 in tissues of the vaginal incisional margin and vaginal cancer recurrence in patients with stage Ib-IIa cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). This paper also discusses the prognostic value of TGF-β1 expression at these locations. We found that TGF-β1 expression in the vaginal margin had a close association with vaginal recurrence of stage Ib-IIa CSCC and was an independent prognostic marker of this disease.

  6. Expression of WT1, CA 125, and GCDFP-15 as useful markers in the differential diagnosis of primary ovarian carcinomas versus metastatic breast cancer to the ovary.

    PubMed

    Tornos, Carmen; Soslow, Robert; Chen, Shirley; Akram, Muzaffar; Hummer, Amanda J; Abu-Rustum, Nadeen; Norton, Larry; Tan, Lee K

    2005-11-01

    Metastatic breast carcinoma to the ovary is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary ovarian carcinoma. This problem is often encountered in breast carcinoma patients who develop adnexal masses. ER and PR can be positive in a high percentage of breast and ovarian carcinomas, and therefore cannot be used in the differential diagnosis of these entities. WT1 and CA125 have been identified as possible markers for ovarian cancer. However, no studies have been done that specifically compare the immunophenotype of breast carcinoma metastatic to ovary with that of primary ovarian cancer. Thirty-nine cases of metastatic breast carcinoma to the ovary, 36 primary breast carcinomas, and 42 primary ovarian carcinomas were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of WT1, CA125, carcinoembryonic antigen, MUC2, MUC1, and GCDFP. The percentage of cells stained and the intensity of staining were recorded. Thirty-two ovarian carcinomas (76%) were positive for WT1, including 31 of 33 (94%) serous carcinomas. Most of them had strong and diffuse staining. None of the breast cancers either primary or metastatic to the ovary expressed WT1. Thirty-eight (90%) ovarian carcinomas were positive for CA125, most of them with strong and diffuse staining. Most breast carcinomas were negative for CA125, with only 6 (16%) of the primary ones and 5 (12%) of the metastatic showing weak and focal positivity. All ovarian carcinomas were negative for GCDFP. Five primary breast cancers (14%) and 17 (43%) metastatic to the ovary were positive for GCDFP. Nine (21%) ovarian carcinomas, 8 (22%) primary breast carcinomas, and 13 (33%) metastatic to the ovary were positive for carcinoembryonic antigen. Almost all tumors examined were positive for MUC1 (100% ovarian carcinomas, 100% primary breast carcinomas, and 95% metastatic breast carcinomas to ovary). MUC2 was positive in 10 (24%) ovarian carcinomas, 3 (8%) primary breast cancers, and 12 (30%) metastases to the ovary. The presence of

  7. Helical Tomotherapy Versus Conventional Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Primary Chemoradiation in Cervical Cancer Patients: An Intraindividual Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Marnitz, Simone; Lukarski, Dusko; Koehler, Christhardt; Wlodarczyk, Waldemar; Ebert, Andreas; Budach, Volker; Schneider, Achim; Stromberger, Carmen

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To compare intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivered by helical tomotherapy (HT) with conventional IMRT for primary chemoradiation in cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty cervical cancer patients undergoing primary chemoradiation received radiation with HT; 10 patients underwent pelvic irradiation (PEL) and 10 extended-field irradiation (EXT). For treatment planning, the simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) concept was applied. Tumor, pelvic, with or without para-aortic lymph nodes were defined as planning target volume A (PTV-A) with a prescribed dose of 1.8/50.4 Gy (28 fractions). The SIB dose for the parametrium (PTV-B), was 2.12/59.36 Gy. The lower target constraints were 95% of the prescribed dose in 95% of the target volume, and the upper dose constraint was 107%. The irradiated small-bowel volumes were kept as low as possible. For every HT plan, a conventional IMRT plan was calculated and compared with regard to dose-volume histogram, conformity index and conformity number, and homogeneity index. Results: Both techniques allowed excellent target volume coverage and sufficient SB sparing. Conformity index and conformity number results for both PTV-A and PTV-B, homogeneity index for PTV-B, and SB sparing for V45, V50, Dmax, and D1% were significantly better with HT. SB sparing was significantly better for conventional IMRT at low doses (V10). Conclusions: Both HT and conventional IMRT provide optimal treatment of cervical cancer patients. The HT technique was significantly favored with regard to target conformity, homogeneity, and SB sparing. Randomized trials are needed to assess the oncological outcome, toxicity, and clinical relevance of these differences.

  8. Primary high-grade serous carcinoma arising in the urethra or urethral diverticulum: a report of 2 cases of an extremely rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Ciaran; Oxley, Jon; McCullagh, Paul; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Serous carcinomas most commonly arise within the uterine corpus or ovary/fallopian tube, but there are 2 prior case reports of primary vaginal serous carcinoma. We report 2 examples of high-grade serous carcinoma arising within the urethra or a urethral diverticulum (1 case each). Both neoplasms exhibited the classic morphologic features of high-grade serous carcinoma, and a combination of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic examination excluded other possible sites of primary neoplasm.

  9. Late recurrence of sigmoid carcinoma mimicking primary vulvar cancer: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Pabuccu, Emre; Tolunay, Harun Egemen; Kocbulut, Evren; Taskın, Salih; Ortac, Fırat; Sertcelik, Ayse; Sasmaz, Aysegul; Savas, Berna

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate a unique case report about late and isolated vulvar metastasis of sigmoid adeno-carcinoma with review of the literature. Material-method 57 year old postmenopausal patient with prior sigmoid colon cancer history was admitted with isolated vulvar mass. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and KRAS gen mutation analysis following surgery were performed to discriminate the metastasis from a vulvar primary malignancy. Further imaging techniques were also performed to exclude additional tumours. Results Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and KRAS gene mutation analysis revealed isolated metastasis of the colonic adeno-carcinoma in the vulva. Conclusion Isolated and late occurring vulvar metastasis of colonic origin is very unusual. Careful evaluation and IHC is useful for such cases. PMID:22949946

  10. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium unrelated to human papilloma virus: a molecular study.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Giovanna; Pizzi, Silvia; Azzoni, Cinzia; Bottarelli, Lorena; D'Adda, Tiziana

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we report a molecular study of a case of Primary Endometrial Squamous Carcinoma (PESC), in which a Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection had been previously excluded by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The studies performed in an effort to explain the carcinogenesis included immunohistochemical over-expression of p53 and p16 proteins as previously observed in our own papers, plus microsatellite analysis of D10S1765 at 10q23.3 (PTEN) and TP53 at 17p13.1 (P53) as well as the methylation status of the of BRCA1 and p16 promoters using specific PCRs. In this rare malignancy, we found allelic imbalance (AI) at 17p13.1 (P53). Instead, AI at D10S1765 (PTEN) gene was absent. The genetic alteration of p53, with hyper-expression of p53 protein and an absence of abnormalities in the PTEN gene are consistent with the similarities between Uterine Serous Carcinoma (USC) and our case of PESC. The aberrant methylation of both p16 and BCAR1 promoters was not detected in our case. This finding too could imply that ESC is more similar to Uterine Serous Carcinoma than Uterine Endometrioid Carcinoma (UEC). Moreover, the lack of aberrant methylation of p16, which is in accordance with over-expression of p16 immunoreactivity, in the absence of HPV infection may be related to other unknown genetic alterations. In our opinion, it is hard to reach any definite conclusion concerning the carcinogenesis of PESC, because of its rarity and the very few molecular studies reported in the literature. Further studies with more numerous cases and larger molecular analyses are mandatory for this malignancy, to confirm whether it is more closely related to papillary endometrial cancer than to endometrioid carcinoma.

  11. HPV Status and second primary tumours in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introductions The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCCs) is rising in developed nations. Studies have shown that these virally mediated tumours are epidemiologically, clinically, and biologically different than other head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and traditional concepts of field cancerization may not apply to HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of second primary tumors and the diagnostic yield of field cancerization work up in the upper aerodigestive tract in patients with HPV-related and HPV-unrelated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Design Retrospective review. Setting Tertiary cancer care centers in Alberta. Methods Retrospective review of 406 patients diagnosed with OPSCC in Alberta between 2005 and 2009. HPV-status of tumours was determined by tissue microarray using immunohistochemistry staining for p16. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: incidence of upper aerodigestive tract second primary tumours in p16-positive versus p16-negative OPSCC. Secondary outcomes: diagnostic yield of traditional field cancerization work-up in p16-positive versus negative patients. Results The overall rate of SPTs was 7.4% (30/406). The incidence rate of SPTs was significantly lower in p16-positive patients (0.7 per 100 patient-yrs vs. 8.5 in p16-negative, p < 0.0001). Field cancerization work-up for synchronous lesions in the upper aerodigestive tract, including panendoscopy and whole-body PET-CT, had decreased diagnostic yield in p16-positive patients (2.8% vs. 10.2% in HPV-negative patients, p=0.02). Conclusions Patients with HPV-related OPSCC, who are non-smokers have decreased risk of developing second primary tumours in the upper aerodigestive tract and have low yield on field cancerization work-up. This study provides further evidence that virally mediated OPSCC are distinct and may benefit from alternate diagnostic pathways. PMID:23718873

  12. Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinomas: a retrospective analysis and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Cao, Youde; Chen, Chen; Liu, Lin; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Shengchun

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinomas (NEBCs) are a rare type of breast carcinomas that lack comprehensive recognition, including the clinicopathological features, therapeutic strategies, and prognostic significance. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to present and analyze our own data of primary NEBCs. Materials and methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records from 2005 to 2015 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China to obtain a cohort of breast carcinoma patients who were confirmed to have primary NEBC by histopathology. The detailed clinical data along with histopathology, treatment, and follow-up aspects were gathered for analysis. Results This retrospective analysis included 19 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of primary NEBC from 2005 to 2015. Their mean age was 59.2 years (ranging from 17 to 82 years). The majority of patients (15/19) focused on stages I and II. Of the 15 patients, 14 were positive for estrogen receptor, and 11 were positive for progesterone receptor. For neuroendocrine markers, the expression rates were 8/19, 14/18, 12/14, and 2/6 for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and CD56, respectively. All operable patients except the one stage M1 underwent a surgery and 4/18 had axillary lymph node metastasis. Chemotherapy was performed in 12/19, and endocrine therapy in 8/10. With a median follow-up of 59.2 months, only 2 cases progressed after postoperative systemic therapy. Conclusion The understanding of NEBC is limited due to its rarity. More evidence should be provided to enhance the understanding of NEBC, especially for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:28176908

  13. Primary male neuroendocrine adenocarcinoma involving the nipple simulating Merkel cell carcinoma - a diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Mecca, Patricia; Busam, Klaus

    2008-02-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare entity accounting for < 1% of all breast cancer cases in the United States, but with a rate that has been rising over the last 25 years. Nipple skin/subcutaneous tumors in men are even rarer. Likewise, true neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast, defined as > 50% of tumor cells staining for either chromogranin or synaptophysin, is not a common entity, usually occurring in older women. We present the case of a 70-year-old man with a slowly growing nipple mass that had enlarged over the previous 1.5 years. The histology consisted of nests, trabeculae and sheets of basaloid cells with rare abortive gland formation and a pushing edge. The case was originally misdiagnosed as a Merkel cell carcinoma, based largely on histologic morphology. Strong staining for synaptophysin (in greater than 50% of cells), CD56, keratins AE1 : AE3 and Cam 5.2, as well as estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor was noted. Myoepithelial cells within in situ areas were identified using stains for calponin and 4A4, supporting a primary mammary duct origin. Additionally, a substantial portion of cells stained for Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein-15 (GCDFP-15), confirming some overlap with sweat duct differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, although reported in the male breast, no case of primary nipple neuroendocrine carcinoma in a male patient has been reported in the literature. The gender of the patient and association with the skin of the chest wall probably contributed to the original misdiagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma in this patient.

  14. FGFR3 expression in primary and metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Guancial, Elizabeth A; Werner, Lillian; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Bamias, Aristotle; Choueiri, Toni K; Ross, Robert; Schutz, Fabio A; Park, Rachel S; O'Brien, Robert J; Hirsch, Michelle S; Barletta, Justine A; Berman, David M; Lis, Rosina; Loda, Massimo; Stack, Edward C; Garraway, Levi A; Riester, Markus; Michor, Franziska; Kantoff, Philip W; Rosenberg, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    While fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is frequently mutated or overexpressed in nonmuscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC), the prevalence of FGFR3 protein expression and mutation remains unknown in muscle-invasive disease. FGFR3 protein and mRNA expression, mutational status, and copy number variation were retrospectively analyzed in 231 patients with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary UCs, 33 metastases, and 14 paired primary and metastatic tumors using the following methods: immunohistochemistry, NanoString nCounterTM, OncoMap or Affymetrix OncoScanTM array, and Gain and Loss of Analysis of DNA and Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer software. FGFR3 immunohistochemistry staining was present in 29% of primary UCs and 49% of metastases and did not impact overall survival (P = 0.89, primary tumors; P = 0.78, metastases). FGFR3 mutations were observed in 2% of primary tumors and 9% of metastases. Mutant tumors expressed higher levels of FGFR3 mRNA than wild-type tumors (P < 0.001). FGFR3 copy number gain and loss were rare events in primary and metastatic tumors (0.8% each; 3.0% and 12.3%, respectively). FGFR3 immunohistochemistry staining is present in one third of primary muscle-invasive UCs and half of metastases, while FGFR3 mutations and copy number changes are relatively uncommon. PMID:24846059

  15. Clinical outcome of primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chen-Pang; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Chien-Lun; Chang, Phei-Lang; Tsui, Ke-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare malignant disease. It accounts for less than 1% of all urinary bladder carcinomas. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical features, the treatment modalities, and the overall survival of these patients. We also compare the clinical outcomes between patients of bladder small cell carcinoma (SCC) and bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC). Materials and methods We reviewed the charts of patients with bladder tumors from January 1995 to December 2012 in the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. A total of 2421 malignant bladder tumor patients were reviewed and there were 18 patients who were diagnosed with primary bladder SCC. The patients’ characteristics, including age, gender, smoking history, presented symptoms, tumor size, locations, clinical stages, treatment modalities, pathology appearance, recurrence conditions, and survival conditions were all recorded. We also compared the clinical outcomes and the overall survival rates between patients with bladder SCC and those with UC. Results Bladder SCC accounted for about 0.74% of all bladder malignancies in our institution. The mean age at diagnosis was 70.67 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.6:1. Thirteen patients had a history of cigarette smoking. All patients presented with symptoms of gross hematuria, and three of them had bladder tamponade requiring blood clot evacuation by cystoscopy. Only one patient had T1 disease, ten patients had stage III disease, and seven patients had lymph node or distant metastasis (stage IV disease). The mean tumor size was 4.29 cm in diameter. For the majority (61.11%) of patients, SCC coexisted with UC components. The average survival time was 10.92 months. Patients with bladder SCC had worse overall survival rates than those of stage III and stage IV bladder UC. Performing radical cystectomy does not significantly improve their overall survival rates. None of the clinicopathologic parameters, including

  16. [Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the ascending colon: report of a case and Korean literature review].

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong Keun; Kim, Sang Hun; Cho, Sung Bum; Lee, Wan Sik; Joo, Young Eun

    2014-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the colon is an extremely rare malignancy. A 48-year-old male visited our hospital for screening colonoscopy. Colonoscopic examination showed a 1 cm sized sessile polyp in the ascending colon. The patient underwent endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) without any complication. The pathologic findings were compatible with squamous differentiation of tumor cells in inflammatory colonic mucosa. The tumor was confined to the mucosa and the margins of the excised tissue were found to be free of the tumor. There were no other primary sites and no distant metastases in the extensive evaluation using a whole body CT scan and PET-CT. Additional surgical resection was not done. Follow-up colonoscopy performed eight month later showed a whitish scar without evidence of local recurrence and follow-up PET-CT demonstrated no evidence of recurrence. Herein, we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the ascending colon presenting as a sessile polyp which was removed by EMR.

  17. Primary Carcinoma of the Fallopian Tube: A Review of a Single Institution Experience of 8 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nanaiah, Shakuntala P.; Rathod, Praveen S.; Rajkumar, Namrata N.; Kundargi, Rajshekar; Subbian, Anbukkani; Ramachandra, Pallavi V.; Krishnappa, Shobha; Narayan, Abhilasha; Devi, Uma K.; Uttamchand, Bafna D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives. To evaluate the clinicopathologic features, response to cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy with or without paclitaxel. Materials and Methods. A retrospective observational study of 8 women with a histopathologic diagnosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) from January 2000 to February 2013. Results. 4/8 (50%) of the women were in the early stage and an intraoperative frozen section was 100% effective in identifying fallopian tube carcinoma and then a staging laparotomy was performed. All 4/8 cases in the early stage had received and responded to single agent carboplatin and all are alive without clinical, radiological, or biochemical evidence of recurrence at the end of 2 years and the longest survivor has completed 13 years. Primary optimal cytoreductive surgery was achievable in 3/4 (75%) in advanced disease. All showed response to adjuvant paclitaxel and carboplatin (T+C), but all had succumbed to the disease following recurrence with mean progression-free survival of 19 months (range 15–21 months) and mean overall survival of 27 months (range 22–36 months). Conclusion. The pivotal role played by a frozen section in diagnosing PFTC which is rare needs to be reemphasized, therefore justifying a primary staging laparotomy in an early stage. Prolonged survival observed in this group following an optimum tailored adjuvant single agent carboplatin is worth noting. PMID:24696653

  18. Inactivation of the human papillomavirus E6 or E7 gene in cervical carcinoma cells by using a bacterial CRISPR/Cas RNA-guided endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Edward M; Kornepati, Anand V R; Goldstein, Michael; Bogerd, Hal P; Poling, Brigid C; Whisnant, Adam W; Kastan, Michael B; Cullen, Bryan R

    2014-10-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), including HPV-16 and HPV-18, are the causative agents of cervical carcinomas and are linked to several other tumors of the anogenital and oropharyngeal regions. The majority of HPV-induced tumors contain integrated copies of the normally episomal HPV genome that invariably retain intact forms of the two HPV oncogenes E6 and E7. E6 induces degradation of the cellular tumor suppressor p53, while E7 destabilizes the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Previous work has shown that loss of E6 function in cervical cancer cells induces p53 expression as well as downstream effectors that induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Similarly, loss of E7 allows increased Rb expression, leading to cell cycle arrest and senescence. Here, we demonstrate that expression of a bacterial Cas9 RNA-guided endonuclease, together with single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) specific for E6 or E7, is able to induce cleavage of the HPV genome, resulting in the introduction of inactivating deletion and insertion mutations into the E6 or E7 gene. This results in the induction of p53 or Rb, leading to cell cycle arrest and eventual cell death. Both HPV-16- and HPV-18-transformed cells were found to be responsive to targeted HPV genome-specific DNA cleavage. These data provide a proof of principle for the idea that vector-delivered Cas9/sgRNA combinations could represent effective treatment modalities for HPV-induced cancers. Importance: Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of almost all cervical carcinomas and many other tumors, including many head and neck cancers. In these cancer cells, the HPV DNA genome is integrated into the cellular genome, where it expresses high levels of two viral oncogenes, called E6 and E7, that are required for cancer cell growth and viability. Here, we demonstrate that the recently described bacterial CRISPR/Cas RNA-guided endonuclease can be reprogrammed to target and destroy the E6 or E7 gene in cervical carcinoma cells

  19. Brain Metastases from Different Primary Carcinomas: an Evaluation of DSC MRI Measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Zhang, G; Oudkerk, M

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the roles of different dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic imaging (DSC MRI) measurements in discriminating between brain metastases derived from four common primary carcinomas. Thirty-seven patients with brain metastases were enrolled. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and relative mean transit time (rMTT) in both tumor and peritumoral edema were measured. Metastases were grouped by their primary tumor (lung, gastrointestinal, breast and renal cell carcinoma). DSC MRI measurements were compared between groups. Mean rCBV, rCBF, rMTT in tumor and peritumoral edema of all brain metastases (n=37) were 2.79 ± 1.73, 2.56 ± 2.11, 1.21 ± 0.48 and 1.05 ± 0.53, 0.86 ± 0.40, 1.99 ± 0.41, respectively. The tumoral rCBV (5.26 ± 1.89) and rCBF (5.32 ± 3.28) of renal metastases were greater than those of the other three metastases (P<0.05). The tumoral rMTT (1.58 ± 0.77) of breast metastases was statistically greater than that (0.96 ± 0.31) of gastrointestinal metastases (P=0.013). No statistical difference was found between peritumoral rCBV, rCBF and rMTT (P>0.05). Evaluating various DSC MRI measurements can provide complementary hemodynamic information on brain metastases. The tumoral rCBV, rCBF and likely rMTT can help discriminate between brain metastases originating from different primary carcinomas. The peritumoral DSC MRI measurements had limited value in discriminating between brain metastases.

  20. E6 and E7 gene silencing results in decreased methylation of tumor suppressor genes and induces phenotype transformation of human cervical carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Liming; Xu, Cui; Long, Jia; Shen, Danbei; Zhou, Wuqing; Zhou, Qiyan; Yang, Jia; Jiang, Mingjun

    2015-09-15

    In SiHa and CaSki cells, E6 and E7-targeting shRNA specifically and effectively knocked down human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 and E7 at the transcriptional level, reduced the E6 and E7 mRNA levels by more than 80% compared with control cells that expressed a scrambled-sequence shRNA. E6 and E7 repression resulted in down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase mRNA and protein expression, decreased DNA methylation and increased mRNA expression levels of tumor suppressor genes, induced a certain apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in E6 and E7 shRNA-infected SiHa and CaSki cells compared with the uninfected cells. Repression of E6 and E7 oncogenes resulted in restoration of DNA methyltransferase suppressor pathways and induced apoptosis in HPV16-positive cervical carcinoma cell lines. Our findings suggest that the potential carcinogenic mechanism of HPV16 through influencing DNA methylation pathway to activate the development of cervical cancer exist, and maybe as a candidate therapeutic strategy for cervical and other HPV-associated cancers.

  1. The DNA Binding Domain of a Papillomavirus E2 Protein Programs a Chimeric Nuclease To Cleave Integrated Human Papillomavirus DNA in HeLa Cervical Carcinoma Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Stacy M.; DiMaio, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Viral DNA binding proteins that direct nucleases or other protein domains to viral DNA in lytically or latently infected cells may provide a novel approach to modulate viral gene expression or replication. Cervical carcinogenesis is initiated by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and viral DNA persists in the cancer cells. To test whether a DNA binding domain of a papillomavirus protein can direct a nuclease domain to cleave HPV DNA in cervical cancer cells, we fused the DNA binding domain of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) E2 protein to the catalytic domain of the FokI restriction endonuclease, generating a BPV1 E2-FokI chimeric nuclease (BEF). BEF introduced DNA double-strand breaks on both sides of an E2 binding site in vitro, whereas DNA binding or catalytic mutants of BEF did not. After expression of BEF in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, we detected cleavage at E2 binding sites in the integrated HPV18 DNA in these cells and also at an E2 binding site in cellular DNA. BEF-expressing cells underwent senescence, which required the DNA binding activity of BEF, but not its nuclease activity. These results demonstrate that DNA binding domains of viral proteins can target effector molecules to cognate binding sites in virally infected cells. PMID:17392356

  2. Molecular events in relapsed oral squamous cell carcinoma: Recurrence vs. secondary primary tumor.

    PubMed

    Gleber-Netto, Frederico O; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J M; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Takes, Robert P; Kelner, Natalie; Rodrigo, Juan P; Strojan, Primož; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Rapidis, Alexander D; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Brakenhoff, Ruud H; Ferlito, Alfio; Kowalski, Luiz P

    2015-08-01

    Relapses have a great impact on both the morbidity and mortality rates of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Current classification criteria are imprecise and need improvements. Recent advances in understanding of OSCC relapses on a molecular level provide new possibilities to better classify true recurrences and second primary tumors. This review discusses the limitations of the current OSCC relapse classification method and presents possible alternatives to improve this classification based on molecular techniques. Moreover, these molecular techniques add to the further understanding of these lesions and may provide tools for clinical management.

  3. Effective role of hormonal therapy in metastatic primary neuroendocrine breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buttar, Amanpreet; Mittal, Kriti; Khan, Ashraf; Bathini, Venu

    2011-10-01

    Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) of the breast is extremely rare.(1) Because of the rarity of this cancer, long-term prognosis, biologic behavior, and treatment are not well known. PNEC can have high expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR). It is important to differentiate PNEC of the breast from other metastatic diseases to the breast because of the differences in treatment. We herein report the successful treatment of a patient with PNEC of the breast and high expression of ER and PR by means of hormonal therapy.

  4. An evidence on G2/M arrest, DNA damage and caspase mediated apoptotic effect of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles on human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa)

    SciTech Connect

    Jeyaraj, M.; Arun, R.; Sathishkumar, G.; MubarakAli, D.; Rajesh, M.; Sivanandhan, G.; Kapildev, G.; Manickavasagam, M.; Thajuddin, N.; Ganapathi, A.

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been synthesized using Podophyllum hexandrum L. • AuNPs induces the oxidative stress to cell death in human cervical carcinoma cells. • It activates the caspase-cascade to cellular death. • It is actively blocks G2/M phase of cell cycle. - Abstract: Current prospect of nanobiotechnology involves in the greener synthesis of nanostructured materials particularly noble metal nanoparticles for various biomedical applications. In this study, biologically (Podophyllum hexandrum L.) synthesized crystalline gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the size range between 5 and 35 nm were screened for its anticancereous potential against human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa). Stoichiometric proportion of the reaction mixture and conditions were optimized to attain stable nanoparticles with narrow size range. Different high throughput techniques like transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–vis spectroscopy were adopted for the physio-chemical characterization of AuNPs. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study revealed that the water soluble fractions present in the plant extract solely influences the reduction of AuNPs. Sublimely, synthesized AuNPs exhibits an effective in vitro anticancer activity against HeLa cells via induction of cell cycle arrest and DNA damage. Furthermore, it was evidenced that AuNPs treated cells are undergone apoptosis through the activation of caspase cascade which subsequently leads to mitochondrial dysfunction. Thereby, this study proves that biogenic colloidal AuNPs can be developed as a promising drug candidature for human cervical cancer therapy.

  5. Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone Secondary to Non-Cirrhotic Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Eltawansy, Sherif; Gomez, Johnson; Liss, Kenneth; Nivera, Noel; Babyatsky, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 71 Final Diagnosis: SIADH Symptoms: Cachexia • confusion Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Percutaneous liver biopsy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is usually seen in pulmonary malignancies, central nervous system disorders, and secondary to medications. SIADH has very rarely been encountered in primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Two cases were reported in Japan and 1 case in Spain after extensive investigation of the medical records. Case Report: We report a case of a 71-year-old man who presented with confusion, cachexia, and abdominal symptoms in the form of vomiting and abdominal discomfort. On the initial work-up, SIADH diagnosis was made. After an extensive work-up, the reason for SIADH turned out to be a newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma. The precipitating factor for the cancer was not identified by history or by work-up. No metastasis was identified. Liver functions were preserved but patient was severely malnourished. Conclusions: SIADH can occur as a para-malignant feature of the malignancy. In our case, it was related to the hepatocellular carcinoma, which is a malignancy very rare to cause SIADH. PMID:25612883

  6. Comparative profiling between primary colorectal carcinomas and metastases identifies heterogeneity on drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shigang; Wu, Xuefang; Chen, Meixiang; Zhong, Xueyun; Liu, Kunping

    2016-01-01

    Metastases cause recurrence and mortality for patients with colorectal carcinomas (CRC). In present study, we evaluated heterogeneity on drug resistance and its underlying mechanism between metastatic and primary CRC. Immunohistochemical results from clinical tissue microarray (TMA) suggested that the expression concordance rates of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and drug resistance relative proteins between lymph-node metastatic and primary CRC foci were low. The apoptotic and proliferation indexes in metastasis CRC specimens were decreased compared with primary. In vitro experimental results indicated that the migration and invasion abilities were upregulated in metastatic cells SW620 compared with primary cells SW480, the cellular efflux ability and WNT/β-catenin activity were also upregulated in SW620 cells. After 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) treatment, the reduction in the proportion of cell apoptosis, CD133 and TERT expression levels in SW620 were lower than that in SW480 cells. Bioinformatics analysis in whole-genome transcriptional profiling results between metastatic and primary CRC cells suggested that differentially expressed genes were mainly centered on well-characterized signaling pathways including WNT/β-catenin, cell cycle and cell junction. Collectively, heterogeneity of drug resistant was present between metastatic and primary CRC specimens and cell lines, the abnormal activation of WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway could be a potential molecular leading to drug resistant ability enhancing in metastatic CRC cells. PMID:27613840

  7. Astro research fellowship: Apoptosis as a predictor of tumor response to radiation in stage IB cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, J.A.; Eifel, P.J.; Allen, P.K.

    1995-07-30

    Levels of apoptosis predict for tumor responsiveness to radiation in various animal systems. To investigate the potential role of apoptosis as a predictor of response in human tumors, a retrospective review was undertaken of patients with adenocarcinoma of the cervix whose primary lesion at presentation measured at least 4 cm and who underwent definitive radiation therapy. A previous report had indicated that roughly half this group of patients should have a long-term relapse free survival. Pretreatment biopsy specimens of 44 patients with Stage IB adenocarcinoma of the cervix, whose primary lesion at presentation measured at least 4 cm in greatest dimension, were scored for apoptosis by two independent investigators without knowledge of the treatment outcome, and the results were averaged. Actuarial methods were used to assess overall survival, disease-free survival, determinate survival, and local control as a function of the baseline level of apoptosis. Patients ranged in age from 21 to 87 years and were treated with definitive radiotherapy between 1964 and 1989. Follow-up for the surviving patients ranged 1 to 278 months, with a mean of 101 months. Patients whose tumors had a baseline level of apoptosis above the median value (2%) had a better overall survival than those with lower levels of apoptosis (p = 0.056). A similar trend for disease-free survival (p = 0.32) and determinate survival (p = 0.27) did not reach statistical significance, perhaps because of the small number of patients. Because only 6 of the 44 patients (13%) had a local tumor failure, it was not possible to establish a correlation between the pretreatment level of apoptosis and the local tumor control by radiation. The baseline level of apoptosis predicted for survival in patients with Stage IB cervical adenocarcinoma. Further investigation of the measurement of apoptosis as a potential predictive assay is warranted in other human tumor systems. 59 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Nephron sparing endoscopic treatment for primary carcinoma of the renal calyx: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QI; OU, TONG-WEN; XU, JIA-WEI; LI, JIN; BORAZJANI, ALI; JIA, CHUN-SONG; WANG, XU; YAN, HAO

    2016-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of the renal calyx is extremely rare. The present study reported nephron sparing endoscopic treatment for primary carcinoma of the renal calyx. An 81-year-old female presented with a 1-year history of intermittent painless gross hematuria. Computed tomography and X-ray of the urinary tract were unable to definitively identify any lesion. Flexible ureteroscopic examination revealed a tumor with epicenter in the lower calyx of the right kidney, with additional involvement around the calyx. Biopsies were obtained and pathology revealed low-grade urothelial carcinoma. Considering additional co-morbidities, the patient elected to undergo endoscopic management with thulium laser. The present report described the feasibility of flexible ureteroscopic thulium laser resection for the treatment of renal calyx carcinoma. PMID:27330785

  9. Clinical value of routine serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen in follow-up of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radiation or chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jinju; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Tae Sung; Kim, Ju Hyun; Koh, Suk Bong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefits of routine squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) monitoring of patients with locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiation or chemoradiation. Methods A total of 53 patients with recurrent cervical squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiation were enrolled in this study. A retrospective review of medical records was conducted. The role of routine monitoring of serum SCC-Ag was evaluated in terms of cost effectiveness and effect on survival after diagnosis of recurrence. Results Serum SCC-Ag abnormality (≥2.5 ng/mL) was observed in 62.3% of patients when recurrent disease was diagnosed. The first indicator of relapse was abnormal serum SCC-Ag level in 21 patients (39.6%), 10 of whom had asymptomatic recurrent disease amenable to salvage therapy. Adding SCC-Ag measurement to the basic follow up protocol improved the sensitivity for detecting recurrence (The sensitivity of the basic protocol vs. addition of SCC-Ag: 49.1% vs. 88.7%, P<0.001). Twenty-three patients who were candidates for salvage therapy with curative intent showed better survival compared with those who were not candidates for therapy (5-year survival: 36.6% vs. 0%, P=0.012). Conclusion Surveillance with routine serum SCC-Ag monitoring can better detect asymptomatic recurrent disease that is potentially amenable to salvage therapy with curative intent. Early diagnosis of recurrent disease that can be treated with salvage therapy may lead to better survival. PMID:27462593

  10. Mismatch repair gene MLH3 Pro844Leu and Thr942Ile polymorphisms and the susceptibility to cervical carcinoma and HPV infection: a case-control study in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Cheng, Qi; Shen, Jiajie; Zhou, Caiyun; Chen, Huaizeng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between MLH3 Pro844Leu, Thr942Ile polymorphisms and potential linkage with the risk of cervical carcinoma and potential effect on protein function, we carried out a case-control study with 400 cervical squamous cell carcinoma, 400 CIN3 and 1200 normal controls in a Chinese population. The results showed that there was an increased risk of cervical carcinoma and CIN3 associated with the genotype 844CT [OR 2.17 (1.61-2.94); P<0.001; OR 1.49 (1.08-2.07), P 0.017, respectively] and a decreased risk with the 942CT genotype [OR 0.56 (0.38-0.82); P<0.001; OR 0.37 (0.24-0.58), P<0.001, respectively]. Most 844CT genotypes were linkage CT(844)-CC(942), which increased the risk of cervical carcinoma and CIN3 [77/83, OR 2.04 (1.48-2.80), P<0.001; 55/61, OR 1.46 (1.03-2.06), P 0.035, respectively]. Most 942CT were linkage CC(844)-CT(942), which decreased the risk of cervical carcinoma [29/35, OR 0.60 (0.40-0.91); P 0.017; 18/24, OR 0.33 (0.20-0.55), P<0.001, respectively]. In some grouping, the 844CT and 942CT were further enriched; especially HR-HPV-positive subjects both in the CIN3 and the cervical carcinoma, the 844CT had greater enrichment. These results included that CT(844)-CC(942) was associated with a high risk of cervical carcinoma and CIN3, and the CC(844)-CT(942) decreased the risk. The 844CT had a higher level of enrichment in HR-HPV positive individuals, which is probably related to HR-HPV susceptibility. There was no significant difference of the MLH3 mRNA expression and these two amino acid substitutions did not impact on the protein function.

  11. Mismatch Repair Gene MLH3 Pro844Leu and Thr942Ile Polymorphisms and the Susceptibility to Cervical Carcinoma and HPV Infection: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Feng; Cheng, Qi; Shen, Jiajie; Zhou, Caiyun; Chen, Huaizeng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between MLH3 Pro844Leu, Thr942Ile polymorphisms and potential linkage with the risk of cervical carcinoma and potential effect on protein function, we carried out a case-control study with 400 cervical squamous cell carcinoma, 400 CIN3 and 1200 normal controls in a Chinese population. The results showed that there was an increased risk of cervical carcinoma and CIN3 associated with the genotype 844CT [OR 2.17 (1.61–2.94); P<0.001; OR 1.49 (1.08–2.07), P 0.017, respectively] and a decreased risk with the 942CT genotype [OR 0.56 (0.38–0.82); P<0.001; OR 0.37 (0.24–0.58), P<0.001, respectively]. Most 844CT genotypes were linkage CT(844)-CC(942), which increased the risk of cervical carcinoma and CIN3 [77/83, OR 2.04 (1.48–2.80), P<0.001; 55/61, OR 1.46 (1.03–2.06), P 0.035, respectively]. Most 942CT were linkage CC(844)-CT(942), which decreased the risk of cervical carcinoma [29/35, OR 0.60 (0.40–0.91); P 0.017; 18/24, OR 0.33 (0.20–0.55), P<0.001, respectively]. In some grouping, the 844CT and 942CT were further enriched; especially HR-HPV-positive subjects both in the CIN3 and the cervical carcinoma, the 844CT had greater enrichment. These results included that CT(844)-CC(942) was associated with a high risk of cervical carcinoma and CIN3, and the CC(844)-CT(942) decreased the risk. The 844CT had a higher level of enrichment in HR-HPV positive individuals, which is probably related to HR-HPV susceptibility. There was no significant difference of the MLH3 mRNA expression and these two amino acid substitutions did not impact on the protein function. PMID:24759751

  12. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas as a Cause of Biliary Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Jeet; Nehme, Fredy; Salyers, William

    2016-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas (SCCP) is a rare neoplasm, given a lack of naturally occurring squamous cells within the pancreas, accounting for only 0.2% of all pancreatic cancers. The etiology is unknown. Symptomatology is non-specific and similar to other pancreatic neoplasms. No non-invasive testing can adequately rule in SCCP, and workup should proceed similarly to any pancreatic mass. Tissue sampling is required for diagnosis and guidance of further management, most commonly by endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspirate. SCCP is more aggressive than adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with a median survival of three and ten months for those treated with palliative and surgical intent, respectively. The optimal treatment regimen remains unknown, though the uses of radiation therapy, platinum-based regimens, gemcitabine, and 5-FU have all been reported with favorable results. We present a case of primary SCCP in an 81-year-old female who presented with jaundice. PMID:27909644

  13. Transcriptomic comparison of primary bovine horn core carcinoma culture and parental tissue at early stage

    PubMed Central

    Shil, Sharadindu; Joshi, R. S.; Joshi, C. G.; Patel, A. K.; Shah, Ravi K.; Patel, Namrata; Jakhesara, Subhash J.; Kundu, Sumana; Reddy, Bhaskar; Koringa, P. G.; Rank, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Squamous cell carcinoma or SCC of horn in bovines (bovine horn core carcinoma) frequently observed in Bos indicus affecting almost 1% of cattle population. Freshly isolated primary epithelial cells may be closely related to the malignant epithelial cells of the tumor. Comparison of gene expression in between horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage primary culture using next generation sequencing was the aim of this study. Materials and Methods: Whole transcriptome sequencing of horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage cells using Ion Torrent PGM were done. Comparative expression and analysis of different genes and pathways related to cancer and biological processes associated with malignancy, proliferating capacity, differentiation, apoptosis, senescence, adhesion, cohesion, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and metabolic pathways were identified. Results: Up-regulated genes in SCC of horn’s early passage cells were involved in transporter activity, catalytic activity, nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity, biogenesis, cellular processes, biological regulation and localization and the down-regulated genes mainly were involved in focal adhesion, extracellular matrix receptor interaction and spliceosome activity. Conclusion: The experiment revealed similar transcriptomic nature of horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage cells. PMID:28246447

  14. Advantages and disadvantages of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in carcinoma of unknown primary.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaozhou; Li, Xiaofeng; Song, Xiuyu; Dai, Dong; Zhu, Lei; Zhu, Yanjia; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Huiqin; Xu, Wengui

    2016-11-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary is a type of malignant disease where the primary carcinoma cannot be identified by conventional examination, which presents challenges in diagnosis and therapy. This study aims to evaluate the detailed clinical value and indications of using fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) in a large sample. A total of 449 patients who were selected under strict standards were retrospectively included in this study. F-18 FDG PET/CT accurately detected the primary carcinoma in 115 of 449 patients whose primaries could not be detected by conventional examination (25.6%), with additional 27 false-positive patients. The most common primary site was the lung (34.8%). In addition, except for in metastatic melanoma (1/19, 5.3%) and axillary metastasis patients (2/49, 4.1%), F-18 FDG PET/CT had a comparative performance in detecting primary carcinoma in other pathological types and anatomical locations. The scan is able to guide treatment strategy modifications to some extent (130/449, 29.0%). We strongly recommend the use of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the early phase of examination. It is also recommended as a supplementary radiological method, and certain patients may benefit from its application in cases where regular examination is inconclusive. However, in metastatic melanoma or axillary metastasis patients where the primary site cannot be identified by routine examination, regular application of F-18 FDG PET/CT for the sole purpose of detecting the primary carcinoma should not be encouraged.

  15. Advantages and disadvantages of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in carcinoma of unknown primary

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaozhou; Li, Xiaofeng; Song, Xiuyu; Dai, Dong; Zhu, Lei; Zhu, Yanjia; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Huiqin; Xu, Wengui

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary is a type of malignant disease where the primary carcinoma cannot be identified by conventional examination, which presents challenges in diagnosis and therapy. This study aims to evaluate the detailed clinical value and indications of using fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) in a large sample. A total of 449 patients who were selected under strict standards were retrospectively included in this study. F-18 FDG PET/CT accurately detected the primary carcinoma in 115 of 449 patients whose primaries could not be detected by conventional examination (25.6%), with additional 27 false-positive patients. The most common primary site was the lung (34.8%). In addition, except for in metastatic melanoma (1/19, 5.3%) and axillary metastasis patients (2/49, 4.1%), F-18 FDG PET/CT had a comparative performance in detecting primary carcinoma in other pathological types and anatomical locations. The scan is able to guide treatment strategy modifications to some extent (130/449, 29.0%). We strongly recommend the use of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the early phase of examination. It is also recommended as a supplementary radiological method, and certain patients may benefit from its application in cases where regular examination is inconclusive. However, in metastatic melanoma or axillary metastasis patients where the primary site cannot be identified by routine examination, regular application of F-18 FDG PET/CT for the sole purpose of detecting the primary carcinoma should not be encouraged. PMID:27895731

  16. SU-E-T-807: VMAT Vs. DIMRT Vs. SsIMRT Assessing the Dosimetric Parameters of Cervical Carcinoma Treatment with a 20-Patient Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the dosimetric parameters of cervical carcinoma treatment using 3 different radiation therapy delivery Methods: volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), the static-field dynamic multileaf collimator intensity-modulated radiation therapy (dIMRT) and the static-field step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (ssIMRT). Methods: Twenty patients with cervical carcinoma were selected to be planned with dual arc VMAT, dIMRT and ssIMRT using Monaco 3.3 TPS on the Axesse™ linear accelerator in this investigation. The total dose of the planning target volume (PTV) is 60Gy. The homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), dose volume histograms (DVHs), delivery efficiency, dose of organs at risks (bladder, rectum, and femoral heads), were all measured. Results: Dose distribution in 3 different radiation therapy delivery methods satisfied clinical requirements. Mean HI of PTV with VMAT, dIMRT and ssIMRT is 1.08, 1.10, and 1.09 (p>0.05). Mean CI of PTV with VMAT, dIMRT and ssIMRT is 0.82, 0.8 and 0.8 (p>0.05). For the DVH of V10, V20 and V30 in bladder, there was a significant difference: VMAT>dIMRT=ssIMRT (p <0.05). For the DVH of V40 and V50, there was a significant difference: VMAT dIMRT >ssIMRT (p <0.05). Conclusion: The results show that VMAT has a great advantage in delivery efficiency than dIMRT and ssIMRT, without compromise to the PTV coverage, HI and CI. The delivery methods should be considered under the actual cervical carcinoma radiotherapy situation.

  17. [Primary peripheral T-cell lymphoma of the vagina incidentally found at cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Isobe, Rei; Mituishi, Toshimi; Omote, Mayuko; Mori, Yuichi; Ida, Koichi; Oguchi, Osamu; Nakai, Ikuko; Oguchi, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because a mass lesion had been palpable through the vaginal wall during a cervical cancer screening examination. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed marked thickening of the vaginal wall, constituting a mass 96 mm in diameter. Abnormal FDG uptake was observed in the vaginal mass, but no other lesions were detected by positron emission tomography (PET/CT). A transvaginal biopsy from the tumor revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Although endoscopic examinations revealed no signs of infiltration in either the bladder or the rectum, the MRI findings suggested invasion into the adjacent rectal wall. She achieved complete remission after six courses of biweekly THP-COP therapy, to which field radiation (39.6 Gy) was added. PTCL of the vagina is rare and this case therefore merits description in the literature.

  18. Primary peritoneal carcinoma metastasizing to breast: a single case report and literature review from clinic to biology

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ji-Yuan; Gebre, Wondwossen; Dong, Yi-Min; Shaun, Xiao; Robbins, Rachel; Podrumar, Alida

    2016-01-01

    Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is a type of rare malignant epithelial tumor. Metastasis from PPC to breast has been rarely reported. PPC originates de novo from the peritoneal tissues rather than invasion or metastasis from adjacent or remote organs. PPCs have been implicated in many cases of carcinomas of unknown primary origin. It is similar to ovarian cancer (OvCa), because it shares the same common embryonic origin, the coelomic epithelium (mesodermal origin). The mechanism of oncogenesis remains elusive. In this article, we report a rare case of PPC in a patient 10 years after total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy for uterine leiomyoma, which was widely spread in the abdomen and metastasized to the colon, liver and distant organs including breast. The treatment is similar to that of primary ovarian cancer. We also reviewed the primary peritoneal cancer metastatic to breast and discuss the possible mechanisms and biology of primary peritoneal cancer, using experimental and animal model. PMID:27807506

  19. Identification of Primary Gene Targets of TFAP2C in Hormone Responsive Breast Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Woodfield, George W.; Chen, Yizhen; Bair, Thomas B.; Domann, Frederick E.; Weigel, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The TFAP2C transcription factor is involved in mammary development, differentiation and oncogenesis. Previous studies established a role for TFAP2C in the regulation of ESR1 (ERα) and ERBB2 (Her2) in breast carcinomas. However, the role of TFAP2C in different breast cancer phenotypes has not been examined in detail. To develop a more complete characterization of TFAP2C target genes, ChIP-seq with anti-TFAP2C antibody and expression arrays with TFAP2C knock down were analyzed in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. Genomic sequences common to the ChIP-seq data set defined the consensus sequence for TFAP2C chromatin binding as the nine base sequence SCCTSRGGS (S=G/C, R=A/G), which closely matches the previously defined optimal in vitro binding site. Comparing expression arrays before and after knock down of TFAP2C with ChIP-seq data demonstrated a conservative estimate that 8% of genes altered by TFAP2C expression are primary target genes and includes genes that are both induced and repressed by TFAP2C. A set of 447 primary target genes of TFAP2C was identified, which included ESR1 (ERα), FREM2, RET, FOXA1, WWOX, GREB1, MYC and members of the retinoic acid response pathway. The identification of ESR1, WWOX, GREB1 and FOXA1 as primary targets confirmed the role of TFAP2C in hormone response. TFAP2C plays a critical role in gene regulation in hormone responsive breast cancer and its target genes are different than for the Her2 breast cancer phenotype. PMID:20629094

  20. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in dentigerous cyst: Report of 2 cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Camps-Font, Octavi; López-Ramírez, Marta; Vidal-Bel, August

    2015-01-01

    Dentigerous cysts are one of the most common odontogenic cysts of the oral cavity. Odontogenic cysts can give rise to a variety of neoplasms. Carcinoma arising in a dentigerous cyst is extremely rare, with a review of literature showing near 30 cases. The present report describes 2 cases of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma originated from a dentigerous cyst. The first one refers to a 57-year old female with a persistent lesion in the left retromolarregion and diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma originated fromthe incomplete excision of the lower third molar follicle during its surgical extraction. The second case describes the case of an 18-year old male with an impacted upper canine with previous history of infection and swelling of the oral cavity. The histopathological study revealed the malignization of the follicle surrounding the dental crown. These two cases confirmed the importance of the histopathological study of all the tissue samples obtained from surgical procedures. Although the development of a malignant lesion from a dentigerous cyst is rare and its clinical-radiological features are apparently innocuous, this entity should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Key words:Dentigerous cyst, odontogenic cyst, squamous cell carcinoma, primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma, odontogenic carcinoma. PMID:26644846

  1. Recurrence of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the ileum diagnosed by elevation of serum SCC: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Mino, Kazuhiro; Kamii, Naoki; Kawanishi, Norio; Okada, Tadao; Todo, Satoru

    2012-06-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the intestine is extremely rare. This report describes a patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the small intestine. A 72-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital because of a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. She underwent laparotomy owing to the diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction due to a pelvic mass after conservative treatment. The affected ileum was resected, and histopathological examination revealed proliferation of differentiated squamous cell carcinoma at the submucosal area with no adenocarcinoma component. At the 4th month after the operation, the level of serum squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen was elevated. At 6 months after the operation, the serum SCC value was further elevated, and enhanced CT revealed two new pelvic tumors with enhancement at the mesentery and free space. A second laparotomy was performed 8 months after the operation. Histopathological examination showed differentiated squamous cell carcinoma as in the first operation. The level of serum SCC decreased at the 28th postoperative day. Chemotherapy including carboplatin and paclitaxel was performed as an adjuvant regimen. The patient has experienced no recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma for 55 months.

  2. HPV Genotypes in High Grade Cervical Lesions and Invasive Cervical Carcinoma as Detected by Two Commercial DNA Assays, North Carolina, 2001–2006

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Susan; Steinau, Martin; Rinas, Allen; Gargano, Julia W.; Ludema, Christina; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Carter, Alicia L.; Grant, Kathy L.; Bamberg, Melanie; McDermott, James E.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Brewer, Noel T.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Background HPV typing using formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) cervical tissue is used to evaluate HPV vaccine impact, but DNA yield and quality in FFPE specimens can negatively affect test results. This study aimed to evaluate 2 commercial assays for HPV detection and typing using FFPE cervical specimens. Methods Four large North Carolina pathology laboratories provided FFPE specimens from 299 women ages18 and older diagnosed with cervical disease from 2001 to 2006. For each woman, one diagnostic block was selected and unstained serial sections were prepared for DNA typing. Extracts from samples with residual lesion were used to detect and type HPV using parallel and serial testing algorithms with the Linear Array and LiPA HPV genotyping assays. Findings LA and LiPA concordance was 0.61 for detecting any high-risk (HR) and 0.20 for detecting any low-risk (LR) types, with significant differences in marginal proportions for HPV16, 51, 52, and any HR types. Discordant results were most often LiPA-positive, LA-negative. The parallel algorithm yielded the highest prevalence of any HPV type (95.7%). HR type prevalence was similar using parallel (93.1%) and serial (92.1%) approaches. HPV16, 33, and 52 prevalence was slightly lower using the serial algorithm, but the median number of HR types per woman (1) did not differ by algorithm. Using the serial algorithm, HPV DNA was detected in >85% of invasive and >95% of pre-invasive lesions. The most common type was HPV16, followed by 52, 18, 31, 33, and 35; HPV16/18 was detected in 56.5% of specimens. Multiple HPV types were more common in lower grade lesions. Conclusions We developed an efficient algorithm for testing and reporting results of two commercial assays for HPV detection and typing in FFPE specimens, and describe HPV type distribution in pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions in a state-based sample prior to HPV vaccine introduction. PMID:22479516

  3. Late lung metastasis of a primary eccrine sweat gland carcinoma 10 years after initial surgical treatment: the first clinical documentation.

    PubMed

    Falkenstern-Ge, R F; Bode-Erdmann, S; Ott, G; Wohlleber, M; Kohlhäufl, M

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a high metastatic potential seen more commonly in elderly patients. The scalp is the most common site of occurrence and it usually spreads to regional lymph nodes. Liver, lungs, and bones are the most common sites of distant metastasis. Late lung metastasis of sweat gland adenocarcinoma after a time span of 5 years is extremely rare. Aim. We report a patient with late lung metastasis of a primary sweat gland carcinoma 10 years after initial surgical resection. Conclusion. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare cancers with a poor prognosis. Surgery in the form of wide local excision and lymph node dissection is the mainstay of treatment. Late pulmonary metastases with a latency of 10 years have never been reported in the literature. This is the first clinical documentation of late lung metastasis from sweat gland carcinoma with a latency period of 10 years.

  4. Metastatic Primary Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of Rectum: A Case Report of 10-Year-old Male Child

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kumkum; Singh, Amit; Bhutra, Shyam; Pachori, Geeta; Jangir, Mahesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Signet ring cell carcinomas of the colon and rectum are well documented in the adult population, but the incidence is very low in the paediatric population. Signet ring cell carcinoma has more malignant potential, mostly present as advanced stage and carries very poor prognosis. We are describing a 10-year-old male patient who presented with acute intestinal obstruction; radiology revealed large bowel obstruction and was diagnosed metastatic primary signet ring cell carcinoma of rectum on biopsy. We have discussed the diagnostic work-up and the management of this rare entity. Due to the high mortality that can be caused by a delay in making the correct diagnosis, signet ring cell carcinoma of colorectum represents a special diagnostic and surgical challenge. PMID:24701526

  5. Using the Cancer Risk Management Model to evaluate the health and economic impacts of cytology compared with human papillomavirus DNA testing for primary cervical cancer screening in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Popadiuk, C.; Gauvreau, C.L.; Bhavsar, M.; Nadeau, C.; Asakawa, K.; Flanagan, W.M.; Wolfson, M.C.; Coldman, A.J.; Memon, S.; Fitzgerald, N.; Lacombe, J.; Miller, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Canada, discussion about changing from cytology to human papillomavirus (hpv) dna testing for primary screening in cervical cancer is ongoing. However, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care has not yet made a recommendation, concluding that the evidence is insufficient. Methods We used the cervical cancer and hpv transmission models of the Cancer Risk Management Model to study the health and economic outcomes of primary cytology compared with hpv dna testing in 14 screening scenarios with varying screening modalities and intervals. Projected cervical cancer cases, deaths, colposcopies, screens, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness were evaluated. We performed sensitivity analyses for hpv dna test costs. Results Compared with triennial cytology from age 25, 5-yearly hpv dna screening alone from age 30 resulted in equivalent incident cases and deaths, but 55% (82,000) fewer colposcopies and 43% (1,195,000) fewer screens. At hpv dna screening intervals of 3 years, whether alone or in an age-based sequence with cytology, screening costs are greater, but at intervals of more than 5 years, they are lower. Scenarios on the cost-effectiveness frontier were hpv dna testing alone every 10, 7.5, 5, or 3 years, and triennial cytology starting at age 21 or 25 when combined with hpv dna testing every 3 years. Conclusions Changing from cytology to hpv dna testing as the primary screening test for cervical cancer would be an acceptable strategy in Canada with respect to incidence, mortality, screening and diagnostic test volumes. PMID:26985148

  6. Overexpression of the oncostatin M receptor in cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells is associated with a pro-angiogenic phenotype and increased cell motility and invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Winder, David M; Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; Muralidhar, Balaji; Bauer, Julien; English, William R; Zhang, Xiao; Karagavriilidou, Konstantina; Roberts, Ian; Pett, Mark R; Murphy, Gillian; Coleman, Nicholas

    2011-11-01

    Oncostatin M receptor (OSMR) shows frequent copy number gain and overexpression in advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We used cell-based in vitro assays, RNA interference, and integrative gene expression profiling to investigate the functional significance of this observation. CaSki and SW756 were selected as representative cervical SCC cells that overexpressed OSMR, and ME180 and MS751 as cells that did not. The STAT-dependent pro-angiogenic factors VEGF-A and ID1 were rapidly induced by OSM in CaSki/SW756 but not in ME180/MS751. However, rapid induction did occur in MS751 following forced OSMR overexpression, while depleting OSMR in CaSki abrogated VEGF-A expression. Conditioned medium from both CaSki and SW756 stimulated endothelial tube formation in vitro, effects that were inhibited by depleting OSMR in the SCC cells. For both CaSki and SW756, migration in a wound healing assay and invasion through Matrigel were stimulated by OSM and consistently inhibited by OSMR depletion. The phenotype was rescued by transfection with OSMR containing a silent mutation that provided specific siRNA resistance. Overall, there was a positive correlation between OSMR levels and invasiveness. We used gene expression profiling to identify genes induced by OSM in CaSki/SW756 but not in ME180/MS751. The most prominent gene ontology category groups for the differentially expressed genes were cell motility/invasion, angiogenesis, signal transduction, and apoptosis. We also profiled 23 cervical SCC samples, identifying genes that were differentially expressed in cases with OSMR overexpression versus those without. Integration of the datasets identified 15 genes that showed consistent differential expression in association with OSMR levels in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that OSMR overexpression in cervical SCC cells provides increased sensitivity to OSM, which induces pro-malignant changes. OSMR is a potential prognostic and therapeutic target in cervical SCC. The genes

  7. Relationship of age and menopausal status to estrogen receptor content in primary carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, K S; Silva, J S; Cox, E B; Leight, G S; Wells, S A; McCarty, K S

    1983-01-01

    The cytosolic estrogen receptor (CER) content of 1037 primary breast carcinomas was evaluated by sucrose density gradient analysis. Tumor specimens from premenopausal patients had significantly lower levels of CER (14.6 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SEM) 8S binding fmole/mg protein) compared with carcinomas from postmenopausal patients (57.5 +/- 3.9 fmole/mg protein; p less than 0.001). The proportion of specimens with CER levels above threshold values of 3, 7, or 10 fmoles/mg protein were significantly higher for postmenopausal patients (72%, 63%, 59%, respectively) than for premenopausal patients (56%, 42%, 36%, p less than 0.001). When compared within half-decades, no statistically significant differences between premenopausal and postmenopausal patients were observed for mean, median, or rank sums of CER levels (p greater than 0.3). When patients were compared by half-decades, both mean and ranked sums of CER levels were significantly different (p less than 0.001). The proportion of specimens that demonstrated CER levels above a threshold value of 10 fmole/mg protein increased sequentially from a low of 13/51 (26%) for patients less than 35 years to a high of 60/81 (74%) for patients greater than 75 years. PMID:6824366

  8. Penile metastasis from primary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder sparing the urethra

    PubMed Central

    Oake, Justin D.; Drover, Douglas N.

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic involvement of the penis is relatively infrequent. Metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is extremely rare. We report a case of bladder TCC with metastases to the penis that spares the urethra — a finding that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported. Of the documented mechanisms of metastatic transmission to the penis, we suspect the cause was retrograde lymphatic spread. In our case, a 59-year-old male presented to our clinic initially with phimosis and later developed gross hematuria. Subsequent cystoscopy noted the appearance of tumour extending into the prostate, as well as the appearance of extensive TCC throughout the bladder. Following transurethral resection of prostate and bladder tissue, which demonstrated high-grade urothelial carcinoma, the patient underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy. A year later, he developed worsening gross hematuria and we noted the appearance of primary penile squamous cell malignancy. He then underwent a partial penectomy. The histopathology evaluation result from the partial penectomy revealed infiltration of TCC in the glans penis, as well as invasion into the corpus spongiosum, with sparing of the urethra. PMID:28096925

  9. The Possible Effects on Socio-Economic Inequalities of Introducing HPV Testing as Primary Test in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Baldacchini, Flavia; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Screening with HPV is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV as primary test will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the development of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women. Aim: To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the introduction of HPV-based screening. Methods: The putative HPV-based screening algorithm has been analyzed to identify critical points for inequalities. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted searching PubMed on HPV screening coverage, participation, and compliance. Results were summarized in a narrative synthesis. Results: Knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer was lower in women with low socio-economic status and in disadvantaged groups. A correct communication can reduce differences. Longer intervals will make it easier to achieve high-population coverage, but higher cost of the test in private providers could reduce the use of opportunistic screening by disadvantaged women. There are some evidences that inviting for HPV test instead of Pap increases participation, but there are no data on social differences. Self-sampling devices are effective in increasing participation and coverage. Some studies showed that the acceptability of self-sampling is higher in more educated women, but there is also an effect on hard-to-reach women. Communication of HPV positivity may increase anxiety and impact on sexual behaviors, the effect is stronger in low educated and disadvantaged women. Finally, many studies found indirect evidence that unvaccinated women are or will be more probably under-screened. Conclusion: The introduction of HPV test may increase population coverage, but non-compliance to protocols and interaction with opportunistic screening can increase the

  10. Randomized Comparison of Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy Versus Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy and Gelfoam Embolization for Treatment of Advanced Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, O. Mizukami, N.; Murata, Y.; Arakawa, A.; Katabuchi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Yasunaga, T.; Tsunawaki, A.; Yamashita, Y.

    2005-12-15

    Purpose:We evaluated the effects of intra-arterial infusion therapy by comparing the results obtained with a combination of intra-arterial anticancer drugs with and without transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in patients with cervical cancer.Methods:Between April 1999 and March 2003, intra-arterial therapy was administered to 45 patients (mean age 49 years) with cervical cancer. Of these, 18 had stage IIb , 4 had stage IIIa, 19 had stage IIIb, and 4 had stage IVb cancer; the histopathologic types were squamous cell carcinoma (n = 35), adenocarcinoma (n = 8), and adenosquamous carcinoma (n = 2). A total of 45 patients gave their informed consent and were randomized on a continuous basis into one of three groups according to the therapeutic protocols: group A consisted of 15 patients who received cisplatin, group B consisted of 17 patients who received cisplatin, mitomycin, doxorubicin hydrochloride, and 5-fluorouracil, and group C consisted of 13 patients who received cisplatin and TAE. Each protocol was administered twice with a 3 week interval between treatments. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated on the basis of the tumor reduction ratio (%) using MR imaging and the side effects were analyzed.Results:In groups A, B, and C, the tumor reduction ratio was 54%, 84%, and 86%, respectively; it was significantly greater in groups B and C than in group A (p < 0.01). The difference between groups B and C was not statistically significant. Although all group C patients developed severe pain after TAE, the pain was controlled with analgesics. Thrombocytopenia occurred in 6 of 17 (35%) group B patients.Conclusion:Group B and C patients had better tumor reduction than those in group A. Fewer hematologic complications occurred in group C patients compared with group B.

  11. Quantum dots (QDs) restrain human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell proliferation through inhibition of the ROCK-c-Myc signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liqun; Qu, Guangbo; Zhang, Changwen; Zhang, Shuping; He, Jiuyang; Sang, Nan; Liu, Sijin

    2013-03-01

    Cancers often cause significant morbidity and even death to patients. To date, conventional therapies, such as chemotherapy, radiation and surgery, are often limited; meanwhile, novel anticancer therapeutics are urgently needed to improve clinical treatments. Rapid application of nanotechnology and nanomaterials represents a promising vista for the development of anti-cancer therapeutics. However, how to integrate the novel properties of nanotechnology and nanomaterials into cancer treatment warrants close investigation. In the current study, we report a novel finding about the inhibitory effect of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) activity in cervical carcinoma HeLa cells associated with the attenuation of the ROCK-c-Myc signaling. We mechanistically demonstrated that QD-conducted ROCK inhibition greatly diminished c-Myc protein stability due to reduced phosphorylation, and also suppressed its activity in transcribing target genes (e.g. HSPC111). Thus, the treatment of QDs greatly restrained HeLa cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest at G1 phase due to the reduced ability of c-Myc in driving cell proliferation. Additionally, since HSPC111, one of the c-Myc targets, is involved in regulating cell growth through ribosomal biogenesis and assembly, the downregulation of HSPC111 could also contribute to diminished proliferation in HeLa cells upon QD treatment. These results together suggested that inhibition of ROCK activity or ROCK-mediated c-Myc signaling in tumor cells upon QD treatment might represent a promising strategy to restrain tumor progression for human cervical carcinoma.

  12. Isolation and characterization of cancer stem cells from primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong S.; Pearson, Alexander T.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Drug resistance remains a significant problem in the treatment of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Recent reports showed that a sub-population of highly tumorigenic cells (cancer stem cells) is uniquely resistant to chemotherapy, and suggesting that these cells play an important role in the relapse of HNSCC. The development of methods for the isolation and culture of cancer stem cells is a key step to enable studies exploring the mechanisms underlying the role of these cells in chemoresistance. Here, we describe a method to isolate cancer stem cells from primary head and neck tumors and for the generation of orospheres, i.e. the culture of these cells in suspension in ultra-low attachment plates. PMID:26910078

  13. Pure primary signet ring cell carcinoma breast: A rare cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jashan; Dubey, V. K.; Makkar, Manisha; Suri, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the breast is a rare tumor and it is classified by World Health Organization in 2003 classification under ‘mucin producing carcinomas’. Pure form of SRCC breast is an extremely rare entity and very few cases have been reported in literature so far. We present a case of pure primary SRCC of the breast in a 70-year-old female, which was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. Cytological features generally show cellular smears with tumor cells showing eccentrically placed large, irregular nuclei showing indentations at places with cytoplasmic vacuoles. This case is being presented in view of its characteristic cytological features and its rarity. PMID:24130416

  14. An Unusual Presentation of Isolated Leptomeningeal Disease in Carcinoma of Unknown Primary With Pancreatic Features.

    PubMed

    Anne, Madhurima; Ahmad, Nazish; Lee, Paul; Aziz, Mohamed; Lebowicz, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) can occur in a small percentage of patients with active metastatic cancer. However, we report a case of LMD occurring during disease remission in a patient with carcinoma of unknown primary with panreaticobiliary features. A 45-year-old woman was found with mediastinal and abdominal lymphadenopathy with lymph node biopsy consistent with adenocarcinoma, expressing immunomarkers CK7, CK20, and Ca19-9 along with markedly elevated serum Ca19-9 level. The patient was started on a pancreatic cancer directed chemotherapy regimen of Folfirinox (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, irinotecan) and achieved complete response. She was then noted to have slowly rising Ca19-9 level that did not correlate with her lack of evidence of systemic disease progression. Eventually, she presented with neurologic symptoms and was found on imaging to have isolated LMD.

  15. Primary papillary carcinoma in thyroglossal cysts. Case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chala, Andrés; Álvarez, Andrés; Sanabria, Álvaro; Gaitán, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The thyroglossal cyst can exceptionally appear as a primary cyst carcinoma. We discuss a series of 6 adult patients, assessed for long-lasting asymptomatic suprahyoid or lateral-to-larynx mass. The images showed a heterogeneous mass invading adjacent soft tissues. Fine needle aspiration biopsy did not contribute to diagnosis. We performed a Sistrunk procedure in all cases, 3 combined with total thyroidectomy and 1 with neck dissection. The postoperative course was favourable. No additional treatment was required, without evidence of recurrence in follow-up. The management is controversial due to the limited number of cases reported. Some classifications based on size and extent have been proposed to define the surgical treatment of such cysts.

  16. Salvage Liver Transplantation Leads to Poorer Outcome in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Compared with Primary Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Yuhua; Huang, Lifeng; Xia, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common liver malignancy. Salvage liver transplantation (SLT) is viewed as a feasible cure for recurrence of HCC after resectomy, but the effect is under dispute. A retrospective study examined data at Renji Hospital for 239 transplants from January 2006 to December 2015, including 211 who received primary liver transplantation (PLT) and 28 who underwent SLT. A multivariable cox regression model was employed to pick out relative factors to overall survival (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to balance the bias. Both OS and RFS were worse in SLT group than in PLT group, especially for those patients within Milan criteria. Our study demonstrates that SLT bears higher risk of recurrence and death than PLT, indicating that SLT should be given a more careful thought at performance. PMID:28294176

  17. Collision tumor in form of primary adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lan; Schwarz, Roderich E

    2012-04-12

    Collision tumor is a rare phenomenon characterized by coexistence of completely distinct and independent tumors at the same body location. Collision tumors have been reported in different sites. However, they are extremely uncommon in the duodenum. We report the case of a 52-year old man with a collision tumor in the third portion of the duodenum with two distinct tumors of primary adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma, and both tumors coexisting within a single metastatic lymph node. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed to conclude that this was a case of collision cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first collision tumor case reported to date at this location, and the first report of lymph node with a collision metastasis from a collision tumor. Such tumor is very rare and may thus provide diagnostic challenges. This report also provides a review of other cases on duodenal collision tumors.

  18. Inhibition of radiation-induced apoptosis by dexamethasone in cervical carcinoma cell lines depends upon increased HPV E6/E7

    PubMed Central

    Kamradt, M C; Mohideen, N; Krueger, E; Walter, S; Vaughan, A T M

    2000-01-01

    Through a glucocorticoid-responsive promoter, glucocorticoids can regulate the transcription of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 viral genes which target the tumour suppressor proteins p53 and Rb respectively. In C4-1 cells, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone up-regulated HPV E6/E7 mRNA and decreased radiation-induced apoptosis. In contrast, dexamethasone had no effect on apoptosis of cells that either lack the HPV genome (C33-a) or in which HPV E6/E7 transcription is repressed by dexamethasone (SW756). Irradiated C4-1 cells showed increased p53 expression, while dexamethasone treatment prior to irradiation decreased p53 protein expression. In addition, p21 mRNA was regulated by irradiation and dexamethasone in accordance with the observed changes in p53. Overall, glucocorticoids decreased radiation-induced apoptosis in cervical carcinoma cells which exhibit increased HPV E6/E7 transcription and decreased p53 expression. Therefore, in HPV-infected cervical epithelial cells, p53-dependent apoptosis appears to depend upon the levels of HPV E6/E7 mRNA. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10817508

  19. Alterations of MicroRNA Expression Patterns in Human Cervical Carcinoma Cells (Ca Ski) toward 1′S-1′-Acetoxychavicol Acetate and Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Phuah, Neoh Hun; In, Lionel LA; Azmi, Mohamad Nurul; Ibrahim, Halijah; Awang, Khalijah

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the combined effects of a natural compound 1′S-1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) with cisplatin (CDDP) on HPV-positive human cervical carcinoma cell lines (Ca Ski—low cisplatin sensitivity and HeLa—high cisplatin sensitivity), and to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) modulated in response toward ACA and/or CDDP. It was revealed that both ACA and CDDP induced dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity when used as a stand-alone agent, while synergistic effects were observed when used in combination with a combination index (CI) value of 0.74 ± 0.01 and 0.85 ± 0.01 in Ca Ski and HeLa cells, respectively. A total of 25 miRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed in response to ACA and/or CDDP. These include hsa-miR-138, hsa-miR-210, and hsa-miR-744 with predicted gene targets involved in signaling pathways regulating apoptosis and cell cycle progression. In conclusion, ACA acts as a chemosensitizer which synergistically potentiates the cytotoxic effect of CDDP in cervical cancer cells. The altered miRNA expression upon administration of ACA and/or CDDP suggests that miRNAs play an important role in anticancer drug responses, which can be manipulated for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23012319

  20. Rapid, sensitive, type specific PCR detection of the E7 region of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 from paraffin embedded sections of cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lesnikova, Iana; Lidang, Marianne; Hamilton-Dutoit, Steven; Koch, Jørn

    2010-01-22

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and in particularly infection with HPVs 16 and 18, is a central carcinogenic factor in the uterine cervix. We established and optimized a PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of HPV types 16 and 18 in archival formaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) sections of cervical cancer.Tissue blocks from 35 cases of in situ or invasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma and surrogate FFPE sections containing the cell lines HeLa and SiHa were tested for HPV 16 and HPV18 by conventional PCR using type specific primers, and for the housekeeping gene beta-actin. Using HPV 16 E7 primers, PCR products with the expected length were detected in 18 of 35 of FFPE sections (51%). HPV 18 E7 specific sequences were detected in 3 of 35 FFPE sections (9%).In our experience, the PCR technique is a robust, simple and sensitive way of type specific detection of HPV16 and HPV18 genes in FFPE tissue. That makes this technique applicable to routine practices of HPV detection.

  1. Clonal evolution of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma from primary to recurrent disease.

    PubMed

    Castellarin, Mauro; Milne, Katy; Zeng, Thomas; Tse, Kane; Mayo, Michael; Zhao, Yongjun; Webb, John R; Watson, Peter H; Nelson, Brad H; Holt, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and fatal form of ovarian cancer. While most tumours are highly sensitive to cytoreductive surgery and platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy, the majority of patients experience recurrence of treatment-resistant tumours. The clonal origin and mutational adaptations associated with recurrent disease are poorly understood. We performed whole exome sequencing on tumour cells harvested from ascites at three time points (primary, first recurrence, and second recurrence) for three HGSC patients receiving standard treatment. Somatic point mutations and small insertions and deletions were identified by comparison to constitutional DNA. The clonal structure and evolution of tumours were inferred from patterns of mutant allele frequencies. TP53 mutations were predominant in all patients at all time points, consistent with the known founder role of this gene. Tumours from all three patients also harboured mutations associated with cell cycle checkpoint function and Golgi vesicle trafficking. There was convergence of germline and somatic variants within the DNA repair, ECM, cell cycle control, and Golgi vesicle pathways. The vast majority of somatic variants found in recurrent tumours were present in primary tumours. Our findings highlight both known and novel pathways that are commonly mutated in HGSC. Moreover, they provide the first evidence at single nucleotide resolution that recurrent HGSC arises from multiple clones present in the primary tumour with negligible accumulation of new mutations during standard treatment.

  2. Primary tumor induces sentinel lymph node lymphangiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroki; Chikamatsu, Kazuaki; Sakakura, Koichi; Miyata, Masanori; Furuya, Nobuhiko; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2010-05-01

    The main factor that affects the prognosis of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is regional lymph node metastases, which usually spreads first to the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Recent studies have demonstrated that tumor cells in several malignancies can induce lymphangiogenesis in SLNs before metastasizing. To elucidate the mechanisms of tumor dissemination of OSCC, we investigated whether primary tumors induce lymphangiogenesis within SLNs in patients with OSCC. The mRNA expression of lymphatic-specific markers, including VEGFR-3, Prox-1, and LYVE-1 in 23 metastasis-negative SLNs obtained from 10 patients with OSCC, was investigated using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay, and compared with control lymph nodes from patients with non-cancerous diseases. In addition, VEGF-C and VEGF-D expressions of the primary tumor were examined by immunohistochemistry. In SLNs, there were highly significant correlations between the three lymphatic markers examined. Interestingly, the level of LYVE-1 expression in SLNs, despite the absence of metastasis, was significantly higher than in control lymph nodes. Moreover, SLNs from patients with VEGF-C-positive tumor showed a significantly higher expression of VEGFR-3 than those from patients with VEGF-C-negative tumor. Our findings suggest that in OSCC, the primary tumor actively induces lymphangiogenesis in SLNs prior to the onset of metastases, and where tumor-derived VEGF-C plays an important role.

  3. Clinical characteristics of primary peritoneal carcinoma patients: a single-institution experience involving 8 patients

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Satomi; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Fuji, Utako; Furui, Yuko; Ishibashi, Yuki; Hattori, Yuka; Takahashi, Noriko; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Misawa, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is treated similarly to advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma (aEOC); however, the standard approach for the management of PPC is controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and prognosis of those patients. A retrospective analysis was performed of eight patients with PPC between January 2008 and December 2015. Clinicopathologic parameters, the diagnostic modality, treatment, and oncologic outcome were analyzed. The median age at the time of diagnosis was 72.5 years (range: 55–79), with a median follow-up of 26.5 months (range, 5–74). Most of the PPC developed with carcinomatosis peritonei involving ascites, while some cases developed sporadically in the peritoneal or extraperitoneal cavity without ascites. The most common initial symptom was abdominal fullness, and other symptoms were inguinal tumor, paralysis of the extremities, and respiratory disorder. The preoperative CA125 value was elevated in all patients. In four patients who did not undergo primary surgery, the final diagnoses were determined by the ascites cytology and radiological image. Initial or interval debulking surgery was performed in only two patients. All patients were treated with paclitaxel or docetaxel plus carboplatin. Five showed a complete response (CR), and one showed a partial response (PR). Among the five patients with CR, the median progression-free and overall survival periods were 15 (12–26) and 41.5 (32–74) months, respectively. Three patients without carcinomatosis peritonei showed a relatively favorable prognosis. The management of PPC is generally consistent with that of aEOC; however, in atypical cases, the treatment method should be considered individually. PMID:28008196

  4. Ipsilateral Irradiation for Oral and Oropharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Primary Surgery and Postoperative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vergeer, Marije R.; Doornaert, Patricia; Jonkman, Anja; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Ende, Piet L.A. van den; Jong, Martin A. de; Leemans, C. Rene; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate the contralateral nodal control (CLNC) in postoperative patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer treated with ipsilateral irradiation of the neck and primary site. Late radiation-induced morbidity was also evaluated. Methods and Materials: The study included 123 patients with well-lateralized squamous cell carcinomas treated with surgery and unilateral postoperative irradiation. Most patients had tumors of the gingiva (41%) or buccal mucosa (21%). The majority of patients underwent surgery of the ipsilateral neck (n = 102 [83%]). The N classification was N0 in 73 cases (59%), N1 or N2a in 23 (19%), and N2b in 27 cases (22%). Results: Contralateral metastases developed in 7 patients (6%). The 5-year actuarial CLNC was 92%. The number of lymph node metastases was the only significant prognostic factor with regard to CLNC. The 5-year CLNC was 99% in N0 cases, 88% in N1 or N2a cases, and 73% in N2b cases (p = 0.008). Borderline significance (p = 0.06) was found for extranodal spread. Successful salvage could be performed in 71% of patients with contralateral metastases. The prevalence of Grade 2 or higher xerostomia was 2.6% at 5 years. Conclusions: Selected patients with oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma treated with primary surgery and postoperative ipsilateral radiotherapy have a very high CLNC with a high probability of successful salvage in case of contralateral metastases. However, bilateral irradiation should be applied in case of multiple lymph node metastases in the ipsilateral neck, particularly in the presence of extranodal spread. The incidence of radiation-induced morbidity is considerably lower as observed after bilateral irradiation.

  5. Targeting the eIF4E/β-catenin axis sensitizes cervical carcinoma squamous cells to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hai; Wang, Zhiyin; Xu, Lang; Mo, Guoyan; Duan, Gangfeng; Wang, Yali; Sun, Zhengang; Chen, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy has improved the clinical outcomes of cervical cancer patients. However, patients develop chemoresistance, whose underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the phosphorylation levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in cervical cancer cells subjected to chemotherapy. Results showed that chemotherapeutic drugs significantly increased eIF4E phosphorylation at S209 in HeLa and SiHa cells. Upregulation of phosphorylated eIF4E (p-eIF4E) levels has also been shown in cisplatin-resistant HeLa cells and has been observed to be a common response of cervical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. We further showed that chemotherapeutic drugs increase β-catenin activity and mRNA levels of Wnt/β-catenin target genes in cervical cancer cells but not in eIF4E-depleted cells, suggesting that chemotherapeutic drugs activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling in an eIF4E-dependent manner. Inhibiting eIF4E via siRNA knockdown or Wnt/β-catenin using the Wnt inhibitor pyrvinium effectively enhanced the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of cisplatin in cervical cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that eIF4E/β-catenin signaling plays a positive regulatory role in the resistance of cervical cancer cell to chemotherapy and thus highlight the therapeutic value of eIF4E or β-catenin inhibition in overcoming chemoresistance. PMID:28386346

  6. Primary Pulmonary Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma: Histopathological and Moleculargenetic Studies of 26 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji; Li, Shanqing; Wu, Shafei; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Yufeng; Cao, Jinling; Zeng, Xuan; Liang, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    cases were located in the lung. p63 and TTF-1 were positive in all cases (8/8), p40 was positive in 5 cases (5/8), and ALK was positive in 5 cases (5/8). No cases of MAML2 rearrangement were detected, but there were 5 cases of ALK rearrangement. Conclusions PMEC is a primary malignant pulmonary tumor with a relatively good prognosis that is historically characterized by the presence of mucous cells and a lack of keratinization. There are distinct differences between PMEC and MEC-like pulmonary carcinoma in tumor location preference, immunophenotype, and molecular genetics, and the differential diagnosis is critical due to the therapeutic and prognostic considerations. PMID:26575266

  7. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ben Kridis, Wala; Khanfir, Afef; Toumi, Nabil; Ben Amar, Mohamed; Boudawara, Tahia; Frikha, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the pancreas is extremely rare. We herein report two such cases. Aside from various morphological characteristics, the clinical presentation of pancreatic SCC is the same as that of adenocarcinoma. The treatment is controversial, and the prognosis is poor.

  8. Primary Screening for Cervical Cancer Based on High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection and HPV 16 and HPV 18 Genotyping, in Comparison to Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Constantinidis, Theocharis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study is to assess the performance of a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA test with individual HPV-16/HPV-18 genotyping as a method for primary cervical cancer screening compared with liquid-based cytology (LBC) in a population of Greek women taking part in routine cervical cancer screening. Methods The study, conducted by the “HEllenic Real life Multicentric cErvical Screening” (HERMES) study group, involved the recruitment of 4,009 women, aged 25–55, who took part in routine cervical screening at nine Gynecology Departments in Greece. At first visit cervical specimens were collected for LBC and HPV testing using the Roche Cobas 4800 system. Women found positive for either cytology or HPV were referred for colposcopy, whereas women negative for both tests will be retested after three years. The study is ongoing and the results of the first screening round are reported herein. Results Valid results for cytology and HPV testing were obtained for 3,993 women. The overall prevalence of HR-HPV was 12.7%, of HPV-16 2.7% and of HPV-18 1.4%. Of those referred for colposcopy, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was detected in 41 women (1.07%). At the threshold of CIN2+, cytology [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse] and HPV testing showed a sensitivity of 53.7% and 100% respectively, without change between age groups. Cytology and HPV testing showed specificity of 96.8% and 90.3% respectively, which was increased in older women (≥30) in comparison to younger ones (25–29). Genotyping for HPV16/18 had similar accuracy to cytology for the detection of CIN2+ (sensitivity: 58.5%; specificity 97.5%) as well as for triage to colposcopy (sensitivity: 58.5% vs 53.7% for cytology). Conclusion HPV testing has much better sensitivity than cytology to identify high-grade cervical lesions with slightly lower specificity. HPV testing with individual HPV-16/HPV-18

  9. Clinical outcomes of advanced-stage glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a need for reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nara; Kim, Ji-Ye; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical features and patient outcomes for advanced-stage glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The study was restricted to cases in which the glassy cell features constituted at least 95% of the biopsied specimen. During the study period, 675 patients were diagnosed with primary cervical carcinoma. Five (0.7%) of the 675 patients had cervical glassy cell carcinoma; of these, three were premenopausal, and two were postmenopausal. Abnormal vaginal bleeding was the most frequent presenting symptom. Glassy cell carcinoma presented as a fungating, exophytic, or infiltrative mass. The greatest tumor dimension ranged from 3 to 9 cm. All patients had parametrial extension. Four patients had stage IIB tumors, and one had a stage IIIB tumor. All patients received concurrent chemoradiation therapy. The patient with a stage IIIB tumor died of hypovolemic shock caused by upper gastrointestinal bleeding during radiation therapy. Three patients with stage IIB tumors survived for more than 8 years without tumor recurrence or metastasis. One of these three patients died of pelvic recurrence 10 years after the initial diagnosis. Cervical glassy cell carcinoma has traditionally been considered an aggressive, highly malignant tumor with poor prognosis, but our data suggest that patient survival is not significantly decreased compared with other histological types of cervical carcinoma. It will be necessary to analyze patient outcomes using a larger number of cervical glassy cell carcinoma cases to confirm our findings. PMID:27793022

  10. Primary cervical and uterine corpus lymphoma; a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Anagnostopoulos, Antonios; Mouzakiti, Niki; Ruthven, Stuart; Herod, Jonathan; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2013-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the uterine corpus and cervix is rare. We present a case of primary non-Hodgkin follicular lymphoma isolated to uterine corpus and parametria with focal spread to ovaries and fallopian tubes, incidentally found on the background of endometrial malignancy. A summary of the published cases focusing on the presentation and prognosis as well as a review of current management are discussed. The rising incidence of extra-nodal lymphoma and recent changes in classification and therapeutic approach, require clinical vigilance. In the absence of prospective studies assessing the value of the available therapeutic options, data from retrospective series and scattered case reports are presented in this review. PMID:23641308

  11. CT and MRI of primary and metastatic fibrolamellar carcinoma: a case series of 37 patients

    PubMed Central

    McErlean, A; Ang, C S; DeMatteo, R P; Abou-Alfa, G K

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) is a rare disease, with limited radiographic reported information. We assessed the imaging patterns of primary and metastatic FLC. Methods: CT and MR examinations of patients with FLC were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging features were assessed for primary and recurrent liver tumours, including dimension, enhancement characteristics, and presence or absence of central scars. Locations of nodal and extranodal metastases were also recorded. Results: Of 37 patients (18 males and 19 females; average age, 23.5 years) with FLC, 24 had imaging of their primary tumour; 13 had metastases at presentation and 7 developed metastases on follow-up. The remaining 13 patients had follow-up imaging of metastatic disease. Primary FLC had a mean diameter >11 cm, with central scars in ten (46%) patients. Most tumours enhanced heterogeneously (96%) and showed arterial enhancement (81%). On MRI, 62% of FLCs were hypointense on T1 weighted imaging and 54% were hyperintense on T2 weighted imaging. 13 patients (54%) had nodal metastases at presentation, mostly in the upper abdomen (92%) and commonly in the chest (38%). Extrahepatic metastases were most frequently pulmonary or peritoneal. Predominantly small and homogeneous intrahepatic recurrences were detected on follow-up in 15 patients. Conclusion: FLC often presents as a large hepatic tumour with nodal and distant metastases. Thoracic adenopathy and lung metastases were frequently found in our series, suggesting the need for pre-operative and follow-up chest imaging. Advances in knowledge: Thoracic nodal and lung metastases are common in FLC; therefore, dedicated chest imaging should be part of the evaluation of a patient with FLC. PMID:24896196

  12. Genomic CGH-assessed structural DNA alterations in rectal carcinoma as related to local recurrence following primary operation for cure.

    PubMed

    Kodeda, K; Asting, A Gustafsson; Lönnroth, C; Derwinger, K; Wettergren, Y; Nordgren, S; Gustavsson, B; Lundholm, K

    2012-10-01

    Several factors determine overall outcome and possible local recurrence after curative surgery for rectal carcinoma. Surgical performance is usually believed to be the most pertinent factor, followed by adjuvant oncological treatment and tumor histopathology. However, chromosomal instability is common in colorectal cancer and tumor clones are assumed to differ in aggressiveness and potential of causing local recurrence. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate if genetic alterations in primary rectal carcinoma are predictive of local recurrences. A large clinical database with linked bio-bank allowed for careful matching of two patient groups (R0) resected for rectal carcinoma. One group had developed early, isolated local recurrences and the other group seemed cured after 93 months follow-up. DNA from the primary tumors was analysed with array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) including 55,000 genomic probes. DNA from all primary tumors in both groups displayed previously reported and well-recognised DNA aberrations in colorectal carcinoma. Significant copy number gains were confirmed in the 4q31.1-31.22 region in DNA from tumors with subsequent local recurrence. Twenty-two affected genes in this region code for products with high relevance in tumor biology (p53 regulation, cell cycle activity, transcription). DNA from rectal carcinoma displayed well-known aberrations as described for colon carcinoma with no obvious prediction of local rectal recurrence. Gains in the 4q31.1-31.22 DNA region are highly potential for local recurrence despite R0 resection to be confirmed in larger patient materials.

  13. Carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary system--results of primary and adjuvant radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, J.N.; Emami, B.

    1987-03-01

    From 1975-1983, 20 patients with primary carcinomas of the gallbladder (GB) or extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBD) were irradiated with curative intent at the Washington University Medical Center and affiliated hospitals. Of the 17 patients with EHBD cancer, one received adjuvant irradiation after gross resection with positive microscopic margins. All others received primary irradiation for unresectable tumors, or for gross residual tumor after incomplete resection. The 8 patients receiving Ir192 implant in addition to external radiation showed improved survival compared to the 9 receiving external only: median 15 months (range 1.5-34 + months) versus 7 months (range 2.5-21 months). Failures were predominantly local-regional, with only one patient showing metastatic spread without known local-regional tumor. Adjuvant radiation therapy was given after cholecystectomy to 3 patients with GB cancers showing tumor extension beyond the serosa or to regional lymphatics. Of these, two survived at 22+ and 27+ months; the third died of local recurrence at 5 1/2 months. Although numbers are small, these results appear to support the use of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with microscopic residual GB cancer. Aggressive local and regional radiotherapy can add to the quality and length of survival in both patient groups, that is, those with resectable lesions with high likelihood of microscopic residual, and also those with unresectable or gross residual disease after surgery.

  14. Carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary system--results of primary and adjuvant radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fields, J N; Emami, B

    1987-03-01

    From 1975-1983, 20 patients with primary carcinomas of the gallbladder (GB) or extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBD) were irradiated with curative intent at the Washington University Medical Center and affiliated hospitals. Of the 17 patients with EHBD cancer, one received adjuvant irradiation after gross resection with positive microscopic margins. All others received primary irradiation for unresectable tumors, or for gross residual tumor after incomplete resection. The 8 patients receiving Ir192 implant in addition to external radiation showed improved (p = 0.06) survival compared to the 9 receiving external only: median 15 months (range 1.5-34 + months) versus 7 months (range 2.5-21 months). Failures were predominantly local-regional, with only one patient showing metastatic spread without known local-regional tumor. Adjuvant radiation therapy was given after cholecystectomy to 3 patients with GB cancers showing tumor extension beyond the serosa or to regional lymphatics. Of these, two survived at 22+ and 27+ months; the third died of local recurrence at 5 1/2 months. Although numbers are small, these results appear to support the use of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with microscopic residual GB cancer. Aggressive local and regional radiotherapy can add to the quality and length of survival in both patient groups, that is, those with resectable lesions with high likelihood of microscopic residual, and also those with unresectable or gross residual disease after surgery.

  15. Features of hepatocellular carcinoma in cases with autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takuya; Soga, Kenji; Hirono, Haruka; Hasegawa, Katsuhiko; Shibasaki, Koichi; Kawai, Hirokazu; Aoyagi, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with autoimmune liver disease, we critically evaluated the literature on HCC associated with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Japana Centra Revuo Medicina database which produced 38 cases of HCC with AIH (AIH-series) and 50 cases of HCC with PBC (PBC-series). We compared the clinical features of these two sets of patients with the general Japanese HCC population. RESULTS: On average, HCC was more common in men than in women with AIH or PBC. While many patients underwent chemolipiodolization (CL) or transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) (AIH-series: P = 0.048 (vs operation), P = 0.018 (vs RFA, PEIT); PBC-series: P = 0.027 (vs RFA, PEIT), others refused therapeutic interventions [AIH-series: P = 0.038 (vs RFA, PEIT); PBC-series: P = 0.003 (vs RFA, PEIT)]. Liver failure was the primary cause of death among patients in this study, followed by tumor rupture. The survival interval between diagnosis and death was fairly short, averaging 14 ± 12 mo in AIH patients and 8.4 ± 14 mo in PBC patients. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated common clinical features among Japanese cases of HCC arising from AIH and PBC. PMID:19132775

  16. Functional analysis of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma primary tumor‑associated gene interaction network.

    PubMed

    An, Fengwei; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Ming

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) primary tumor development through the identification of key genes using bioinformatics approaches. Using the GSE53819 microarray dataset, acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out between NPC primary tumor and control samples, followed by hierarchical clustering analysis. The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database was utilized to build a protein‑protein interaction network to identify key node proteins. In total, 1,067 DEGs, including 326 upregulated genes and 741 downregulated genes, were identified between the NPC and control samples. The results of the hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrated that 95% of the DEGs were sample‑specific. Furthermore, PDZ binding kinase (PBK), centromere protein F (CENPF), actin‑binding protein anillin (ANLN), exonuclease 1 (EXO1) and chromosome 15 open reading frame 42 (C15ORF42) were included in the obtained network module, which was closely associated with the cell cycle and nucleic acid metabolic process GO functions. The results of the present study revealed that EXO1, CENPF, ANLN, PBK and C15ORF42 may be involved in the mechanism of NPC via modulating the cell cycle and nucleic acid metabolic processes, and may serve as molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis of this disease.

  17. Primary cutaneous apocrine gland carcinoma from areolar tissue in a male patient with gynecomastia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Jae-Jun

    2015-09-08

    Primary cutaneous apocrine gland carcinoma, which is a type of sweat gland carcinoma, is an extremely rare type of cancer. Clinical courses of this type of cancer usually progress slowly but can, occasionally, be associated with rapid progression. This case report describes a 53-year-old Korean man with primary cutaneous apocrine gland carcinoma that arose from an apocrine gland in the areola tissue. The patient visited our hospital because of a large, painful chest wall mass beneath the right nipple. The mass had been present for more than eight years but had grown rapidly over the past few months. The patient was initially diagnosed with a benign cystic mass, and we performed a wide excision with a clear margin and without lymph node dissection. The mass was a well-encapsulated cystic lesion that contained old blood material, and there was no invasion into the surrounding tissue. The final pathology showed that the mass was a primary cutaneous apocrine gland carcinoma that arose from the areola apocrine sweat gland, not from the breast parenchymal tissue. Herein, we report an extremely rare chest wall mass unfamiliar to thoracic surgeons.

  18. Primary adenosquamous carcinoma of the esophagus: an analysis of 39 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Peng-Zhi; Yang, Yu-Shang; Hu, Wei-Peng; Wang, Wen-Ping; Yuan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the esophagus is an uncommon type of malignant esophageal neoplasm containing both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocacinoma (AC) components. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics and prognosis of esophageal ASC. Methods A retrospective review of esophageal ASC patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with lymphadenectomy in our hospital from July 2007 to April 2014. Results A total of 39 (1.0%) esophageal ASC patients among 3855 patients with esophageal cancers were collected to analyze. There were 34 men and 5 women with a median age of 61.0 years (range from 39–85). Median follow-up time was 30.0 months and median survival time was 44.4 months. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 82.1%, 51.6% and 37.5%, respectively. Compared to esophageal SCC and AC, there were no significant difference in survive time (P=0.616). Thirty five (92.1%) of the 38 patients who underwent preoperative endoscopic biopsy were misdiagnosed, mostly as SCC. Fifteen patients (38.5%) were found to have lymph node metastasis. Thirty two patients (82.1%) had a poorly differentiated or undifferentiated tumor. According to the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 3 patients were at Stage I, 21 patients at Stage II and 15 patients at Stage III. In univariate analysis, pT stage, lymph node metastasis and pTNM Stage significantly influenced survive time. In multivariate analysis, however, only lymph node metastasis (P=0.003; 95% CI: 1.626–10.972) was found to be the independent prognostic factor. Conclusions Primary ASC of the esophagus is a rare disease with difficultly to be histologically confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. The prognosis of esophageal ASC was no worse than esophageal SCC and AC. Lymph node metastasis is the most influent prognostic factor. The TNM staging system of esophageal SCC is applicable for esophageal ASC

  19. [Cervical cancer even after recovery from preliminary stage].

    PubMed

    Burger, Matthé P M

    2013-01-01

    Patients with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1-3 who have completed a 2-year follow-up period with three negative cytological test results show an incidence of invasive carcinoma of 35.1 per 100,000 women years. Their risk for invasive cancer is 4-fold the risk in healthy women who had a negative primary test result. It has been proposed that this group should be kept in long-term, frequent follow-up. The author argues that if cervical cancer develops in these women, the treatment and diagnostics of CIN might have been incorrect. If the thickness of the electrosurgically excised tissue strips is insufficient, more deeply situated parts of the cervical crypts may be left behind in the stroma. After healing, cervical carcinoma may develop beneath a normal surface if these parts of the crypts contain intraepithelial neoplastic cells. This carcinoma is not amenable to early diagnosis. Before deciding on a more intense follow-up, we have to investigate the quality of the diagnostics and treatment in this group of women.

  20. Primary care provider practices and beliefs related to cervical cancer screening with the HPV test in Federally Qualified Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Roland, K.B.; Benard, V.B.; Greek, A.; Hawkins, N.A.; Manninen, D.; Saraiya, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer screening using the human papillomavirus (HPV) test and Pap test together (co-testing) is an option for average-risk women ≥30 years of age. With normal co-test results, screening intervals can be extended. The study objective is to assess primary care provider practices, beliefs, facilitators and barriers to using the co-test and extending screening intervals among low-income women. Method Data were collected from 98 providers in 15 Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) clinics in Illinois between August 2009 and March 2010 using a cross-sectional survey. Results 39% of providers reported using the co-test, and 25% would recommend a three-year screening interval for women with normal co-test results. Providers perceived greater encouragement for co-testing than for extending screening intervals with a normal co-test result. Barriers to extending screening intervals included concerns about patients not returning annually for other screening tests (77%), patient concerns about missing cancer (62%), and liability (52%). Conclusion Among FQHC providers in Illinois, few administered the co-test for screening and recommended appropriate intervals, possibly due to concerns over loss to follow-up and liability. Education regarding harms of too-frequent screening and false positives may be necessary to balance barriers to extending screening intervals. PMID:23628517

  1. Detection of cervical lymph node micrometastasis and isolated tumor cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemistry and serial sectioning

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Isha; Sandhu, Simarpreet V; Bhandari, Rajat; Sood, Neena; Bhullar, Ramanpreet Kaur; Sethi, Neerja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) comprises one of the largest subsets of cancers with a tendency for regional metastasis. Nodal status is a key prognostic indicator in patients with OSCC, particularly with N0 neck. Occult metastasis in the form of micrometastasis (MM) and isolated tumor cells (ITCs), often goes undetected by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) examination using 1–2 sections for analysis. This limitation could be overcome by combining serial sectioning (SS) with immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the detection of MM and ITC. Pan-cytokeratin (pan-CK) (AE1/AE3) is particularly a useful marker to detect these deposits as their presence has resulted in varied interpretations and different applications of the tumor-node-metastasis system. Objectives: The objective of the study was to identify a suitable method for detecting MM and ITC in lymph nodes (LNs) of OSCC by combining SS and IHC and to compare it with conventional H&E staining. Materials and Methods: This laboratory-based, prospective study was conducted on 133 LNs harnessed from ten patients treated with radical neck dissection for primary OSCC. The LNs were subjected to SS at 100 μm intervals. The sections were stained with routine H&E staining, pan-CK and analyzed for MM and ITC according to criteria laid by Hermanek et al. Statistical Analysis: The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi-square test. Results: The application of combination of SS and IHC using pan-CK (AE1/AE3) in our study revealed the presence of MM and ITC in 2.25% of the LNs diagnosed as negative on routine H&E examination. The detection of these occult metastatic deposits resulted in upstaging of 33.33% of the patients. Conclusion: In the view of crucial role of occult LN metastasis in prognosis and survival of OSCC patients with N0 neck, diagnostic tools such as IHC staining, particularly with pan-CK (AE1/AE3), combined with SS should be preferred over conventional methods as they

  2. Duodenal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Presenting with Disseminated Liver and Bone Metastases as the Primary Manifestation: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tao; Ng, Ka Kei; Chiang, Hoi Wan; Ma, Man Fei; Lin, Yi; Qian, Jia Ming

    2015-05-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are composed by a heterogeneous group of tumors with a wide range of morphologic, functional, and behavioral characteristics. These tumors are generally slow growing and behave in an indolent fashion. However, they have the potential to spread, especially for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, and when they do, they can be very aggressive, with high propensity for distant metastases, and difficult to treat with current modalities. As poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas rarely occur in extrapulmonary sites, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a poorly differentiated duodenal neuroendocrine carcinoma with diffuse liver and bone metastases as the primary manifestation. Despite receiving a trial of chemotherapeutic regimen, the patient had progressive intrahepatic cholestasis and died of subacute hepatic failure.

  3. Solid-type primary intraosseous squamous-cell carcinoma in the mandible: Report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Ohoud; Al-Zaher, Nabil; Alotaibi, Faiza; Khoja, Hatim; Qannam, Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) is a rare malignant neoplasm that has an exquisitely exclusive affection to the jawbone. It is defined as squamous cell carcinoma arising within the jaw and developing from residual odontogenic epithelium or from a preexisting odontogenic cyst or tumor. The solid-type of this tumor is a central jaw carcinoma arising de novo and has no initial connection with the oral mucosa. Herein, we report a case of solid-type PIOSCC involving the mandible in a 37-year-old male patient elucidating its histopathological and imaging findings. The patient underwent surgical resection followed by post-operative adjuvant radiotherapy. The close 2-year follow up of the patient revealed neither locoregional nor distant metastasis.

  4. Primary epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of lung, reporting of a rare entity, its molecular histogenesis and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Arif, Farzana; Wu, Susan; Andaz, Shahriyour; Fox, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Primary epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of lung is a rare entity and is thought to arise from the submucosal bronchial glands distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract. Because of the rarity of this tumor, we describe one case of epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma arising in the bronchus intermedius and presenting as an endobronchial mass. A 57-year-old male patient presented with an incidental finding of an endobronchial mass located in the lumen of the right lower lobe bronchus and caused near total luminal occlusion of the bronchus. An endobronchial carcinoid tumor was entertained clinically. Subsequently the patient underwent an uneventful videothoracoscopic lobectomy of lower and middle lobes of the right lung. Morphologically and immunohistochemically the tumor was characterized by two cell populations with epithelial and myoepithelial cells forming duct-like structure. The final diagnosis of epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of lung was rendered.

  5. In Situ Identification of CD44+/CD24− Cancer Cells in Primary Human Breast Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Giuseppe; Gaeta, Laura Maria; Zagami, Mariagiovanna; Nasorri, Francesca; Coppola, Roberto; Borzomati, Domenico; Bartolozzi, Francesco; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio; Tonini, Giuseppe; Santini, Daniele; Cavani, Andrea; Muda, Andrea Onetti

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer cells with the CD44+/CD24− phenotype have been reported to be tumourigenic due to their enhanced capacity for cancer development and their self-renewal potential. The identification of human tumourigenic breast cancer cells in surgical samples has recently received increased attention due to the implications for prognosis and treatment, although limitations exist in the interpretation of these studies. To better identify the CD44+/CD24− cells in routine surgical specimens, 56 primary breast carcinoma cases were analysed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and the results were compared using flow cytometry analysis to correlate the amount and distribution of the CD44+/CD24− population with clinicopathological features. Using these methods, we showed that the breast carcinoma cells displayed four distinct sub-populations based on the expression pattern of CD44 and CD24. The CD44+/CD24− cells were found in 91% of breast tumours and constituted an average of 6.12% (range, 0.11%–21.23%) of the tumour. A strong correlation was found between the percentage of CD44+/CD24− cells in primary tumours and distant metastasis development (p = 0.0001); in addition, there was an inverse significant association with ER and PGR status (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). No relationship was evident with tumour size (T) and regional lymph node (N) status, differentiation grade, proliferative index or HER2 status. In a multivariate analysis, the percentage of CD44+/CD24− cancer cells was an independent factor related to metastasis development (p = 0.004). Our results indicate that confocal analysis of fluorescence-labelled breast cancer samples obtained at surgery is a reliable method to identify the CD44+/CD24− tumourigenic cell population, allowing for the stratification of breast cancer patients into two groups with substantially different relapse rates on the basis of CD44+/CD24− cell percentage. PMID:23028444

  6. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: An update and implications for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Glen R; Kong, Cherng H; Warrier, Satish K; Lynch, Andrew C; Heriot, Alexander G; Ngan, Samuel Y

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide an update on the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, staging and management of rectal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to the preferred reporting items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive search of Ovid MEDLINE was performed with the reference list of selected articles reviewed to ensure all relevant publications were captured. The search strategy was limited to the English language, spanning from 1946 to 2015. A qualitative analysis was undertaken examining patient demographics, clinical presentation, diagnosis, staging, treatment and outcome. The quantitaive analysis was limited to data extracted on treatment and outcomes including radiological, clinical and pathological complete response where available. The narrative and quantitative review were synthesised in concert. RESULTS: The search identified 487 articles in total with 79 included in the qualitative review. The quantitative analysis involved 63 articles, consisting of 43 case reports and 20 case series with a total of 142 individual cases. The underlying pathogenesis of rectal SCC while unclear, continues to be defined, with increasing evidence of a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence and a possible role for human papilloma virus in this progression. The presentation is similar to rectal adenocarcinoma, with a diagnosis confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. Many presumed rectal SCC’s are in fact an extension of an anal SCC, and cytokeratin markers are a useful adjunct in this distinction. Staging is most accurately reflected by the tumour-node-metastasis classification for rectal adenocarcinoma. It involves examining locoregional disease by way of magnetic resonance imaging and/or endorectal ultrasound, with systemic spread excluded by way of computed tomography. Positron emission tomography is integral in the workup to exclude an external site of primary SCC with metastasis to the rectum. While the

  7. Squamous carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Moloy, P.J.; Chung, Y.T.; Krivitsky, P.B.; Kim, R.C.

    1985-07-01

    Nasophryngeal carcinoma is an unusual neoplasm among squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. The tumor is rare in most parts of the world but is strikingly common in several Asian subpopulations, notably Chinese in Hong Kong and Guangdong Province. The Epstein-Barr virus is intimately related to the disease and elicits the formation of antibodies that are useful for diagnosis and follow-up study. The virus has not been conclusively shown to cause nasopharyngeal cancer, however. Histologically, nasopharyngeal carcinoma is anaplastic in 75% of cases and better differentiated in 25% of patients. All tumors are treated by high-dose radiation to the primary site and both sides of the neck. Surgical treatment, in the neck only, is reserved for irradiation failures. The prognosis is better in patients younger than 40 years, in patients without clinical cervical nodal involvement and, unexpectedly, in patients with anaplastic tumors. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Diagnosis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas using endoscopic ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Amir; Kahn, Melissa; Jamil, Laith H

    2015-05-16

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the pancreas is a particularly rare entity. Diagnosis of this tumor is tentatively made after ruling out metastatic SCC from another primary site and adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the pancreas. Here we discuss the case of a 76-year-old woman who was found to have a solitary pancreatic lesion and multiple hepatic lesions. Results of computed tomography-guided biopsy of the liver lesions were consistent with a metastatic carcinoma displaying squamous differentiation; therefore, an endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB) of the pancreatic mass was performed. Meticulous histopathological examination of the pancreatic specimen at multiple levels revealed moderately well-differentiated SCC with no glandular component. An extensive metastatic work-up did not reveal an extra-pancreatic origin for this SCC; hence, a diagnosis of primary SCC of the pancreas was established. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the diagnosis of a primary SCC of the pancreas using EUS-guided CNB. We believe that CNB has a diagnostic yield equivalent to that of fine-needle aspiration for recognizing pancreatic adenocarcinoma; however, when cytological examinations reveal atypical squamous epithelial cells suggestive of malignancy, CNB may provide a better tissue specimen, from which to determine the presence of a glandular component. Such an assessment will differentiate pancreatic SCC from ASC.

  9. Does hormonal therapy have a therapeutic role in metastatic primary small cell neuroendocrine breast carcinoma? Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Alkaied, Homam; Harris, Kassem; Brenner, Arnold; Awasum, Michael; Varma, Seema

    2012-06-01

    Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of breast (NECB) is a very rare tumor; the World Health Organization(WHO) subcategorized these tumors into 3 major histologic subtypes: solid, small cell carcinoma (SMCC), and large cell NE carcinoma. The SMCC subtype is the least common and most aggressive and has been reported to be as aggressive as its pulmonary counterpart. SMCC is usually confirmed based on clinical, pathologic,and imaging studies. Local disease is usually managed in a fashion similar to that of the usual ductal breast cancer; in the metastatic SMCC setting, regimens that are implemented in small cell lung cancer are usually attempted, according to case reports and published small case series. Hormone receptors can be expressed in more than 90% of the solid tumor subtype; however its expression is manifested in about 50% of cases of SMCC. Although hormonal therapy can be used successfully to treat the usual metastatic ductal breast cancer,its utility in metastatic SMCC has not been reported. We report an impressive response to hormonal therapy in a patient with late relapse of breast carcinoma with a metastatic SMCC subtype that expressed hormone receptors. The response to hormonal therapy was sustained for about 12 months. The response to hormonal therapy is definitely an interesting finding that, to our knowledge, has not been described before in the setting of metastatic SMCC. We suggest considering adding hormonal therapy to the treatment pipeline for primary SMCC of the breast that express hormone receptors.

  10. Structure-function relationships in the rat brainstem subnucleus interpolaris: VI. Cervical convergence in cells deafferented at birth and a potential primary afferent substrate.

    PubMed

    Jacquin, M F; Chiaia, N L; Klein, B G; Rhoades, R W

    1989-05-22

    Possible substrates for peripheral injury-induced receptive field (RF) changes were assessed in the trigeminal (V) subnucleus interpolaris (SpVi). In adult rats with infraorbital nerve section at birth, 449 cells were studied ipsilateral to the lesion by using electrophysiological methods. Of these, 33 (7.4%) had RFs that included facial vibrissae, guard hairs, and skin, as well as ipsilateral regions normally innervated by cervical primary afferents (ear, neck, shoulder, arm, forepaw). Such non-V convergence was never seen in 373 normal SpVi cells or in 641 V ganglion cells ipsilateral to the lesion. SpVi cells with cervical RFs discharged to V ganglion shocks and their latencies (1.6 +/- 0.7 ms, mean +/- s.d.) did not differ from normal (1.4 +/- 0.5). Most (71%) projected to the thalamus. None were nociceptive-biased, and many had unusually discontinuous RFs (48%). Possible pathways by which cervical inputs might reach SpVi neurons were investigated in additional anatomical and electrophysiological experiments. Eight SpVi cells with cervical RFs were intracellularly labeled with HRP. Although all had dendrites that were polarized toward SpVi regions containing spared mandibular and/or ophthalmic primary afferents, none had dendrites which extended out of SpVi. In other neonatally nerve-damaged adults, WGA-HRP was injected bilaterally into forepaw, arm, and shoulder regions. Transganglionic transport was restricted to normal targets. However, WGA-HRP injections into SpVi retrogradely labeled a total of 46 +/- 20 (mean +/- s.d.) cells in ipsilateral C1-3 dorsal root ganglia, and 24 +/- 8 cells in C4-8 ganglia. In controls, labeled cells were seen only in C1-3 ganglia (32 +/- 9). The distribution and number of labeled cells in the somatosensory cortex did not differ in experimental and control cases. No labeled cells were visible in the dorsal column nuclei of either the normal or experimental rats. Thus, retrograde labeling studies suggest that a cervical primary

  11. Analysis of the Prevalence of HTLV-1 Proviral DNA in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from HIV Positive and Negative Kenyan Women.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaotong; Maranga, Innocent O; Oliver, Anthony W; Gichangi, Peter; Hampson, Lynne; Hampson, Ian N

    2016-09-05

    The oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in some countries although its prevalence and relationship with other sexually transmitted infections in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. A novel endpoint PCR method was used to analyse the prevalence of HTLV-1 proviral DNA in genomic DNA extracted from liquid based cytology (LBC) cervical smears and invasive cervical carcinomas (ICCs) obtained from human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+ve) and HIV-negative (HIV-ve) Kenyan women. Patient sociodemographic details were recorded by structured questionnaire and these data analysed with respect to HIV status, human papillomavirus (HPV) type (Papilocheck(®)) and cytology. This showed 22/113 (19.5%) of LBC's from HIV+ve patients were positive for HTLV-1 compared to 4/111 (3.6%) of those from HIV-ve women (p = 0.0002; odds ratio (OR) = 6.42 (2.07-26.56)). Only 1/37 (2.7%) of HIV+ve and none of the 44 HIV-ve ICC samples were positive for HTLV-1. There was also a significant correlation between HTLV-1 infection, numbers of sexual partners (p < 0.05) and smoking (p < 0.01). Using this unique method, these data suggest an unexpectedly high prevalence of HTLV-1 DNA in HIV+ve women in this geographical location. However, the low level of HTLV-1 detected in HIV+ve ICC samples was unexpected and the reasons for this are unclear.

  12. Analysis of the Prevalence of HTLV-1 Proviral DNA in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from HIV Positive and Negative Kenyan Women

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaotong; Maranga, Innocent O.; Oliver, Anthony W.; Gichangi, Peter; Hampson, Lynne; Hampson, Ian N.

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in some countries although its prevalence and relationship with other sexually transmitted infections in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. A novel endpoint PCR method was used to analyse the prevalence of HTLV-1 proviral DNA in genomic DNA extracted from liquid based cytology (LBC) cervical smears and invasive cervical carcinomas (ICCs) obtained from human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+ve) and HIV-negative (HIV−ve) Kenyan women. Patient sociodemographic details were recorded by structured questionnaire and these data analysed with respect to HIV status, human papillomavirus (HPV) type (Papilocheck®) and cytology. This showed 22/113 (19.5%) of LBC’s from HIV+ve patients were positive for HTLV-1 compared to 4/111 (3.6%) of those from HIV−ve women (p = 0.0002; odds ratio (OR) = 6.42 (2.07–26.56)). Only 1/37 (2.7%) of HIV+ve and none of the 44 HIV−ve ICC samples were positive for HTLV-1. There was also a significant correlation between HTLV-1 infection, numbers of sexual partners (p < 0.05) and smoking (p < 0.01). Using this unique method, these data suggest an unexpectedly high prevalence of HTLV-1 DNA in HIV+ve women in this geographical location. However, the low level of HTLV-1 detected in HIV+ve ICC samples was unexpected and the reasons for this are unclear. PMID:27608036

  13. [Effects of estrogen and thyroid hormone on EGF receptor expression, proliferative activity and SCC production in the CaSki cervical carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, S; Maruo, T; Matsuo, H; Mochizuki, M

    1995-02-01

    This study was undertaken to see if estrogen and thyroid hormone affected EGF-receptor (EGF-R) expression, proliferative activity and intracellular SCC levels in uterine cervical squamous carcinoma cells. The uterine cervical cancer cell line (CaSki) was cultured in vitro in the absence or presence of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) or L-triiodothyronine (T3) in a serum free condition. Effects of E2 or T3 on the characteristics of EGF-R were assessed by the Scatchard analysis of the binding assay with 125I-EGF. Cellular levels of EGF-R expression were examined by the immunoperoxidase method with a monoclonal antibody to EGF-R. Proliferative activity of the cells was determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining, 3H-thymidine uptake and the number of cells. The effects of E2 or T3 on intracellular SCC levels were also examined by determining the intracellular SCC concentration with an SCC-RIA Kit. The scatchard analysis of 125I-EGF binding to CaSki cells showed that the addition of E2 or T3 had little effect on the affinity of EGF-R for CaSki cells but increased the capacity of EGF-R for the cells. Immunocytochemical staining with anti EGF-R antibody demonstrated that EGF-R expression in the CaSki cells was augmented by the addition of E2 or T3. The addition of E2 or T3 also resulted in an increase in 3H-thymidine uptake by the CaSki cells, the PCNA positive rate and the number of cells. Furthermore the addition of E2 or T3 increased intracellular SCC in the CaSki cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Tumor-infiltrating CD14-positive myeloid cells and CD8-positive T-cells prolong survival in patients with cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Vos van Steenwijk, P J; Ramwadhdoebe, T H; Goedemans, R; Doorduijn, E M; van Ham, J J; Gorter, A; van Hall, T; Kuijjer, M L; van Poelgeest, M I E; van der Burg, S H; Jordanova, E S

    2013-12-15

    One of the hallmarks of cancer is the influx of myeloid cells. In our study, we investigated the constitution of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and their relationship to other tumor-infiltrating immune cells, tumor characteristics and the disease-specific survival of patients with cervical cancer (CxCa). Triple-color immunofluorescence confocal microscopy was used to locate, identify and quantify macrophages (CD14), their maturation status (CD33) and their polarization (CD163) in a cohort of 86 patients with cervical carcinoma. Quantification of the numbers of myeloid cells revealed that a strong intraepithelial infiltration of CD14+ cells, and more specifically the population of CD14+CD33-CD163- matured M1 macrophages, is associated with a large influx of intraepithelial T lymphocytes (p = 0.008), improved disease-specific survival (p = 0.007) and forms an independent prognostic factor for survival (p = 0.033). The intraepithelial CD8+ T-cell and regulatory T-cell (Treg) ratio also forms an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.010) and combination of these two factors reveals a further increased benefit in survival for patients whose tumor displays a dense infiltration with intraepithelial matured M1 macrophages and a high CD8 T-cell/Treg ratio, indicating that both populations of immune cells simultaneously improve survival. Subsequently, we made a heatmap including all known immune parameters for these patients, whereby we were able to identify different immune signatures in CxCa. These results indicate that reinforcement and activation of the intratumoral M1 macrophages may form an attractive immunotherapeutic option in CxCa.

  15. Adjuvant therapy after primary surgery for stage I-IIA carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G M

    1996-01-01

    Radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection is commonly used as a primary management option for treatment of stage IB/IIA carcinoma of the cervix. Overall cure rates approach 85%. However, a spectrum of relapse risk exists, depending on the presence or absence of primary tumor and nodal-related prognostic factors. Known factors include number and location of lymph nodes; size of primary, deep invasion in the cervix; capillary lymphatic space involvement; occult parametrial involvement; and positive or close surgical margins. Biologic determinants have yet to be identified. No systematic analysis has examined various combinations of prognostic factors to precisely define associated levels of risk and to predict the sites of relapse. Decreased local control and survival rates in some high-risk subgroups, usually those with nodal positivity, has led to the exploration of adjuvant therapies. Compiled data from retrospective series have defined the overall patterns of failure. Seventy-two percent of those relapsing have a component of pelvic failure, while 42% experience relapse in the pelvis alone. Fifty-eight percent have a component of distant failure but only 28% have distant disease alone. Adjuvant treatment options include pelvic radiotherapy, extended-field radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Trials of adjuvant chemotherapy are too few to evaluate the use of available agents. Pelvic radiotherapy has been shown to reduce the relapse risk when surgical margins are close or positive. It also reduces the risk of pelvic relapse and improves the relapse-free interval but has no apparent impact on overall survival in the groups that have been selected for treatment. The apparent lack of benefit may relate to the choice of patients with nodal involvement who, despite high risk of pelvic failure, most likely have a predominant pattern of distant failure. Maximization of the survival benefit of pelvic radiotherapy requires the

  16. Hepatocellular Carcinoma associated with Extra-hepatic Primary Malignancy: its Secular change, Clinical Manifestations and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kee, Kwong Ming; Wang, Jing-Houng; Wang, Chih-Chi; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical manifestations between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and extra-hepatic primary malignancy (EHPM) are lack of large-scale study. We enrolled 14555 HCC patients between 1986 and 2013 retrospectively. The EHPM was classified as prior, synchronous and metachronous group based on before, within and after 6 months of HCC diagnosis, respectively. The incidence rate of EHPM is 3.91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.60–4.23%). Urogenital cancers, kidney and bladder, were at unexpected higher ranks. Older in age, Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, negativity of HBsAg and anti-HCV, and earlier BCLC staging are independent factors associated with EHPM. The survival rates of EHPM improve over time and also better than HCC-alone. Cox proportional-hazards regression shows independent poor prognostic factors are age >60, male, AFP levels ≥400 ng/ml, positivity of HBsAg, Child-Pugh B vs. A, Non-metachronous group, respectively, treated with local ablation, transcatheter arterial embolization, radiotherapy and supportive care vs. surgery, respectively, TNM stage IIIA vs. I, and BCLC stages A, B, C and D vs. 0, respectively. Survival of EHPM improve could be explained by early diagnosis and improve treatment of cancers. PMID:27444261

  17. Recombinant soluble gp130 protein reduces DEN-induced primary hepatocellular carcinoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jing; Wang, Hang; Shen, Guoying; Lin, Da; Lin, Yanxue; Ye, Nanhui; Guo, Yashan; Li, Qiaoling; Ye, Nanhui; Deng, Chengjun; Meng, Chun

    2016-01-01

    IL-6 (interleukin 6) plays an important role in the development and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via both classic signaling and trans-signaling pathways. Soluble gp130 (sgp130) is known to be a natural inhibitor of the trans-signaling pathway. In the present study, our goal was to investigate whether recombinant sgp130 could suppress the initiation and progression of HCC in mouse models. Our results demonstrate that sgp130 induced an apoptosis of HepG2 cells and inhibited the clonogenicity of HepG2 in vitro. Moreover, the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway is significantly suppressed by sgp130 as reflected by the decrease in the level of STAT3 phosphorylation and other inflammatory factors both in vitro and in vivo. In the DEN-induced HCC mouse model, intravenous injection of sgp130 attenuated hepatic fibrosis at 16 weeks and reduced the initiation and progression of primary HCC at 36 weeks. Furthermore, our results also demonstrate that intravenous administration of sgp130 significantly suppressed the growth and metastasis of xenograft human HCC in NOD/SCID mice. PMID:27080032

  18. Advanced primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma: clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Ying-Jen; Hsieh, Meng-Heng; Wang, Chih-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is rare, with better clinical outcomes than other lung cancers. However, reports on advanced LELC characteristics and prognosis are lacking. Methods This retrospective study included adults diagnosed with advanced LELC (at least stage IIIA) between January 2003 and December 2015. Clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcomes were recorded. Results Study population comprised 23 patients with a mean age of 63.7±10.6 years. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status on diagnosis was 0 in five patients and 1 in the others. Most patients received multimodality treatment and all received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Median follow-up duration was 28.8 months. The median progression free survival (PFS) was 14.6 months in patients received palliative chemotherapy. There were nine (39.1%) deaths. The median overall survival (OS) was not achieved. Until July 31, 2016, median OS was 54.1 months for stage IIIB and 27.6 months for stage IV. There was no significant difference in OS among all stages. No prognostic factors were found. Conclusions Advanced LELC responded well to cisplatin-based chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Main tumor resection is probably beneficial for advanced LELC. Long-term survival is possible for advanced LELC after multimodality treatment. PMID:28203414

  19. Primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus: clinicopathological study of 44 cases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE) is a highly aggressive disease characterized by early dissemination and poor prognosis. Because of the rarity of this disease, few previous studies have investigated the biomarkers associated with its prognosis. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is a stem cell marker and a member of the canonical Wnt-signaling cascade. However, the clinical role of Lgr5 in SCCE remains unknown. Methods Tissue sections were obtained from 44 patients diagnosed with SCCE and expression of Lgr5 was examined by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between Lgr5 expression, and clinical parameters and prognostic significance were evaluated. Results Lgr5 was expressed in SCCE cancer tissues. High Lgr5 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.003), late stage (p = 0.003) and unfavorable response to chemotherapy (p = 0.013) according to RECIST 1.0 criteria. Patients with higher Lgr5 expression levels had shorter overall survival times than those with lower expression levels. Conclusions These results demonstrated that overexpression of Lgr5 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, tumor stage, and response to chemotherapy. Furthermore, high levels of Lgr5 expression appeared to be associated with poorer survival in patients with SCCE. PMID:24666414

  20. A rare case of primary peripheral epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of lung

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cheng; Wang, Xin; Che, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Primary salivary gland–type tumors of lung are rare. Epithelial–myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) of the lung is a minor salivary gland–type tumor subtype. Methods: We report a very rare case of EMC located in the peripheral left lower lobe that was diagnosed in a 58-year-old man and this is the first study in which we summarize all the patients with primary peripheral lung EMC concerned with the clinical features. Informed consent was obtained from the patient. Results: Chest computed tomography displayed an anomalous soft tissue mass with slightly lobular borders in the peripheral segment of the left lower lobe and closed to the visceral pleura. The surgery was performed by using video-assisted thoracic surgery. Grossly, the tumor was solitary, well-circumscribed, and unencapsulated endobronchial lesion. A microscopic examination revealed that it was circumscribed, although the tumor borders may show single cells or clusters of cells proliferating away from the main tumor mass. The inner tubular layer showed epithelial cell characteristics, whereas the outer layer exhibited myoepithelial cell characteristics. Immunostaining for P40, P63, and cytokeratin 5/6 was positive. However, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase-V, thyroid transcription factor-1, synaptophysin, chromogranin A and napsin A were negative. Conclusions: Literature review showed that most of patients with peripheral EMC were asymptomatic. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans are able to indicate the presence of peripheral EMC. Pathological analysis is an effective method to clarify the diagnosis. Surgery is a regular treatment method. To facilitate the preoperative diagnosis and avoid the misdiagnosis of such a rare disease, more cases will need to be reported. PMID:27583848

  1. Evaluation of MENT on primary cell cultures from benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Patricia; Sánchez, Catherine; Contreras, Héctor R; Vergara, Jorge; Acevedo, Cristian; Cabezas, Juan; Huidobro, Christian; Noé, Gabriela; Castellón, Enrique A

    2009-12-01

    7-alpha-Methyl-19-Nortestosterone (MENT) is a synthetic androgen more potent than testosterone (T) and cannot be reduced at 5-alpha position. No important effects of MENT on prostate growth have been reported. However, little is known about the effect of MENT on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate carcinoma (CaP). We evaluate the effect of MENT, T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on secretion, proliferation and gene expression of primary cell cultures from human BPH and CaP. Moreover, the effect of these androgens was examined in the presence of finasteride to determine the influence of the 5-alpha reductase (5-AR) activity on the androgenic potency. BPH and CaP primary cultures were treated with 0, 1, 10 and 100 nM of T, MENT or DHT during 24 and 48 h. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was measured by micro particles immunoassay and proliferation rate by spectrophotometric assay (MTT) and by the immunochemical detection of the proliferation marker Ki-67. Gene expression of FGF8b (androgen sensitive gene) was evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results showed that MENT treatments increased PSA secretion and proliferation rate with a potency ranged between T and DHT. Similar effects of MENT were observed in both BPH and CaP cultures. The studies with finasteride showed that in BPH and CaP cells, the conversion of T into DHT significantly contributes to its effect on the proliferation and PSA secretion, and corroborated the resistance of MENT to the 5-AR. The effect of MENT on the gene expression of FGF8b in CaP cells was similar to T and lower than DHT. It is concluded that MENT increases proliferative and secretory activities and gene expression on pathological prostate cells although in less extent than the active metabolite DHT. Furthermore, the fall of endogenous concentration of T during MENT treatment anticipates that this androgen will be of low impact for the prostate.

  2. Unknown primary carcinoma, diagnosed as inflammatory breast cancer,and successfully treated with trastuzumab and vinorelbine.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hirofumi; Takashima, Hitoshi; Mitani, Masahiro; Haba, Reiji; Seo, Reiko; Yokoe, Koiku; Toyama, Yoshihiro; Ohkawa, Motoomi

    2005-08-01

    Occult breast cancer presenting with axillary lymph node metastases is uncommon, and inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), as a subtype, is quite rare. Here we describe a case of IBC, which arose as an unknown primary carcinoma; the patient presented with axillary lymph node metastasis, and was successfully treated with trastuzumab and vinorelbine. Specifically, a 55-year-old woman presented with right axillary lymphadenopathy. Although she underwent various examinations, the primary site of the disease was not revealed. Axillary lymph node dissection was performed, and the lesion was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient chose to be treated by alternative medicine. About 6 months later, she was referred to our hospital, due to marked bilateral neck and axillary lymph node swelling. She presented with diffuse right breast enlargement, redness, and peau d'orange. Computed tomography (CT) of the breast showed skin thickening and swelling of the right breast.F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed FDG uptake in the right breast. The patient was clinically diagnosed with IBC. Because overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was found in the specimen from her right axillary lymph node, she was treated with trastuzumab and vinorelbine. Two months after the start of chemotherapy, CT revealed a complete response in the lymph nodes, and the skin thickening and parenchymal edema of the right breast had improved. FDG-PET was also performed at this time, and revealed no FDG uptake in either the right breast or the lymph nodes.

  3. Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy for Primary Renal Cell Carcinoma: Initial Clinical Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Nomiya, Takuma Tsuji, Hiroshi; Hirasawa, Naoki; Kato, Hiroyuki; Kamada, Tadashi; Mizoe, Junetsu; Kishi, Hirohisa; Kamura, Koichi; Wada, Hitoshi; Nemoto, Kenji; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is known as a radioresistant tumor, and there are few reports on radiotherapy for primary RCC. We evaluated the efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for patients with RCC. Methods and Materials: Data for patients with RCC who received CIRT were analyzed. A median total dose of 72 GyE (gray equivalents) in 16 fractions was administered without any additional treatment. Clinical stage was determined based on TNM classification by the International Union Against Cancer (UICC). Local recurrence was defined as definite tumor regrowth after treatment. Results: Data for 10 patients were included in the analyses, including 7 patients with Stage I and 3 patients with Stage IV (T4NxM0 or TxN2M0) disease. The median maximum diameter of the tumor was 43 mm (24-120 mm). The median follow-up for surviving patients was 57.5 months (9-111 months). The 5-year local control rate, progression-free survival rate, cause-specific survival rate, and overall survival rates were 100%, 100%, 100%, and 74%, respectively. Interestingly, treated tumors showed very slow shrinkage, and the tumor in 1 case has been shrinking for 9 years. One patient with muscular invasion (T4 tumor) developed Grade 4 skin toxicity, but no other toxicity greater than Grade 2 was observed. Conclusions: This is one of the few reports on curative radiotherapy for primary RCC. The response of the tumor to treatment was uncommon. However despite inclusion of T4 and massive tumors, favorable local controllability has been shown. The results indicate the possibility of radical CIRT, as well as surgery, for RCC.

  4. After-effects reported by women having follow-up cervical cytology tests in primary care: a cohort study within the TOMBOLA trial

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, Seonaidh; Sharp, Linda; Cochran, Claire; Gray, Nicola; Cruickshank, Maggie; Smart, Louise; Thornton, Alison; Little, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Background Although it is recognised that some women experience pain or bleeding during a cervical cytology test, few studies have quantified physical after-effects of these tests. Aim To investigate the frequency, severity, and duration of after-effects in women undergoing follow-up cervical cytology tests, and to identify subgroups with higher frequencies in Grampian, Tayside, and Nottingham. Design Cohort study nested with a multi-centre individually randomised controlled trial. Method The cohort included 1120 women, aged 20–59 years, with low-grade abnormal cervical cytology who completed a baseline sociodemographic questionnaire and had a follow-up cervical cytology test in primary care 6 months later. Six weeks after this test, women completed a postal questionnaire on pain, bleeding, and discharge experienced after the test, including duration and severity. The adjusted prevalence of each after-effect was computed using logistic regression. Results A total of 884 women (79%) completed the after-effects questionnaire; 30% of women experienced one or more after-effect: 15% reported pain, 16% bleeding, and 7% discharge. The duration of discharge was ≤2 days for 66%, 3–6 days for 22%, and ≥7 days for 11% of women. Pain or bleeding lasted ≤2 days in more than 80% of women. Severe after-effects were reported by <1% of women. The prevalence of pain decreased with increasing age. Bleeding was more frequent among nulliparous women. Discharge was more common among oral contraceptive users. Conclusion Pain, bleeding, and discharge are not uncommon in women having follow-up cervical cytology tests. Informing women about possible after-effects could better prepare them and provide reassurance, thereby minimising potential non-adherence with follow-up or non-participation with screening in the future. PMID:21801512

  5. HLA-E expression in cervical adenocarcinomas: association with improved long-term survival

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. The most common histopathological subtype is cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, 75-80%), followed by adenocarcinoma (AC) and adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC; together 15-20%). Rising incidence rates of AC have been observed relative and absolute to SCC and evidence is accumulating that cervical AC is a distinct clinical entity. Cervical SCC, ASC, and AC are caused by a persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and failed control of the immune system plays a pivotal role in the carcinogenesis of all three histopathological subtypes. Human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E), a non-classical HLA class Ib molecule, plays an important role in immune surveillance and immune escape of virally infected cells. In this study we investigated HLA-E expression in three well-defined cohorts of cervical AC, ASC, and SCC patients, and determined whether HLA-E expression was associated with histopathological parameters and patient survival. Methods and results HLA-E expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 79 SCC, 38 ASC, and 75 AC patients. All patients included were International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics stage I-II and underwent radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy as primary treatment. Significant differences between the histopathological subgroups were detected for age distribution, HPV positivity, HPV type distribution, tumour size, tumour infiltration depth, lymph-vascular space invasion, and adjuvant radiotherapy. High expression of HLA-E was found in 107/192 (56%) cervical carcinomas, with significantly more overexpression in cervical AC compared to SCC and ASC (37/79 SCC, 18/38 ASC, and 52/75 AC; P = 0.010). High HLA-E expression in cervical AC was associated with favourable long term disease-specific and recurrence-free survival (P = 0.005 and P = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion

  6. Elective cesarean hysterectomy for treatment of cervical neoplasia. An update.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M S; Roberts, W S; Fiorica, J V; Angel, J L; Finan, M A; Cavanagh, D

    1993-03-01

    From January 1, 1979, to March 31, 1991, 37 patients underwent elective cesarean hysterectomy for early cervical neoplasia. Thirty-four patients had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III, and three patients had stage IA-1 squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Twenty-eight were primary cesarean sections; nine had obstetric indications. The mean operative time was 128 minutes; mean estimated blood loss was 1,400 mL. One patient experienced an intraoperative hemorrhage (3,500 mL). There were no other recognized intraoperative complications. Four significant postoperative complications included a vaginal cuff abscess, a wound dehiscence and pelvic abscess, one patient with febrile morbidity and an ileus and ligation with partial transection of a ureter. Patients were discharged on a mean of postoperative day 5.7. Although significant complications occurred, we believe that the noncompliant nature of our patient population justifies elective cesarean hysterectomy for treatment of cervical neoplasia.

  7. Limited education as a risk factor in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Corral, F; Cueva, P; Yépez, J; Montes, E

    1996-12-01

    The study reported here analyzes the influence of formal education on the behavior and age at onset of carcinoma of the cervix in 2204 women in Quito, Ecuador, between 1985 and 1994. The results indicate that education had a considerable degree of influence on the behavior of this neoplasia. That is, women with primary education or less were found to have almost twice the cervical cancer incidence of those with secondary or higher education, while those who were illiterate had almost six times the incidence found among university-educated women. Overall, it seems reasonable to consider women's education a key factor in defining risk groups for cervical cancer-so much so that grouping by instructional level would make it possible to improve the effectiveness of cervical cytology-based preventive measures.

  8. Ubiquitous induction of resistance to platinum drugs in human ovarian, cervical, germ-cell and lung carcinoma tumor cells overexpressing isoforms 1 and 2 of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hong Bing; Adikari, Mahesha; Parekh, Hemant K; Simpkins, Henry

    2004-10-01

    We have recently demonstrated that overexpression of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DDH) in human ovarian carcinoma cells (2008/C13*) is associated with cisplatin and carboplatin resistance. Furthermore, we have also elucidated that transfection of parental human ovarian carcinoma cells with a full-length DDH1 cDNA leads to induction of resistance to the platinum drugs. The development of cisplatin resistance in the transfected cells is associated with an increase in DDH enzyme activity. Previous studies have identified several different mechanisms for development of cisplatin resistance, including altered DNA repair capacity, increased GSH-based detoxification, and increased metallothionein content. However, none of these mechanisms has been found to be universally associated with the development of cisplatin resistance in tumor cells from different tissue sources. The present study was undertaken to assess whether overexpression of DDH1 or DDH2 (in human ovarian, cervical, lung and germ-cell tumor cell lines) could specifically induce resistance to the platinum drugs in these cell lines. We demonstrated a ubiquitous association of increased expression of DDH1 or DDH2 (as judged by increased enzyme activity in transfected clones) with development of resistance to cisplatin and carboplatin. Moreover, we also found a lack of cross-resistance to anticancer drugs that have a different mode of action including paclitaxel, vincristine, doxorubicin hydrochloride, and melphalan. Although at present it is not clear how DDH is involved in platinum drug resistance, the identification of this gene as a causal factor in a series of cell lines derived from different tumors with different intracellular compositions indicates the importance of deciphering this hitherto undefined pathway which can produce resistance to platinum drugs.

  9. High-dose-rate Intracavitary Radiotherapy in the Management of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 and Carcinoma In Situ Presenting With Poor Histologic Factors After Undergoing Excisional Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Young Tae; Cho, Nam Hoon; Koom, Woong Sub; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Sang Wun; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Gwi Eon

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of high-dose-rate intracavitary radiotherapy (HDR-ICR) in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN 3) and carcinoma in situ (CIS) presenting with poor histologic factors for predicting residual disease after undergoing diagnostic excisional procedures. Methods and Materials: This study was a retrospective analysis of 166 patients with CIN 3 (n=15) and CIS (n=151) between October 1986 and December 2005. They were diagnosed by conization (n=158) and punch biopsy (n=8). Pathologic analysis showed 135 cases of endocervical gland involvement (81.4%), 74 cases of positive resection margins (44.5%), and 52 cases of malignant cells on endocervical curettage (31.3%). All patients were treated with HDR-ICR using Co{sup 60} or Ir{sup 192} at a cancer center. The dose was prescribed at point A located 2 cm superior to the external os and 2 cm lateral to the axis of the tandem for intact uterus. Results: Median age was 61 years (range, 29-77). The median total dose of HDR-ICR was 30 Gy/6 fractions (range, 30-52). At follow-up (median, 152 months), 2 patients developed recurrent diseases: 1 CIN 2 and 1 invasive carcinoma. One hundred and forty patients survived and 26 patients died, owing to nonmalignant intercurrent disease. Rectal bleeding occurred in one patient; however, this symptom subsided with conservative management. Conclusions: Our data showed HDR-ICR is an effective modality for CIN 3 and CIS patients presenting with poor histologic factors after excisional procedures. HDR-ICR should be considered as a definitive treatment in CIN 3 and CIS patients with possible residual disease after undergoing excisional procedures.

  10. Major Vault Protein May Affect Nonhomologous End-Joining Repair and Apoptosis Through Ku70/80 and BAX Downregulation in Cervical Carcinoma Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Lloret, Marta Lara, Pedro Carlos; Bordon, Elisa; Fontes, Fausto; Rey, Agustin; Pinar, Beatriz; Falcon, Orlando

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: We investigated the relationship between major vault protein (MVP) expression, the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair gene Ku70/80, and related genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis and proliferation to shed light on the possible causes of genetic instability, tumor progression, and resistance to oncologic treatment in patients with clinical cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred sixteen consecutive patients with localized cervix carcinoma were prospectively included in this study from July 1997 to Dec 2003. Patients were staged according to the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification. Forty patients had Stage I disease, 45 had Stage II, and 31 had Stage III/IVA. Most patients had squamous tumors (98 cases) and Grades II (52 cases) and III (45 cases) carcinomas. Expression of MVP, Ku70/80, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), BCL2-associated X protein (BAX), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), p53, and Ki67 was studied by using immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tumor tissue. Results: Tumors overexpressing MVP (65 of 116 cases) showed low levels of Ku70/80 (p = 0.013) and BAX expression (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, low Ku70/80 expression was strongly related to suppressed BAX (p < 0.001) and, to a lesser extent, upregulated BCL-2 (p = 0.042), altered p53 (p = 0.038), and increased proliferation (p = 0.002). Conclusion: We hypothesize that an early regulatory mechanism favors homologous or NHEJ repair at first, mediated by vaults along with other factors yet to be elucidated. If vaults are overexpressed, NHEJ repair may be suppressed by means of several mechanisms, with resultant genomic instability. These mechanisms may be associated with the decision of damaged cells to survive and proliferate, favoring tumor progression and reducing tumor response to oncologic treatment through the development of resistant cell phenotypes. Additional clinical studies are necessary to test this hypothesis.

  11. Primary clear cell carcinoma in the liver: CT and MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Yu; Li, Hai-Gang; Gao, Ming; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Li, Yong; Chen, Jian-Yu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively analyze the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of primary clear cell carcinoma of the liver (PCCCL) and compare the imaging appearances of PCCCL and common type hepatocellular carcinoma (CHCC) to determine whether any differences exist between the two groups. METHODS: Twenty cases with pathologically proven PCCCL and 127 cases with CHCC in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were included in this study. CT or MRI images from these patients were retrospectively analyzed. The following imaging findings were reviewed: the presence of liver cirrhosis, tumor size, the enhancement pattern on dynamic contrast scanning, the presence of pseudo capsules, tumor rupture, portal vein thrombosis and lymph node metastasis. RESULTS: Both PCCCL and CHCC were prone to occur in patients with liver cirrhosis, the association rate of liver cirrhosis was 80.0% and 78.7%, respectively (P > 0.05). The mean sizes of PCCCL and CHCC tumors were (7.28 ± 4.25) cm and (6.96 ± 3.98) cm, respectively. Small HCCs were found in 25.0% (5/20) of PCCCL and 19.7% (25/127) of CHCC cases. No significant differences in mean size and ratio of small HCCs were found between the two groups (P = 0.658 and 0.803, respectively). Compared with CHCC patients, PCCCL patients were more prone to form pseudo capsules (49.6% vs 75.0%, P = 0.034). Tumor rupture, typical HCC enhancement patterns and portal vein tumor thrombosis were detected in 15.0% (3/20), 72.2% (13/18) and 20.0% (4/20) of patients with PCCCL and 3.1% (4/127), 83.6% (97/116) and 17.3% (22/127) of patients with CHCC, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups (all P > 0.05). No patients with PCCCL and 2.4% (3/127) of patients with CHCC showed signs of lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The imaging characteristics of PCCCL are similar to those of CHCC and could be useful for differentiating these from other liver tumors (such

  12. Primary Esophageal Intramural Squamous Cell Carcinoma Masquerading as a Submucosal Tumor: A Rare Presentation of a Common Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sonthalia, Nikhil; Jain, Samit S.; Surude, Ravindra G.; Pawar, Vinay B.; Udgirkar, Suhas; Rathi, Pravin M.

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the commonest primary malignant esophageal tumor, which typically presents as endoscopically visible surface mucosal ulcerations, irregularities, or polyploidal masses. We here report a rare case of primary ESCC with completely intramural growth under a normal looking intact nondysplastic surface squamous epithelium disguising as a submucosal tumor. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy-guided mucosal biopsy was negative for malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) revealed a heteroechoic solid mass originating from the muscularis propria of the distal esophagus. Cytological study of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration from the mass was suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma, which was confirmed on immunohistochemistry. There was no evidence of metastatic origin of this tumor or continuous cancer involvement from the surrounding structures, including the head, neck, and lungs on bronchoscopy, computed tomography scan, and positron emission tomography scan. Exclusive intramural squamous cell carcinoma with normal overlying mucosa is an exceedingly rare presentation of primary ESCC with only four cases reported in the literature so far. A high index of suspicion is required by the gastroenterologists and pathologists in diagnosing these cases as these tumors closely mimic the mesenchymal submucosal tumors such as lipoma, leiomyoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. EUS is an indispensable tool in making a preoperative diagnosis and therapeutic decision making. PMID:27721663

  13. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6–NTRK3 fusion

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Tuttle, R Michael; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    ETV6–NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47–72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6–NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated

  14. Comparison of MMP2 and MMP9 expression levels between primary and metastatic regions of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Kensuke; Motozawa, Keiko; Omagari, Daisuke; Gojoubori, Takahiro; Ikeda, Takayuki; Asano, Masatake; Gionhaku, Nobuhito

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play important roles in tumor growth. The present study investigated the expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in relation to the distribution of TAMs in the primary and metastatic regions of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Twenty-nine cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with regional lymph node metastasis were selected from available documents in the archives of the Department of Pathology, Nihon University School of Dentistry. Four-micrometer-thick sections were prepared from the primary and metastatic regions. Each section was subjected to immunohistochemical staining using anti-MMP2, anti-MMP9, and anti-CD68 antibodies. The distribution and localization of MMPs and TAMs were compared between primary and metastatic regions. The expression levels of both MMPs were higher in the metastatic regions of lingual and gingival cancers. Statistically significant differences were observed in both T1 and T2 cases. In contrast to the higher expression of MMPs in metastatic regions, a higher number of TAMs were distributed in the primary regions. From these results, MMP expression levels and the numbers of TAMs were expected to have an inverse relationship between the primary and metastatic regions of OSCC. (J Oral Sci 58, 59-65, 2016).

  15. Psychological Impact of Primary Screening (PIPS) for HPV: a protocol for a cross-sectional evaluation within the NHS cervical screening programme

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Emily; Marlow, Laura; Forster, Alice S; Moss, Sue; Myles, Jonathan; Kitchener, Henry; Patnick, Julietta; Waller, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The NHS Cervical Screening Programme is now using human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as the primary test in six sentinel sites in England, with the intention of rolling this out across the whole of England. Previous research evaluating HPV testing in the cervical screening context suggests that an HPV-positive result may increase anxiety beyond that associated with abnormal cytology, but this has not been explored in the context of primary HPV testing. The main aim of this study is to explore the impact of the HPV primary screening programme on anxiety and distress. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional between-groups design (total N ∼ 673) will be employed to assess the psychological impact of different HPV and cytology results at three time points: shortly after receiving the results, and 6 and 12 months later. Women will fall into one of six groups based on their screening results. The primary outcomes will be anxiety and general distress. Secondary outcomes will include understanding of screening results, perceived risk of cervical cancer, psychosexual functioning, intention to attend future screening and knowledge of HPV. General linear modelling will be used to test for differences between groups and changes over the three time points. Ethics and dissemination Health Research Authority approval was received on 26 September 2016. Ethical approval was received from London- Surrey Borders NHS Research Ethics Committee on 30 August 2016. Section 251 approval was received from the Confidentiality Advisory Group on 24 August 2016. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and presentation at national and international conferences. PMID:28011816

  16. MLN4924, a Novel NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, exhibits antitumor activity and enhances cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human cervical carcinoma: in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Chou; Kuo, Kuan-Lin; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Wu, June-Tai; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Liao, Shih-Ming; Chou, Chien-Tso; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Chiu, Wei-Shuo; Chiu, Tzu-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Ho, I-Lin; Wang, Zuo-He; Chang, Shih-Chen; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Huang, Kuo-How

    2015-01-01

    MLN4924, an inhibitor of NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE), has been reported to have activity against various malignancies. Here, we investigated the antitumor properties of MLN4924 and MLN4924 in combination with cisplatin on human cervical carcinoma (CC) in vitro and in vivo. Two human CC cell lines, ME-180 and HeLa, were used in this study. The cytotoxic effects of MLN4924 and/or cisplatin were measured by cell viability (MTT), proliferation (BrdU incorporation), apoptosis (flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC labeling), and the expression of cell apoptosis-related proteins (Western blotting). In vivo efficacy was determined in Nu/Nu nude mice with ME-180 and HeLa xenografts. The results showed that MLN4924 elicited viability inhibition, anti-proliferation and apoptosis in human CC cells, accompanied by activations of apoptosis-related molecules and Bid, Bcl-2 phosphorylation interruption, and interference with cell cycle regulators. Moreover, MLN4924 caused an endoplasmic reticulum stress response (caspase-4, ATF-4 and CHOP activations) and expression of other cellular stress molecules (JNK and c-Jun activations). Additionally, MLN4924 suppressed growth of CC xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MLN4924 potentiated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in CC cells with activation of caspases. Consistently with this, MLN4924 significantly enhanced cisplatin-induced growth inhibition of CC xenografts. Together, these findings suggest that MLN4924 alone or in combination with cisplatin is of value in treating human CCs.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor induces phosphorylation of a 28-kDa mRNA cap-binding protein in human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Marino, M W; Pfeffer, L M; Guidon, P T; Donner, D B

    1989-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulated the phosphorylation of a 28-kDa protein (p28) in the ME-180 line of human cervical carcinoma cells. The effect of TNF-alpha on the phosphorylation state of p28 was rapid (4-fold increase within 15 min) and persistent, remaining above the basal level for at least 2 hr. The specific binding of 125I-labeled TNF-alpha to cell-surface binding sites, the stimulation of p28 phosphorylation by TNF-alpha, and the inhibition of cell proliferation by TNF-alpha occurred with nearly identical dose-response relationships. Two-dimensional SDS/PAGE resolved p28 into two isoforms having pI values of 6.2 and 6.1. A phosphorylated cap-binding protein was substantially enriched from lysates of control or TNF-alpha-treated ME-180 cells by affinity chromatography with 7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate-Sepharose. The phosphoprotein recovered from this procedure was the substrate for TNF-alpha-promoted phosphorylation, p28. Thus, TNF-alpha stimulates the phosphorylation of this mRNA cap-binding protein, which may be involved in the transduction of TNF-alpha-receptor binding into cellular responses. Images PMID:2813400

  18. Tumor necrosis factor induces phosphorylation of a 28-kDa mRNA cap-binding protein in human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Marino, M W; Pfeffer, L M; Guidon, P T; Donner, D B

    1989-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulated the phosphorylation of a 28-kDa protein (p28) in the ME-180 line of human cervical carcinoma cells. The effect of TNF-alpha on the phosphorylation state of p28 was rapid (4-fold increase within 15 min) and persistent, remaining above the basal level for at least 2 hr. The specific binding of 125I-labeled TNF-alpha to cell-surface binding sites, the stimulation of p28 phosphorylation by TNF-alpha, and the inhibition of cell proliferation by TNF-alpha occurred with nearly identical dose-response relationships. Two-dimensional SDS/PAGE resolved p28 into two isoforms having pI values of 6.2 and 6.1. A phosphorylated cap-binding protein was substantially enriched from lysates of control or TNF-alpha-treated ME-180 cells by affinity chromatography with 7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate-Sepharose. The phosphoprotein recovered from this procedure was the substrate for TNF-alpha-promoted phosphorylation, p28. Thus, TNF-alpha stimulates the phosphorylation of this mRNA cap-binding protein, which may be involved in the transduction of TNF-alpha-receptor binding into cellular responses.

  19. Prognostic Value of Neutrophil-Related Factors in Locally Advanced Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Treated with Cisplatin-Based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Yang; Bai, Zhou-Lan; He, Jian-Li; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Ren; Hai, Ping; Zhe, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between neutrophil-related factors, including neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the responses of neutrophil to granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (RNG), and the prognosis of patients with locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma (LACSCC) undergoing cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCCRT). A total of sixty LACSCC patients were enrolled in this study. We analyzed the association of NLR or RNG with clinicopathologic characteristics of these patients. The prognostic factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The optimal cut-off value of the NLR was determined to be 2.0 for the overall survival (OS). A higher level of the NLR was associated with younger age (P = 0.017) and higher baseline platelet count (P = 0.040). NLR was identified to be the only independent prognostic factor for OS by multivariate analysis (P = 0.037). The median RNG was 3.01, with a range of 1.19-16.84. RNG level was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis of these patients (P = 0.023). And higher RNG was identified as being a closely independent poor prognostic factor for OS (P = 0.055). This study showed that NLR and RNG may be used as potential biomarkers for survival prediction in patients with LACSCC receiving CCCRT.

  20. Changes in global gene expression profiles induced by HPV 16 E6 oncoprotein variants in cervical carcinoma C33-A cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zacapala-Gómez, Ana Elvira; Del Moral-Hernández, Oscar; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Romero-Córdoba, Sandra Lorena; and others

    2016-01-15

    We analyzed the effects of the expression of HPV 16 E6 oncoprotein variants (AA-a, AA-c, E-A176/G350, E-C188/G350, E-G350), and the E-Prototype in global gene expression profiles in an in vitro model. E6 gene was cloned into an expression vector fused to GFP and was transfected in C33-A cells. Affymetrix GeneChip Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 platform was used to analyze the expression of over 245,000 coding transcripts. We found that HPV16 E6 variants altered the expression of 387 different genes in comparison with E-Prototype. The altered genes are involved in cellular processes related to the development of cervical carcinoma, such as adhesion, angiogenesis, apoptosis, differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, transcription and protein translation. Our results show that polymorphic changes in HPV16 E6 natural variants are sufficient to alter the overall gene expression profile in C33-A cells, explaining in part the observed differences in oncogenic potential of HPV16 variants. - Highlights: • Amino acid changes in HPV16 E6 variants modulate the transciption of specific genes. • This is the first comparison of global gene expression profile of HPV 16 E6 variants. • Each HPV 16 E6 variant appears to have its own molecular signature.

  1. Simultaneous assessment of loss of heterozygosity at multiple microsatellite loci using semi-automated fluorescence-based detection: subregional mapping of chromosome 4 in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, G M; Larson, A A; Baergen, R N; Sommers, R L; Kern, S; Cavenee, W K

    1996-01-01

    Detection of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) by comparison of normal and tumor genotypes using PCR-based microsatellite loci provides considerable advantages over traditional Southern blotting-based approaches. However, current methodologies are limited by several factors, including the numbers of loci that can be evaluated for LOH in a single experiment, the discrimination of true alleles versus "stutter bands," and the use of radionucleotides in detecting PCR products. Here we describe methods for high throughput simultaneous assessment of LOH at multiple loci in human tumors; these methods rely on the detection of amplified microsatellite loci by fluorescence-based DNA sequencing technology. Data generated by this approach are processed by several computer software programs that enable the automated linear quantitation and calculation of allelic ratios, allowing rapid ascertainment of LOH. As a test of this approach, genotypes at a series of loci on chromosome 4 were determined for 58 carcinomas of the uterine cervix. The results underscore the efficacy, sensitivity, and remarkable reproducibility of this approach to LOH detection and provide subchromosomal localization of two regions of chromosome 4 commonly altered in cervical tumors. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8692882

  2. Changes in global gene expression profiles induced by HPV 16 E6 oncoprotein variants in cervical carcinoma C33-A cells.

    PubMed

    Zacapala-Gómez, Ana Elvira; Del Moral-Hernández, Oscar; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Romero-Córdoba, Sandra Lorena; Beltrán-Anaya, Fredy Omar; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Alarcón-Romero, Luz Del Carmen; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2016-01-15

    We analyzed the effects of the expression of HPV 16 E6 oncoprotein variants (AA-a, AA-c, E-A176/G350, E-C188/G350, E-G350), and the E-Prototype in global gene expression profiles in an in vitro model. E6 gene was cloned into an expression vector fused to GFP and was transfected in C33-A cells. Affymetrix GeneChip Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 platform was used to analyze the expression of over 245,000 coding transcripts. We found that HPV16 E6 variants altered the expression of 387 different genes in comparison with E-Prototype. The altered genes are involved in cellular processes related to the development of cervical carcinoma, such as adhesion, angiogenesis, apoptosis, differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, transcription and protein translation. Our results show that polymorphic changes in HPV16 E6 natural variants are sufficient to alter the overall gene expression profile in C33-A cells, explaining in part the observed differences in oncogenic potential of HPV16 variants.

  3. Expression of cancer stem markers could be influenced by silencing of p16 gene in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Zhang, J; Shi, H

    2016-01-01

    Effect of the tumor suppression gene p16 on the biological characteristics of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells was explored. The expression of p16 protein was increased in HeLa tumor sphere cells, and no significant difference in tumor spheres from the first to the fourth passages. Compared with those of parental HeLa cells, the proportion of CD44+/CD24- and ABCG2+ cells increased significantly in tumor spheres. However after the cells were silenced by the p16-sh289 vector, expression of P16 protein and the cell number of CD44+/CD24- and ABCG2+ decreased. Moreover, HeLa cells with p16 gene silencing showed decreased abilities of sphere formation and matrigel invasion. More HeLa cells with p16 gene silence were needed for tumor formation in nude mice. Tumor size and weight in mouse model established with p16 gene silenced HeLa cells were less than those with HeLa parental cell model. The present results indicate that silencing of the p16 gene inhibits expression of cancer stem cell markers and tumorigenic ability of HeLa cells.

  4. A Simple Risk Model to Predict Survival in Patients With Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Yang; Lu, Chang-Hsien; Yang, Chan-Keng; Hsu, Hung-Chih; Kuo, Yung-Chia; Huang, Wen-Kuan; Chen, Jen-Shi; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chia-Yen, Hung; Shen, Wen-Chi; Chang, Pei-Hung; Yeh, Kun-Yun; Hung, Yu-Shin; Chou, Wen-Chi

    2015-11-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP) is characterized by diverse histological subtypes and clinical presentations, ranging from clinically indolent to frankly aggressive behaviors. This study aimed to identify prognostic factors of CUP and to develop a simple risk model to predict survival in a cohort of Asian patients.We retrospectively reviewed 190 patients diagnosed with CUP between 2007 and 2012 at a single medical center in Taiwan. The clinicopathological parameters and outcomes of our cohort were analyzed. A risk model was developed using multivariate logistic regression and a prognostic score was generated.The prognostic score was calculated based on 3 independent prognostic variables: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scale (0 points if the score was 1, 2 points if it was 2-4), visceral organ involvement (0 points if no involvement, 1 point if involved), and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (0 points if ≤3, 1 point if >3). Patients were stratified into good (score 0), intermediate (score 1-2), and poor (score 3-4) prognostic groups based on the risk model. The median survival (95% confidence interval) was 1086 days (500-1617, n = 42), 305 days (237-372, n = 75), and 64 days (44-84, n = 73) for the good, intermediate, and poor prognostic groups, respectively. The c-statistics using the risk model and ECOG scale for the outcome of 1-year mortality were 0.80 and 0.70 (P = 0.038), respectively.In this study, we developed a simple risk model that accurately predicted survival in patients with CUP. This scoring system may be used to help patients and clinicians determine appropriate treatments.

  5. Role of Definitive Radiation Therapy in Carcinoma of Unknown Primary in the Abdomen and Pelvis

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Patrick; Das, Prajnan; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E.; Jhingran, Anuja; Eifel, Patricia J.; Crane, Christopher H.

    2012-04-01

    Objectives: Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) in the abdomen and pelvis is a heterogeneous group of cancers with no standard treatment. Considered by many to be incurable, these patients are often treated with chemotherapy alone. In this study, we determined the effectiveness of radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy in patients with CUP in the abdomen and pelvis. Patients and Methods: Medical records were reviewed for 37 patients with CUP treated with radiation therapy for disease located in the soft tissues and/or nodal basins of the abdomen and pelvis at University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer between 2002 and 2009. All patients underwent chemotherapy, either before or concurrent with radiation therapy. Patients were selected for radiation therapy on the basis of histologic type, disease extent, and prior therapy response. Twenty patients underwent definitive radiation therapy (defined as radiation therapy targeting all known disease sites with at least 45 Gy) and 17 patients underwent palliative radiation therapy. Only 6 patients had surgical resection of their disease. Patient and treatment characteristics were extracted and the endpoints of local disease control, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and treatment-related toxicity incidence were analyzed. Results: The 2-year PFS and OS rates for the entire cohort were 32% and 57%, respectively. However, in patients treated with definitive radiation therapy, the rates were 48% and 76%, and 7 patients lived more than 3 years after treatment with no evidence of disease progression. Nevertheless, radiation-associated toxicity was significant in this cohort, as 40% experienced Grade 2 or higher late toxicities. Conclusions: The use of definitive radiation therapy should be considered in selected patients with CUP in the soft tissues or nodal basins of the abdomen and pelvis.

  6. Expression of COX-2 and Bcl-2 in primary fallopian tube carcinoma: correlations with clinicopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Guo-Ping; Zou, Yan-Feng; Wu, Qiang; Wu, Hong-Yang; Wu, Ji-Feng; Zhou, Jia-De; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Xiu-Shan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of COX-2 and Bcl-2 in primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC), as well as their correlations with clinicopathologic features. We studied a cohort of 33 patients with a pathological diagnosis of PFTC. Thirty normal tubal tissues used for controls were obtained from patients diagnosed with uterine myomas. Expression analysis for COX-2 and Bcl-2 was performed using the immunohistochemical technique. The rate of preoperative diagnosis was 18.2%. With a median survival of 61.0 months (95% CI: 43.2 to 78.8 months), the estimated five-year overall survival rate in the 33 patients was 39.0%. Increased expression of COX-2 and Bcl-2 was observed in tumor specimens compared to normal controls (p = 0.026; p = 0.003). The expression rate of COX-2 in node-positive tumors was significantly higher than that of node-negative tumors (p = 0.024). Moreover, the expression rate of COX-2 was statistically significantly higher in patients with infiltration through the serosa (p = 0.019). Positive significant associations were observed between Bcl-2 staining index and FIGO stage (p = 0.015), and between Bcl-2 staining and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.010). There was a significant correlation between COX-2 expression and Bcl-2 staining index (r = 0.517, p = 0.002). We conclude that COX-2 and Bcl-2 may potentially be useful prognostic markers for PFTC. The exact molecular mechanism for correlations between COX-2 and Bcl-2 remains to be elucidated.

  7. A Systematic Review of Des-γ-Carboxy Prothrombin for the Diagnosis of Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    De, Ji; Shen, Yi; Qin, Jinyu; Feng, Li; Wang, Yiping; Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Determining the serum des-γ-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP) level is of great importance for the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC). Although several studies have investigated the accuracy of diagnostic DCP tests for PHC, the results have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate DCP as a diagnostic standard for PHC. Several databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE (Ovid), the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP), WanFang Data, and the China Biological Medicine Database (CBM), were searched from the date of database inception until July 1, 2015 to collect published international and domestic studies of DCP in the diagnosis of PHC. Two investigators screened the literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. A total of 38 studies involving 11,124 cases were included (5298 cases in the PHC group and 5826 cases in the control group). A meta-analysis was then performed using Meta-Disc 1.4 and RevMan 5.2 software. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (+LR), and negative likelihood ratio (−LR) of DCP for the detection of PHC were 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65–0.68), 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87–0.90), 7.13 (95% CI: 5.73–8.87), and 0.33 (95% CI: 0.29–0.38), respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve (SROC) was 0.9002. In conclusion, DCP has moderate diagnostic utility for PHC. Owing to the heterogeneity and limitations of the included studies, the above conclusion requires further support from additional high-quality studies. PMID:27124038

  8. Natural history of untreated primary hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective study of 157 patients.

    PubMed

    Pawarode, A; Voravud, N; Sriuranpong, V; Kullavanijaya, P; Patt, Y Z

    1998-08-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy with a dismal prognosis; new modalities of treatment as alternatives to surgery have been developed for unresectable patients. The authors obtain baseline data for the natural history of HCC so that the efficacy of new treatments may be evaluated. A retrospective study of 157 untreated patients with tissue-proven or serodiagnosed HCC was conducted. Clinical characteristics including laboratory investigation, treatment received, survival from the time of diagnosis, and prognostic factors were evaluated. There were 129 men and 28 women (ratio, 4.6:1). Median age was 50.9 years (range, 14.1-85.3 years). The most common symptoms and signs were weight loss (68.2%), abdominal fullness (62.5%), abdominal pain (51.6%), hepatomegaly (73.7%), ascites (45.2%), and jaundice (40.6%). Eighteen percent had extrahepatic metastases of which the lungs were the most common site. Seventy percent were hepatitis B virus related. Overall median survival was 8.7 weeks after the time of diagnosis. Survivals by stages were: TNM II, 16.6 weeks; TNM III, 7.3 weeks; TNM IVA, 9.7 weeks; TNM IVB, 7.6 weeks; Okuda II, 10.7 weeks; and Okuda III, 7.3 weeks. Multivariate analysis revealed serum total bilirubin and albumin as independent prognostic factors of survival. Common causes of death were upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (34.1%), cancer-related causes (cachexia, HCC rupture, metastatic disease, 31.8%), and hepatic failure (25.0%). Patients with HCC were diagnosed at late stages of their disease and the advanced nature of the tumor precluded effective therapy. Earlier tumor detection at a time when patients are better candidates for treatment may be aided by an active surveillance program of high risk groups.

  9. Incidence and Outcomes of Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Fourth Primary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Mohamad; Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Fang, Ku-Hao; Wang, Yu-Chien; Chang, Kai-Ping; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Yang, Lan Yan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the incidence and outcomes of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and fourth primary tumors (PTs) in a betel-chewing endemic area. We retrospectively examined the records of 1836 OSCC patients who underwent radical tumor resection between 1996 and 2014. The outcome measures included the incidence and number of multiple PTs, the main risk factors, and their associations with overall survival (OS). Of the 1836 patients, 1400 (76.3%) had a single PT, 344 (18.7%) a second PT, 67 (3.6%) a third PT, and 25 (1.4%) a fourth PT. Univariate analyses (log-rank test) identified the following factors as significantly associated with a fourth PT: simultaneous first and second PTs, betel quid chewing, buccal subsite, and pT3–4 status. After allowance for the potential confounding effect of other risk factors, all of these factors retained their independent prognostic significance in stepwise multivariate analyses, the only exception being betel chewing. The incidences of second, third, and fourth PTs at 5 and 10 years were 20.2%/34.6%, 4.0%/8.6%, and 1.0%/2.3%, respectively. The 5 and 10-year OS rates (calculated from the diagnosis of each PTs) for patients with a single, second, third, and fourth PTs were 68%/61%, 43%/37%, 45%/39%%, and 30%/30%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Among patients with a fourth PT, those who underwent radical surgery showed a significantly higher 3-year OS than those who did not (57% vs 13%; P = 0.0442). Fourth PTs are rarely observed in OSCC patients in a betel quid-chewing endemic area. Long-term survival rates of patients treated with radical surgery seems acceptable, being 4-fold higher than their counterparts. PMID:27015170

  10. Poor Prognosis Associated With Human Papillomavirus α7 Genotypes in Cervical Carcinoma Cannot Be Explained by Intrinsic Radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, John S.; Iype, Rohan; Armenoult, Lucile S.C.; Taylor, Janet; Miller, Crispin J.; Davidson, Susan; Sanjose, Silvia de; Bosch, Xavier; Stern, Peter L.; West, Catharine M.L.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype and outcome after radiation therapy and intrinsic radiosensitivity. Methods and Materials: HPV genotyping was performed on cervix biopsies by polymerase chain reaction using SPF-10 broad-spectrum primers, followed by deoxyribonucleic acid enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by reverse hybridization line probe assay (LiPA{sub 25}) (version 1) (n=202). PapilloCheck and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to genotype cervix cancer cell lines (n=16). Local progression-free survival after radiation therapy alone was assessed using log-rank and Cox proportionate hazard analyses. Intrinsic radiosensitivity was measured as surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) using clonogenic assays. Results: Of the 202 tumors, 107 (53.0%) were positive for HPV16, 29 (14.4%) for HPV18, 9 (4.5%) for HPV45, 23 (11.4%) for other HPV genotypes, and 22 (10.9%) were negative; 11 (5.5%) contained multiple genotypes, and 1 tumor was HPV X (0.5%). In 148 patients with outcome data, those with HPVα9-positive tumors had better local progression-free survival compared with α7 patients in univariate (P<.004) and multivariate (hazard ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.76, P=.021) analyses. There was no difference in the median SF2 of α9 and α7 cervical tumors (n=63). In the cell lines, 9 were α7 and 4 α9 positive and 3 negative. There was no difference in SF2 between α9 and α7 cell lines (n=14). Conclusion: The reduced radioresponsiveness of α7 cervical tumors is not related to intrinsic radiosensitivity.

  11. Chemoradiotherapy for Synchronous Multiple Primary Cancers with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: a Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi-Wen; Zhu, Yu-Jia; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Yang, Han; Liang, Yao; Hu, Yong-Hong; Qiu, Bo; Liu, Meng-Zhong; Liu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in multiple primary cancers (MPC) of the upper digestive tract in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: In a screening of 1193 consecutive patients diagnosed with ESCC and received radiotherapy, 53 patients presenting synchronous MPC in the upper digestive tract were retrospectively investigated. 53 consecutive patients with esophageal non-multiple primary cancer (NPC), matched by stage, age and sex, served as control. All of the patients received concurrent CRT. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy. Chemotherapy regimens were based on platinum and/or 5-fluorouracil. Clinical outcomes and treatment toxicities were compared. Results: Clinic-pathologic characteristics were well balanced between groups. MPC mostly located in esophagus (43, 81.8%), followed by hypopharynx (8, 15.1%) and stomach (2, 3.8%). In MPC and NPC patients, 94.3% and 96.2% completed the intended treatment. The immediate response rate was 73.6% vs 75.5%, with complete response rate of 11.3% vs 24.5% and partial response rate of 62.3% vs 51.0%. Two-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS) and distant progression-free survival (DPFS) were 52.2% vs 68.9% (p=0.026), 32.9% vs 54.0% (p=0.032), 60.8% vs 87.8% (p=0.002) and 64.0% vs 70.8% (p=0.22), respectively. Acute grade 3-4 toxicities were observed in 64.2% vs 54.7%, significantly higher in radiation esophagitis (49.1% vs 28.3%, p<0.001), and mucositis (11.3% vs 00p=0.027). Conclusions: Compared with matched NPC, ESCC accompanied with synchronous MPC was related to significantly impaired survival, elevated risk of locoregional disease progression and higher incidence of severe esophagitis and mucositis, following concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Future study on reasons for decreased efficacy of chemoradiotherapy will help to optimize treatment. Advanced radiation techniques may play a role

  12. Metastatic Basosquamous Carcinoma: Report of Two Cases and Clinicopathological Considerations.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Tommaso; Santoro, Angela; Pannone, Giuseppe; Rodriguez, Javier; Fior, Andrea; Nocini, Pier Francesco

    2016-12-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma is a rare cutaneous tumor considered by some authors as an aggressive type of basal cell carcinoma having a propensity for local recurrence and a potential risk for regional and distant metastatic spread. Herein we present 2 cases of basosquamous carcinoma of head and neck region, with metastatic spread to parotid gland (case 1) and to cervical nodes (case 2). Both patients had recurrence 2 years after initial treatment of the primary lesion (first patient: surgery; second patient: radiotherapy) and at the same time developed regional metastases. We conclude that basosquamous carcinoma must be considered as an aggressive variant of basal cell carcinoma having a great propensity to metastasize even at an early tumor stage. The clinical features, the morphologic aspects, and the treatment of this rare entity are discussed in this article.

  13. Preoperative lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio predicts survival in primary hepatitis B virus-positive hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang-Jun; Ji, Juan-Juan; Yang, Fang; Xu, Hong-Wei; Bai, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background Both inflammation and immunity are associated with the development of malignancy. The lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) has been confirmed as a prognostic factor for several malignant diseases. The purpose of our study was to analyze prognostic significance of preoperative LMR in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection. Patients and methods A total of 253 patients with primary HBV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent a curative operation were enrolled in this retrospective study. The relationship between preoperative LMR and survival outcomes was analyzed through Kaplan–Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Results Patients with a high LMR had a significantly higher mean overall survival than those with a low LMR (67 months vs 55 months, P=0.023), and high LMR remained significant for longer survival in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 0.147; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.085–0.253; P=0.021). Furthermore, patients with a high LMR also had a higher median recurrence-free survival than those with a low LMR in univariate analyses (60 months vs 48 months, P=0.026) and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio, 0.317; 95% CI: 0.042–1.023; P=0.032). However, the survival benefit was limited to patients with advanced cancer. Conclusion LMR was confirmed as an independent prognostic biomarker for primary HBV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection. PMID:28260933

  14. Immunohistochemical detection of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Burstein, David E; Idrees, Muhammad T; Li, Gon; Wu, Maoxin; Kalir, Tamara

    2008-04-01

    Premalignant and invasive squamous lesions of the uterine cervix were surveyed for the immunohistochemical detectability of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), believed to be the most potent of a novel group of proteins designated inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). IAPs bind and prevent the activation of apoptosis-mediating caspases. Recent cancer biologic studies have implicated IAPs in therapeutic resistance and tumor aggressiveness. XIAP in particular is considered a highly promising target for drug discovery. Forty-four formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archival tissue sections were deparaffinized; subjected to citrate-based antigen retrieval; and immunostained with anti-XIAP monoclonal antibody (clone 48, BD Biosciences, San Jose, Calif) diluted 1:250, 4 degrees C x 72 hours; and developed using EnVision-Plus (Dako, Carpinteria, Calif) and diaminobenzidine as chromagen. Particulate or heterogeneous cytoplasmic staining was considered positive. Normal squamous epithelium was XIAP-positive in 7 of 34 cases (20.6%). Preinvasive intraepithelial lesions were positively stained in 54.5% of cases. Nineteen of 22 invasive squamous carcinomas were positive (86.4%). The intensity and extensiveness of XIAP immunostaining varied among individual cases, but trended upward with loss of tumor differentiation: 8 of 9 cases with strong staining were poorly differentiated carcinomas. The present study suggests the characteristic link between poor tumor differentiation and more aggressive clinical behavior could in some malignancies be based upon the concomitant induction of XIAP. Induction of XIAP appears to occur in a subset of intraepithelial lesions; in others, XIAP is detected only upon progression to invasive carcinoma. Detection of enhanced XIAP expression may also pinpoint those lesions that might benefit from pharmacologic disruption of XIAP's actions.

  15. Patient-reported-outcomes in subjects with painful lumbar or cervical radiculopathy treated with pregabalin: evidence from medical practice in primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, María Teresa; Navarro, Ana; Pérez, Concepción; Masramón, Xavier; Rejas, Javier

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pregabalin in painful cervical or lumbosacral radiculopathy treated in Primary Care settings under routine clinical practice. An observational, prospective 12-week secondary analysis was carried-out. Male and female above 18 years, naïve to PGB, with refractory chronic pain secondary to cervical/lumbosacral radiculopathy were enrolled. SF-MPQ, Sheehan Disability Inventory, MOS Sleep Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the EQ-5D were administered. A total of 490 (34%) patients were prescribed PGB-monotherapy, 702 (48%) received PGB add-on, and 159 (11%) were administered non-PGB drugs. After 12 weeks, significant improvements in pain, associated symptoms of anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances, general health; and level of disability were observed in the three groups, being significantly greater in PGB groups. In routine medical practice, monotherapy or add-on pregabalin is associated with substantial pain alleviation and associated symptoms improvements in painful cervical or lumbosacral radiculopathy.

  16. Patient-reported-outcomes in subjects with painful lumbar or cervical radiculopathy treated with pregabalin: evidence from medical practice in primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Ana; Pérez, Concepción; Masramón, Xavier; Rejas, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pregabalin in painful cervical or lumbosacral radiculopathy treated in Primary Care settings under routine clinical practice. An observational, prospective 12-week secondary analysis was carried-out. Male and female above 18 years, naïve to PGB, with refractory chronic pain secondary to cervical/lumbosacral radiculopathy were enrolled. SF-MPQ, Sheehan Disability Inventory, MOS Sleep Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the EQ-5D were administered. A total of 490 (34%) patients were prescribed PGB-monotherapy, 702 (48%) received PGB add-on, and 159 (11%) were administered non-PGB drugs. After 12 weeks, significant improvements in pain, associated symptoms of anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances, general health; and level of disability were observed in the three groups, being significantly greater in PGB groups. In routine medical practice, monotherapy or add-on pregabalin is associated with substantial pain alleviation and associated symptoms improvements in painful cervical or lumbosacral radiculopathy. PMID:19798503

  17. Is HPV DNA testing specificity comparable to that of cytological testing in primary cervical cancer screening? Results of a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Pileggi, Claudia; Flotta, Domenico; Bianco, Aida; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pavia, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Human-papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has been proposed as an alternative to primary cervical cancer screening using cytological testing. Review of the evidence shows that available data are conflicting for some aspects. The overall goal of the study is to update the performance of HPV DNA as stand-alone testing in primary cervical cancer screening, focusing particularly on the aspects related to the specificity profile of the HPV DNA testing in respect to cytology. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Eight articles were included in the meta-analysis. Three outcomes have been investigated: relative detection, relative specificity, and relative positive predictive value (PPV) of HPV DNA testing versus cytology. Overall evaluation of relative detection showed a significantly higher detection of CIN2+ and CIN3+ for HPV DNA testing versus cytology. Meta-analyses that considered all age groups showed a relative specificity that favored the cytology in detecting both CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions whereas, in the ≥30 years' group, specificity of HPV DNA and cytology tests was similar in detecting both CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions. Results of the pooled analysis on relative PPV showed a not significantly lower PPV of HPV DNA test over cytology. A main key finding of the study is that in women aged ≥30, has been found an almost overlapping specificity between the two screening tests in detecting CIN2 and above-grade lesions. Therefore, primary screening of cervical cancer by HPV DNA testing appears to offer the right balance between maximum detection of CIN2+ and adequate specificity, if performed in the age group ≥30 years.

  18. Radical irradiation and misonidazole in the treatment of advanced cervical carcinoma: results of a phase II trial

    SciTech Connect

    Girinski, T.; Pejovic, M.H.; Haie, C.; Bonnay, M.; Gerbaulet, A.; Mazeron, J.J.; Malaise, E.; Chassagne, D.

    1985-10-01

    Between February 1979 and January 1982, a Phase II study of misonidazole as a radiosensitizer was performed in 34 patients with advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Twenty-nine patients were treated with conventional fractionated radiation and five patients with a twice daily fractionation schedule, 3 days a week. The total dose to the whole pelvis was 5000 cGy delivered in 5.5 weeks. Intracavitary curietherapy delivered an additional boost to the tumor. Misonidazole was given to all patients during external radiation and to 25 patients during intracavitary treatment for a total dose of 11 to 14 g/mS. All patients were followed for at least 28 months after treatment with a median follow-up of 52 months. Misonidazole toxicity included peripheral neuropathy (18%) and central nervous system toxicity (3%). The 3-year survival rate is 74% and the 3-year disease-free survival is 57%. When compared to our historical group survival, 42 and 12% for Stage III and IV, respectively, our data suggest that there is a probable advantage from using misonidazole in advanced carcinoma of the cervix.

  19. Cervical Cerclage

    MedlinePlus

    ... or more second trimester pregnancy losses related to painless cervical dilation and in the absence of labor ... history-indicated cervical cerclage) Prior cerclage due to painless cervical dilation in the second trimester Upon physical ...

  20. Variability in target delineation of cervical carcinoma: A Korean radiation oncology group study (KROG 15-06)

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Byung Chul; Jeong, Chi Young; Park, Won; Kim, Hak Jae; Yoon, Won Sup; Yoon, Mee Sun; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Choi, Jin Hwa; Choi, Youngmin; Kim, Joo-Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine inter-observer variability in target volume definition of cervical cancer in radical and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) settings. Methods Eight physicians contoured CTVs of 2 patients underwent definitive and postoperative RT. Each volume was analyzed using the individual/median volume ratio and generalized conformity index (CIgen). And center of mass (COM) of each contour was calculated. Expert agreement was quantified using an expectation maximization algorithm for Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE). Results For definitive RT, the individual/median volume ratio ranged from 0.51 to 1.41, and CIgen was 0.531. Mean 3-dimensional distances of average to each COM were 7.8 mm. For postoperative RT setting, corresponding values were 0.65–1.38, 0.563, and 5.3 mm. Kappa value of expert agreement was 0.65 and 0.67, respectively. STAPLE estimates of the sensitivity, specificity, and kappa measures of inter-physician agreement were 0.73, 0.98, and 0.65 for the definitive and 0.75, 0.98, and 0.67 for the adjuvant radiotherapy setting. The largest difference was observed in the superior-inferior direction, particularly in the upper vagina and the common iliac area. Conclusion As there was still some variability in target delineation, more detailed guidelines for target volume delineation and continuing education would help to reduce this uncertainty. PMID:28301492

  1. Cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, John H

    2012-06-01

    Standard treatment for invasive cervical cancer involves either radical surgery or radiotherapy. Childbearing is therefore impossible after either of these treatments. A fertility-sparing option, however, by radical trachelectomy has been shown to be effective, provided that strict criteria for selection are followed. Fertility rates are high, whereas recurrence is low, indicating that a more conservative approach to dealing with early small cervical tumours is feasible. Careful preoperative assessment by magnetic resonance imaging scans allows accurate measurement of the tumour with precise definition to plan surgery. This will ensure an adequate clear margin by wide excision of the tumour excising the cervix by radical vaginal trachelectomy with surrounding para-cervical and upper vaginal tissues. An isthmic cerclage is inserted to provide competence at the level of the internal orifice. A primary vagino-isthmic anastomosis is conducted to restore continuity of the lower genital tract. Subsequent pregnancies require careful monitoring in view of the high risk of spontaneous premature rupture of the membranes. Delivery by classical caesarean section is necessary at the onset of labour or electively before term. Over 1100 such procedures have been carried out vaginally or abdominally, resulting in 240 live births. Radical vaginal trachelectomy with a laparoscopic pelvic-node dissection offers the least morbid and invasive route for surgery, provided that adequate surgical skills have been obtained.

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary site presenting with an abdominal wall lesion as the primary symptom: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YINGLI; CHEN, BO; ZHU, JIANQING; CHEN, LU

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary site (SC CUP) is a rare malignant tumor, and its histogenesis and appropriate treatment are unclear. To the best of our knowledge, this type of carcinoma with abdominal wall lesions as the primary presenting symptom 3 months after laparoscopic surgery, has not been previously described in the literature. In the present study, a postmenopausal 54-year-old female patient was diagnosed with pain from the right abdominal puncture site 3 months after laparoscopic unilateral left salpingo-oophorectomy at a local hospital, at which time the left ovary and Fallopian tube were free of malignant tumor. Computed tomography (CT) imaging showed a subcutaneous nodule with a size of 6.2×3.3 cm. A wide excision of the lesion with safety margins and repair of the abdominal wall was performed, and the histopathological results and various investigations lead to the diagnosis of metastatic well-differentiated SC CUP. The patient underwent three surgeries and eight cycles of Taxol and cisplatin/carboplatin chemotherapy, and received a total of 10.8 Gy palliative radiation. However, the patient succumbed to intestinal bleeding, thrombocytopenia an