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Sample records for primary cervical carcinoma

  1. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma diagnosed preoperatively by cervical smear.

    PubMed

    Ural, Ulku Mete; Balik, Gulsah; Tekin, Yesim Bayoglu; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Bedir, Recep; Sahin, Figen Kir

    2014-01-01

    Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is a rare clinical entity that constitutes a diagnostic challenge in gynecological practice. Patients generally suffer from the three symptoms: vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, and vaginal discharge; however, this is usually not sufficient for confirming the diagnosis preoperatively in most circumstances. In this case report, we present a 49-year-old woman whose cervical smear raised a suspicion for fallopian tube carcinoma. All preoperative examination measures such as ultrasonography, hysteroscopy, and endometrial aspiration were normal. Repeated cervical smears were consistent with adenocarcinoma presumably ensourcing from the fallopian tube. The patient underwent laparatomy,total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic para-aortic lymph node dissection. The primary serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the right fallopian tube was detected at the histopathological analysis, and the patient was referred for adjuvant chemotherapy. Cervical smear findings can be the only clue for the diagnosis of fallopian tube carcinoma.

  2. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Magaldi, Thomas G.; Almstead, Laura L.; Bellone, Stefania; Prevatt, Edward G.; Santin, Alessandro D.; DiMaio, Daniel

    2012-01-05

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 that is limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells.

  3. Synchronous metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the colon and cervical lymph nodes from a carcinoma of unknown primary site: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ito, Homare; Miyakura, Yasuyuki; Tsukui, Hidenori; Naoi, Daishi; Tahara, Makiko; Morimoto, Mitsuaki; Koinuma, Koji; Horie, Hisanaga; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Sata, Naohiro

    2016-05-12

    Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from an unknown primary site to the colon has not been reported previously. A 75-year-old woman presented with a mass in the left submandibular region. Biopsy revealed a Class V lesion, but the histologic type was undetermined. Surgical resection of the left submandibular gland with cervical lymph node dissection was performed. However, SCC was seen in the lymph nodes only, with no tumor in the submandibular gland. Three months after surgery, computed tomography revealed that the preoperatively diagnosed lesion in the transverse colon had grown considerably. A laparoscopic right hemicolectomy was performed. Histological examination showed features of SCC, similar to the findings in the cervical lymph nodes. We report a rare case of synchronous metastatic SCC to the colon and cervical lymph nodes from a carcinoma of unknown primary site. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.

  4. Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Cervical Spine and Pelvic Bone Metastases Presenting as Unknown Primary Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sea Won; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jung Min; Hong, Sook Hee; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Chun, Ho Jong; Lee, Sung Hak; Jung, Eun Sun

    2015-07-01

    The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is closely associated with viral hepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis. Although active surveillance is ongoing in Korea, advanced or metastatic HCC is found at initial presentation in many patients. Metastatic HCC presents with a hypervascular intrahepatic tumor and extrahepatic lesions such as lung or lymph node metastases. Cases of HCC presenting as carcinoma of unknown primary have been rarely reported. The authors experienced a case of metastatic HCC in a patient who presented with a metastatic bone lesion but no primary intrahepatic tumor. This case suggests that HCC should be considered as a differential diagnosis when evaluating the primary origin of metastatic carcinoma.

  5. Cervical lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from an unknown primary: outcomes and patterns of failure.

    PubMed

    Mistry, R C; Qureshi, S S; Talole, S D; Deshmukh, S

    2008-01-01

    Management of cervical lymph nodes metastases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from primary of unknown origin (PUO) is contentious and there is insignificant data from India on this subject. To present experience of management of these patients treated with curative intent at a single institution. Retrospective study of patients treated between 1989-1994 in a tertiary referral cancer centre. Eighty-nine patients were evaluated in the study period and their survival compared with patients with common sites of primary in the head and neck with comparable node stage. Kaplan-Meier method. The clinical stage of the neck nodes at presentation was N1 in 11%, N2a in 28.5%, N2b in 22.5%, N3 in 35% and Nx in 3.4% patients. All patients underwent surgery and 70 patients received more than 40Gy postoperative radiotherapy. Twenty-nine (32.6%) patients had relapse of which 19 (21%) were in the neck. Postoperative radiotherapy did not influence the neck relapse (p=0.72). Primary was detected in 13 patients (14.6%) on subsequent follow up. The overall five and eight-years survival was 55% and 51% respectively. The overall five-year survival was better compared to patients with known primary with comparable node stage. Patients with cervical lymph nodes metastases of SCC from PUO have reasonable survival and low rate of development of subsequent primary when treated with surgery and radiotherapy. The overall survival is comparable to that of patients with known primary and hence an attempt at cure should always be made.

  6. [A comparison of CT-supported 3D planning with simulator planning in the pelvic irradiation of primary cervical carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Knocke, T H; Pokrajac, B; Fellner, C; Pötter, R

    1999-02-01

    Using standardized simulator planning guided by bony landmarks for pelvic irradiation of primary cervical carcinoma with some patients a geographical miss regarding tumor or potential tumor spread can happen because of insufficient knowledge of the individual anatomical situation. The question arises whether for patients with this indication the higher effort in terms of time and personnel for 3D treatment planning is justified. In a prospective study on 20 subsequent patients with primary cervical carcinoma in Stages I to III simulator planning of a 4-field box-technique was performed. After defining the planning target volume (PTV) in the 3D planning system the field configuration of the simulator planning was transmitted. The resulting plan was compared to a second one based on the defined PTV and evaluated regarding a possible geographical miss and encompassment of the PTV by the treated volume (ICRU). Volumes of open and shaped portals were calculated for both techniques. Planning by simulation resulted in 1 geographical miss and in 10 more cases the encompassment of the PTV by the treated volume was inadequate. For a PTV of mean 1,729 cm3 the mean volume defined by simulation was 3,120 cm3 for the open portals and 2,702 cm3 for the shaped portals (Figure 1). The volume reduction by blocks was 13.4% (mean). With CT-based 3D treatment planning the volume of the open portals was 3.3% (mean) enlarged to 3,224 cm3 (Figure 2). The resulting mean volume of the shaped portals was 2,458 ccm. The reduction compared to the open portals was 23.8% (mean). The treated volumes were 244 cm3 or 9% (mean) smaller compared to simulator planning. The "treated volume/planning target volume ratio" was decreased from 1.59 to 1.42. The introduction of 3D treatment planning for pelvic irradiation of cervical carcinoma is to be recommended for reasons of quality assurance. Reduction of the treated volume is possible but further research has to be done to determine whether the rate of

  7. Landscape of Genomic Alterations in Cervical Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Freeman, Samuel S.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Imaz-Rosshandler, Ivan; Pugh, Trevor J.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Ambrogio, Lauren; Cibulskis, Kristian; Bertelsen, Bjørn; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra; Treviño, Victor; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla; Guadarrama, Alberto Salido; Wright, Alexi A.; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Duke, Fujiko; Kaplan, Bethany; Wang, Rui; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Walline, Heather M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Stewart, Chip; Carter, Scott L.; McKenna, Aaron; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P.; Espinosa-Castilla, Magali; Woie, Kathrine; Bjorge, Line; Wik, Elisabeth; Halle, Mari K.; Hoivik, Erling A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Gabiño, Nayeli Belem; Gómez-Macías, Gabriela Sofia; Valdez-Chapa, Lezmes D.; Garza-Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Maytorena, German; Vazquez, Jorge; Rodea, Carlos; Cravioto, Adrian; Cortes, Maria L.; Greulich, Heidi; Crum, Christopher P.; Neuberg, Donna S.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Escareno, Claudia Rangel; Akslen, Lars A.; Carey, Thomas E.; Vintermyr, Olav K.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Getz, Gad; Salvesen, Helga B.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is responsible for 10–15% of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide1,2. The etiological role of infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV) in cervical carcinomas is well established3. Previous studies have implicated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, STK11 and KRAS4–7 as well as several copy number alterations in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas8,9. Here, we report whole exome sequencing analysis of 115 cervical carcinoma-normal paired samples, transcriptome sequencing of 79 cases and whole genome sequencing of 14 tumor-normal pairs. Novel somatic mutations in 79 primary squamous cell carcinomas include recurrent E322K substitutions in the MAPK1 gene (8%), inactivating mutations in the HLA-B gene (9%), and mutations in EP300 (16%), FBXW7 (15%), NFE2L2 (4%) TP53 (5%) and ERBB2 (6%). We also observed somatic ELF3 (13%) and CBFB (8%) mutations in 24 adenocarcinomas. Squamous cell carcinomas had higher frequencies of somatic mutations in the Tp*C dinucleotide context than adenocarcinomas. Gene expression levels at HPV integration sites were significantly higher in tumors with HPV integration compared with expression of the same genes in tumors without viral integration at the same site. These data demonstrate several recurrent genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas that suggest novel strategies to combat this disease. PMID:24390348

  8. Cervical carcinoma: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Cowan, M E; Skinner, G R

    1988-01-01

    A mouse model system was used to investigate the preventive efficacy of a subunit herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine on the development of HSV induced cervical carcinoma. Ten groups of mice were vaccinated before receiving repeated intravaginal exposure to HSV-type 2 inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation. At 20 months postvaccination, neutralizing antibody activity to herpes simplex viruses was detected in the sera of the mice which had received the highest vaccine dose. Although three experimental mice and one control mouse developed cervical tumours and five mice developed preinvasive malignant changes, 87% of cervices were of normal or koilocytotic appearance on histological examination. There was therefore no evidence from this study that repeated exposure of mouse cervices to inactivated HSV-2 induced a significant incidence of preinvasive or invasive cervical carcinoma.

  9. Heightened risk of second primary carcinoma of the head and neck following cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Dost, Fatima; Ford, Pauline J; Farah, Camile S

    2014-08-01

    Cervical cancers have been shown to increase the risk of cancers at distant sites, including the head and neck region. This study investigated the relative risk of developing head and neck cancer subsequent to cervical cancer in an Australian population. Cervical cancers, head and neck cancers, and cervical dysplasias among women registered with the Queensland Oncology Repository were identified for the period 1982 to 2008. Over the 26-year period, 3328 women were diagnosed with a cervical cancer and followed up for 30,375 person-years at risk. Eighteen women (0.5%) developed head and neck cancer within a mean time of 8.1 years (SD = 5.56). The relative risk of head and neck cancer development subsequent to cervical cancer was 6.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.06-10.91). This study demonstrates that women with cervical cancer were almost 7 times more likely to develop head and neck cancer compared to the general female population. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With High Risk Primary or Recurrent Gynecologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-15

    Cervical Carcinoma; Ovarian Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Vulvar Carcinoma; Uterine Corpus Cancer; Vulvar Carcinoma; Peritoneal Neoplasms

  11. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Upper Genital Tract: Utility of p16INK4a Expression and HPV DNA Status in its Differential Diagnosis from Extended Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Su Hyun; Son, Eun-Mi; Sung, Chang Okh

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper genital tract, including the endometrium, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, is extremely rare. It must be distinguished from the mucosal extension of primary cervical SCC because determination of the primary tumor site is important for tumor staging. However, patients with SCC of the fallopian tubes or ovarian surface have often undergone prior hysterectomy with inadequate examination of the cervix, making it difficult to determine the primary site. Methods We compared histologic findings, p16INK4a expression, and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA status in four patients with primary SCC of the upper genital tract and five patients with primary cervical SCC extending to the mucosa of the upper genital tract. Results All five SCCs of cervical origin showed strong expression of p16INK4a, whereas all four SCCs of the upper genital tract were negative, although one showed weak focal staining. Three of the five cervical SCCs were positive for HPV16 DNA, whereas all four primary SCCs of the upper genital tract were negative for HPV DNA. Conclusions Although a thorough histological examination is important, immunonegativity for p16INK4a and negative for HPV DNA may be useful adjuncts in determining primary SCCs of the upper genital tract. PMID:24421848

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma of cervical lymph nodes from an unknown primary site: The impact of neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jianlin; Wang, Shengye; Wang, Kejing; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Jianqiang; Guo, Liang

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the treatment strategies of squamous cell carcinoma of cervical lymph nodes from an unknown primary site (SCCUP) and the value of neck dissection (ND). The study included 133 patients referred to the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital from 2001 to 2012, with 109 males and 24 females. Distribution of patients by N status was as follows: N1 - 14 cases; N2a - 21 cases; N2b - 78 cases; N2c - 7 cases; and N3 - 13 cases. 104 patients underwent surgeries of ND while 29 patients underwent nonsurgical treatment. Among 104 patients, 24 underwent classic radical ND, 16 modified ND, 53 selective ND, and 11 extended ND. The selection of surgical strategy was determined by the extent and location of disease. According to the range of ND, 50 patients underwent ND for Levels I-V, 46 for Levels II-V, 4 for Levels I-III, 3 for Levels II-VI, and 1 for Levels I-VI. The data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0. The differences between groups were calculated by χ2 tests. The actual overall survival (OS) rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Different factors affecting the OS were determined by the log-rank test on univariate analysis. Cox regression was used to evaluate the multivariate analysis. The 5-year OS rate of the whole cohort was 67.1%; and the median survival time was 70.0 months. The 5-year OS of ND group and of the non-ND group were 71.3% and 53.2%, respectively (P = 0.061). Cox analysis indicated that N stage (P = 0.000), bilateral neck metastasis (P = 0.001), extracapsular spread (ES) (P = 0.016), and ND (P = 0.028) were independent prognostic factors for the OS of SCCUP. 25 patients (18.8%) had neck recurrence or residue. The locoregional failure rate of ND group and of the non-ND group were 13.5% and 37.9%, respectively (P = 0.003). Logistic regression analysis indicated that higher N stage was the main risk factor for locoregional failure (P = 0.015). N stage, bilateral neck metastasis, ES, and ND were the main factors for the survival rate of SCCUP

  13. Papillomavirus sequences integrate near cellular oncogenes in some cervical carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Duerst, M.; Croce, C.M.; Gissmann, L.; Schwarz, E.; Huebner, K.

    1987-02-01

    The chromosomal locations of cellular sequences flanking integrated papillomavirus DNA in four cervical cell lines and a primary cervical carcinoma have been determined. The two human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 flanking sequences derived from the tumor were localized to chromosomes regions 20pter..-->..20q13 and 3p25..-->..3qter, regions that also contain the protooncogenes c-src-1 and c-raf-1, respectively. The HPV 16 integration site in the SiHa cervical carcinoma-derived cell line is in chromosome region 13q14..-->..13q32. The HPV 18 integration site in SW756 cervical carcinoma cells is in chromosome 12 but is not closely linked to the Ki-ras2 gene. Finally, in two cervical carcinoma cell lines, HeLa and C4-I, HPV 18 DNA is integrated in chromosome 8, 5' of the c-myc gene. The HeLaHPV 18 integration site is within 40 kilobases 5' of the c-myc gene, inside the HL60 amplification unit surrounding and including the c-myc gene. Additionally, steady-state levels of c-myc mRNA are elevated in HeLa and C4-I cells relative to other cervical carcinoma cell lines. Thus, in at least some genital tumors, cis-activation of cellular oncogenes by HPV may be involved in malignant transformation of cervical cells.

  14. Ossification of the cervical ligamentum flavum and osseous brown tumor: late manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism misdiagnosed in a case of parathyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sampanis, Nikolaos; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Paschou, Eleni; Kalaitzoglou, Asterios; Vasileiou, Sotirios

    2016-01-01

    Summary Parathyroid carcinoma represents an extremely rare neoplasm with diverse clinical manifestations. Herein we aimed at presenting an unique case of a young patient with late manifestations of parathyroid cancer and reviewing the relevant literature. A 45-year-old male patient presented in the Outpatient Clinic with an episode of nephrolithiasis. His personal medical history includes: recurrent episodes of nephrolithiasis, laminectomy in the cervical spine due to ossification of the cervical ligamentum flavum and surgical resection of a giant cell tumor of the brain. Laboratory testing revealed findings of primary hyperparathyroidism (serum calcium 16,0 mmol/l phosphorus 1,46 mg/dl and parathyroid hormone/PTH 8560 pg/ml). Neck ultrasound and technetium-99 m sestamibi scan were performed showing a parathyroid tumor. Due to the persistently high serum calcium and PTH levels, the high alkaline phosphatase levels (440 IU/L) and the late manifestations of HPT, surgical excision of the tumor was performed. The tumor was identified as parathyroid carcinoma. Immediately after surgery serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normalized. The patient is on a regular follow-up program with no signs of recurrence or metastasis one year after the excision. We describe the coexistence of rare late manifestations of HPT, which had not been adequately investigated at their onset in this young patient. Therefore, increased awareness is needed in order to recognize and further investigate signs or symptoms of HPT. PMID:27252748

  15. MR imaging of uterine cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Waggenspack, G A; Amparo, E G; Hannigan, E V

    1988-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of 20 consecutive patients with primary untreated carcinoma of the cervix who underwent surgery and one patient who underwent percutaneous needle biopsy of enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. Most of the patients were clinical Stage IB. The clinical assessment of the parametria in these patients was more accurate than the MR assessment of the parametria (95 versus 79%). Magnetic resonance was valuable for detecting metastatic pelvic lymphadenopathy. Enlarged pelvic lymph nodes (greater than 1.5 cm in diameter) were demonstrated by MR in all three patients with histologic verification of metastatic lymphadenopathy. In summary, the major therapeutic value of MR in patients with untreated cervical carcinoma is in assessing the pelvic lymph nodes. In patients with clinical Stage IB disease, MR assessment of the parametria does not add useful additional information.

  16. Effect of different segmentation algorithms on metabolic tumor volume measured on 18F-FDG PET/CT of cervical primary squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weina; Yu, Shupeng; Ma, Ying; Liu, Changping

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose It is known that fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (CT) segmentation algorithms have an impact on the metabolic tumor volume (MTV). This leads to some uncertainties in PET/CT guidance of tumor radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of segmentation algorithms on the PET/CT-based MTV and their correlations with the gross tumor volumes (GTVs) of cervical primary squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and methods Fifty-five patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage Ia∼IIb and histologically proven cervical squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT scan was performed before definitive surgery. GTV was measured on surgical specimens. MTVs were estimated on PET/CT scans using different segmentation algorithms, including a fixed percentage of the maximum standardized uptake value (20∼60% SUVmax) threshold and iterative adaptive algorithm. We divided all patients into four different groups according to the SUVmax within target volume. The comparisons of absolute values and percentage differences between MTVs by segmentation and GTV were performed in different SUVmax subgroups. The optimal threshold percentage was determined from MTV20%∼MTV60%, and was correlated with SUVmax. The correlation of MTViterative adaptive with GTV was also investigated. Results MTV50% and MTV60% were similar to GTV in the SUVmax up to 5 (P>0.05). MTV30%∼MTV60% were similar to GTV (P>0.05) in the 50.05) in the 100.05) in the SUVmax of at least 15 group. MTViterative adaptive was similar to GTV in both total and different SUVmax groups (P>0.05). Significant differences were observed among the fixed percentage method and the optimal threshold percentage was inversely correlated with SUVmax. The iterative adaptive segmentation algorithm led

  17. [Multiple primary pulmonary carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Guitart, A C; Gómez, G; Estrada, G; Rodríguez, C; León, C; Cornudella, R

    1991-02-01

    Three cases of multiple simultaneous primary lung carcinomas are presented, in which diagnosis was established by post-surgery pathological exam. In all three cases, chest X-ray showed pulmonary masses suggestive or clinical malignancy, and pre-surgery pathological diagnosis or squamous lung carcinoma. During thoracotomy or in the resected segment, a second lesion we confirmed which made resection necessary being this second lesion classified as lung adenocarcinoma.

  18. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis.

  19. Long term results from a prospective database on high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy for primary cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Julia; Park, Sang-Jung; Yang, Lisa; Veruttipong, Darlene; Zhang, Mingle; Van, Thanh; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Fekete, Alexandra M; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Kamrava, Mitchell; Steinberg, Michael L; Demanes, D Jeffrey

    2016-10-29

    Present long-term outcomes in primary cervical cancer treated with external beam and high dose rate interstitial brachytherapy. High dose rate (HDR) interstitial (IS) brachytherapy (BT) and external beam (EBRT) were administered from 1992 to 2009 to 315 patients who were unsuitable for intracavitary (IC) BT alone. Histology was 89% squamous cell, 8% adenocarcinoma, and 3% adenosquamous. FIGO stage was I-14%, II-47%, III-34%, and IVA-5%. Median tumor size was 6cm. Lymph node metastases were 26% pelvic and 9.5% para-aortic. Treatment planning was 49% 2D and 51% 3D-CT. The mean doses were central EBRT EQD210 37.3±4.3Gy (sidewall 49.2±3.6Gy) and HDR EQD210 42.3±5.3Gy (nominal 5.4Gy×6 fractions using a mean of 24 catheters and 1 tandem). Total EQD210 mean target dose was 79.5±5.4Gy. Standardized planned dose constraints were ICRU points or D0.1cc bladder 80%, rectum 75% and urethra 90% of the HDR dose per fraction. Morbidity assessment was CTCAEv3. Median and mean follow-up were 50 and 61months (3-234). The 10-year actuarial local control was 87%, regional control 84%, and loco-regional control 77%. Distant metastasis free survival was 66%, cause specific survival 56%, disease free survival 54%, and overall survival 40%. The rates of late grade GU and GI toxicities were 4.8% G3 and 5.4% G4. Template-guided interstitial can be safely performed to successfully deliver high radiation dose to locally advanced cervix cancer and avoid excessive dose and injury to adjacent vital pelvic organs. We achieved high tumor control with low morbidity in patients who were poor candidates for intracavitary brachytherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Carcinoma of the cervical esophagus: diagnosis, management, and results

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.J.; Harris, A.; Gillette, A.; Munoz, L.; Kashima, H.

    1984-11-01

    Nine of 168 patients (5.3%) with carcinoma of the esophagus had primary tumors in the cervical esophagus. The principal symptoms and signs of carcinoma of the cervical esophagus were dysphagia, hoarseness, neck mass, and weight loss. The esophagogram was a very reliable study, revealing the abnormality in all nine patients. The true extent of the disease was better delineated by computerized tomography which demonstrated not only the intraluminal mass but also the extraesophageal spread. Endoscopic examination of the cervical esophagus was the definitive procedure to establish the diagnosis. All nine patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy, three surviving two to five years. The major cause of death was the failure to control local disease. 14 references, 3 tables.

  1. Preoperative Prediction of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis Using Primary Tumor SUVmax on 18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji-hoon; Kim, Choon-Young; Son, Seung Hyun; Kim, Do-Hoon; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the current study was to evaluate the value of preoperative 18F-FDG (FDG) PET/CT in predicting cervical lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods One hundred and ninety-three newly diagnosed PTC patients (M: F = 25:168, age = 46.8 ± 12.2) who had undergone pretreatment FDG PET/CT and had neck node dissection were included in this study. The FDG avidity of the primary tumor and the SUVmax of the primary tumor (pSUVmax) were analyzed for prediction of LN metastasis. Detectability by ultrasonography (US) and FDG PET/CT for cervical LN metastasis were also assessed and compared with the pSUVmax. Results The FDG avidity of the primary tumor was identified in 118 patients (FDG avid group: 61.0%, M: F = 16:102, age 47.0 ± 12.7 years) and pSUVmax ranged from 1.3 to 35.6 (median 4.6) in the FDG avid group. The tumor size in the FDG avid group was bigger and there was a higher incidence of LN metastasis compared to the FDG non-avid group (0.93 vs. 0.59 cm, p <0.001 and 49.2 vs. 33.3%, p <0.05). In the FDG avid group, patients with LN metastasis had higher pSUVmax than patients without LN metastasis (8.7 ± 8.3 vs. 5.7 ± 5.1, p <0.001). The incidence of central LN metastasis in patients with a pSUVmax >4.6 was 54%; however, the detectability of central LN metastasis by US and FDG PET/CT were 10.3% and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusion A high FDG avidity of the primary tumor was related to LN metastasis in PTC patients. Therefore, patients with a high pSUVmax should be cautiously assessed for LN metastasis and might need a more comprehensive surgical approach. PMID:26636824

  2. The molecular genetics of cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lazo, P A

    1999-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma there are three major components, two of them related to the role of human papillomaviruses (HPV). First, the effect of viral E6 and E7 proteins. Second, the integration of viral DNA in chromosomal regions associated with well known tumour phenotypes. Some of these viral integrations occur recurrently at specific chromosomal locations, such as 8q24 and 12q15, both harbouring HPV18 and HPV16. And third, there are other recurrent genetic alterations not linked to HPV. Recurrent losses of heterozygosity (LOH) have been detected in chromosome regions 3p14–22, 4p16, 5p15, 6p21–22, 11q23, 17p13.3 without effect on p53, 18q12–22 and 19q13, all of them suggesting the alteration of putative tumour suppressor genes not yet identified. Recurrent amplification has been mapped to 3q+ arm, with the common region in 3q24–28 in 90% of invasive carcinomas. The mutator phenotype, microsatellite instability, plays a minor role and is detected in only 7% of cervical carcinomas. The development of cervical carcinoma requires the sequential occurrence and selection of several genetic alterations. The identification of the specific genes involved, and their correlation with specific tumour properties and stages could improve the understanding and perhaps the management of cervical carcinoma. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471054

  3. Primary pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Avila Martínez, Régulo José; Marrón Fernández, Carmen; Hermoso Alarza, Fátima; Zuluaga Bedoya, Mauricio; Meneses Pardo, José Carlos; Gámez García, A Pablo

    2013-09-01

    To describe the characteristics and the result of surgical treatment in a series of patients with primary pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC). A descriptive study of 11 patients with primary PSC who were treated by the Thoracic Surgery Department at the Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre in Madrid (Spain) between 2005 and 2009. We analyzed age, gender, histologic type, pathological stage, type of surgery and survival (in months). Ten patients were male and 11 were smokers; mean age of was 55. The pathologic stages were: 4 stage IIA, 3 stage IIB, 2 stage IB and 2 stage IA. The most frequent histologic type was pleomorphic carcinoma, which was found in 5 cases. Complete resection was performed in 10 cases, and 7 received adjuvant therapy. Seven are disease-free after a mean follow-up period of 49 months. Complete surgery in the initial stages of primary PSC can improve survival. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Cervical Spinal Cord Compression: A Rare Presentation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chime, Chukwunonso; Arjun, Shiva; Reddy, Pavithra; Niazi, Masooma

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of liver. Distant metastasis to various organs is well known. Skeletal metastasis is also reported to various locations. Vertebral metastasis has been reported mostly to thoracic spine. However, cervical spinal cord involvement leading to cord compression has been reported very rarely in literature. We present a case of 58-year-old male with liver cirrhosis presenting as neck pain. Further work-up revealed metastatic HCC to cervical spinal cord resulting in acute cord compression. Patient has been treated with neurosurgical intervention. PMID:28299213

  5. [Radiotherapy for primary lung carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Giraud, P; Lacornerie, T; Mornex, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, technique of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy, for primary lung carcinoma are presented. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed.

  6. Cervical Adenoid Basal Carcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Argon, Asuman; Şener, Alper; Zekioğlu, Osman; Terek, Coşan; Özdemir, Necmettin

    2012-01-01

    Adenoid basal carcinoma (ABC) is a rare epithelial tumor of the cervix. It makes up approximately 1% of all cervical adenocarcinomas. Rare cases have been associated with common cervical epithelial tumors. We present a case of ABC associated with typical squamous cell carcinoma. A 54-year-old post-menopausal woman underwent D&C for vaginal bleeding. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by small cells with a narrow cytoplasm, making up islands and cords. Peripheral palissading in the cells surrounding the cystic areas that contained central cellular debris and keratin was noted. The patient underwent total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy and omentectomy. Large cell keratinized type squamous cell carcinoma areas in the cervix were noted besides the limited ABC areas. After surgery, the patient was treated with radiation therapy. A retroperitoneal metastasis was found on the first year and chemotherapy was administered. The patient has no evidence of disease 27 months after the first diagnosis. ABC makes up quite a rare group of cervical cancers and should be kept in mind during the evaluation so that a differentiation can be made with tumors with similar morphology as it can show various histological patterns, and can be seen together with more aggressive cancers. PMID:25207054

  7. High expression of CRAM correlates with poor prognosis in patients with cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Teng; Liang, Dongxia; Yang, Dong; He, Jiehua; Huang, Yongwen; Zhang, Yanna

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Atypical chemokine receptors (ACRs) have been reported to scavenge or alter the localization of their chemokine ligands. However, CRAM, a newly identified ACR member, is lack of ligand scavenging properties. The present study was to investigate the clinical significance of CRAM in cervical carcinoma. Methods: The expression of CRAM in primary cervical cancer and paired normal tissues from adjacent regions was examined using Real time PCR. Moreover, CRAM protein expression was analyzed in 272 cervical specimens including 50 normal cervical tissues, 40 cases of carcinoma in situ of cervix (CIS), and 182 cases of cervical cancer by immunohistochemistry. Results: Real time PCR showed that the expression level of CRAM was markedly higher in cervical cancer than that in normal cervical tissues. The expression rate of CRAM in normal cervical tissues, CIS, and cervical cancer increased gradually (p < 0.01). In addition, the expression level of CCL19 was positively associated with that of CRAM (p < 0.05). Moreover, high expression level of CRAM was correlated with lymph node metastasis and histological subtype. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, high expression level of CRAM was a negative indicator for both overall (p = 0.028) and recurrence-free survival (p = 0.010). Conclusion: The present study suggested that CRAM could be a clinical prognostic marker for patients with cervical cancer and might be a potential therapeutic target for cervical cancer. Our data extended previous research on the predictive value of ACRs. PMID:24695578

  8. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for cervical node squamous cell carcinoma metastases from unknown head-and-neck primary site: M. D. Anderson Cancer Center outcomes and patterns of failure.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven J; Rosenthal, David I; Petsuksiri, Janjira; Ang, K Kian; Morrison, William H; Weber, Randal S; Glisson, Bonnie S; Chao, K S Clifford; Schwartz, David L; Chronowski, Gregory M; El-Naggar, Adel K; Garden, Adam S

    2010-11-15

    Conventional therapy for cervical node squamous cell carcinoma metastases from an unknown primary can cause considerable toxicity owing to the volume of tissues to be irradiated. In the present study, hypothesizing that using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) would provide effective treatment with minimal toxicity, we reviewed the outcomes and patterns of failure for head-and-neck unknown primary cancer at a single tertiary cancer center. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 52 patients who had undergone IMRT for an unknown primary at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1998 and 2005. The patient and treatment characteristics were extracted and the survival rates calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the 52 patients, 5 presented with Stage N1, 11 with Stage N2a, 23 with Stage N2b, 6 with Stage N2c, 4 with Stage N3, and 3 with Stage Nx disease. A total of 26 patients had undergone neck dissection, 13 before and 13 after IMRT; 14 patients had undergone excisional biopsy and presented for IMRT without evidence of disease. Finally, 14 patients had received systemic chemotherapy. All patients underwent IMRT to targets on both sides of the neck and pharyngeal axis. The median follow-up time for the surviving patients was 3.7 years. The 5-year actuarial rate of primary mucosal tumor control and regional control was 98% and 94%, respectively. Only 3 patients developed distant metastasis with locoregional control. The 5-year actuarial disease-free and overall survival rate was 88% and 89%, respectively. The most severe toxicity was Grade 3 dysphagia/esophageal stricture, experienced by 2 patients. The results of our study have shown that IMRT can produce excellent outcomes for patients who present with cervical node squamous cell carcinoma metastases from an unknown head-and-neck primary tumor. Severe late complications were uncommon. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervical Node Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastases From Unknown Head-and-Neck Primary Site: M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Outcomes and Patterns of Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Steven J.; Rosenthal, David I.; Petsuksiri, Janjira; Ang, K. Kian; Morrison, William H.; Weber, Randal S.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Garden, Adam S.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Conventional therapy for cervical node squamous cell carcinoma metastases from an unknown primary can cause considerable toxicity owing to the volume of tissues to be irradiated. In the present study, hypothesizing that using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) would provide effective treatment with minimal toxicity, we reviewed the outcomes and patterns of failure for head-and-neck unknown primary cancer at a single tertiary cancer center. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 52 patients who had undergone IMRT for an unknown primary at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1998 and 2005. The patient and treatment characteristics were extracted and the survival rates calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Of the 52 patients, 5 presented with Stage N1, 11 with Stage N2a, 23 with Stage N2b, 6 with Stage N2c, 4 with Stage N3, and 3 with Stage Nx disease. A total of 26 patients had undergone neck dissection, 13 before and 13 after IMRT; 14 patients had undergone excisional biopsy and presented for IMRT without evidence of disease. Finally, 14 patients had received systemic chemotherapy. All patients underwent IMRT to targets on both sides of the neck and pharyngeal axis. The median follow-up time for the surviving patients was 3.7 years. The 5-year actuarial rate of primary mucosal tumor control and regional control was 98% and 94%, respectively. Only 3 patients developed distant metastasis with locoregional control. The 5-year actuarial disease-free and overall survival rate was 88% and 89%, respectively. The most severe toxicity was Grade 3 dysphagia/esophageal stricture, experienced by 2 patients. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that IMRT can produce excellent outcomes for patients who present with cervical node squamous cell carcinoma metastases from an unknown head-and-neck primary tumor. Severe late complications were uncommon.

  10. Head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to cervical sublevel IIb lymph nodes occurred from primary sites involving the auricle and adjacent neck.

    PubMed

    Maher, Nigel Gordon; Hoffman, Gary Russell

    2014-03-01

    Neck dissections that include sublevel IIb increase the risk of postoperative shoulder dysfunction. The purpose of this investigation was to document the incidence of level IIb metastatic lymphatic spread in a group of patients undergoing neck dissection as part of the surgical management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A retrospective review of the pathology records taken from 1 surgeon from June 2006 through June 2013 was carried out. The predictor variable was the primary tumor site. The outcome variable was the metastatic nodal involvement according to neck level and sublevel. Secondary variables included T stage, pathologist, tumor depth, and the presence of perineural, perilymphatic, and perivascular invasion. Data analyses were by descriptive statistics. Thirty-six patients with a total of 40 neck dissections met the inclusion criteria. The average primary site tumor depth was 14.7 mm, and there were 16 cases of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Sublevel IIb was involved in 7.5% of cases, all of which occurred from lateralized primary sites of the head and neck. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma arising from the auricle and neck sites adjacent to sublevel IIb may have increased risk of metastatic involvement of sublevel IIb nodes. Further studies with larger numbers are required to determine the risk of metastasis to sublevel IIb from midline sites of the face. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cervical carcinoma: prognosis in younger patients.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J M; Blair, V; Hunter, R D

    1987-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of 2870 patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix treated by radiotherapy from 1971 to 1978 showed that the prognosis for younger patients (defined as either under 35 or under 40) was better than that for older age groups, but young patients presented with earlier disease. When the effect of stage on prognosis was also considered the improved survival of patients under 35 was confirmed, although the result was of only borderline significance. The better survival of younger patients was particularly noticeable for stage IB disease, the corrected five year survival of those under 35 being 93% compared with 79% for those over 35. On the basis of this analysis and a review of previous reports it is concluded that age alone is a poor indicator of prognosis and should not be used as an indication for adjuvant treatment. There is no evidence in this series of an aggressive form of cervical carcinoma in younger patients during the 1970s. PMID:3115418

  12. Veliparib, Topotecan Hydrochloride, and Filgrastim or Pegfilgrastim in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-07

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  13. [Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Campos Arbulú, Ana L; Sadava, Emmanuel E; Sánchez Ruiz, Alejandro; Fernández Vila, Juan M; Dillon, Horacio S; Mezzadri, Norberto A

    2017-01-01

    Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis.

  14. Cervical Cord Compression as Initial Presentation of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Veda Padma Priya; Goel, Ashish; Kumar, Kapil

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cord compression secondary to extension of a long standing papillary thyroid carcinoma as well as multiple cases of distal cord compression from occult follicular thyroid carcinoma have been reported. But cervical cord compression from Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma has not been reported so far. Forty eight year old lady presented with progressive quadriparesis of 2 months duration. MRI of the cervical spine showed destructive lesion with soft tissue component in vertebral bodies and posterior elements of C4-C6 vertebrae with cord compression along with a large thyroid mass extending to retrosternal region likely malignant. USG guided FNAC & Biopsy of thyroid lesion was inconclusive. She underwent Preoperative Selective angioembolisation for vertebral metastasis followed by total thyroidectomy with cervical cord decompression, bone grafting and plating. HPE reported follicular variant of Papillary Thyroid carcinoma. Four weeks postoperatively she underwent radioiodine ablation by 263 mci of I 131. She then received palliative EBRT to cervical and dorsal spine 30 Gy/10 fractions. She is alive and neurologically stable at 6 months follow up. Papillary thyroid carcinoma has an excellent prognosis. Hence a prompt management of primary disease and aggressive approach to metastatic lesion may prolong survival and allow favorable prognosis.

  15. Metastatic lesion of the cervical spine secondary to an extraocular sebaceous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Antuña, S A; Méndez, J G; Cincunegui, J A; López-Fanjul, J C

    1996-12-01

    A case of cervical spine metastasis from an extraocular sebaceous carcinoma of the scalp is presented. Anterior decompression and fusion were performed and resulted in complete relief of symptoms. Postoperatively the primary tumor behaved in a very aggressive manner, with visceral metastases leading to the death of the patient in a few weeks.

  16. Cervical lymph node metastasis in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    2017-02-01

    To verify the prevalence of cervical lymph node metastasis in adenoid cystic carcinoma of major salivary glands, and to establish recommendations for elective neck treatment. A search was conducted of the US National Library of Medicine database. Appropriate articles were selected from the abstracts, and the original publications were obtained to extract data. Among 483 cases of major salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma, a total of 90 (18.6 per cent) had cervical metastasis. The prevalence of positive nodes from adenoid cystic carcinoma was 14.5 per cent for parotid gland, 22.5 per cent for submandibular gland and 24.7 per cent for sublingual gland. Cervical lymph node metastasis occurred more frequently in patients with primary tumour stage T3-4 adenoid cystic carcinoma, and was usually located in levels II and III in the neck. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the major salivary glands is associated with a significant prevalence of cervical node metastasis, and elective neck treatment is indicated for T3 and T4 primary tumours, as well as tumours with other histological risk factors.

  17. Modern management of locally advanced cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Cetina, Lucely; Mariscal, Ignacio; de la Garza, Jaime

    2003-10-01

    Radiation was until recently the key and only modality for the routine treatment of locally advanced cervical carcinoma. However after years of studying multi-modality treatments as an alternative to radiation alone in randomized phase III trials, the standard treatment has changed to chemo-radiation based on cisplatin. Three recent meta-analyses have confirmed that cisplatin-based chemo-radiation adds an absolute 12% benefit in five-year survival over radiation therapy alone. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiation has not been of proven benefit, but when neoadjuvant chemotherapy is followed by surgery, an absolute increase of 15% in five-year survival over radiation alone is seen. This benefit in survival is comparable to that obtained with the current chemo-radiation schedules based on cisplatin. Despite these encouraging results there remains room for improvement as the five-year survival of patients treated with chemo-radiation ranges from nearly 80% in bulky IB tumours to only 25% in stage IVA disease. Other therapeutic approaches need to be fully evaluated including the use of chemo-radiation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy; the use of new drug combinations and the multi-modality combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery plus adjuvant chemo-radiation. Likewise, the addition of radiosensitizers to cisplatin, preoperative chemo-radiation and/or adjuvant chemotherapy may eventually improve the currents results of cisplatin-based chemo-radiation. Nevertheless, it is hard to foresee a dramatic increase in cure rate, even with the most optimal combination of cytotoxic drugs, surgery and radiation, and thus the testing of molecular targeted therapies against cervical cancer is a logical step to follow.

  18. Persistence of endometrial activity after radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, D.; Heller, P.; Dames, J.; Hoskins, W.; Gallup, D.; Park, R.

    1985-12-01

    Radiation therapy is a proved treatment for cervical carcinoma; however, it destroys ovarian function and has been thought to ablate the endometrium. Estrogen replacement therapy is often prescribed for patients with cervical carcinoma after radiation therapy. A review of records of six teaching hospitals revealed 16 patients who had endometrial sampling for uterine bleeding after standard radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. Fifteen patients underwent dilatation and curettage, and one patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy when a dilatation and curettage was unsuccessful. Six patients had fibrosis and inflammation of the endometrial cavity, seven had proliferative endometrium, one had cystic hyperplasia, one had atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, and one had adenocarcinoma. Although the number of patients who have an active endometrium after radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma is not known, this report demonstrates that proliferative endometrium may persist, and these patients may develop endometrial hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma. Studies have indicated that patients with normal endometrial glands have an increased risk of developing endometrial adenocarcinoma if they are treated with unopposed estrogen. Patients who have had radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma should be treated with estrogen and a progestational agent to avoid endometrial stimulation from unopposed estrogen therapy.

  19. Epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nahmias, A J; Naib, Z M; Josey, W E

    1974-05-01

    Epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma are reviewed. The high frequency of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antibodies in young women (21 years or younger) with cervical carcinoma in situ and in women with dysplasia or carcinoma in situ, matched for various sexual attributes to control women, provide support for a causal relation. However, various laboratory, histopathological, and statistical problems associated with all epidemiological studies do not yet permit a firm conclusion as to the etiological role to the genital virus in cervical carcinogenesis. With the use of herpes-related cancer antigens or purified HSV-2 type-specific antigens, and with the possible development of protective HSV-2 vaccines, the application of epidemiological approaches may be necessary to provide the most finite evidence of causality.

  20. Individual karyotypes at the origins of cervical carcinomas.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Amanda; Fan, Jiang Lan; Duesberg, Max; Bloomfield, Mathew; Fiala, Christian; Duesberg, Peter

    2013-10-17

    In 1952 Papanicolaou et al. first diagnosed and graded cervical carcinomas based on individual "abnormal DNA contents" and cellular phenotypes. Surprisingly current papilloma virus and mutation theories of carcinomas do not mention these individualities. The viral theory holds that randomly integrated, defective genomes of papilloma viruses, which are often untranscribed, cause cervical carcinomas with unknown cofactors 20-50 years after infection. Virus-free carcinomas are attributed to mutations of a few tumor-suppressor genes, especially the p53 gene. But the paradox of how a few mutations or latent defective viral DNAs would generate carcinomas with endless individual DNA contents, degrees of malignancies and cellular phenotypes is unsolved. Since speciation predicts individuality, we test here the theory that cancers are autonomous species with individual clonal karyotypes and phenotypes. This theory postulates that carcinogens induce aneuploidy. By unbalancing mitosis genes aneuploidy catalyzes chain reactions of karyotypic evolutions. Most such evolutions end with non-viable karyotypes but a few become new cancer karyotypes. Despite congenitally unbalanced mitosis genes cancer karyotypes are stabilized by clonal selections for cancer-specific autonomy. To test the prediction of the speciation theory that individual carcinomas have individual clonal karyotypes and phenotypes, we have analyzed here the phenotypes and karyotypes of nine cervical carcinomas. Seven of these contained papilloma virus sequences and two did not. We determined phenotypic individuality and clonality based on the morphology and sociology of carcinoma cells in vitro. Karyotypic individuality and clonality were determined by comparing all chromosomes of 20 karyotypes of carcinomas in three-dimensional arrays. Such arrays list chromosome numbers on the x-axis, chromosome copy numbers on the y-axis and the number of karyotypes arrayed on the z-axis. We found (1) individual clonal

  1. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery. PMID:26283859

  2. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery.

  3. [Human papillomavirus: a vaccine against cervical carcinoma uterine].

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Silvia

    2002-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified in fewer than 20 years as the central cause of cervical carcinoma and one of the most powerful known human carcinogens. At least 20 different types of HPV have been associated with relative risks of approximately 100 for both squamous-cell carcinoma and the rarer adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri. Cytologic screening programs have contributed to the decline of cervical cancer mortality in Europe and the United States. Long-term screening programs remain, however, outside the reach of the poorest countries, where 80% of deaths for cervical carcinoma occurs. More than 20 different types of prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccines against HPV are being evaluated in clinical or preclinical studies. One such type, a prophylactic vaccine based on the marked immunogenicity and safety of the empty viral capsid, will start being evaluated in 2002 in 3 phase-III randomized studies, mostly in the United States and Latin America. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and World Health Organization are planning, in parallel with the studies above, a double blind randomized phase IV study of approximately 40,000 adolescent and young women in Asia. Such study, which should include a cluster randomization (by village of birth); a comparison with another vaccine (rather than with placebo); and, possibly, the inclusion of adolescents and young adults of male sex. Such trial may accelerate by many years the availability of an anti-HPV vaccine among populations at highest risk for cervical carcinoma.

  4. [Condylomas, cervical dysplasias and carcinoma of the cervix (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    de Brux, J; Ionesco, M; Cochard, B; Masson, M F; Kaeding, H

    1980-01-01

    Because the greater number of viral cervical lesions, the authors recall their cytological and pathological pictures. In 30% of the causes, they have observed relations between flat condylomas and cervical severe dysplasias and carcinoma in situ. But in these last lesions, the cytological characters of the viral infestations are not visuable. The relationship between condyloma and carcinoma in situ is explained by the virus modifications on the germinative cells genoma which enhance great multiplication of these cells and inhibit the epidermoid differentiation. When the virus are not very active, or the host responses sufficient, the cell differentiation and maturation permit the replication of the virus and its appearance in the cytoplasm of the superficial cells. The authors stress on the complete destruction of the viral cervical lesions and the later control of the cervix.

  5. [Anemia impact on treatments of cervical carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Marchal, C; Rangeard, L; Brunaud, C

    2005-03-01

    During the treatments of carcinomas of the cervix, anemia is relatively frequent and its origin is complex combining often hemorrhage, iron deprivation, inflammatory reactions and infection. The frequency of the primary anemia (hemoglobin level<12 g/dl) is correlated with clinical stage and varies from one publication to another, mainly from 25% for stage I, to 33% for stage II and can approach 40% for stage III. Anemia is correlated with patient survival and it appears to be one of the most powerful prognostic factor after clinical stage and tumor size. Anemia is a bad prognostic factor related to stage and tumor size but it has not been proven to be an independent factor. Anemia increases hypoxia of cervix carcinomas, which is an independent prognostic factor for patients N0. Moreover, we know that the oxygenation of these tumors is correlated with hemoglobin levels. The normalization of Hb levels by transfusion could certainly modify the prognosis of patients anemic before treatment, or of those becoming anemic during radiotherapy treatment. For smokers, anemia is certainly more important that we can appreciate from the Hb levels only, by the presence of carboxyhemoglobin. Concomitant chemotherapies with cisplatin compounds are actually standards and they can largely increase the risk of inducing anemia, therefore more than 50% of patients will experiment it during their different treatments. Transfusion is recommended by the SOR (Standards Options and Recommendations of the Fédération nationale des centres de lutte contre le cancer) under 10 g/dl. The use of erythropoietin is a therapeutic option for Hb levels between 10 and 12 g/dl and strongly recommended after a Hb normalization by blood transfusion. For 70% of patients who respond to erythropoietin, a better control of the Hb level is obtained. The impact of this anemia on quality of life and treatments compliance justifies the use of erythropoietin, especially in cancers for which treatments induce a

  6. Cervical amoebiasis mimicking cervical carcinoma: A rare presentation of a common infection.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Arvind; Bhardwaj, Minakshi

    2016-01-01

    Cervical amoebiasis is an extremely rare diagnosis with only a small number of published case reports. This disease may present as cervical growth mimicking cervical carcinoma. Owing to the similarity of the clinical presentation of bleeding per vagina and per speculum examination showing growth or ulcers, definitive diagnosis is made on microscopic examination only. We present a rare case of cervical amoebiasis in a 28-year-old, multiparous female who presented with a history of vaginal bleeding. The patient was treated with metronidazole and diloxanide furate, after which she recovered. Awareness of this rare entity is important for clinical suspicion and for the pathologist to identify trophozoites and make a diagnosis, preventing unwarranted investigations. Accurate diagnosis also facilitates quick management of a patient; as this disease is an infective pathology that can easily be treated by antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The learning curve of radical hysterectomy for early cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Oladokun, A; Morhason-Bello, I O; Bello, F A; Adewole, I F

    2010-12-01

    Cervical cancer remains a public health concern in developing countries that lack the wherewithal to cope with the associated challenges. Screening for premalignant cervical lesions and offering definitive care for early disease is the key to preventing the scourge. We conducted an audit of the radical hysterectomies performed on account of early cervical carcinoma at our centre between September 2006 and August 2008, following capacity-building by Operation Stop Cervical Cancer. Ten women aged 35 to 60 years were managed. All had type III radical hysterectomy. Three patients had adjuvant teletherapy (one was stage IIb, diagnosed intra-operatively). There was a linear reduction in the surgical blood loss and duration of surgery. Average blood loss was 1500 mls; four had blood transfusions. One case was complicated with rectovaginal fistula (the woman with stage IIb disease) and another had bilateral lymphoedema and left lower limb sensory neuropathy. There was no tumour recurrence on follow-up. Definitive surgery for early cervical cancer is feasible in developing countries despite limited resources. Audit of surgical care of cervical cancer will assist in strengthening the scarce skill. Determination of suitable cases during preoperative evaluation is crucial to the success of the surgery.

  8. Incidental cervical metastases from thyroid carcinoma during neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Périé, S; Torti, F; Lefevre, M; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Jafari, A; Lacau St Guily, J

    2016-12-01

    To quantify and discuss the prevalence of unsuspected thyroid lymph node metastases discovered in specimens from neck dissection for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and discuss the impact on patient management. Retrospective study between May 2004 and January 2007. University hospital. Pathological analysis of cervical lymph node dissection performed during surgery for HNSCC in a total of 349 neck dissections in 266 consecutive patients. Twenty-one patients showed metastatic lymph nodes from thyroid cancer (prevalence 7.9%): 13 cases were metastatic from a papillary thyroid carcinoma and 8 cases from a follicular carcinoma. In 5 of the 21 patients, classical dissection was associated to recurrent nerve dissection and unilateral lobectomy; no thyroid carcinoma was found. Thirteen patients received radiotherapy for HNSCC. Follow-up comprised annual ultrasonographic examination of the neck and thyroid in these 21 patients. Total thyroidectomy was decided on in 5, with discovery of 3 micro-papillary thyroid carcinomas, in a single patient (complementary (131)I treatment). No thyroid carcinomas were found for the other 4 patients. No patients died from thyroid carcinoma during follow-up (mean: 41 months). The prevalence of lymph node metastasis from thyroid carcinoma in cervical lymph node dissection during treatment of HNSCC seems higher (7.9%) than rates reported in the literature (0.3 to 1.6%). This may be due to the histopathological methods employed. Management of patients should be discussed in the light of thyroid ultrasonography and prognosis of HNSCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Atezolizumab and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent, Persistent, or Metastatic Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-28

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IV Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  10. Rapid induction of senescence in human cervical carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Edward C.; Yang, Eva; Lee, Chan-Jae; Lee, Han-Woong; Dimaio, Daniel; Hwang, Eun-Seong

    2000-09-01

    Expression of the bovine papillomavirus E2 regulatory protein in human cervical carcinoma cell lines repressed expression of the resident human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes and within a few days caused essentially all of the cells to synchronously display numerous phenotypic markers characteristic of cells undergoing replicative senescence. This process was accompanied by marked but in some cases transient alterations in the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and by decreased telomerase activity. We propose that the human papillomavirus E6 and E7 proteins actively prevent senescence from occurring in cervical carcinoma cells, and that once viral oncogene expression is extinguished, the senescence program is rapidly executed. Activation of endogenous senescence pathways in cancer cells may represent an alternative approach to treat human cancers.

  11. [Viruses and primary hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Jablonská, M

    1997-10-22

    The etiological association between primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHCC) and chronic viral hepatitis has been proved by now beyond doubt in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and C virus (HCV). PHCC develops most frequently in cirrhotic livers, sometimes also in the absence of cirrhosis. Extensive epidemiological studies provided convincing evidence of this etiological relationship which is also supported by observations and animal experiments. An important factor in hepatocarcinogenesis due to the influence of HBV is integration of the viral genoma into the liver cell genoma. In the tumourous part of the liver integrated HBV sequences are more frequent than in the non-tumourous part. The integration can produce changes in the genome of the liver cell which may sometimes lead to malignant transformation. The mechanisms of this process are not quite clear so far. Their outcome--the development of carcinoma--can be summarized as the peak effect of factors leading to the disorganization of DNA with participation of chromosomal changes, the action of transactivation of HBs protein, transformation growth factors and the important influence of mutations of the suppressor gene p 53 on the 17th chromosome which is probably the target of HBV. HCV produces chronic live: disease developing into cirrhosis and PHCC, even more frequent than HBV; however its integration into the liver cell does not take place. The genetic variability of this gene is great. Its transformating action is probably implemented rather as a co-carcinogen on the background of cirrhosis of the liver which alone regardless of its cause is an increased risk for the development of PHCC. In clinical practice these findings imply the necessity of optimal prevention of chronic viral hepatic infection (vaccination, so far available for HBV, transfusions) and the necessity to assess the virological status in patients with chronic liver disease and early detection of small tumourous liver lesions where nowadays due to

  12. Detection of Human Papillomavirus in Chronic Cervicitis, Cervical Adenocarcinoma, Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Squamus Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaie-Kashani, Elahe; Bouzari, Majid; Talebi, Ardeshir; Arbabzadeh-Zavareh, Farahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Recent studies show that human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is present in all cervical carcinomas and in some cervicitis cases, with some geographical variation in viral subtypes. Therefore determination of the presence of HPV in the general population of each region can help reveal the role of these viruses in tumors. Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the frequency of infection with HPV in cervicitis, cervical adenocarcinoma, intraepithelial neoplasia and squamus cell carcinoma samples from the Isfahan Province, Iran. Patients and Methods: One hundred and twenty two formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples of crevicitis cases and different cervix tumors including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (I, II, III), squamus cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma were collected from histopathological files of Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan. Data about histopathological changes were collected by reexamination of the hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. DNA was extracted and subjected to Nested PCR using consensus primers, MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+, designed for amplification of a conserved region of the genome coding for L1 protein. Results: In total 74.5% of the tested samples were positive for HPV. Amongst the tested tumors 8 out of 20 (40%) of CIN (I, II, III), 5 out of 21 (23.8%) of adenocarcinoma cases and 78 out of 79 chronic cervicitis cases were positive for HPV. Conclusions: The rate of different carcinomas and also the rate of HPV infection in each case were lower than other reports from different countries. This could be correlated with the social behavior of women in the area, where they mostly have only one partner throughout their life, and also the rate of smoking behavior of women in the studied population. On the other hand the rate of HPV infection in chronic cervicitis cases was much higher than cases reported by previous studies. This necessitates more

  13. The prognostic significance of beta human chorionic gonadotrophin and its metabolites in women with cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, R A; Iles, R K; Carter, P G; Caldwell, C J; Shepherd, J H; Chard, T

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To examine long term survival of women with primary and recurrent cervical carcinoma in relation to (1) excretion of beta-core (a urinary metabolite of beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta hCG)) and (2) beta hCG immunostaining of the tumours, to determine the suitability of these markers for assessing prognosis. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study undertaken in a gynaecological oncology centre: 57 women with primary cervical cancer and 42 with recurrent disease were recruited between January 1990 and September 1992. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with the log rank test was used to assess survival differences with survival rate given per year of follow up. RESULTS: In primary disease, the four year survival for the beta-core negative group was 79%, compared with 14% for the beta-core positive group (p = 0.001). This was still significant for early stage disease or squamous lesions alone. In recurrent disease, beta-core positivity was not prognostically significant. Immunohistochemistry was of no prognostic significance in either group. CONCLUSIONS: beta-core excretion appears to be useful in assessing prognosis of primary cervical cancer but not of recurrent disease. A large prospective study of urinary beta-core in early stage cervical cancer is needed to determine whether it can be used as an index for modifying treatment. PMID:9930074

  14. [Clinical analysis of cervical lymph node metastasis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinglong; Xu, Jian

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the pattern of cervical lymph node metastasis in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Forty-five cases of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively. (1) The total rate of lymph node metastasis was 75.56%. 11.11% metastases for bilateral neck and 4.44% did unilateral neck in 10 bilateral neck dissection. The total distance metastasis rate out of lymph node were 79.41%. The rate of bilateral distance metastasis and unilateral distance metastasis were both 5.88% in 10 bilateral neck dissection. (2) 163 of 411 lymph nodes (39.66%) were positive. The percentage of positive lymph node were 0.61%, 49.08%, 25.77%, 21.47% and 3.07% in region I, II, III, IV and V respectively. The rates of lymph node metastasis were 3.57%, 62.02%, 37.17%, 42.17% and 8.62% in region I, II, III, NV and V respectively. (3) The statistical significant differences were found between region I + V and II + III and IV (P < 0.05), among II, III and IV (P < 0.05), between II and III + IV (P < 0.05), between II and III (P < 0.05), between II and IV (P < 0.05), among I, II, III, IV and II + III + IV (P < 0.05), among V, II, III, IV and II + III + IV (P < 0.05). There were not statistical significant differences in region between III and IV (P > 0.05), between I and V (P > 0.05). (4) There were not statistical significant differences in the rates of lymph node metastasis and capsule invasion between T1 + T2 and T3 + T4 (P > 0.05), among T1, T2, T3 and T4 (P > 0.05). (5) There were not statistical significant differences in the rates of lymph node metastasis and distance metastasis between pyriform sinus and out of it (P > 0.05). (6) There were not statistical significant differences in the rates of lymph node metastasis and distance metastasis between cervical esophagus invasion and not (P > 0.05). (7) There were not statistical significant differences in the rates of lymph node metastasis and distance metastasis among N1, N2, N3 (P > 0.05). (8) There were statistical

  15. Expression of CDC42 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and its correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ding; Cheng, Yuan; Zhang, Youyi; Guo, Yanli

    2013-01-01

    Objective The high expression of cell division cycle 42 protein (CDC42) may be involved in the occurrence and progression of several tumors. However, the expression and function of CDC42 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the expression of CDC42 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and its correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics. Methods The expression of CDC42 in 162 cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples and 33 normal cervical tissue samples was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The CDC42 mRNA expression was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results The cervical squamous cell carcinoma group showed a significantly higher CDC42 positive rate, compared to the normal cervical tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, the tissues of stage II-IV carcinoma patients showed higher CDC42 expression levels compared to stage I patients (P=0.05). In addition, the expression of CDC42 was not correlated to age of patients, differentiation degree of cancer cells, or lymph node metastasis (P>0.05). Furthermore, compare with normal cervical tissues, the CDC42 mRNA expression in cervical cancer had no significant difference. Conclusions CDC42 was up-regulated at protein level, but not mRNA level, in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The high expression of CDC42 was correlated to the clinical stage of the patients, indicating that CDC42 might contribute to the progression of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24385692

  16. Primary Health Care and Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Thumé, Elaine; Staton, Catherine; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common neoplasm that is responsible for nearly 230 000 deaths annually in Brazil. Despite this burden, cervical cancer is considered preventable with appropriate care. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study from 2002 to 2012 to examine the relationship between the delivery of preventive primary care and cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil. Brazilian states and the federal district were the unit of analysis (N = 27). Results suggest that primary health care has contributed to reducing cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil; however, the full potential of preventive care has yet to be realized. PMID:28252500

  17. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma as a cause of cervical spinal injury.

    PubMed

    Masmiquel, L; Simó, R; Galofré, P; Mesa, J

    1995-01-01

    Cervical cord compression due to local extension of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is an extremely rare condition and, to our knowledge, only one case has been reported in the literature. Among 256 patients with DTC treated at our hospital, we have observed 3 cases of spinal injury due to local extension of DTC. A Brown-Séquard syndrome was detected at physical examination in 2 cases. In both patients, cervical cord compression precipitated a fatal event. In the remaining patient, a radiculopathy C5-C7 was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging was very successful in outlining the mass, clearly differentiating the extrinsic invasion from a metastasis, and allowing the surgical possibilities to be evaluated. Poor cervical uptake of 131I was observed on scans performed in two cases, suggesting a certain degree of cell dedifferentiation. We suggest that cervical spinal injury due to local extension of DTC may be an underreported complication of DTC that seems to condition the patient's outcome. Careful neurological examination is warranted in patients with DTC at stages III-IV and magnetic resonance imaging must be performed when spinal injury is suspected.

  18. Cervical carcinoma and sexual behavior: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 15,461 women with cervical carcinoma and 29,164 women without cervical carcinoma from 21 epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    2009-04-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types cause most cervical carcinomas and are sexually transmitted. Sexual behavior therefore affects HPV exposure and its cancer sequelae. The International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer has combined data on lifetime number of sexual partners and age at first sexual intercourse from 21 studies, or groups of studies, including 10,773 women with invasive cervical carcinoma, 4,688 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ, and 29,164 women without cervical carcinoma. Relative risks for invasive cancer and CIN3 were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Risk of invasive cervical carcinoma increased with lifetime number of sexual partners (P for linear trend <0.001). The relative risk for > or =6 versus 1 partner, conditioned on age, study, and age at first intercourse, was 2.27 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.98-2.61] and increased to 2.78 (95% CI, 2.22-3.47) after additional conditioning on reproductive factors. The risk of invasive cervical carcinoma increased with earlier age at first intercourse (P for linear trend <0.001). The relative risk for age at first intercourse < or =14 versus > or =25 years, conditioned on age, study, and lifetime number of sexual partners was 3.52 (95% CI, 3.04-4.08), which decreased to 2.05 (95% CI, 1.54-2.73) after additional conditioning on reproductive factors. CIN3/carcinoma in situ showed a similar association with lifetime number of sexual partners; however, the association with age at first intercourse was weaker than for invasive carcinoma. Results should be interpreted with caution given the strong correlation between sexual and reproductive factors and the limited information on HPV status.

  19. Salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma with cervical lymph node metastasis: a preliminary study of 62 cases.

    PubMed

    Min, R; Siyi, L; Wenjun, Y; Ow, A; Lizheng, W; Minjun, D; Chenping, Z

    2012-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an infrequent malignant neoplasm that originates most commonly in the major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck region. This study provides new information on head and neck ACC with cervical lymph node metastasis. Of 616 patients who underwent primary tumour resection from 1995 to 2008 in the authors' hospital, 62 cases with cervical lymph node metastasis were analyzed. The general incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis in ACC was approximately 10%. The base of tongue, mobile tongue and mouth floor were the most frequent sites of lymph nodes metastasis, with incidences of 19.2%, 17.6% and 15.3%, respectively. Most cases occurred via a classic 'tunnel-style' metastasis and the level Ib and II regions were the most frequently involved. Primary site and lymphovascular invasion were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. High patient mortality was significantly correlated with lymph node positive cases. The tongue-mouth floor complex has a high propensity for cervical lymph node metastasis, which occurs through a classic 'tunnel-style' metastasis. Peritumoral lymphovascular invasion could be taken as strong predictor for lymph node metastasis, which ultimately leads to poor prognosis of ACC patient. Selective neck dissection should be considered in such cases. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibitory effects of Arhgap6 on cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Junping; Liu, Yang; Yin, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    Ras homology GTPase activation protein 6 (Arhgap6), as a member of the rhoGAP family of proteins, performs vital functions on the regulation of actin polymerization at the plasma membrane during several cellular processes. The role of Arhgap6 in the progression and development of cancer remains nearly unknown. This study aimed at exploring the effects of Arhgap6 on cervical carcinoma. Human cervical cancer cells HeLa and SiHa were transduced with a lentivirus targeting Arhgap6 (Arhgap6+), while CaSki and C4-1 cells were transfected with miRNA. Cell proliferation was identified by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis were identified by flow cytometry. The capacity of cell migration, invasion, and adhesion were detected by Transwell assay. Further, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to analyze the expression levels of Arhgap6 and several tumor-related genes. Co-immunoprecipitation assay was performed to validate the interaction between Arhgap6 and Rac3 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3). Results showed that Arhgap6 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and adhesion of cervical carcinoma, induced cell apoptosis, and caused cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase (n = 3, p < 0.05). Expression of the tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes were up- and down-regulated respectively by Arhgap6, and Rac3 was proved to be the target of Arhgap6. Besides, in in vivo assays, tumor size and weight were destructed in Arhgap6+ athymic nude mouse. This study indicated that Arhgap6 may play a role in the treatment of cervical cancer as a tumor supressor.

  1. EF5 in Finding Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Who Are Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Cervical, Endometrial, or Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  2. Primary cutaneous adenoid carcinoma of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Keck, Meike; Ueberreiter, Klaus; Tanzella, Ursula; Doll, Dietrich; Krapohl, Björn Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Primary adenoid carcinoma are rare skin tumors. We present a 75-year-old female with this primary cutaneous tumor of the scalp with additional bone involvement. Wide scalp excision with bone enclosure, latissimus-dorsi-free-flap defect overage, and subsequent radiation slowed down the disease but could not prevent further skull infiltration.

  3. [Primary radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Rübe, C; Grevers, G; Grimminger, H; Wendt, T; Rohloff, R

    1995-02-01

    One hundred twenty-one patients treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiation therapy were analyzed; 85 were male, 36 were female. Twenty-one percent had tumour stage T0/T1; 32.5%, T2; 27.5%, T3; and 19%, T4. In 75% of the cases, the lymph nodes were involved. Twelve patients underwent a neck dissection. Histology showed squamous cell carcinoma in 38%, lymphoepitheloid carcinoma in 41.4%, undifferentiated carcinoma in 19%, and adenocarcinoma in 2%. Beginning in 1980, a modified radiation technique with large portals and an increase of the dose from 57.1 Gy to 61.5 Gy targe volume dose was used. Five year overall survival was 32.1%, recurrence-free survival, 30.7%; and local recurrence free survival, 45.8%. Age, sex, and T stage had no significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis (Cox model) showed that involvement of the lymph nodes, histology, and the new irradiation technique with the higher total dose significantly influenced survival.

  4. TERT promoter hot spot mutations are frequent in Indian cervical and oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Vinothkumar, Vilvanathan; Arunkumar, Ganesan; Revathidevi, Sundaramoorthy; Arun, Kanagaraj; Manikandan, Mayakannan; Rao, Arunagiri Kuha Deva Magendhra; Rajkumar, Kottayasamy Seenivasagam; Ajay, Chandrasekar; Rajaraman, Ramamurthy; Ramani, Rajendren; Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix and oral cavity are most common cancers in India. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) overexpression is one of the hallmarks for cancer, and activation through promoter mutation C228T and C250T has been reported in variety of tumors and often shown to be associated with aggressive tumors. In the present study, we analyzed these two hot spot mutations in 181 primary tumors of the uterine cervix and oral cavity by direct DNA sequencing and correlated with patient's clinicopathological characteristics. We found relatively high frequency of TERT hot spot mutations in both cervical [21.4 % (30/140)] and oral [31.7 % (13/41)] squamous cell carcinomas. In cervical cancer, TERT promoter mutations were more prevalent (25 %) in human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative cases compared to HPV-positive cases (20.6 %), and both TERT promoter mutation and HPV infection were more commonly observed in advanced stage tumors (77 %). Similarly, the poor and moderately differentiated tumors of the uterine cervix had both the TERT hot spot mutations and HPV (16 and 18) at higher frequency (95.7 %). Interestingly, we observed eight homozygous mutations (six 228TT and two 250TT) only in cervical tumors, and all of them were found to be positive for high-risk HPV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study from India reporting high prevalence of TERT promoter mutations in primary tumors of the uterine cervix and oral cavity. Our results suggest that TERT reactivation through promoter mutation either alone or in association with the HPV oncogenes (E6 and E7) could play an important role in the carcinogenesis of cervical and oral cancers.

  5. Acrokeratosis Paraneoplastica Associated with Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Daveluy, Steven D.; Joiner, Michael C.; Hurst, Newton; Bishop, Michael; Miller, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica, or Bazex syndrome, is a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by cutaneous psoriasiform lesions with associated acral erythema and scale, as well as nail changes, including onycholysis and ungual dystrophy. Its most advanced, severe form involves the trunk, elbows, and knees. It is typically associated with upper aerodigestive tract malignancies in males. Rare cases associated with gynecological cancers have been reported, including uterine adenocarcinoma, as well as ovarian and vulvar squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous manifestations often precede cancer diagnosis. In most reported cases, skin changes resolve when the underlying malignancy is adequately treated. Main Observations. We present the case of a 56-year-old female diagnosed with acrokeratosis paraneoplastica following the discovery of FIGO stage IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Scaling, hyperpigmentation, xerosis, and fissuring were noted on the patient's hands, feet, legs, arms, and lower back. Pitting was noted on her fingernails. Her cervical cancer was successfully treated with chemoradiotherapy, after which her cutaneous lesions persisted for two months before resolving. Conclusions. The presentation of acrokeratosis paraneoplastica in this context is atypical. Reports of associations with gynecological cancers, as in our patient's case, are exceedingly rare. PMID:28101384

  6. [A Case of Cystic Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of HPV-positive Tonsil Cancer, Being Discriminated as the Branchiogenic Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kambara, Rumi; Tamai, Masamitsu; Horii, Arata

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas have been increasing. The first manifestation of these tumors is frequently as cystic metastasis to cervical lymph nodes that may precede recognition of the primary tumor, so, they often result in misdiagnosis as branchial cleft cysts. We report a case of cystic cervical lymph node metastasis of HPV-positive tonsil cancer. The patient was a 70-years-old man who noticed a mass on his left neck. The tumor was large and soft, and it was diagnosed as benign in fine-needle aspiration cytology. We diagnosed the tumor as a branchial cleft cyst and undertook surgery. The histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma arising from a branchiogenic cyst. However, because it did not satisfy the diagnostic criteria, we diagnosed the tumor as an unknown primary tumor. One year later, left tonsil cancer was suspected based on PET-CT imaging and a left tonsillectomy was undertaken, whereafter tonsil cancer was found. In p16 immunostaining, it was positive in both cystic mass and tonsil. The cervical mass was cystic lymph node metastasis of HPV-positive tonsil cancer. It is important to investigate the oropharynx, when we found cystic cervical mass, because HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma frequently results in cystic neck metastasis.

  7. Bevacizumab, Radiation Therapy, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-22

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer

  8. [Analysis of correlated factors of cervical lymphatic metastasis of T3 and T4 glottic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyu; Wang, Jixuan; Sun, Haiyan; Hu, Yanhong; Wang, Donghai; Zhao, Guofeng

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the correlated factors of cervical lymphatic metastasis of T3 and T4 glottic carcinoma. We did a retrospective analysis of 91 glottic carcinoma patients' clinical data to analyze cervical lymph node metastasis on different T stage, pathologic degree and the tumor sites. The cervical lymph node metastasis rate of 91 cases of T3 and T4 glottic carcinoma was 21.98%. T3 group's metastasis rate was 18.06% (13/72), T4 group's metastasis rate was 36.84% (7/19), P > 0.05. Grouped according to the degree of pathological differentiation, well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma metastasis rate is 13.89% (5/36), middle-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma metastasis rate is 26.00% (13/50), and poorly-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma metastasis rate is 40.00% (2/5), P > 0.05. Cervical lymph node metastasis rate was 16.22%, when the tumor invading supraglottic region. Cervical lymph node metastasis rate was 15.38%, when the tumor invading subraglottic region. Cervical lymph node metastasis rate was 46.15%, when the tumor invading supraglottic and subraglottic region (P < 0.01). Cervical lymph node metastasis in cN0 patient with supraglottic carcinoma is effected by T classification, cervical lymphatic metastasis of T3 and T4 glottic carcinoma is not entirely effected by T stage and pathologic degree. When the tumor invades supraglottic and subraglottic region, cervical lymph node metastasis is significantly higher. Therefore, the area of tumor invasion is an important factor for lymph node metastasis.

  9. ADXS11-001 High Dose HPV+ Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Effects of Immunotherapy; Metastatic/Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  10. Comprehensive mapping of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA integration sites in cervical carcinomas by HPV capture technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Lu, Zheming; Xu, Ruiping; Ke, Yang

    2016-02-02

    Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into the host genome can be a driver mutation in cervical carcinoma. Identification of HPV integration at base resolution has been a longstanding technical challenge, largely due to sensitivity masking by HPV in episomes or concatenated forms. The aim was to enhance the understanding of the precise localization of HPV integration sites using an innovative strategy. Using HPV capture technology combined with next generation sequencing, HPV prevalence and the exact integration sites of the HPV DNA in 47 primary cervical cancer samples and 2 cell lines were investigated. A total of 117 unique HPV integration sites were identified, including HPV16 (n = 101), HPV18 (n = 7), and HPV58 (n = 9). We observed that the HPV16 integration sites were broadly located across the whole viral genome. In addition, either single or multiple integration events could occur frequently for HPV16, ranging from 1 to 19 per sample. The viral integration sites were distributed across almost all the chromosomes, except chromosome 22. All the cervical cancer cases harboring more than four HPV16 integration sites showed clinical diagnosis of stage III carcinoma. A significant enrichment of overlapping nucleotides shared between the human genome and HPV genome at integration breakpoints was observed, indicating that it may play an important role in the HPV integration process. The results expand on knowledge from previous findings on HPV16 and HPV18 integration sites and allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.

  11. Comprehensive mapping of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA integration sites in cervical carcinomas by HPV capture technology

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ruiping; Ke, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into the host genome can be a driver mutation in cervical carcinoma. Identification of HPV integration at base resolution has been a longstanding technical challenge, largely due to sensitivity masking by HPV in episomes or concatenated forms. The aim was to enhance the understanding of the precise localization of HPV integration sites using an innovative strategy. Using HPV capture technology combined with next generation sequencing, HPV prevalence and the exact integration sites of the HPV DNA in 47 primary cervical cancer samples and 2 cell lines were investigated. A total of 117 unique HPV integration sites were identified, including HPV16 (n = 101), HPV18 (n = 7), and HPV58 (n = 9). We observed that the HPV16 integration sites were broadly located across the whole viral genome. In addition, either single or multiple integration events could occur frequently for HPV16, ranging from 1 to 19 per sample. The viral integration sites were distributed across almost all the chromosomes, except chromosome 22. All the cervical cancer cases harboring more than four HPV16 integration sites showed clinical diagnosis of stage III carcinoma. A significant enrichment of overlapping nucleotides shared between the human genome and HPV genome at integration breakpoints was observed, indicating that it may play an important role in the HPV integration process. The results expand on knowledge from previous findings on HPV16 and HPV18 integration sites and allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma. PMID:26735580

  12. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma with Cystic Cervical Metastasis Masquerading as Branchial Cleft Cyst: A Potential Pitfall in Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Sai-Guan, Lum; Min-Han, Kong; Kah-Wai, Ngan; Mohamad-Yunus, Mohd-Razif

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Most metastatic lymph nodes from head and neck malignancy are solid. Cystic nodes are found in 33% - 61% of carcinomas arise from Waldeyer’s ring, of which only 1.8% - 8% originate are from the nasopharynx. Some cystic cervical metastases were initially presumed to be branchial cleft cyst. This case report aims to highlight the unusual presentation of cystic cervical metastasis secondary to nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a young adult. The histopathology, radiological features and management strategy were discussed. Case Report: A 36-year-old man presented with a solitary cystic cervical swelling, initially diagnosed as branchial cleft cyst. Fine needle aspiration yielded 18 ml of straw-coloured fluid. During cytological examination no atypical cells were observed. Computed tomography of the neck showed a heterogeneous mass with multiseptation medial to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Histopathological examination of the mass, post excision, revealed a metastatic lymph node. A suspicious mucosal lesion at the nasopharynx was detected after repeated thorough head and neck examinations and the biopsy result confirmed undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Conclusion: Cystic cervical metastasis may occur in young patients under 40 years. The primary tumour may not be obvious during initial presentation because it mimicks benign branchial cleft cyst clinically. Retrospective review of the computed tomography images revealed features that were not characteristic of simple branchial cleft cyst. The inadequacy of assessment and interpretation had lead to the error in diagnosis and subsequent management. Metastatic head and neck lesion must be considered in a young adult with a cystic neck mass. PMID:28393061

  13. Rare Intradural Cervical Nerve Root Metastasis of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Milosavljevic, Elena; Hanna, George; Gospodarev, Vadim; Raghavan, Ravi; Ghostine, Samer

    2016-01-01

    Intradural extramedullary nerve root metastasis is extremely unusual with only a handful of cases reported, and it presents most commonly in the thoracic and lumbosacral regions. We report the first case of metastasis to a ventral cervical nerve root in a patient with low-grade follicular thyroid carcinoma thought to be in remission for several years. Histopathology demonstrated malignant transformation and invasion of the nerve root. This case underscores that any history of malignancy regardless of staging, grading, or remission status should raise the suspicion of metastasis as it can mimic other spine and nerve sheath tumors and represent malignant transformation. Gross total resection can be safely achieved with intraoperative neuromonitoring and result in improved function; however, treatment is likely palliative. PMID:28018768

  14. Hypoxia downregulates Ku70/80 expression in cervical carcinoma tumors.

    PubMed

    Lara, Pedro Carlos; Lloret, Marta; Clavo, Bernardino; Apolinario, Rosa Maria; Bordón, Elisa; Rey, Agustin; Falcón, Orlando; Alonso, Ana Ruiz; Belka, Claus

    2008-11-01

    Hypoxia may inhibits the NHEJ DNA repair through downregulating Ku70/80 expression and combined with an increased angiogenesis and altered p53 expression would be responsible for tumor progression in cervical carcinoma.

  15. Clinical features of multiple primary carcinomas of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya-Dong; Ma, Xin; Han, Yao-Lun; Peng, Li-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the clinical characteristics of multiple primary carcinomas of the oral cavity. The clinical records of 1,024 patients who were treated during follow-up for oral cancer at the Department of Stomatology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, between March 2013 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical characteristics of 961 patients who developed single primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) during follow-up and 54 patients who subsequently developed multiple primary carcinomas in the oral cavity were compared. Multiple primary carcinomas exhibited a female predilection, were most prevalent in the gingiva, and tended to show earlier tumor and nodal stages, as compared with single primary carcinomas. The local recurrence rate was higher for multiple primary carcinomas, as compared with single primary carcinomas, and was demonstrated to increase with the number of multiple primary occurrences. The cumulative incidence rates for metachronous second primary carcinomas following the onset of the first carcinoma at 10 years was 8.0%. Recurrence of multiple primary carcinomas did not decrease the survival rates of the patients assessed in the present study. Furthermore, differences were detected in the clinical characteristics between patients with single oral SCC and those with multiple primary oral carcinomas. The results of the present study indicated that early diagnosis and treatment and close long-term follow-up are required for patients with multiple primary oral carcinomas. PMID:28352343

  16. Therapy for Primary Vulvar Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Herr, D; Juhasz-Boess, I; Solomayer, E F

    2014-03-01

    The rather rare vulvar cancer is almost always a squamous cell carcinoma that mostly develops from an underlying VIN or HPV infection. In addition, lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, immune deficiency, nicotine abuse or anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias may play a role in the pathogenesis. Surgical therapy aims at an R0 resection in the sense of a complete vulvectomy or a radical local excision with, if necessary, plastic reconstruction. Also, the vulvar field resection with consideration of the compartment model has been discussed. Besides the classic inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, in selected cases of vulvar cancer sentinel biopsies are performed by experienced surgeons in the larger centres. In contrast, systemic therapy plays only a subordinate role; in isolated cases down-staging by means of neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be useful. However, there is at present no indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy is also not to be recommended on account of its unfavourable ratio of efficacy to side effects. On the other hand adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated in cases of positive inguinal lymph nodes. According to the current data the indication should be made generously in such cases.

  17. Therapy for Primary Vulvar Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Herr, D.; Juhasz-Boess, I.; Solomayer, E. F.

    2014-01-01

    The rather rare vulvar cancer is almost always a squamous cell carcinoma that mostly develops from an underlying VIN or HPV infection. In addition, lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, immune deficiency, nicotine abuse or anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias may play a role in the pathogenesis. Surgical therapy aims at an R0 resection in the sense of a complete vulvectomy or a radical local excision with, if necessary, plastic reconstruction. Also, the vulvar field resection with consideration of the compartment model has been discussed. Besides the classic inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, in selected cases of vulvar cancer sentinel biopsies are performed by experienced surgeons in the larger centres. In contrast, systemic therapy plays only a subordinate role; in isolated cases down-staging by means of neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be useful. However, there is at present no indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy is also not to be recommended on account of its unfavourable ratio of efficacy to side effects. On the other hand adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated in cases of positive inguinal lymph nodes. According to the current data the indication should be made generously in such cases. PMID:24882877

  18. Cervical dystonia mimicking dropped-head syndrome after radiotherapy for laryngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Astudillo, Leonardo; Hollington, L; Game, X; Benyoucef, A; Boladeras, A M; Delisle, M B; Simonetta-Moreau, M

    2003-12-01

    We report a case of cervical dystonia mimicking dropped-head syndrome (DHS) in a 57-year-old man treated for laryngeal carcinoma by radiotherapy (74.4 Gy) 3 months before. Cervical computerized tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not find any muscle fat changes but found a high-intensity signal on T2 weighted images in the cervical spinal cord. Clinical and electromyographic findings were consistent with cervical dystonia. A trapezius biopsy was normal. Spontaneous remission of the dystonia was observed for 1 month whereas the laryngeal carcinoma progressed. The link between cervical dystonia and radiotherapy might be acute radiation-induced damage to the cervical spinal cord.

  19. Previous cervical cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus testing in a cohort of patients with invasive cervical carcinoma in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinguo; Peng, Dezhi; Bi, Chunrui; Jiang, Lingbo; Zhao, Dongman; Tian, Xinxin

    2017-01-01

    Background Currently, available data regarding previous cervical cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) test results to detect invasive cervical cancer are limited and controversial in China. Therefore, this retrospective study in a population of Chinese women with invasive cervical carcinoma aimed to gain further insight into the roles of cytology and hrHPV testing in cervical cancer screening. Methods A total of 1214 cases with a histological diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer were retrieved from the Pathology Database of Jinan KingMed Diagnostics (JKD) over a 5-year period. Previous cytology and hrHPV test results of 469 patients carried out within the year before cancer diagnosis were documented. Results A higher percentage of patients who had undergone prior screening had micro-invasive cervical carcinoma than patients who had no prior screening (25.4% vs. 12.1%, P < 0.001). Of the 469 patients with available prior screening results, 170 had cytology alone, 161 had hrHPV testing alone, and 138 had both cytology and hrHPV testing. There was a significantly lower percentage of hrHPV-positive cases with adenocarcinoma than with squamous cell carcinoma (77.8% vs. 96.4%, P = 0.001). The hrHPV test showed a significantly higher sensitivity than cytology alone (94.4% vs. 85.3%, P = 0.006). The overall sensitivity of the combination of cytology and hrHPV testing (98.6%) was much higher than that of cytology alone (P < 0.001) but only marginally higher than that of hrHPV testing alone (P = 0.058). Conclusions The results revealed that prior cervical screening can detect a significantly larger number of micro-invasive cervical cancers. The hrHPV test can provide a more sensitive and efficient strategy than cytology alone. As the addition of cytology to hrHPV testing can only marginally increase the efficiency of the hrHPV test, hrHPV testing should be used as the primary screening approach, especially in the low-resource settings of China. PMID:28662160

  20. Primary cutaneous histiocytoid carcinoma with distant metastasis.

    PubMed

    Philips, Rebecca; Langston, Leila; Hwang, Helena; Vandergriff, Travis; Trynosky, Tanya; Berlingeri-Ramos, Alma C

    2017-04-01

    Distinguishing primary cutaneous adnexal carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary can be a diagnostic challenge due to the frequent overlap of histologic and immunohistochemical features. A 58-year-old man presented with a tender, indurated plaque on axillary skin. Biopsy revealed infiltrating atypical cells throughout the dermis, without connection to the epidermis. Tumor cells had a histiocytoid appearance and displayed mild pleomorphism. The tumor was discohesive and had areas with a single file pattern. Signet ring cells were also present. Cells were reactive with CK7, CK5/6, p63, GATA3, GCDFP-15 and Her 2-neu. Additional studies were negative, including TTF-1, CDX2, E-cadherin, mammaglobin, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor. Thorough clinical and radiologic evaluation failed to identify an occult primary extracutaneous malignancy; however, regional lymphadenopathy, widespread osteoblastic lesions and multiple subcentimeter liver hypodensities were noted. Considering the clinical and histopathologic features, the diagnosis of primary cutaneous histiocytoid carcinoma with distant metastasis was favored.

  1. Cervical lymph node metastases from remote primary tumor sites

    PubMed Central

    López, Fernando; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Silver, Carl E.; Haigentz, Missak; Bishop, Justin A.; Strojan, Primož; Hartl, Dana M.; Bradley, Patrick J.; Mendenhall, William M.; Suárez, Carlos; Takes, Robert P.; Hamoir, Marc; Robbins, K. Thomas; Shaha, Ashok R.; Werner, Jochen A.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    Although most malignant lymphadenopathy in the neck represent lymphomas or metastases from head and neck primary tumors, occasionally, metastatic disease from remote, usually infraclavicular, sites presents as cervical lymphadenopathy with or without an obvious primary tumor. In general, these tumors metastasize to supraclavicular lymph nodes, but occasionally may present at an isolated higher neck level. A search for the primary tumor includes information gained by histology, immunohistochemistry, and evaluation of molecular markers that may be unique to the primary tumor site. In addition, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglocose positron emission tomography combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) has greatly improved the ability to detect the location of an unknown primary tumor, particularly when in a remote location. Although cervical metastatic disease from a remote primary site is often incurable, there are situations in which meaningful survival can be achieved with appropriate local treatment. Management is quite complex and requires a truly multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26713674

  2. [Cervical lymph node metastasis in medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dangui; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zhengjiang; Wu, Yuehuang; Liu, Shaoyan; Liu, Wensheng; Xu, Zhengang; Tang, Pingzhang

    2015-04-01

    To study the patterns of cervical lymph node metastasis of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Ninety-one patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma first treated between January 1999 and October 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Of 91 patients, 39 cases presented with clinical negative node (cN0) and 52 cases with clinical positive node (cN+). Central compartment dissection was performed in all cases. Lateral neck dissection was performed in 52 cN+ cases (71 sides). All neck dissection specimens were obtained and analyzed for lymph node (LN) involvement with respect to neck levels. The distribution of LN with metastasis was studied in cN+ patients and the following factors were used to study the predictive value of central compartment LN metastasis: sex, age, family history, tumor size, bilateral tumor, multifocality of the tumor, extracapsular spread, and remote metastasis. Univariate analysis with the χ(2) test was used to analyze the statistical correlation between central compartment LN metastasis and other clinical factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors related to central compartment metastasis. Neck and bilateral neck metastasis rates were 73.6%, 19.8% respectively. Metastasis rates in central compartment and superior mediastinal region were 68.1% and 27.5% respectively. The central compartment metastasis rate was 33.3% in cN0 patients and 94.2% in cN+ patients. The superior mediastinal metastasis rate was 2.6% in cN0 patients and 46.2% in cN+ patients. Extracapsular spread was an independent predictive factor for central compartment metastasis (χ(2)=15.592, P=0.000, OR=12.876). The incidences of LN metastases at level II, III, IV, V were 62.9%,84.5%,83.1%,50.0% in cN+ patient, respectively. Multi-sites were involved. The possibility of lateral neck metastasis was higher when preoperative value of calcitonin was higher than 300 ng/L (66.7% vs 28.6%, χ(2)=5.771, P=0.016). Cervical lymph node metastasis of medullary

  3. Nucleotide sequences and further characterization of human papillomavirus DNA present in the CaSki, SiHa and HeLa cervical carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Meissner, J D

    1999-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) variants present in the CaSki and SiHa cervical carcinoma cell lines and the primary subgenomic HPV-18 variant present in the HeLa cervical carcinoma cell line were determined using overlapping bulk PCR products as templates. PCR-based methods were also used to characterize five previously unreported CaSki HPV-16 genomic disruptions and the 5' cellular-viral junction common to all HeLa HPV-18 subgenomic structures.

  4. Radiation Therapy Plus Cisplatin and Gemcitabine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  5. EGFR Promoter Methylation, EGFR Mutation, and HPV Infection in Chinese Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yinghao; Yu, Qingmiao; Qiang, Shaoying; Liang, Ping; Gao, Yane; Zhao, Xingye; Liu, Wenchao; Zhang, Ju

    2015-10-01

    Therapy strategy toward epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition in cervical cancer has been ongoing. EGFR promoter methylation status and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-sensitive mutations in cervical cancer may be significant for clinical outcome prediction using anti-EGFR treatment. In this study, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-sensitive mutations, EGFR exons 18, 19, and 21 mutations, were detected by sequencing in a total of 293 Chinese cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples. EGFR promoter methylation status was detected by an EGFR asymmetric PCR and hybridization-fluorescence polarization assay and sequencing in 293 Chinese cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in 293 Chinese cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples were detected by an asymmetric GP5+/6+ PCR and hybridization-fluorescence polarization assay. No EGFR exons 18, 19, and 21 mutations were detected, EGFR promoter methylation status was identified in 98 samples, and HPV 16 infection was the first frequent HPV genotype. The methylated EGFR promoter was identified most frequently in cervical squamous cell carcinoma samples with HPV 16 infection (53.4%). Statistical significant difference of EGFR promoter methylation prevalence was found between HPV 16 and other HPV genotypes (P<0.01). This study suggested that there was no EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-sensitive mutation in EGFR exons 18, 19, and 21 in Chinese cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples. EGFR promoter methylation was common and it might be associated with HPV 16 infection in Chinese cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The results provided a novel understanding and an applicable pharmacogenomic tool for individualized management of cervical cancer patients.

  6. Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in primary cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Davare, Marco; Sadnicka, Anna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Edwards, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation rely on overlapping circuits predominantly involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Given the importance of these brain regions to the pathophysiology of primary dystonia, and the previous finding of abnormal motor sequence learning in DYT1 gene carriers, we explored motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in patients with primary cervical dystonia. We recruited 12 patients with cervical dystonia and 11 healthy controls matched for age. Subjects used a joystick to move a cursor from a central starting point to radial targets as fast and accurately as possible. Using this device, we recorded baseline motor performance, motor sequence learning and a visuomotor adaptation task. Patients with cervical dystonia had a significantly higher peak velocity than controls. Baseline performance with random target presentation was otherwise normal. Patients and controls had similar levels of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. Our patients had significantly higher peak velocity compared to controls, with similar movement times, implying a different performance strategy. The preservation of motor sequence learning in cervical dystonia patients contrasts with the previously observed deficit seen in patients with DYT1 gene mutations, supporting the hypothesis of differing pathophysiology in different forms of primary dystonia. Normal motor adaptation is an interesting finding. With our paradigm we did not find evidence that the previously documented cerebellar abnormalities in cervical dystonia have a behavioral correlate, and thus could be compensatory or reflect "contamination" rather than being directly pathological. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma: the Queensland experience.

    PubMed

    Obermair, A; Taylor, K H; Janda, M; Nicklin, J L; Crandon, A J; Perrin, L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the experience with fallopian tube carcinoma in Queensland and to compare it with previously published data. Thirty-six patients with primary fallopian tube carcinoma treated at the Queensland Gynaecological Cancer Center from 1988 to 1999 were reviewed in a retrospective clinicopathologic study. All patients had primary surgery and 31/36 received chemotherapy postoperatively. Abnormal vaginal bleeding (15/36) and abdominal pain (14/36) were the most common presenting symptoms at the time of diagnosis. Median follow-up was 70.3 months and the median overall survival was 68.1 months. Surgical stage I disease (P = 0.02) and the absence of residual tumor after operation (P = 0.03) were the only factors associated with improved survival. Twenty of the 36 patients (55%) presented with stage I disease and survival was 62.7% at 5 years. No patient with postoperative residual tumor survived. The majority of the patients with fallopian tube carcinoma present with stage I disease at diagnosis, but their survival probability is low compared with that of other early stage gynecological malignancies. If primary surgical debulking cannot achieve macroscopic tumor clearence, the chance of survival is extremely low.

  8. A pri-miR-218 variant and risk of cervical carcinoma in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ting-Yan; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Wang, Meng-Yun; He, Jing; Yu, Ke-Da; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Sun, Meng-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Cheng, Xi; Wu, Xiaohua; Wei, Qingyi

    2013-01-15

    MicroRNA (miRNA)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may compromise miRNA binding affinity and modify mRNA expression levels of the target genes, thus leading to cancer susceptibility. However, few studies have investigated roles of miRNA-related SNPs in the etiology of cervical carcinoma. In this case-control study of 1,584 cervical cancer cases and 1,394 cancer-free female controls, we investigated associations between two miR-218-related SNPs involved in the LAMB3-miR-218 pathway and the risk of cervical carcinoma in Eastern Chinese women. We found that the pri-miR-218 rs11134527 variant GG genotype was significantly associated with a decreased risk of cervical carcinoma compared with AA/AG genotypes (adjusted OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.63-0.95, P=0.015). However, this association was not observed for the miR-218 binding site SNP (rs2566) on LAMB3. Using the multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis, we observed some evidence of interactions of these two SNPs with other risk factors, especially age at primiparity and menopausal status, in the risk of cervical carcinoma. The pri-miR-218 rs11134527 SNP was significantly associated with the risk of cervical carcinoma in Eastern Chinese women. Larger, independent studies are warranted to validate our findings.

  9. [Prognostic analysis of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Chen, Junqiang; Zhu, Kunshou; Zheng, Xiongwei; Chen, Mingqiang; Lin, Yu; Pan, Caizhu; Pan, Jianji

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the prognostic factors of cervical lymph node metastasis (CLN) in thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (TESCC), and to probe and verify the esophageal carcinoma staging of the 7th edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system. A total of 1 715 TESCC patients underwent radical esophagectomy plus three-field lymph node dissection at Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital between January 1993 and March 2007. 547 patients had pathological metastasis of CLN, and 296 patients received surgery only (S group) and 251 patients received postoperative radiotherapy (S+R group). The prognostic factors were analyzed and the pattern of recurrence and metastases was studied according to the esophageal carcinoma staging criteria of the 7th edition of AJCC TNM staging system. The metastasis rate of CLN was 31.9% for the entire group, 44.2%, 31.5% and 14.4% for the upper, middle and lower TESCC, respectively (P < 0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate of the patients with metastatic CLN was 27.7%, and the median overall survival time was 27.5 months. The 5-year survival rate was 21.3% in the S group and 34.2% in the S+R group, and the median survival time was 21.9 months in the S group and 35.4 months in the S+R group (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that gender, lesion length in X-ray, N stage, AJCC stage and treatment modality were independent prognostic factors of CLN metastasis in TESCC. Independent prognostic factors for S group included the primary tumor site, pT stage, N stage and AJCC stage, and N stage was an independent prognostic factor for the S+R group. TESCC with CLN metastasis have a better prognosis after surgery. It supports that cervical lymph nodes belong to regional lymph nodes classified in the 7th edition of AJCC TNM staging system.

  10. Docetaxel as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Carlos T; Machiavelli, Mario R; Pérez, Juan E; Romero, Alberto O; Bologna, Fabrina; Vicente, Hernán; Lacava, Juan A; Ortiz, Eduardo H; Cubero, Alberto; Focaccia, Guillermo; Suttora, Guillermo; Scenna, Mirna; Boughen, José M; Leone, Bernardo A

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel as single-agent neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locoregionally advanced cervical carcinoma. Between April 1998 and August 2000, 38 untreated patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IIB to IVA were entered onto this study. The median age was 44 years (range: 25-66 years). Stages: IIB 22 patients, IIIB 15 patients, and IVA 1 pt. Treatment consisted of docetaxel 100 mg/m2 IV infusion during 1 hour. Standard premedication with dexamethasone, diphenhydramine, and ranitidine was used. Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks for three courses, followed by radical surgery when it was judged appropriate, or definitive radiotherapy. Both staging and response assessment were performed by a multidisciplinary team. 106 cycles of therapy were administered; all patients were evaluable for TX, whereas 35 were evaluable for response (3 patients refused further treatment after the first cycle of therapy). Complete response (CR): 1 patient (3%); partial response: 11 patients (31%), for an overall objective response rate of 34% (95% CI: 15-53%); no change (NC): 16 patients (46%); and progressive disease: 7 patients (20%). Six patients (17%) underwent surgery and a pathologic CR was confirmed in 1 of them. The median time to treatment failure and the median survival have not been reached yet. The limiting toxicity was leukopenia in 25 patients (69%) (G1-G2: 14 patients, G3: 10 patients, and G4: 1 patient). Neutropenia: 28 patients (78%) (G1-G2: 10 patients, G3: 8 and G4: 10). Myalgias: 17 patients (47%) (G1-G2: 15 patients and G3: 2 patients). Emesis: 21 patients (55%) (G1-G2: 19 patients and G3: 2 patients). Alopecia G3: 13 patients (36%); rash cutaneous 26 patients (68%) (G1-G2: 22 patients and G3: 4 patients). There were no hypersensitivity reactions or fluid-retention syndrome. The received dose intensity was 91% of that projected. Docetaxel is an active drug against advanced

  11. High-dose-rate brachytherapy in uterine cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Firuza D. . E-mail: patelfd@glide.net.in; Rai, Bhavana; Mallick, Indranil; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is in wide use for curative treatment of cervical cancer. The American Brachytherapy Society has recommended that the individual fraction size be <7.5 Gy and the range of fractions should be four to eight; however, many fractionation schedules, varying from institution to institution, are in use. We use 9 Gy/fraction of HDR in two to five fractions in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We found that our results and toxicity were comparable to those reported in the literature and hereby present our experience with this fractionation schedule. Methods and Materials: A total of 121 patients with Stage I-III carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated with HDR brachytherapy between 1996 and 2000. The total number of patients analyzed was 113. The median patient age was 53 years, and the histopathologic type was squamous cell carcinoma in 93% of patients. The patients were subdivided into Groups 1 and 2. In Group 1, 18 patients with Stage Ib-IIb disease, tumor size <4 cm, and preserved cervical anatomy underwent simultaneous external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis to a dose of 40 Gy in 20 fractions within 4 weeks with central shielding and HDR brachytherapy of 9 Gy/fraction, given weekly, and interdigitated with external beam radiotherapy. The 95 patients in Group 2, who had Stage IIb-IIIb disease underwent external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis to a dose of 46 Gy in 23 fractions within 4.5 weeks followed by two sessions of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy of 9 Gy each given 1 week apart. The follow-up range was 3-7 years (median, 36.4 months). Late toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The 5-year actuarial local control and disease-free survival rate was 74.5% and 62.0%, respectively. The actuarial local control rate at 5 years was 100% for Stage I, 80% for Stage II, and 67.2% for Stage III patients. The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival rate was 88.8% for

  12. Large primary leiomyoma causing progressive cervical deformity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Habib, Amro; Elgamal, Essam A.; Aldhahri, Saleh; Alokaili, Riyadh; AlShamrani, Rami; Abobotain, Abdulaziz; AlRaddadi, Khulood; Alkhalidi, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are benign smooth tumors that rarely affect the neck area. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Here, we describe a 13-year-old girl with a large leiomyoma of the neck, which increased in size after incomplete resection. The tumor caused progressive cervical kyphotic deformity, difficulty breathing and severe malnourishment. The tumor was resected successfully in a second surgery, and the patient is stable after 3 years of follow-up. Histopathologically, the tumor was consistent with leiomyoma and showed strong reactivity to specific smooth muscle markers, such as desmin and caldesmon. This is the second reported case demonstrating massive growth of a leiomyoma, with emphasis on complete resection from the beginning. PMID:27887011

  13. Primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, V; Hernández, A F; Márquez, M L; Delgadillo, M A; Peña, J; Mercado, M

    1997-01-01

    Most cases of primary hyperparathyroidism are due to either a parathyroid adenoma or to parathyroid hyperplasia. Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare cause of hyperparathyroidism. Although the diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma is usually established based on pathological criteria of vascular and capsular invasion, some clinical and biochemical features differentiate it from benign forms of hyperparathyroidism. We report the case of a middle-aged woman with a long standing history of nephrolithiasis, who presented with a palpable neck mass, weight loss, severe hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia, as well as very high serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone. Surgical neck exploration revealed a large tumor that invaded trachea, esophagus, reccurrent laryngeal nerve, right apical pleura and right carotid artery. Pathological examination confirmed the invasive nature of the tumor. Along with the case report, we review the literature and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic options of this rare condition.

  14. Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  15. Size of cervical lymph node and metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue and floor of mouth.

    PubMed

    Jarungroongruangchai, Weerawut; Charoenpitakchai, Mongkol; Silpeeyodom, Tawatchai; Pruksapong, Chatchai; Burusapat, Chairat

    2014-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue and floor of mouth are the most common head and neck cancers. Regional metastasis of SCC is most likely found at the cervical lymph node. Size and characteristics of pathologically suspicious lymph nodes are related to the aggressiveness of the primary tumor: The objective of this study is to analyze the conrrelation between sizes of cervical node and metastasis in SCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth. Retrospective review was conducted firom the patient's charts between January 2008 and December 2012. Clinical, histopathology and surgical records were reviewed. Cervical lymph nodes ofSCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth were reviewed and divided into four groups depending on their size (1-5 mm, 6-9 mm, 10-30 mm and more than 30 am,). A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. 196 patients with SCC of the oral cavity were recorded. Sixteen patients ofSCC of the oral tongue and 15patients of SCC of the floor of mouth underwent neck dissection (641 cervical nodes). Most ofthe patients were diagnosed with stage 3 (41.94%). Extracapsular extension was found in 72.15% of SCC of oral tongue and 73.33 % of SCC ofthe floor of mouth. Size of cervical lymph nodes less than 10 mm was found to be metastasis at 9.27% and 10.82% of SCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth, respectively. Cervical node metastasis can be found in SCC of the oral tongue and floor ofmouth with clinlically negative node andsize of cervical node less than 10 mm. Here in, size of cervical node less than 10 mm was still important due to the chance for metastasis especially high grade tumors, advanced stage cancer and lymphovascular invasion.

  16. Primary herpes simplex virus infection mimicking cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Andrew; White, Catherine; Higgins, Stephen Peter

    2015-06-02

    We report the case of an 18-year-old woman presenting with ulceration of the cervix caused by primary type 2 herpes simplex infection in the absence of skin lesions. The differential diagnosis included cervical cancer and we referred the patient for urgent colposcopy. However, laboratory tests proved the viral aetiology of the cervical ulceration and the cervix had healed completely 3 weeks later. The case highlights the need to consider herpes simplex infection in the differential diagnosis of ulceration of the cervix even when there are no cutaneous signs of herpes.

  17. Positron emission tomography in the detection of occult primary head and neck carcinoma: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The management of cervical lymph node metastases from an unknown primary tumor remains a controversial subject. Recently, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has proved useful in the detection of these tumors, even after an unsuccessful conventional diagnostic workup. This study was performed to assess the role of PET in the detection of occult primary head and neck carcinomas. Methods A retrospective analysis of a four year period at a tertiary referral oncology hospital was conducted. Results Of the 49 patients with cervical metastases of carcinoma from an unknown primary, PET detected a primary in 9 patients and gave 5 false positive and 4 false negative results. Detection rate, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were of 18.4%, 69.2%, 86.1% and 81.6%, respectively. PET was also of substantial benefit in detecting distant metastatic disease and, thus, altered therapeutic strategies in a significant amount of patients. Conclusions Therefore, PET is a valuable tool in the management of patients with occult primary head and neck carcinoma, not only because it provides additional information as to the location of primary tumors, but also due to the fact that it can detect unexpected distant metastases. PMID:22709938

  18. The morbidity and utility of periaortic radiotherapy in cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Potish, R.; Adcock, L.; Jones, T. Jr.; Levitt, S.; Prem, K.; Savage, J.; Twiggs, L.

    1983-02-01

    From 1971 through 1981, 81 women received 4350 to 5075 rad to the periaortic lymph nodes as part of their primary management for carcinoma of the uterine cervix. While two patients developed chronic small bowel damage, only one required surgical intervention. Five-year disease-free survival was 40%. Approximately one-third of the first recurrences were within the pelvic and periaortic radiation portals, with the remainder in the lungs, liver, bones, abdomen, and supraclavicular lymph nodes. Radiation dose and volume guidelines are presented in order to minimize enteric morbidity.

  19. EAU guidelines on primary urethral carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gakis, Georgios; Witjes, J Alfred; Compérat, Eva; Cowan, Nigel C; De Santis, Maria; Lebret, Thierry; Ribal, Maria J; Sherif, Amir M

    2013-11-01

    The European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines Group on Muscle-Invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer prepared these guidelines to deliver current evidence-based information on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary urethral carcinoma (UC). To review the current literature on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary UC and assess its level of scientific evidence. A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies reporting urethral malignancies. Medline was searched using the controlled vocabulary of the Medical Subject Headings database, along with a free-text protocol. Primary UC is considered a rare cancer, accounting for <1% of all malignancies. Risk factors for survival include age, tumour stage and grade, nodal stage, presence of distant metastasis, histologic type, tumour size, tumour location, and modality of treatment. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred method to assess the local extent of urethral tumour; computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen should be used to assess distant metastasis. In localised anterior UC, urethra-sparing surgery is an alternative to primary urethrectomy in both sexes, provided negative surgical margins can be achieved. Patients with locally advanced UC should be discussed by a multidisciplinary team of urologists, radiation oncologists, and oncologists. Patients with noninvasive UC or carcinoma in situ of the prostatic urethra and prostatic ducts can be treated with a urethra-sparing approach with transurethral resection and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Cystoprostatectomy with extended pelvic lymphadenectomy should be reserved for patients not responding to BCG or as a primary treatment option in patients with extensive ductal or stromal involvement. The 2013 guidelines document on primary UC is the first publication on this topic by the EAU. It aims to increase awareness in the urologic community and provide scientific transparency to improve outcomes of

  20. Human papillomavirus testing for primary cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Grce, Magdalena; Davies, Philip

    2008-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the seventh most common cause of cancer deaths in women in Europe. Today, we know how to prevent almost every case of this disease; organized cervical cancer screening based on the Papanicolaou or Pap smear has been proven to prevent 80% of cervical cancer deaths, while new technologies for the detection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) or the prevention of HPV infection offer the potential to make even more progress in the battle against this disease. Testing for carcinogenic or high-risk HPV types is gaining acceptance for the triage of women with borderline cytology and for follow-up after treatment of high-grade cervical lesions. Now, a number of large-scale randomized controlled trials have shown that HPV testing as a primary screening test can detect approximately 50% more high-grade lesions than the Pap test, albeit with a lower specificity if all HPV-positive women are followed up. However, alternative screening algorithms in which HPV-positive women are triaged with cytology have been shown to have equivalent specificity to the Pap test without compromising the increased sensitivity. Further advantages of HPV testing come from the fact that it is an objective and automatable test with a dichotomous result. These attributes can yield cost savings through reductions in staff numbers and simplification of quality control procedures while reducing turnaround times. In countries seeking to improve cervical cancer prevention, the implementation of HPV testing as the primary screening test with cytology for the triage of HPV-positive women is an option that should be fully evaluated. This review summarizes the recent advances in HPV testing in cervical cancer prevention.

  1. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  2. Primary oat cell carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, E.A. III; Robbins, K.T.; Stephens, J.; Dimery, I.W.; Batsakis, J.G.

    1987-02-01

    The aggressiveness of small (oat) cell carcinoma of the larynx presents a therapeutic challenge to the oncologist. Since the first description of this type of carcinoma in 1972, 52 patients have been reported in the literature and a variety of treatment regimens have been used. The purpose of this study was to report two new cases and review all previous reports to determine the disease's biological behavior, clinical manifestations, and optimum treatment. Thirty-five percent of the tumors were transglottic, and 27% were supraglottic. Fifty-four percent of patients had regional metastases at initial presentation and 17.6% had distant metastases. The median survival was 10 months for all patients. Patients who were treated with chemotherapy with or without other modalities had the best 2-year survival rates (52.2%). Forty-one percent of patients had regional recurrence only, 12.5% had regional recurrence and distant metastases, and 2% developed distant metastases only. We conclude that patients with oat cell carcinoma of the larynx should be treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is best reserved for persistent and recurrent disease at the primary site and neck.

  3. Primary serous peritoneal carcinoma presenting first on a routine papanicolaou smear: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hangjun; Chen, Patrick C

    2010-01-01

    Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is a relatively uncommon malignancy, and its presentation is similar to that of advanced ovarian serous carcinoma. There have been afew case reports in which the malignant cells from PPC were discovered from routine Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. In 2006 a 49-year-old, asymptomatic female participated in the Hospital Health Fair. High grade adenocarcinoma was found by Pap smear. After negative cervical and endometrial curetting and loop electrosurgical excision procedure cone, laparoscopy revealed widespread peritoneal carcinomatosis. The subsequent surgical specimens showed primary peritoneal serous carcinoma. Although the Pap smear was originally designed to detect premalignant cervical lesions and cancer, it became apparent that malignant cells from extrauterine primaries might appear in the smears. This case illustrated the value of the Pap smear in discovering unsuspected extrauterine malignancies, including PPC. Review of 9 cases showed tumor cells in the fallopian tube lumen in 4 out of 9 cases, indicating the likely route of efflux of tumor cells to appear in the Pap smear. The new concept of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma as the origin of PPC suggests another source of tumor cells in Pap smears.

  4. [Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: rare form carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Sinisa

    2009-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare form of breast carcinoma. Incidence is reported to be 0.1-3.6%. We report a case of a young woman, 37-year-old, with history of a lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast with ulceration of the skin surface. Menarche occurred at age of 12. The patient was married, had two deliveries and had her first child at age of 26. She did not use contraceptive pills. Diagnosis of the tumour of the breast was made at the Department of surgery in General Hospital in Bijeljina in September 2007. Clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography were performed. Physical examination revealed a circumscribed and firm mass measuring 60 x 60 x 80 mm. Mammogram showed a round, high-density mass with almost regular but partially irregular margin. Ultrasonogram of the left breast tumor identified an irregularly shaped hypoechoic lesion. After clinical staging of the disease, we performed incision biopsy of the skin and tumour of the left breast with histopathology examination (standard hematoxylin and eosin). Patient had estrogen and progesteron receptors negative and was HER2/neu negative. After histopathology, patient's case was presented to the working group for breast tumors which decided to start with the neoadjuvant chemotherapy using platinum. After six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, regression of breast tumor was confirmed. Working group decided that radical mastectomy of left breast should be performed.

  5. Application of a cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection of thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiajie; Chen, Chao; Zheng, Chuanming; Wang, Kejing; Shang, Jinbiao; Fang, Xianhua; Ge, Minghua; Tan, Zhuo

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to discuss the advantage of the application of a cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma. The study was a retrospective analysis of 87 thyroid papillary carcinoma patients; cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection was applied for 47 cases and the classic 'L' incision was applied for 40 cases. The different integrity, surgical time, blood loss and the aesthetic property of the incision were compared between the cervical low incision and the classic 'L' incision for lateral neck dissection of thyroid cancer. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was that the average total amount and the region II lymph nodes of the unilateral neck dissection were 33 and 10 for the cervical low incision group, and 32 and 11 for the classic 'L' incision group, respectively (P>0.05). The average unilateral neck dissection times were 87 and 58 min for the cervical low incision group and the classic 'L' incision group, respectively (P<0.05). The blood loss of the cervical low incision group was 67 ml, while the loss for the classic 'L' incision group was 61 ml (P>0.05). The postoperative incision of the cervical low incision group was smaller and more concealing. Additionally, the cosmetic deformities were milder for an inconspicuous cervical scar, and the sensation was improved for the patients in comparison with the classic 'L' incision group. These results suggest that the application of cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in thyroid papillary carcinoma patients aids in reducing postoperative complications, without increasing recurrence rates. Therefore, the classic 'L' incision can be replaced by the cervical low incision.

  6. Application of a cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection of thyroid papillary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    XU, JIAJIE; CHEN, CHAO; ZHENG, CHUANMING; WANG, KEJING; SHANG, JINBIAO; FANG, XIANHUA; GE, MINGHUA; TAN, ZHUO

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to discuss the advantage of the application of a cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma. The study was a retrospective analysis of 87 thyroid papillary carcinoma patients; cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection was applied for 47 cases and the classic ‘L’ incision was applied for 40 cases. The different integrity, surgical time, blood loss and the aesthetic property of the incision were compared between the cervical low incision and the classic ‘L’ incision for lateral neck dissection of thyroid cancer. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was that the average total amount and the region II lymph nodes of the unilateral neck dissection were 33 and 10 for the cervical low incision group, and 32 and 11 for the classic ‘L’ incision group, respectively (P>0.05). The average unilateral neck dissection times were 87 and 58 min for the cervical low incision group and the classic ‘L’ incision group, respectively (P<0.05). The blood loss of the cervical low incision group was 67 ml, while the loss for the classic ‘L’ incision group was 61 ml (P>0.05). The postoperative incision of the cervical low incision group was smaller and more concealing. Additionally, the cosmetic deformities were milder for an inconspicuous cervical scar, and the sensation was improved for the patients in comparison with the classic ‘L’ incision group. These results suggest that the application of cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in thyroid papillary carcinoma patients aids in reducing postoperative complications, without increasing recurrence rates. Therefore, the classic ‘L’ incision can be replaced by the cervical low incision. PMID:27073645

  7. Differentially expressed proteins among normal cervix, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; He, Y; Wang, X-L; Zhang, Y-X; Wu, Y-M

    2015-08-01

    To explore the differentially expressed proteins in normal cervix, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) tissues by differential proteomics technique. Cervical tissues (including normal cervix, CIN and CSCC) were collected in Department of Gynecologic Oncology of Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital. Two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and DeCyder software were used to detect the differentially expressed proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed to validate the expressions of selected proteins among normal cervix, CIN and CSCC. 2-D DIGE images with high resolution and good repeatability were obtained. Forty-six differentially expressed proteins (27 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated) were differentially expressed among the normal cervix, CIN and CSCC. 26 proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. S100A9 (S100 calcium-binding protein A9) was the most significantly up-regulated protein. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha-1 (eEF1A1) was the most significantly down-regulated protein. Pyruvate kinase isozymes M2 (PKM2) was both up-regulated and down-regulated. The results of WB showed that with the increase in the severity of cervical lesions, the expression of S100A9 protein was significantly increased among the three groups (P = 0.010). The expression of eEF1A1 was reduced but without significant difference (P = 0.861). The expression of PKM2 was significantly reduced (P = 0.000). IHC showed that protein S100A9 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm, and its positive expression rate was 20.0 % in normal cervix, 70.0 % in CIN and 100.0 % in CSCC, with a significant difference among them (P = 0.006). eEF1A1 was mainly expressed in the cell plasma, and its

  8. Differential gene expression identified in Uigur women cervical squamous cell carcinoma by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Z; Chen, S; Pan, X; Wang, Z; Han, H; Zheng, W; Wang, X; Li, F; Qu, S; Shao, R

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancers worldwide. Over the past decade, much progress has been made in understanding the genetic changes associated with the development and progression of cervical cancer. However, the precise mechanisms of cervical carcinogenesis in Uigur women remain unclear. To screen differential gene expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix in Uigur women, suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed on the cervical squamous cell carcinoma and corresponding normal cervical tissues of a Uigur patient. Thus we were be able to find the genes that are related with cervical tumors of Uigur women. A total of 300 samples were subject to DNA sequencing analysis and 46 genes were found to express differentially in tumors compared with normal tissues. Of the 46 genes, 24 genes were up-regulated whereas 22 genes were down-regulated in cervical tumors. The expression profiles of 5 of the 46 genes were further confirmed in 15 other Uigur patients by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that ACADVL, CEBPB, IFITM1 and DNAJC9 are involved in cervical carcinogenesis.

  9. Expression of P-Akt, NFkappaB and their correlation with human papillomavirus infection in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Du, C X; Wang, Y

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the expression of P-Akt and NFkappaB and their correlation with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in cervical carcinoma. Expression of P-Akt and NFkappaB was detected by an immunohistochemical SP technique with HPV DNA detetion by PCR in 26 cases of cervical carcinoma tissues, 18 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissues (CINI / n = 5, CINII / n = 3, CINIII / n = 10) and 19 cases of chronic cervicitis tissues. The different expressions of P-Akt and NFkappaB were compared in different pathological types of cervical carcinoma (cervical squamous cell carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma), different pathological grading (high, medium, poorly differentiated) and different clinical stage (FIGO I to IV). The relationships between P-Akt and NFkappaB, respectively, with HPV infection in cervical carcinoma were analyzed. The positive expression rate of P-Akt in chronic cervicitis tissues, CIN and cervical carcinoma tissues was 21.05%, 66.67%, and 92.31%, respectively. There was no obvious difference in the expression of P-Akt in cervical carcinoma in different pathological types or in pathological grading and no obvious difference in different clinical stages. The positive expression rate of NFkappaB in chronic cervicitis tissues, CIN and cervical carcinoma tissues was 10.52%, 72.22% and 96.15%, respectively; there was no statistically significant difference among the groups for different pathological types and there was no obvious difference in different pathological grading or different clinical stage. There was an obviously positive correlation between P-Akt and NFkappaB expression rate and degree of disease (r = 0.998, p < 0.05). Cervical carcinoma and CIN cases totaled 44; the positive expression rate of P-Akt was 87.55% in 32 cases of positive HPV-DNA of the 44 cases, and the positive expression rate of P-Akt was only 16.70% in 12 cases of negative HPV-DNA of the 44 cases. The positive expression rate of NFkappaB was obviously higher in the

  10. Primary laryngeal cryptococcosis resembling laryngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tamagawa, Shunji; Hotomi, Muneki; Yuasa, Jun; Tuchihashi, Shigeki; Yamauchi, Kazuma; Togawa, Akihisa; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2015-08-01

    A case of an 82-year-old female with primary laryngeal cryptococcosis who had undergone long-term corticosteroid therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatoid arthritis is reported. She complained hoarseness with swallowing pain and irritability of the larynx for over a month. Endoscopic examination revealed a white, exudative irregular region on right arytenoid that mimicked a laryngeal carcinoma. Histological examination showed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and severe submucosal inflammation with ovoid budding yeasts by Grocott's stain. A serological study indicated a high titer of cryptococcal antigen. After treating with oral fluconazole for 3 months, her primary lesion of larynx turned to be clear. We implicate a long-term use of steroids as the significant risk factor in developing cryptococcosis of the larynx. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of Hypoxia in Human Cervical Carcinoma Xenografts by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingsen, Christine; Egeland, Tormod A.M.; Gulliksrud, Kristine M.Sc.; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Mathiesen, Berit; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Patients with advanced cervical cancer and highly hypoxic primary tumors show increased frequency of locoregional treatment failure and poor disease-free and overall survival rates. The potential usefulness of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-based dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in assessing tumor hypoxia noninvasively was investigated in the present preclinical study. Methods and Materials: CK-160 and TS-415 human cervical carcinoma xenografts transplanted intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) in BALB/c nu/nu mice were subjected to DCE-MRI and measurement of fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. Tumor images of K{sup trans} (the volume transfer constant of Gd-DTPA) and v{sub e} (the extracellular volume fraction of the imaged tissue) were produced by pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE-MRI data. Fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells was measured by using the paired survival curve method. Results: Fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells differed significantly among the four tumor groups. The mean values {+-} SE were determined to be 44% {+-} 7% (i.m. CK-160), 77% {+-} 10% (s.c. CK-160), 23% {+-} 5% (i.m. TS-415), and 52% {+-} 6% (s.c. TS-415). The four tumor groups differed significantly also in K{sup trans}, and there was an unambiguous inverse relationship between K{sup trans} and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. On the other hand, significant differences among the groups in v{sub e} could not be detected. Conclusions: The study supports the clinical development of DCE-MRI as a method for assessing the extent of hypoxia in carcinoma of the cervix.

  12. Survivin Overexpression Is Associated with Aggressive Clinicopathological Features in Cervical Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ke-yan; Wang, Zhi-lian; Gu, Qian-yun; Hao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective Overexpression of survivin has been reported in many human tumors. However, the clinicopathological features associated with survivin overexpression in cervical carcinoma remain controversial. Thus, the current meta-analysis was performed to assess the clinicopathological significance of survivin in cervical carcinoma. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant studies published through November 1, 2015. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between survivin expression and clinicopathological outcome in cervical carcinoma. Results Eleven eligible studies with a total of 865 patients were included. Survivin overexpression was closely related to lymph node metastasis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.679, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.509–0.905, P = 0.008) but was not significantly associated with tumor FIGO stage (I+II vs. III+IV) (OR = 0.843, 95% CI: 0.626–1.137, P = 0.264), tumor grade (G1+G2 vs. G3) (OR = 0.913, 95% CI: 0.689–1.210, P = 0.527), tumor size (>4 vs. ≤4 cm) (OR = 0.825, 95% CI: 0.434–1.570, P = 0.559), or stromal involvement (OR = 0.820, 95% CI: 0.545–1.233, P = 0.340). The correlation between survivin expression and overall survival was evaluated among a total of 238 patients from three eligible studies. The pooled HR was 1.129 (95% CI: 0.597–1.661; P = 0.000), indicating that survivin expression was significantly associated with poor survival in cervical carcinoma. Conclusions Based on the current meta-analysis, survivin is strongly associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. Additionally, survivin is a novel clinicopathological marker of cervical carcinoma and thus may be a therapeutic target for cervical carcinoma. PMID:27764228

  13. Overexpressed active Notch1 induces cell growth arrest of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Qin, H; Chen, B; Xin, X; Li, J; Han, H

    2007-01-01

    Human cervical carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors, but the mechanisms that orchestrate the multiple oncogenic insults required for initiation and progression are not clear. Notch signaling plays a critical role in maintaining the balance between cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, but perturbed Notch signaling may contribute to tumorigenesis. We now show that Notch1 is detected in all cervical cancer, including advanced diseases. We also constitutively overexpressed active Notch1 in human cervical carcinoma to explore the effects of Notch1 signaling on human cervical carcinoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. The signaling may participate in the development of human cervical carcinoma cells, but overexpressed active Notch1 inhibits their growth through induction of cell cycle arrest. Increased Notch1 signaling induced a downmodulation of human papillomavirus transcription through suppression of activator protein (AP)-1 activity by upregulation of c-Jun and the decreased expression of c-Fos. Thus, Notch1 signaling plays a key role and exerts dual effects, functioning in context-specific manner.

  14. Parieto-motor cortical dysfunction in primary cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Porcacchia, Paolo; Palomar, Francisco J; Cáceres-Redondo, María T; Huertas-Fernández, Ismael; Martín-Rodríguez, Juan F; Carrillo, Fátima; Koch, Giacomo; Mir, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Dystonia is considered as a motor network disorder involving the dysfunction of the posterior parietal cortex, a region involved in preparing and executing reaching movements. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to test the hypothesis that cervical dystonic patients may have a disrupted parieto-motor connectivity. We enrolled 14 patients with primary cervical dystonia and 14 controls. A paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol was applied over the right posterior parietal cortex and the right primary motor area. Changes in the amplitudes of motor evoked potential were analyzed as an index of parieto-motor effective connectivity. Patients and healthy subjects were also evaluated with a reaching task. Reaction and movement times were measured. In healthy subjects, but not in dystonic patients, there was a facilitation of motor evoked potential amplitudes when the conditioning parietal stimulus preceded the test stimulus applied over the primary motor area by 4 ms. Reaction and movement times were significantly slower in patients than in controls. In dystonic patients, the relative strength of parieto-motor connectivity correlated with movement times. Parieto-motor cortical connectivity is impaired in cervical dystonic patients. This neurophysiological trait is associated with slower reaching movements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of cervical carcinoma by total hysterectomy and postoperative external irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, C.; Yiogarakis, D.; Pappas, J.; Keramopoulos, A.

    1980-07-01

    The survival rates of 36 patients with early cervical carcinoma who had undergone total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophorectomy (THBSO) were compared to the survival rates of 41 patients who were subjected to the radical operation. As an integral part of their therapy both groups postoperatively received adequate doses of external beam supervoltage irradiation. Satisfactory results were obtained in both groups of patients. According to these results THBSO followed by postoperative radiotherapy is adequate treatment for early cervical carcinoma. In comparison to the radical operation or curietherapy alone this type of treatment has the advantage of requiring less surgical or radiotherapeutic expertise; it probably is associated with less morbidity.

  16. Behavioral factors explaining the low risk for cervical carcinoma in Utah Mormon women.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J W; Sanborn, J S; Slattery, M L

    1995-03-01

    We used data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Utah from 1984 to 1987 to determine whether the low incidence of cervical carcinoma in Mormon women can be explained by adherence to their religious teachings, which proscribe smoking and extramarital sexual relations. Mormon women had substantially lower risk for cervical carcinoma than non-Mormons [odds ratio (OR) = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28-0.54]; this low risk was confined to those who attended church frequently. The protective effect disappeared after controlling for differences in age, sexual behavior, and smoking (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 0.80-1.87).

  17. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Epoetin Alfa in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer and Anemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Anemia; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Drug Toxicity; Radiation Toxicity; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  18. Cervical osteomyelitis after carbon dioxide laser excision of recurrent carcinoma of the posterior pharyngeal wall.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, A Jacqueline; Brandsma, Dieta; Smeele, Ludi E; Rosingh, Andert W; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Lohuis, Peter J F M

    2013-04-01

    Two patients with recurrent carcinoma of the posterior pharyngeal wall, previously treated with carbon dioxide (CO2) laser excision and (chemo)radiotherapy, presented with neck pain due to cervical osteomyelitis. In one patient this led to cervical spine instability, for which a haloframe was applied. Our working hypothesis was that cervical osteomyelitis was caused by an infected wound bed induced by CO2 laser excision of the tumor in the already vascular-compromised area of the irradiated posterior pharyngeal wall. We discuss the risks of leaving a wound for secondary granulation after CO2 laser excision of the posterior pharyngeal wall and prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  19. Unusual Presentation of Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugasundaram, Karpagavalli; Subramanian, Sathasiva; Kumar, Vimal

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma arising primarily from the jaw is a locally aggressive lesion with poor prognosis. Primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) lesion develops either de novo remnants of odontogenic epithelium, odontogenic cyst/tumor, epithelium remnants, or/and salivary gland residues. We describe very interesting case of primary intraosseous carcinoma of mandible. This extensive lesion was sent for oncological opinion and further management. Due to the uncertainty of diagnostic criteria of PIOC, only few cases of this lesion with a typical presentation have been reported. This article presents a case of primary intraosseous carcinoma with a unique appearance and detailed review stating its clinicopathological correlation. PMID:28078158

  20. Proteomic identification of potential biomarkers for cervical squamous cell carcinoma and human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Qing, Song; Tulake, Wuniqiemu; Ru, Mingfang; Li, Xiaohong; Yuemaier, Reziwanguli; Lidifu, Dilare; Rouzibilali, Aierken; Hasimu, Axiangu; Yang, Yun; Rouziahong, Reziya; Upur, Halmurat; Abudula, Abulizi

    2017-04-01

    It is known that high-risk human papillomavirus infection is the main etiological factor in cervical carcinogenesis. However, human papillomavirus screening is not sufficient for early diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers common to cervical carcinoma and human papillomavirus infection by proteomics for human papillomavirus-based early diagnosis and prognosis. To this end, we collected 76 cases of fresh cervical tissues and 116 cases of paraffin-embedded tissue slices, diagnosed as cervical squamous cell carcinoma, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II-III, or normal cervix from ethnic Uighur and Han women. Human papillomavirus infection by eight oncogenic human papillomavirus types was detected in tissue DNA samples using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The protein profile of cervical specimens from human papillomavirus 16-positive squamous cell carcinoma and human papillomavirus-negative normal controls was analyzed by proteomics and bioinformatics. The expression of candidate proteins was further determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. We identified 67 proteins that were differentially expressed in human papillomavirus 16-positive squamous cell carcinoma compared to normal cervix. The quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis verified the upregulation of ASAH1, PCBP2, DDX5, MCM5, TAGLN2, hnRNPA1, ENO1, TYPH, CYC, and MCM4 in squamous cell carcinoma compared to normal cervix ( p < 0.05). In addition, the transcription of PCBP2, MCM5, hnRNPA1, TYPH, and CYC was also significantly increased in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II-III compared to normal cervix. Immunohistochemistry staining further confirmed the overexpression of PCBP2, hnRNPA1, ASAH1, and DDX5 in squamous cell carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II-III compared to normal controls ( p < 0.05). Our data suggest that the expression of ASAH1, PCBP2, DDX5

  1. Glycoprotein and Glycan in Tissue and Blood Samples of Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  2. HPV-16 E2 physical status and molecular evolution in vivo in cervical carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kahla, Saloua; Kochbati, Lotfi; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis; Maalej, Mongi; Oueslati, Ridha

    2014-03-24

    A key event in the development of cervical carcinoma is the deregulated expression of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) oncogenes, most commonly due to HPV integration into host DNA. Here we explored whether HPV-16 E2 gene integrity is a biomarker of progressive disease with oncogenes expression. HPV-16 genome disruption was assessed by amplification of the entire E2 gene, while mRNA expression patterns of the E1, E2, E6, and E7 genes were evaluated by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). As expected, E2 disruption was significantly higher among patients with cervical cancers than subjects with benign lesions (p=0.02). The status of the E2 gene correlated with tumorogenesis, and seemed also to correlate with the stage of the carcinomas, since integrated HPV-16 DNA was frequently detected in patients with advanced cancer stages (75% of stage III vs 60% stages I and II). In bivariate analysis, the lesions’ grade was most significantly associated with HPV-16 DNA disruption (p<0.05). In cervical carcinoma the deletion pattern involved more frequently the E2 gene rather than the E1 gene (62.5% vs 45.8%). The prevalence of the E6/E7 HPV-16 transcripts in cervical carcinoma specimens and in benign cervical lesions were detected with frequencies of, respectively, 91.6% and 45.4%. The mRNA levels of the HPV-16 E6/E7 genes were expressed at approximately the same levels in each physical state. We consistently observed that E6/E7 were absent or weakly detectable in the presence of E2. However, in the absence of E2 the levels of E6/E7 markedly increased (p<0.05). This study underscores the significance of investigating alternative mechanisms of E2 expression and oncogenes E6/E7 transcripts in vivo as biomarkers for disease severity in cervical carcinomas.

  3. Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the cervix: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sal, Veysel; Kahramanoglu, Ilker; Turan, Hasan; Tokgozoglu, Nedim; Bese, Tugan; Aydin, Ovgu; Demirkiran, Fuat; Arvas, Macit

    2016-01-01

    Primary signet cell carcinoma of the cervix has been reported only in 18 cases to date. A 48-year-old woman was seen at our Gynecologic Oncology Unit, because she complained postcoital bleeding during the last three months. She had 1-2 cm cervical mass, originating from the endocervical canal. A biopsy revealed a signet ring cell-type adenocarcinoma. Suspected primary sites were excluded after gastroscopy, colonoscopy and mammography. The patient underwent a laparoscopic type-3 radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection and paraaortic lymph node dissection with a presumed diagnosis of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the cervix. Microscopically, the tumour consisted of 70% signet ring cell type and 30% endocervical adenocarcinoma. She did not receive any adjuvant treatment. Follow-up at 18 months after surgery showed no evidence of recurrence. Nineteenth case of a primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the cervix was presented. Immunohistochemical studies and HPV DNA positivity may help in diagnosis. It is crucial to differentiate primary tumour from metastatic signet cell carcinoma, while treatment and prognosis differ significantly. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the cervix: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sal, Veysel; Kahramanoglu, Ilker; Turan, Hasan; Tokgozoglu, Nedim; Bese, Tugan; Aydin, Ovgu; Demirkiran, Fuat; Arvas, Macit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Primary signet cell carcinoma of the cervix has been reported only in 18 cases to date. Presentation of case A 48-year-old woman was seen at our Gynecologic Oncology Unit, because she complained postcoital bleeding during the last three months. She had 1–2 cm cervical mass, originating from the endocervical canal. A biopsy revealed a signet ring cell-type adenocarcinoma. Suspected primary sites were excluded after gastroscopy, colonoscopy and mammography. The patient underwent a laparoscopic type-3 radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo–oophorectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection and paraaortic lymph node dissection with a presumed diagnosis of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the cervix. Microscopically, the tumour consisted of 70% signet ring cell type and 30% endocervical adenocarcinoma. She did not receive any adjuvant treatment. Follow-up at 18 months after surgery showed no evidence of recurrence. Discussion Nineteenth case of a primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the cervix was presented. Immunohistochemical studies and HPV DNA positivity may help in diagnosis. Conclusion It is crucial to differentiate primary tumour from metastatic signet cell carcinoma, while treatment and prognosis differ significantly. PMID:26874582

  5. Survival and prognostic factors comparing stage IB 1 versus stage IB 2 cervical cancer treated with primary radical hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Srisomboon, Jatupol; Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Suprasert, Prapaporn; Manopanya, Manatsawee; Siriaree, Sitthicha; Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Cheewakriangkrai, Chalong; Sae-Teng, Charuwan

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the survival rates of stage IB 1 versus stage IB 2 cervical cancer patients and to evaluate the prognostic factors after treatment primarily with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (RHPL). Patients with stage IB cervical cancer undergoing primary RHPL at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January 2002 and December 2009 were evaluated for survival and recurrence. Clinicopathological variables were analyzed to identify the prognostic factors affecting the survival of the patients. During the study period, RHPL was performed on 570 stage IB 1 and 110 stage IB 2 cervical cancer patients. With a median follow-up of 48 months, the 5-year disease-free survivals were 98.1% and 82.8% respectively (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis identified four significant prognostic factors affecting survival including sub-staging, non-squamous cell carcinoma histology, lymph node metastasis and the presence of lymph-vascular space invasion. In conclusion, with a primary radical hysterectomy, stage IB 1 cervical cancer patients have a significantly better survival rate than those with stage IB 2. Significant prognostic factors for stage IB cervical cancer include tumor histology, nodal status, and the presence of lymph-vascular space invasion.

  6. Assessment of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV testing in primary screening for cervical.

    PubMed

    Mittendorf, Thomas; Nocon, Marc; Roll, Stephanie; Mühlberger, Nikolai; Sroczynski, Gaby; Siebert, Uwe; Willich, Stefan N; von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias

    2007-09-04

    in comparison with one-, three-, and five-yearly PAP screening, the percentage of overall cost-effective HPV strategies was 83%, 55%, and 92%, respectively. Results for annual screening intervals are based on the assumption of complete screening compliance, which has to be further evaluated in decision analyses in the future adapting to the German health care setting. Including HPV testing in screening procedures for cervical carcinoma could lead to a reduction in false positive results. Doing so would involve one of the following approaches: a) combining the HPV test with cytology, or b) using cytology as triage in HPV-positive women. The most appropriate interval between screening tests and the best age to start or stop screening remains to be determined. At this point a formal health economic decision analyses may help in resolving those questions, additionally incorporating compliance and adherence within different screening scenarios. Considering medical evidence weighing the question whether HPV testing should be implemented into screening routine may not be if but how to do so. Open questions remain in setting the length of optimal screening intervals, the age range in which to screen, and the combination or sequence of existing cytology and HPV testing. Answers to those questions will be gathered in the very near future through large international clinical trials. Cost-effectiveness of implementing HPV testing is likely to exist in the management of borderline or unclear smears in triage treatment as well as in certain scenarios of primary screening within the German health care setting.

  7. [Number of positive central cervical lymph nodes for predicting lateral cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yefeng; Chen, Endong; Ni, Chunjue; Li, Quan; Zeng, Ruichao; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of central cervical lymph node metastasis (CCLNM) in predicting lateral cervical lymph node metastasis (LCLNM) in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). From January 2005 to October 2010, a total of 133 patients diagnosed as PTC underwent central and lateral cervical lymph node dissection were enrolled in this study. Quantitative analysis was performed to explore the correlation between the number of CCLNM and LCLNM. The sensitivity of central cervical node metastasis to predict lateral cervical node metastasis was 84.7%(61/72), and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 66.3% (61/92). The incidence of lateral cervical LNM was correlated with the number of CCLNM (r=0.911, P=0.004). The LCLNM rates in patients with number of CCLNM <2 and ≥ 2 were 54.5% (12/22) and 70.0% (49/70), respectively, with a non-significant difference (P=0.181). The LCLNM rates in patients with number of CCLNM < 3 and ≥ 3 were 50.0% (19/38) and 77.8% (42/54), showing a significant difference (P=0.006). The LCLNM rates in patients with number of CCLNM <4 and ≥ 4 were 55.1% (27/49) and 79.1% (34/43), with a significant difference (P=0.015). The LCLNM rates in patients with number of CCLNM <5 and ≥ 5 with the LLNM rate were 57.6% (34/59) and 81.8% (27/33), showing a significant difference (P=0.019). The LCLNM rates in patients with number of CCLNM <6 and ≥ 6 were 60.0% (39/65) and 81.5% (22/27), showing a significant difference (P=0.047). CCLNM has a significant association with LCLNM in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. LCLNM is mainly observed in patients with ≥ 3 CCLNM. Therefore, the number of CLNM ≥ 3 may be a valuable predictor of lateral cervical lymph node metastasis, and lateral cervical lymph node dissection should be considered.

  8. Histolopathological patterns of cervical carcinoma seen at a radiotherapy centre in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abdus-salam, Abass A; Eriba, Lucy O; Abdus-Salam, Rukiyat A; Dawotola, David A

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of cervical carcinoma is dependent on many factors including histological types and degree of differentiation. Degree of differentiation is an important consideration in determining the prognostic outcome. The study investigates the histological pattern and grades of cervical cancer tumours seen at a radiotherapy centre in Ibadan, Nigeria. This retrospective study was carried out within Radiotherapy Department of University College Hospital, Ibadan. The records of patients diagnosed of cervical cancer seen between July 2008 and June 2010 were analysed. Data pulled out included age, disease stage at presentation, histological variant and degree of differentiation. 206 patients were seen during the period of which 196 had complete data. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was seen in 178 patients (i.e. 90.8%) while 14 patients (7.1%) had adenocarcinoma. One patient each had adenoid cystic carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma. Majority of the patients, 99 (50.5%) had poorly differentiated tumours, 64 (32.7%) had well differentiated tumours, while the rest 33 (16.8%) had moderately differentiated tumours. Of the SCC tumours, 95 (53.4%) were poorly differentiated, 58 (32.6%) well differentiated while the remaining 25 (14%) were moderately differentiated. In comparison only 3 of the 14 adenocarcinoma cases (21.4%) were poorly differentiated, 5 cases (35.7%) were well differentiated, while 6 (42.9%) were moderately differentiated. The difference in the degree of differentiation between squamous histology and adenocarcinoma was statistically significant (p value = 0.002). Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma remains the leading variants of cervical cancer seen in our environment.

  9. Genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in histological sections of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical carcinoma in Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical specimens from the city of Madrid (Spain), as a contribution to the knowledge of Human Papillomavirus genotype distribution and prevalence of carcinogenic HPV types in cervical lesions in Spain. Methods A total of 533 abnormal specimens, from the Hospital General Universitario “Gregorio Marañón” of Madrid, were studied. These included 19 benign lesions, 349 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias 1 (CIN1), 158 CIN2-3 and 7 invasive cervical carcinomas (ICC). HPV genotyping was performed using PCR and tube array hybridization. Results We detected 20 different HPV types: 13 carcinogenic high-risk HPV types (HR-HPVs), 2 probably carcinogenic high-risk HPV types (PHR-HPVs) and 5 carcinogenic low-risk HPV types (LR-HPVs). The most frequent HPV genotypes found in all specimens were HPV16 (26.0%), 31 (10.7%) and 58 (8.0%). HPV 18 was only detected in 5.0%. Co-infections were found in 30.7% of CIN 1 and 18.4% cases of CIN2-3. The highest percentage of HR HPVs was found in those specimens with a CIN2-3 lesion (93.7%). Conclusion As our study shows the current tetravalent vaccine could be effective in our geographical area for preventing all the invasive cervical carcinomas. In addition, upon the estimates of the important presence of other HR-HPV types – such as 31, 58, 33 and 52 – in different preneoplasic lesions the effectiveness of HPV vaccination in our geographical area, and others with similar genotype distribution, should be limited. PMID:23167826

  10. Comparative analysis of HPV16 gene expression profiles in cervical and in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cerasuolo, Andrea; Annunziata, Clorinda; Tortora, Marianna; Starita, Noemy; Stellato, Giovanni; Greggi, Stefano; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Ionna, Franco; Losito, Simona; Botti, Gerardo; Buonaguro, Luigi; Buonaguro, Franco M.; Tornesello, Maria Lina

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the major cause of cervical cancer and of a fraction of oropharyngeal carcinoma. Few studies compared the viral expression profiles in the two types of tumor. We analyzed HPV genotypes and viral load as well as early (E2/E4, E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II, E7) and late (L1 and L2) gene expression of HPV16 in cervical and oropharyngeal cancer biopsies. The study included 28 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and ten oropharyngeal SCC, along with pair-matched non-tumor tissues, as well as four oropharynx dysplastic tissues and 112 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia biopsies. Viral load was found higher in cervical SCC (<1 to 694 copies/cell) and CIN (<1 to 43 copies/cell) compared to oropharyngeal SCC (<1 to 4 copies/cell). HPV16 E2/E4 and E5 as well as L1 and L2 mRNA levels were low in cervical SCC and CIN and undetectable in oropharynx cases. The HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNAs were consistently high in cervical SCC and low in oropharyngeal SCC. The analysis of HPV16 E6 mRNA expression pattern showed statistically significant higher levels of E6*I versus E6*II isoform in cervical SCC (p = 0.002) and a slightly higher expression of E6*I versus E6*II in oropharyngeal cases. In conclusion, the HPV16 E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II and E7 mRNA levels were more abundant in cervical SCC compared to oropharyngeal SCC suggesting different carcinogenic mechanisms in the two types of HPV-related cancers. PMID:28423662

  11. Comparative analysis of HPV16 gene expression profiles in cervical and in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cerasuolo, Andrea; Annunziata, Clorinda; Tortora, Marianna; Starita, Noemy; Stellato, Giovanni; Greggi, Stefano; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Ionna, Franco; Losito, Simona; Botti, Gerardo; Buonaguro, Luigi; Buonaguro, Franco M; Tornesello, Maria Lina

    2017-05-23

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the major cause of cervical cancer and of a fraction of oropharyngeal carcinoma. Few studies compared the viral expression profiles in the two types of tumor. We analyzed HPV genotypes and viral load as well as early (E2/E4, E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II, E7) and late (L1 and L2) gene expression of HPV16 in cervical and oropharyngeal cancer biopsies. The study included 28 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and ten oropharyngeal SCC, along with pair-matched non-tumor tissues, as well as four oropharynx dysplastic tissues and 112 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia biopsies. Viral load was found higher in cervical SCC (<1 to 694 copies/cell) and CIN (<1 to 43 copies/cell) compared to oropharyngeal SCC (<1 to 4 copies/cell). HPV16 E2/E4 and E5 as well as L1 and L2 mRNA levels were low in cervical SCC and CIN and undetectable in oropharynx cases. The HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNAs were consistently high in cervical SCC and low in oropharyngeal SCC. The analysis of HPV16 E6 mRNA expression pattern showed statistically significant higher levels of E6*I versus E6*II isoform in cervical SCC (p = 0.002) and a slightly higher expression of E6*I versus E6*II in oropharyngeal cases. In conclusion, the HPV16 E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II and E7 mRNA levels were more abundant in cervical SCC compared to oropharyngeal SCC suggesting different carcinogenic mechanisms in the two types of HPV-related cancers.

  12. Coexistence of placental site nodule and cervical squamous carcinoma in a 72-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Luna, Darling Valverde; Dulcey, Isabel; Nogales, Francisco F

    2013-05-01

    We report a unique case of the coexistence of cervical cancer and placental site nodule (PSN) in a 72-year-old multiparous woman presenting with vaginal bleeding. She had undergone tubal sterilization 30 years before. On admission, she had profuse vaginal bleeding, and a bulky cervical mass was seen on vaginal examination. Histology revealed the coexistence of a moderately differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma with a PSN in its stroma. Its immunohistochemistry revealed characteristic phenotypes for both lesions--the squamous carcinoma was strongly positive for p16. The intermediate trophoblasts of the PSN showed a diffuse positivity for CAM 5.2, human placental lactogen, CD10, and α-inhibin and, focally, for human chorionic gonadotropin. This is the first report on the coexistence of these 2 lesions in an elderly postmenopausal patient and demonstrates that PSN can be found after the menopause as an unexpected lesion in this age group, mimicking various cervical malignancies.

  13. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound in cervical carcinoma: monitoring treatment response to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y-F; Cheng, Y-M; Wu, Y-P; Chen, H H W; Hsu, K-F; Wu, Y-H; Chou, C-Y

    2013-07-01

    To investigate, using three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound (3D-PDU), alterations in cervical intratumoral vascularization during and after radiotherapy. Between 2004 and 2009 we enrolled into the study 37 patients with FIGO Stages IB1-IIB cervical carcinoma who were undergoing radiotherapy. Serial 3D-PDU scans were performed during treatment, providing ultrasonographic measurement of tumor size, vascularization index, flow index and vascularization flow index, as well as monthly for 3 months post-treatment and tri-monthly thereafter, until vascularity was undetectable on two consecutive occasions. Physical examination, cervical cytology and serum marker evaluation were performed every 3-6 months for the first 5 years following treatment. Patients evaluated after a 2-year tumor-free interval and those with clinically assessed positive findings at follow-up underwent 3D-PDU to detect possible local disease. A total of 329 3D-PDU scans were performed in the 37 women. Cervical tumors and intratumoral vascularization disappeared within 3 months following radiotherapy, except in one patient with persistent disease. Nine patients had disease relapse, in four of whom the recurrence was local. In three of these four, there was recurrence of tumor and vascularization after a complete response. At follow-up, 3D-PDU detected local disease with 75.0% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity, while serum markers detected local disease among 34 patients with squamous cell carcinoma with 20.0% sensitivity and 77.3% specificity. Compared with serum markers in cervical squamous cell carcinoma, 3D-PDU has higher sensitivity and specificity for detecting local recurrence or persistence in cervical carcinoma. Thus, 3D-PDU combined with clinical assessment may be a new and safe method for monitoring radiotherapy treatment response and detecting local recurrence. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Treatment of cervical carcinoma employing a template for transperineal interstitial Ir192 brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, O; Morrow, C P; Klement, V; Schlaerth, J B; Nalick, R H

    1983-06-01

    The development of a template technique at this institution for transperineal interstitial-intracavitary brachytherapy employing Ir192 wire has previously been reported. In this paper we report the results of radiation treatment of 84 women with fresh, primary squamous carcinoma of the cervix admitted to the Los Angeles County--University of Southern California Medical Center from April, 1975 to September, 1979 who received at least one transperineal template implant as part of their initial treatment. The 75 evaluable patients were followed 3 to 60 months, with a median of 17 months. Recurrence rates in the pelvic treatment field by clinical (FIGO) stage grouping were 35.7% (5/14) Stage IB;0% (0/8) Stage IIA; 20% (5/25) Stage IIB; 46.2% (12/26) Stage III; and 0% (0/2) Stage IVA. The overall failure rate within the treatment field was 29.3% (22/75). The non-tumor associated rectovaginal and vesicovaginal fistula rate was 14.3% (2/14) in Stage IB; 0% (0/8) in Stage IIA; 16.0% (4/25) in Stage IIB; 15.4% (4/26) in Stage III; and 0% (0/2) in Stage IVA. The non-tumor associated fistula rate for all stages was 13.3% (10/75). Severe or grade III nonfistulous, delayed adverse effects (proctosigmoiditis, cystitis, vault necrosis) occurred in an additional 6 patients. Thus, 21.3% (16/75) of all evaluable patients experienced severe adverse radiation effects during the follow-up period. Pre-radiation staging laparotomy was performed on 31 patients. It had no obvious effect on the pattern or rate of radiation complications. The role of the interstitial-intracavitary template in the treatment of primary cervical carcinoma is discussed.

  15. Radiological detection of extracapsular spread in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cervical metastases.

    PubMed

    Url, C; Schartinger, V H; Riechelmann, H; Glückert, R; Maier, H; Trumpp, M; Widmann, G

    2013-10-01

    Extracapsular spread of cervical lymph nodes deteriorates the prognosis of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Postoperative radiochemotherapy is superior to postoperative radiotherapy alone in patients with histologically proven extracapsular spread. If extracapsular spread can be detected preoperatively, patients may favor primary radiochemotherapy instead of primary surgery plus postoperative radiochemotherapy. Computed tomography (CT) scans of nodal positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients treated between 2008 and 2010 with comprehensive neck dissection as part of first line surgical treatment were retrospectively scanned for extracapsular spread by two blinded radiologists. If a positive lymph node was identified by the pathologist, CT scans were assessed for extracapsular spread retrospectively. CT criteria for Extracapsular spread were apparent fat and soft tissue infiltration or infiltration of sternocleidomastoid muscle, internal jugular vein or carotid artery. Radiologic judgment was compared with histological evidence of extracapsular spread and specificity and sensitivity of CT detection was calculated. Forty-nine patients with histologically proven positive lymph nodes (pN+) were included. Extracapsular spread was histologically proven in 17 cases; the number of all affected lymph nodes was not listed. Radiologist 1 found extracapsular spread in CT scans of 15/49 patients and radiologist 2 in 16/49 patients (Cohen's kappa=0.86; p<0.01). Sensitivity of radiologic extracapsular spread detection was 73% (95% confidential index (CI): 44.0-89.7%) and specificity 91% (75.0-98.0%). Extracapsular spread depicted on computed tomography using strict criteria has high specificity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with nedaplatin in patients with stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Toru; Yasuoka, Toshiaki; Koizumi, Masae; Tanaka, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Nabeta, Motoo; Koizumi, Koji; Matsubara, Yuko; Hamada, Katsuyuki; Matsubara, Keiichi; Katayama, Tomihiro; Nawa, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of nadaplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma. Patients with an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma were treated with nadaplatin-based CCRT, using high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) or radiotherapy (RT) alone, in patients with FIGO stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma. CCRT with nedaplatin (80 mg/m(2)) was administered on Days 1 and 29. The records of 17 women treated either with nadaplatin-based CCRT using HSR-ICBT (n=8) or RT alone (n=9), for stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. The activity and toxicity were compared in the two treatment groups. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were the main endpoints. The 5-year overall survival rates in the CCRT and RT groups were 68.6 and 77.8%, respectively. The median OS of the CCRT and RT groups was 38.5 and 27.3 months, respectively. There was no significant difference in either PFS (P=0.618) or OS (P= 0.231). The most common grade 3-4 or higher toxicities in the CCRT groups were leuko-/neutropenia (37.5%). The frequency of acute grade 3-4 toxicity was higher in the CCRT compared to the RT group. However, no statistically significant difference was observed. Nedaplatin-based CCRT was safely performed. Although the prognosis of patients with FIGO stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma was not significantly improved, fewer distant relapses were observed in this treatment. Consequently, nedaplatin-based CCRT may be considered as a potential alternative to cisplatin-based CCRT in this patient population.

  17. Human papillomavirus cervical infection and associated risk factors in a region of Argentina with a high incidence of cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Tonon, S A; Picconi, M A; Zinovich, J B; Liotta, D J; Bos, P D; Galuppo, J A; Alonio, L V; Ferreras, J A; Teyssié, A R

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical infection among women residing in a region of northeastern Argentina with a high incidence of cervical cancer. METHODS: A case-control study of 330 women participating in a cervical cytological screening program conducted in Posadas city, Misiones, Argentina, from February 1997 to November 1998 was carried out. Standardized questionnaires were administered, and clinical examination including colposcopy was performed. Fresh endocervical specimens for HPV DNA detection by generic polymerase chain reaction were collected and the products typed by dot-blot hybridization. RESULTS: Human papillomavirus DNA was found in 61% of samples analyzed (185/301). Samples with normal cytology had a 43% infection rate (85/199), while those classified as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and invasive cervical carcinoma had an infection rate of 96% (53/55), 100% (29/29), and 100% (18/18), respectively. Human papillomavirus typing showed a 64% (118/185) prevalence of type 16 among all the infected population analyzed; type 16 was detected among 49% (42/85) of infected samples with normal cytology and in an average of 74% (74/100) with abnormal cytology. Sexual behavior, residence in southern Paraguay, and history of a previous sexually transmitted diseases were the main risk factors associated with high-grade cervical lesions. CONCLUSIONS: An elevated prevalence of HPV infection was detected in this population, which also has a high incidence of cervical cancer. The broad distribution of high-risk HPV type 16 in women with normal cytology and colposcopy suggests that viral infection is an important determinant of regional cancer incidence. PMID:10524669

  18. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-27

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  19. Promoter methylation of DAPK1, FHIT, MGMT, and CDKN2A genes in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Banzai, Chiaki; Nishino, Koji; Quan, Jinhua; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Sekine, Masayuki; Yahata, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2014-02-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation contributes to the malignant phenotype in virtually all types of human cancer. This study explored the relationship between promoter methylation and inactivation of the DAPK1, FHIT, MGMT, and CDKN2A genes in cervical cancer. The promoter methylation of DAPK1, FHIT, MGMT, and CDKN2A was investigated by using a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction in 53 specimens of cervical cancer (42 squamous cell carcinoma, 11 adenocarcinoma), 22 specimens of intraepithelial neoplasia tissues, and 24 control normal cervical tissue specimens. The correlation of promoter methylation with the clinicopathological features of cervical cancer was analyzed. The expressions of DAPK1, FHIT, MGMT, and CDKN2A were detected by measuring relative mRNA levels. The promoter methylation of DAPK1, FHIT, MGMT, and CDKN2A in cervical cancer vs. intraepithelial neoplasia vs. normal cervical tissue was 75.5 vs. 31.8 vs. 4.2 % (p < 0.0001), 66.0 vs. 59.1 vs. 25.0 % (p = 0.0033), 34.0 vs. 27.3 vs. 20.8 % (p = 0.76), and 17.0 vs. 31.8 vs. 8.3 % (p = 0.11), respectively. The methylation of the promoter region significantly decreased the expression of only DAPK1 (p = 0.03). The methylation rate of the DAPK1 gene promoter was significantly higher in cervical cancer tissues than in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and normal cervical tissues. Promoter methylation may therefore lead to the inactivation of the DAPK1 gene, and may be related to the progression of cervical oncogenesis.

  20. Prognostic significance of the bcl-2 apoptotic family of proteins in primary and recurrent cervical cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, R. A.; Caldwell, C.; Iles, R. K.; Lowe, D.; Shepherd, J. H.; Chard, T.

    1998-01-01

    bcl-2 is one of a family of genes that control the apoptotic threshold of a cell. bcl-2 protein and its anti-apoptotic homologue, mcl-1, with the pro-apoptotic protein, bax, are thought to function by forming homo- and heterotypic dimers that then control the progression to apoptosis. p53 is also involved as a down-regulator of bcl-2 and a promoter of bax. To determine the effect of these apoptotic mechanisms, we used immunohistochemistry to determine the prognostic significance of the expression of bcl-2, mcl-1, bax and p53 in primary and recurrent cervical cancer. Tissues from 46 patients with primary cervical cancer and 28 women with recurrent carcinoma were stained for bcl-2, mcl-1, bax and p53. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed using the log-rank test for differences between groups. In the primary disease group, positive staining for bcl-2 was associated with a better 5-year survival (bcl-2 +ve, 84% vs bcl-2 -ve, 53%, P = 0.03). Positive staining for p53 was associated with a survival disadvantage (p53 +ve, 4-year survival 38% vs p53 -ve, 4-year survival 78%, P = 0.02). mcl-1 and bax staining were not useful as prognostic indicators in primary disease. No marker was prognostic in recurrent disease. Positive bcl-2 staining defines a group of patients with primary disease with a good prognosis. p53, an activator of the bax promoter, identifies a group with a worse outcome. In recurrent disease, none of the markers reflected prognosis. PMID:9683295

  1. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-03

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  2. Uterine cervical carcinoma: role of matrix metalloproteinases (review).

    PubMed

    Libra, Massimo; Scalisi, Aurora; Vella, Nadia; Clementi, Silvia; Sorio, Roberto; Stivala, Franca; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Mazzarino, Clorinda

    2009-04-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have provided evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a main player in the development of uterine cervical neoplasms. Migration of cancer cells from the origin tissue to surrounding or distant organs is essential for tumor progression. Many studies of tumor invasion and metastases have focused on the degradation of the extracellular matrix where matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a central role. Two of these enzymes, MMP-2 and MMP-9, have been correlated with the processes of tumor cell invasion and metastasis in human cancers, including uterine neoplasms. It has been shown that the up-regulation of MMPs is associated with progression of cervical uterine neoplasms. This review describes the current understanding of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity in pre-cancer and cancer lesions of cervical uterine, which may open new strategies for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  3. Primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma and tracheal tumors during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abike, Faruk; Bingol, Banu; Temizkan, Osman; Dunder, Ilkkan; Kilic, Gokhan Sami; Cetin, Guven; Gundogdu, Cem

    2011-01-01

    Cancer complicates approximately 0.1% of all pregnancies. Primary tracheal carcinoma is one of very rarely seen tumors and the rate of its being seen makes up approximately % 0.2 of all tumors of respiratory tract. The patient, 28 years old, who has 28-weeks-pregnant, was diagnosed with primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma. Patient was made operation as thoracotomy and tracheal tumor was removed at the 28th week of pregnancy. Patient was delivered with sectio abdominale at the 39th week of pregnancy. Primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma is very rarely seen tumors and it is the first tracheal ACC with pregnancy case in literature to have been detected and surgically treated during pregnancy. We discussed primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma and tracheal tumors during pregnancy with literature. PMID:22066040

  4. Zinc induces apoptosis on cervical carcinoma cells by p53-dependent and -independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Bae, Seog Nyeon; Lee, Keun Ho; Kim, Jin Hwi; Lee, Sung Jong; Park, Lae Ok

    2017-02-26

    There is evidence that the mineral zinc is involved in the apoptotic cell death of various carcinoma cells. In this study, we aim to determine whether zinc in the form of CIZAR induces apoptosis in cervical carcinoma cells by increasing intracellular zinc concentration. CaSki and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells and HPV-16 DNA-transformed keratinocyte (CRL2404) were treated with different concentrations of CIZAR. The cell viability test was carried out, the intracellular level of zinc was determined, and apoptosis was confirmed by flow cytometry after propidium iodide (PI) staining and fluorescence microscopy under DAPI staining. The expression of cell-cycle regulators was analyzed by Western blot, including the knock down of p53 and expression of HPV E6 and E7 genes by RT-PCR. Intracellular zinc accumulation induced the down-regulation of E6/E7 proteins through targeting of the specific transcriptional factors in the upstream regulatory region. p53 was induced after CIZAR treatment and p53-dependent apoptosis did not occur after knock down by p53 siRNA. In cervical carcinoma cells, regardless of HPV-infection, CIZAR induces apoptosis by the activation of the p53-independent pathways through the up-regulation of p21waf1, the down-regulation of c-Myc, and by decreasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. CIZAR induces apoptosis not only through the restoration of p53/Rb-dependent pathways in HPV-positive cells, but also through the activation of p53/Rb-independent pathways and the mitochondrial death-signal pathway in cervical carcinoma cells regardless of HPV-infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of short-term tamoxifen administration in patients with invasive cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vargas Roig, L M; Lotfi, H; Olcese, J E; Lo Castro, G; Ciocca, D R

    1993-01-01

    Cervical cancer is not considered a hormone-responsive tumor in spite of the presence of estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PgR) in some of them. Endocrine treatments have not achieved clinical responses, however, tamoxifen has been reported to induce PgR and to inhibit cell growth of many cervical carcinoma cell lines. In this study we investigated whether tamoxifen administration affects the histopathological characteristics of cervical cancer and the expression of ER, PgR, HER-2/neu and p53 protein. Nineteen patients with invasive cervical cancer free of previous treatments were studied. The triphenylethylene antiestrogen tamoxifen was given orally during 10 days (20 or 40 mg/day). Pre- and post-tamoxifen biopsies were evaluated using slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunostained (ER, PgR, HER-2/neu, p53, PCNA, keratin, heat shock protein 27,000 daltons). Estrogen receptors were present in 37% and PgR in 16% of the biopsies from untreated patients. Only one case that was PgR-negative before tamoxifen administration showed weak PgR-positivity following antiestrogen administration. No obvious changes were observed in ER, HER-2/neu and p53 proteins. A statistically significant decrease in the number of mitotic figures was obtained in 16% (3/19) of the post-tamoxifen biopsies and two of them showed higher differentiation. The results showed that tamoxifen did not induce changes in estrogen-regulated proteins in cervical cancer. However, the data showed that certain cervical carcinomas had changes in their proliferation and differentiation levels following tamoxifen administration. These findings suggest that tamoxifen may affect some cervical cancer tissues by a hormone-independent mechanism(s).

  6. [Application of immunohistochemistry for p16 and GATA3 and molecular HPV typing in diagnosis of secondary bladder involvement by cervical carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Huang, R F; He, C; Zhu, W F; Li, Y; Chen, G

    2017-06-08

    Objective: To investigate the expression of p16 and GATA3 and the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in secondary bladder involvement by cervical carcinomas. Methods: Sixteen cases of cervical carcinoma with bladder involvement diagnosed from December 2008 to March 2016 were collected and evaluated by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry for p16 and GATA3 detection and PCR-reverse dot blot for molecular typing of HPV. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 25 to 76 years with median of 52 years. Morphologically, 14 cases(14/16) showed tumor nests infiltrating lamina propria or muscle bundles of the bladder. By immunohistochemistry, 15 cases (15/16) were found to be diffusely and strongly positive for p16, and 1 showed patchy staining pattern. Seven cases (7/7) of corresponding original cervical cancers were also diffusely and strongly positive for p16. GATA3 staining was negative in 13 cases (13/16), and focal weak to moderate positivity was detected in 3 cases.Three cases (3/7) of corresponding original cervical cancers showed focal weak to moderate positivity of GATA3. Fifteen cases (15/16) showed concordant high risk HPV-positivity, including HPV16 in 8 cases and HPV31 in one case. Five cases showed co-infection of HPV16 and HPV18. One case showed co-infection with HPV18 and HPV45. Conclusion: Differential diagnosis by p16 or GATA3 alone is of limited value. Combination of immunohistochemistry for p16 and GATA3 and molecular typing for HPV detection are useful to distinguish primary bladder carcinoma from the secondary involvement by cervical carcinoma.

  7. History of high-risk HPV and Pap test results in a large cohort of patients with invasive cervical carcinoma: experience from the largest women's hospital in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiang; Griffith, Christopher C; Zhou, Xiangrong; Wang, Zhiheng; Yan, Yabin; Li, Zaibo; Zhao, Chengquan

    2015-07-01

    Current cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend screening with a Papanicolaou (Pap) test or by cotesting (Pap and human papillomavirus [HPV]). Given the importance of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection in the development of cervical cancer, some studies are now suggesting the use of primary hrHPV testing as a possible screening modality. To gain further insight into the role of both Pap testing and hrHPV testing, the authors examined prior screening results in a population of Chinese patients with invasive cervical carcinoma. Cases with a histologic diagnosis of invasive cervical carcinoma were retrieved from the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University from January 2011 to October 2014. Prior hrHPV testing and Pap test results within 3 years before the cancer diagnosis were recorded. Of 3714 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma, over a 46-month period, 525 had prior hrHPV testing using Hybrid Capture 2 within 3 years and 238 patients had Pap cytology testing within 1 year before the histological diagnosis. Within the 1-year period before diagnosis, the overall hrHPV-negative rate was 15.5% (74 of 477 patients) and the Pap-negative rate was also 15.5% (37 of 238 patients). Only 9 of 231 patients with both hrHPV testing and Pap testing (3.9%) had a double-negative result. Compared with squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma has significantly higher rates of prior negative results with both hrHPV and Pap cytology. The results of the current study demonstrated prior results of hrHPV testing and Pap cytology in a population of women in China who had not undergone intensive prior screening. Both hrHPV testing and Pap cytology were found to have similar negative rates in this population and, not surprisingly, there were fewer women who had negative testing results using both testing modalities. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  8. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Tirapazamine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  9. [Etiology and pathogenesis of precancerous lesions and invasive cervical carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Panjković, Milana; Ivković-Kapicl, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common gynecological malignancy in the world. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is the leading ethiologic agent in the development of premalignant and malignant cervical diseases. HPV is a member of the Papovaviridae family and until now over 100 types have been recognized There are two types of viral infection: latent and productive. Virus induced oncogenesis is the result of interaction between virus oncoproteins E6 and E7 and tumor supresor host genes p53 and Rb. Many cofactors such as immunosuppression, early sexual relationship, multiple sexual partners, other sexualy transsmited infections and smoking are contributing factors of the precancerous and invasive cervical lesions. According to the oncogenic potential HPV are divided into three groups: low, intermediate and high oncogenic risk viruses. Molecular technics which are used for the virus detection are: In situ hibridisation, Hyybrid capture test and polymerasa chain reaction. Human papilloma virus testing has an important role in the follow up and treatment of women with "atypical squamous cells of unknown significant" changes in cervical smears and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, changes in punch biopsy.

  10. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Andolino, David L.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Maluccio, Mary; Kwo, Paul; Tector, A. Joseph; Zook, Jennifer; Johnstone, Peter A.S.; Cardenes, Higinia R.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2009, 60 patients with liver-confined HCC were treated with SBRT at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center: 36 Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) Class A and 24 CTP Class B. The median number of fractions, dose per fraction, and total dose, was 3, 14 Gy, and 44 Gy, respectively, for those with CTP Class A cirrhosis and 5, 8 Gy, and 40 Gy, respectively, for those with CTP Class B. Treatment was delivered via 6 to 12 beams and in nearly all cases was prescribed to the 80% isodose line. The records of all patients were reviewed, and treatment response was scored according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Local control (LC), time to progression (TTP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier. Results: The median follow-up time was 27 months, and the median tumor diameter was 3.2 cm. The 2-year LC, PFS, and OS were 90%, 48%, and 67%, respectively, with median TTP of 47.8 months. Subsequently, 23 patients underwent transplant, with a median time to transplant of 7 months. There were no {>=}Grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities. Thirteen percent of patients experienced an increase in hematologic/hepatic dysfunction greater than 1 grade, and 20% experienced progression in CTP class within 3 months of treatment. Conclusions: SBRT is a safe, effective, noninvasive option for patients with HCC {<=}6 cm. As such, SBRT should be considered when bridging to transplant or as definitive therapy for those ineligible for transplant.

  11. Prevalence and impact on clinicopathological characteristics of human papillomavirus-16 DNA in cervical lymph node metastases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel; Koopmann, Mario; Rudack, Claudia

    2011-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a basic risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Little knowledge exists about the impact of HPV on clinical diagnostic and therapy of patients with HNSCC. We evaluated the evidence of HPV16 in 131 retrospectively collected HNSCC and associated cervical lymph node metastases by HPV16 real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and p16 immunohistochemistry and its impact on clinicopathological characteristics. HPV16-DNA and p16 overexpression were present in 27% of HNSCCs. All cervical lymph node metastases of HPV16-positive HNSCC showed HPV16-DNA. HPV16 was strongly associated with tumors arising from the oropharyngeal site (p < .000001), favorable outcome after standard therapy in univariate (p = .001) and multivariate (p = .0004) analysis, and cervical lymph node metastases before primary detection. HPV16-diagnostic in cervical lymph node metastases can predict the site of tumor origin in case of carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) and favorable outcome and should, therefore, be included in routine diagnostic workup. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Risk factors for cervical lymph node metastasis in superficial head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Toru; Kishimoto, Seiji; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Yukiko; Tsuchida, Tomohiro

    2015-03-30

    The necessity of transoral surgery for head and neck carcinoma is increasing, but its indications for the treatment of superficial head and neck carcinomas have not yet been established. This study was intended to help establish the standard indications for transoral surgery and additional therapy in patients with superficial head and neck carcinoma. Sixty-two patients with 83 superficial head and neck carcinoma underwent transoral tumor resection at the Cancer Institute Hospital between June 2006 and September 2011. We measured the tumor size and thickness, examined the gross appearance, permeation of vessels, and droplet infiltration, and analyzed the correlations between each parameter. Sessile type of tumor on gross appearance showed a significantly higher incidence of thickness≥1000 µm than the other types. Tumor thickness≥1000 µm was associated with higher incidences of permeation of vessels, droplet infiltration, and cervical lymph node metastasis. In superficial head and neck carcinoma, if the endoscopic gross appearance is the sessile type, tumor thickness is likely to be ≥1000 µm and risk of cervical lymph node metastasis is increased.

  13. [Cancer procoagulant activity in serum and neoplastic tissue in cases of cervical and uterine carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Jóźwik, Maciej; Jóźwik, Marcin; Zalewska, Beata; Panek, Grzegorz; Sulkowski, Stanisław; Skrzydlewski, Zdzisław

    2004-09-01

    Cancer procoagulant (CP) is a sulfhydryl proteinase thought to be synthesized mainly by neoplastic cells. Consequently, increased CP activity in blood serum was interpreted as being associated with the presence of a proliferative process in the host's body. To date, CP activity has not been systematically studied in cases of genital carcinoma. The present study is aimed at evaluation of CP activity in women with genital carcinoma. A case-controlled study backed up by histopathological examination. Peripheral blood was sampled preoperatively in a sterile manner from an antecubital vein, from 16 women with cervical carcinoma and 15 women with uterine carcinoma. Blood for the reference group of 12 healthy women was obtained in an identical manner after an overnight fast. The CP activity in serum was determined using the coagulative method according to Gordon and Benson, and was expressed as coagulation time in seconds (s). The CP activity in 10% tissue homogenates (in saline) of genital cancer was determined by the chromogenic method according to Colucci et al. The mean CP activity in serum of women with cervical carcinoma (78.28 +/- 15.25 s) and of women with uterine carcinoma (79.63 +/- 12.02 s) was significantly different (P < 0.0001) from the respective values found in healthy women (281.33 +/- 43.19 s). The CP activity in neoplastic tissue was 28.50 +/- 6.40 nmol pNa/mL for cervical carcinoma, and 28.31 +/- 3.92 nmol pNa/mL for uterine carcinoma, both values being significantly higher (P < 0.0009) than the activity found in the normal tissues. There was no established relationship between neoplastic CP activity and FIGO staging of the disease. This is the first study to demonstrate the concomitant presence of CP activity in serum and neoplastic tissue of women with genital carcinoma. These patients have decreased coagulation time and thus are likely to develop coagulation disturbances in the course of their cancer. There may be a role for CP as a tumor marker of

  14. Carcinoma of the cervical stump: comparison of radiation therapy factors, survival and patterns of failure with carcinoma of the intact uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Igboeli, P.; Kapp, D.S.; Lawrence, R.; Schwartz, P.E.

    1983-02-01

    Eighty-nine patients with previously untreated invasive carcinoma of the cervical stump were seen at Yale-New Haven Hospital from 1953 through 1977. This represented 9.4% of the carcinomas of the cervix seen during this time period. Eighty-five of the 89 patients (95.5%) had ''true'' cancers of the cervical stump diagnosed 2 years or more after subtotal hysterectomy, while 4 of the 89 patients (4.5%) had ''coincident'' cancers diagnosed within 2 years of the subtotal hysterectomy. All cervical cancers were staged by the F.I.G.O. classification. Patient characteristics, methods of management, failure sites and survival of patients with carcinoma of the cervical stump were compared to those patients with carcinoma in the intact uterus. Patients with cervical stump cancers were treated in a similar manner to those with carcinomas of the intact uterus, using a combination of external beam irradiation and intracavitary radium. The stump cancer patients had a similar stage distribution to the patients with cancers of the intact uterus but, on the average, they were older and received less irradiation. The patterns of failure were similar on a stage for stage basis, but the survival and disease-free survival for stump cancer patients were superior to those of the patients with carcinoma of the intact uterus.

  15. A case of EMRC for basaloid squamous carcinoma of the cervical esophagus.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishikawa, Jun; Suenaga, Shigeyuki; Okamoto, Takeshi; Okamoto, Fumiki; Miura, Osamu; Sakaida, Isao

    2012-08-16

    Basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSC) of the esophagus is a rare esophageal tumor. A 79-year-old man with a history of proximal gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma in 2000 was followed-up by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) annually. In June 2010, EGD revealed a new protruding lesion in the cervical esophagus. The small lesion was approximately 5 mm in size. A biopsy specimen showed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. We performed endoscopic mucosal resection using a cap-fitted endoscope (EMRC). The histological diagnosis of the endoscopically resected specimen was BSC and the invasion depth was limited to the muscularis mucosae. Horizontal and vertical margins were negative. We report the case of superficial BSC in the cervical esophagus successfully resected by EMRC.

  16. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of cervix: Cytological Features on Conventional Cervical Smear.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Ruchi; Arora, Vinod K; Singh, Bharat

    2017-03-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare neoplasm of the cervix. The importance of distinguishing this undifferentiated carcinoma with a predominant lymphocytic infiltrate lies in the fact that despite being poorly differentiated they have a better prognosis. The diagnosis however becomes more challenging when the pathologist is provided with a small cervical biopsy or a Papanicolaou smear. While the reports describing histology and their relation to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are many, there are only few case reports describing the cytology of these tumors. We describe the cytological features of LELC of cervix on conventional smear and correlate it with the histopathological findings of the same. A 67-year-old multiparous Hindu woman presented to the gynecology outpatient department with the history of postmenopausal bleeding for the past six months. The cytological examination of the cervical smear (Papanicolaou stain) was done followed by cervical and endometrial biopsy. Based on Papanicolaou smear and biopsy suggestive of a poorly differentiated carcinoma a radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Hysterectomy specimen showed the morphology of LELC and was then correlated with the cervical smears retrospectively. On review of cytological smears it was seen that the tumor cell clusters had an abundant lymphoid background, which was overlooked earlier. Immunohistochemistry for EBV was negative. We conclude that the presence of undifferentiated tumor cell clusters with ill-defined cell borders and large number of lymphoid cells in the background suggest the diagnosis of LELC on cervical cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:239-242. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Clinical report on external irradiation combined with californium-252 neutron intraluminal brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanyu; Wang, Keming; Sun, Jian; Geng, Xin; Zhang, Weiming

    2007-01-01

    Neutron rays produce high linear energy transfer radiation, which has particular radiobiological characteristics. The aim of the study was to observe the curative effects and complications of external irradiation combined with californium-252 (252Cf) neutron intraluminal brachytherapy for treatment of cervical carcinoma. From December 2000 to December 2004, 128 cases of cervical carcinoma staged IIA to IIIB were treated with 252Cf neutron intraluminal brachytherapy using 8-10 Gy-eq per fraction, once a week. The total dose at reference point A was 36-40 Gy-eq in 4 to 5 fractions. From the second day after 252Cf neutron intraluminal brachytherapy, the whole pelvic cavity was treated with 6 MV X-ray external irradiation, applying 2 Gy per fraction 4 times per week. After 20-24 Gy of external irradiation, the center of the whole pelvic field was blocked with a 4-cm-wide lead shield; the total dose of external irradiation was 44-50 Gy. The short-term curative effects were 95.3% complete remissions and 4.7% partial remissions. The 3-year and 5-year local control rates were 93.5% and 87.9%, respectively. The 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 87.5% and 70%, respectively. The rates of radiation complications were 4.7% for radiation cystitis, 7.8% for radiation proctitis, 6.3% for vaginal contracture and adhesion, and 5.5% for protracted radiation proctitis. The results of univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that differentiation of tumor cells and lymphatic metastasis are the main factors related to the clinical prognosis of cervical carcinoma. A combination of external irradiation with 252Cf neutron intraluminal brachytherapy for treatment of cervical carcinoma can be well tolerated by patients. The rate of local tumor control is high and radiation complications are few.

  18. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix Presented as Submucosal Tumor Arising From a Background of Cervical Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Mariko; Kai, Keita; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Nakao, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Masatoshi; Aishima, Shinichi

    2017-03-08

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the uterine cervix without prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure is rare, and its etiology is unclear. We present a case of cervical CCC presenting as a submucosal tumor, which strongly suggests an association between cervical endometriosis and cervical CCC. A 56-year-old postmenopausal Japanese woman visited a gynecologic clinic with a complaint of watery vaginal discharge. A few atypical cells suggesting adenocarcinoma were detected in a cervical cytologic specimen. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion with a solid component at the uterine cervix. Under a tentative diagnosis of cervical cancer, surgery was performed. Although a freshly resected specimen initially showed no tumorous lesion in the cervical mucosa, cutting of the mucosa revealed a solid tumor with a final diagnosis of CCC. The findings of aggregation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and ectopic endometrium adjacent to the tumor strongly suggest that this tumor arose from cervical endometriosis.

  19. [Carcinoma of unknown origin++ with latero-cervical metastasis. Diagnostic problems. Retrospective analysis of 110 cases of latero-cervical tumefaction].

    PubMed

    Santacroce, L; Luperto, P; Fiorella, M L; Losacco, T

    2000-01-01

    The cervical region, despite to its little extension, is very important by the surgical and anatomical point of view. This region, occupied by a lot of organs, sometimes is the site of metastasis from carcinomas located in various parts of the body. In some cases the origin site of cancer stays unknown. The aim of this paper is the retrospective analysis of 110 cases of latero cervical swellings and the related problems of differential diagnosis.

  20. The Effects of Body Mass Index on Complications and Survival Outcomes in Patients with Cervical Carcinoma Undergoing Curative Chemoradiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kizer, Nora T.; Thaker, Premal H.; Gao, Feng; Zighelboim, Israel; Powell, Matthew A.; Rader, Janet S.; Mutch, David G.; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of body mass index (BMI) on treatment outcomes for patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma undergoing definitive chemoradiation is unclear. Methods This study cohort included all cervical carcinoma patients (n = 404) with stage IB1 and positive lymph nodes or stage ≥ IB2 treated at our facility from January 1998 to January 2008. Mean follow-up time was 47.2 months. BMI was calculated using the National Institute of Health online calculator. BMI categories were created according to the World Health Organization classification system. Primary outcomes were overall survival, disease free survival, and complication rate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and compared using Cox proportional hazard models. Results On multivariate analysis, when compared to normal weight subjects (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), a BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was associated with decreased overall survival (HR 2.37, 95% CI 1.28 - 4.38, p<0.01). The 5-year overall survivals were 33%, 60%, and 68% for a BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, and a BMI > 24.9 kg/m2 respectively. A BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was associated with increased risk for grade 3 or 4 complications when compared to patients with a BMI > 24.9 kg/m2 (radiation enteritis: 16.7% vs. 13.6 % p= 0.03, fistula: 11.1% vs. 8.8% p= 0.05, bowel obstruction 33.3% vs. 4.4% p< 0.001, lymphedema: 5.6% vs. 1.2% p=0.02). Conclusions Underweight patients (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) with locally advanced cervical cancer have diminished overall survival and more complications than normal weight and obese patients. PMID:20945318

  1. Oncostatin M receptor is a novel therapeutic target in cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Caffarel, Maria M; Coleman, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Treatments have not changed for decades and survival rates for advanced disease remain low. An exciting new molecular target for the treatment of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and possibly for SCCs at other anatomical sites, is the oncostatin M receptor (OSMR). This cell surface cytokine receptor is commonly copy number gained and overexpressed in advanced cervical SCC, changes that are associated with significantly worse clinical outcomes. OSMR overexpression in cervical SCC cells results in enhanced responsiveness to the major ligand oncostatin M (OSM), which induces several pro-malignant effects, including a pro-angiogenic phenotype and increased cell migration and invasiveness. OSMR is a strong candidate for antibody-mediated inhibition, a strategy that has had a major impact on haematological malignancies and various solid tumours such as HER2-positive breast cancers. © 2013 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:24659184

  2. Papillary thyroid carcinoma involving cervical neck lymph nodes: correlations with lymphangiogenesis and ultrasound features.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonjung; Park, Kyung Joo; Ryu, Seungho; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Yun, Jisup; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Chun, Mison

    2012-01-01

    Stratification of risk factors for cervical lymph node metastasis (LNM) in thyroid papillary carcinoma is important for providing standards for post-operative adjuvant radio-iodine therapy and for patient prognosis. We investigated pathological factors based on the lymphatic vessel system and radiological features associated with tumor with cervical neck LNM. Among patients who had undergone thyroidectomy confirmed to be papillary thyroid carcinoma, we selected 126 age-sex matched paired patients without cervical LNM (group 1) and with LNM (group 2) to evaluate risk factors. Pathological factors evaluated were size, multiplicity, and extra thyroid extension state, based on the pathological reports using stored data. The lymphatic vessel density (LVD) of each tumor was evaluated by staining for VEGFR-3 and D2-40 and correlated with cervical LNM state. Malignant ultrasound features were evaluated to compare the differences between these two groups. Larger tumor size, multiplicity, extrathyroid extension were more common in group 2 (p<0.05). The median percentage of VEGFR-3 for group 1 was 20 (range 0-30) and D2-40 was 13 (range 7-23) while for group 2, VEGFR-3 was 80 (70-90) and D2-40 was 78 (54-114). LVD measured by intratumoral D2-40 staining was 20.6% and 79.4% for group 1 and group 2, respectively. Intra-tumoral lymphatics measured by D2-40 stain had a strong correlation with cervical LNM (Odds 1.230, CI 1.01.-1.499 p value 0.040). Ultrasound (US) features had no significant differences between the two groups although calcifications tended to be higher in group 2 (84% vs. 76% p=0.264). Lymphatic vessel density and nodule echogenicity were not associated with LNM. Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis was most strongly associated with LNM and thus, could be a useful predictive marker for cervical LNM.

  3. Multi-Level 3D Printing Implant For Reconstructing Cervical Spine With Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiucan; Wang, Yiguo; Zhao, Yongfei; Liu, Jianheng; Xiao, Songhua; Mao, Keya

    2017-05-11

    A unique case report. A three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is proposed for reconstructing multi-level cervical spine (C2-C4) after resection of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a middle-age female patient. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm with a relatively favorable prognosis. A metastatic lesion in multi-level cervical spine (C2-C4) destroys neurological functions and causes local instability. Radical excision of the metastasis and reconstruction of the cervical vertebrae sequence conforms with therapeutic principles, while the special-shaped multi-level upper-cervical spine requires personalized implants. 3D printing is an additive manufacturing technology that produces personalized products by accurately layering material under digital model control via a computer. Reporting of this recent technology for reconstructing multi-level cervical spine (C2-C4) is rare in the literature. Anterior-posterior surgery was performed in one stage. Radical resection of the metastatic lesion (C2-C4) and thyroid gland, along with insertion of a personalized implant manufactured by 3D printing technology, were performed to rebuild the cervical spine sequences. The porous implant was printed in Ti6AL4 V with perfect physicochemical properties and biological performance, such as biocompatibility and osteogenic activity. Finally, lateral mass screw fixation was performed via a posterior approach. Patient neurological function gradually improved after the surgery. The patient received 11/17 on the Japanese Orthopedic Association scale and ambulated with a personalized skull-neck-thorax orthosis on postoperative day 11. She received radioiodine I therapy. The plane X-rays and computed tomography revealed no implant displacement or subsidence at the 12-month follow-up mark. The presented case substantiates the use of 3D printing technology, which enables the personalization of products to solve unconventional problems in spinal surgery. 5.

  4. A polycomb-mediated epigenetic field defect precedes invasive cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wijetunga, Neil Ari; Ben-Dayan, Miriam; Tozour, Jessica; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Einstein, Mark H.; Greally, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical carcinoma is preceded by stages of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) that can variably progress to malignancy. Understanding the different molecular processes involved in the progression of pre-malignant CIN is critical to the development of improved predictive and interventional capabilities. We tested the role of regulators of transcription in both the development and the progression of HPV-associated CIN, performing the most comprehensive genomic survey to date of DNA methylation in HPV-associated cervical neoplasia, testing ~2 million loci throughout the human genome in biopsies from 78 HPV+ women, identifying changes starting in early CIN and maintained through carcinogenesis. We identified loci at which DNA methylation is consistently altered, beginning early in the course of neoplastic disease and progressing with disease advancement. While the loss of DNA methylation occurs mostly at intergenic regions, acquisition of DNA methylation is at sites involved in transcriptional regulation, with strong enrichment for targets of polycomb repression. Using an independent cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we validated the loci with increased DNA methylation and found that these regulatory changes were associated with locally decreased gene expression. Secondary validation using immunohistochemistry showed that the progression of neoplasia was associated with increasing polycomb protein expression specifically in the cervical epithelium. We find that perturbations of genomic regulatory processes occur early and persist in cervical carcinoma. The results indicate a polycomb-mediated epigenetic field defect in cervical neoplasia that may represent a target for early, topical interventions using polycomb inhibitors. PMID:27557505

  5. Differential effects of lipid fractions from silver carp brain on human cervical carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caixia; Xia, Wenshui; Jiang, Qixing; Xu, Yanshun; Yu, Peipei

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has revealed that n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exhibit anticancer activities. Lipids from a fish brain contain substantial n3 PUFAs. However, no research has been conducted on the action and mechanism of their potent anticancer activities. In this study, total lipids (TLs) from silver carp brain were isolated into polar lipids (PLs) and neutral lipids (NLs), and the anticancer potential of the lipid fractions (LFs) was investigated using the human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line. LFs effectively inhibited the cell proliferation of HeLa cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner by cell cycle arrest at the S stage and by inducing apoptosis. Further analyses indicated that the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential could be one of mechanisms of apoptosis induced by LFs. Among the TLs, PLs have proven to be more effective in inducing cervical carcinoma cell death than NLs. This work will play a role in promoting lipids from silver carp brain as a potential preventive and therapeutic agent against human cervical carcinoma.

  6. Prognostic Value of Baseline Lymphocyte Count in Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Chel Hun; Kang, Heeseok; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Lee, Je-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: This study examined factors predicting tumor response and progression-free survival in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 143 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB2 to IVA) treated with CCRT were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to retrospectively evaluate prognostic factors, including baseline lymphocyte count, that affect tumor response and progression-free survival. Results: Of the variables evaluated, greater baseline lymphocyte count was the factor most predictive of a complete clinical response, followed by smaller tumor size (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed baseline lymphocyte count, which was treated as a continuous variable with every 1 x 10{sup 9} lymphocytes/L, to remain a prognostic factor with an odds ratio of 3.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-7.23). In addition, a statistically significant association (p = 0.023) was found between baseline lymphocyte count and progression-free survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.89) in the Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusions: Despite the small number of patients and possible biologic variation existing in lymphocyte subset number and activity, these findings highlight the strong prognostic value of baseline lymphocyte count in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with CCRT. Therefore, a larger number of patients and analysis of lymphocyte subsets are needed.

  7. Stat3 induces oncogenic Skp2 expression in human cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hanhui; Zhao, Wenrong; Yang, Dan

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of Skp2 by IL-6 or Stat3 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activates Skp2 expression through bound to its promoter region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activates Skp2 expression through recruitment of P300. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activation decreases the P27 stability. -- Abstract: Dysregulated Skp2 function promotes cell proliferation, which is consistent with observations of Skp2 over-expression in many types of human cancers, including cervical carcinoma (CC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying elevated Skp2 expression have not been fully explored. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced Stat3 activation is viewed as crucial for multiple tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that Skp2 is a direct transcriptional target of Stat3 in the human cervical carcinoma cells. Our data show that IL-6 administration or transfection of a constitutively activated Stat3 in HeLa cells activates Skp2 mRNA transcription. Using luciferase reporter and ChIP assays, we show that Stat3 binds to the promoter region of Skp2 and promotes its activity through recruiting P300. As a result of the increase of Skp2 expression, endogenous p27 protein levels are markedly decreased. Thus, our results suggest a previously unknown Stat3-Skp2 molecular network controlling cervical carcinoma development.

  8. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid.

  9. Discordance of Histologic Grade Between Primary and Metastatic Neuroendocrine Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Adesoye, Taiwo; Daleo, Marie A; Loeffler, Agnes G; Winslow, Emily R; Weber, Sharon M; Cho, Clifford S

    2015-12-01

    The prognosis and management of neuroendocrine carcinoma are largely driven by histologic grade as assessed by mitotic activity. The authors reviewed their institutional experience to determine whether the histologic grade of neuroendocrine carcinoma can differ between primary and metastatic tumors. This study examined patients who underwent operative resection of both primary and metastatic foci of neuroendocrine carcinoma. Resected tumors were independently reviewed and categorized as low, intermediate, or high grade as determined by mitotic count. The authors identified 20 patients with metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma treated at their institution between 1997 and 2013 for whom complete pathologic review of primary and metastatic tumors was possible. Primary lesions were found in the small intestine (n = 12), pancreas (n = 7), ampulla (n = 1), stomach (n = 1), and rectum (n = 1). The timing of hepatic metastasis was synchronous in 15 cases and metachronous in 5 cases. The histologic grade was concordant between primary and metastatic tumors in 9 cases and discordant in 11 cases. Among the discordant cases, 7 had a higher metastatic grade than primary grade, and 4 had a lower metastatic grade than primary grade. Metachronous presentation was associated with a higher likelihood of grade discordance (p = 0.03). The histologic grade of all metachronous metastases differed from that of the primary tumors. There is a high prevalence of histologic grade discordance between primary and metastatic foci of neuroendocrine carcinoma, particularly among patients with a metachronous metastatic presentation. Given the importance of histologic grade in disease prognostication and treatment planning, this finding may be informative for the management of patients with metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma.

  10. Aurora-A affects radiosenstivity in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and predicts poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuhua; Yang, Jie; Wang, Ruozheng; Zhang, Zegao; Qi, Xiaoli; Liu, Chunhua; Ma, Miaomiao

    2017-01-01

    Background Definitive radiation therapy (RT) (with or without cisplatin-based chemotherapy) is one of the most effective treatments for cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC), but efficacy is limited due to resistance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the expression of Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A, AURKA)and response to RT in patients with CSCC. Methods The expression of Aurora-A in biopsy specimens of untreated primary tumors in 129 Uyghur patients with CSCC was investigated immunohistochemically. Primary treatment in these patients was definitive radical RT, which consisted of pelvic RT plus brachytherapy (total point A dose:70–85 Gy) (with or without cisplatin-based chemotherapy). The prognostic value of tumoral Aurora-A expression and patients’ clinical outcomes were evaluated. Results Aurora-A expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), large tumor size (P<0.001), low hemoglobin (Hb) level (P=0.011) and recurrence (P<0.001), but not other clinicopathological factors. Definitive RT was unfavorable in patients with high Aurora-A expression (P < 0.001). In 129 enrolled patients, lymph node metastasis, large tumor size, low Hb level, and AURKA overexpression were prognostic factors for both recurrent free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis. However, only high AURKA expression was an adverse independent risk factor for both RFS (hazard ratio, 3.953; 95% CI, 1.473-10.638; P = 0.006) and OS (hazard ratio 9.091; 95%CI 2.597-32.258; P<0.001) in multivariate analyses. Conclusions Aurora-A may serve as a predictive biomarker of radiation response and a therapeutic target to reverse radiation therapy resistance. PMID:28404933

  11. Differences in MHC and TAP-1 expression in cervical cancer lymph node metastases as compared with the primary tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Cromme, F. V.; van Bommel, P. F.; Walboomers, J. M.; Gallee, M. P.; Stern, P. L.; Kenemans, P.; Helmerhorst, T. J.; Stukart, M. J.; Meijer, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    In previous studies we have shown down-regulation of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression in a significant proportion of primary cervical carcinomas, which was found to be strongly correlated with loss of expression of the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP). By contrast, class II MHC expression was frequently up-regulated on neoplastic keratinocytes in these malignancies. In order to investigate whether these changes are associated with biological behaviour of the tumours, 20 cervical carcinomas were analyzed for MHC (HLA-A, HLA-B/C, HLA-DR) and TAP-1 expression in the primary tumours and in lymph node metastases by immunohistochemistry. The results showed a significant increase in the prevalence of HLA-A and HLA-B/C down-regulation in metastasised neoplastic cells as compared with the primary tumour (P = 0.01). In all cases this was accompanied by loss of TAP-1 expression. Up-regulated HLA-DR expression was found exclusively in primary tumours and was absent in the corresponding metastases (P = 0.002). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that loss of TAP-1 and the consequent down-regulation of class I MHC expression provides a selective advantage for neoplastic cervical cells during metastasis. Furthermore, the lack of class II MHC expression in metastasised cells either reflects a different local lymphokine production or indicates that these cells may have escaped CD4+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8198988

  12. Identification and characterization of cancer stem-like cells from primary carcinoma of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dingqing; Peng, Cheng; Li, Cairong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Min; Ling, Bin; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang

    2009-11-01

    Like many other solid tumors, cervical cancer contains a heterogeneous population of cancer cells. Several investigators have identified putative stem cells from solid tumors and cancer cell lines via the capacity to self renew and drive tumor formation. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize a cancer stem-like cell population from primary carcinoma of the cervix uteri. Cervical carcinoma from 19 patients staged I-II following International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) criteria were disaggregated and subjected to growth conditions selective for stem cells. Eight of nineteen tumor-derived cultures encompassed stem-like cells capable of self-renewal, extensive proliferation as clonal non-adherent spherical clusters. Cell markers of spheroid were identified as CD44+CK17+. Cell survival assays showed the sphere-forming cells were only 48% inhibited by doxorubicin whereas 78% inhibited by paclitaxel. Chemo-resistance may partly attribute to the exclusive expression of ABC transporter. To investigate the tumorigenicity of these stem-like cells, xenoengraftment of 10(5) dissociated spheroid cells allowed full recapitulation of the original tumor, whereas the same amount of tumor cells without non-adherent spheroid selection remained non-tumorigenic. Stemness properties of these spheroid cells were further established by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting, demonstrating the expression of embryonic and adult stemness-related genes (Oct-4, Piwil2, C-myc, Stat3 and Sox2). Based on these findings, we assert that cervical cancer contain a subpopulation of tumor initiating cells with stem-like properties, thus facilitating the approach to therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating the tumorigenic subpopulation within cervical cancer.

  13. Gingival metastasis from primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Wedgwood, D; Rusen, D; Balk, S

    1979-03-01

    A case of primary hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the gingiva is described. Hepatocellular carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy, generally occurring in a cirrhotic liver, which rarely metastasizes to the maxillofacial area. Of eight such cases in the English-language literature, the present case is the fourth involving metastasis to the gingiva. Hepatocellular carcinoma would seem to metastasize with equal frequency to the gingiva and to the mandibular bone. In the case described, histologic examination of the gingival lesion definitively established the diagnosis following somewhat equivocal results of needle biopsy of the liver.

  14. Primary small-cell carcinoma of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Tuoc; Howard, Evan; Bredeweg, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Early diagnosis of rare breast cancers is expected to occur more frequently as screening compliance improves and diagnostic modalities become more sensitive. Well-defined treatment algorithms exist for the management of ductal and lobular carcinomas; however, less information is available to guide the treatment of atypical breast cancers. This case report describes a 38-year-old African American woman with primary small cell carcinoma of the breast and her treatment.

  15. Risk factors and prognosis of IB-IIB cervical carcinoma with common iliac lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Long; Zheng, Min; Liu, Ji-Hong; Xiong, Ying; Ding, Hui; Tang, Li; Wang, Hui-Yun

    2010-04-01

    Pelvic lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor of cervical cancer. The prognosis of cervical cancer patients with common iliac lymph node metastasis is poor, but few systematic studies have been reported . This study was to investigate the characteristics, risk, treatment and prognosis of stage IB-IIB cervical carcinoma patients with common iliac lymph node metastasis. A total of 960 patients with cervical cancer receiving radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy were selected from the hospitalized patients in the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University between January 1995 and December 2005, and analyzed retrospectively. Of the 960 patients, 288 (30.0%) had pelvic lymph node metastasis, and 45 (4.7%) had positive common iliac lymph node. The 5-year overall survival rate (OS) of patients with common iliac lymph node metastasis was 46.1%, and 67.5% in patients with other pelvic lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). Univariate analysis showed that clinical stage, serum level of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) > 4 microg/L before treatment, depth of cervical invasion > or =2/3 and positive parametrial margin were associated with common iliac lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). Patients with > or =3 pelvic lymph node metastasis (excluding common iliac lymph node) or recurrence had poor prognosis (P < 0.05). Factors predictive of common iliac lymph node metastasis on Logistic forward regression were SCC-Ag > 4 microg/L (P = 0.026, OR = 2.303) before treatment and positive parametrial margin (P = 0.045, OR = 2.634). Cervical cancer patients with common iliac lymph node metastasis had poorer prognosis compared with patients with other pelvic lymph node metastasis. SCC-Ag >4 microg/L before treatment and positive parametrial margin were the independent predictive factors for common iliac lymph node metastasis of cervical carcinoma. Pelvic lymph node metastasis (excluding common iliac lymph node) > or = 3 or recurrence was prognostic

  16. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET Scan, CT Scan, and Ferumoxtran-10 MRI Scan Before Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Finding Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer or High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  17. Secreting Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Pituitary Carcinoma with Cervical Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Grandidge, Carly; Hall, Andy; Kitchen, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Pituitary carcinoma is defined by either metastases outside the central nervous system or noncontiguous foci within the central nervous system. This case report details the first documented case of a pathologically isolated follicle-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary carcinoma and its presentation of metastasis. A 63-year-old man developed intrascapular pain radiating up his neck to his occiput. He had undergone a transsphenoidal hypophysectomy 2 years previously for an atypical pituitary macroadenoma. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging identified a focal, solitary, well-circumscribed, homogeneous T2 high-signal intradural, extramedullary enhancing mass at C2-3 in a right ventral parasagittal location, extending toward the exit foramina. On surgical excision with a laminectomy, the mass demonstrated a morphologic appearance of a malignant neuroendocrine tumor with an immunoprofile similar to the original atypical pituitary adenoma. This was in keeping with metastatic disease secondary to a follicle-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary carcinoma. Although rare, metastatic spread is recognized in patients with atypical pituitary adenoma. This should form the differential diagnosis for such patients presenting with symptoms that could be attributed to metastatic lesions within the neuraxis. In these patients, who undergo regular surveillance in joint neuroendocrine clinics, more urgent investigation of new spinal pain should be instigated to exclude metastatic disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Precise Classification of Cervical Carcinomas Combined with Somatic Mutation Profiling Contributes to Predicting Disease Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Spaans, Vivian M.; Trietsch, Marjolijn D.; Peters, Alexander A. W.; Osse, Michelle; ter Haar, Natalja; Fleuren, Gert J.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (AC), and adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) are the most common histological subtypes of cervical cancer. Differences in the somatic mutation profiles of these subtypes have been suggested. We investigated the prevalence of somatic hot-spot mutations in three well-defined cohorts of SCC, AC, and ASC and determined the additional value of mutation profiling in predicting disease outcome relative to well-established prognostic parameters. Materials and Methods Clinicopathological data were collected for 301 cervical tumors classified as SCC (n=166), AC (n=55), or ASC (n=80). Mass spectrometry was used to analyze 171 somatic hot-spot mutations in 13 relevant genes. Results In 103 (34%) tumors, 123 mutations were detected (36% in SCC, 38% in AC, and 28% in ASC), mostly in PIK3CA (20%) and KRAS (7%). PIK3CA mutations occurred more frequently in SCC than AC (25% vs. 11%, P=0.025), whereas KRAS mutations occurred more frequently in AC than SCC (24% vs. 3%, P<0.001) and ASC (24% vs. 3%, P<0.001). A positive mutation status correlated with worse disease-free survival (HR 1.57, P=0.043). In multivariate analysis, tumor diameter, parametrial infiltration, and lymph node metastasis, but not the presence of a somatic mutation, were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion Potentially targetable somatic mutations occurred in 34% of cervical tumors with different distributions among histological subtypes. Precise classification of cervical carcinomas in combination with mutation profiling is valuable for predicting disease outcome and may guide the development and selection of tumor-specific treatment approaches. PMID:26197069

  19. [Serum angiotensin converting enzyme in patients with primary liver carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Huskić, J; Kulenović, H; Kardum, D; Babić, N; Knezević, Z

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that serum activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; EC 3.4.15.1) significantly decreases in patients with carcinoma of different localizations. There is no information in literature about measuring this enzyme in primary liver carcinoma patients. The serum activity of ACE has been examined on 15 primary liver carcinoma patients, 10 patients with cirrhosis, and 26 healthy subjects. Serum activity has been determined by spectrophotometric method using synthetic substrate Hip-His-Leu. The results were given in units which correspond to one nmol of hippuric acid released by enzymatic hydrolyze of Hip-His-Leu substrate in one minute on serum milliliter. The results have shown that serum activity of ACE increased in patients with cirrhosis (37.06 +/- 2.9; X +/- SEM; p < 0.05), and decreased in primary liver carcinoma patients (23.44 +/- 1.87; p < 0.01), what was statistically significant in comparison with the activity of the same enzyme in healthy subjects (29.90 +/- 2.72). These results point out the possibility of clinical application of measuring serum ACE activity as one of primary liver carcinoma marker in differential diagnosis of the disease.

  20. High grade serous ovarian carcinoma with serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in a case presented with atypical glandular cell favor neoplasm cervical cytology and dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mun-Kun; Lee, Ming-Hsun; Ding, Dah-Ching; Chu, Sung-Chao; Chu, Tang-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    This report describes a case of serous ovarian carcinoma with occult serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), which presented as atypical glandular cells favor neoplasia (AGC-FN) with Pap cytology and dermatomyositis. A 48-year-old woman presented with symptoms of dermatomyositis. An AGC-FN result from a Pap smear, with an absence of a cervical or endometrial lesion was noted. After cancer surveillance, ovarian high grade serous carcinoma associated with serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma was diagnosed. Two weeks following surgical excision of the carcinoma, dramatic remission of the dermatomyositis symptoms was evident. The patient had serous carcinoma of the ovary with tubal STIC, which presented as dermatomyositis. The AGC-FN identified from a Pap smear hinted at a diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. These presentations point to an occult malignancy in the genital tract and demand careful diagnostic workup. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Cervical level IIb metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kou, Yurong; Zhao, Tengfei; Huang, Shaohui; Liu, Jie; Duan, Weiyi; Wang, Yunjing; Wang, Zechen; Li, Delong; Ning, Chunliu; Sun, Changfu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify whether level IIb dissection should be performed or avoided in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma by meta-analysis. Articles that were published before June 2017 were searched electronically in four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Ovid and China National Knowledge Infrastructure) without any date or language restrictions by two independent reviewers. Abstracts and full-text papers which investigated the cervical metastases to level IIb from primary head and neck cancers and were deemed potentially relevant were screened. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3. Four hundred and fifty-five abstracts and 129 full-text papers were screened, and 22 studies were included in the analysis. Among the 2001 patients included, 112 patients had level IIb metastases, the pooled frequency of which was 6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-7.0). Among the 400 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma from 12 studies, 37 patients had level IIb metastases, the pooled incidence of which was 7% (95% CI: 5.0-10.0). Metastases to level IIb always went together with level IIa, and only three patients were found to have isolated level IIb metastases without involving the other levels. Due to the low frequency of level IIb nodal metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients and rare occurrence of isolated level IIb, level IIb dissection could be avoided when the primary lesions were in early stages (T1 and T2), with the exception of tongue cancer. It is recommended to dissect level IIb tongue cancers without considering the stages of primary lesions and the lymph nodes status. It is also suggested that level IIb dissection should be performed in patients preoperatively or intraoperatively found with multilevel neck metastasis, especially level IIa metastasis.

  2. Concurrent primary peritoneal low-grade serous carcinoma and endometrial high-grade serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lockyer, Megan G; Deavers, Michael T; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda

    2015-05-01

    A 64-yr-old postmenopausal woman with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and atypical glandular cell of undetermined significance on her Pap test was found to have endometrial serous carcinoma (high grade) involving a polyp in a subsequent endometrial biopsy. She underwent hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with multiple biopsies of the peritoneum. Microscopic examination of the entirely submitted uterus showed no residual serous carcinoma. Multiple foci of low-grade serous tumor with extensive calcifications and psammoma bodies were identified on the surfaces of the left fallopian tube, ovaries, and biopsies of the peritoneum, consistent with peritoneal primary low-grade serous carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of low-grade serous carcinoma of the peritoneum with a concurrent (high-grade) serous carcinoma of the endometrium arising from an endometrial polyp.

  3. A Rare Breast Tumor Confused with Ductal Carcinoma in Situ, Primary Solid Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alıcı, Ömer; Aydoğdu, Serap Korkmaz

    2014-01-01

    The concept of pure neuroendocrine breast tumors was initially defined by Sapino et al. There are three sub-types of these tumors: solid, small cell/oat cell, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. To diagnose neuroendocrine tumors, more than half of the tumor cells must have neuroendocrine differentiation. The possibility of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma must always be excluded in the differential diagnosis. In addition, it should be considered that solid neuroendocrine (NE) carcinomas can be confused with ductal carcinoma in situ due to their similar morphologic appearance. In this article, a patient with primary solid neuroendocrine breast cancer who had been diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ at another center was presented along with morphological and immunohistochemical features.

  4. RNA interference targeting CD147 inhibits the invasion of human cervical squamous carcinoma cells by downregulating MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaobin; Wu, Weiguang; Shi, Haixia; Han, Jianqiu

    2013-07-01

    Cervical squamous carcinoma is a highly invasive tumour that has a great capacity to metastasise. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN or CD147), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein. It is highly expressed on malignant tumour cell surfaces, including human cervical squamous carcinoma. It also plays a critical role in the invasive and metastatic activity of malignant cells by stimulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The anti-invasive effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against CD147 on human cervical squamous carcinoma cells and its possible pathways has been investigated. The downregulation of CD147 by transfection with siRNA resulted in MMP-9 expression and decreased activity in the cervical squamous carcinoma cell line SiHa. In vitro analysis showed that the invasive capacity of SiHa cells decreased. Thus CD147 inhibition and subsequent MMP-9 deletion may have anti-tumour effects by inhibiting the invasiveness of human cervical squamous carcinoma cells.

  5. The three most common human papillomavirus oncogenic types and their integration state in Thai women with cervical precancerous lesions and carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Aromseree, Sirinart; Chaiwongkot, Arkom; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Patarapadungkit, Natcha; Pientong, Chamsai

    2014-11-01

    To understand the potential role in cervical cancer development of the three most common high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPVs) in Thai women, HPV genotypes and viral genome statuses in different cervical lesions were investigated. Cervical tissues consisting of no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (84 cases), grade I cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (176 cases), grade II-III cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (91 cases), and squamous cell carcinoma (66 cases) were subjected for HPV genotyping by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot hybridization assay and for HPV genome status determination by amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts (APOT) assay. HPV prevalence was 28.6% in no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, 40.3% in grade I cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, 70.3% in grade II-III cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 86.4% in squamous cell carcinoma cases. The three most common HR-HPV types were HPV 16, 58, and 18 which were distributed in all cervical lesions. HPV physical statuses could be investigated in 4 no cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, 2 grade I cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, 28 grade II-III cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and 31 squamous cell carcinomas. The integrated-derived transcripts were found 3.6% in grade II-III cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 48.4% in squamous cell carcinoma, whereas no viral genome integration was found in the group of no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or grade I cervical intraepithelial neoplasia samples. The frequencies of HR-HPV integration in squamous cell carcinoma were found 40%, 100%, 20% of HPV 16, 18, and 58. This study indicates the oncogenic potential ability of the three most common HR-HPVs associated with cervical cancer progression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cervical metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate and maxillary alveolus.

    PubMed

    Koshkareva, Yekaterina; Liu, Jeffrey C; Lango, Miriam; Galloway, Thomas; Gaughan, John P; Ridge, John A

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to determine the incidence and treatment outcomes of neck metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the hard palate and/or maxillary alveolus after surgical excision of the primary tumor. We also sought to identify any risk factors for recurrence. Our study population was made up of 20 patients-9 men and 11 women, aged 46 to 88 years (mean: 72.6)-who had undergone excision of an SCC of the hard palate and/or maxillary alveolus at a tertiary care cancer center over a 7-year period. Half of all patients were former tobacco users. Of the 20 tumors, 10 involved the maxillary alveolus, 4 involved the hard palate, and 6 involved both sites. Three patients were clinically categorized as T1, 9 as T2, 6 as T3, and 2 as T4; pathologically, 8 tumors were categorized as T4a. In addition to maxillectomy, a neck dissection was performed in 7 patients-4 therapeutically and 3 electively. Eight of 20 patients experienced a recurrence: 4 local, 6 regional, and 2 distant (several patients had a recurrence at more than one site). Univariate analysis identified perineural invasion (p = 0.04) as a statistically significant risk factor for recurrence. Of 14 patients with a clinicopathologically negative neck, 5 (36%) developed a cervical recurrence, and 4 of them died of their disease. An advanced stage (T4 vs.

  7. [Current strategies in radiotherapy for cervical and endometrial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Titova, V A; Kharchenko, N V; Dobrovol'skaia, N Iu; Kreĭnina, Iu M

    2009-01-01

    We used combinations of taxan-based neoadjuvant and adjuvant full-dose chemotherapy and aggressive combined radiotherapy including clinical target volume extension, increased total dosage, hyperthermia, cryo- and local chemotherapy as radiosensitizers, for treatment of invasive and locally-advanced breast cancer or endometrial carcinoma with poor prognosis. 3D-ultrasound/CT/MRI--based designing of radiotherapy and monitoring of dynamic definition of target volume and "high risk volume" in organs at risk in cases of tumor progression was an indispensable measure. As a result, no local recurrence was reported in 73% for 36 months.

  8. [Cervical lymph node metastasis in clinical N0 papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan-gui; Zhang, Bin; An, Chang-ming; Zhang, Zong-min; Li, Zheng-jiang; Xu, Zhen-gang; Tang, Ping-zhang

    2011-11-01

    To study the patterns of cervical lymph nodes metastasis and the surgical managements of cervical lymph nodes in clinical N0 (cN0) papillary thyroid carcinoma. Fifty-one consecutive patients with papillary carcinomas without clinical evidence of cervical lymph node involvement were included in the study between August 2007 and September 2010, in which 53 sides underwent neck lymph node dissection. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy intra-operative hand-held gamma probe detecting and blue dye technique were used to detect the sentinel lymph node (SLN). SLNs were sent to frozen-section and the results were compared with specimen of routine selective neck dissection. All the pathologic specimens were reviewed by pathologists, counting the numbers of pathologic positive nodes and mapping the localization of positive nodes in level II, III, IV, V and VI respectively. The following criteria were used to study the predictive value of lateral neck compartment lymph node metastasis: age, multifocality of the tumor, extracapsular spread (ECS), tumor size, and the number of central compartment metastasis nodes. Univariate analysis with the χ2 test was used to analyze the statistical correlation between lateral neck compartment lymph node metastasis and the other clinical factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the multivariate correlates of lateral neck compartment metastasis. The occult lymph node metastasis and lateral neck metastasis rates were 77.4% and 58.5% respectively, central compartment metastasis ≥3 nodes was the only independent predictive factor for the metastasis in lateral neck. Twelve sides were pN0 and other 41 sides were pN+ in all 53 side specimens. Of 41 sides with pN+, 17 sides (41.5%) involved single site and 24 sides (58.5%) involved multi-sites. The distribution of metastasis lymph nodes:level VI 62.3%, level III 52.8%, level IV 30.2%, level II 18.9%, and level V 0%. Cervical occult lymph node metastasis in cN0 papillary

  9. SU-E-P-18: Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Cervical Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, W; Qiao, X; Zhou, Z; Song, Y; Zhang, R; Zhen, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze the outcomes and prognostic factors of cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: Thirty-seven patients with cervical esophageal SCC treated with IMRT were analyzed retrospectively. They received 54–66 Gy in 27–32 fractions. Nineteen patients received concurrent (n=12) or sequential (n=7) platinum-based two drugs chemoradiotherapy. Overall survival (OS), local control rates (LCR) and prognostic factors were evaluated. Acute toxicities and patterns of first failures were observed. Results: The median follow-up was 46 months for alive patients. The l-, 3-, 4- and 5-year OS of the all patients were 83.8%, 59.1%, 47.5% and 32.6% respectively. The median survival time was 46 months. The l-, 3-,4- and 5-year LCR were 82.9%, 63.0%, 54.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Univariate and Multivariate analysis all showed that size of GTV was an independent prognostic factor (p=0.033, p=0.039). There were no patients with Grade 3 acute radiation esophagitis and Grade 2–4 acute pneumonitis. The local failure accounted for 70.0% of all treatment-related failures. Conclusion: IMRT is safe and effective in the treatment of cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Size of GTV is an independent prognostic factor. Local failure still remains the main reason of treatment failures. The authors declare no conflicts of interest in preparing this article.

  10. Late metastatic colon cancer masquerading as primary jejunal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Meshikhes, A-WN; Joudeh, AA

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis to the small bowel from a previously resected colorectal cancer is rare and may erroneously be diagnosed as a primary small bowel carcinoma. It usually occurs several years after the primary resection. We present the case of a 67-year-old man who had undergone left hemicolectomy for colon cancer 3 years earlier and returned with subacute small bowel obstruction. This was initially thought, based on preoperative radiological findings and normal colonoscopic examination, to be due a primary jejunal cancer. Even at surgery, the lesion convincingly appeared as an obstructing primary small bowel carcinoma. However, the histology of the resected small bowel revealed metastatic colon cancer. This rare and an unusual metastatic occurrence some years after the primary resection is described and reviewed. PMID:26890851

  11. Aberrant TIMELESS expression is associated with poor clinical survival and lymph node metastasis in early-stage cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijing; He, Weiling; Shi, Yongjie; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Sailan; Zhang, Fengxiang; Yang, Jiarui; Xie, Chuanmiao; Zhang, Yanna

    2017-01-01

    TIMELESS is a highly conserved protein required for the maintenance of normal mammalian circadian oscillations and for controlling cellular metabolism and proliferation. Recently, TIMELESS was implicated in the tumorigenesis of certain cancers. However, little is known on TIMELESS protein expression and its potential as a prognostic factor in cervical cancer. Here, we investigate TIMELESS expression pattern and its clinicopathological significance in early-stage cervical carcinoma. TIMELESS mRNA and protein expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and western blot analysis in cervical cancer cell lines, a normal cervical cell line, as well as in six pairs of surgically removed cervical cancer and adjacent normal cervical tissues. A total of 189 paraffin-embedded cervical carcinoma specimens were detected and diagnosed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and the clinical significance of TIMELESS expression was further analyzed. Aberrant TIMELESS mRNA and protein expression were demonstrated in cervical cancer cell lines compared with the normal cervical cell line. TIMELESS mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased in cervical cancer specimens compared with adjacent non-cancerous cervical specimens. TIMELESS protein expression was significantly associated with the age (P=0.011), clinical stage (P<0.001), pelvic lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (P=0.003), tumor recurrence (P=0.015), vital status (P<0.001), tumor differentiation grade (P<0.001), property of the surgical margin (P=0.036) and lymphovascular space involvement (P=0.001). Patients with increased TIMELESS protein expression showed strong tendencies to receive postoperative radiotherapy (P=0.002). Upregulation of TIMELESS correlated with poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Univariate and multivariate Cox-regression analyses showed that TIMELESS can be regarded as an independent predictive biomarker for poor clinical outcome for early

  12. Up-regulation of expression and lack of 5' CpG island hypermethylation of p16 INK4a in HPV-positive cervical carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Tatiana A; Golovina, Daria A; Zavalishina, Larisa E; Volgareva, Galina M; Katargin, Alexey N; Andreeva, Yulia Y; Frank, Georgy A; Kisseljov, Fjodor L; Kisseljova, Natalia P

    2007-01-01

    Background High risk type human papilloma viruses (HR-HPV) induce carcinomas of the uterine cervix by expressing viral oncogenes E6 and E7. Oncogene E7 of HR-HPV disrupts the pRb/E2F interaction, which negatively regulates the S phase entry. Expression of tumor suppressor p16ink4a drastically increases in majority of HR-HPV associated carcinomas due to removal of pRb repression. The p16ink4a overexpression is an indicator of an aberrant expression of viral oncogenes and may serve as a marker for early diagnostic of cervical cancer. On the other hand, in 25–57% of cervical carcinomas hypermethylation of the p16 INK4a promoter has been demonstrated using a methylation-specific PCR, MSP. To evaluate a potential usage of the p16 INK4a 5' CpG island hypermethylation as an indicator of tumor cell along with p16ink4a overexpression, we analyzed the methylation status of p16 INK4a in cervical carcinomas Methods Methylation status of p16 INK4a was analyzed by MSP and by bisulfite-modified DNA sequencing. The expression of p16ink4a was analyzed by RT-PCR and by immunohistochemical technique. Results The extensive methylation within p16 INK4a 5' CpG island was not detected either in 13 primary cervical carcinomas or in 5 cancer cell lines by bisulfite-modified DNA sequencing (including those that were positive by MSP in our hands). The number and distribution of rare partially methylated CpG sites did not differ considerably in tumors and adjacent normal tissues. The levels of the p16 INK4a mRNA were increased in carcinomas compared to the normal tissues independently of the number of partially methylated CpGs within 5'CpG island. The transcriptional activation of p16 INK4a was accompanied by p16ink4a cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in the majority of tumor cells and presence of a varied number of the p16 positive nuclei in different tumors. Conclusion Hypermethylaion of the p16INK4a 5' CpG island is not a frequent event in HR-HPV-positive cervical carcinomas and cannot be an

  13. Primary mucinous carcinoma with direct histopathologic evidence of lymphatic invasion.

    PubMed

    Warycha, Melanie; Kamino, Hideko; Mobini, Narciss; Hale, Elizabeth K

    2006-01-01

    Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin is a rare sweat gland neoplasm which occurs most commonly in the periorbital region. Although the tumor has a propensity for local recurrence and regional spread, distant metastases are rare. The standard treatment of primary mucinous carcinoma is wide local excision. Mohs micrographic surgery may also be utilized in cases where tissue conservation is of utmost concern. We present a case of primary mucinous carcinoma arising in the scalp, which was treated with wide local excision. A case report and literature review are presented. Histopathologic evaluation revealed a well-circumscribed neoplasm characterized by lobules and aggregates of epithelial cells embedded in abundant pools of mucin. In addition, small aggregates of neoplastic cells were found at a distance from the primary nodule, indicative of lymphatic invasion. Primary mucinous carcinoma has a high propensity for locoregional metastases and recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating direct histopathologic evidence of lymphatic invasion which correlates with this tumor's biologic behavior.

  14. Evaluation of Rectal Dose During High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, Rajib Lochan; Reddy, Palreddy Yadagiri; Rao, Ramakrishna; Muralidhar, Kanaparthy R.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

    2011-01-01

    High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for carcinoma of the uterine cervix often results in high doses being delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) such as the rectum and bladder. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine and closely monitor the dose delivered to these OARs. In this study, we measured the dose delivered to the rectum by intracavitary applications and compared this measured dose to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements rectal reference point dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). To measure the dose, we inserted a miniature (0.1 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber into the rectum of 86 patients undergoing radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. The response of the miniature chamber modified by 3 thin lead marker rings for identification purposes during imaging was also characterized. The difference between the TPS-calculated maximum dose and the measured dose was <5% in 52 patients, 5-10% in 26 patients, and 10-14% in 8 patients. The TPS-calculated maximum dose was typically higher than the measured dose. Our study indicates that it is possible to measure the rectal dose for cervical carcinoma patients undergoing HDR-ICBT. We also conclude that the dose delivered to the rectum can be reasonably predicted by the TPS-calculated dose.

  15. The state of the p53 and retinoblastoma genes in human cervical carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffner, M.; Muenger, K.; Byrne, J.C.; Howley, P.M. )

    1991-07-01

    Human cervical carcinoma cell lines that were either positive or negative for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences were analyzed for evidence of mutation of the p53 and retinoblastoma genes. Each of five HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines expressed normal pRB and low levels of wild-type p53 proteins, which are presumed to be altered in function as a consequence of association with HPV E7 and E6 oncoproteins, respectively. In contrast, mutations were identified in the p53 and RB genes expressed in the C-33A and HT-3 cervical cancer cell lines, which lack HPV DNA sequences. Mutations in the p53 genes mapped to codon 273 and codon 245 in the C33-A and HT-3 cell lines, respectively, located in the highly conserved regions of p53, where mutations appear in a variety of human cancers. Mutations in RB occurred at splice junctions, resulting in in-frame deletions, affecting exons 13 and 20 in the HT-3 and C-33A cell lines, respectively. These mutations resulted in aberrant proteins that were not phosphorylated and were unable to complex with the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein. These results support the hypothesis that the inactivation of the normal functions of the tumor-suppressor proteins pRB and p53 are important steps in human cervical carcinogenesis, either by mutation or from complex formation with the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins.

  16. Alterations of chromosome 11q13 in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, N.C.; Zimonjic, D.B.

    1996-02-01

    In cervical cancer, evidence for the existence of a tumor-suppressor gene on chromosome 11 has been generated from studies with somatic cell hybrids, chromosome microcell transfer, or deletion analysis of DNA markers. As suggested by somatic cell hybrids analysis, chromosome 11 harbors at least three distinctive tumor-suppressor genes, two on the short arm and one on the long arm. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis using 16 markers, 10 of which were microsatellite-based, placed the region of a putative tumor-suppressor gene to 11q22-24. Recently, 11q13 was assigned as another possible site on the basis of molecular rearrangements, deletions, and translocations, nonrandomly involving this region in four of eight cervical carcinoma cell lines. Abnormal chromosomes 11 were found in HeLa, SiHa, and Caski lines and in C33A, a human papilloma virus-negative cell line. 18 refs.

  17. Rigosertib is a more effective radiosensitizer than cisplatin in concurrent chemo-radiation treatment of cervical carcinoma, in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Agoni, Lorenzo; Basu, Indranil; Gupta, Seema; Alfieri, Alan; Gambino, Angela; Goldberg, Gary L.; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Guha, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Rigosertib is a novel anti-mitotic agent that induces selective G2/M arrest in cancer cells. Our study shows that rigosertib, when administered concurrently with radiotherapy, acts as a radiosensitizer with greater efficacy than cisplatin, the standard drug in concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for cervical malignancies. Rigosertib, combined with radiotherapy, appears to be a potential therapeutic agent for the clinical management of cervical carcinoma. Rigosertib as a radiosensitizer for cervical carcinoma PMID:24529717

  18. New approaches to pathogenic gene function discovery with human squamous cell cervical carcinoma by gene ontology.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Jae; Bae, Su Mi; Kim, Yong-Wan; Kim, Yong Wook; Hur, Soo Young; Ro, Duck Young; Lee, Joon Mo; Namkoong, Sung Eun; Kim, Chong Kook; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2005-03-01

    This study utilized mRNA differential display and the Gene Ontology (GO) analysis to characterize the multiple interactions of a number of genes with gene expression profile involved in squamous cell cervical carcinoma. mRNA differential displays were used to identify potential transcripts that were differentially expressed between cervix cancers of 13 patients (invasive cancer stages Ib-IIb) and universal reference RNAs comprised of 17 different normal cervixes. Aberrant bands were excised and used to make cDNA, which was sequenced. DNA sequences were compared to other nucleic acids in the NCBR database for homology. Transcript expression was verified in select samples using RT-PCR and North blotting. The specific functions were correlated with gene expression patterns via gene ontology. Fifty-eight genes were up- or down-regulated above 2-fold and organized into reciprocally dependent sub-function sets depending on the cervical cancer pathway. The GO analysis showed that squamous cell cervical carcinogenesis underwent complete up-regulation of cell cycle, transport, epidermal differentiation, protein biosynthesis, and RNA metabolism. Also, genes belonging to protein metabolism and catabolism activity were significantly up-regulated. In contrast, significant down-regulation was shown in muscle development, cell adhesion, and damaged DNA binding activity. The GO analysis can overcome the complexity of the gene expression profile of the squamous cell cervical carcinoma-associated pathway and identify several cancer-specific cellular processes as well as genes of unknown function. Also, GO analysis can serve as a powerful basis for a molecular classification of carcinogenesis.

  19. Human Papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus co-infection in Cervical Carcinoma in Algerian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that the implication of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the carcinogenesis and prognosis of cervical cancer is well established, the impact of a co-infection with high risk HPV (HR-HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is still not fully understood. Methods Fifty eight randomly selected cases of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix, 14 normal cervices specimens, 21 CIN-2/3 and 16 CIN-1 cases were examined for EBV and HPV infections. Detection of HR-HPV specific sequences was carried out by PCR amplification using consensus primers of Manos and by Digene Hybrid Capture. The presence of EBV was revealed by amplifying a 660 bp specific EBV sequence of BALF1. mRNA expression of LMP-1 in one hand and protein levels of BARF-1, LMP-1 and EBNA-1 in the other hand were assessed by RT-PCR and immunoblotting and/or immunohischemistry respectively. Results HR-HPV infection was found in patients with SCC (88%), low-grade (75%) and high grade (95%) lesions compared to only 14% of normal cervix cases. However, 69%, 12.5%, 38.1%, and 14% of SCC, CIN-1, CIN-2/3 and normal cervix tissues, respectively, were EBV infected. The highest co-infection (HR-HPV and EBV) was found in squamous cell carcinoma cases (67%). The latter cases showed 27% and 29% expression of EBV BARF-1 and LMP-1 oncogenes respectively. Conclusion The high rate of HR-HPV and EBV co-infection in SCC suggests that EBV infection is incriminated in cervical cancer progression. This could be taken into account as bad prognosis in this type of cancer. However, the mode of action in dual infection in cervical oncogenesis needs further investigation. PMID:24252325

  20. HPV vaccination: The most pragmatic cervical cancer primary prevention strategy.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-10-01

    The evidence that high-risk HPV infections cause cervical cancers has led to two new approaches for cervical cancer control: vaccination to prevent HPV infections, and HPV screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. Two vaccines are currently available: quadrivalent vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 6, and 11, and bivalent vaccine targeting HPV 16 and 18. Both vaccines have demonstrated remarkable immunogenicity and substantial protection against persistent infection and high-grade cervical cancer precursors caused by HPV 16 and 18 in HPV-naïve women, and have the potential to prevent 70% of cervical cancers in adequately vaccinated populations. HPV vaccination is now implemented in national programs in 62 countries, including some low- and middle-income countries. The early findings from routine national programs in high-income countries are instructive to encourage low- and middle-income countries with a high risk of cervical cancer to roll out HPV vaccination programs and to introduce resource-appropriate cervical screening programs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Differences in genetic variation in antigen-processing machinery components and association with cervical carcinoma risk in two Indonesian populations.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Akash M; Spaans, Vivian M; Mahendra, Nyoman Bayu; Osse, Elisabeth M; Vet, Jessica N I; Purwoto, Gatot; Surya, I G D; Cornian, Santoso; Peters, Alexander A; Fleuren, Gert J; Jordanova, Ekaterina S

    2015-06-01

    Genetic variation of antigen-processing machinery (APM) components has been shown to be associated with cervical carcinoma risk and outcome in a genetically homogeneous Dutch population. However, the role of APM component single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetically heterogeneous populations with different distributions of human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes remains unclear. Eleven non-synonymous, coding SNPs in the TAP1, TAP2, LMP2, LMP7 and ERAP1 genes were genotyped in cervical carcinoma patients and healthy controls from two distinct Indonesian populations (Balinese and Javanese). Individual genotype and allele distributions were investigated using single-marker analysis, and combined SNP effects were assessed by haplotype construction and haplotype interaction analysis. Allele distribution patterns in Bali and Java differed in relation to cervical carcinoma risk, with four ERAP1 SNPs and one TAP2 SNP in the Javanese population showing significant association with cervical carcinoma risk, while in the Balinese population, only one TAP2 SNP showed this association. Multimarker analysis demonstrated that in the Javanese patients, one specific haplotype, consisting of the ERAP1-575 locus on chromosome 5 and the TAP2-379 and TAP2-651 loci on chromosome 6, was significantly associated with cervical carcinoma risk (global P = 0.008); no significant haplotype associations were found in the Balinese population. These data indicate not only that genetic variation in APM component genes is associated with cervical carcinoma risk in Indonesia but also that the patterns of association differ depending on background genetic composition and possibly on differences in HPV type distribution.

  2. Sexual function after surgical and radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Seibel, M.; Freeman, M.G.; Graves, W.L.

    1982-10-01

    One hundred women treated for carcinoma of the cervix were interviewed more than one year later to establish the effects of radiation or surgical therapy on sexual function. Forty-three had received irradiation, 44 nonradical surgery, six combined surgery and irradiation, and seven radical surgery. The irradiation and nonradical surgery groups were each further subdivided into subgroups of patients aged 30 to 49 for age-controlled comparison. Patients in the irradiation group had statistically significant decreases in sexual enjoyment, ability to attain orgasm, coital opportunity, frequency of intercourse, and coital desire. The group who had nonradical surgical procedures had no significant change in sexual function after treatment. Similar results were found in both age-controlled subgroups, eliminating age as a major etiologic factor. Marked vaginal alterations were recorded in the majority of irradiated patients, but were not present among the groups treated with nonradical surgery. The vaginal changes alone could not be held accountable for the significant decrease in sexual function among women who received pelvic irradiation. The origin of decreased sexual desire after radiation therapy is complex, and not yet completely understood. We propose therapeutic programs to help women deal with the emotional and physical consequences of pelvic irradiation.

  3. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in a supraclavicular lymph node with no known primary: a case report.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Rak; Han, Hye-Suk; Lee, Ok-Jun; Lim, Sung-Nam; Kim, Mi-Jin; Yeon, Myeong-Ho; Jeon, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Kim, Seung Taik

    2012-09-01

    Although metastasis is relatively frequent in cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), metastasis in the cervical or supraclavicular lymph node (LN) is relatively rare. Moreover, cases of metastatic RCC with a non-identifiable kidney mass are extremely rare. Here, the authors report a case of metastatic RCC in a supraclavicular LN without a primary kidney lesion. A 69-year-old man presented with a progressively enlarging right supraclavicular mass. Incisional biopsy of the affected supraclavicular LN was performed, and histological examination revealed metastatic RCC. However, no tumor was found in either kidney, despite various examinations. The patient was treated with radiotherapy followed by sunitinib. After three months on sunitinib, a follow-up computed tomography scan revealed that the supraclavicular LN had markedly decreased, and after 20 months, the disease had not progressed. This case suggests that, even when there is no primary kidney lesion, clinicians must consider the possibility of metastatic RCC when evaluating patients with clear cell carcinoma with an unknown primary site.

  4. Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon and rectum.

    PubMed

    Arifi, Samia; Elmesbahi, Omar; Amarti Riffi, Afaf

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal primary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare entity accounting for nearly 1% of all colorectal carcinomas. It is an independent prognostic factor associated with less favorable outcome. This aggressiveness is mainly due to the intrinsic biology of these tumors. Here is an overview of the literature related to clinicopathological features, molecular biology, and management of SRCC of the colon and the rectum. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Primary cervical cancer truly negative for high-risk human papillomavirus is a rare but distinct entity that can affect virgins and young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liebrich, C; Brummer, O; Von Wasielewski, R; Wegener, G; Meijer, C; Iftner, T; Petry, K U

    2009-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is almost exclusively associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Carcinogenesis is slow, the minimal time from initial HPV infection to invasive carcinoma seems to be less than ten years. In order to identify rapid onset cervical cancer, we carried out a retrospective re-analysis of an extended cohort of patients with invasive cervical cancer, and reviewed cases identified within the cancer registry of Lower Saxony or using Medline or ISI data. No instances of a rapid-onset cancer or true HPV-DNA negative cancer were found among our hospital cohort of 178 women with primary cancer of the uterine cervix. Registry data identified four out of 5,878 patients who were diagnosed with primary cervical cancer at 14 to 20 years of age. They were classified as clear-cell and endometriod adenocarcinoma and tested persistently negative for high-risk HPV-DNA. Fourteen more cases of cervical cancer in virgins and very young women were identified by a Medline search, mostly with unknown histologic type or rare subtypes of adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, rare adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix may represent an entity unrelated to HPV, thus explaining instances of rapid onset cervical cancer.

  6. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Madani, Indira Vakaet, Luc; Bonte, Katrien; Boterberg, Tom; Neve, Wilfried de

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional (two-dimensional) radiotherapy in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer (UPC). Methods and Materials: Between February 2003 and September 2006, 23 patients with UPC of squamous cell carcinoma were treated with IMRT. Extended putative mucosal and bilateral nodal sites were irradiated to a median dose of 66 Gy. In 19 patients, IMRT was performed after lymph node dissection, and in 4 patients primary radiotherapy was given. The conventional radiotherapy group (historical control group) comprised 18 patients treated to a median dose of 66 Gy between August 1994 and October 2003. Results: Twenty patients completed treatment. As compared with conventional radiotherapy, the incidence of Grade 3 acute dysphagia was significantly lower in the IMRT group (4.5% vs. 50%, p = 0.003). By 6 months, Grade 3 xerostomia was detected in 11.8% patients in the IMRT group vs. 53.4% in the historical control group (p = 0.03). No Grade 3 dysphagia or skin fibrosis was observed after IMRT but these were noted after conventional radiotherapy (26.7%, p = 0.01) and 26.7%, p = 0.03) respectively). With median follow-up of living patients of 17 months, there was no emergence of primary cancer. One patient had persistent nodal disease and another had nodal relapse at 5 months. Distant metastases were detected in 4 patients. The 2-year overall survival and distant disease-free probability after IMRT did not differ significantly from those for conventional radiotherapy (74.8% vs. 61.1% and 76.3% vs. 68.4%, respectively). Conclusions: Use of IMRT for UPC resulted in lower toxicity than conventional radiotherapy, and was similar in efficacy.

  7. Germ cell-specific heat shock protein 70-2 is expressed in cervical carcinoma and is involved in the growth, migration, and invasion of cervical cells.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manoj; Kanojia, Deepika; Saini, Shikha; Suri, Sushma; Gupta, Anju; Surolia, Avadhesha; Suri, Anil

    2010-08-15

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of death among women worldwide, and the most cases are reported in the least developed countries. Recently, a study on DNA microarray gene expression analysis demonstrated the overexpression of heat shock protein 70-2 (HSP70-2) in cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the association between HSP70-2 expression in cervical carcinogenesis and its potential role in various malignant properties that result in disease progression. HSP70-2 expression was examined in various cervical cancer cell lines with different origins and in clinical cervical cancer specimens by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses. A plasmid-based, short-hairpin RNA approach was used specifically to knock down the expression of HSP70-2 in cervical tumor cells in vitro and in vivo to examine the role of HSP70-2 on various malignant properties. RT-PCR and IHC analyses revealed HSP70-2 expression in 86% of cervical cancer specimens. Furthermore, knockdown of HSP70-2 expression significantly reduced cellular growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion in vitro and reduced tumor growth in vivo. A significant association of HSP70-2 gene and protein expression was observed among the various tumor stages (P=.046) and different grades (P=.006), suggesting that HSP70-2 expression may be an indicator of disease progression. The current findings suggested that HSP70-2 may play an important role in disease progression in cervical carcinogenesis. Patients who had early stage disease and low-grade tumors had HSP70-2 expression, supporting its potential role in early detection and aggressive treatment modalities for cervical cancer management. Copyright (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  8. Primary tumor control after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the bronchus

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, M.I.; Bennett, M.H.; Dische, S.; Anderson, P.J.

    1984-04-01

    The primary tumor control and the appearance of distant metastasis was observed closely in 62 patients entered into a randomized controlled trial of the radiosensitizing drug, misonidazole, in carcinoma of the bronchus. Sixty-one of the 62 patients are now dead; an autopsy examination was carried out in 42 (69%). Although survival was comparable to that observed in similar studies, tumor persisted or recurred at the primary site in 95% (58/61) while 39% (24/61) showed no evidence for distant metastasis. In these patients, improvement in the primary tumor control would be important in extending survival. Complications of this treatment are discussed.

  9. Anticancer studies of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles against human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2016-05-01

    A metal oxide nanoparticle has been widely investigated for its potential use in the biomedical application. The present study investigates the cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticle in human cervical carcinoma cells. Cell viability was determined, and it showed the possible cytotoxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles. The characteristic apoptotic features such as rounding and loss of adherence were observed in the treated cells. Fluorescence and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) studies have showed reduced nuclear volume and condensed cytoplasm. The mRNA expression of apoptotic gene p53 and caspase 3 was up-regulated following ZnO nanoparticle exposure, which confirms the occurrence of apoptosis at the transcriptional level. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased in a dose-dependent manner, and initiate lipid peroxidation of the liposomal membrane, which in turn regulate several signaling pathways and influencing the cytokinetic movements of cells. ZnO nanoparticles showed a dynamic cytotoxic effect in cervical carcinoma cells. ZnO nanoparticle might induce the apoptosis through increased intracellular ROS level. Moreover, up-regulated apoptotic gene expression confirms the occurrence of apoptosis. Taking all these data together, it may be concluded that ZnO nanoparticle may exert cytotoxicity on HeLa cell through the apoptotic pathway, implies the probable utility of ZnO nanoparticle in the cancer treatment and therapy.

  10. Anticancer properties of extracts from Opuntia humifusa against human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Sahng-Wook; Park, Jieun; Oh, Se-Yeong; Lee, Chul-Won; Park, Kun-Young; Kim, Hyunggee; Son, Yong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we found that the total polyphenol and ascorbic acid levels in the fruit of Opuntia humifusa are higher than those in other parts of the plant. We further hypothesized that antioxidants in O. humifusa might affect the growth or survival of cancer cells. Hexane extracts of seeds and ethyl acetate extracts of fruits and stems significantly suppressed the proliferation of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, but did not affect the proliferation of normal human BJ fibroblasts. Additionally, the extracts of O. humifusa induced G1 phase arrest in HeLa cells. The O. humifusa extracts reduced the levels of G1 phase-associated cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), and phosphorylated retinoblastoma proteins. Moreover, p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p53 expression significantly increased after treatment. We examined the effects of ethyl acetate extracts of O. humifusa fruit (OHF) on HeLa cells xenograft tumor growth. OHF treatment significantly reduced tumor volume and this decrease was correlated with decreased Cdk4 and cyclin D1 expression. Furthermore, flavonoids, trans Taxifolin, and dihydrokaempferol, were isolated from OHF. Thus, this extract may be a promising candidate for treating human cervical carcinoma.

  11. SOX18 Is a Novel Target Gene of Hedgehog Signaling in Cervical Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Jelena; Schwirtlich, Marija; Rankovic, Branislava; Stevanovic, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Although there is much evidence showing functional relationship between Hedgehog pathway, in particular Sonic hedgehog, and SOX transcription factors during embryonic development, scarce data are available regarding their crosstalk in cancer cells. SOX18 protein plays an important role in promoting tumor angiogenesis and therefore emerged as a promising potential target in antiangiogenic tumor therapy. Recently it became evident that expression of SOX18 gene in tumors is not restricted to endothelium of accompanying blood and lymphatic vessels, but in tumor cells as well.In this paper we have identified human SOX18 gene as a novel target gene of Hedgehog signaling in cervical carcinoma cell lines. We have presented data showing that expression of SOX18 gene is regulated by GLI1 and GLI2 transcription factors, final effectors of Hedgehog signaling, and that modulation of Hedgehog signaling activity in considerably influence SOX18 expression. We consider important that Hedgehog pathway inhibitors reduced SOX18 expression, thus showing, for the first time, possibility for manipulationwith SOX18 gene expression. In addition, we analyzed the role of SOX18 in malignant potential of cervical carcinoma cell line, and showed that its overexpression has no influence on cells proliferation and viability, but substantially promotes migration and invasion of cells in vitro. Pro-migratory effect of SOX18 suggests its role in promoting malignant spreading, possibly in response to Hedgehog activation. PMID:26588701

  12. Absence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in primary parotid high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas regardless of cytokeratin 20 immunophenotype.

    PubMed

    Chernock, Rebecca D; Duncavage, Eric J; Gnepp, Douglas R; El-Mofty, Samir K; Lewis, James S

    2011-12-01

    High-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the salivary glands is a rare malignancy that can be difficult to distinguish from metastatic neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the skin, which often occurs on the head and neck and may metastasize to lymph nodes in or adjacent to salivary glands, particularly the parotid gland. As the 2 tumors have morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap, additional diagnostic tools may be clinically useful. Merkel cell carcinoma is known to harbor Merkel cell polyomavirus in up to 80% of cases. However, the presence or absence of this virus in salivary gland neuroendocrine carcinomas has not been investigated. We evaluated 7 primary salivary gland high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (all from the parotid) for the virus by both immunohistochemistry (CM2B4 clone) and real-time polymerase chain reaction directed against the conserved small T antigen. Five of the tumors had small cell morphology, and 2 had large cell morphology. All were either chromogranin and/or synaptophysin positive. Four of the 5 small cell (80%) and 1 of the 2 large cell (50%) carcinomas were cytokeratin 20 positive. All but 1 case had cervical lymph node metastases at presentation. Merkel cell polyomavirus T antigen was not detected in any of the 7 tumors, either by immunohistochemistry or by polymerase chain reaction with adequate controls. These observations suggest that primary parotid high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma arises from a biological pathway that is different from that of cutaneous Merkel cell carcinomas. Furthermore, viral testing may aid in distinguishing the 2 tumor types, as a positive result would favor a metastasis.

  13. Identification of a proliferation gene cluster associated with HPV E6/E7 expression level and viral DNA load in invasive cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rosty, Christophe; Sheffer, Michal; Tsafrir, Dafna; Stransky, Nicolas; Tsafrir, Ilan; Peter, Martine; de Crémoux, Patricia; de La Rochefordière, Anne; Salmon, Rémy; Dorval, Thierry; Thiery, Jean Paul; Couturier, Jérôme; Radvanyi, François; Domany, Eytan; Sastre-Garau, Xavier

    2005-10-27

    Specific HPV DNA sequences are associated with more than 90% of invasive carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Viral E6 and E7 oncogenes are key mediators in cell transformation by disrupting TP53 and RB pathways. To investigate molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of invasive cervical carcinoma, we performed a gene expression study on cases selected according to viral and clinical parameters. Using Coupled Two-Way Clustering and Sorting Points Into Neighbourhoods methods, we identified a 'cervical cancer proliferation cluster' composed of 163 highly correlated transcripts. Most of these transcripts corresponded to E2F pathway genes controlling cell division or proliferation, whereas none was known as TP53 primary target. The average expression level of the genes of this cluster was higher in tumours with an early relapse than in tumours with a favourable course (P = 0.026). Moreover, we found that E6/E7 mRNA expression level was positively correlated with the expression level of the cluster genes and with viral DNA load. These findings suggest that HPV E6/E7 expression level plays a key role in the progression of invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix via the deregulation of cellular genes controlling tumour cell proliferation. HPV expression level may thus provide a biological marker useful for prognosis assessment and specific therapy of the disease.

  14. Microvascular Reconstruction of Free Jejunal Graft in Larynx-preserving Esophagectomy for Cervical Esophageal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Natori, Yuhei; Komoto, Masakazu; Matsumura, Takashi; Horiguchi, Masatoshi; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Iwanuma, Yoshimi; Tsurumaru, Masahioko; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Losing the ability to speak severely affects the quality of life, and patients who have undergone laryngectomy tend to become depressed, which may lead to social withdrawal. Recently, with advancements in chemoradiotherapy and with alternative perspectives on postoperative quality of life, larynx preservation has been pursued; however, the selection of candidates and the optimal reconstructive procedure remain controversial. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed our experience with free jejunal graft for larynx-preserving cervical esophagectomy (LPCE), focusing on microvascular reconstruction. Methods: Seven patients underwent LPCE for cervical esophageal carcinoma, and defects were reconstructed by free jejunal transfer subsequently. We collected preoperative and postoperative data of the patients and assessed the importance of the procedure. Results: We mostly used the transverse cervical artery as the recipient, and a longer operative time was required, particularly for the regrowth cases. The operative field for microvascular anastomosis was more limited and deeper than those in the laryngectomy cases. Two graft necrosis cases were confirmed at postoperative day 9 or 15, and vessels contralateral from the graft were chosen as recipients in both patients. Conclusions: Microvascular reconstruction for free jejunal graft in LPCE differed in several ways from the procedure combined with laryngectomy. Compression from the tracheal cartilage to the pedicle was suspected as the reason of the necrosis clinically and pathologically. Therefore, we should select recipient vessels from the ipsilateral side of the graft, and careful and extended monitoring of the flap should be considered to make this procedure successful. PMID:27257562

  15. Sonoporation of Cervical Carcinoma Cells Affected with E6-Oncoprotein for the Treatment of Uterine Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curiel, Laura; Lee, Kyle; Pichardo, Samuel; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2010-03-01

    Cervical cancer has been identified as the third leading cause of average years of life lost per person dying of cancer. Since essentially all cervical cancers contain copies of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, we propose a treatment that targets HPV-infected cells using strategies that re-introduce normal functions into the infected cells while sparing healthy cells. We propose the use of focused ultrasound in combination with microbubbles as means to deliver antibodies against the E6 protein present only in HPV positive cells. We conducted in vitro studies with cell cultures of SiHa cervical carcinoma cells seeded into Opticell™ chambers. An in-house ultrasound excitation apparatus was used to control and explore the optimal acoustic parameters in order to maximize delivery. We first validated the possibility of delivering the EX-EGFP-M02 vector (Genecopoeia) into the cells; 1.2 μL of activated microbubbles (Definity®) and 50 μg of the vector were mixed in media and then injected into the Opticell™ chamber. We used 32 μs pulses at a central frequency of 930 KHz with a repetition frequency of 1.5 kHz and total exposure duration of 30 s; six pressure values were tested (0 to 1 MPa). Fluorescence imaging was used to determine the levels of intracellular proteins and assess delivery. The delivery of an anti-α-Tubulin antibody was next tested and confirmed that the delivery into HPV16 positive cells was successful.

  16. Effect of combined antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed against the human papillomavirus type 16 on cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Gutiérrez, Miguel A; Benítez-Hess, María L; DiPaolo, Joseph A; Alvarez-Salas, Luis M

    2007-10-01

    Cervical cancer is highly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 gene expression. We have previously reported two antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) directed against adjacent targets within the HPV-16 E6/E7 mRNA (419 and 434), each able to downregulate HPV-16 E6/E7 mRNA in vitro and in vivo and to specifically inhibit tumor cell growth in culture and animal models. Towards potential clinical application and improved in vivo performance, we analyzed the effect of the combined treatment of 419-434 AS-ODNs on the anchorage independent growth (AIG) of HPV-16-positive cervical carcinoma cell lines. We found similar responses between combined 419-434 and individual AS-ODNs treatments in RNaseH assays, cell uptake, and in vivo degradation of HPV-16 E6/E7 transcripts. Moreover, the combined use of 419-434 AS-ODNs resulted in additive AIG inhibition of CaSki and SiHa cells, similar to that obtained with equivalent doses of the individual AS-ODNs. By using a combined treatment, it may be possible to overcome the potential mutations frequently reported within HPV-16 genome, thus improving the potential application of 419 and 434 AS-ODNs as a therapeutic alternative for cervical cancer.

  17. Is cervical screening preventing adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix?

    PubMed

    Castanon, Alejandra; Landy, Rebecca; Sasieni, Peter D

    2016-09-01

    While the incidence of squamous carcinoma of the cervix has declined in countries with organised screening, adenocarcinoma has become more common. Cervical screening by cytology often fails to prevent adenocarcinoma. Using prospectively recorded cervical screening data in England and Wales, we conducted a population-based case-control study to examine whether cervical screening leads to early diagnosis and down-staging of adenocarcinoma. Conditional logistic regression modelling was carried out to provide odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) on 12,418 women with cervical cancer diagnosed between ages 30 and 69 and 24,453 age-matched controls. Of women with adenocarcinoma of the cervix, 44.3% were up to date with screening and 14.6% were non-attenders. The overall OR comparing women up to date with screening with non-attenders was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.39-0.55) for adenocarcinoma. The odds were significantly decreased (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.15-0.33) in up to date women with Stage 2 or worse adenocarcinoma, but not for women with Stage1A adenocarcinoma 0.71 (95% CI: 0.46-1.09). The odds of Stage 1A adenocarcinoma was double among lapsed attenders (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.52-3.62) compared to non-attenders. Relative to women with no negative cytology within 7 years of diagnosis, women with Stage1A adenocarcinoma were very unlikely to be detected within 3 years of a negative cytology test (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.05-0.13); however, the odds doubled 3-5 years after a negative test (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.67-3.18). ORs associated with up to date screening were smaller for squamous and adenosquamous cervical carcinoma. Although cytology screening is inefficient at preventing adenocarcinomas, invasive adenocarcinomas are detected earlier than they would be in the absence of screening, substantially preventing Stage 2 and worse adenocarcinomas. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  18. Prevention of type 2 herpes simplex virus induced cervical carcinoma in mice by prior immunization with a vaccine prepared from type 1 herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, M H; Dong, C Y; Liu, Z H; Skinner, G R; Hartley, C E

    1983-12-01

    Repeated intra-vaginal inoculation of mice with inactivated type 2 herpes simplex virus induced cervical carcinoma in approximately 50% of mice. Prior immunization with subunit vaccine Ac NFU1(S-) BHK reduced the frequency of cervical carcinoma to 19%. Inoculation of mice with a control preparation of uninfected cell extract never induced preinvasive or invasive cervical cancer. There was evidence of an antibody response in every vaccinated and/or innoculated animal. Mice developing cervical cancer had a significantly higher antibody titre to type 2 herpes virus than mice not developing cancer. These results are in general accord with sero-epidemiological studies of preinvasive and invasive cervical carcinoma in human subjects and suggests that this experimental model may be appropriate for further investigation of prevention of human cervical cancer by vaccination.

  19. Estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kwasniewska, Anna; Postawski, Krzysztof; Gozdzicka-Jozefiak, Anna; Kwasniewski, Wojciech; Grywalska, Ewelina; Zdunek, Malgorzata; Korobowicz, Elzbieta

    2011-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widely accepted as the main cause of cervical cancer. However, the presence of HPV DNA does not inescapably lead to the development of the cancerous phenotype of the infected cell. Therefore, it is considered that the induction of full cancerous expression of HPV requires additional cofactors. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) in archived tissue blocks of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix and to ascertain whether expression of these receptors is associated with the presence of HPV DNA. The investigation was performed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical cancer specimens obtained from 250 women who underwent surgery for histologically confirmed neoplastic lesions. The control group consisted of normal cervical tissues obtained from 50 patients who underwent myomectomy. The results of this study revealed that the expression of ER and PR in planoepithelial cancers and adenocarcinomas of the cervix were decreased to undetectable levels. Only in singular cases in the pattern of staining the expression of ER and PR was noted. In stromal cells of the tested neoplasms, higher expression of both types of receptors was found. Comparison of the expression of ER and PR in the staining pattern and stroma of both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcioma of the cervix, showed statistically higher expression in the stromal cells. Strong expression (+1, +2, +3) of ER and PR was noted in the stromal cells irrespective of HPV infection, histopathological type of cancer, and clinical and histopathological grade.

  20. Cytogenetic characterization of three cell lines derived from primary cervical tumors of different histologic grade

    SciTech Connect

    Hann, E.; Beauregard, L.; Mikumo, R.

    1994-09-01

    Braum et al.(1993) established three cell lines from keratinizing and nonkeratinizing cervical carcinomas. These cell lines were subsequently analyzed for growth properties and the physical state of the human papillomavirus type 16 genome. TC140, derived from a keratinizing cervical tumor, contains human papillomavirus type 16 in the episomal state. TC-146A and TC-146B, derived from a nonkeratinizing large-cell cervical carcinoma, contain human papillomavirus type 16 in the integrated state. The goal of the present study was to cytogenetically characterize these cell lines, developed from cervical carcinoma with a defined histopathology, in order to shed additional light on the biological basis of the histological and clinical heterogeneity of cervical cancers. Information on solid tumors has been limited because they are often difficult to culture and the karyotypes on the available metaphases are often complex with unidentifiable markers. The chromosomes of these three cell lines were characterized in the present study using GTG-banding. For cell line 140, the most striking chromosomal abnormalities noted were the presence of an i(5p) or i(12p) marker, an isochromosome 8q marker and multiple copies of chromosome 9. For cell line 146A, the most notable chromosomal abnormalities noted were the presence of a marker chromosome 7 with additional materials present on the long arms, an isochomosome of the long arms of chromosome 8 and a question of chromosome 19 markers. For cell line 146B, the most notable chromosomal abnormalities were found to be a deleted X chromosome, a marker chromosome 7 with additional material on the long arm, an isochromosome 8q marker, and isochromosome 16q marker and one or more copies of an isochromosome 17q marker. Fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments performed using select probes further corroborate the results of the above-mentioned conventional cytogenetic studies.

  1. Status of p16(INK4a) and E-cadherin gene promoter methylation in Moroccan patients with cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Attaleb, Mohammed; El hamadani, Wail; Khyatti, Meriem; Benbacer, Laila; Benchekroun, Nadia; Benider, Abdellatif; Amrani, Mariam; El Mzibri, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor gene promoters has been extensively investigated in cervical cancer. Transcriptional silencing, as a main consequence of hypermethylation of CpG islands, is the predominant mechanism of p16(INK4a) and E-cadherin gene inactivation in malignant epithelial tumors. This study was conducted to evaluate the promoter methylation status of p16(INK4a) and E-cadherin genes in 22 specimens of cervical carcinomas, four cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, SiHa, Caski, C33A), and 20 human papillomavirus negative specimens, obtained from normal cervical swabs, using the methylation-specific PCR approach. Hypermethylation of the 5' CpG island of the p16(INK4a) and E-cadherin genes were found in 13 (59.1%) and 10 (45.5%) of 22 cervical cancer samples, respectively. Furthermore, our findings did not show any correlation between promoter methylation of p16(INK4a) and E-cadherin genes and clinicopathological parameters, including HPV infection, phenotypic distribution, and stage of the disease. However, hypermethylation of E-cadherin gene promoter appears to be age related in cervical cancer, whereas the frequency of aberrant methylation of p16(INK4a) gene promoter is unchanged according to the age of patients. Thus, caution must be made to use these markers in the diagnosis of cervical cancer. However, dietary or pharmaceutical agents that can inhibit these epigenetic events may prevent or delay the development of cervical cancer.

  2. Therapeutic effects of antibiotic drug tigecycline against cervical squamous cell carcinoma by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Jiao, Shun; Li, Xin; Banu, Hasina; Hamal, Shreejana; Wang, Xianrong

    2015-11-06

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is common in human cervical cancers and has great potential therapeutic value. We show that tigecycline, a FDA-approved antibiotic drug, targets cervical squamous cell carcinoma through inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Tigecycline is effective in inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation and anchorage-independent colony formation of Hela cells. The inhibitory effects of tigecycline are further enhanced upon combination with paclitaxel, a most commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for cervical cancer. In a cervical xenograft model, tigecycline inhibits tumor growth as a single agent and its combination with paclitaxel significantly inhibits more tumor growth throughout the duration of treatment. We further show that tigecycline decreases level of both cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin and suppressed Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription through increasing levels of Axin 1 in Hela cells. In addition, stabilization or overexpression of β-catenin using pharmacological and genetic approaches abolished the effects of tigecycline in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of Hela cells. Our study suggests that tigecycline is a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for cervical cancer and targeting Wnt/β-catenin represents a potential therapeutic strategy in cervical cancer. - Highlights: • We repurposed the antibiotic drug tigecycline for cervical cancer treatment. • Tigecycline is effectively against cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. • Combination of tigecycline and paclitaxel is synergistic in targeting Hela cells. • Tigecycline acts on Hela cells through inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  3. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of breast: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Vs; Geethamala, K; Kumar, Bd; Sudharao, M

    2013-11-01

    Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) of breast was an unknown pathologic entity till recently due its rare incidence and lack of definitive criteria for diagnosis. We present a case of PNEC of breast in a middle aged lady. A 34 years lady presented with a breast lump since 1 month, who underwent modified radical mastectomy with axillary clearance. Histopathological diagnoses were infiltrating ductal carcinoma-neuroendocrine (NE) type. Immunohistochemistry showed estrogen, progesterone positivity and NE markers positivity in more than 50% of tumor cells for chromogranin, synaptophysin, neuron specific enolase. On further investigation by whole body computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no extra mammary primary tumor. Hence the diagnosis of PNEC of breast was confirmed. Patient received chemo and hormonal therapy and doing well after 6 months of follow up.

  4. Ultrasonography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for cervical lymph node metastasis from thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Ge, Minghua; Xu, Dong; Chen, Liyu; Qian, Chaowen; Shi, Kaiyuan; Liu, Junping; Chen, Yong

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to explore the efficacy and safety of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for cervical lymph node metastases from thyroid carcinoma. Eight patients with previous total thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy were enrolled in this study. A total of 20 cervical lymph node metastases were confirmed by percutaneous biopsy. Participants underwent ultrasonography-guided RFA treatment for all confirmed metastatic lymph nodes. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and sonoelastography were performed to rapidly evaluate treatment responses before and shortly after RFA. Routine follow-up consisted of conventional US, CEUS, sonoelastography, thyroglobulin level, and necessary fine needle aspiration cytology. All eight patients were successfully treated without obvious complications. Post-RFA CEUS showed that total metastatic lymph nodes were ablated. The sonoelastographic score of ablated area elevated significantly shortly after RFA (P < 0.001). With a mean follow-up of 9.4 ± 5.1 months, there were no evidences of recurrence at ablated sites; however, two new cervical recurrent lymph nodes occurred in one case, which was successfully ablated as well. The mass volume shrinkages of the ablated nodes were observed in all cases. We found that 5 treated lymph nodes disappeared, 4 were reduced more than 80%, 9 were reduced between 50% and 80%, and 2 were reduced less than 50%. At the last follow-up evaluation, the serum thyroglobulin levels had decreased in 6 of 8 patients. Ultrasonography-guided percutaneous RFA for cervical lymph node metastasis of thyroid malignancy is a feasible, effective, and safe therapy. This procedure shows a nonsurgical therapeutic option for metastatic lymph nodes in patients with difficult reoperations or inoperations, it may reduce or delay a large number of highly invasive repeated neck dissections.

  5. Distribution of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Era of Risk Stratification Using Human Papillomavirus and Smoking Status.

    PubMed

    Amsbaugh, Mark J; Yusuf, Mehran; Cash, Elizabeth; Silverman, Craig; Wilson, Elizabeth; Bumpous, Jeffrey; Potts, Kevin; Perez, Cesar; Bert, Robert; Redman, Rebecca; Dunlap, Neal

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the factors contributing to the clinical presentation of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in the era of risk stratification using human papilloma virus (HPV) and smoking status. All patients with OPSCC presenting to our institutional multidisciplinary clinic from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed from a prospective database. The patients were grouped as being at low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk in the manner described by Ang et al. Variance in clinical presentation was examined using χ(2), Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression analyses. The rates of HPV/p16 positivity (P<.001), never-smoking (P=.016), and cervical lymph node metastases (P=.023) were significantly higher for patients with OPSCC of the tonsil, base of tongue (BOT), or vallecula subsites when compared with pharyngeal wall or palate subsites. Low-risk patients with tonsil, base of tongue, or vallecula primary tumors presented with nodal stage N2a at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.007), and high-risk patients presented with tumor stage T4 at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.003). Patients with BOT primary tumors who were never-smokers were less likely to have clinically involved ipsilateral neck disease than were former smokers (odds ratio 1.8; P=.038). The distribution of cervical lymph node metastases was not associated with HPV/p16 positivity, risk group, or subsite. When these data were compared with those in historical series, no significant differences were seen in the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases for patients with OPSCC. For patients with OPSCC differences in HPV status, smoking history and anatomic subsite were associated with differences in clinical presentation but not with distribution of cervical lymph node metastases. Historical series describing the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with OPSCC remain clinically relevant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of gall bladder: report of an extremely rare histological type of primary gall bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zubair; Qureshi, Asim

    2010-09-07

    Signet ring cell carcinoma is an extremely rare type of gall bladder carcinoma composed overwhelmingly (90%) of signet ring cells. It is necessary to exclude a gastric or colonic signet ring cell carcinoma secondarily involving the gall bladder. The primary aim of this case report is to describe the histopathological aspects of this tumour. Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of gall bladder shows dysplastic surface gall bladder epithelium with infiltration of gall bladder wall. It is also necessary to exclude benign signet ring change, which sometimes occurs in the gall bladder. However, it is always confined to the mucosa and does not infiltrate the wall. This case showed grossly diffuse thickening of the gall bladder wall and dysplastic surface epithelium of the gall bladder on histology, with sheets of signet ring cells infiltrating full thickness of the wall. It is also necessary to exclude benign signet ring cell change, which sometimes occurs in the gall bladder. However it is always confined to the mucosa and does not infiltrate the wall.

  7. ZEB1 promotes the progression and metastasis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma via the promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yihui; Zheng, Xiangyu; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Kuisheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) clearly contributes to cancer metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the EMT-related transcription repressor ZEB1 and the expression of EMT-associated markers (E-cadherin, β-catenin and N-cadherin) in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, the role of ZEB1 and these EMT-associated markers in the progression and metastasis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma was explored. Methods: The expression of ZEB1, E-cadherin, β-catenin and N-cadherin was evaluated in 81 specimens of cervical squamous cell carcinoma by immunohistochemistry; the clinicopathological significance of these markers was then analyzed. Results: 1) Of the 81 samples, 37 cases (45.7%) were positive for ZEB1, and nuclear expression of ZEB1 in tumor cells was positively associated with the differentiation status of the tumor tissue (P < 0.05), vascular invasion (P < 0.05) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). 2) The loss of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression in tumor cells and the acquisition of N-cadherin expression were positively associated with the differentiation status of the tumor tissue (P < 0.05) and with the occurrence of vascular invasion (P < 0.05). 3) A significant negative correlation was observed between ZEB1 and E-cadherin expression (Spearman = -0.636, P < 0.05) and between ZEB1 and β-catenin expression (Spearman = -0.417, P < 0.05). Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between ZEB1 and N-cadherin expression (Spearman = 0.557, P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results emphasize the role of EMT in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The upregulation of ZEB1 is associated with the abnormal expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin and N-cadherin, which might promote the progression and metastasis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26617850

  8. pO{sub 2} Fluctuation Pattern and Cycling Hypoxia in Human Cervical Carcinoma and Melanoma Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingsen, Christine; Ovrebo, Kirsti Marie; Galappathi, Kanthi; Mathiesen, Berit; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Blood perfusion in tumors is spatially and temporally heterogeneous, resulting in local fluctuations in tissue oxygen tension (pO{sub 2}) and tissue regions showing cycling hypoxia. In this study, we investigated whether the pO{sub 2} fluctuation pattern and the extent of cycling hypoxia differ between tumor types showing high (e.g., cervical carcinoma xenograft) and low (e.g., melanoma xenograft) fractions of connective tissue-associated blood vessels. Methods and Materials: Two cervical carcinoma lines (CK-160 and TS-415) and two melanoma lines (A-07 and R-18) transplanted into BALB/c nu/nu mice were included in the study. Tissue pO{sub 2} was measured simultaneously in two positions in each tumor by using a two-channel OxyLite fiber-optic oxygen-sensing device. The extent of acute and chronic hypoxia was assessed by combining a radiobiological and a pimonidazole-based immunohistochemical assay of tumor hypoxia. Results: The proportion of tumor regions showing pO{sub 2} fluctuations, the pO{sub 2} fluctuation frequency in these regions, and the relative amplitude of the pO{sub 2} fluctuations were significantly higher in the melanoma xenografts than in the cervical carcinoma xenografts. Cervical carcinoma and melanoma xenografts did not differ significantly in the fraction of acutely hypoxic cells or the fraction of chronically hypoxic cells. However, the ratio between fraction of acutely hypoxic cells and fraction of chronically hypoxic cells was significantly higher in melanoma than in cervical carcinoma xenografts. Conclusions: Temporal heterogeneity in blood flow and tissue pO{sub 2} in tumors may depend on tumor histology. Connective tissue surrounding microvessels may stabilize blood flow and pO{sub 2} and, thus, protect tumor tissue from cycling hypoxia.

  9. Impact of histological subtype on survival in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer that were treated with definitive radiotherapy: adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Hiromasa; Kimura, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the survival outcomes of patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma (AC/ASC) among patients with locally advanced cervical cancer that were treated with definitive radiotherapy. Methods The baseline characteristics and outcome data of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who were treated with definitive radiotherapy between November 1993 and February 2014 were collected and retrospectively reviewed. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to investigate the prognostic significance of AC/ASC histology. Results The patients with AC/ASC of the cervix exhibited significantly shorter overall survival (OS) (p=0.004) and progression-free survival (PFS) (p=0.002) than the patients with SCC of the cervix. Multivariate analysis showed that AC/ASC histology was an independent negative prognostic factor for PFS. Among the patients who displayed AC/ASC histology, larger tumor size, older age, and incomplete response to radiotherapy were found to be independent prognostic factors. PFS was inversely associated with the number of poor prognostic factors the patients exhibited (the estimated 1-year PFS rates; 100.0%, 77.8%, 42.8%, 0.0% for 0, 1, 2, 3 factors, respectively). Conclusion Locally advanced cervical cancer patients with AC/ASC histology experience significantly worse survival outcomes than those with SCC. Further clinical studies are warranted to develop a concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) protocol that is specifically tailored to locally advanced cervical AC/ASC. PMID:28028992

  10. Establishment of an animal model of spontaneous cervical lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and obtaining laryngocarcinoma cells with high metastatic potential.

    PubMed

    Chen, L W; Wang, J L; Zhang, L Y; Yang, S M; Li, C S; Yu, N; Zhao W, J D; Zhao, L D; Li, K; Liu, M B; Zhai, S Q

    2013-01-01

    To establish an animal model of spontaneous cervical lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and obtain laryngocarcinoma cells with high metastatic potential, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HEP-2 in logarithmic phase were inoculated under the lingual margin mucosa of nude mice. HEP-2 cells metastasized to the cervical lymph nodes were isolated, cultured, and re-inoculated under the lingual margin mucosa of nude mice twice. The tumor formation in the tongue and in the cervical lymph nodes was confirmed by pathological examination. Carcinoma cells' ability of invasion and migration was detected by transwell assay. Human specific Alu sequences were detected by PCR, which indicated that the tumor cells originated from human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HEP-2. Finally, an animal model of spontaneous lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma was successfully established. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells with high metastatic potential to lymph nodes were obtained through repeated inoculations. .

  11. HPV types, HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma risk in Kampala, Uganda: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Odida, Michael; Sandin, Sven; Mirembe, Florence; Kleter, Bernhard; Quint, Wim; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2011-06-25

    While the association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with cervical cancer is well established, the influence of HIV on the risk of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. To assess the risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) associated with HIV and HPV types, a hospital-based case-control study was performed between September 2004 and December 2006 in Kampala, Uganda. Incident cases of histologically-confirmed ICC (N=316) and control women (N=314), who were visitors or care-takers of ICC cases in the hospital, were recruited. Blood samples were obtained for HIV serology and CD4 count, as well as cervical samples for HPV testing. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using the SPF10/DEIA/LiPA25 technique which detects all mucosal HPV types by DEIA and identifies 25 HPV genotypes by LiPA version 1. Samples that tested positive but could not be genotyped were designated HPVX. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by logistic regression, adjusting for possible confounding factors. For both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, statistically significantly increased ORs were found among women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16-related types and high-risk HPV types, in particular HPV16, 18 and 45. For other HPV types the ORs for both SCC and adenocarcinoma were not statistically significantly elevated. HIV infection and CD4 count were not associated with SCC or adenocarcinoma risk in our study population. Among women infected with high-risk HPV types, no association between HIV and SCC emerged. However, an inverse association with adenocarcinoma was observed, while decrease in CD4 count was not associated with ICC risk. The ORs for SCC and adenocarcinoma were increased in women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16- and 18-related types, and high-risk HPV types, specifically HPV16, 18 and 45. HIV infection and CD4

  12. HPV types, HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma risk in Kampala, Uganda: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While the association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with cervical cancer is well established, the influence of HIV on the risk of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. To assess the risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) associated with HIV and HPV types, a hospital-based case-control study was performed between September 2004 and December 2006 in Kampala, Uganda. Incident cases of histologically-confirmed ICC (N=316) and control women (N=314), who were visitors or care-takers of ICC cases in the hospital, were recruited. Blood samples were obtained for HIV serology and CD4 count, as well as cervical samples for HPV testing. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using the SPF10/DEIA/LiPA25 technique which detects all mucosal HPV types by DEIA and identifies 25 HPV genotypes by LiPA version 1. Samples that tested positive but could not be genotyped were designated HPVX. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by logistic regression, adjusting for possible confounding factors. Results For both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, statistically significantly increased ORs were found among women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16-related types and high-risk HPV types, in particular HPV16, 18 and 45. For other HPV types the ORs for both SCC and adenocarcinoma were not statistically significantly elevated. HIV infection and CD4 count were not associated with SCC or adenocarcinoma risk in our study population. Among women infected with high-risk HPV types, no association between HIV and SCC emerged. However, an inverse association with adenocarcinoma was observed, while decrease in CD4 count was not associated with ICC risk. Conclusions The ORs for SCC and adenocarcinoma were increased in women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16- and 18-related types, and high-risk HPV types, specifically HPV16, 18

  13. Radiation therapy of pelvic recurrence after radical hysterectomy for cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, T; Eifel, P J; Burke, T; Oswald, M J

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy and potential prognostic factors in patients treated for pelvic recurrence of cervical carcinoma after radical hysterectomy. The records of 50 patients treated between 1964 and 1994 for an isolated pelvic recurrence of cervical carcinoma a median of 10.5 months after initial radical hysterectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorized according to the extent of disease on clinical examination as group 1, mucosal involvement only (5); group 2, paravaginal extension (11); group 3, central recurrence with pelvic wall extension (13); and group 4, recurrences limited to the pelvic sidewall (21). Seven patients with group 3 or 4 disease who had a poor performance status were treated with palliative intent using hypofractionated radiotherapy. The remaining 43 patients were treated with curative intent, 33 with radiotherapy only and 10 with a combination of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Survival rates were calculated from the date of initial recurrence. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 109 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 33% for all 50 patients (median survival, 18 months), 39% for the 43 patients treated with curative intent, and 25% for patients with isolated sidewall recurrences treated with curative intent. The survival rate was 69% for patients with group 1 and 2 disease and 18% for those treated with curative intent for group 3 disease (P = 0.07). The survival rate was better for patients with recurrent squamous carcinomas (51%) than for those with adenocarcinomas (14%) (P = 0. 05). Three group 4 patients who survived more than 5 years were treated with external-beam radiation alone. Eight-one percent of patients who had a second recurrence had evidence of disease progression. Three patients experienced late treatment complications. Patients who experience an isolated recurrence of cervical cancer after initial radical hysterectomy have an excellent prognosis if

  14. [Extended resection and radiotherapy for primary intraosseous maxillary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Dujoncquoy, J-P; Rojare, C; Chemli, H; Wojcik, T; Raoul, G; Ferri, J

    2013-12-01

    Primary intraosseous maxillary carcinoma is a rare squamous cell carcinoma developing from remnants of the odontogenic epithelium. Risk factors are unknown and it may occur at any age. Little epidemiological data is available and few series include a sufficient number of patients. We assessed the prognosis of these tumors after wide exeresis (margin of 2 cm) followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. We reviewed the treatment and outcome data in nine cases of primary intraosseous maxillary carcinoma from 1995 to 2010. The WHO diagnostic criteria were used. We analyzed the demographic, clinical, and radiological data, as well as the type of treatment and the outcome of patients. The gender ratio was 3.5/1, and the mean age 40.2 years. The most frequent presentation was a unilocular osteolytic lesion with an irregular contour, between 24 and 60 mm, in the mandibular angle. Extended tumor resection was performed in all patients. Reconstruction was performed with a fibula flap in seven patients. Five patients underwent adjuvant radiotherapy. The survival rate at 2 years was 100%. The mean follow-up was 6.9 years (2-14 years) at the end of the study. Two patients were treated for a relapse and one died after 3 years of follow-up. The combined treatment was efficient on primary intraosseous maxillary carcinoma. The diagnosis is made with strict clinical, radiological, and histological criteria. The intraosseous location of these tumors requires an early diagnosis and aggressive treatment combining broad exeresis followed by adjuvant radiotherapy to avoid recurrence and have an optimal survival rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Population based cancer registry analysis of primary tracheal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta, Alfredo I; Yu, James B; Wilson, Lynn D

    2011-02-01

    Primary carcinomas of the trachea are rare tumors, occurring at a rate of 2.6 new cases per 1,000,000 people per year. This study investigates the large observational cohort of patients recorded in the NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 1973-2004 database, and provides information regarding epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis. The SEER database was investigated, and all patients for whom primary tracheal carcinoma was the first and only cancer were investigated. Demographic information was investigated. The cohort was analyzed for variables effecting survival, including age, gender, race, histology, extent of disease, extent of surgery, use of radiation, and year of diagnosis. Between 1973 and 2004, 578 cases of primary tracheal carcinomas were reported in the SEER database. There were 322 men (55.7%) and 256 women (44.3%). Squamous cell carcinoma was the predominant histology, representing 259 tumors (44.8%). Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) was the second most common tumor (16.3%). Localized, regional and distant disease was found in 140 (24.2%), 212 (36.7%), and 108 (18.7%), respectively. Twenty percent of the patients did not undergo staging. Patients with localized disease had a better prognosis than those with regional (P = 0.001) or distant disease (P = <0.001).A significant fraction of patients did not receive cancer directed local therapy; 34.3% did not undergo surgery and 29.1% did not receive any kind of radiation therapy. There was a statistically significant improved survival for patients who underwent any type of surgery in comparison with patients who did not undergo cancer directed surgery. There was no statistical benefit for patients who underwent radiation therapy.General overall 5-year survival for all patients was 27.1% (95% CI: 23.1-33.3%). Patients with localized disease had a better outcome than patients with regional or distant disease with an overall 5-year survival of 46% (95% CI: 37.3%-55.8%). Squamous cell carcinoma

  16. Primary care residents' characteristics and motives for providing differential medical treatment of cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo, Elva M.; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Costanzo, Philip; McNeilly, Maya; Myers, Evan

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer screening rates in the United States are sub-optimal. Physician factors likely contribute to these lower rates. Previous studies provide inconclusive evidence about the association between physician characteristics and the likelihood of addressing cervical cancer. This report assesses potential mechanisms that explain why certain providers do not address cervical cancer screening. METHODS: One hundred primary care residents from various specialties were asked to indicate the preventive topics they would address with a hypothetical white female in her early 20s, who was portrayed as living a "high risk" lifestyle, and visiting her provider only for acute care reasons. RESULTS: Among the provider characteristics assessed, only residents' ethnicity was associated with the likelihood of and time spent addressing cervical cancer screening. In particular, Asian-American residents were least likely to address cervical cancer, while African-American residents were most likely. A mediation analyses revealed that perceived barriers for addressing cervical cancer accounted for this difference. CONCLUSIONS: Study results suggest that there may be cultural factors among health care providers that may account for differential referral and treatment practices. Findings from this study may help identify factors that explain why cervical cancer screening rates are not higher. PMID:12911255

  17. Knowledge, attitude and practice in primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention among young adult Italian women.

    PubMed

    Donati, Serena; Giambi, Cristina; Declich, Silvia; Salmaso, Stefania; Filia, Antonietta; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Alibrandi, Maria Pia; Brezzi, Silvia; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Natalina; Franchi, Daniela; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Meda, Margherita; Minna, Maria Carmela; Nannini, Roberto; Gallicchio, Giuseppina; Bella, Antonino

    2012-03-09

    In Italy since 2007 vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is offered to 11-year-old females, whereas vaccination for older age groups is still a matter of debate. To assess Italian young women's knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention a cross-sectional study among young women aged 18-26 years was conducted in 2008. The survey collected information on in-depth awareness and knowledge regarding Pap testing, HPV infection, HPV vaccine and cervical cancer. The response rate was 57.7% with a wide range of variability (34-84%) amongst local health units. Among 667 women who participated in the survey poor awareness and various misconceptions regarding HPV and cervical cancer prevention were detected. Overall women were found to be more knowledgeable about Pap smears and cervical cancer than about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine. Respondents pointed to their healthcare providers as their most trusted source for medical information. Understanding women's knowledge on cervical cancer prevention, as well as related factors is important in helping to achieve and maintain adherence to cervical cancer preventive strategies. Moreover in order to minimize cervical cancer risk by improving women's adherence to preventive strategies, appropriate and adequate information dissemination, and guidance from health professionals appear to be crucial elements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pancreatic-type Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach Included in Multiple Primary Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yonenaga, Yoshikuni; Kurosawa, Manabu; Mise, Masahiro; Yamagishi, Miki; Higashide, Shunichi

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic-type acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) in the stomach is extraordinarily rare. We pathologically examined two cases with multiple primary carcinomas, including gastric tumors. Gastric cancer specimens were examined by immunostaining and electron microscopy. Both cases had cancer cells with acinar patterns, resembling pancreatic ACC. The cancer cells in the first case were positive for exocrine markers, including chymotrypsin, lipase and alpha-1 antichymotrypsin (ACT), as well as neuroendocrine markers, including chromogranin A and synaptophysin. The cancer cells in the second case were positive for chymotrypsin and alpha-1 ACT, while being slightly positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Ultrastructurally, cancer cells contained zymogen granules in both cases. The final diagnosis was pancreatic mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma and pure pancreatic ACC, respectively. We confirmed two cases with gastric pancreatic-type ACC included in multiple primary carcinomas. This type of double cancer has not been reported previously. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. [Primary pharyngolaryngeal carcinoma, pulmonary metastases and carcinoma of the bronchus (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Haguet, J F; Poulichet, J P; Brasnu, D

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of 112 cases of pulmonary or mediastinal neoplasms observed during the treatment or follow-up of 952 carcinomas of the pharynx and larynx, the authors study in detail 45 cases of metastases. They draw the following conclusions:--metastases present clinically relatively early in the treated course of pharyngolaryngeal carcinomas: 85% before 18 months.--cannonball lesions are the commonest endo-thoracic clinical metastases: 6 out of 10.--carcinomas of the hypopharynx are at the origin of 2/3 of cannonball lesions (alpha less than or equal to 0.02) and 1/4 of mediastinal lymphadenopathies and pleural effusions.--endolaryngeal carcinomas are rarely at the origin of cannonball lesions and are associated almost exclusively with mediastinal lymphadenopathies and pleural effusions (alpha less than 0.001). The influence of the size of the primary tumour, of lymph node involvement, of capsular rupture and of failure to eliminate all malignant cells from the primary lesion are considered and discussed.

  20. Reduced expression of autophagy markers correlates with high-risk human papillomavirus infection in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HUA-YI; YANG, GUI-FANG; HUANG, YAN-HUA; HUANG, QI-WEN; GAO, JUN; ZHAO, XIAN-DA; HUANG, LI-MING; CHEN, HONG-LEI

    2014-01-01

    Infection by an oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), in particular HPV16 and 18, is a high risk factor for developing cervical cancer; however, viral infection alone is not sufficient for cancer progression. Autophagy is hypothesized to be an important process during carcinogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between autophagy and high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection in human cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), and to analyze the clinical significance of this association. Quantum dot (QD)-based immunofluorescence histochemistry was used to detect the expression of autophagy markers, Beclin-1 and microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3B) proteins, in 104 cases of cervical cancer (including 80 SCCs and 24 adenocarcinomas) and 20 normal cervical tissues. hrHPV (HPV16/18) infection was detected by QDs based fluorescence in situ hybridization in cervical cancers. The results revealed that the expression levels of Beclin-1 and LC3B were significantly lower in cervical cancer cells when compared with those of normal cervical squamous epithelial cells, and were found to negatively correlate with hrHPV infection. The expression levels of Beclin-1 and LC3B were not associated with age, tumor grade, tumor stage, tumor node metastasis stage or lymph node metastasis. However, a positive correlation was identified between Beclin-1 and LC3B protein expression. In addition, the absence of autophagy in combination with hrHPV infection may accelerate the progression of cervical SCC. In conclusion, decreased expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B may be important in cervical carcinogenesis. The hrHPV-host cell interaction may inhibit autophagy, which may aid virus duplication and infection, as well as cervical cancer development. PMID:25202355

  1. Pipeline embolization device as primary treatment for cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Arthur; Santarelli, Justin; Stiefel, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limited data exists on the durability and occlusion rate of treating extracranial cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms using the pipeline embolization device (PED) flow-diverting stent. Methods: Three patients presenting with dissecting cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms were treated with the PED as the sole treatment modality. Results: In all three patients, successful aneurysmal occlusion and parent vessel reconstruction occurred on immediate angiography and continued on 6-month follow-up. No immediate or delayed complications were seen, and all patients remained neurologically intact. Conclusion: Complete aneurysmal occlusion and long-term angiographic occlusion can occur after PED treatment of cervical carotid pseudoaneurysms. In select patients, the PED can be a suitable primary treatment modality with good neurological outcome for cervical carotid pseudoaneurysms. PMID:28217382

  2. Primary Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Jonathan N.; Nakamura, Leah Y.; Pacelli, Anna; Humphreys, Mitchell R.; Castle, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    Nine patients treated with primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the prostate were identified among 29,783 cases of prostate cancer evaluated at Mayo Clinic from January 15, 1970, until January 2, 2009. A PubMed search of the English-language literature published from January 1, 1980, to January 1, 2010, was then performed using the key words signet ring cell and prostate, identifying 42 cases. This study reviews those cases, along with the additional 9 reported herein, and evaluates clinical characteristics, histologic diagnoses, treatment modalities, and outcomes. Mean age at diagnosis was 68 years (range, 50-85 years), and mean prostate-specific antigen level was 95.3 ng/mL (range, 1.9-536.0 ng/mL; to convert to μg/L, multiply by 1). Most patients (66%) had non–stage IV carcinoma, the most common Gleason sum was 8 (33%), and mean survival was 29 months. The presence of a primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the prostate was best confirmed by negative findings on gastrointestinal work-up, a positive stain for prostate-specific acid phosphatase, and negative carcinoembryonic antigen test results. PMID:21123640

  3. Extensive Regional Metastasis of High-Grade Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of an Unknown Primary Tumor.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Naseem; Flashburg, Alyssa; Ord, Robert A

    2017-04-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common salivary carcinoma. It arises most frequently in the major salivary glands, but can also arise in minor glands or intraosseous sites. MEC of an unknown primary occurs very rarely. The present report documents only the third case reported in medical studies. A 66-year-old man with previous carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the left posterior oral tongue that had been excised in 2004 and again in 2010 presented with a hard lymph node, 3 × 2 cm at level II of the right neck in July 2015. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed multiple, bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy, with no primary site identified. Fine needle aspiration biopsy and cytologic examination from the right neck was positive for malignancy, suggestive of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Panendoscopy and biopsy revealed CIS at the tongue bases and tonsils bilaterally (p16-negative). The patient's case was presented to a tumor board, and definitive concurrent cispl.atin-based chemoradiation was recommended for TisN2cM0, stage IVA oropharyngeal CIS, which was completed in November 2015. PET-CT in January 2015 showed complex interval changes, with some areas demonstrating improvement (ie, no uptake in the left neck) and worsening in others (ie, increased metabolic activity in the right neck), suggestive of residual disease. Repeat PET-CT in March 2016 showed increased nodal involvement and increasing standardized uptake value. Bilateral modified radical neck dissection was undertaken, and histologic examination showed high-grade MEC in 51 of 61 lymph nodes with extracapsular spread and soft tissue involvement. The patient died in May 2016 at 2 months after surgery. Metastatic MEC of an unknown primary is a diagnostic challenge. PET-CT might not be the most reliable diagnostic investigation to identify the primary or metastatic foci, such as was demonstrated in the present case. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and

  4. Anti-Proliferative Effect of Copper Oxide Nanorods Against Human Cervical Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Nagajyothi, P C; Shim, Jaesool; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2016-09-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles have been widely investigated for its use in the pharmacological field. The present study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of copper oxide nanorods in human cervical carcinoma cells. The effect of copper oxide nanorods on cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay. The fluorescence and confocal microscopy analyzes showed the cell rounding and nuclear fragmentation following exposure of copper oxide nanorods. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased and could initiate membrane lipid peroxidation, which in turn regulate cytokinetic movements of cells. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of p53 and caspase 3 was increased, which further confirms the occurrence of apoptosis at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, caspase-3 enzyme activity was increased, which also confirms the occurrence of apoptosis in tumor cells at the translational level. Taking all our experimental results together, it may suggest that the copper oxide nanorods could be a potential anti-tumor agent to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.

  5. Retracted: Worst Pattern Of Invasion and occult cervical metastases for oral squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Velosa, Claudia; Shi, Qiuying; Stevens, Todd M; Chiosea, Simion I; Purgina, Bibiana; Carroll, William; Rosenthal, Eben; Morlandt, Anthony; Loree, Thom; Brandwein-Weber, Margaret S

    2017-03-28

    The above article, published online in Wiley Online Library as the Version of Record on March 28, 2017 (doi 10.1002/hed.24754), has been retracted by agreement between the Editor-in-Chief, Ehab Y. Hanna, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed owing to a dispute as to authorship and inclusion of some data in the analysis. Velosa, C., Shi, Q., Stevens, T. M., Chiosea, S. I., Purgina, B., Carroll, W., Rosenthal, E., Morlandt, A., Loree, T. and Brandwein-Weber, M. S. (2017), Worst pattern of invasion and occult cervical metastases for oral squamous carcinoma. Head Neck. doi:10.1002/hed.24754. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Anticancer activity of Moringa oleifera mediated silver nanoparticles on human cervical carcinoma cells by apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Vasanth, Karunamoorthy; Ilango, Kaliappan; MohanKumar, Ramasamy; Agrawal, Aruna; Dubey, Govind Prasad

    2014-05-01

    Silver nanomaterial plays a crucial role in the growing field of nanotechnology as there is an increasing commercial demand for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) owing to their wide biological applications. The present investigation aims at developing anti-cancerous colloidal silver using Moringa olifera stem bark extract. Electron and atomic force microscopic images were taken to analyze the surface morphology of the synthesized AgNPs. The effects of synthesized AgNPs were tested against human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) and cell morphology was further evaluated using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. The efficiency of green synthesized AgNPs was studied with the help of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and was shown to induce apoptosis through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HeLa cells.

  7. Cloning of monomeric human papillomavirus type 16 DNA integrated within cell DNA from a cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsukura, T.; Kanda, T.; Furuno, A.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kawana, T.; Yoshiike, K.

    1986-06-01

    The authors have molecularly cloned and characterized monomeric human papillomavirus type 16 DNA with flanking cell DNA sequences from a cervical carcinoma. Determination of nucleotide sequence around the junctions of human papillomavirus and cell DNAs revealed that at the site of integration within cell DNA the cloned viral DNA had a deletion between nucleotides 1284 and 4471 (numbering system from K. Seedorf, G. Kraemmer, M. Duerst, S. Suhai, and W.G. Roewkamp), which includes the greater part of E1 gene and the entire E2 gene. In the remaining part of the E1 gene, three guanines were found at the location where two guanines at nucleotides 1137 and 1138 have been recorded. This additional guanine shifted the reading frame and erased an interruption in the E1 gene. The data strongly suggest that, like other papillomaviruses, human papillomavirus type 16 has an uninterrupted E1 gene.

  8. Pure Primary Ovarian Squamous Cell Carcinoma Perforating the Rectum

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Aiko; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Tomimatsu, Takuji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Rectal perforation is uncommon in ovarian cancer, even in advanced stages. Pure primary ovarian squamous cell carcinoma is a very rare subtype of ovarian cancer and has not been reported to cause rectal perforation. A 50-year-old woman presented with rectal bleeding. Rectosigmoidoscopy suggested perforation of a pelvic tumor into the rectum. Abdominopelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 9 cm heterogeneous mass in the pouch of Douglas. We performed complete cytoreduction, including an en-bloc resection of the tumor and rectosigmoid colon. Histopathology showed squamous cell carcinoma of the left ovary penetrating the rectal wall. A common symptom of rectal bleeding was caused by a very rare entity of ovarian cancer penetrating the rectal wall, but thorough evaluation led to its accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:28316851

  9. [De novo (type 3) primary intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws].

    PubMed

    Ray, A C; Foletti, J M; Graillon, N; Guyot, L; Chossegros, C

    2016-12-01

    Primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) of the jaws is a rare epidermoid carcinoma from epithelial origin and initially strictly localized within the bone. Histologically, type 3 PIOC (PIOC3) is a de novo primary intraosseous carcinoma. Because of the rarity of this illness, we propose an analysis of a personal case and a revue of the literature. Two search engines (Pubmed(®), Sciencedirect(®)) were questioned over the period 1976-February 2016 by using following keywords carcinoma, intraosseous, jaws, squamous cell carcinoma. Articles reporting proven PIOC3 and mentioning a precise treatment were selected. Thirty articles concerning 54 patients (sex ratio: 2.4; mean age: 56.8; extreme: 24-78) met the inclusion criterions. The most common symptoms were swelling (53%), pain (44.9%) and infra-alveolar nerve paresthesia (30.6%). The time to diagnosis was 13 weeks. Classification of Zwetyenga et al. showed more than 80% of T2 and T3 stages. The lesions were predominantly mandibular (85.2%) and posterior. Less than a third of patients had lymph node and 10% had distant metastasis. Treatment consisted mostly in a combination of surgery and radiotherapy. With a mean follow-up of 74.8 months, 70.8% were in remission with no evidence of recurrence. We report the case of a 58-year-old patient, with no medical history, complaining since several months about periodontitis with teeth mobility in the right mandibular area. The panoramic X-ray showed a bone lysis at the place of tooth No. 46. In the absence of alveolar healing after extraction and antibiotherapy, a biopsy was made that diagnosed a differentiated keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. CT scan and MRI showed a mandibular cortical bone loss with involvement of adjacent structures and lymphadenopathy in the ipsilateral IB area. The patient was treated with a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. Postoperative chemo- and radiotherapy is still going on. The PIOC3 is a rare tumor, mainly arising in males around 50

  10. [Primary sebaceous carcinoma of the breast; three casuistic reports].

    PubMed

    Kinkor, Z; Meciarová, I; Havlícek, F

    2010-02-01

    Presentation of three cases of primary sebaceous carcinoma of the breast particularly focusing on the clinical, biological and molecular genetic aspects regarding their possible pathogenetic relationship to the Muir-Torre and Lynch syndrome. Reviewed are basic principles of miscosatellite instability and dysregulations of mismatch repair genes by these inherited tumorous syndromes especially looking for morphologic and fenotypic parallels between sebaceous carcinomas of the breast and their cutaneous counterparts. Three casuistic reports. Biopsy Lab s.r.o. and Sikl's Department of Pathology, Charles University and Faculty Hospital, Pilsen. Three casuistic reports are covered in detail including broad immunohistochemistry (LSAB+, Dako). In three women aged 51 to 69 was diagnosed primary sebaceous carcinoma of the breast with maximum dimension ranged from 13 to 41 mm. Lumpectomy was performed at the smallest one and included sentinel lymph node examination turned out to be negative. The other two patients underwent modified mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. In tumor sized 25 mm, macrometastasis 4 mm in maximum dimension was identified in one axillary lymph node. Follow-up available in two women, both without regional metastasis, revealed no local or distant progression of the disease. The histology consisted of conventional G1-2 invasive duct carcinoma in all cases and sebaceous differentiation represented 10-40% of all neoplastic population. The patognomic features included cells with ample eosinophilic/clear foamy cytoplasm, partly with multiple crowded small vacuoles characteristically impressing the nuclei. All tumors were ER positive and Her2/neu 2+ lesion was not amplified. Strong diffuse nuclear expression of MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, MSH6 proteins in all cases confirmed unaltered mismatch repair genes pathway. Familial tumorous stigmas were not evident and subsequent close clinical monitoring in two of the patients tracked down no intern malignancy

  11. The Level of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen and Lymph Node Metastasis in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lekskul, Navamol; Charakorn, Chuenkamon; Lertkhachonsuk, Arb-Aroon; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Israngura Na Ayudhya, Nathpong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the utility and a cut-off level of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) to predict lymph node metastasis in locally advanced cervical cancer cases. We also investigated the correlation between SCC-Ag level and lymph node status. From June 2009 to June 2014, 232 patients with cervical cancer stage IB2-IVA, who were treated at Ramathibodi Hospital, were recruited. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify the best cut-off point of SCC-Ag level to predict lymph node metastasis. Quantile regression was performed to evaluate the correlation between SCC-Ag levels and pelvic lymph node metastasis, paraaortic lymph node metastasis, and parametrial involvement as well as tumor size. Pelvic lymph node metastasis and paraaortic lymph node metastasis were diagnosed in 46.6% and 20.1% of the patients, respectively. The median SCC-Ag level was 6 ng/mL (range, 0.5 to 464.6 ng/ mL). The areas under ROC curves between SCC-Ag level and pelvic lymph node metastasis, paraaotic lymph node metastasis, parametrial involvements were low. SCC-Ag level was significantly correlated with paraaortic lymph node status (p=0.045) but not with pelvic lymph node status and parametrial involvement. SCC-Ag level was also related to the tumor diameter (p<0.05). SCC-Ag level is not a good predictor for pelvic and paraaortic lymph node metastasis. However, it is still beneficial to assess the tumor burden of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

  12. Results of salvage radiotherapy after inadequate surgery in invasive cervical carcinoma patients: A retrospective analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saibishkumar, Elantholi P. . E-mail: drsaibish@rediffmail.com; Patel, Firuza D.; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Kumar, Vinay; Karunanidhi, Gunaseelan; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of salvage radiotherapy (RT) after inadequate surgery in patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2001, 105 invasive cervical carcinoma patients were treated at our center with external beam RT with or without intracavitary RT after having undergone total/subtotal hysterectomy at outside institutions. Results: The median follow-up was 34 months. The gap between surgery and RT was 23-198 days (median, 80). Clinically visible residual disease was present in 81 patients (77.1%). Total hysterectomy had been done in 82 patients (78%) and subtotal hysterectomy in 23 patients (22%). The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and pelvic control rates of all patients were 55.2%, 53.3%, and 72.4%, respectively. On univariate analysis, older age, total hysterectomy, hemoglobin level >10 g% before RT, nonsquamous histologic type, use of intracavitary RT, a shorter gap between surgery and RT, and the absence of, or a small volume of, residual disease favorably affected the outcome. The 5-year actuarial rate of late toxicity (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Criteria) was 19% in the rectum, 4.8% in the bladder, 24.8% in the skin, and 14.3% in the small intestine. Conclusions: Inadequate and inappropriate surgery in invasive cervical cancer with resulting gross residual disease is common in India. Factors such as the use of intracavitary RT, the correction of anemia, and a shorter gap between surgery and RT will enable postoperative RT to achieve acceptable results with minimal morbidity.

  13. Deletion and translocation of chromosome 11q13 sequences in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Jesudasan, R.A.; Srivatsan, E.S.; Rahman, R.A.; Chandrashekharappa, S.; Evans, G.A.

    1995-03-01

    Molecular genetic studies on HeLa cell-derived nontumorigenic and tumorigenic hybrids have previously localized the HeLa cell tumor-suppressor gene to the long arm of chromosome 11. Extensive molecular and cytogenetic studies on HeLa cells have shown chromosome band 11q13 to be rearranged in this cell line. To determine whether q13 rearrangement is a nonrandom event in cervical carcinomas, six different human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive (HeLa, SiHa, Caski, C4-I, Me180, and Ms751) and two different HPV-negative (C33A and HT3) cell lines were studied. Long-range restriction mapping using a number of q13-specific probes showed molecular arrangements within 75 kb of INT2 probe in three HPV-positive cell lines (HeLa, SiHa, and Caski) and in an HPV-negative cell line (HT3). FISH using an INT2 YAC identified a breakpoint within the sequences spanned by this YAC in two of the cell lines, HeLa and Caski. INT2 cosmid derived from this YAC showed deletion of cosmid sequences in two other cell lines, SiHa and C33A. These two cell lines, however, retained cosmid sequences of Cyclin D1, a probe localized 100 kb proximal to INT2. Deletions being the hallmark of a tumor-suppressor gene, we conclude that the 100-kb interval between the two cosmids might contain sequences of the cervical carcinoma tumor-suppressor gene. 28 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Cooccurrence of Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Salmonella Induced Neck Abscess in a Cervical Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Myung; Jung, Eun Jung; Song, Eun Jin; Kim, Dong Chul; Jeong, Chi-Young; Ju, Young-Tae; Lee, Young-Joon; Hong, Soon-Chan; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Ha, Woo-Song

    2017-01-01

    Cervical lymph node metastasis is common in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Salmonella species are rarely reported as causative agents in focal infections of the head and neck. The cooccurrence of lymph node metastasis from PTC and a bacterial infection is rare. This report describes a 76-year-old woman with a cervical lymph node metastasis from PTC and Salmonella infection of the same lymph node. The patient presented with painful swelling in her left lateral neck region for 15 days, and neck ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a cystic mass along left levels II–IV. The cystic mass was suspected of being a metastatic lymph node; modified radical neck dissection was performed. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of PTC in the resected node and laboratory examination of the combined abscess cavity confirmed the presence of Salmonella Typhi. Following antibiotic sensitivity testing of the cultured Salmonella Typhi, she was treated with proper antibiotics. Cystic lesions in lymph nodes with metastatic cancer may indicate the presence of cooccurring bacterial infection. Thus, culturing of specimen can be option to make accurate diagnosis and to provide proper postoperative management. PMID:28261270

  15. Cervical nodal metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: what to expect.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, S K; Armao, D; Joshi, V M

    2001-11-01

    The treatment and management of malignancies of the head and neck is directly altered by the presence of metastatic cervical adenopathy. The treatment of nodal metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCCA) is determined by the lymphatic drainage of the upper aerodigestive tract. The lymphatic drainage is site-specific and occurs in a predictable manner. The purpose of this text is to provide an overview of the normal routes of lymphatic drainage in the head and neck and correlate this with the current nodal classification system. The specific aims of this manuscript are to 1) illustrate the expected lymphatic drainage patterns of HNSCCA arising in the different subsites (nasopharynx, oropharynx, oral cavity, larynx, and hypopharynx) and 2) review the expected frequency of metastases within nodal groups for HNSCCA that arise in these locations. An understanding of the topographical distribution and incidence of cervical lymph node metastases plays an integral role in the physical examination and radiological evaluation of patients with HNSCCA. For the neuroradiologist, this information may increases the ability to identify those nodal groups at risk for metastatic involvement. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Head Neck 23: 995-1005, 2001.

  16. Early determination of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma radioresponse identifies high- and low-response tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ohara, Kiyoshi . E-mail: ki-ohara@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Oki, Akinori; Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Onishi, Kayoko; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Satoh, Toyomi; Tsunoda, Hajime; Hata, Masaharu; Sugahara, Shinji; Tokuuye, Koichi; Akine, Yasuyuki; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether early-assessed radioresponse of tumors corresponds with late-assessed radioresponse, which is associated with local disease control in radiotherapy (RT) for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: This prospective study included 12 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma treated by RT with or without concurrent cisplatin. Tumor volume was estimated by scheduled magnetic resonance imaging before (preRT), 3 to 4 weeks after (early assessment), and 6 to 7 weeks after (late assessment) RT initiation. Radioresponse was assessed with tumor shrinkage curves based on these volumes. Radioresponse for each tumor was calculated as the slope (day{sup -1}) of the shrinkage curve by fitting to an exponential equation. Results: Early-assessed radioresponse ranged from 0.001 to 0.106 day{sup -1} (median, 0.021 day{sup -1}) and late-assessed radioresponse from 0.009 to 0.091 day{sup -1} (median, 0.021 day{sup -1}), with no significant difference between them (p = 0.1191). The early-assessed radioresponse correlated with the late-assessed radioresponse (R {sup 2} = 0.714, p = 0.0005). Conclusions: Correspondence between early- and late-assessed radioresponse in a series of tumors showing a wide range of radioresponse was not particularly close overall. However, early assessment of radioresponsiveness did seem to be useful for characterizing those tumors with high or low radioresponsiveness.

  17. Tuberculosis cervical lymphadenopathy mimics lateral neck metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Mo; Jun, Hak Hoon; Chang, Ho-Jin; Chun, Ki Won; Kim, Bup-Woo; Lee, Yong Sang; Chang, Hang-Seok; Park, Cheong Soo

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) lymphadenitis is a frequent cause of lymphadenopathy in areas in which TB is endemic. Cervical lymphadenopathy in TB can mimic lateral neck metastasis (LNM) from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). This study evaluated the clinicopathological features of patients with PTC and TB lateral neck lymphadenopathy. Of the 9098 thyroid cancer patients who underwent thyroid cancer surgery at the Thyroid Cancer Center of Gangnam Severance Hospital between January 2009 and April 2013, 28 had PTC and showed TB lymphadenopathy of the lateral neck node. The clinicopathological features of these 28 patients were evaluated. Preoperatively, all 28 patients were diagnosed with PTC and showed cervical lymphadenopathy. All had radiological characteristics suspicious of metastasis in lateral neck nodes. Based upon the results from intraoperative frozen sections, lymph node dissection (LND) was not performed on 19 patients. Seven of eight patients who underwent LND had metastasis combined with tuberculous lymphadenopathy, with the remaining patient negative for LNM. Intraoperative sampling and frozen sectioning of lymph nodes suspicious of metastasis can help avoid unnecessary LND for tuberculous lymphadenopathy. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. Cervical lymph node metastases and T1 squamous cell carcinoma of the lips.

    PubMed

    Bon-Mardion, N; De Raucourt, D; Babin, E; Rame, J P; Dehesdin, D; Choussy, O

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of cervical lymph node metastasis is a major prognostic factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip. This study focuses on patients with T1 stage tumours,in order to describe the prevalence of metastatic lymphadenopathies. A multicenter retrospective study was performed in three tertiary care referral centers and included 59 patients surgically treated for T1 stage SCC of the lips from January 1996 to December 2006. This surgical treatment concerned the tumour, with cervical neck dissection when lymph node metastasis was suspected. Cervical lymph node metastasis was found and histologically proven in 7 patients (11.9% of the cases, pN+ group; 95% confidence interval, 3.6 to 20.2%) during follow-up, never at the time of diagnosis. Metastasis appeared 13.3 ± 7.9 months (min. 5.3 months, max. 29.1 months) after the initial treatment and involved the IB level in all cases. Tumour progression was significantly longer in the pN+ group compared to patients with no lymph node metastases (sN-group). The pN+ group also had a significantly higher proportion of poorly or moderately differentiated tumours, and a significant decrease in overall survival, disease-free survival, and disease-specific survival. Lymph node metastasis occurs in roughly 12% of T1 stage SCC of the lips, and the management of neck lymph node areas is necessary. A randomized trial is needed to determine the proportion of occult lymph node metastases in T1N0 patients and the impact of this therapeutic procedure on survival.

  19. High Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinomas With Lower Vaginal Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Kazumoto, Tomoko Kato, Shingo; Tabushi, Katsuyoshi; Kutsutani-Nakamura, Yuzuru; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Michiko; Shiromizu, Kenji; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: This report presents the clinical applications of an automated treatment-planning program of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for advanced uterine cervical cancer infiltrating the parametrium and the lower vagina. Methods and Materials: We adopted HDR-ICBT under optimized dose distribution for 22 cervical cancer patients with tumor infiltration of the lower half of the vagina. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics clinical stages IIB-IVA. After whole pelvic external beam irradiation with a median dose of 30.6 Gy, a conventional ICBT was applied as 'pear-shaped' isodose curve. Then 3-4 more sessions per week of this new method of ICBT were performed. With a simple determination of the treatment volume, the cervix-parametrium, and the lower vagina were covered automatically and simultaneously by this program, that was designated as 'utero-vaginal brachytherapy'. The mean follow-up period was 87.4 months (range, 51.8-147.9 months). Results: Isodose curve for this program was 'galaxy-shaped'. Five-year local-progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 90.7% and 81.8%, respectively. Among those patients with late complications higher than Grade 2 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer morbidity score, only one (4.5%) developed severe proctitis. Conclusions: Because of the favorable treatment outcomes, this treatment-planning program with a simplified target-volume based dosimetry was proposed for cervical cancer with lower vaginal infiltration.

  20. Metabonomic signature analysis of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions in women by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    HASIM, AYSHAMGUL; ALI, MAYINUER; MAMTIMIN, BATUR; MA, JUN-QI; LI, QIAO-ZHI; ABUDULA, ABULIZI

    2012-01-01

    1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics has been used to characterize the metabolic profiles of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to model the systematic variation related to patients with CIN or CSCC with healthy controls. Potential metabolic biomarkers were identified using database comparisons, and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to examine the significance of the metabolites. Compared with plasma obtained from the healthy controls, plasma from patients with CIN had higher levels of very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL), acetone, unsaturated lipid and carnitine, together with lower levels of creatine, lactate, isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamine, histidine, glycine, acetylcysteine, myo-inositol, choline and glycoprotein. Plasma from patients with CSCC had higher levels of acetate and formate, together with lower levels of creatine, lactate, isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamine, histidine and tyrosine compared with the plasma of the healthy controls. In addition, compared with the plasma of patients with CIN, the plasma of CSCC patients had higher levels of acetate, formate, lactate, isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamine, histidine, tyrosine, acetylcysteine, myo-inositol, glycoprotein, α-glucose and β-glucose, together with lower levels of acetone, unsaturated lipid and carnitine. Moreover, the profiles showed high feasibility and specificity by statistical analysis with OPLS-DA compared to the Thinprep cytology test (TCT) by setting the histopathological outcome as standard. The metabolic profile obtained for cervical cancer is significant, even for the precancerous disease. This suggests a systemic metabolic response to cancer, which may be used to identify potential early diagnostic biomarkers of the cancer and to establish

  1. Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated incompletely with radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Yub; Ryu, Woo Sang; Woo, Sang Uk; Son, Gil Soo; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Jae Bok; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2010-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of malignancy, later referred and treated with robotic surgery successfully. We can learn the following lessons from our case; (1) the RFA for operable primary thyroid malignancy should be avoided, because of the possibility of remnant viable cancer and undetectable nodal metastasis, and (2) robotic or endoscopic thyroid surgery may be a feasible operative method for benign or malignant thyroid nodules previously treated with RFA.

  2. The role of p53 inactivation in human cervical cell carcinoma development.

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, K.; Miyamoto, S.; Kato, H.; Imamura, T.; Nishida, M.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Nagata, Y.; Wake, N.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and p53 gene mutation in 47 primary uterine cervical cancers. HPV DNA sequences were present in 43 cancers (91.5%), and one of these cancers contained a p53 gene mutation. In addition, one of the remaining four HPV-negative cancers also contained a p53 gene mutation. As a result, p53 inactivation corresponded to the development of 44 of the primary uterine cervical cancers studied (93.6%). We obtained both primary and recurrent tumours from four cases. In two of these cases, the HPV genomes that were present in an episomal state in the primary tumours were observed to have disappeared in the recurrent tumours. One of these recurrent tumours also contained a p53 gene mutation, which suggested the possibility that p53 inactivation was required in order to maintain the aggressive behaviour in this cancer either by an HPV infection or by a p53 gene mutation. No MDM2 gene amplification was observed in the tumours that carried neither HPV DNAs nor p53 gene mutations. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7841033

  3. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Huh, Warner K; Ault, Kevin A; Chelmow, David; Davey, Diane D; Goulart, Robert A; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kinney, Walter K; Massad, L Stewart; Mayeaux, Edward J; Saslow, Debbie; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lawson, Herschel W; Einstein, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    In 2011, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology updated screening guidelines for the early detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Recommended screening strategies were cytology and cotesting (cytology in combination with hrHPV testing). These guidelines also addressed the use of hrHPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, which was not recommended for use at that time. There is now a growing body of evidence for screening with primary hrHPV testing, including a prospective US-based registration study. Thirteen experts including representatives from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Cancer Society, American Society of Cytopathology, College of American Pathologists, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology, convened to provide interim guidance for primary hrHPV screening. This guidance panel was specifically triggered by an application to the FDA for a currently marketed HPV test to be labeled for the additional indication of primary cervical cancer screening. Guidance was based on literature review and review of data from the FDA registration study, supplemented by expert opinion. This document aims to provide information for healthcare providers who are interested in primary hrHPV testing and an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this strategy for screening as well as to highlight areas in need of further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A literature overview of primary cervical malignant melanoma: an exceedingly rare cancer.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Sara; Bajetta, Emilio; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Formisano, Barbara; Ducceschi, Monika; Buzzoni, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    Primary malignant melanoma (MM) of the uterine cervix is an extremely rare neoplasm, with about 78 cases described in the literature. Since traces of melanocytes in normal cervical epithelium were found in 3.5% of cases primary origin of melanoma at this site cannot be ruled out. It occurs mainly in the sixth decade of life, and it is five time less common than primary vaginal or vulvar MM. Clinical history usually includes abnormal genital bleeding; and physical examination frequently reveals a pigmented, exophytic cervical mass. Diagnosis is confirmed by immuno-histochemical methods and by exclusion of any other primary site of melanoma. Treatment of this condition is not yet standardized, and the overall prognosis is very poor. Diagnostic approaches and therapeutic procedures on primary MM of the uterine cervix are discussed following a review of the literature encompassing more than one century.

  5. Primary retroperitoneal Merkel cell carcinoma: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz-Sandoval, Osvaldo A.; Cuellar-Hubbe, Mario; Lino-Silva, Leonardo S.; Salcedo-Hernández, Rosa A.; López-Basave, Horacio N.; Padilla-Rosciano, Alejandro E.; León-Takahashi, Alberto M.; Herrera-Gómez, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma that affects elderly patients and typically arises in sun-exposed skin. The disease is very rare and only few cases present with no apparent skin lesion. In the retroperitoneum there are only two cases reported in the literature. Case presentation We report a case of a 54-year-old Mexican male with MCC, which presented as a large retroperitoneal mass. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the transabdominal CT-guided biopsy specimen revealed a MCC. The patient underwent preoperative chemotherapy followed by a laparotomy and the mass was successfully excised. Discussion There are two possible explanations for what occurred in our patient. The most plausible theory is the retroperitoneal mass could be a massively enlarged lymph node where precursor cells became neoplastic. This would be consistent with a presumptive diagnosis of primary nodal disease. Moreover, metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes has been reported as relatively common when compared to other sites such as liver, bone, brain and skin. The less probable theory is the non-described “regression” phenomena of a cutaneous MCC, but we are not found a primary skin lesion. Conclusion Preoperative chemotherapy and excision of the primary tumor is the surgical treatment of choice for retroperitoneal MCC. We propose that further studies are needed to elucidate the true efficacy of chemotherapy in conventional and unconventional patients with MCC. PMID:26708276

  6. The late occurrence of urinary tract damage in patients successfully treated by radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zoubek, J.; McGuire, E.J.; Noll, F.; DeLancey, J.O.

    1989-06-01

    Urinary tract complications apparently resulting from radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix can occur as long as 30 years after cessation of such treatment. Patients generally present with urinary incontinence and often are treated by standard operative methods that usually are unsuccessful. Incontinence is related to bladder fibrosis, urethral nonfunction and vesicovaginal fistuLa formation, and may be accompanied by bilateral ureteral obstruction. Of 11 patients with late complications of radiotherapy 4 had upper tract deterioration, 4 had vesicovaginal fistulas, 5 had an incompetent urethra aNd 9 had a fibrotic, noncompliant areflexive bladder. Treatment was aimed at providing adequate low pressure storage capacity and consisted of augmentation cystoplasty in 5 patients, repair of the fistula in 4 and correction of urethral dysfunction in 5. Women who complain of incontinence and/or irritable bladder symptoms with a history of radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma should be evaluated for fistuLa formation, urethral incompetence, and detrusor areflexia and fibrosis before treatment is done.

  7. Cervicitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... growth of normal bacteria in the vagina (bacterial vaginosis) can also cause cervicitis. ... a microscope (may show candidiasis , trichomoniasis , or bacterial vaginosis) Pap test Tests for gonorrhea or chlamydia Rarely, ...

  8. In vitro antigene therapy targeting HPV-16 E6 and E7 in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, M; Janicek, M F; Sevin, B U; Perras, J; Estape, R; Peñalver, M; Averette, H E

    1997-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is believed to play a central role in cervical carcinogenesis. Specifically, two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, possess transforming ability and have been shown to interact with the cellular tumor suppressors p53 and p105, the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene product. To test the hypothesis that E6 and E7 play an active role in the maintenance of the malignant phenotype and may be ideal targets for antigene therapy, we tested the antiproliferative effects of phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) targeting HPV-16 E6 and E7 in cervical cancer cell lines and primary tumor explants. The ATP cell viability assay was used to measure growth effects of 27-mer antisense oligos targeting the ATG translational start region of HPV-16 E6 and E7 sequences in HPV-16-positive cell lines SiHa and CaSki and four advanced, primary cervical tumor explants. A random oligo sequence, an HPV-18-positive and HPV-negative cell line, one histologically confirmed endometrial and two ovarian tumors were used as negative controls. HPV type was confirmed by hybrid capture techniques. Cell lines and sterile (staging laparotomy) tumor cells were plated at 5000 cells/0.1 ml and 100,000 cells/0.5 ml in 96-well plates or soft agar, respectively, and incubated at 37 degrees C with a single treatment of oligos at 0-16 microM. E6/E7 combinations at a fixed ratio of 1:1 were used at 0-8 microM for each oligo. Cellular ATP was measured by luciferin/luciferase fluorescence on Day 6. HPV-16 E6 and E7 oligos showed antiproliferative effects in all HPV-16-positive cell lines and primary tumor explants (IC50s 6.9-9.5 microM for cell lines, 9.1-12.1 microM primary cervical tumors), while the HPV-negative C33-A cell line and HPV-18-positive cell line HeLa were relatively insensitive to the HPV-16 oligos (IC50s > 30 microM extrapolated). The endometrial and two ovarian primary tumors were also insensitive to the HPV E6 and E7 oligos (IC50s > 25 microM extrapolated). Random

  9. Cytokeratin7 and cytokeratin19 expression in high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasm and squamous cell carcinoma and their possible association in cervical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hojung; Lee, Hyekyung; Cho, Yong Kyun

    2017-02-17

    High risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) infects cells at the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) of the cervix, causing cancer. Cytokeratin (CK)7 is an SCJ marker, and stains cervical neoplasia. CK19 is a binding partner of CK7 and expressed in cervical cancer. Despite this possible association between CK7/CK19 and cervical cancer, not much is known about the mechanism of CK7/CK19 involvement in HR HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. We analyzed the expression pattern of CK7, CK19, and p16 by using immunohistochemistry and HPV infection by in situ hybridization in 25 cases of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) and in 30 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). CK19, p16, and HPV expression was positive in all CIN3 and SCC cases. CK7 expression was positive in all CIN3 cases and in 20/30 (66%) SCCs. Each protein showed diffuse or patchy staining with topographic distinction. Patchy staining of CK7 and episomal HPV DNA overlapped in the upper layer of CIN3 and central portion of an invasive nest in the SCC, whereas patchy CK19 staining and integrated HPV DNA were usually noted in the lower layer of CIN3 and the periphery of the SCC nest. The p16 staining pattern coincided with that of CK19 in a subset of SCC. These results suggest that CK7 may be more related with viral episomal replication and CK19 with viral integration, contributing to viral replication and malignant transformation in HR HPV infected cells. In addition, coordinate CK7/CK19 staining may be used as a valuable marker for predicting physical status of HR HPV and E7 oncoprotein level in cervical tumor.

  10. Amplification of CyclinL1 in uterine cervical carcinoma has prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sraboni; Mazumder Indra, Dipanjana; Basu, Partha S; Mondal, Ranajit K; Roy, Anup; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Panda, Chinmay K

    2010-11-01

    The chromosomal 3q25.31 region was consistently amplified in primary cancer of cervix (CACX). CyclinL1 is a candidate gene of this region and already have been implicated as an oncogene in head and neck cancers. In this study, we aimed to investigate the involvement of CyclinL1 in cervical carcinogenesis and for this purpose its copy number variation (CNV) was studied in 23 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 110 CACX samples. In CIN lesions CyclinL1 was not amplified; however, the amplification frequency was 16% (9/56) in stage I/II tumors which remained comparable during subsequent stages of tumorigenesis. This implied association of CyclinL1 amplification with development of early invasiveness. Quantitation of mRNA expression revealed 2.6 ± 1.53-fold overexpression of this gene in primary CACX. The amplification/copy number gain of CyclinL1 and its mRNA profile were concordant, in tumors. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis in primary CACX, cell lines: SiHa and HeLa revealed intense nuclear expression of cyclinL1, which was further confirmed by Western blot in the cell lines. However 47% (7/15) CACX samples expressed high/intermediate level of cyclin L1. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated CyclinL1 amplification as a determinant of poor patient outcome. Tumor radio-resistance developed as a consequence of CyclinL1 amplification. Cox multivariate analysis revealed that multiparous (≥5) CACX patients with amplified CyclinL1 locus along with advanced tumor stage (III/IV) had worst prognosis. Our data suggest importance of CyclinL1 in cervical carcinogenesis with its associated pathways viz: pre-mRNA splicing, cell-cycle regulation (G₀/G₁ and G₂/M) being potential targets of therapeutic interventions in CACX. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Cervical Screening for Women with Learning Disability: Current Practice and Attitudes within Primary Care in Edinburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Rachael; Douglas, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate current practice in, and to explore primary care professionals' views about, providing cervical screening to women with learning disability, in two areas of Edinburgh. A postal questionnaire was sent to all 24 GP practices in the project area: 20 responded. Seven respondents were invited to participate in follow up…

  12. Cervical Screening for Women with Learning Disability: Current Practice and Attitudes within Primary Care in Edinburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Rachael; Douglas, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate current practice in, and to explore primary care professionals' views about, providing cervical screening to women with learning disability, in two areas of Edinburgh. A postal questionnaire was sent to all 24 GP practices in the project area: 20 responded. Seven respondents were invited to participate in follow up…

  13. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. Initial assessment and follow-up using (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Caballero Gullón, L; Carmona González, E; Martínez Estévez, A; Gómez Camarero, M P; Corral, J J; Borrego Dorado, I

    Squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid is an uncommon, very aggressive neoplasm, having a poor prognosis and poor response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Surgery is the initial treatment of choice, although it often presents as a widespread disease at the time of diagnosis, usually with cervical swelling that causes most of the symptoms due to local infiltration or metastasis. Local infiltration from adjacent tumour and metastatic disease needs to be excluded from other primary epidermoid carcinomas, in order to make a correct diagnosis. This also requires the typical cytokeratin pattern seen in histological studies. The case is presented of a 53 year-old man with a medical history of hepatocarcinoma, with a cervical hypermetabolic lesion detected in an (18)F-FDG PET/CT performed to exclude widespread disease. The follow-up of this lesion with this technique and its usefulness is also described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  14. Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma. Case series 1991-2012.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Ramón; Gil-Carcedo, Elisa; Alonso, David; Vallejo, Luis A; Oñate, Juan M; Gil-Carcedo, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma was first described by Toker in 1972. It is an uncommon, primary neuroendocrine skin carcinoma which appears in the dermoepidermic area, grows fast, is very aggressive and has a poor prognosis. The aim of this work is to highlight the importance of this tumour, which develops mainly in the skin of the head and neck area, and whose prevalence has increased in recent years. We gathered data on 16 patients suffering cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma treated at our hospital between September 12, 1991 and July 13, 2012. We indicated the age and gender of patients. We described the area where the tumour was located, indicating the size in millimetres, according to the major axis of the lesion. Most of the patients studied were over 70 years old, except for one who was 55. The highest frequency of cases appeared among patients aged over 80 years. In the cases studied, when the tumour appeared in the head and neck region (10/16), its location could be nasal-lateronasal, cheek-malar, upper eyelid, frontal or mandibular. The major axis of the lesion ranged between 7 and 35 mm. Unlike with epidermoid or basocellular carcinomas, recurrence and ganglionar metastases were common. Immunohistochemical (CK20) tests are essential for a correct diagnosis. Treatment is usually surgical and occasionally followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This carcinoma is not a very common skin tumour. It appears in old age, in the head and neck region in 50% of cases and often leads to exitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical Analysis of Primary Colorectal Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liang, ZhengZi; Yan, DengGuo; Li, GuoSheng; Cheng, HaiYu

    2017-07-08

    The objective of the study was to investigate the clinicopathological features of primary colorectal signet-ring cell carcinoma. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and survival data of 37 patients with primary colorectal signet-ring cell carcinoma. The mean survival time of patients in stage II, III, and IV were estimated using Student t test and the cumulative survival rates were estimated according to the method of Kaplan-Meier. The significance of the differences in survival rates were calculated using the log rank test. The incidence of primary colorectal signet-ring cell carcinoma was 1.40%, the median age of 37 patients was 50 years, the male to female ratio was 1.47:1, and 21 patients (56.8%) received a radical resection. Most patients 33 (89.2%) had an advanced tumor stage at the time of diagnosis (17 patients 45.9% stage III and 16 patients 43.2% stage IV), 34 (94.5%) patients showed a tumor depth of >T3, lymph node involvement occurred in 26 patients (70.3%), patients had a high incidence of peritoneal metastasis (16 patients 43.2% at presentation, 30 patients 81.1% at presentation and recurrence) and a low incidence of liver metastases (1 patients 2.7% at presentation, 5 patients 13.5% at presentation and recurrence). The 5-year survival rate after the initial surgery was 10.8%, the mean survival time of 37 patients was 27.1 ± 3.3 months, the mean survival time of patients in stage II, III, and IV were 47.0 ± 12.8 months, 37.1 ± 3.9 months, and 10.5 ± 1.4 months, respectively (P < .000). Colorectal signet-ring cell carcinoma is a rare neoplasm with a predominance in men. Its characteristic features were the advanced stage at the time of diagnosis, a high incidence of peritoneal metastases, a low incidence of liver metastasis, and a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Advanced primary peritoneal carcinoma: clinicopathological and prognostic factor analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Xiao-ping; Cui, Heng; Shen, Dan-hua; Wei, Li-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors favoring a positive prognosis for advanced primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC). Methods: Twenty-four cases meeting the criteria for PPC were analyzed retrospectively for the clinicopathologic profiles. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expressions of p53, Top2α, Ki-67 and Her-2/neu. Then all these clinicopathological factors and molecular markers were correlated with the prognosis. Results: There were 15 cases of primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma (PPSPC), 6 cases of mixed epithelial carcinoma (MEC) and 3 cases of malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT). All patients underwent cytoreductive surgery with optimal debulking achieved in 3 cases. Among those receiving first-line chemotherapy, 13 patients received the TP regimen (paclitaxel-cisplatin or carboplatin) and 7 patients received the PAC regimen (cisplatin-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide). The median overall survival of all patients was 42 months, while the breakdown for survival time for patients with PPSPC, MMT and MEC was 44, 13 and 19 months, respectively. The expressions of p53, Top2α and Ki-67 were all demonstrated in 11 cases respectively. None showed the expression of Her-2/neu. There were significant differences in the median survival between patients with PPSPC and those with MMMT (44 months vs 13 months, P<0.05), also between patients receiving TP combination and those receiving the PAC regimen (75 months vs 28 months, P<0.05). Another significant difference in the median progression-free survival (PFS) was identified between patients with positive p53 immunostaining and those with negative p53 immunostaining (15 months vs 47 months, P<0.05), whereas age, menopausal status, residual tumor size and the other molecular factors did not significantly impact survival. Conclusion: Patients with PPC should be treated with a comprehensive management plan including appropriate cytoreductive surgery and responsive chemotherapy. Overestimating an

  17. Coincidence of Inflamed Conjunctival Carcinoma in situ and Primary Pterygium

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Hiroaki; Kase, Satoru; Suzuki, Yasuo; Kase, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Background We report a rare case of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in conjunction with a primary pterygium that exhibited characteristic angiographic and histopathological findings. Case A 78-year-old man presented with a pterygium and a whitish tumor adjacent to the pterygium in his right eye. Indocyanine green angiography displayed that feeder vessels within the primary pterygium spread to the whitish tumor. The tumor and pterygial tissues were surgically removed. Histologically, the resected tissue contained CIS as well as squamous metaplasia. There was a marked inflammatory cell infiltration within the tumor and beneath the epithelium. Topical interferon alfa-2b was given 4 times per day for 2 months. The patient has been well without local recurrence of tumor or distal metastases to 54 follow-up months after surgery. Conclusions Because CIS can occur adjacent to pterygial tissues, long-term follow-up is necessary in patients with pterygia. PMID:28105011

  18. The Microenvironment of Cervical Carcinoma Xenografts: Associations with Lymph Node Metastasis and Its Assessment by DCE-MRI1

    PubMed Central

    Ellingsen, Christine; Walenta, Stefan; Hompland, Tord; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Rofstad, Einar K

    2013-01-01

    Poor disease-free and overall survival rates in locally advanced cervical cancer are associated with a tumor micro-environment characterized by extensive hypoxia, interstitial hypertension, and high lactate concentrations. The potential of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-based dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in assessing the microenvironment and microenvironment-associated aggressiveness of cervical carcinomas was investigated in this preclinical study. CK-160 and TS-415 cervical carcinoma xenografts were used as tumor models. DCE-MRI was carried out at 1.5 T, and parametric images of Ktrans and ve were produced by pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE-MRI series. Pimonidazole was used as a marker of hypoxia. A Millar catheter was used to measure tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). The concentrations of glucose, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and lactate were measured by induced metabolic bioluminescence imaging. High incidence of lymph node metastases was associated with high hypoxic fraction and high lactate concentration in CK-160 tumors and with high IFP and high lactate concentration in TS-415 tumors. Low Ktrans was associated with high hypoxic fraction, low glucose concentration, and high lactate concentration in tumors of both lines and with high incidence of metastases in CK-160 tumors. Associations between ve and microenvironmental parameters or metastatic propensity were not detected in any of the tumor lines. Taken together, this preclinical study suggests that Ktrans is a potentially useful biomarker for poor outcome of treatment in advanced cervical carcinoma. The possibility that Ktrans may be used to identify patients with cervical cancer who are likely to benefit from particularly aggressive treatment merits thorough clinical investigations. PMID:24151541

  19. Primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew J; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Tsihlias, John; Lajoie, Ginette; Sweet, Joan M; Chapman, William B

    2002-10-01

    Reports of primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urinary bladder are few; we identified only 2 cases in the literature. Both of these cases involved male patients with rapid progression of disease culminating in death with widespread metastases. We report a case of primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder, with an admixed minor element of adenocarcinoma, in an 82-year-old man. This solitary lesion arose in a bladder diverticulum lateral to the left ureteric orifice. Two attempts at transurethral resection were unsuccessful at achieving local control. The patient underwent a partial cystectomy with left-sided pelvic lymphadenectomy following preoperative staging investigations that found no metastatic disease. Pathologically, the tumor invaded into the deep aspect of the muscularis propria, without extension into perivesical fat. The lateral resection margin was microscopically positive for tumor, but no malignancy was found in the pelvic lymph nodes. The adenocarcinoma comprised less than 5% of total tumor volume, and areas of transition between the neuroendocrine and adenocarcinoma components were apparent. The patient developed a local recurrence 8 months postoperatively, which was managed by a combination of transurethral resection and radiation therapy. Currently, the patient has no evidence of local or metastatic disease 2 years after initial diagnosis.

  20. Characterization of primary pulmonary adenosquamous carcinoma-associated pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jennifer; Holloway, Andrew; Rasotto, Roberta; Bowlt, Kelly

    2016-03-01

    A 10-year-old, female spayed Shih Tzu was presented due to weight loss, increased respiratory effort and lethargy, determined to be secondary to a congenital para-esophageal diaphragmatic defect with partial herniation of the stomach and spleen. Four days following reduction surgery of the displaced abdominal organs thoracic effusion developed. Thoracic fluid evaluation revealed a cell-rich, protein-poor modified transudate with neutrophils, reactive mesothelial cells, and atypical epitheloid cells which occasionally appeared to be keratinizing, consistent with neoplastic exfoliation. Thoracic effusion recurred 2 days later, with similar characteristics as the initial sample. Computed tomography (CT) indicated consolidation and displacement of the right middle and accessory lung lobes. Exploratory thoracic surgery demonstrated a thickened, hyperemic right middle lung lobe, and thickened pericardial diaphragmatic ligament. Histologic evaluation of these tissues identified a primary pulmonary adenosquamous carcinoma with intravascular and pleural invasion. Based on these cytologic, histologic, and clinical findings, we conclude that primary pulmonary carcinomas may involve superficial thoracic structures and exfoliate into a thoracic effusion.

  1. Tissue transglutaminase mediates the pro-malignant effects of oncostatin M receptor over-expression in cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Caffarel, Maria M; Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; Araujo, Angela M; Bauer, Julien; Scarpini, Cinzia G; Coleman, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Oncostatin M receptor (OSMR) is commonly over-expressed in advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), producing a significantly worse clinical outcome. Cervical SCC cells that over-express OSMR show enhanced responsiveness to the major ligand OSM, which induces multiple pro-malignant effects, including increased cell migration and invasiveness. Here, we show that tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) is an important mediator of the ligand-dependent phenotypic effects of OSMR over-expression in SCC cells. TGM2 expression correlated with disease progression and with OSMR levels in clinical samples of cervical and oral SCC. TGM2 depletion in cervical SCC cells abrogated OSM-induced migration on fibronectin-coated surfaces and invasiveness through extracellular matrix, while ectopic expression of TGM2 increased cell motility and invasiveness. Confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that TGM2 interacted with integrin–α5β1 in the presence of fibronectin in cervical SCC cells, with OSM treatment strengthening the interaction. Importantly, integrin–α5β1 and fibronectin were also over-expressed in cervical and oral SCC, where levels correlated with those of OSMR and TGM2. This combined tissue and in vitro study demonstrates for the first time that stimulation of over-expressed OSMR in cervical SCC cells activates TGM2/integrin-α5β1 interactions and induces pro-malignant changes. We conclude that an OSMR/TGM2/integrin-α5β1/fibronectin pathway is of biological significance in cervical SCC and a candidate for therapeutic targeting. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2013 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:23765377

  2. Studying the Physical Function and Quality of Life Before and After Surgery in Patients With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-22

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lymphedema; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IB1 Cervical Cancer

  3. Immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes by various human papillomavirus DNAs corresponds to their association with cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, C.D.; Doniger, J.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Normal human foreskin keratinocytes cotransfected with the neomycin resistance gene and recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) DNAs (types 16, 18, 31, and 33) that have a high or moderate association with cervical malignancy acquired immortality and contained integrated and transcriptionally active viral genomes. Only transcripts from the intact E6 and E7 genes were detected in at least one cell line, suggesting that one or both of these genes are responsible for immortalization. Recombinant HPV DNAs with low or no oncogenic potential for cervical cancer (HPV1a, -5, -6b, and -11) induced small G418-resistant colonies that senesced as did the nontransfected cells. These colonies contained only episomal virus DNA; therefore, integration of HPV sequences is important for immortalization of keratinocytes. This study suggests that the virus-encoded immortalization function contributes to the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.

  4. SU-E-J-88: The Study of Setup Error Measured by CBCT in Postoperative Radiotherapy for Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Runxiao, L; Aikun, W; Xiaomei, F; Jing, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare two registration methods in the CBCT guided radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma, analyze the setup errors and registration methods, determine the margin required for clinical target volume(CTV) extending to planning target volume(PTV). Methods: Twenty patients with cervical carcinoma were enrolled. All patients were underwent CT simulation in the supine position. Transfering the CT images to the treatment planning system and defining the CTV, PTV and the organs at risk (OAR), then transmit them to the XVI workshop. CBCT scans were performed before radiotherapy and registered to planning CT images according to bone and gray value registration methods. Compared two methods and obtain left-right(X), superior-inferior(Y), anterior-posterior (Z) setup errors, the margin required for CTV to PTV were calculated. Results: Setup errors were unavoidable in postoperative cervical carcinoma irradiation. The setup errors measured by method of bone (systemic ± random) on X(1eft.right),Y(superior.inferior),Z(anterior.posterior) directions were(0.24±3.62),(0.77±5.05) and (0.13±3.89)mm, respectively, the setup errors measured by method of grey (systemic ± random) on X(1eft-right), Y(superior-inferior), Z(anterior-posterior) directions were(0.31±3.93), (0.85±5.16) and (0.21±4.12)mm, respectively.The spatial distributions of setup error was maximum in Y direction. The margins were 4 mm in X axis, 6 mm in Y axis, 4 mm in Z axis respectively.These two registration methods were similar and highly recommended. Conclusion: Both bone and grey registration methods could offer an accurate setup error. The influence of setup errors of a PTV margin would be suggested by 4mm, 4mm and 6mm on X, Y and Z directions for postoperative radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma.

  5. Genomic alterations in cervical carcinoma: Losses of chromosome heterozygosity (LOH) correlated with cytogenetic, HPV, and p53 evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, H.P.; Mullokandov, M.; Khollodilov, N.G.

    1994-09-01

    This study was undertaken to obtain indications of chromosomes likely to carry tumorigenicity suppressor genes the loss of function of which play a role in the origin or progression of cervical carcinomas. PCR and electrophoresis with primers for 73 highly polymorphic microsatellite chromosome markers were used to determine the incidence of LOH of all of the autosomes in 38 cervical carcinomas. According to these criteria 14 of the autosomes are involved in LOH in 24% to 42% of the tumors. This involves chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 16, 18 and 19. Most frequently involved are chromosomes 3 and 6 with LOH in 42% of the tumors. The chromosomes next most frequently involved are 4, 7, 11 and 18, with LOH in 31-32% of cases. Chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 8 and 16 each had LOH in 29% of the tumors; 9 and 13 each in 26%; and 19 in 24% of the tumors. All other autosomes had LOH in 18% or fewer of the tumors. Cytogenetic analyses performed on direct preparations from many of the same tumors agreed well with the molecular LOH assays. Correlation of the information obtained with both of these methods provides considerable insight into the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of these chromosome alterations. Chromosome 3 is the third most frequent chromosome involved in LOH in all types of cancer. In cervical carcinomas the region most frequently involved is 3p13-p25, which is a segment within which suppressors have been implicated in several other types of malignancies. Chromosome 6 on the other hand is rarely involved in other neoplasias and this appears to be unique to cervical carcinomas. Of interest was the finding that many of the HPV-negative tumors had LOH of chromosome 17 and many of these expressed mutant p53. The latter tumors occur in older women and are on the average much more aggressive than the HPV-positive tumors.

  6. Immunohistochemical and morphologic evaluation of primary cutaneous apocrine carcinomas and cutaneous metastases from ductal breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, A

    2012-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between a primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma (CAC) and a cutaneous metastasis from a breast carcinoma can be a very difficult task if it is only made on morphologic bases. Concerning adnexal tumors (in general), there have been many attempts to define an immunohistochemical panel, and while a definition is useful in certain respects, the series presented often times does not include examples of CAC. Other times, CAC seems to behave in an odd way in an immunohistochemical context; they behave differently than other adnexal tumors, and this in turn adds a grade of confusion to the differential diagnosis of a cutaneous metastasis. In the current study, we include seven cases of primary cutaneous apocrine tumors, including one carcinoma in situ, five infiltrating carcinomas, and one adenoma. Additionally, we examine the expression of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), and c-erbB-2. We also study myoepithelial markers, such as p63, D2-40, and SMA in them, as well as the pattern of expression of the following cytokeratins: CK7, CK8, CK18, CK19, CK5/6 and 34betaE12. On the other hand, we examine the expression of six immunohistochemical markers (ER, PR, p63, mammaglobin, CK5÷6 and D2-40) in 30 cases of cutaneous metastases from breast carcinoma, ductal type. None of our infiltrating primary CAC expressed ER or PR, while the cutaneous metastasis expressed the markers in 90% of the cases. D2-40 was expressed in 60% of the infiltrating CACs, while the metastases were either negative (93.33% of the cases) or positive with luminal reinforcement. Mammaglobin was a very useful marker, expressed by 66.66% of the metastases, and by only one CAC (and in less than 10% of the cells). None of the metastases were positive for p63, while 60% of the CAC expressed the marker. CK 5/6 was also expressed by a high percentage of our CACs (80%), while it was seen in only 6.66% of the metastases. We found SMA as a very useful tool in diagnosing

  7. En bloc resection of primary malignant bone tumors of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Tobias A; Mendel, Ehud

    2014-11-01

    Due to the poor response of primary malignant bone tumors to adjuvant therapies, surgical resection performed in an en bloc fashion with free margins remains the best option for long-term recurrence-free survival of patients harboring such lesions. In this article the authors provide a stepwise review of the technical details involved in the performance of en bloc resections of tumoral lesions in the cervical spine. Due to the anatomical peculiarities of the cervical spine related to the presence of functional nerve roots as well as the vertebral arteries, en bloc resections in this region remains a challenging surgical procedure.

  8. Metastatic Pituitary Carcinoma to Cervical Lymph Node: Diagnosis by Fine Needle Aspiration and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiying; Liang, Jiancong; Yong, William H; Sullivan, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Pituitary carcinomas are rare neoplasms whose designation requires demonstration of metastatic disease. No specific morphologic features can reliably distinguish pituitary carcinomas from pituitary adenomas, rendering the diagnosis particularly challenging. Furthermore, as reports of pituitary carcinoma on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy are exceedingly rare in the literature, the cytological features of pituitary carcinoma are poorly characterized. Here we describe a case of pituitary carcinoma in a 67-year-old woman with history of recurrent adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary adenoma who presented with a persistent left cervical nodule for 2 years. Ultrasound-guided FNA of the nodule consisted of loosely cohesive clusters of epithelioid cells with marked cytologic atypia, intermediate to large nuclei, relatively irregular nuclear contour, coarse granular chromatin, prominent nucleoli, and delicate finely granular cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical stains performed on the cell block revealed positivity for synaptophysin, chromogranin and ACTH with an increased Ki-67 proliferation index (approximately 25%). Review of the patient's previously resected pituitary tumor showed similar cytomorphologic features. Given the similar cytologic features of pituitary carcinomas compared to other neuroendocrine tumors, it is important to obtain a complete clinical history and maintain a high index of suspicion in order to make a correct diagnosis of pituitary carcinoma on FNA. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Prognostic impact of the expression of Wnt-signaling proteins in cervical carcinoma FIGO stage I-IV treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mordhorst, Louise Bohr; Ahlin, Cecilia; Sorbe, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Wnt signaling proteins were assessed in patients with primary cervical carcinomas who received chemoradiation. The associations between three Wnt signaling proteins and prognosis were assessed. Specimens from 122 patients with cervical carcinomas (FIGO stage I-IV) were immunohistochemically (IHC) analyzed for β-catenin, APC and axin protein expression. Associations between these Wnt-protein expressions, clinicopathological factors, and clinical outcome data were examined. Positive IHC staining for the β-catenin protein (cell-membranes, cytoplasm and nuclei) was recorded in 88%, 58% and 5%, respectively. There was a strong association between β-catenin staining of the cell-membranes and prediction of recurrences and prognosis (p = 0. 002). Tumors with > 5% of nuclear β-catenin staining were associated with inferior cancer-specific survival (p = 0.048) compared with no staining. The overall recurrence rate was significantly higher in the group with increased nuclear staining (67%) compared with the group with no staining (33%). Nuclear APC staining of high intensity was associated with a significantly worse cancer-specific survival and increased overall recurrence rate compared to tumors with weak staining. Distant recurrences were recorded in 29% of cases with intense staining and in 14% of cases with low staining. The Wnt signaling pathway seems to be of importance in the process of cervical oncogenesis. A predictive and prognostic value was found for β-catenin, where strong cell-membrane staining was favorable, and > 5% positive nuclear staining was associated with poorer cancer-specific survival and overall recurrence rate. Nuclear APC staining intensity was also associated with a less favorable prognosis. PMID:27577083

  10. Cripto-1-induced increase in vimentin expression is associated with enhanced migration of human Caski cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ebert, A D; Wechselberger, C; Nees, M; Clair, T; Schaller, G; Martinez-Lacaci, I; Wallace-Jones, B; Bianco, C; Weitzel, H K; Salomon, D S

    2000-05-25

    Cripto-1 (CR-1), a member of the EGF-CFC peptide family, plays an essential role during mesoderm formation in vertebrates as well as in cancer development. Using cDNA gene expression array, Western blot, and indirect immunofluorescence, an increase in vimentin expression was demonstrated in CR-1-transfected human Caski cervical carcinoma cells compared to control vector-transfected cells. In parental Caski cells, recombinant CR-1 induced a dose-dependent increase of vimentin protein expression within 24 h. Since vimentin expression has been demonstrated to correlate with a more aggressive phenotype in human cervical cancer, the migration capacity of CR-1-transfected or CR-1-treated Caski cells was studied in the Boyden chamber assay. Compared to the vector-transfected or untreated Caski cells, CR-1-transfected cells or cells treated with recombinant CR-1 exhibit enhanced migration, both through collagen- and through gelatin-coated membranes. Additionally, CR-1 can function as a chemoattractant for Caski cells. These findings are of biological significance since CR-1 is overexpressed in several types of human carcinomas. The present data demonstrate that CR-1 can increase vimentin expression and modulate migration in human cervical carcinoma cells.

  11. The role of interstitial brachytherapy in the management of primary radiation therapy for uterine cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuma; Kato, Tomoyasu; Nakamura, Satoshi; Wakita, Akihisa; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Shima, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Keisuke; Kashihara, Tairo; Harada, Ken; Takahashi, Kana; Umezawa, Rei; Inaba, Koji; Ito, Yoshinori; Igaki, Hiroshi; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to report the clinical results of uterine cervical cancer patients treated by primary radiation therapy including brachytherapy, and investigate the role of interstitial brachytherapy (ISBT). Material and methods All consecutive uterine cervical cancer patients who were treated by primary radiation therapy were reviewed, and those who were treated by ISBT were further investigated for clinical outcomes and related toxicities. Results From December 2008 to October 2014, 209 consecutive uterine cervical cancer patients were treated with primary radiation therapy. Among them, 142 and 42 patients were treated by intracavitary and hybrid brachytherapy, respectively. Twenty-five patients (12%) were treated by high-dose-rate (HDR)-ISBT. Five patients with distant metastasis other than para-aortic lymph node were excluded, and 20 patients consisted of the analysis. Three-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) rate were 44.4%, 38.9%, and 87.8%, respectively. Distant metastasis was the most frequent site of first relapse after HDR-ISBT. One and four patients experienced grade 3 and 2 rectal bleeding, one grade 2 cystitis, and two grade 2 vaginal ulcer. Conclusions Feasibility and favorable local control of interstitial brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer was demonstrated through a single institutional experience with a small number of patients. PMID:27895680

  12. Primary cervical spine carcinoid tumor in a woman with arm paresthesias and weakness: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms derived from the enterochromaffin cells. Central nervous system involvement is rare and has been reported either as metastases to the brain and spine or primary tumors involving the sacrococcygeal spine. We report the first case of a primary carcinoid tumor of the cervical spine. Case presentation A 50-year-old African-American woman presented with a 4-month history of numbness, paresthesias, and mild left-hand weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of her cervical spine revealed a homogenously enhancing extradural mass, indenting the cervical cord and expanding the left neural foramen at C7–T1. A C7 corpectomy, en bloc resection of the tumor, and anterior C6–T1 fusion were performed to decompress the spinal cord and nerves and provide stability. Postoperative histopathologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis were consistent with carcinoid tumor. There has been no recurrence at the 6-year follow-up visit. Conclusions Primary cervical carcinoid tumor is extremely rare, but should be included in the differential diagnosis of enhancing expansile extradural masses compressing the spinal cord and nerves. Surgical resection may provide a definitive cure. PMID:23972315

  13. Screening for cervical carcinoma in HIV-infected women: Analysis of main risk factors for cervical cytologic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Matilde; Saccone, Gabriele; Migliucci, Annalisa; Saviano, Rosa; Capone, Angela; Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Bruzzese, Dario; Martinelli, Pasquale

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential predictive factors for cervical disease in women with HIV and to evaluate adherence during follow-up to cervical cancer screening. In order to identify the independent role of factors associated with the presence of a cervical abnormality, all of the variables showing in univariate analyses a potential association with the outcome variable (presence of cervical abnormalities) were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model, along with age at first visit to our center, and age at diagnosis. A total of 540 HIV-positive women who received screening for cervical cancer during the first year after their first visit to our center were included in the analysis; 423 (78.3%) had normal cytology and 117 (21.7%) had cytological abnormalities, classified as follows: 21 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (17.9%); 51 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (43.6%); 41 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (35.0%); and four cervical cancers (3.4%). In our study, women with more than two previous pregnancies were significantly associated with a lower risk of cervical cytological abnormalities compared to the other women. Women with CD4+ levels of 200-499/mm(3) had a higher risk of developing cervical cytological abnormalities compared to those with a CD4+ level > 500/ mm(3) . In summary, management of HIV-positive women must be modeled on HIV-clinical status, CD4+ cell count, drug regimen, and adherence to follow-up, relying on the cooperation of highly qualified professionals. In HIV-positive women, an adequate screening and follow-up allows for a reduced occurrence of advanced cervical disease and prevents recourse to invalidating surgical interventions. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Crk-like adapter protein is overexpressed in cervical carcinoma, facilitates proliferation, invasion and chemoresistance, and regulates Src and Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hong; Li, Bo; Zhang, Shitai; He, Zheng; Zhou, Yang; Ouyang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of Crk-like (CrkL) adapter protein has been implicated in a number of types of human cancer. However, its involvement in human cervical carcinoma remains unclear. The present study aimed to explore the clinical significance and biological characteristics of CrkL in human cervical carcinoma. CrkL protein expression was examined in tissue samples from 92 cases of cervical carcinoma using immunohistochemistry, and was found to be overexpressed in 48.9% (45/92 cases). CrkL was transfected into HeLa and CaSki cervical carcinoma cell lines and its effects on biological behavior were examined. CrkL overexpression was revealed to promote cell proliferation, invasion and chemoresistance. In addition, CrkL overexpression increased the level of Src and Akt phosphorylation. Treatment with the Src inhibitor dasatinib eliminated the effect of CrkL on cell invasion. In conclusion, the current results demonstrate that CrkL is an oncoprotein overexpressed in cervical carcinoma which contributes to malignant cell growth and chemoresistance. In addition, the findings indicate that CrkL promotes cervical cancer cell invasion through a Src-dependent pathway. PMID:27895735

  15. SIRT1 overexpression in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and invasive squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Velez-Perez, Anneliese; Wang, Xiaohong I; Li, Min; Zhang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix involves the progression of premalignant cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and is associated with persistent human papillomavirus infection. Most CINs will regress, and the challenge is to identify the lesions likely to progress to invasive cancer. We evaluated Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression in nonneoplastic cervix, CINs, and SCCs as a potential biomarker to predict disease progression. A total of 101 cases were selected including 29 CIN 1s, 32 CIN 2s, 16 CIN 3s, 2 microinvasive SCCs, and 22 invasive SCCs. Cervical nonneoplastic squamous epithelium showed weak positivity of SIRT1 in the basal layer. SIRT1 cytoplasmic overexpression was found in 13.8% of CIN 1s (4/29), 40.6% of CIN 2s (13/32), and 50% of CIN 3s (8/16), and it was statistically significant between CIN 1 and CIN 2/3 lesions (P=.01). All 24 cases of invasive and microinvasive SCC showed SIRT1 overexpression, with 25% (6/24) showing cytoplasmic staining only, 4.2% (1/24) showing nuclear staining only, and 70.8% (17/24) showing both nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. From CIN 1 to SCC, SIRT1 expression showed steady and statistically significant increase (CIN 1 versus CIN 2-3, P=.01; CIN 2-3 versus SCC, P=.0001). Thus, SIRT1 may serve as a potential biomarker for predicting the progression of CIN to invasive SCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential impact of mTOR inhibitors on cervical squamous cell carcinoma: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Assad, Daniele Xavier; Elias, Silvia Taveira; Melo, Andréia Cristina; Ferreira, Carlos Gil; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to analyze the potential impact of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors on the treatment of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, PMC, Scopus, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Web of Science, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect on January 19, 2015, without time and language restrictions. Studies that evaluated women of any age with CSCC and who received mTOR inhibitors alone or in association with other treatments were considered. Randomized and non-randomized clinical trials were included, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist was followed. Selected studies were methodologically appraised according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation method to assess the quality of evidence. Of 642 identified citations, 43 studies were fully reviewed; however, only 3 studies met the inclusion criteria and were used for qualitative analysis. Of these, two studies were phase 1 and one was a phase 2 clinical trial. The studies included were not conclusive with regard to the association between mTOR inhibitor treatment and cervical cancer. The main analysis of secondary endpoints revealed that individuals treated with other drugs in association with mTOR inhibitors achieved partial responses (15.4–33.3%) or stable disease (17.6–28%). Treatment with mTOR inhibitors in general was well tolerated in patients with metastatic disease. The predominant toxicities were grade 1 and 2. The phase 1 trials included in this review demonstrated that mTOR inhibitor treatments are feasible and safe. However, the currently available evidence is insufficient to determine the effect of mTOR inhibitors on CSCC, and further investigation in high-quality, randomized clinical trials is required. PMID:27895779

  17. HPV16 E6 regulates annexin 1 (ANXA1) protein expression in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas; Sichero, Laura; Boccardo, Enrique; Villa, Luisa Lina; Rahal, Paula

    2016-09-15

    Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a substrate for E6AP mediated ubiquitylation. It has been hypothesized that HPV 16 E6 protein redirects E6AP away from ANXA1, increasing its stability and possibly contributing to viral pathogenesis. We analyzed ANXA1 expression in HPV-positive and negative cervical carcinoma-derived cells, in cells expressing HPV-16 oncogenes and in cells transduced with shRNA targeting E6AP. We observed that ANXA1 protein expression increased in HPV-16-positive tumor cells, in keratinocytes expressing HPV-16 E6wt (wild-type) or E6/E7 and C33 cells expressing HPV-16 E6wt. ANXA1 protein expression decreased in cells transfected with E6 Dicer-substrate RNAs (DsiRNA) and C33 cells cotransduced with HPV-16 E6wt and E6AP shRNA. Moreover, colony number and proliferation rate decreased in HPV16-positive cells transduced with ANXA1 shRNA. We observed that in cells infected with HPV16, the E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1. We suggest that ANXA1 may play a role in HPV-mediated carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • ANXA1 upregulation requires the presence of E6 and E6AP and is dependent on E6 integrity. • E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1 in cells infected with HPV16. • ANXA1 plays a role in cell proliferation in HPV-positive cervical cells.

  18. Inadequate Systems to Support Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Primary Care Practice.

    PubMed

    Schapira, Marilyn M; Sprague, Brian L; Klabunde, Carrie N; Tosteson, Anna N A; Bitton, Asaf; Chen, Jane S; Beaber, Elisabeth F; Onega, Tracy; MacLean, Charles D; Harris, Kimberly; Howe, Kathleen; Pearson, Loretta; Feldman, Sarah; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Haas, Jennifer S

    2016-10-01

    Despite substantial resources devoted to cancer screening nationally, the availability of clinical practice-based systems to support screening guidelines is not known. To characterize the prevalence and correlates of practice-based systems to support breast and cervical cancer screening, with a focus on the patient-centered medical home (PCMH). Web and mail survey of primary care providers conducted in 2014. The survey assessed provider (gender, training) and facility (size, specialty training, physician report of National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) PCMH recognition, and practice affiliation) characteristics. A hierarchical multivariate analysis clustered by clinical practice was conducted to evaluate characteristics associated with the adoption of practice-based systems and technology to support guideline-adherent screening. Primary care physicians in family medicine, general internal medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology, and nurse practitioners or physician assistants from four clinical care networks affiliated with PROSPR (Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens) consortium research centers. The prevalence of routine breast cancer risk assessment, electronic health record (EHR) decision support, comparative performance reports, and panel reports of patients due for routine screening and follow-up. There were 385 participants (57.6 % of eligible). Forty-seven percent (47.0 %) of providers reported NCQA recognition as a PCMH. Less than half reported EHR decision support for breast (48.8 %) or cervical cancer (46.2 %) screening. A minority received comparative performance reports for breast (26.2 %) or cervical (19.7 %) cancer screening, automated reports of patients overdue for breast (18.7 %) or cervical (16.4 %) cancer screening, or follow-up of abnormal breast (18.1 %) or cervical (17.6 %) cancer screening tests. In multivariate analysis, reported NCQA recognition as a PCMH was associated with greater use of

  19. Clinicopathological, but not socio-demographic factors affect the prognosis in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Munagala, Radha; Rai, Shesh N; Ganesharajah, Selvaluxmy; Bala, Nagarajan; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors, such as clinical, histological and socio-demographic features affecting the event-free and overall survival of the patients with stage I-III carcinoma of the cervix. Eighty-nine patients with International FIGO stage I-III cervical cancer were treated radiation therapy and follow-up of 5-7 years were analyzed for various clinical, histopathological and socio-demographic factors influencing prognosis. Survival estimations were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and were compared using the un-weighted log-rank test and multivariable analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. The median age was 46 years (range, 28-65 years). The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OAS), along with standard error (SE), were 65.2% (7.0%) and 81.4% (6.1%), respectively. Significant prognostic factors for EFS include, stage (P=0.019), pelvic lymph node metastasis (P=0.013), parametrial (PMT) involvement (P=0.025), number of parametria involved (P=0.000) and tumor size (P=0.034). However, number of parametrial invasion was only significant prognostic factors for overall survival (P=0.015); 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in patients with both PMT involved (58%) than with one PMT involved (>85%). Using a multivariable analysis, we found that number of PMT involved being the only independent significant factor for the development of recurrent disease. None of the socio-demographic factors analyzed were of prognostic importance on event-free and overall survival in cervical cancer patients. Several clinicopathological factors were of prognostic significance but none of the socio-demographic factors analyzed had any role in determining patient outcome. Hence, in cervical cancer, prognosis is more likely dependent on clinical than socio-demographic factors unlike several other cancers where their significant role is well documented. Study of clinical and demographic characteristics

  20. Cervicitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... uterine lining and the fallopian tubes, resulting in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), an infection of the female reproductive organs that can cause fertility problems if left untreated. Cervicitis can also ... incidentally during a routine pelvic exam and Pap test and may not require ...

  1. Detection of oncogenic mutations in cervical carcinoma using method High Resolution Melting (HRM).

    PubMed

    Wayhelova, M; Mikulasova, A; Smetana, J; Vallova, V; Blazkova, D; Filkova, H; Moukova, L; Kuglik, P

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes represent one of key events in cancerogenesis. In this study, we analysed mutation status in PIK3CA, KRAS and EGFR proto-oncogenes and TP53 tumor suppressor gene in a cohort of twenty-four patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma using the screening method "High Resolution Melting" (HRM). Positive findings were confirmed and identified by Sanger sequencing. Totally, we detected DNA sequence changes in targeted regions in seven patients (7/24, 29.2%). In PIK3CA gene, we found six sequence changes in four patients (4/24, 16.7%) and four of them were confirmed as oncogenic mutations. In KRAS gene, we detected sequence changes in four patients (4/24, 16.7%). Conversely, we identified pathogenic or potentially pathogenic sequence changes neither in EGFR nor TP53 genes. Our results suggest that sequence changes are specific neither for a certain histological subtype, clinical stage nor lymph node involvement and they appear independently on the presence of HPV (human papillomavirus) infection since early clinical stages. We observed the correlation between the presence of DNA sequence changes and hTERC gene amplification, but we did not find a significant relationship between the identified DNA sequence changes and detected copy-number alterations using the technique of array-CGH (array-based comparative genomic hybridization). Regardless our results confirmed an important role of oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA and KRAS genes in the neoplastic transformation process in the cervical carcinoma pathogenesis. Their identification in the early clinical stages should encourage further studies to better understand these mutations and exploit them for more detailed diagnostics.

  2. Girdin expression in cervical carcinoma and its role in the malignant properties of HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Ren, Ya-Li; Li, Jia-Liang; Luo, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality in females worldwide, with the majority of cases reported in developing countries. The molecular mechanisms of this disease are unclear. However, increasing evidence indicates that the expression or overexpression of Girdin is associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of cancer types. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential association between Girdin expression, and malignant properties of cervical cancer lesions and HeLa cells. Girdin protein expression was examined in 87 samples of cervical squamous cell lesions, including intraepithelial neoplasia (grades I and III) and invasive carcinoma, using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. A short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) approach was employed to specifically suppress the expression of Girdin mRNA in HeLa cells in vitro, allowing the role of Girdin in a number of malignant properties to be evaluated. Girdin protein was observed in the cytoplasm of 79/87 (90.8%) cervical cancer lesion specimens. However, no positive Girdin signals were identified in healthy cervical squamous epithelium samples. Furthermore, a significant correlation between Girdin expression and lesion grade was identified (Spearman's correlation coefficient, 0.566; P<0.001). When Girdin was suppressed by Girdin shRNA, the rate of HeLa cell growth was significantly reduced in vitro (P<0.05). Additional analysis determined that Girdin was associated with serum-deprived induced HeLa apoptosis. Thus, patients with high-grade cervical cancer tumors exhibited a strong expression for Girdin, and Girdin appears to key in HeLa cell proliferation and serum-deprived induced apoptosis, supporting the hypothesis that Girdin may be important in the process of cervical carcinogenesis.

  3. Uncorrectable ptosis: primary cutaneous signet-ring cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mark S; Chi, Sulene L; Cummings, Thomas; Woodward, Julie A

    2013-09-14

    Primary cutaneous signet-ring cell carcinoma (PCSRCC) is a rare but aggressive tumor. Our case highlights a 60-year-old man who presented with eyelid ptosis, for which he underwent multiple surgical procedures over a 3-year period prior to referral to our clinic. These procedures were complicated by scarring, delayed healing, and poor cosmetic outcome. In addition, the patient was noted to develop progressive enophthalmos. These concerning signs led to a CT scan and subsequent eyelid biopsy, which revealed a diagnosis of PCSRCC. Further management has involved an MRI and orbitotomy with biopsy revealing widespread extension of the carcinoma. Exenteration was performed to reduce the likelihood of metastasis. There are few documented case reports of PCSRCC of the eyelid in the literature. Of the 33 published cases of PCSRCC, 27 cases involve the eyelids and the other 6 cases involve the axilla. The unique clinical features of this case will be discussed, in particular the presentation as ptosis, an otherwise commonplace complaint in the oculoplastics clinic. The surgical course and histopathologic findings will be presented. The literature regarding PCSRCC will be reviewed including demographics, management, and prognosis. Although rare, PCSRCC follows an aggressive course with characteristically delayed diagnosis. Early identification and treatment likely offer a better prognosis. Thus, description of the clinical presentation of this rare tumor may aid in recognition and earlier treatment.

  4. Sensory tricks in primary cervical dystonia depend on visuotactile temporal discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kägi, Georg; Katschnig, Petra; Fiorio, Mirta; Tinazzi, Michele; Ruge, Diane; Rothwell, John; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2013-03-01

    A characteristic feature of primary cervical dystonia is the presence of "sensory tricks" as well as the impairment of temporal and spatial sensory discrimination on formal testing. The aim of the present study was to test whether the amount of improvement of abnormal head deviation due to a sensory trick is associated with different performance of temporal sensory discrimination in patients with cervical dystonia. We recruited 32 patients with cervical dystonia. Dystonia severity was assessed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale. Patients were rated according to clinical improvement to a sensory trick and assigned to 1 of the following groups: (1) no improvement (n = 6), (2) partial improvement (n = 17), (3) complete improvement (n = 9). Temporal discrimination thresholds were assessed for visual, tactile, and visuotactile modalities. Disease duration was shorter (P = .026) and dystonia severity lower (P = .033) in the group with complete improvement to sensory tricks compared with the group with partial improvement to sensory tricks. A significant effect for group and modality and a significant interaction between group × modality were found, with lower visuotactile discrimination thresholds in the group with complete improvement to sensory tricks compared with the other groups. In primary cervical dystonia, a complete resolution of dystonia during a sensory trick is associated with better visuotactile discrimination and shorter disease duration compared with patients with less effective sensory tricks, which may reflect progressive loss of adaptive mechanisms to basal ganglia dysfunction.

  5. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. Are primary renal cell carcinoma and metastases of renal cell carcinoma the same cancer?

    PubMed

    Semeniuk-Wojtaś, Aleksandra; Stec, Rafał; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-05-01

    Metastasis is a process consisting of cells spreading from the primary site of the cancer to distant parts of the body. Our understanding of this spread is limited and molecular mechanisms causing particular characteristics of metastasis are still unknown. There is some evidence that primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and metastases of RCC exhibit molecular differences that may effect on the biological characteristics of the tumor. Some authors have detected differences in clear cell and nonclear cell component between these 2 groups of tumors. Investigators have also determined that primary RCC and metastases of RCC diverge in their range of renal-specific markers and other protein expression, gene expression pattern, and microRNA expression. There are also certain proteins that are variously expressed in primary RCCs and their metastases and have effect on clinical outcome, e.g., endothelin receptor type B, phos-S6, and CD44. However, further studies are needed on large cohorts of patients to identify differences representing promising targets for prognostic purposes predicting disease-free survival and the metastatic burden of a patient as well as their suitability as potential therapeutic targets. To sum up, in this review we have attempted to summarize studies connected with differences between primary RCC and its metastases and their influence on the biological characteristics of renal cancer.

  7. Immunohistochemical distinction of primary sweat gland carcinoma and metastatic breast carcinoma: can it always be accomplished reliably?

    PubMed

    Mentrikoski, Mark J; Wick, Mark R

    2015-03-01

    Even with adequate history, the distinction of cutaneous metastatic breast carcinoma from primary sweat gland carcinoma can be difficult. Although previous studies have attempted to separate these tumors with various immunohistochemical panels, those series have been limited by small numbers of patients as well as the inclusion of benign sweat gland tumors. In this analysis, stains for p63, CK5/6, and D2-40 were included, as well as GATA3 and mammaglobin, in an evaluation of 21 primary sweat gland carcinomas and 33 examples of cutaneous metastatic breast carcinoma. Immunoreactivity for p63, CK5/6, D2-40, GATA3, and mammaglobin was respectively observed in 81%, 71%, 52%, 71%, and 5% of sweat gland carcinomas compared with 6%, 6%, 6%, 91%, and 45% of metastatic breast carcinomas. These differences were statistically significant for p63, CK5/6, and D2-40. For the diagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma, GATA3 was the most sensitive marker (91%), but its sensitivity was substantially lower. Mammaglobin was 95% specific for breast carcinoma but again suffered from limited sensitivity (45%) in this context. These data suggest that p63 and CK5/6 are specific determinants for sweat gland carcinoma in the stated setting. In the absence of those analytes, metastatic breast carcinoma cannot always be identified to the exclusion of a primary tumor. This diagnostic scenario continues to require the procurement of a detailed clinical history regarding the number and duration of skin lesions in any given case. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  8. Primary Hyperfibrinolysis as a Presentation of Extended Prostate Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sada, Pablo; Nahia, Arostegui-Uribe; Iker, Garay-Hidalgo; Katalin, Uriarte-Elguezabal

    2016-09-01

    Primary hyperfibrinolysis States are rare entities associated with different clinical scenarios and can be sometimes their first presentation. PHS outcome relies on the underlying cause. We introduce the case of a man presenting with a complex clotting abnormality malignancy related. Not having an accurate diagnosis hindered us to give an easy solution and compromised the prognosis overall. Misdiagnosing a severe entity often leads to fatal outcomes. We want to highlight the rarity of our case, the challenging differential diagnosis and the importance of being aware of PHS. Because our patient appeared to have an extended carcinoma, definitive treatment was not an option on our case.When an uncommon and challenging disease is presented, having all the clues is mandatory to succeed.

  9. Hepatitis B virus infection and primary hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Feitelson, M

    1992-01-01

    For many years, epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC). Other hepatocarcinogens such as hepatitis C virus and aflatoxin also contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis either in conjunction with HBV infection or alone. Cellular and molecular biological studies are providing explanations for the HBV-PHC relationship, and models are now being formulated to further test the relative importance of various factors such as viral DNA integration, activation of oncogenes, genetic instability, loss of tumor suppressor genes, and trans-activating properties of HBV to the pathogenesis of PHC. Further research will probably define more than a single mechanism whereby chronic HBV infection results in PHC. PMID:1323384

  10. BRCA1 mutations in primary breast and ovarian carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Futreal, P.A.; Cochran, C.; Bennett, L.M.; Haugen-Strano, A.; Terry, L.; Barrett, J.C.; Wiseman, R.; Liu, Q.; Shattuck-Eidens, D.; Harshman, K.

    1994-10-07

    Loss of heterozygosity data from familial tumors suggested that BRCA1, a gene that confers susceptibility to ovarian and early-onset breast cancer, encodes a tumor suppressor. The BRCA1 region is also subject to allelic loss in sporadic breast and ovarian cancers, an indication that BRCA1 mutations may occur somatically in these tumors. The BRCA1 coding region was examined for mutations in primary breast and ovarian tumors that show allele loss at the BRCA1 locus. Mutations were detected in 3 of 32 breast and 1 of 12 ovarian carcinomas; all four mutations were germline alterations and occurred in early-onset cancers. These results suggest that mutation of BRCA1 may not be critical in the development of the majority of breast and ovarian cancers that arise in the absence of a mutant germline allele.

  11. Primary carcinoma of the ureter: a prognostic study.

    PubMed

    Batata, M A; Whitmore, W F; Hilaris, B S; Tokita, N; Grabstald, H

    1975-06-01

    Fourty-one patients with primary invasive carcinomas of the ureter were seen at Memorial Hospital from 1947 to 1972. Overall survuval patterns were similiar in 19 patients with and 22 patients without prior or concomitant urothelial cancers elsewhere in the urinary tract, with 5-year survival rates, as estimated by the product-limit methos, of41% for both groups. Prognosis was determined primarily by anatomical stage of ureteral cancer. In 11 Stage A (submucosal) patients, 7 Stage B (muscular), 12 Stage C (periureteric fat), and 9Stage D (extraureteral), the similarly estimated 5-year survival rates were 91%, 43%, 23%, and nil, respectively. None of Stage A cases had metastases for periods ranging from 5 to 11 years after surgery alone. Seventy-eight percent of patients with more advanced stages died within 3 years of treatment, withmetastases mainly in pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes.

  12. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Huh, Warner K; Ault, Kevin A; Chelmow, David; Davey, Diane D; Goulart, Robert A; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kinney, Walter K; Massad, L Stewart; Mayeaux, Edward J; Saslow, Debbie; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lawson, Herschel W; Einstein, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    In 2011, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology updated screening guidelines for the early detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Recommended screening strategies were cytology or cotesting (cytology in combination with high-risk human papillomavirus [hrHPV] testing). These guidelines also addressed the use of hrHPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, which was not recommended for use at that time. There is now a growing body of evidence for screening with primary hrHPV testing, including a prospective U.S.-based registration study. Thirteen experts, including representatives from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Cancer Society, the American Society of Cytopathology, the College of American Pathologists, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology, convened to provide interim guidance for primary hrHPV screening. This guidance panel was specifically triggered by an application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for a currently marketed HPV test to be labeled for the additional indication of primary cervical cancer screening. Guidance was based on literature review and review of data from the FDA registration study, supplemented by expert opinion. This document aims to provide information for health care providers who are interested in primary hrHPV testing and an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this strategy for screening as well as to highlight areas in need of further investigation.

  13. Chromoendoscopy to detect early synchronous second primary esophageal carcinoma in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck?

    PubMed

    Komínek, Pavel; Vítek, Petr; Urban, Ondřej; Zeleník, Karol; Halamka, Magdaléna; Feltl, David; Cvek, Jakub; Matoušek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the use of flexible esophagoscopy and chromoendoscopy with Lugol's solution in the detection of early esophageal carcinomas (second primary carcinomas) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). Methods. All patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC underwent office-based Lugol's chromoendoscopy. After flexible esophagoscopy with white light, 3.0% Lugol's iodine solution was sprayed over the entire esophageal mucosa. Areas with less-intense staining (LVLs) were evaluated and biopsies taken. Results. 132 patients with HNSCC were enrolled in this study. The most frequent primary tumors were oropharyngeal (49/132), tumors of the oral cavity (36/132), and larynx (35/132). The majority of subjects (107/132 patients, 81.1%) had advanced HNSCC carcinomas (stages III and IV). Multiple LVLs were discovered in 24 subjects (18.2%) and no LVLs in 108 (81.8%) subjects. Fifty-five LVL biopsy specimens were obtained and assessed. Squamous cell carcinomas were detected in two patients, peptic esophagitis in 11 patients, gastric heterotopic mucosa in two patients, hyperplasia in two patients, and low- and high-grade dysplasia in three patients. Conclusion. Although only two patients with synchronous primary carcinomas were found among the patients, esophagoscopy should be recommended after detection of HNSCC to exclude secondary esophageal carcinoma or dysplasia.

  14. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in primary and metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Joachims, Zohar; Feinmesser, Raphael; Purim, Ofer; Halpern, Marisa; Brenner, Baruch; Fenig, Eyal; Roizman, Pepi; Sulkes, Jaqueline; Feinmesser, Meora

    2008-10-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in the development and progression of many tumors, and its inhibition has been shown to block tumor growth. This study examined COX-2 expression in primary and metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 26 primary MCCs and 7 lymph node metastases were stained immunohistochemically with a monoclonal antibody directed against COX-2, and the percentage and intensity of staining were analyzed semiquantitatively. Immunopositivity for COX-2 was found in 20 primary tumors (77%), and was diffuse in 16 of them (80%). Staining intensity was strong in 5 tumors (19%), moderate in 6 (23%), and weak in 9 (35%). Five metastases (71%) showed similar staining. Prominent mitotic activity was associated with more diffuse COX-2 immunopositivity. No association was found between COX-2 expression and outcome. This study confirms that most MCCs express COX-2 and shows that COX-2 expression is related to one parameter of aggressive behavior--a high mitotic rate--but not to any others. The possibility of treating MCC with COX-2 inhibitors should be considered.

  15. Inflammatory Cell Distribution in Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, Rachel; Roberts, Claudia; Waterboer, Tim; Steele, Jane; Marsden, Jerry; Steven, Neil M.; Blackbourn, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma associated with older age, immunodeficiency and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrated within malignant cells. The presence of intra-tumoural CD8+ lymphocytes reportedly predicts better MCC-specific survival. In this study, the distribution of inflammatory cells and properties of CD8+ T lymphocytes within 20 primary MCC specimens were characterised using immunohistochemistry and multicolour immunofluorescent staining coupled to confocal microscopy. CD8+ cells and CD68+ macrophages were identified in 19/20 primary MCC. CD20+ B cells were present in 5/10, CD4+ cells in 10/10 and FoxP3+ cells in 7/10 specimens. Only two specimens had almost no inflammatory cells. Within specimens, inflammatory cells followed the same patchy distribution, focused at the edge of sheets and nodules and, in some cases, more intense in trabecular areas. CD8+ cells were outside vessels on the edge of tumour. Those few within malignant sheets typically lined up in fine septa not contacting MCC cells expressing MCPyV large T antigen. The homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was expressed outside malignant nodules whereas its receptor CXCR4 was identified within tumour but not on CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells lacked CXCR3 and granzyme B expression irrespective of location within stroma versus malignant nodules or of the intensity of the intra-tumoural infiltrate. In summary, diverse inflammatory cells were organised around the margin of malignant deposits suggesting response to aberrant signaling, but were unable to penetrate the tumour microenvironment itself to enable an immune response against malignant cells or their polyomavirus. PMID:24961933

  16. Should simple hysterectomy be added after chemo-radiation for stage IB2 and bulky IIA cervical carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Eitan, Ram; Levavi, Hanoch; Peled, Yoav; Brenner, Ronen; Sabah, Gad; Ben-Arie, Alon; Dgani, Ram; Fishman, Ami; Sulkes, Aaron; Fenig, Eyal; Koren, Claude

    2010-06-01

    Management of bulky cervical tumours is controversial. We describe the addition of high dose rate brachytherapy with concomitant chemotherapy to an attenuated protocol of radiation followed by simple hysterectomy in the management of bulky cervical tumours. Between January, 2003 and December, 2006, 23 patients diagnosed with bulky cervical tumours underwent a fixed chemo-radiation protocol followed by simple hysterectomy. Fractionated external beam pelvic radiation (4500 cGy) followed by two high-dose rate applications of brachytherapy (700 cGy - prescription dose to point A) was given with weekly concomitant cisplatin (35 mg/m(2)). Patients then underwent simple hysterectomy. Clinical information was prospectively collected and patient charts were then further reviewed. Twenty patients had stage IB2 and three bulky IIA. Median tumour size was 5 cm. Sixteen patients (70%) achieved a clinical complete and seven (30%) a clinical partial response. All patients had a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH BSO). On final pathology, 12 patients (52%) had a pathological complete response, whereas 11 patients (48%) had residual carcinoma in the cervix. Surgical margins were not involved. With a median follow-up time of 20 months (range 10-50 months), four patients (17.4%), all from the pathological partial response group, have suffered a pelvic recurrence, within 6 months from therapy; nineteen patients (82.6%) remain free of disease. This attenuated protocol of chemo-radiation using HDR brachytherapy followed by simple hysterectomy is a viable option in the treatment of bulky cervical carcinomas. The rate of residual cervical disease after chemo-radiation is substantial, but simple hysterectomy achieved negative surgical margins in all cases.

  17. Diazene JK-279 induces apoptosis-like cell death in human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jakopec, S; Dubravcic, K; Polanc, S; Kosmrlj, J; Osmak, M

    2006-03-01

    Diazene N-phenyl-2-(2-pyridinyl)diazenecarboxamide (JK-279) is a newly synthesized compound, cytotoxic for several tumor cell lines and their drug-resistant sublines. In human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa), this compound reduced intracellular glutathione content and increased sensitivity to cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effect of diazene JK-279 on HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT method. Flow cytometry analysis showed that diazene JK-279 induces G(2)/M phase arrest, mediated by the increase in p21 expression, and accompanied by an alteration in the expression of survivin. The highest concentration of JK-279 altered nuclear morphology in intact cells, showing "apoptosis-like" features. No cleavage of procaspase-3, procaspase-9 and PARP, or altered expression of apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bax were detected. At the same time, PS externalization and internucleosomal DNA cleavage were observed. Partial necrosis was detected as well. Our results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of diazene JK-279 is mostly the consequence of caspase-independent cell death, which is in some aspects "apoptosis-like". Taking into account the multiplicity of mechanisms used by cancer cells to prevent apoptosis, the drugs (like diazene JK-279) that would activate alternative cell death pathways could provide a useful tool for new types of cancer therapy.

  18. Anatomic Invasive Depth Predicts Delayed Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Sohei; Tomioka, Toshifumi; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Ugumori, Toru; Hato, Naohito; Fujii, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Delayed cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM) is the most negative prognostic factor of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This study analyzed the relationship between clinicopathologic factors, including anatomic invasive depth (AID), and CLNM. A total of 212 patients with clinically node-negative (cN0) tongue SCC who had undergone partial glossectomy through the mouth were eligible for this retrospective study. The deepest portions where tongue SCC cells invaded as determined by microscopic analyses were classified into 5 categories, including epithelial and submucosal tissue, lateral extrinsic tongue muscle (ETM), intrinsic tongue muscles (ITM), paralingual and sublingual spaces, and medial ETM according to AID. We examined the relationship between clinicopathologic factors including AID and delayed CLNM. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that AID was an independent predictive factor for delayed CLNM (P=0.0022; odds ratio=7.1). Deeper invasion than ITM, including ITM, paralingual and sublingual spaces, and medial ETM, had high sensitivity and negative predictive value for delayed CLNM (94.4% and 95.7%, respectively). Precise elucidation of AID may be useful for the preoperative decision for performing elective neck dissection. None of 11 patients in whom the deepest portion where tumor invaded to lateral ETM (according to AID) showed delayed CLNM, although tongue SCC T4a tumor is defined by the presence of invasion of cancer cells to ETM. Tumors with invasion to lateral ETM might have to be excluded from the pathologic T4a category.

  19. Fine-needle aspiration of cervical lymph nodes yields adequate materials for accurate HPV testing in metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanjun; Chaudhary, Shweta; Shen, Rulong; Li, Zaibo

    2016-10-01

    High-risk Human papillomavirus (HR-HPV)-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a distinct epidemiologic and pathologic disease. The data of HR-HPV testing on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) materials of cervical lymph nodes in patients with metastatic HNSCC are limited. We retrospectively reviewed metastatic HNSCC cases with cervical lymph node FNAs which were tested for p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and HR-HPV DNA in situ hybridization (ISH). Of the 87 cases studied, the overall adequacy rate of cell block material was 86% for HR-HPV ISH, 93% for p16 IHC, 84% for both and 95% for either one. Pathologist-performed FNAs showed significantly higher percentage of satisfactory specimens for p16 and HR-HPV tests than clinician-performed FNAs. Of the 73 cases adequate for both p16 IHC and HR-HPV ISH, the concordant rate between p16 and HR-HPV results was 78%. P16 positivity had sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 75% to predict primary oropharyngeal HNSCC, while HR-HPV test showed a similar high sensitivity (91%) but a better specificity (94%). FNAs of cervical lymph nodes yield adequate materials for reliable HR-HPV testing in metastatic HNSCCs and should be incorporated into routine pathologic evaluation for these patients. The high concordance between p16 IHC and HR-HPV ISH suggests p16 IHC may serve as a surrogate for HR-HPV ISH in metastatic HNSCC cases with oropharyngeal origin and is helpful to pinpoint primary tumor site. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:792-798. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Differential targets of CpG island hypermethylation in primary and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)

    PubMed Central

    Smiraglia, D; Smith, L; Lang, J; Rush, L; Dai, Z; Schuller, D; Plass, C

    2003-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) often metastasise to the cervical lymph nodes. It is known for HNSCC as well as other cancers that progression from normal tissue to primary tumour and finally to metastatic tumour is characterised by an accumulation of genetic mutations. DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification, can result in loss of gene function in cancer, similar to genetic mutations such as deletions and point mutations. We have investigated the DNA methylation phenotypes of both primary HNSCC and metastatic tumours from 13 patients using restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS). With this technique, we were able to assess the methylation status of an average of nearly 1300 CpG islands for each tumour. We observed that the number of CpG islands hypermethylated in metastatic tumours is significantly greater than what is found in the primary tumours overall, but not in every patient. Interestingly, the data also clearly show that many loci methylated in a patient's primary tumour are no longer methylated in the metastatic tumour of the same patient. Thus, even though metastatic HNSCC methylate a greater proportion of CpG islands than do the primary tumours, they do so at different subsets of loci. These data show an unanticipated variability in the methylation state of loci in primary and metastatic HNSCCs within the same patient. We discuss two possible explanations for how different epigenetic events might arise between the primary tumour and the metastatic tumour of a person. PMID:12525538

  1. Pure primary small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: A rare diagnostic entity

    PubMed Central

    Gon, Sonia; Majumdar, Bipasa; Dey, Ranjan Kumar; Mitra, Subrata Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represent a challenge both to the pathologist and urologists for its diagnosis and treatment, respectively. PMID:24049389

  2. Pure primary small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: A rare diagnostic entity.

    PubMed

    Gon, Sonia; Majumdar, Bipasa; Dey, Ranjan Kumar; Mitra, Subrata Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represent a challenge both to the pathologist and urologists for its diagnosis and treatment, respectively.

  3. Co-expression of CD147 and GLUT-1 indicates radiation resistance and poor prognosis in cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin-Qiong; Chen, Xiang; Xie, Xiao-Xue; Zhou, Qin; Li, Kai; Li, Shan; Shen, Liang-Fang; Su, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CD147 and GLUT-1, which play important roles in glycolysis in response to radiotherapy and clinical outcomes in patients with locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma (LACSCC). The records of 132 female patients who received primary radiation therapy to treat LACSCC at FIGO stages IB-IVA were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-seven patients with PFS (progression-free survival) of less than 36 months were regarded as radiation-resistant. Eighty-five patients with PFS longer than 36 months were regarded as radiation-sensitive. Using pretreatment paraffin-embedded tissues, we evaluated CD147 and GLUT-1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Overexpression of CD147, GLUT-1, and CD147 and GLUT-1 combined were 44.7%, 52.9% and 36.5%, respectively, in the radiation-sensitive group, and 91.5%, 89.4% and 83.0%, respectively, in the radiation-resistant group. The 5-year progress free survival (PFS) rates in the CD147-low, CD147-high, GLUT-1-low, GLUT-1-high, CD147- and/or GLUT-1-low and CD147- and GLUT-1- dual high expression groups were 66.79%, 87.10%, 52.78%, 85.82%, 55.94%, 82.90% and 50.82%, respectively. CD147 and GLUT-1 co-expression, FIGO stage and tumor diameter were independent poor prognostic factors for patients with LACSCC in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Patients with high expression of CD147 alone, GLUT-1 alone or co-expression of CD147 and GLUT-1 showed greater resistance to radiotherapy and a shorter PFS than those with low expression. In particular, co-expression of CD147 and GLUT-1 can be considered as a negative independent prognostic factor. PMID:24817962

  4. Co-expression of CD147 and GLUT-1 indicates radiation resistance and poor prognosis in cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-Qiong; Chen, Xiang; Xie, Xiao-Xue; Zhou, Qin; Li, Kai; Li, Shan; Shen, Liang-Fang; Su, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CD147 and GLUT-1, which play important roles in glycolysis in response to radiotherapy and clinical outcomes in patients with locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma (LACSCC). The records of 132 female patients who received primary radiation therapy to treat LACSCC at FIGO stages IB-IVA were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-seven patients with PFS (progression-free survival) of less than 36 months were regarded as radiation-resistant. Eighty-five patients with PFS longer than 36 months were regarded as radiation-sensitive. Using pretreatment paraffin-embedded tissues, we evaluated CD147 and GLUT-1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Overexpression of CD147, GLUT-1, and CD147 and GLUT-1 combined were 44.7%, 52.9% and 36.5%, respectively, in the radiation-sensitive group, and 91.5%, 89.4% and 83.0%, respectively, in the radiation-resistant group. The 5-year progress free survival (PFS) rates in the CD147-low, CD147-high, GLUT-1-low, GLUT-1-high, CD147- and/or GLUT-1-low and CD147- and GLUT-1- dual high expression groups were 66.79%, 87.10%, 52.78%, 85.82%, 55.94%, 82.90% and 50.82%, respectively. CD147 and GLUT-1 co-expression, FIGO stage and tumor diameter were independent poor prognostic factors for patients with LACSCC in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Patients with high expression of CD147 alone, GLUT-1 alone or co-expression of CD147 and GLUT-1 showed greater resistance to radiotherapy and a shorter PFS than those with low expression. In particular, co-expression of CD147 and GLUT-1 can be considered as a negative independent prognostic factor.

  5. Combination of external beam radiotherapy and Californium (Cf)-252 neutron intracavity brachytherapy is more effective in control of cervical squamous cell carcinoma than that of cervical adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yanli; Liu, Jia; Chen, Shu; Zhou, Qian; Xu, Wenjing; Tang, Chen; Chen, Yonghong; Yang, Mei; Lei, Xin

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of combined external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and Californium (Cf)-252 neutron intracavity brachytherapy (ICBT) on cervical squamous versus adenocarcinoma. A total of 106 patients with stage IB-IIIB cervical cancer were accrued between January 2005 and May 2011 and divided into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) as a pair with 53 patients in each group according to tumor size, stage, age, and hemoglobin level using matched-pair design. The whole pelvic EBRT was performed with 2 Gy/fraction, 4 fractions/week. The total dose was 48-54 Gy (the center of whole pelvic field was blocked by 4 cm in width after 20-36 Gy). Cf-252 neutron ICBT was delivered with 11 and 12 Gy-eq/f with the total dose at point A of 44 and 48 Gy-eq for SCC and AC patients, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 43 months. The 5-year LC, OS, DFS, LAC rates, and mean survival time were 66.0, 56.6, 52.8.0, 17.0%, and 76.4 ± 6.2 months, respectively, for AC patients, whereas they were 81.1, 69.8, 67.9, 11.3%, and 93.3 ± 4.3 months, respectively, for SCC patients. Furthermore, the early treatment toxicity was mild in both groups, the late treatment complications were mainly radiation-induced proctitis and cystitis, and there were no grade 3 or higher complications. Although the combination of Cf-252 neutron ICBT and EBRT was effective in both histology types of cervical cancer, a more aggressive strategy is needed to control cervical AC.

  6. Molecular cytogenetic analyses of hTERC (3q26) and MYC (8q24) genes amplifications in correlation with oncogenic human papillomavirus infection in Czech patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kuglik, P; Kasikova, K; Smetana, J; Vallova, V; Lastuvkova, A; Moukova, L; Cvanova, M; Brozova, L

    2015-01-01

    It is known that cervical cancer develop from precancerous intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) which is characterized by series of genetic abnormalities. The progression of CIN to cervical carcinoma has been associated especially with the genomic integration of oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) and gain of the human telomerase RNA gene hTERC (3q26) and MYC (8q24). In this study, cytology specimens of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical carcinoma from 74 Czech women were analyzed using the triple-color Cervical FISH Probe Kit designed for identification of HPV infected cells and copy number aberration of the hTERC and MYC genes. HPV-positivity exhibited 70% of patients with premalignant lesions (CIN I - CIN III, carcinoma in situ), chromosomal changes were found in 53.3% of cases - MYC amplification had 33.3% of women with CIN I - CIN III and 50% with carcinoma in situ. Amplification of hTERC was detected in 16.7% of patient with CIN I, in 50% with CIN II, in 58.3% with CIN III and in 66.7% with carcinoma in situ. Based on HPV-positivity and the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations, patients were divided into high-, intermediate- and low-risk group. Among women with cervical carcinomas, HPV infection was detected in 90.1% of specimens and chromosomal aberrations were found in 87.5% of samples. Amplification of MYC gene was detected in 25% and hTERC gene in 62.5% of patients. According to the histopathological grade of tumors, MYC gene amplification occurred more frequently in specimens of spinocellular carcinoma than adenocarcinoma (p=0.029). We found no association between the frequency of cytogenetic lesions and the incidence of lymphangiogenesis or lymph node metastases in cervical carcinoma patients. Simultaneous hTERC and MYC genes amplification was significantly more frequent in samples of cervical carcinomas than in premalignant lesions (p=0.008).In a cohort of 26 patients with cervical carcinoma we used oligo-based GGH+SNP microarray

  7. Cell survival curve for primary hepatic carcinoma cells and relationship between SF2 of hepatic carcinoma cells and radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Zhong; Huang, Wen-Ying; Lin, Ju-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Sheng; Lan, Xiao; Cai, Xiao-Kun; Liang, Kuo-Huan; Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish the cell survival curve for primary hepatic carcinoma cells and to study the relationship between SF2 of primary hepatic carcinoma cells and radiosensitivity. METHODS: Hepatic carcinoma cells were cultured in vitro using 39 samples of hepatic carcinoma at stages II-IV. Twenty-nine samples were cultured successfully in the fifth generation cells. After these cells were radiated with different dosages, the cell survival ratio and SF2 were calculated by clonogenic assay and SF2 model respectively. The relationship between SF2 and the clinical pathological feature was analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-nine of thirty-nine samples were successfully cultured. After X-ray radiation of the fifth generation cells with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Gy, the cell survival rate was 41%, 36.5%, 31.0%, 26.8%, and 19%, respectively. There was a negative correlation between cell survival and irradiation dosage (r = -0.973, P<0.05). SF2 ranged 0.28-0.78 and correlated with the clinical stage and pathological grade of hepatic carcinoma (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between SF2 and D0.5 (r = 0.773, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: SF2 correlates with the clinical stage and pathological grade of hepatic carcinoma and is a marker for predicting the radiosensitivity of hepatic carcinomas. PMID:16437614

  8. DNA ploidy is stronger than lymph node metastasis as prognostic factor in cervical carcinoma: 10-year results of a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Susini, Tommaso; Olivieri, Simone; Molino, Cecilia; Amunni, Gianni; Rapi, Stefano; Taddei, Gianluigi; Scarselli, Gianfranco

    2011-05-01

    information. DNA ploidy was an independent prognostic factor in cervical carcinoma. Presence of lymph node metastasis may not always have the same impact on survival but may vary according to DNA ploidy of the primary tumor.

  9. Efficacy of qualitative response assessment interpretation criteria at 18F-FDG PET-CT for predicting outcome in locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Scarsbrook, Andrew; Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Chowdhury, Fahmid; Swift, Sarah; Cooper, Rachel; Patel, Chirag

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the utility of a standardized qualitative scoring system for treatment response assessment at 18F-FDG PET-CT in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced cervical carcinoma and correlate this with subsequent patient outcome. Ninety-six consecutive patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with radical chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in a single centre between 2011 and 2014 underwent 18F-FDG PET-CT approximately 3 months post-treatment. Tumour metabolic response was assessed qualitatively using a 5-point scale ranging from background level activity only through to progressive metabolic disease. Clinical and radiological (MRI pelvis) follow-up was performed in all patients. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method (Mantel-Cox log-rank) and correlated with qualitative score using Chi-squared test. Forty patients (41.7 %) demonstrated complete metabolic response (CMR) on post-treatment PET-CT (Score 1/2) with 38 patients (95.0 %) remaining disease free after a minimum follow-up period of 18 months. Twenty-four patients (25.0 %) had indeterminate residual uptake (ID, Score 3) at primary or nodal sites after treatment, of these eight patients (33.3 %) relapsed on follow-up, including all patients with residual nodal uptake (n = 4Eleven11 of 17 patients (64.7 %) with significant residual uptake (partial metabolic response, PMR, Score 4) subsequently relapsed. In 15 patients (15.6 %) PET-CT demonstrated progressive disease (PD, Score 5) following treatment. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a highly statistically significant difference in PFS and OS between patients with CMR, indeterminate uptake, PMR and PD (Log-rank, P < 0.0001). Chi-squared test demonstrated a highly statistically significant association between increasing qualitative score and risk of recurrence or death (P < 0.001). Use of a 5-point qualitative scoring system to assess metabolic response to CRT in locally

  10. Cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer: a single-institution experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Hugo; Després, Philippe; Fortin, Bernard; Filion, Edith; Donath, David; Soulières, Denis; Guertin, Louis; Ayad, Tarek; Christopoulos, Apostolos; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix

    2012-04-01

    To determine the effectiveness and rate of complications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer. Between February 2005 and November 2008, 25 patients with an unknown primary cancer underwent IMRT, with a median radiation dose of 70 Gy. The bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa were included in the target volume. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma, except for 1 patient who had adenosquamous differentiation. They were all treated with curative intent. Of the 25 included patients, 20 were men and 5 were women, with a median age of 54 years. Of these patients, 3 had Stage III, 18 had Stage IVa, and 4 had Stage IVb. Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) received platinum-based chemotherapy in a combined-modality setting. Neck dissection was reserved for residual disease after definitive IMRT. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. With a median follow-up of 38 months, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control rates were all 100% at 3 years. No occurrence of primary cancer was observed during the follow-up period. The reported rates of xerostomia reduced with the interval from the completion of treatment. Nine patients (36%) reported Grade 2 or greater xerostomia at 6 months, and only 2 (8%) of them reported the same grade of salivary function toxicity after 24 months of follow-up. In our institution, IMRT for unknown primary cancer has provided good overall and disease-free survival in all the patients with an acceptable rate of complications. IMRT allowed us to address the bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa with minimal late salivary function toxicity. The use of concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for more advanced disease led to good clinical results with reasonable toxicities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Villeneuve, Hugo; Despres, Philippe; Fortin, Bernard; Filion, Edith; Donath, David; Soulieres, Denis; Guertin, Louis; Ayad, Tarek; Christopoulos, Apostolos; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the effectiveness and rate of complications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Between February 2005 and November 2008, 25 patients with an unknown primary cancer underwent IMRT, with a median radiation dose of 70 Gy. The bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa were included in the target volume. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma, except for 1 patient who had adenosquamous differentiation. They were all treated with curative intent. Of the 25 included patients, 20 were men and 5 were women, with a median age of 54 years. Of these patients, 3 had Stage III, 18 had Stage IVa, and 4 had Stage IVb. Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) received platinum-based chemotherapy in a combined-modality setting. Neck dissection was reserved for residual disease after definitive IMRT. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: With a median follow-up of 38 months, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control rates were all 100% at 3 years. No occurrence of primary cancer was observed during the follow-up period. The reported rates of xerostomia reduced with the interval from the completion of treatment. Nine patients (36%) reported Grade 2 or greater xerostomia at 6 months, and only 2 (8%) of them reported the same grade of salivary function toxicity after 24 months of follow-up. Conclusion: In our institution, IMRT for unknown primary cancer has provided good overall and disease-free survival in all the patients with an acceptable rate of complications. IMRT allowed us to address the bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa with minimal late salivary function toxicity. The use of concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for more advanced disease led to good clinical results with reasonable toxicities.

  12. Primary seminal vesicle carcinoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of four cases.

    PubMed

    Ormsby, A H; Haskell, R; Jones, D; Goldblum, J R

    2000-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is an extremely rare neoplasm. Because prompt diagnosis and treatment are associated with improved long-term survival, accurate recognition of this neoplasm is important, particularly when evaluating limited biopsy material. Immunohistochemistry can be used to rule out neoplasms that commonly invade the seminal vesicles, such as prostatic adenocarcinoma. Previous reports have shown that seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma (SVCA) is negative for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PAP); however, little else is known of its immunophenotype. Consequently, we evaluated the utility of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) and cytokeratin (CK) subsets 7 and 20 for distinguishing SVCA from other neoplasms that enter the differential diagnosis. Four cases of SVCA-three cases of bladder adenocarcinoma and a rare case of adenocarcinoma arising in a mullerian duct cyst-were immunostained for CA-125, CK7, and CK20. Three of four cases of SVCA were CA-125 positive and CK7 positive. All four cases were CK20 negative. All bladder adenocarcinomas and the mullerian duct cyst adenocarcinoma were CK7 positive and negative for CA-125 and CK20. In addition, CA-125 immunostaining was performed in neoplasms that commonly invade the seminal vesicles, including prostatic adenocarcinoma (n = 40), bladder transitional cell carcinoma (n = 32), and rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 10), and all were negative for this antigen. In conclusion, the present study has shown that the CK7-positive, CK20-negative, CA-125-positive, PSA/PAP-negative immunophenotype of papillary SVCA is unique and can be used in conjunction with histomorphology to distinguish it from other tumors that enter the differential diagnosis, including prostatic adenocarcinoma (CA-125 negative, PSA/PAP positive), bladder transitional cell carcinoma (CK20 positive, CA-125 negative), rectal adenocarcinoma (CA-125 negative, CK7 negative, CK20 positive), bladder

  13. Synergistic combination of valproic acid and oncolytic parvovirus H-1PV as a potential therapy against cervical and pancreatic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Li, Junwei; Bonifati, Serena; Hristov, Georgi; Marttila, Tiina; Valmary-Degano, Séverine; Stanzel, Sven; Schnölzer, Martina; Mougin, Christiane; Aprahamian, Marc; Grekova, Svitlana P; Raykov, Zahari; Rommelaere, Jean; Marchini, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    The rat parvovirus H-1PV has oncolytic and tumour-suppressive properties potentially exploitable in cancer therapy. This possibility is being explored and results are encouraging, but it is necessary to improve the oncotoxicity of the virus. Here we show that this can be achieved by co-treating cancer cells with H-1PV and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) such as valproic acid (VPA). We demonstrate that these agents act synergistically to kill a range of human cervical carcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines by inducing oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis. Strikingly, in rat and mouse xenograft models, H-1PV/VPA co-treatment strongly inhibits tumour growth promoting complete tumour remission in all co-treated animals. At the molecular level, we found acetylation of the parvovirus nonstructural protein NS1 at residues K85 and K257 to modulate NS1-mediated transcription and cytotoxicity, both of which are enhanced by VPA treatment. These results warrant clinical evaluation of H-1PV/VPA co-treatment against cervical and pancreatic ductal carcinomas.

  14. Synergistic combination of valproic acid and oncolytic parvovirus H-1PV as a potential therapy against cervical and pancreatic carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junwei; Bonifati, Serena; Hristov, Georgi; Marttila, Tiina; Valmary-Degano, Séverine; Stanzel, Sven; Schnölzer, Martina; Mougin, Christiane; Aprahamian, Marc; Grekova, Svitlana P; Raykov, Zahari; Rommelaere, Jean; Marchini, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The rat parvovirus H-1PV has oncolytic and tumour-suppressive properties potentially exploitable in cancer therapy. This possibility is being explored and results are encouraging, but it is necessary to improve the oncotoxicity of the virus. Here we show that this can be achieved by co-treating cancer cells with H-1PV and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) such as valproic acid (VPA). We demonstrate that these agents act synergistically to kill a range of human cervical carcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines by inducing oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis. Strikingly, in rat and mouse xenograft models, H-1PV/VPA co-treatment strongly inhibits tumour growth promoting complete tumour remission in all co-treated animals. At the molecular level, we found acetylation of the parvovirus nonstructural protein NS1 at residues K85 and K257 to modulate NS1-mediated transcription and cytotoxicity, both of which are enhanced by VPA treatment. These results warrant clinical evaluation of H-1PV/VPA co-treatment against cervical and pancreatic ductal carcinomas. PMID:24092664

  15. The variability and complexity of ameloblastoma: carcinoma ex ameloblastoma or primary ameloblastic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zitong; Chen, Fei; Wang, Tiemei; Hu, Qingang; Sun, Guowen

    2013-04-01

    Ameloblastoma is characterized by slow-growing, local invasiveness and high incidence of local recurrence. It usually presents with a benign histological appearance. However, ameloblastoma occasionally demonstrates a clinical course that is characteristic of malignant transformation. Here, we present a case of ameloblastoma with an aggressive clinical course, including multiple recurrences, a short disease-free interval, pulmonary metastasis and extensive skull-base infiltration. With a careful re-evaluation of the histology and cytology of the specimens of primary and recurrent ameloblastoma in 2006 and 2007, malignant transformation was observed and carcinoma ex ameloblastoma was ultimately diagnosed. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Intradural and cervical primary malignant melanoma. Case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Mlaiki, A; Ksira, I; Ladib, M; Guesmi, H; Krifa, H

    2004-03-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system is an uncommon localization, first reported by Hirsberg in 1906. Since then, to our knowledge, only 39 cases have been reported in the literature. We present a case of primary intradural extra-medullary melanoma which developed in a 51-Year-old man who complained of pain in the lower cervical spine, difficulties in micturition and sexual impotence. The diagnosis was suspected at the MRI which showed a lesion with a paramagnetic signal and was confirmed by the histological examination. The resection was complete and the course has been satisfactory after 19 months follow-up.

  17. Kidney-Sparing Methods for Extended-Field Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) in Cervical Carcinoma Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kunogi, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Nanae; Terao, Yasuhisa; Sasai, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Coplanar extended-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (EF-IMRT) targeting the whole-pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes in patients with advanced cervical cancer results in impaired creatinine clearance. An improvement in renal function cannot be expected unless low-dose (approximately 10 Gy) kidney exposure is reduced. The dosimetric method should be considered during EF-IMRT planning to further reduce low-dose exposure to the kidneys. To assess the usefulness of non-coplanar EF-IMRT with kidney-avoiding beams to spare the kidneys during cervical carcinoma treatment in dosimetric analysis between non-coplanar and coplanar EF-IMRT, we compared the doses of the target organ and organs at risk, including the kidney, in 10 consecutive patients. To estimate the influence of EFRT on renal dysfunction, creatinine clearance values after treatment were also examined in 18 consecutive patients. Of these 18 patients, 10 patients who were included in the dosimetric analysis underwent extended field radiation therapy (EFRT) with concurrent chemotherapy, and eight patients underwent whole-pelvis radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy to treat cervical carcinoma between April 2012 and March 2015 at our institution. In the dosimetric analysis, non-coplanar EF-IMRT was effective at reducing low-dose (approximately 10 Gy) exposure to the kidneys, thus maintaining target coverage and sparing other organs at risk, such as the small bowel, rectum, and bladder, compared with coplanar EF-IMRT. Renal function in all 10 patients who underwent EFRT, including coplanar EF-IMRT (with kidney irradiation), was low after treatment, and differed significantly from that of the eight patients who underwent WPRT (no kidney irradiation) 6 months after the first day of treatment (P = 0.005). In conclusion, non-coplanar EF-IMRT should be considered in patients with advanced cervical cancer, particularly in patients with a long life expectancy or with pre-existing renal dysfunction. PMID

  18. Reconstruction of the cervical esophagus using a free transverse colonic graft: report of a case with upper esophageal web and carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, T; Uchida, Y; Hashimoto, T; Wada, S; Takeno, S; Suzuki, M

    2003-01-01

    Reconstruction of cervical esophagus and hypopharynx following cervical esophagectomy and laryngopharyngectomy is generally performed using jejunal autograft interposition. However, this method has some disadvantages and is not suitable for optimal swallowing function. In our institution, free transverse colonic graft has been successfully applied for reconstructive purposes in 12 cases since 1986. The present report describes a case of upper esophageal web accompanying superficial squamous cell carcinoma and details the operative techniques utilized.

  19. Hypoxia-Inducible Erythropoietin Signaling in Squamous Dysplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix and Its Potential Role in Cervical Carcinogenesis and Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Acs, Geza; Zhang, Paul J.; McGrath, Cindy M.; Acs, Peter; McBroom, John; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Liu, Suzhen; Lu, Huasheng; Verma, Ajay

    2003-01-01

    Tissue hypoxia is a characteristic property of cervical cancers that makes tumors resistant to chemo- and radiation therapy. Erythropoietin (Epo) is a hypoxia-inducible stimulator of erythropoiesis. Acting via its receptor (EpoR), Epo up-regulates bcl-2 and inhibits apoptosis of erythroid cells and rescues neurons from hypoxic damage. In addition to human papillomavirus infection, increased bcl-2 expression and decreased apoptosis are thought to play a role in the progression of cervical neoplasia. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting we showed that HeLa and SiHa cervical carcinoma cells and human cervical carcinomas express EpoR, and that hypoxia enhances EpoR expression. Exogenous Epo stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and inhibited the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of Epo, EpoR, p16, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, and bcl-2 in benign and dysplastic cervical squamous epithelia and invasive squamous cell carcinomas (ISCCs). EpoR expression in benign epithelia was confined to the basal cell layers, whereas in dysplasias it increasingly appeared in more superficial cell layers and showed a significant correlation with severity of dysplasia. Diffuse EpoR expression was found in all ISCCs. Expression of Epo and HIF-1α was increased in dysplasias compared to benign epithelia. Focal Epo and HIF-1α expression was seen near necrotic areas in ISCCs, and showed correlation in their spatial distribution. Significant correlation was found between expression of EpoR, and p16 and bcl-2 in benign and dysplastic squamous epithelia. Our results suggest that increased expression of Epo and EpoR may play a significant role in cervical carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Hypoxia-inducible Epo signaling may play a significant role in the aggressive behavior and treatment resistance of hypoxic cervical cancers. PMID:12759237

  20. Lopinavir up-regulates expression of the antiviral protein ribonuclease L in human papillomavirus-positive cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Batman, Gavin; Oliver, Anthony W; Zehbe, Ingeborg; Richard, Christina; Hampson, Lynne; Hampson, Ian N

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that the HIV protease inhibitor lopinavir has selective toxicity against human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cervical carcinoma cells via an unknown mechanism. SiHa cervical carcinoma cells were stably transfected with the proteasome sensor vector pZsProSensor-1 to confirm lopinavir inhibits the proteasome in these cells. The Panorama Xpress profiler 725 antibody array was then used to analyse specific changes in protein expression in lopinavir-treated versus control untreated SiHa cells followed by PCR and western blotting. Colorimetric growth assays of lopinavir-treated E6/E7 immortalised versus control human keratinocytes were performed. Targeted small interfering RNA gene silencing followed by growth assay comparison of lopinavir-treated/untreated SiHa cells was also used. Lopinavir induced an increase in the fluorescence of pZsProSensor-1 transfected SiHa cells, indicative of proteasomal inhibition. Ribonuclease L (RNASEL) protein was shown to be up-regulated in lopinavir-treated SiHa cells, which was confirmed by PCR and western blot. Targeted silencing of RNASEL reduced the sensitivity of SiHa cells to lopinavir. Selective toxicity against E6/E7 immortalised keratinocytes versus control cells was also seen with lopinavir and was associated with up-regulated RNASEL expression. These data are consistent with the toxicity of lopinavir against HPV-positive cervical carcinoma cells being related to its ability to block viral proteasome activation and induce an up-regulation of the antiviral protein RNASEL. This is supported by the drug's selective toxicity and up-regulation of RNASEL in E6/E7 immortalised keratinocytes combined with the increased resistance to lopinavir observed in SiHa cells following silencing of RNASEL gene expression.

  1. Robotic Radical Parametrectomy With Upper Vaginectomy and Pelvic Lymphadenectomy in Patients With Occult Cervical Carcinoma After Extrafascial Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Tran, Arthur-Quan; Sullivan, Stephanie A; Gehrig, Paola A; Soper, John T; Boggess, John F; Kim, Kenneth H

    To confirm the safety and feasibility outcomes of robotic radical parametrectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy and compare the clinicopathological features of women requiring adjuvant treatment with the historical literature. Retrospective cohort study and review of literature (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. All patients who underwent robotic radical parametrectomy with upper vaginectomy (RRPV), and pelvic lymphadenectomy for occult cervical cancer discovered after an extrafascial hysterectomy at our institution between January 2007 and December 2015. RRPV and pelvic lymphadenectomy for occult cervical cancer discovered after an extrafascial hysterectomy. We also performed a literature review of the literature on radical parametrectomy after occult cervical carcinoma. Seventeen patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix discovered after extrafascial hysterectomy underwent RRPV with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. There were 2 intraoperative complications, including 1 bowel injury and 1 bladder injury. One patient required a blood transfusion of 2 units. Three patients underwent adjuvant treatment with chemoradiation with radiation-sensitizing cisplatin. One of these patients had residual carcinoma on the upper vagina, 1 patient had positive parametria and pelvic nodes, and 1 patient had positive pelvic lymph nodes. No patients experienced recurrence, and 1 patient died from unknown causes at 59.4 months after surgery. We analyzed 15 studies reported in the literature and found 238 women who underwent radical parametrectomy; however, no specific preoperative pathological features predicted outcomes, the need for adjuvant treatment, or parametrial involvement. RRPV is a feasible and safe treatment option. As reflected in the literature, RRPV can help avoid empiric adjuvant chemoradiation; however, no pathological features predict the need for adjuvant treatment after

  2. By how much could screening by primary human papillomavirus testing reduce cervical cancer incidence in England?

    PubMed

    Castanon, Alejandra; Landy, Rebecca; Sasieni, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Objective The replacement of cytology with human papillomavirus testing as the primary cervical screening test in England is imminent. In light of newly available evidence, we revised our previous estimates of the likely impact of primary human papillomavirus testing on incidence of cervical cancer. Method and results Using screening data on women aged 25-64 diagnosed with cervical cancer in England between 1988 and 2012, we previously reported that 38.8% had a negative test six months to six years prior to diagnosis. However, not all of these cancers would be prevented by human papillomavirus testing: for 1.0% the human papillomavirus positive test would come too late (within 18 months of diagnosis) to make a difference; 7.6% will have a negative human papillomavirus test (based on 79.9% sensitivity of human papillomavirus testing in cytology negative women); and 2.0% will develop cancer despite a positive human papillomavirus test. Additionally, we estimate that some women (equivalent to 4.3% of current incidence) whose cancers are currently prevented by cytology-based screening will have a false-negative human papillomavirus test. Conclusion Overall, we estimate that 23.9% (95% CI: 19.3-27.6%) of current cases in women invited for screening could be prevented. Based on 2013 cancer incidence statistics, absolute numbers could be reduced by 487 (95% CI 394 to 563) or 3.4 (95% CI 2.8 to 4.0) per 100,000 women per year.

  3. Anticancer effect of PP31J isolated from Physalis pubescens L. in human cervical carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wenjie; Wang, Qianqian; Chen, Lifeng; Huang, Lu; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Extracts derived from Physalis pubescens L. may function as cancer therapies. The pharmacological effects of PP31J on human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were investigated in this study. HeLa cells were treated with PP31J, and then cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle distribution were measured using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry. Protein expression levels of regulators of cell apoptosis and cell cycle were also examined using western blotting. Our data show that PP31J inhibited the growth of HeLa cells. Significant growth inhibition compared to the vehicle-treated group was observed using a concentration of 5 μM PP31J at 24, 48, and 72 h. PP31J also selectively arrested cell cycle progression in the G1 phase at 40 μM (P < 0.05) and in the G2/M phase at 20 μM (P < 0.01) and 40 μM (P < 0.001). Our results further demonstrate a significant increase in cell apoptosis (P < 0.001) following PP31J treatment (10, 20, and 40 μM). Immunoblotting data show that PP31J downregulated (P < 0.01) the expression of Bcl-xL and decreased (P < 0.05) the expression of Survivin and Cyclin D1 at 20 and 40 μM. This study shows the anti-tumor activity of PP31J in HeLa cells and that the effects of PP31J on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction were partially attributed to the regulation of Cyclin D1, Survivin, and Bcl-xL. PMID:28559997

  4. Megavoltage computed tomography image-based low-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy planning for cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Thomas H; Langen, Katja M; Meeks, Sanford L; Willoughby, Twyla R; Zeidan, Omar A; Staton, Robert J; Shah, Amish P; Manon, Rafael R; Kupelian, Patrick A

    2009-04-01

    Initial results of megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) brachytherapy treatment planning are presented, using a commercially available helical tomotherapy treatment unit and standard low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy applicators used for treatment of cervical carcinoma. The accuracy of MVCT imaging techniques, and dosimetric accuracy of the CT based plans were tested with in-house and commercially-available phantoms. Three dimensional (3D) dose distributions were computed and compared to the two dimensional (2D) dosimetry results. Minimal doses received by the 2 cm3 of bladder and rectum receiving the highest doses (D(B2cc) and D(R2cc), respectively) were computed from dose-volume histograms and compared to the doses computed for the standard ICRU bladder and rectal reference dose points. Phantom test objects in MVCT image sets were localized with sub-millimetric accuracy, and the accuracy of the MVCT-based dose calculation was verified. Fifteen brachytherapy insertions were also analyzed. The ICRU rectal point dose did not differ significantly from D(R2cc) (p=0.749, mean difference was 24 cGy +/- 283 cGy). The ICRU bladder point dose was significantly lower than the D(B2cc) (p=0.024, mean difference was 291 cGy +/- 444 cGy). The median volumes of bladder and rectum receiving at least the corresponding ICRU reference point dose were 6.1 cm(3) and 2.0 cm(3), respectively. Our initial experience in using MVCT imaging for clinical LDR gynecological brachytherapy indicates that the MVCT images are of sufficient quality for use in 3D, MVCT-based dose planning.

  5. Induction of apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma Hela cells with active components of Menispermum dauricum.

    PubMed

    Wang, J Y; Sun, S; Liu, L; Yang, W S

    2014-02-13

    Menispermum dauricum DC possesses a wide range of pharmacological effects. In this study, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by active components of M. dauricum was investigated in the human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line. HeLa cells were treated with different M. dauricum concentrations over different time periods. The proliferation-inhibitory rate and cytotoxic effect of HeLa cells were measured by using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the apoptotic rate was detected by flow cytometry. Expressions of caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Fas proteins, in the apoptotic pathway, and the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were detected by SP immunocytochemistry. The MTT assay showed that active components of M. dauricum could significantly inhibit the growth of HeLa cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.01). The Sub-Gl peak was found by flow cytometry, and the maximal apoptosis rate was 24.93%. Immunocytochemistry showed that after treatment with M. dauricum, the expressions of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, Fas protein, and NF-κB all increased, and the expression of the Bcl-2 protein decreased, with significant differences relative to the control group (P<0.01). Apoptosis in HeLa cells could be induced by active components of M. dauricum through the NF-κB signal transduction pathway and the caspase pathway, which was related to the downregulation of Bcl-2 expression and the upregulation of Fas expression.

  6. The clinical impact of p16 status in fine-needle aspirates of cervical lymph node metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Jakscha, Jens; Zlobec, Inti; Storck, Claudio; Obermann, Ellen C; Tornillo, Luigi; Terracciano, Luigi M; Fischer, Claude A

    2013-02-01

    Lymph node involvement is prognostically the most determinant clinical factor for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Ultrasound of the neck and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is one of the first diagnostic procedures and the most accurate diagnostic staging tool for the neck. Patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas (OPSCC) show a significantly better prognosis when compared with HPV-negative OPSCC. P16 overexpression is accepted as surrogate marker for HPV-positive in OPSCC. These HPV/p16-positive OPSCC are localized either in the palatal tonsils or the base of tongue and frequently present with lymph node metastases. We analyzed the correlation and reliability of p16 expression of the FNA of the lymph node metastasis with the immunohistochemical expression of p16 of the same lymph node metastasis and its corresponding primary tumor, as it could be of importance for determining the localization and different prognosis of the primary tumor. 54 HNSCC patients were evaluated, p16 expression of the primary tumors and their lymph node metastases correlated precisely. In 25 of the 54 HNSCC patients, a FNA of the lymph node metastases was taken before the treatment. The positive cytological and immunohistochemical p16 staining correlated exactly. Of the 17 histologically p16-negative lymph node metastases 15 FNA were p16-negative, whereas two samples were p16-positive. In our view, a cytological p16 analysis of cervical lymph node metastasis can facilitate the correct localization of the primary tumor and discriminate reliably HPV-positive OPSCC from HPV-negative HNSCC with their significantly diverse prognosis.

  7. Profiling protein markers associated with the sensitivity to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in human cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Pei, Hai-ping; Zeng, Shan; Chen, Jia; Shen, Liang-fang; Zhong, Mei-zuo; Yao, Ruo-jing; Shen, Hong

    2009-08-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is recently recommended as the primary and standard treatment modality for cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the protein biomarkers associated with CCRT sensitivity, so as to better understand the mechanisms underlying CCRT resistance. Fresh tumor tissues from five cases for each group of CCRT-highly sensitive (CCRT-HS) and CCRT-lowly sensitive (CCRT-LS) were analyzed by 2-D electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS, followed by Western blot for four candidate proteins including S100A9, galectin-7, nuclear matrix protein-238 (NMP-238), and heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70). In randomly selected CCRT-HS (n = 60) and CCRT-LS (n = 35) cases, these four differentially expressed proteins were detected by tissue microarray with immunohistochemistry staining to explore the association between these interested proteins and CCRT sensitivity. Nineteen proteins differentially expressed more than four times between two groups were identified. An association was revealed between CCRT sensitivity and increased S100A9 and galectin-7, but decreased NMP-238 and HSP-70 expression (p < 0.001, respectively). Although none of these four protein markers could be used as an independent predictive factor, a recurrence prediction model was generated by combining S100A9, galectin-7, NMP-238, and HSP-70 as a full predictive factor. The proteomic analysis combined with tissue microarray provides us a dramatic tool in predicting CCRT response. The increased expression of S100A9 and galectin-7, but decreased expression of NMP-238 and HSP-70, suggests a significantly increased sensitivity to CCRT in cervical cancer.

  8. Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Breast: Histopathological Criteria, Prognostic Factors, and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Marinova, Lena; Vicheva, Snezhinka

    2016-01-01

    We present here a case of a 42-year-old woman diagnosed with primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NECB). We discuss the importance of histological criteria for primary neuroendocrine mammary carcinoma, established by WHO in 2003 and 2012. After an overview of different cases of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast published in the literature, we present information about differential diagnosis, prognostic factors, and surgical and adjuvant treatment. Prognosis of NECB is not different from that of other invasive breast carcinomas and the most important prognostic factor is tumor grade (G). There is no standard treatment and patients should be treated similarly to patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, NOS (not otherwise specified), whose choice of therapy depends on tumor's size, degree of differentiation, clinical stage, and hormonal status. PMID:27840759

  9. Use of immunohistochemical methods in the differential diagnosis between primary cerebellar haemangioblastoma and metastatic renal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Gouldesbrough, D R; Bell, J E; Gordon, A

    1988-01-01

    The potential role of immunohistochemistry in making the distinction between primary cerebellar haemangioblastoma and metastatic renal carcinoma was investigated by examining the reaction pattern of 10 cerebellar haemangioblastomas (seven women, three men, aged 20-40 years) and 10 primary renal carcinomas (six men, four women, aged 49-82 years) to a panel of epithelial, glial, and neural/neuroendocrine antisera. The tumour cell membranes of the renal carcinomas stained strongly with epithelial membrane antigen (EMA); membrane staining was totally absent in the haemangioblastomas. Strong neurone specific enolase (NSE) and S100 staining were also seen in haemangioblastomas but were more variable than EMA staining in renal carcinomas. It is concluded that a panel of antisera is required to distinguish between histologically similar areas in primary haemangioblastomas and metastatic renal carcinomas, and that while complementing conventional histological techniques, new problems of interpretation result which must be taken into account. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:3170772

  10. Regulator role of HPV E7 protein on miR-21 expression in cervical carcinoma cells and its functional implication

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qingqin; Wang, Wenfeng; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading malignant tumor in women. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is one risk factor for cervical cancer, with its expressed E7 protein can facilitate the transformation of cervical epithelial cells. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is one important tumor growth regulatory factor involving in angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. This study thus aimed to investigate the role of high-risk HPV16 E7 protein in regulating miR-21 expression in cervical carcinoma and its related functions. Hela cells were transfected with pcDNA-HPV16 E7 expressing vectors. The expression level of E7 was determined by Western blotting, while miR-21 level was quantified by real-time PCR. The alternation of tumor cell proliferation is determined by transfecting miR-21 inhibitor into E7-overexpressing Hela cells. Cell apoptosis was studied by caspase-3 assay, while cell invasion was illustrated in Transwell chamber. The overexpression of HPV E7 protein facilitated the expression of miR-21, which potentiated Hela cell proliferation and invasion. The inhibition of miR-21 in E7-overexpressin Hela cells can inhibit both proliferation and invasion, but without significant effects on caspase-3 activity. HPV16 E7 protein can up-regulate host miR-21 expression, thus elevating cervical carcinoma cell growth, proliferation and invasion. Therefore, E7 protein is one critical factor in occurrence and progression of cervical carcinoma. PMID:26884851

  11. A new case of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the cervix with prominent endometrial and myometrial involvement: Immunohistochemical and molecular studies and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As a rule, endocervical tumours with signet-ring cell are classed as metastatic extra-genital neoplasms. In a patient aged 45 years, we describe primary cervical signet-ring cell carcinoma (PCSRCC) characterized by prominent endometrial and myometrial involvement, simulating primary endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension. In addition, a review was made of the literature to identify the clinical and pathological features of this rare malignancy. Case presentation A 45-year-old woman was referred to our Gynaecology Department due to persistent abnormal vaginal bleeding. Transvaginal ultrasonography showed slight endometrial irregularities in the whole uterine cavity suggestive of endometrial neoplasms. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse enlargement of the cervix, which had been replaced by a mass. Induration extended to the parametria and sigmoid colon fat. Histological examination of endometrial curettage and a cervical biopsy revealed a neoplasm characterized by neoplastic signet-ring cells and trabecular structures. Immunohistochemical analysis and molecular studies showed certain findings consistent with a cervical neoplasm, such as positivity to CEA, keratin 7, Ca-125 and p16 and the presence of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) DNA 18. On examination of the hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, the lesion replacing the cervix, endometrium and myometrium, revealed the same immunohistochemical findings observed on endometrial curettage and cervical biopsy specimens. Metastases were found in an ovarian cystic lesion and the lymph nodes. Conclusion With this report the authors have demonstrated that the spread of cervical adenocarcinoma to the uterine corpus, although rare, may be observed, and that in this instance immunohistochemical and molecular studies can provide sufficient information for accurate diagnosis even on small biopsy specimens. PMID:22236794

  12. Clinical Effect of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Patients With Cervical Cancer Undergoing Primary Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chun-Chieh; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Huang, Huei-Jean; Chao, Angel; Chang, Chee-Jen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Hong, Ji-Hong

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of the human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in cervical cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: A total of 1,010 patients with cervical cancer after radiotherapy between 1993 and 2000 were eligible for this study. The HPV genotypes were determined by a genechip, which detects 38 types of HPV. The patient characteristics and treatment outcomes were analyzed using the Cox regression hazard model and classification and regression tree decision tree method. Results: A total of 25 genotypes of HPV were detected in 992 specimens (98.2%). The leading 8 types were HPV16, 58, 18, 33, 52, 39, 31, and 45. These types belong to two high-risk HPV species: alpha-7 (HPV18, 39, 45) and alpha-9 (HPV16, 31, 33, 52, 58). Three HPV-based risk groups, which were independent of established prognostic factors, such as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, age, pathologic features, squamous cell carcinoma antigen, and lymph node metastasis, were associated with the survival outcomes. The high-risk group consisted of the patients without HPV infection or the ones infected with the alpha-7 species only. Patients co-infected with the alpha-7 and alpha-9 species belonged to the medium-risk group, and the others were included in the low-risk group. Conclusion: The results of the present study have confirmed the prognostic value of HPV genotypes in cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy. The different effect of the alpha-7 and alpha-9 species on the radiation response deserves additional exploration.

  13. A case of cervical carcinoma of the uterus presenting with hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma as a manifestation of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shirahige, Y; Watanabe, T; Oki, Y; Sonoda, T; Adachi, I

    1991-06-01

    A case of advanced cervical carcinoma of the uterus with ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) syndrome is described. The patient was seen for general malaise 21 months after surgical treatment of the primary lesion whose histology was undifferentiated small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. She had extensive metastases in the liver and the abdominal wall. In addition to the typical clinical manifestations of Cushing's syndrome such as moon face, central obesity and acne vulgaris, hyperglycemia was so severe that she was in a hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma. Endocrinological examinations revealed elevated plasma ACTH and cortisol, and urinary excretion of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and 17-ketosteroids, which were not suppressed by high-dose dexamethasone administration. Based on these clinical and laboratory findings, a diagnosis of ectopic ACTH syndrome was made. Among the results of other endocrinological examinations conducted to find the etiological cause of the hyperglycemic coma, which seemed to be unusual for ectopic ACTH syndrome, the plasma somatostatin level was abnormally high. Metastatic tumors in the liver obtained at the time of autopsy contained large amounts of both ACTH and somatostatin, and gel filtration studies revealed that the peptides produced by the tumor had the molecular sizes of the biologically active forms of the respective peptides. These observations suggest possible involvement of the somatostatin in deteriorating glucose intolerance to develop hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma as a drastic disturbance of metabolism.

  14. Primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma in a dog treated with surgical excision.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Janet A; Pagano, Candace J; Boudreaux, Bonnie B

    2017-01-01

    An 8-year-old castrated male mixed breed dog was presented for a squamous cell carcinoma of the left frontal sinus. A partial craniectomy was performed and polytetrafluoroethylene mesh was placed over the craniectomy site. The dog recovered well with a good cosmetic outcome. Histopathology confirmed primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma.

  15. [Importance of immunohistochemical studies in the diagnosis and the prognostic evaluation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Review].

    PubMed

    García-Tamayo, Jorge; Molina, Julia; Blasco-Olaetxea, Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical carcinoma are evaluated in this review. A variety of proteins like p53, bcl2, C-Myc, Ki 67, Cyclines, P16 INK4a, p21, p27, beta-catenin, Wnt and MCM, have been related to the development of cervical neoplasia and human papilloma virus infection. It is described how transcriptional factors of genes induce loss of heterozygosity, numerical chromosome abnormality and inactivation of gene products or the partial loss of some membrane glycoproteins induced by oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV).

  16. Patients with primary cervical dystonia have evidence of discrete deficits in praxis.

    PubMed

    Hoffland, Britt Sofie; Snik, Dorinda; Bhatia, Kailash P; Baratelli, Elena; Katschnig, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Crutch, Sebastian; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Edwards, Mark J

    2011-06-01

    Functional imaging and electrophysiological data from patients with primary dystonia reveal widespread abnormalities in brain areas associated with higher motor functions but to date there has been little investigation of the functional consequences of these abnormalities. The aim of this study was to use a battery of tests of praxis, based on those tests used in routine clinical examination, to uncover evidence of higher motor dysfunction in patients with primary cervical dystonia. Praxis was assessed in 13 patients with primary cervical dystonia without hand involvement and in 29 age and sex matched controls. A semiquantitative praxis assessment was used which combined timed tests of meaningful and meaningless movements with copying of transitive and intratransitive hand movements and pantomime of tool use. Control tasks consisted of evaluation of motor speed, strength and a number of additional cognitive tasks. Patients made significantly more errors in copying meaningless gestures and were slow in the performance of meaningless sequences of hand movements. Copying meaningful gestures and performance of meaningful sequences of hand movements were normal. This study has identified a discrete deficit in praxis in dystonia patients and suggests additional functional consequences from the widespread pathophysiological abnormalities seen in primary dystonia.

  17. ARTISTIC: a randomised trial of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in primary cervical screening.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, H C; Almonte, M; Gilham, C; Dowie, R; Stoykova, B; Sargent, A; Roberts, C; Desai, M; Peto, J

    2009-11-01

    Primary cervical screening uses cytology to detect cancer precursor lesions [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage 3 or beyond (CIN3+)]. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could add sensitivity as an adjunct to cytology or as a first test, reserving cytology for HPV-positive women. This study addresses the questions: Does the combination of cytology and HPV testing achieve a reduction in incident CIN3+?; Is HPV testing cost-effective in primary cervical screening?; Is its use associated with adverse psychosocial or psychosexual effects?; and How would it perform as an initial screening test followed by cytology for HPV positivity? ARTISTIC was a randomised trial of cervical cytology versus cervical cytology plus HPV testing, evaluated over two screening rounds, 3 years apart. Round 1 would detect prevalent disease and round 2 a combination of incident and undetected disease from round 1. Women undergoing routine cervical screening in the NHS programme in Greater Manchester. In total 24,510 women aged 20-64 years were enrolled between July 2001 and September 2003. HPV testing was performed on the liquid-based cytology (LBC) sample obtained at screening. Women were randomised in a ratio of 3:1 to have the HPV test result revealed and acted upon if persistently positive in cytology-negative cases or concealed. A detailed health economic evaluation and a psychosocial and psychosexual assessment were also performed. The primary outcome was CIN3+ in round 2. Secondary outcomes included an economic assessment and psychosocial effects. A large HPV genotyping study was also conducted. In round 1 there were 313 CIN3+ lesions, representing a prevalence in the revealed and concealed arms of 1.27% and 1.31% respectively (p = 0.81). Round 2 (30-48 months) involved 14,230 (58.1%) of the women screened in round 1 and only 31 CIN3+ were detected; the CIN3 rate was not significantly different between the revealed and concealed arms. A less restrictive definition of round 2 (26

  18. Poorer Prognosis of Primary Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Breast Compared with Mucinous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qingzhong; Chen, Gang; Lu, Jianping; Zeng, Yi; Hu, Dan; Huang, Kai; Lin, Zhiwu; Yan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma (PSRCC) of the breast is a rare entity and classified under mucin producing tumors in the WHO classification. However, little is known about the clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes of PSRCC as opposed to mucinous carcinoma. Eleven patients with PSRCC in our center from 1995 to 2010 were evaluated in this study, as compared to 50 cases of mucinous breast cancer (MBC) during the same period. The clinicopathologic features of PSRCC compared to MBC were assessed. Furthermore, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated at 5 years of follow up. Patients with PSRCC showed more frequent lymphatic metastasis, higher Ki67 labeling index and more advanced stage disease than that of MBC (P = 0.018, p = 0.023, P = 0.000, respectively), although there was no difference in age, tumor size, and ER, PR expression between PSRCC and MBC. In addition, PSRCC was associated with simultaneous vimentin upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation. The 5-year OS of PSRCC (54.5%) was significantly lower than that of MBC (88%) (P = 0.004). Similarly, the DFS of PSRCC was poorer than that of MBC significantly (5-year DFS: 27.3% vs. 80%, P = 0.000). Conclusions Our results confirmed the more aggressive behavior of PSRCC compared to MBC. This tumor is frequently associated with more frequent lymphatic metastasis, higher Ki67 labeling index, more advanced stage disease as well as simultaneous vimentin upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation. Different management guidelines should be considered for the two types. PMID:27583684

  19. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate: a case report of a rare clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tithi; Podder, Tarun; Lepera, Pamela A; Walker, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate is a unique and rare clinicopathological entity with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature. Because of its rarity, the optimal management is not well known. Here, we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate which was treated with definitive concurrent chemo-radiotherapy with excellent outcome along with a brief review of the literature.

  20. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate: a case report of a rare clinical entity

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Tithi; Podder, Tarun; Lepera, Pamela A; Walker, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate is a unique and rare clinicopathological entity with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature. Because of its rarity, the optimal management is not well known. Here, we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate which was treated with definitive concurrent chemo-radiotherapy with excellent outcome along with a brief review of the literature. PMID:28031893

  1. Primary human papillomavirus DNA screening for cervical cancer prevention: Can the screening interval be safely extended?

    PubMed

    Vink, Margaretha A; Bogaards, Johannes A; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berkhof, Johannes

    2015-07-15

    Cytological screening has substantially decreased the cervical cancer incidence, but even better protection may be achieved by primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) screening. In the Netherlands, five-yearly cytological screening for women aged 30-60 years will be replaced by primary hrHPV screening in 2016. The new screening guidelines involve an extension of the screening interval from 5 to 10 years for hrHPV-negative women aged 40 or 50 years. We investigated the impact of this program change on the lifetime cancer risks in women without an hrHPV infection at age 30, 35, 40, 45 or 50 years. The time to cancer was estimated using 14-year follow-up data from a population-based screening intervention trial and the nationwide database of histopathology reports. The new screening guidelines are expected to lead to a reduced cervical cancer risk for all age groups. The average risk reduction was 34% and was smallest (25%) among women aged 35 years. The impact of hrHPV screening on the cancer risk was sensitive to the duration from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3) to cancer; a small increase in the cancer risk was estimated for women aged 35 or 40 years in case a substantial proportion of CIN2/3 showed fast progression to cancer. Our results indicate that primary hrHPV screening with a ten-yearly interval for hrHPV-negative women of age 40 and beyond will lead to a further reduction in lifetime cancer risk compared to five-yearly cytology, provided that precancerous lesions progress slowly to cancer.

  2. Primary mucinous carcinoma with rhabdoid cells of the thyroid gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Mioko; Tuneyoshi, Masazumi; Mine, Mari

    2016-06-10

    Primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a rare disease; only 6 cases of primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid have been previously reported. Primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland with incomplete tumor resection tends to be associated with a poor prognosis, resulting in death within a few months. An early and appropriate diagnosis may contribute to improvement in patient prognosis; however, it is extremely difficult to diagnose primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid. We present the seventh reported case of primary mucinous carcinoma in the thyroid gland; moreover, rhabdoid cells were detected, which, to our knowledge, is a novel finding. An 81-year-old Japanese woman was initially diagnosed with a poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and she underwent a hemithyroidectomy. Pathological examination revealed the presence of abundant mucus and agglomeration of large atypical cells. Rhabdoid cells were also seen scattered among the tumor cells. Immunostaining was performed for various markers, and on the basis of these results, we diagnosed the lesion as primary mucinous carcinoma with rhabdoid cells in the thyroid gland. Ten months after surgery, recurrence was noted in the paratracheal lymph nodes; therefore, total resection of the residual thyroid gland and paratracheal lymphadenectomy with thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression were performed. The patient is currently alive and disease-free. The current case is of interest not only because of the rare histological findings, but also because the patient achieved long-term survival following diagnosis of a mucinous carcinoma. We believe this report will be helpful for diagnosing future cases of mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid.

  3. Antitumor activity of a polysaccharide fraction from Laminaria japonica on U14 cervical carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qingzhi; Li, Xiuli; Yang, Yizhuo; Yu, Ling; Yao, Yuanqing

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction from the brown alga Laminaria japonica (LJSP) on cervical carcinoma. In vitro, the results showed that LJSP exhibited the highest cell growth inhibitory effect on cervical carcinoma U14 cells among five tumor cell lines. In vivo, the results showed that LJSP could not only inhibit the growth of the tumor but also enhance the spleen and thymus indexes, as well as the body weight of U14 tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, the white blood cell count of H22 tumor-bearing mice showed no change in the LJSP-treated groups and little toxicological effects were observed on hepatic function and renal function in LJSP-treated mice bearing U14 tumor cells. Besides, LJSP induced apoptosis of transplanted tumor tissues by increasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. These data showed that LJSP exhibited prominent antitumor activities and low toxic effects; thus, it could be developed to a safe and effective anticancer agent.

  4. Primary candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Cho, Hyong Ho

    2013-02-01

    Primary candidiasis is rare and often confused with a pre-cancerous lesion, squamous cell carcinoma, or verrucous carcinoma. We report an extremely rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cord following primary candidiasis. A 62-year-old man presented to our department reporting a 1-month history of hoarseness. He underwent laryngeal microscopic surgery for a presumptive diagnosis of glottic carcinoma. Histopathologic examination revealed candidiasis and scattered moderate dysplasia. He was treated with itraconazole for 4 weeks, and followed up without any recurrence of candidiasis. However, the 42-month follow-up examination revealed a focal whitish lesion on the right true vocal cord, and a repeat biopsy of this area revealed squamous cell carcinoma without evidence of candidiasis. The patient was treated with radiotherapy and remains well with no signs of tumor recurrence or candidiasis.

  5. Primary bony non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cervical spine: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Non-Hodgkin lymphoma primarily originating from the bone is exceedingly rare. To our knowledge, this is the first report of primary bone lymphoma presenting with progressive cord compression from an origin in the cervical spine. Herein, we discuss the unusual location in this case, the presenting symptoms, and the management of this disease. Case presentation We report on a 23-year-old Caucasian-American man who presented with two months of night sweats, fatigue, parasthesias, and progressive weakness that had progressed to near quadriplegia. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated significant cord compression seen primarily at C7. Surgical management, with corpectomy and dorsal segmental fusion, in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy, halted the progression of the primary disease and preserved neurological function. Histological analysis demonstrated an aggressive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Conclusion Isolated primary bony lymphoma of the spine is exceedingly rare. As in our case, the initial symptoms may be the result of progressive cervical cord compression. Anterior corpectomy with posterolateral decompression and fusion succeeded in preventing progressive neurologic decline and maintaining quality of life. The reader should be aware of the unique presentation of this disease and that surgical management is a successful treatment strategy. PMID:20205845

  6. Primary sources of pelvic serous cancer in patients with endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Yuan, Zeng; Wang, Yiying; Cragun, Janiel M; Kong, Beihua; Zheng, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma is often associated with extrauterine disease. It is currently unclear where does the extrauterine disease come from. This study addressed this issue. A total of 135 samples from 21 serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma patients were studied. Cellular lineage relationships between intrauterine and extrauterine serous carcinomas were determined by TP53-mutation analysis and correlated to the clinicopathologic features. There were three conditions contributing the extrauterine disease: metastasis from serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (n=10) showed identical TP53 mutation between intrauterine lesions and extrauterine disease, cases of adnexal origin (n=5) had discordant TP53 mutations, and the mixed cellular origin cases (n=6) with both identical and discordant mutation status. Patients with extrauterine disease from serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma metastasis typically had small tumor masses (<2 cm) in extrauterine sites and without finding of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, while extrauterine disease with adnexal or tubal origin commonly had larger tumor masses in extrauterine sites including ovary and omentum and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. The majority of extrauterine diseases associated with serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma are metastasized from the endometrium. Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma is frequently associated with serous cancers of adnexal or tubal origin, indicating that endometrial and adnexal or tubal serous cancers may share similar etiologies. TP53-mutation analysis provides a strong linkage for cellular lineage analysis. Tumor size in extrauterine disease and presence of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or not are useful clinicopathologic features to determine primary cancer site, which helps in clinical management.

  7. Women's intentions to receive cervical cancer screening with primary human papillomavirus testing.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Gina S; Smith, Laurie W; van Niekerk, Dirk J; Khurshed, Fareeza; Krajden, Mel; Saraiya, Mona; Goel, Vivek; Rimer, Barbara K; Greene, Sandra B; Hobbs, Suzanne; Coldman, Andrew J; Franco, Eduardo L

    2013-12-15

    We explored the potential impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing on women's intentions to be screened for cervical cancer in a cohort of Canadian women. Participants aged 25-65 years from an ongoing trial were sent a questionnaire to assess women's intentions to be screened for cervical cancer with HPV testing instead of Pap smears and to be screened every 4 years or after 25 years of age. We created scales for attitudes about HPV testing, perceived behavioral control, and direct and indirect subjective norms. Demographic data and scales that were significantly different (p < 0.1) between women who intended to be screened with HPV and those who did not intend were included in a stepwise logistic regression model. Of the 2,016 invitations emailed, 1,538 were received, and 981 completed surveys for a response rate of 63% (981/1,538). Eighty-four percent of women (826/981) responded that they intended to attend for HPV-based cervical cancer screening, which decreased to 54.2% when the screening interval was extended, and decreased further to 51.4% when screening start was delayed to age of 25. Predictors of intentions to undergo screening were attitudes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15, 1.30), indirect subjective norms (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03) and perceived behavioral control (OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.10; 1.22). Intentions to be screened for cervical cancer with HPV testing decreased substantially when the screening interval was extended and screening started at age of 25. Use of primary HPV testing may optimize the screening paradigm, but programs should ensure robust planning and education to mitigate any negative impact on screening attendance rates. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  8. Differential role of gene hypermethylation in adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and cervical intraepithelial lesions of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Luquin, Idoia; Guarch, Rosa; Ojer, Amaya; Pérez-Janices, Noemí; Martín-Sánchez, Esperanza; Maria-Ruiz, Sergio; Monreal-Santesteban, Iñaki; Blanco-Fernandez, Laura; Pernaut-Leza, Eduardo; Escors, David; Guerrero-Setas, David

    2015-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. The hypermethylation of P16, TSLC-1 and TSP-1 genes was analyzed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) and adenocarcinomas (ADC) of the uterine cervix (total 181 lesions). Additionally human papillomavirus (HPV) type, EPB41L3, RASSF1 and RASSF2 hypermethylation were tested in ADC and the results were compared with those obtained previously by our group in SCC. P16, TSLC-1 and TSP-1 hypermethylation was more frequent in SCCs than in CINs. These percentages and the corresponding ones for EPB41L3, RASSF1 and RASSF2 genes were also higher in SCCs than in ADCs, except for P16. The presence of HPV in ADCs was lower than reported previously in SCC and CIN. Patients with RASSF1A hypermethylation showed significantly longer disease-free survival (P = 0.015) and overall survival periods (P = 0.009) in ADC patients. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the EPB41L3 and RASSF2 hypermethylation in ADCs. These results suggest that the involvement of DNA hypermethylation in cervical cancer varies depending on the histological type, which might contribute to explaining the different prognosis of patients with these types of tumors.

  9. Giant cystic primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of mandible: a rare case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Roshan Kumar; Sunku, Satheesh Kumar; Bal, Amanjeet; Panda, Naresh K

    2014-01-01

    Primary intra-osseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from jaw is an extremely rare condition accounting to less than 2% of all mucoepidermoid carcinomas. In the jaw, it occurs more commonly in mandible than maxilla. They are low-grade cancers and affect jaw as uni- or multi-locular radiographic lesions. Here we discuss a rare case of giant cystic primary intra-cystic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the mandible which was excised in toto. Here we discuss the clinical features, radiological and histological characteristics of this rare lesion, and review the literature.

  10. Proteomics-based identification of VDAC1 as a tumor promoter in cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Hu, Zheng; Zhu, Da; Wang, Xiaoli; Yu, Lan; Wang, Liming; Shen, Hui; Zhang, Weican; Ren, Ci; Li, Kezhen; Weng, Danhui; Deng, Wuguo; Ma, Ding; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    We used oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT) to investigate the global redox status of proteins in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical cancer cells, in order to identify a potential target for gene therapy. Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) was found to be highly oxidized in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. VDAC1 expression correlated significantly with the invasion of cervical cancer, the grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and the expression of HPV16 E7 in CIN. Knockdown of VDAC1 in cell lines increased the rate of apoptosis, while overexpression of the VDAC1 (respectively) partly reversed the effect. Thus, VDAC1 may promote the malignant progression of HPV-related disease, and treatments designed to suppress VDAC1 could prevent the progression of HPV-induced cervical disease. PMID:27419626

  11. HPV-DNA, vascular space invasion, and their impact on the clinical outcome in early-stage cervical carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Graflund, M; Sorbe, B; Sigurdardóttir, S; Karlsson, M

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to analyze the relationship of human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA, microvessel density, and their impact on clinical outcome in early cervical carcinoma. HPV-DNA was evaluated in 171 cases of cervical carcinoma treated from 1965 to 1990. In 110 cases, the analyses could be performed. A polymerase chain reaction technique was used on paraffin-embedded specimens obtained before the start of therapy. HPV-DNA of any type was detected in 78% (86/110) of all evaluable tumors. HPV16 was the predominant type and was detected in 56% (62/110), HPV18 in 8% (9/110), and HPV35 in 21% (23/110). Patients with tumors containing HPV16 or HPV18 were significantly (P = 0.011) younger than patients with tumors not containing either of these two subtypes. Vascular space invasion and lymph node metastases were observed more frequently in tumors expressing HPV16 and HPV18 (P = 0.002, P = 0.047) than in tumors negative for these HPV strains. Tumors containing HPV16 and HPV18 were significantly (P = 0.012) larger and more frequently (P = 0.005) associated with higher FIGO stages. The cancer-specific survival rate was lower for patients with HPV16- and HPV18-positive tumors, but the difference was not statistically significant. The microvessel density was a non-significant prognostic factor. The overall 5-year survival rate of the complete series was 91%. It was concluded that HPV-DNA was a prognostic factor in early-stage cervical cancer and was associated with the age of the patient, vascular space invasion, lymph node metastases, tumor size, and FIGO stage.

  12. Type-specific human papillomavirus distribution in invasive cervical carcinomas in Paraguay. A study of 432 cases.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Elena; Cubilla, Antonio L; Alemany, Laia; Chaux, Alcides; Tous, Sara; Mendoza, Laura; Paez, Malvina; Klaustermeier, Jo Ellen; Quint, Wim; Lloveras, Belen; de Sanjose, Silvia; Muñoz, Nubia; Bosch, Francisco Xavier

    2012-10-01

    Cervical carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor among woman in Paraguay. Cytological screening programs have not been successful and a plan for human papillomavirus (HPV) based-screening program and/or vaccination is under evaluation. This study aimed to identify the contribution of HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Paraguay to provide essential background data to guide and assess the introduction and impact of new preventive strategies based on HPV. Four hundred thirty two histologically confirmed cases (1960-2004) were analyzed. HPV detection in paraffin blocks was performed at the Catalan Institute of Oncology using PCR with SPF-10 broad spectrum primers followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping with a reverse hybridization line probe analysis. The majority of cases were squamous cell carcinoma (92.8%). Mean patients age was 48 years old. HPV DNA was detected in 73.1% of the cases and single infections were predominant (97.8%). The most common HPV single types were 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 35, and 39. 73.1% of HPV positive cases had an HPV 16, 18 as single infection. HPV16 was frequent in SCC whereas HPV 18 and 45 were prevalent in glandular tumors. Significant decrease of HPV 16 with age groups (P-trend = 0.022) and increase in other HPV types (P-trend > 0.001) were observed. The potential impact of HPV 16 and 18 for a vaccination program was 73.1%. The study provide a profile of the HPV situation in the country, with robust clinical, pathological and virological data which would permit a better cervical cancer screening and vaccination programs.

  13. Pelvic inflammatory disease increases the risk of a second primary malignancy in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chien-An; Lee, Moon-Sing; Lin, Hon-Yi; Li, Chung-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Hung, Shih-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As the number of long-term cervical cancer survivors continues to increase because of improvements in treatment, concerns about second primary malignancy have grown. The high-risk area of second primary cancers in cervical cancer survivors is the pelvis. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) could be a useful marker for gynecological cancers. Thus, we designed a large-scale, nationwide, controlled cohort study to investigate whether PID or other risk factors increased the risk of second primary cancers in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 24,444 cervical cancer patients were identified using the Registry Data for Catastrophic Illness and the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Patients who received definite surgery were selected. To exclude the effect on second primary malignancy by treatment modalities, all cervical patients who ever having received adjuvant or definite radiotherapy or chemotherapy for primary cervical cancer were excluded. Finally, 3860 cervical cancer patients treated by surgery alone without adjuvant treatments were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis and the Kaplan–Meier method was used to assess the cumulative risks. Regarding the incidence of second primary cancers, the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was used. The median follow-up time was 56.6 months. The 6-year cumulative risk of second primary cancers is 0.16% and 0.12% for PID and without PID, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, age of less than 50 years, the presence of diabetes mellitus, and PID were significantly positivity associated with the risk of second primary cancers. The hazard ratios (HRs) of age less than 50 years, diabetes mellitus, and PID were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.11–2.04), 1.40 (95% CI = 1.06–1.85), and 1.35 (95% CI = 1.00–1.81), respectively. A higher incidence of second primary cancers was observed in the

  14. Pelvic inflammatory disease increases the risk of a second primary malignancy in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chien-An; Lee, Moon-Sing; Lin, Hon-Yi; Li, Chung-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Hung, Shih-Kai

    2016-11-01

    As the number of long-term cervical cancer survivors continues to increase because of improvements in treatment, concerns about second primary malignancy have grown. The high-risk area of second primary cancers in cervical cancer survivors is the pelvis. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) could be a useful marker for gynecological cancers. Thus, we designed a large-scale, nationwide, controlled cohort study to investigate whether PID or other risk factors increased the risk of second primary cancers in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone.Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 24,444 cervical cancer patients were identified using the Registry Data for Catastrophic Illness and the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Patients who received definite surgery were selected. To exclude the effect on second primary malignancy by treatment modalities, all cervical patients who ever having received adjuvant or definite radiotherapy or chemotherapy for primary cervical cancer were excluded. Finally, 3860 cervical cancer patients treated by surgery alone without adjuvant treatments were analyzed.Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the cumulative risks. Regarding the incidence of second primary cancers, the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was used.The median follow-up time was 56.6 months. The 6-year cumulative risk of second primary cancers is 0.16% and 0.12% for PID and without PID, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, age of less than 50 years, the presence of diabetes mellitus, and PID were significantly positivity associated with the risk of second primary cancers. The hazard ratios (HRs) of age less than 50 years, diabetes mellitus, and PID were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.11-2.04), 1.40 (95% CI = 1.06-1.85), and 1.35 (95% CI = 1.00-1.81), respectively. A higher incidence of second primary cancers was observed in the genitals, bladder, and

  15. Cervical nodal necrosis is an independent survival predictor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yangkun; Ren, Jing; Zhou, Peng; Gao, Yang; Yang, Guangquan; Lang, Jinyi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Most nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients present with locoregionally advanced disease at the time of diagnosis; however, there is a lack of consensus on specific prognostic factors potentially improving overall survival, especially in late-stage disease. Herein, we conducted a retrospective study to evaluate various potential prognostic factors in order to provide useful information for clinical treatment of T3/T4-stage NPC. Patients and methods A total of 189 previously untreated NPC patients were enrolled in the current study. All patients received intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Survival, death, relapse-free survival (both local and regional), and metastasis were recorded during follow-up. Factors affecting patient survival were assessed by using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The median follow-up time was 69 months. The 5-year local-regional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) of the entire group were 89.8%, 71.5%, 66.3%, and 68.9%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in the 5-year PFS (58.5% vs 72.5%, P=0.015) and OS (59.5% vs 75.8%, P=0.033) rates of patients with and without cervical nodal necrosis (CNN). Subgroup analyses revealed that CNN was associated with poorer distant metastasis-free survival and PFS among patients with N2 stage (P=0.046 and P=0.005) and with poorer PFS among patients with T3 or III stage (all P=0.022). Multivariate analysis revealed CNN to be an independent prognostic factor for PFS and OS (PFS: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.860; 95% CI: 1.134–3.051; P=0.014; OS: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.754; 95% CI: 1.061–2.899; P=0.028). Conclusion CNN is a potential independent negative prognostic factor in NPC patients. Our results suggest that stratification of NPC patients based on their CNN status should be considered as part of NPC disease management. PMID:27843328

  16. Intensity Modulated Proton Beam Radiation for Brachytherapy in Patients With Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Clivio, Alessandro; Kluge, Anne; Cozzi, Luca; Köhler, Christhardt; Neumann, Oliver; Vanetti, Eugenio; Wlodarczyk, Waldemar; Marnitz, Simone

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in patients with cervical cancer in terms of coverage, conformity, and dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters correlated with recommendations from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven patients with histologically proven cervical cancer underwent primary chemoradiation for the pelvic lymph nodes, the uterus, the cervix, and the parametric region, with a symmetric margin of 1 cm. The prescription was for 50.4 Gy, with 1.8 Gy per fraction. The prescribed dose to the parametria was 2.12 Gy up to 59.36 Gy in 28 fractions as a simultaneous boost. For several reasons, the patients were unable to undergo brachytherapy. As an alternative, IMPT was planned with 5 fractions of 6 Gy to the cervix, including the macroscopic tumor with an MRI-guided target definition, with an isotropic margin of 5 mm for planning target volume (PTV) definition. Groupe-Europeen de Curietherapie and European society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) criteria were used for DVH evaluation. Reference comparison plans were optimized for volumetric modulated rapid arc (VMAT) therapy with the RapidArc (RA). Results: The dose to the high-risk volume was calculated with α/β = 10 with 89.6 Gy. For IMPT, the clinical target volume showed a mean dose of 38.2 ± 5.0 Gy (35.0 ±1.8 Gy for RA). The D{sub 98%} was 31.9 ± 2.6 Gy (RA: 30.8 ± 1.0 Gy). With regard to the organs at risk, the 2Gy Equivalent Dose (EQD2) (α/β = 3) to 2 cm{sup 3} of the rectal wall, sigmoid wall, and bladder wall was 62.2 ± 6.4 Gy, 57.8 ± 6.1 Gy, and 80.6 ± 8.7 Gy (for RA: 75.3 ± 6.1 Gy, 66.9 ± 6.9 Gy, and 89.0 ± 7.2 Gy, respectively). For the IMPT boost plans in combination with external beam radiation therapy, all DVH parameters correlated with <5% risk for grades 2 to 4 late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity. Conclusion: In patients who are not eligible for brachytherapy, IMPT as a boost

  17. Efficacy of vaccination with Skinner vaccine towards the prevention of herpes simplex virus induced cervical carcinoma in an experimental mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chen, M H; Zhou, Z; Hartley, C E; Cowan, M; Skinner, G R

    1986-12-01

    The incidence of cervical carcinoma, which had been induced by vaginal application of inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) with 20% croton oil, was significantly reduced in mice prevaccinated with the Skinner herpes vaccine. There was evidence of an immunological response in both vaccinated and unvaccinated mice.

  18. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Stages IB2-IIB or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-28

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Node; Positive Pelvic Lymph Node; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  19. Primary Cutaneous Lymphoma-Associated Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia Masquerading as Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Young Adult.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mahsa; Azmoodeh Ardalan, Farid; Najafi, Masoumeh; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Ghanadan, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a T-cell malignancy with atypical CD30 positive lymphocytes. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is an uncommon finding in primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and may mimic squamous cell carcinoma as pseudomalignancy. Careful attention of a pathologist to correct diagnosis of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and its underlying causes will help physicians to avoid inappropriate management. Here, we present a 22-year-old man referred to our hospital with a solitary nodule persistent on his forearm which was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma in the first biopsy. The lesion recurred after two months and histopathologic and immunohistochemistry examination revealed anaplastic large cell lymphoma with florid pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia which masquerading as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Diagnosis of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia must guide the pathologist to search for underlying causes, such as primary cutaneous lymphoma. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia may mimic squamous cell carcinoma and this can result in inappropriate diagnosis and management.

  20. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature. PMID:26980976

  1. Immunoexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in primary gastric carcinomas and lymph node metastases

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Paulo RC; Ferreira, Francisco VA; Santos, Cássio C; Rocha-Filho, Francisco D; Feitosa, Raul RP; Falcão, Esther AA; Cavada, Belise K; Lima-Júnior, Roberto CP; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate immunoexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in primary gastric carcinomas and respective lymph node metastases. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry to analyze COX-2 expression was performed on tissue microarray slices obtained from 36 specimens of gastrectomy and satellite lymph nodes from patients with gastric carcinoma. RESULTS: Immunostaining was seen in most cases, and COX-2 expression was higher in lymph node metastases than in corresponding primary gastric tumors of intestinal, diffuse and mixed carcinomas, with a statistically significant difference in the diffuse histotype (P = 0.0108). CONCLUSION: COX-2 immunoexpression occurs frequently in primary gastric carcinomas, but higher expression of this enzyme is observed in lymph node metastases of the diffuse histotype. PMID:22371637

  2. Early-stage primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Moon, Won; Kim, Sung Eun

    2013-06-28

    Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colorectum detected at an early stage is very rare; most cases are detected at an advanced stage. Therefore, its prognosis is poorer than that of ordinary colorectal cancer. A 56-year-old Korean man was seen at this hospital for management of signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon. Colonoscopic examination revealed a IIa-like, ill-defined and flatly elevated 9-mm residual tumor in the cecum. Endoscopic mucosal resection was preformed. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed signet ring cell carcinoma that had invaded the lamina propria without venous or perineural invasion. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and positron CT showed no evidence of primary lesions or distant metastasis. An additional laparoscopic right-hemicolectomy was performed; no residual tumor or lymph node metastasis was found. We report a case of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon detected at an early stage and provide a review of the literature.

  3. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature.

  4. Primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ugurlu, Seyda; Ekin, Meryem Altin; Altinboga, Aysegul Aksoy

    2014-01-01

    A case of primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle is presented and patients presented in the literature reviewed. Clinical features and outcome of a patient with primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle is described. Review of 8 other cases identified through literature search with the keywords of "basal cell carcinoma" and "caruncle" is presented.A 67-year-old male patient presented with a 12 months' history of a lesion over the caruncular region. Incisional biopsy of the lesion revealed primary basal cell carcinoma of nodular type. MRI of the orbit identified extension of the lesion into the medial orbit. The tumor was excised, and reconstructive surgery was performed. The patient declined subsequent radiotherapy. No recurrence was detected during the follow up of 33 months. The current patient and 8 other patients with primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle were reviewed.The main therapeutic approach for primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle is complete excision with tumor-free surgical margins. Adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy may be administered when deemed necessary.

  5. A phase 2 study of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel plus nedaplatin for patients with advanced, recurrent, or metastatic cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yifan; Zeng, Jing; Huang, Manni; An, Jusheng; Bai, Ping; Wu, Lingying; Zhang, Rong

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) and nedaplatin (NDP) are used for the treatment of patients with cervical cancer. However, to the authors' knowledge, the use of this combination regimen among patients with advanced, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer has rarely been reported. Patients with pathologically confirmed, stage IVB (FIGO staging 2009), recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer were eligible. Nab-paclitaxel at a dose of 175 mg/m(2) plus NDP at a dose of 80 mg/m(2) was administered intravenously every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint of the current study was the objective response rate (ORR). The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. A total of 27 patients were included (5 with late-stage and 22 with recurrent or metastatic disease). The mean age of the patients was 48.26 ± 9.21 years. Of these 27 patients, 25 had squamous cell carcinoma (92.6%). A total of 26 patients completed 92 cycles of chemotherapy, with an average of 3.4 cycles per patient. The ORR was 50.0% (13 of 26 patients). The overall survival was 16.6 months (95% confidence interval, 12.6-20.6 months) and the progression-free survival was 9.1 months (95% confidence interval, 2.4-15.8 months).The ORR of patients with an interval of >12 months from receipt of prior chemotherapy was significantly higher than that of those with a shorter interval (71.4% vs 25.0%; P = .034). The most common adverse effects reported were myelosuppression, gastrointestinal reactions, fatigue, and peripheral neuropathy. The incidence of grade 3 neutropenia was 33.3% (adverse effects were graded on a scale from 0 to 4 according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 3.0]). The incidence of grade 3 thrombocytopenia and anemia was 7.4% and 18.5%, respectively. The incidence of grade 1 to 2 peripheral neuropathy was reported to be as high as 51.9%. No case of hypersensitivity was observed

  6. WNT2 Promotes Cervical Carcinoma Metastasis and Induction of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Jianhua; Huang, Long; Huang, Shuting; Yuan, Linjing; Jia, Weihua; Yu, Xingjuan; Luo, Rongzhen; Zheng, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously, we found an 11-gene signature could predict pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM), and WNT2 is one of the key genes in the signature. This study explored the expression and underlying mechanism of WNT2 in PLNM of cervical cancer. Methods WNT2 expression level in cervical cancer was detected using western blotting, quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Two WNT2-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were used to explore the effects of WNT2 on invasive and metastatic ability of cancer cells, and to reveal the possible mechanism of WNT2 affecting epithelial—mesenchymal transition (EMT). The correlation between WNT2 expression and PLNM was further investigated in clinical cervical specimens. Results Both WNT2 mRNA and protein expression was upregulated in cervical cancer. High WNT2 expression was significantly associated with tumor size, lymphovascular space involvement, positive parametrium, and most importantly, PLNM. PLNM and WNT2 expression were independent prognostic factors for overall survival and disease-free survival. WNT2 knockdown inhibited SiHa cell motility and invasion and reversed EMT by inhibiting the WNT2/β-catenin pathway. WNT2 overexpression in cervical cancer was associated with β-catenin activation and induction of EMT, which further contributed to metastasis in cervical cancer. Conclusion WNT2 might be a novel predictor of PLNM and a promising prognostic indicator in cervical cancer. PMID:27513465

  7. The Clinical and Economic Benefits of Co-Testing Versus Primary HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Felix, Juan C; Lacey, Michael J; Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Spitzer, Mark; Kulkarni, Rucha

    2016-06-01

    Consensus United States cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend use of combination Pap plus human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for women aged 30 to 65 years. An HPV test was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for primary cervical cancer screening in women age 25 years and older. Here, we present the results of clinical-economic comparisons of Pap plus HPV mRNA testing including genotyping for HPV 16/18 (co-testing) versus DNA-based primary HPV testing with HPV 16/18 genotyping and reflex cytology (HPV primary) for cervical cancer screening. A health state transition (Markov) model with 1-year cycling was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from healthcare databases and published literature. A hypothetical cohort of one million women receiving triennial cervical cancer screening was simulated from ages 30 to 70 years. Screening strategies compared HPV primary to co-testing. Outcomes included total and incremental differences in costs, invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases, ICC deaths, number of colposcopies, and quality-adjusted life years for cost-effectiveness calculations. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed. In a simulation cohort of one million 30-year-old women modeled up to age 70 years, the model predicted that screening with HPV primary testing instead of co-testing could lead to as many as 2,141 more ICC cases and 2,041 more ICC deaths. In the simulation, co-testing demonstrated a greater number of lifetime quality-adjusted life years (22,334) and yielded $39.0 million in savings compared with HPV primary, thereby conferring greater effectiveness at lower cost. Model results demonstrate that co-testing has the potential to provide improved clinical and economic outcomes when compared with HPV primary. While actual cost and outcome data are evaluated, these findings are relevant to U.S. healthcare payers and women's health policy advocates seeking cost-effective cervical cancer screening

  8. Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1: a novel biomarker predicting cervical squamous cell carcinoma prognosis and lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiang; Wang, Le; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yunduo; Meng, Fanling; Ma, Jingquan; Shang, Pan; Gao, Ya; Huang, Qi; Chen, Xiuwei

    2015-09-01

    Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 is aberrantly expressed in various malignant tumors. However, the expression and function of special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma have not been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we investigated the expression of special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 through immunohistochemistry in 25 normal cervix specimens and 167 cervical squamous cell carcinomas and analyzed its association with various clinicopathologic parameters, including patient outcome. Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 protein was detected in 58 (34.7%) out of 167 patients and was highly related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, histologic grade, lymph node metastasis, vascular-lymphatic invasion and recurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with positive special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 expression had significantly lower overall survival and disease-free survival compared with patients with negative expression of special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). A multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 was an independent prognostic marker for both disease-free survival and overall survival of cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients (P = 0.038 and P = 0.010, respectively). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 expression was strongly associated with lymph node metastasis (odds ratio = 2.497; P = 0.032). Sensitivity and specificity of special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 for lymph node metastasis were 61.0 and 73.8%, respectively. These results showed that special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 expression was associated with tumor progression

  9. Blocking Modification of Eukaryotic Initiation 5A2 Antagonizes Cervical Carcinoma via Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK Signal Transduction Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Dong; Liu, Jiamei; Chu, Zhangtao; Liu, Dongli

    2017-10-01

    Cervical carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death for female worldwide. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 belongs to the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A family and is proposed to be a key factor involved in the development of diverse cancers. In the current study, a series of in vivo and in vitro investigations were performed to characterize the role of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in oncogenesis and metastasis of cervical carcinoma. The expression status of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in 15 cervical carcinoma patients was quantified. Then, the effect of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown on in vivo tumorigenicity ability, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and cell mobility of HeLa cells was measured. To uncover the mechanism driving the function of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in cervical carcinoma, expression of members within RhoA/ROCK pathway was detected, and the results were further verified with an RhoA overexpression modification. The level of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in cervical carcinoma samples was significantly higher than that in paired paratumor tissues ( P < .05). And the in vivo tumorigenic ability of HeLa cells was reduced by inhibition of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2. Knockdown of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in HeLa cells decreased the cell viability compared with normal cells and induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest ( P < .05). Moreover, the cell migration ability of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown cells was dramatically inhibited. Associated with alterations in phenotypes, RhoA, ROCK I, and ROCK II were downregulated. The above-mentioned changes in eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown cells were alleviated by the overexpression of RhoA. The major findings outlined in the current study confirmed the potential of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 as a promising prognosis predictor and therapeutic target for cervical carcinoma treatment. Also, our data inferred that

  10. Heterogeneity between primary colon carcinoma and paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases.

    PubMed

    Lan, Huanrong; Jin, Ketao; Xie, Bojian; Han, Na; Cui, Binbin; Cao, Feilin; Teng, Lisong

    2012-11-01

    Heterogeneity is one of the recognized characteristics of human tumors, and occurs on multiple levels in a wide range of tumors. A number of studies have focused on the heterogeneity found in primary tumors and related metastases with the consideration that the evaluation of metastatic rather than primary sites could be of clinical relevance. Numerous studies have demonstrated particularly high rates of heterogeneity between primary colorectal tumors and their paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases. It has also been proposed that the heterogeneity between primary colon carcinomas and their paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases may result in different responses to anticancer therapies. The heterogeneity in primary colon carcinoma and corresponding metastases by genome‑wide gene expression analysis has not been extensively studied. In the present study, we investigated the differentially expressed genes between a primary colon carcinoma specimen (obtained from a 40-year-old female colon carcinoma patient with lymphatic and hepatic metastases) and its paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases by genome-wide gene expression analysis using GeneChip HGU133Plus2.0 expression arrays. Our results demonstrate that genome-wide gene expression varies between primary colon carcinoma and its paired lymphatic and hepatic metastases.

  11. Prognostic Significance of Cytokeratin 19 and Squamous Cell Cancer Antigen in Histologically Negative Sentinel Lymph Nodes of Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Zhou, Zun-Lun; Xu, Shu; Yang, Ying-Jie

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of positive cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and squamous cell cancer antigen (SCCAg) expression in histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes after surgery for cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of CK19 and SCCAg using polyclonal antibody on 149 pair of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical squamous cell carcinoma and histologically negative sentinel lymph node tissue samples, and results were compared with data from the prospectively registry of cervical squamous cell carcinoma by univariate and multivariate logistic regression model focusing specifically on recurrence. The survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and proportional hazards model. Cytokeratin 19 and SCCAg expression in histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes were documented in 15.4% (n = 23) and 20.8% (n = 31) patients and were associated with a higher incidence of tumor progression and poorer disease-free survival (DFS, P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that CK19 (P = 0.001) and SCCAg (P = 0.001) expression in histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging (P = 0.000), and cervical stroma infiltration depth (P = 0.005) were independent predictive factors for recurrence. The proportional hazards model identified CK19 (P = 0.001) and SCCAg (P = 0.005) expression in histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging (P = 0.003), and cervical stroma infiltration depth (P = 0.005), as independently related to DFS. Using subgroup analysis, we found that the CK19+/SCCAg + subgroup has the poorest prognosis, whereas the CK19-/SCCAg - subgroup has the best prognosis (P = 0.000). Immunohistochemical assessment of both CK19 and SCCAg status in histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes may be a valuable approach for predicting

  12. Role of Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From an Unknown Primary Site: Retrospective Analysis of 113 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Beldi, Debora; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A.; D'Onofrio, Alberto; Gambaro, Giuseppina; Fiore, Maria Rosaria; Pia, Francesco; Chiesa, Fausto; Orecchia, Roberto; Krengli, Marco

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: The management of patients with cervical lymph-node metastases from unknown primary site (UPS) remains a matter of discussion. This study aimed to analyze the results and prognostic factors in a series of patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Data from 113 patients who presented with cervical lymph nodes metastases from UPS treated from 1980 to 2004 were reviewed. Eighty-seven patients (77.0%) were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Ninety-one patients were treated with curative and 22 with palliative intent. Fifty-nine of 113 patients (52.2%) received surgery followed by radiotherapy and 54 of 113 (47.8%) received radiotherapy alone. Radiotherapy was delivered to the neck and pharyngeal mucosa in 67 patients and to the ipsilateral or bilateral neck in 45 patients. Twenty-one patients (18.5%) also received chemotherapy. Results: The 5-year overall survival rates were 40.7% for the entire group and 46.6% for the SCC subgroup. The occurrence of the occult primary was observed in 23 of 113 patients (20.3%), 19 (82.6%) within the head and neck region. At multivariate analysis, treatment with curative intent and extensive irradiation of bilateral neck and pharyngeal mucosa were favorable prognostic factors for the whole series, and treatment with curative intent, extensive irradiation of bilateral neck and pharyngeal mucosa, and absence of extracapsular spread were favorable prognostic factors for the SCC subgroup. Conclusions: Patients with cervical lymph node metastases from UPS have a similar prognosis to those affected by other head and neck malignancies. Curative treatment strategies including neck dissection and extensive irradiation by three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy resulted in significantly better outcomes.

  13. Overexpression of Phosphorylated 4E-BP1 Predicts for Tumor Recurrence and Reduced Survival in Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Postoperative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Benavente, Sergio; Verges, Ramona; Hermosilla, Eduardo; Fumanal, Victor; Casanova, Nathalie; Garcia, Angel; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago; Giralt, Jordi

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To examine the prognostic value of the 4E-BP1 activation state and related upstream/downstream signaling proteins on the clinical outcome of patients with intermediate- or high-risk early-stage cervical carcinoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy and to determine the optimal treatment of early-stage cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining was performed on 64 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical carcinoma surgical specimens for each protein of the panel (p4E-BP1, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase, pAkt, vascular endothelial growth factor, KDR, Bcl-2, TP53, receptor for activated C-kinase 1). The expression patterns were related to the clinical data. All patients received postoperative radiotherapy. Concurrent chemotherapy was added if high-risk features were present. The median follow-up was 40 months. Results: Of the 64 patients, 13 received concomitant chemotherapy. p4E-BP1 overexpression in moderate/high-risk early-stage cervical carcinoma correlated significantly with disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 4.39; p = .009) and overall survival (hazard ratio, 4.88; p = .005). Vascular endothelial growth factor, and its receptor KDR, had positive immunoreactivity in all tumor samples. No correlation with clinical outcome was found for the remaining proteins evaluated. Conclusion: In this study, moderate/high-risk early-stage cervical carcinoma with low p4E-BP1 expression was highly curable with the current postoperative treatments. For tumors with p4E-BP1 overexpression, new investigational strategies are needed.

  14. High Expression of KIF20A Is Associated with Poor Overall Survival and Tumor Progression in Early-Stage Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haifeng; Li, Min; Liu, Zhimin; Feng, Yanling; Zheng, Nianzhen; Xie, Chuanmiao; Zhang, Yanna

    2016-01-01

    Background The kinesin family member 20a (KIF20A) protein has been implicated in the development and progression of many human cancers; however, its precise function and role in cervical cancer remain largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the expression profile and prognostic value of KIF20A in patients with early-stage cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Methods We examined the mRNA and protein levels of KIF20A in eight cervical cancer cell lines and eight paired cervical cancer samples, compared with normal cervical epithelial cells and adjacent normal cervical tissues, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of KIF20A in paraffin-embedded specimens from 169 early-stage cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients. Statistical analyses were applied to analyze the association between KIF20A expression and clinical variables, as well with patient survival. Results The mRNA and protein expression levels of KIF20A were significantly elevated in cervical cancer cell lines and lesions compared with normal cells and corresponding normal tissues (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analysis in 169 cervical cancer cases revealed that increased KIF20A expression was strongly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (P = 0.008), clinical stage (P = 0.001), tumor recurrence (P = 0.016), vital status (P < 0.001), the property of the surgical margin (P = 0.032), the lymphovascular space involvement (P = 0.014), and pelvic lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). The overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with high levels of KIF20A expression were significantly poorer than those with low KIF20A expression. KIF20A was an independent survival prognostic factor, as evidenced by univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions Our results illustrate that elevated KIF20A expression correlates with HPV infection, clinical stage, tumor recurrence, lymphovascular space involvement, pelvic lymph node metastasis, and poor outcome

  15. Immunohistochemical Expression of Cathepsin D in Primary and Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Satelur, Krishnanand P; Kumar, G S

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the immunohistochemical expression of cathepsin B in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and recurrent OSCC. A total of 50 cases were studied immunohistochemically for rabbit polyclonal antihuman cathepsin D expression. A total of 10 cases of breast carcinoma were taken as positive controls. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using labeled streptavidin-biotin technique. All the 45 cases of OSCC, both primary and recurrent cases included, showed varying grades of cathepsin D immu-noreactivity. Statistical significance at 5% level was observed in cathepsin D expression between the different grades of well, moderate, and poorly differentiated primary squamous cell carcinomas. In the comparison of cathepsin D staining intensity among primary squamous cell carcinomas with and without recurrence, a statistical significance between the groups was observed when the p-value was at 10%, but the same comparison was not significant when the p-value was at 5%. Cathepsin D expression in primary squamous cell carcinomas with recurrences was very variable as compared with primary squamous cell carcinomas without recurrences. Comparison of cathepsin D expression in primary with their recurrent counterparts showed mostly similar intensity of expression in recurrent carcinomas, thus suggesting its limited usefulness in predicting recurrence. Although cathepsin D might have shown limited usefulness in predicting cancer recurrence, it, however, is a proven valuable tool to detect the aggressiveness of various other tumors, and if corroborated with a larger sample may hold the key to early, more effective, and more specific treatment modalities for cases of oral cancer also.

  16. A Challenging Surgical Approach to Locally Advanced Primary Urethral Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Spilotros, Marco; Vavallo, Antonio; Palazzo, Silvano; Miacola, Carlos; Forte, Saverio; Matera, Matteo; Campagna, Marcello; Colamonico, Ottavio; Schiralli, Francesco; Sebastiani, Francesco; Di Cosmo, Federica; Bettocchi, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Vincenti, Leonardo; Ludovico, Giuseppe; Ditonno, Pasquale; Battaglia, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is a rare and aggressive cancer, often underdetected and consequently unsatisfactorily treated. We report a case of advanced PUC, surgically treated with combined approaches. A 47-year-old man underwent transurethral resection of a urethral lesion with histological evidence of a poorly differentiated squamous cancer of the bulbomembranous urethra. Computed tomography (CT) and bone scans excluded metastatic spread of the disease but showed involvement of both corpora cavernosa (cT3N0M0). A radical surgical approach was advised, but the patient refused this and opted for chemotherapy. After 17 months the patient was referred to our department due to the evidence of a fistula in the scrotal area. CT scan showed bilateral metastatic disease in the inguinal, external iliac, and obturator lymph nodes as well as the involvement of both corpora cavernosa. Additionally, a fistula originating from the right corpus cavernosum extended to the scrotal skin. At this stage, the patient accepted the surgical treatment, consisting of different phases. Phase I: Radical extraperitoneal cystoprostatectomy with iliac-obturator lymph nodes dissection. Phase II: Creation of a urinary diversion through a Bricker ileal conduit. Phase III: Repositioning of the patient in lithotomic position for an overturned Y skin incision, total penectomy, fistula excision, and “en bloc” removal of surgical specimens including the bladder, through the perineal breach. Phase IV: Right inguinal lymphadenectomy. The procedure lasted 9-and-a-half hours, was complication-free, and intraoperative blood loss was 600 mL. The patient was discharged 8 days after surgery. Pathological examination documented a T4N2M0 tumor. The clinical situation was stable during the first 3 months postoperatively but then metastatic spread occurred, not responsive to adjuvant chemotherapy, which led to the patient's death 6 months after surgery. Patients with advanced stage tumors of

  17. Association between FOXM1 and hedgehog signaling pathway in human cervical carcinoma by tissue microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Hong; Chen, Dan; Li, Panpan

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway are implicated in the formation and development of human tumors, including cervical cancer. Previous studies have indicated that FOXM1 may be a downstream target gene of the Hh signaling pathway, but their association in cervical cancer is largely unknown. In the present study, the expression of FOXM1 and Hh signaling molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis in a tissue microarray that contained 70 cervical cancer tissues and 10 normal cervical tissues. In addition, the association of these molecules with clinicopathological parameters, and the association between FOXM1 and various molecules involved in the Hh signaling pathway was investigated. The results indicated that FOXM1 and Hh signaling molecules were overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues. The protein expression levels of FOXM1, glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1) and smoothened (SMO) correlated with the clinical stage of the tumors, while the protein expression levels of Sonic Hh (SHh), patched 1 (PTCH1) and GLI1 correlated with the pathological grade of the tumors. The expression levels of GLI1 were lower in tissues without lymph node metastasis than in tissues with lymph node metastasis. In addition, FOXM1 expression correlated with GLI1, SHh and PTCH1 expression in cancer tissues. These findings confirmed the participation of FOXM1 and the Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer. Furthermore, the finding that FOXM1 may be a downstream target gene of the Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer provides a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for cervical cancer. PMID:27698840

  18. Association between FOXM1 and hedgehog signaling pathway in human cervical carcinoma by tissue microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Hong; Chen, Dan; Li, Panpan

    2016-10-01

    Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway are implicated in the formation and development of human tumors, including cervical cancer. Previous studies have indicated that FOXM1 may be a downstream target gene of the Hh signaling pathway, but their association in cervical cancer is largely unknown. In the present study, the expression of FOXM1 and Hh signaling molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis in a tissue microarray that contained 70 cervical cancer tissues and 10 normal cervical tissues. In addition, the association of these molecules with clinicopathological parameters, and the association between FOXM1 and various molecules involved in the Hh signaling pathway was investigated. The results indicated that FOXM1 and Hh signaling molecules were overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues. The protein expression levels of FOXM1, glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1) and smoothened (SMO) correlated with the clinical stage of the tumors, while the protein expression levels of Sonic Hh (SHh), patched 1 (PTCH1) and GLI1 correlated with the pathological grade of the tumors. The expression levels of GLI1 were lower in tissues without lymph node metastasis than in tissues with lymph node metastasis. In addition, FOXM1 expression correlated with GLI1, SHh and PTCH1 expression in cancer tissues. These findings confirmed the participation of FOXM1 and the Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer. Furthermore, the finding that FOXM1 may be a downstream target gene of the Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer provides a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for cervical cancer.

  19. Mammaglobin-A Immunohistochemistry in Primary Central Nervous System Neoplasms and Intracranial Metastatic Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, Patrick J.; Perrin, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Metastases represent the most common type of intracranial neoplasm. In women, 30% of such tumors derive from breast carcinoma. In neurosurgical cases with ambiguous cellular morphology and/or limited biopsy material, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often performed to distinguish metastases from primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms. IHC for mammaglobin-A (MGA), a protein expressed in a majority of breast carcinomas, is commonly applied in this setting, but its utility for distinguishing primary CNS neoplasms from metastatic breast carcinoma is unknown; the reactivity of MGA in primary and metastatic CNS neoplasms has never been described. Here, we describe the frequency and patterns of IHC reactivity for MGA in metastatic and primary CNS neoplasms from patients with well-documented histories of breast carcinoma. Following a published protocol previously applied to non-CNS neoplasms, MGA staining of moderate to strong intensity within 5% or more of a neoplasm was considered positive. Based on these criteria, 3 of 12 (25.0%) glioblastomas, 1 of 10 (10.0%) meningiomas, and 47 of 95 (49.5%) metastases were positive. Importantly, the cytoarchitectural staining characteristics among all four MGA positive primary CNS neoplasms (cytoplasmic and nuclear) differed from those of the metastases (cytoplasmic and membranous). These findings suggest that MGA IHC staining intensity and distribution can distinguish metastases from primary CNS neoplasms (**P=0.0086) in women with a history of breast carcinoma but also indicate that cytological staining patterns must be interpreted for more accurate tumor classification. PMID:23958549

  20. Mammaglobin-A immunohistochemistry in primary central nervous system neoplasms and intracranial metastatic breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Patrick J; Perrin, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    Metastases represent the most common type of intracranial neoplasm. In women, 30% of such tumors derive from breast carcinoma. In neurosurgical cases with ambiguous cellular morphology and/or limited biopsy material, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often performed to distinguish metastases from primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms. IHC for mammaglobin-A (MGA), a protein expressed in a majority of breast carcinomas, is commonly applied in this setting, but its utility for distinguishing primary CNS neoplasms from metastatic breast carcinoma is unknown; the reactivity of MGA in primary and metastatic CNS neoplasms has never been described. Here, we describe the frequency and patterns of IHC reactivity for MGA in metastatic and primary CNS neoplasms from patients with well-documented histories of breast carcinoma. Following a published protocol previously applied to non-CNS neoplasms, MGA staining of moderate to strong intensity within 5% or more of a neoplasm was considered positive. On the basis of these criteria, 3 of 12 (25.0%) glioblastomas, 1 of 10 (10.0%) meningiomas, and 47 of 95 (49.5%) metastases were positive. Importantly, the cytoarchitectural staining characteristics among all 4 MGA-positive primary CNS neoplasms (cytoplasmic and nuclear) differed from those of the metastases (cytoplasmic and membranous). These findings suggest that MGA IHC staining intensity and distribution can distinguish metastases from primary CNS neoplasms (P=0.0086) in women with a history of breast carcinoma but also indicate that cytologic staining patterns must be interpreted for more accurate tumor classification.

  1. MicroRNA-21 promotes cell proliferation and down-regulates the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Qing; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2009-10-23

    MicroRNAs are involved in cancer-related processes. The microRNA-21(miR-21) has been identified as the only miRNA over-expressed in a wide variety of cancers, including cervical cancer. However, the function of miR-21 is unknown in cervical carcinomas. In this study, we found that the inhibition of miR-21 in HeLa cervical cancer cells caused profound suppression of cell proliferation, and up-regulated the expression of the tumor suppressor gene PDCD4. We also provide direct evidence that PDCD4-3'UTR is a functional target of miR-21 and that the 18 bp putative target site can function as the sole regulatory element in HeLa cells. These results suggest that miR-21 may play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of cervical cancer and may serve as a target for effective therapies.

  2. Vaginal self-sampling for HPV infection as a primary cervical cancer screening tool in a Haitian population

    PubMed Central

    Boggan, Joel C.; Walmer, David K.; Henderson, Gregory; Chakhtoura, Nahida; McCarthy, Schatzi H.; Beauvais, Harry J.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as primary cervical cancer screening has not been studied in Caribbean women. We tested vaginal self-collection versus physician cervical sampling in a population of Haitian women. Methods Participants were screened for high-risk HPV with self-performed vaginal and clinician-collected cervical samples using Hybrid Capture 2 assays (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, Maryland). Women positive by either method then underwent colposcopy with biopsy of all visible lesions. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were calculated for each sample method compared to biopsy results, with kappa statistics performed for agreement. McNemar’s tests were performed for differences in sensitivity at ≥ cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)-I and ≥ CIN-II. Results Of 1845 women screened, 446 (24.3%) were HPV-positive by either method, including 105 (5.7%) only by vaginal swab and 53 (2.9%) only by cervical swab. Vaginal and cervical samples were 91.4% concordant (κ= 0.73 [95% CI: 0.69 – 0.77], p < 0.001). Overall, 133 HPV-positive women (29.9%) had CIN-I, while 32 (7.2%) had ≥ CIN-II. The sensitivity of vaginal swabs was similar to cervical swabs for detecting ≥ CIN-I (89.1% vs 87.9%, respectively, p=0.75) lesions and ≥ CIN-II disease (87.5% vs 96.9%, p=0.18). Eighteen of 19 cases of CIN-III and invasive cancer were found by both methods. Conclusions HPV screening via self-collected vaginal swabs or physician-collected cervical swabs are feasible options in this Haitian population. The agreement between cervical and vaginal samples was high, suggesting vaginal sample-only algorithms for screening could be effective for improving screening rates in this under-screened population. PMID:26462192

  3. Larynx-preserving limited resection and free jejunal graft for carcinoma of the cervical esophagus.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Makoto; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2013-03-01

    There is no generally accepted treatment strategy for cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of larynx-preserving limited resection with free jejunal graft for cervical esophageal cancer. We retrospectively reviewed data of 58 patients with cervical esophageal cancer who underwent limited resection and free jejunal graft with or without laryngeal preservation. Among them, 45 patients received neoadjuvant treatment. Larynx-preserving surgery was conducted in 33 of the 58 patients (56.9%). A higher proportion of patients who underwent laryngopharyngectomy with cervical esophagectomy (larynx-nonpreserving group) had cT4 tumors than those who underwent larynx-preserving cervical esophagectomy (larynx-preserving group) (72 vs. 12%). The overall incidence of postoperative complications was similar in the two groups (56 vs. 52%). The 5-year survival rate was 44.9% for the entire group. Laryngeal preservation did not reduce overall survival compared with the larynx-nonpreserving operation (5-year survival rate: 57.8 vs. 25.8%). Multivariate analysis identified the number of metastatic lymph nodes as the only independent prognostic factor. The present study demonstrated that larynx-preserving limited resection with free jejunal graft is feasible. Also, this approach did not worsen the prognosis compared with the larynx-nonpreserving operation. Limited resection with free jejunal graft and laryngeal preservation is a promising treatment strategy for cervical esophageal cancer.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue: is tumour thickness an indicator for cervical metastasis?

    PubMed

    Loganathan, P; Sayan, A; Hsu, D W K; Paraneetharan, S; Ilankovan, V

    2017-04-01

    The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue accounts for 90% of all malignancies affecting the oral cavity and oropharynx. The distribution between the anterior and posterior tongue is equal. Nodal metastasis is dependent on various factors including tumour thickness, site, size, differentiation, and perineural and perivascular invasion. There is increasing evidence of a close correlation between tumour thickness and metastasis. A retrospective study covering the 16-year period from 2000 to 2016 was performed. Eighty-one patients with anterior tongue SCC were included. The only primary treatment was surgery. All patients were T1/T2N0M0 stage. Sixty-five patients underwent local excision with simultaneous selective neck dissection; 29 of these patients were confirmed to have occult metastasis. Sixteen patients underwent local excision only as an initial treatment. Four of them subsequently developed neck metastasis within a 6- to 18-month period. The results of this study support recent publications associating tumour thickness with nodal disease. Therefore, it is postulated that prophylactic neck dissection should be considered when the tumour thickness of anterior tongue SCC exceeds 5mm, in order to prevent lymphatic spread and improve the survival rate.

  5. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid arising in Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Sosa, Sergio; Rios-Luna, Nina Paola; Tamayo, Bricia del Rosario; Simpson, Karen; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is a rare thyroid neoplasm that has been described exclusively in adults. We report what appears to be the first example of a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland arising in a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an adolescent female. The tumor was well demarcated, confined to the right thyroid lobe, and did not metastasize, although follow up has been limited. The squamous cell carcinoma was well to moderately differentiated, and the stroma contained an abundant inflammatory infiltrate rich in lymphocytes and eosinophils. The lack of goblet cells, extracellular mucin, and extensive stromal sclerosis excluded the diagnosis of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia. Immunohistochemical staining revealed focal expression of cytokeratin 7 and diffuse labeling with cytokeratin AE1/AE3. The squamous cell carcinoma overexpressed p53 protein and showed increased proliferative activity, as evidenced by the high MIB-1 labeling index. In contrast, the tumor did not show immunoreactivity for thyroglobulin or thyroid transcription factor 1.

  6. Primary Biliary Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma (MANEC): A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Andres M; Wiley, Elizabeth Louise

    2016-10-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs) are composite neoplasms with areas of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma intermingled with neuroendocrine carcinoma or neuroendocrine tumor, each composing at least 30% of the neoplasm. MANECs are very infrequent overall, and they are more commonly diagnosed in the appendix, colon, and stomach. Biliary MANECs are particularly rare, and their histogenesis is debated because neuroendocrine cells are seldom identified in the normal biliary tract. They can show one of the 3 different architectural patterns described in Lewin's original classification: collision tumors, combined lesions, or amphicrine neoplasms. The neuroendocrine component is usually of a high grade, with small or large cell cytomorphology, whereas the adenocarcinoma component is either an intestinal or biliary type. Clinical presentation is characterized by locally advanced disease at the time of initial diagnosis. Recent studies suggest that treatment should be guided by the most aggressive histologic component.

  7. Primary invasive ocular squamous cell carcinoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    Kaps, Simone; Richter, Marianne; Philipp, Martin; Bart, Madeleine; Eule, Corinna; Spiess, Bernhard M

    2005-01-01

    A 12-year-old Haflinger gelding was presented to the veterinary medical teaching hospital of the University of Zurich with a light-pink raised mass on the temporal limbus and conjunctiva of the left eye. Squamous cell carcinoma was confirmed histologically after keratectomy and cryotherapy. Seven months later, a smooth pink, progressively enlarging mass was observed within the cornea of the left eye. Ultrasonographically, the mass was not only infiltrating the corneal stroma but seemed to protrude into the anterior chamber. The globe was surgically removed and submitted for pathology. A histologic diagnosis of corneal ocular squamous cell carcinoma with deep stromal invasion, infiltration of the uveoscleral meshwork and iridocorneal angle and resulting intraocular extension was made. This is the first detailed description of a limbal squamous cell carcinoma with invasion into the cornea and uvea in the horse.

  8. Endocervical adenocarcinomas with ovarian metastases: analysis of 29 cases with emphasis on minimally invasive cervical tumors and the ability of the metastases to simulate primary ovarian neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ronnett, Brigitte M; Yemelyanova, Anna V; Vang, Russell; Gilks, C Blake; Miller, Dianne; Gravitt, Patti E; Kurman, Robert J

    2008-12-01

    Most endocervical adenocarcinomas ( approximately 90%) are high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-related neoplasms, with the remainder being unrelated to HPV; both types infrequently metastasize to the ovaries. Clinicopathologic features of 29 cases of synchronous and metachronous endocervical and ovarian tumors (26 HPV-related, 3 unrelated to HPV) were analyzed. In 18 cases, the cervical tumors were clearly invasive; these included 5 clinically evident tumors diagnosed before the ovarian metastases (immediately preoperatively to 7 y), 11 clinically unsuspected tumors diagnosed concurrently in specimens obtained for evaluation of ovarian/pelvic masses, 1 case with concurrent clinically evident cervical and ovarian masses, and 1 clinically occult tumor diagnosed subsequent to the ovarian metastasis. In 11 cases, the cervical tumors were more limited; these included 5 tumors comprised predominantly of adenocarcinoma in situ with small foci of superficial invasion ("microinvasive carcinomas") diagnosed before the ovarian metastases (3 mo to 7 y) and 6 tumors comprised of extensive adenocarcinoma in situ lacking unequivocally recognizable stromal invasion diagnosed before (9 mo to 7 y, n=4), concurrently with (n=1), or subsequent to (n=1) the ovarian metastases. Fifteen cervical tumors involved lower uterine segment corpus endometrium or endomyometrium, including 4 tumors that were minimally invasive or not recognizably invasive in the cervix. The ovarian tumors ranged in size from 2.1 to 30.0 cm (mean/median=12.7/13.5); they were unilateral in 19 cases (65.5%) and 12 of these were unilateral and 10 cm or greater. In 26 cases, including the 19 unilateral tumors, the ovarian tumors exhibited "borderlinelike," confluent glandular, cribriform, and/or villoglandular patterns simulating primary ovarian atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors or well-differentiated carcinomas; these patterns were pure in 24 and admixed with minor infiltrative foci in 2. The ovarian tumors

  9. Comparison of metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms to the breast and primary invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sambit K; Kim, Stacey A; DeLair, Deborah F; Bose, Shikha; Laury, Anna R; Chopra, Shefali; Mertens, Richard B; Dhall, Deepti

    2016-08-01

    Metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms to the breast may show considerable morphologic overlap with primary mammary carcinomas, particularly those showing evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation, and may be misdiagnosed as such. Accurate distinction between these two entities is crucial for determination of appropriate clinical management. The histologic and immunohistochemical features of metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms to the breast were studied and compared with the features of primary invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation, which served as controls. Of the metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, 15 were well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors with carcinoid tumor-type morphology and 7 were poorly differentiated/high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas with small-cell or large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma morphology. The majority of the metastatic neoplasms originated in the lung and gastrointestinal tract. There were histologic similarities between metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms and invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation, both of which exhibited neuroendocrine histologic features (nested and trabecular architecture, minimal tubular differentiation, and characteristic nuclear features). Only one case of the invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation was modified Bloom-Richardson grade 1 (largely due to minimal tubular differentiation on most such tumors), and the invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation were often associated with in situ carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was helpful in distinguishing metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms from invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation. Whereas the majority of invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation were positive for estrogen receptor and GATA3, metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms were typically negative for estrogen receptor and GATA3, and metastatic well

  10. Which high-risk HPV assays fulfil criteria for use in primary cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed

    Arbyn, M; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M; Berkhof, J; Cuschieri, K; Kocjan, B J; Poljak, M

    2015-09-01

    Several countries are in the process of switching to high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing for cervical cancer screening. Given the multitude of available tests, validated assays which assure high-quality screening need to be identified. A systematic review was conducted to answer the question which hrHPV tests fulfil the criteria defined by an international expert team in 2009, based on reproducibility and relative sensitivity and specificity compared to Hybrid Capture-2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-enzyme immunoassay. These latter two hrHPV DNA assays were validated in large randomized trials and cohorts with a follow-up duration of 8 years or more. Eligible studies citing the 2009 guideline were retrieved from Scopus (http://www.scopus.com) and from a meta-analysis assessing the relative accuracy of new hrHPV assays versus the standard comparator tests to detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer in primary screening. The cobas 4800 HPV test and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test were consistently validated in two and three studies, respectively, whereas the PapilloCheck HPV-screening test, BD Onclarity HPV assay and the HPV-Risk assay were validated each in one study. Other tests which partially fulfil the 2009 guidelines are the following: Cervista HPV HR Test, GP5+/6+ PCR-LMNX, an in-house E6/E7 RT quantitative PCR and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight). The APTIMA HPV assay targeting E6/E7 mRNA of hrHPV was also fully validated. However, the cross-sectional equivalency criteria of the 2009 guidelines were set up for HPV DNA assays. Demonstration of a low risk of CIN3+ after a negative APTIMA test over a longer period is awaited to inform us about its utility in cervical cancer screening at 5-year or longer intervals.

  11. Second primary malignancies after radiotherapy including HDR (252)Cf brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Samerdokiene, Vitalija; Valuckas, Konstantinas Povilas; Janulionis, Ernestas; Atkocius, Vydmantas; Rivard, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Second primary malignancies (SPMs) are among the most serious late adverse effects after radiotherapy experienced over time by the increasing population of cancer survivors worldwide. The study aim was to determine the rate and distribution of SPMs for neutron- and photon-emitting brachytherapy (BT) sources for patients treated for cervical cancer. The cohort comprised 662 patients with invasive cervical cancer (Stages IIB and IIIB) and contributed 5,224 patient-years (PY) of observation. These patients were treated by radiotherapy during the 1989-1999 year period with cobalt-60 source ((60)Co) teletherapy. The first group of patients (N = 375; 3,154 PY) received high-dose-rate (HDR) californium-252 source ((252)Cf) BT, whereas the second group (N = 287; 2,070 PY) received HDR (60)Co BT. Over a 25-year period, 35 SPMs were observed, amounting to 5.3% of all observed patients: in 16 (2.4%) heavily, 2 (0.3%) moderately, 14 (2.1%) lightly irradiated body sites, and 3 (0.5%) other sites. Of these, 21 cases (5.6%) were observed in the HDR (252)Cf BT group, whereas 14 cases (4.9%) were observed in the HDR (60)Co BT group. Exposures received during (60)Co teletherapy and HDR BT with either (252)Cf or (60)Co had statistically equivalent (p = 0.68) effects on SPM development. Cure rates are improving, and therefore, there are more long-term survivors from cervical cancer. This study shows no significant difference in rates or distribution of SPMs in women treated with neutron BT compared with photon BT (p = 0.68). After reviewing related literature and our research results, it is evident that a detailed investigation of SPM frequency, localization, and dose to adjacent organs is a suitable topic for further research. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Frequency of bilateral cervical metastases in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of 203 cases after bilateral neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Olzowy, Bernhard; Hillebrand, Matthias; Harréus, Ulrich

    2017-08-24

    The decision whether to perform an elective neck dissection in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and clinically negative lymph nodes (cN0) is made based on the probability of micrometastases in the neck for the given subsite and size of the primary. A retrospective chart review was performed of 203 patients with hypopharyngeal SCC who received a bilateral neck dissection. The frequency of histologically unveiled bilateral neck metastases was determined. A high frequency of contralateral metastases above 20% was detected for all carcinomas affecting the midline and those involving the medial wall of the pyriform sinus except of T1-stages (13%) and a low frequency for laterally located primaries (3%). Ipsilateral nodal status predicted contralateral neck metastases. Bilateral neck dissection should be recommended for primaries affecting the midline and T2-4 tumors involving the medial wall of the pyriform sinus.

  13. In silico pathway analysis in cervical carcinoma reveals potential new targets for treatment

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Peter A.; van Dam, Pieter-Jan H. H.; Rolfo, Christian; Giallombardo, Marco; van Berckelaer, Christophe; Trinh, Xuan Bich; Altintas, Sevilay; Huizing, Manon; Papadimitriou, Kostas; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; van Laere, Steven

    2016-01-01

    An in silico pathway analysis was performed in order to improve current knowledge on the molecular drivers of cervical cancer and detect potential targets for treatment. Three publicly available Affymetrix gene expression data-sets (GSE5787, GSE7803, GSE9750) were retrieved, vouching for a total of 9 cervical cancer cell lines (CCCLs), 39 normal cervical samples, 7 CIN3 samples and 111 cervical cancer samples (CCSs). Predication analysis of microarrays was performed in the Affymetrix sets to identify cervical cancer biomarkers. To select cancer cell-specific genes the CCSs were compared to the CCCLs. Validated genes were submitted to a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and Expression2Kinases (E2K). In the CCSs a total of 1,547 probe sets were identified that were overexpressed (FDR < 0.1). Comparing to CCCLs 560 probe sets (481 unique genes) had a cancer cell-specific expression profile, and 315 of these genes (65%) were validated. GSEA identified 5 cancer hallmarks enriched in CCSs (P < 0.01 and FDR < 0.25) showing that deregulation of the cell cycle is a major component of cervical cancer biology. E2K identified a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of 162 nodes (including 20 drugable kinases) and 1626 edges. This PPI-network consists of 5 signaling modules associated with MYC signaling (Module 1), cell cycle deregulation (Module 2), TGFβ-signaling (Module 3), MAPK signaling (Module 4) and chromatin modeling (Module 5). Potential targets for treatment which could be identified were CDK1, CDK2, ABL1, ATM, AKT1, MAPK1, MAPK3 among others. The present study identified important driver pathways in cervical carcinogenesis which should be assessed for their potential therapeutic drugability. PMID:26701206

  14. Colorectal Liver Metastasis, Primary Gallbladder Carcinoma and Myelofibrosis Present Simultaneously in a Liver Resection Specimen

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sophie A.; Raber, Menno H.; Provoost, Esther; Toes, Gert-Jan; Klaase, Joost M.

    2015-01-01

    Myelofibrosis and gallbladder carcinoma are both very rare diseases. This case report describes a patient with a history of myelofibrosis and colorectal carcinoma who was diagnosed with colorectal liver metastases. Surgery was performed to remove the metastases, and on site, the gallbladder was removed because of involvement in one of the liver lesions. After pathological examination, a primary gallbladder carcinoma and myelofibrosis were found in addition to the liver metastases. The combination of diseases was not likely to be interconnected but rather an unlucky course of events for the patient. PMID:26600770

  15. Merkel cell carcinoma (primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of skin) mimicking basal cell carcinoma with review of different histopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Succaria, Farah; Radfar, Arash; Bhawan, Jag

    2014-02-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but highly aggressive malignancy, which often has typical histopathologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) features. Sometimes the diagnosis is missed because of atypical histological or aberrant IHC findings. A case of MCC that showed irregular lobules of basaloid cells with keratotic areas on the initial shave biopsy is being reported. IHC showed positive staining for high-molecular weight cytokeratin but negative staining for cytokeratin 20, findings consistent with basal cell carcinoma. Subsequent excision specimen showed histopathologic features more typical of MCC. IHC still was negative for cytokeratin 20 but positive for synaptophysin. Review of the literature shows other examples of MCC with basal cell carcinoma-like features. Various other histopathologic differentiations of MCC include those that demonstrate squamous cell and eccrine carcinoma features and those that show melanocytic, lymphomatous, sarcomatous, muscular, and atypical fibroxanthoma-like features. Different histopathologic patterns and mimics of MCC are reviewed to help prevent dermatopathologists from misdiagnosing this aggressive tumor.

  16. [Primary carcinoma of the thyroid growing in thyroglossal duct cyst: presentation of two cases].

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Paulina; Bruszewska, Elzbieta; Kozłowicz-Gudzińska, Izabella; Prokurat, Andrzej I; Chrupek, Małgorzata; Zegadło-Mylik, Maria A; Kluge, Przemysław

    2007-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct remnants (TGDR), most often cysts, are the most common type of developmental abnormalities of the thyroid gland. In about 1 to 2% of TGDR neoplastic transformation occurs. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid may be encountered in over 90% of such cases. Two cases of primary papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in TGDR in young girls are presented. The diagnostic and therapeutic problems are shared, and up-to-date management guidelines in similar cases are discussed.

  17. [Vasculogenic mimicry in human primary gallbladder carcinoma and clinical significance thereof].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yue-zu; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Wen-zhong; Ge, Chun-yan

    2007-01-16

    To investigate if there is vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in human primary gallbladder carcinoma and clinical significance thereof. Seventy-four specimens of primary gallbladder carcinoma obtained from operation underwent HE staining and double staining of CD(31) and PAS to observe the existence of VM. The correlation of pathological examination and clinical outcomes was analyzed. VM was seen in 10 of the 74 (13.5%) specimens. VM was not correlated with age, sex, location, diameter, differentiation degree, Nevin stage, and invasion depth of tumor, and existence of lymph node metastasis; but was associated with histological type (chi(2) = 10.241, P = 0.017), hepatic metastasis (chi(2) = 11.904, P = 0.01), and poor overall survival (chi(2) = 5.771, P = 0.016). Cox analysis showed that existence of VM, invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, hepatic metastasis, and operational method were independent risk factors of the prognosis of primary gallbladder carcinoma. VM exists in human primary gallbladder carcinoma. Those cases of human primary gallbladder carcinoma with VM have a poorer prognosis.

  18. The Correlation between NK Cell and Liver Function in Patients with Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Min, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to detect the expression of natural killer (NK) cell receptor natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) in the peripheral blood of patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma and to discuss the correlation between NK cell cytotoxicity and liver function. Methods The number of NK cells and the expression of NK cell receptor NKG2D in peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis B cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B, and healthy controls. Results When compared with patients in the healthy and the chronic hepatitis B groups, the primary hepatocellular carcinoma group showed significant decreases in all parameters, including the cytotoxicity of NK cells on K562 cells, expression rate of NKG2D in NK cells, number of NKG2D+ NK cells, expression level of NKG2D, and number of NK cells (p<0.05). The activity of NK cells showed a positive correlation, whereas the Child-Pugh scores in the primary hepatocellular carcinoma and the hepatitis B cirrhosis groups showed a negative correlation with all parameters detected above. Conclusions The decrease of NK cell activity in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma is closely related to their lower expression of NKG2D. Liver function affects the expression of NKG2D and the activity of NK cells. PMID:24827627

  19. Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinoma: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Valentim, Maria Helena; Monteiro, Vanessa; Marques, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a case of a neuroendocrine carcinoma in an asymptomatic 75-year-old woman, detected in routine breast screening. The lesion was visible at mammography as a well circumscribed, medium density nodule, with no associated microcalcifications, and at ultrasonography as a hypoechoic nodule, with irregular shape and ill-defined margins. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed findings consistent with malignancy.

  20. Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinoma: a case report and literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Valentim, Maria Helena; Monteiro, Vanessa; Marques, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a case of a neuroendocrine carcinoma in an asymptomatic 75-year-old woman, detected in routine breast screening. The lesion was visible at mammography as a well circumscribed, medium density nodule, with no associated microcalcifications, and at ultrasonography as a hypoechoic nodule, with irregular shape and ill-defined margins. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed findings consistent with malignancy. PMID:25741062

  1. Quantitative keratinocyte assay detects two biological activities of human papillomavirus DNA and identifies viral types associated with cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, R; Phelps, W C; Zhang, Y L; Barbosa, M

    1988-01-01

    Keratinocytes electroporated with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA (HPV-6, 11, 16 and 18) exhibited an increased cellular proliferation which was quantitated as microcolony and macrocolony formation. However, only macrocolonies induced by HPV-16 or HPV-18 DNA (the two viral types most commonly found in human cervical carcinomas) gave rise to proliferating, poorly-stratified colonies when grown in the presence of serum and calcium. Hydrocortisone increased the frequency of these differentiation-resistant colonies, and studies showed that they were immortalized, contained one copy of viral DNA per cell, expressed three discrete species of viral RNA and synthesized the viral E7 protein. HPV-induced cellular proliferation and altered differentiation are therefore separable events and may represent the activity of different viral genes. Images PMID:2460337

  2. Cellular Mechanics of Primary Human Cervical Fibroblasts: Influence of Progesterone and a Pro-inflammatory Cytokine.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vasudha; Barnhouse, Victoria; Ackerman, William E; Summerfield, Taryn L; Powell, Heather M; Leight, Jennifer L; Kniss, Douglas A; Ghadiali, Samir N

    2017-09-22

    The leading cause of neonatal mortality, pre-term birth, is often caused by pre-mature ripening/opening of the uterine cervix. Although cervical fibroblasts play an important role in modulating the cervix's extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanical properties, it is not known how hormones, i.e., progesterone, and pro-inflammatory insults alter fibroblast mechanics, fibroblast-ECM interactions and the resulting changes in tissue mechanics. Here we investigate how progesterone and a pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, alter the biomechanical properties of human cervical fibroblasts and the fibroblast-ECM interactions that govern tissue-scale mechanics. Primary human fibroblasts were isolated from non-pregnant cervix and treated with estrogen/progesterone, IL-1β or both. The resulting changes in ECM gene expression, matrix remodeling, traction force generation, cell-ECM adhesion and tissue contractility were monitored. Results indicate that IL-1β induces a significant reduction in traction force and ECM adhesion independent of pre-treatment with progesterone. These cell level effects altered tissue-scale mechanics where IL-1β inhibited the contraction of a collagen gel over 6 days. Interestingly, progesterone treatment alone did not modulate traction forces or gel contraction but did result in a dramatic increase in cell-ECM adhesion. Therefore, the protective effect of progesterone may be due to altered adhesion dynamics as opposed to altered ECM remodeling.

  3. Cancer of unknown primary originating from oropharyngeal carcinomas are strongly correlated to HPV positivity.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Pamela; Assmann, Gerald; Mollenhauer, Martin; Jung, Andreas; Sotlar, Karl; Kirchner, Thomas; Ihrler, Stephan

    2012-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been identified as a distinct entity within squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. It is associated with special characteristics and is preponderantly restricted to palatial tonsils and base of tongue. These primary locations have for long been associated with the clinical situation of cancer of unknown primary (CUP). In order to investigate the putative relationship between CUP and HPV, we investigated 26 patients who initially presented as CUP and were finally diagnosed with carcinomas of these two locations. Twenty-one cases proved to be positive for high-risk HPV. Primary carcinomas were small and frequently presented in a submucosal location. HPV-positive carcinomas, presented more often in women, showed atypical basaloid differentiation and correlated to cystic lymph node metastases. This study demonstrates an over-representation of HPV-associated OSCC in patients who were initially diagnosed with CUP. This finding indicates a strong relationship between HPV-association and CUP in OSCC. The frequent manifestation as CUP is presumably caused by the unusual predisposition for small size and submucosal location combined with early lymphatic metastization. In order not to miss clinically occult carcinomas, consequent interdisciplinary cooperation in combination with meticulous histological workup is mandatory.

  4. Transient increase in squamous cell carcinoma antigen expression in cultured cervical carcinoma CaSki cells in response to exposure to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum.

    PubMed

    Tateiwa, Y; Yoshida, S; Miyahara, Y; Hamana, S; Motoyama, S; Maruo, T

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the transient increase in circulating squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) levels in response to CIS-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP) infusion using an in vitro model. The uterine cervical squamous carcinoma CaSki cells were cultured for 72 h after 3 h exposure to 5.0 microg/ml CDDP. The effects of CDDP exposure on the proliferative activity and apoptosis in cultured CaSki cells were determined by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake and cell counting and by the TUNEL assay, respectively. SCC Ag levels in cultured CaSki cells and culture media were determined with the use of SCC-RIA kit. The expression of SCC Ag-1 mRNA and SCC Ag-2 mRNA in cultured CaSki cells was assessed using semiquantitative RT-PCR with Southern blot analysis. The number of BrdU-positive CaSki cells significantly decreased 6 h after exposure to CDDP, whereas the apoptosis-positive rate of cultured CaSki cells significantly increased 12 h after the CDDP exposure. The number of cultured CaSki cells significantly decreased 72 h after the CDDP exposure. The total SCC Ag protein levels in both cultured CaSki cells and the culture media after the 3-hour CDDP exposure increased in a time-dependent manner during the subsequent incubation for 48 h. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression levels of both SCC Ag-1 and SCC Ag-2 mRNA increased (1.7- and 2.7-fold, respectively) 12 h after the exposure to CDDP relative to those before the subsequent cultures. Exposure of uterine cervical squamous carcinoma CaSki cells to CDDP resulted in a transient increase in SCC Ag protein and mRNA expression in those cells during the initial 12 h after the exposure, being associated with decreased proliferative activity and increased apoptosis of those cells.

  5. Infracentimetric cervical lymph node metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Incidence and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Pauzie, A; Gavid, M; Dumollard, J-M; Timoshenko, A; Peoc'h, M; Prades, J-M

    2016-11-01

    Supracentimetric cervical lymph node metastasis is classically a poor prognostic factor for locoregional recurrence and survival in head and neck cancer. Causality, however, is more controversial for infracentimetric cervical lymph node metastases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and prognostic value of infracentimetric lymph node metastasis. Two hundred and forty-three neck dissections from 150 head and neck cancer patients were analyzed. A single pathologist exhaustively inventoried the number and size of all adenopathies in the surgical specimen. Cervical lymph node metastases were infracentimetric in 38% of cases, with 72% extracapsular spread (versus 91% for supracentimetric adenopathies; P<0.01). Infracentimetric metastases were more often associated with other cervical lymph node metastases (mean 5.3 versus 3.9; P=0.14). Fifty three percent of specimens showed only supracentimetric metastases (versus 13% infracentimetric metastases; P<0.01). Disease-specific and failure-free survival were lower in case of infracentimetric metastasis, associated with supracentimetric metastasis or not, than in case of macrometastasis only. Infracentimetric cervical lymph node metastasis is a factor of poor prognosis, and may represent a different, more aggressive lymphatic process. We suggest complete neck dissection by the surgeon and meticulous analysis by the pathologist, the results of which guide complementary therapy. Close surveillance of recurrence is also recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Cervical lymph node metastasis in adenoid cystic carcinoma of oral cavity and oropharynx: A collective international review.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Carlos; Barnes, Leon; Silver, Carl E; Rodrigo, Juan P; Shah, Jatin P; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Cardesa, Antonio; Pitman, Karen T; Kowalski, Luiz P; Robbins, K Thomas; Hellquist, Henrik; Medina, Jesus E; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P; Coca-Pelaz, Andrés; Bradley, Patrick J; Gnepp, Douglas R; Teymoortash, Afshin; Strojan, Primož; Mendenhall, William M; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Bishop, Justin A; Devaney, Kenneth O; Thompson, Lester D R; Hamoir, Marc; Slootweg, Pieter J; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Williams, Michelle D; Wenig, Bruce M; Skálová, Alena; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to suggest general guidelines in the management of the N0 neck of oral cavity and oropharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) in order to improve the survival of these patients and/or reduce the risk of neck recurrences. The incidence of cervical node metastasis at diagnosis of head and neck AdCC is variable, and ranges between 3% and 16%. Metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes of intraoral and oropharyngeal AdCC varies from 2% to 43%, with the lower rates pertaining to palatal AdCC and the higher rates to base of the tongue. Neck node recurrence may happen after treatment in 0-14% of AdCC, is highly dependent on the extent of the treatment and is very rare in patients who have been treated with therapeutic or elective neck dissections, or elective neck irradiation. Lymph node involvement with or without extracapsular extension in AdCC has been shown in most reports to be independently associated with decreased overall and cause-specific survival, probably because lymph node involvement is a risk factor for subsequent distant metastasis. The overall rate of occult neck metastasis in patients with head and neck AdCC ranges from 15% to 44%, but occult neck metastasis from oral cavity and/or oropharynx seems to occur more frequently than from other locations, such as the sinonasal tract and major salivary glands. Nevertheless, the benefit of elective neck dissection (END) in AdCC is not comparable to that of squamous cell carcinoma, because the main cause of failure is not related to neck or local recurrence, but rather, to distant failure. Therefore, END should be considered in patients with a cN0 neck with AdCC in some high risk oral and oropharyngeal locations when postoperative RT is not planned, or the rare AdCC-high grade transformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cervical lymph node metastasis in adenoid cystic carcinoma of oral cavity and oropharynx: A collective international review☆

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Carlos; Barnes, Leon; Silver, Carl E.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Shah, Jatin P.; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Cardesa, Antonio; Pitman, Karen T.; Kowalski, Luiz P.; Robbins, K. Thomas; Hellquist, Henrik; Medina, Jesus E.; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P.; Coca-Pelaz, Andrés; Bradley, Patrick J.; Gnepp, Douglas R.; Teymoortash, Afshin; Strojan, Primož; Mendenhall, William M.; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Bishop, Justin A.; Devaney, Kenneth O.; Thompson, Lester D.R.; Hamoir, Marc; Slootweg, Pieter J.; Poorten, Vincent Vander; Williams, Michelle D.; Wenig, Bruce M.; Skálová, Alena; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish general guidelines in the management of the N0 neck of oral cavity and oropharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) in order to improve the survival of these patients and/or reduce the risk of neck recurrences. The incidence of cervical node metastasis at diagnosis of head and neck AdCC is variable, and ranges between 3% and 16%. Metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes of intraoral and oropharyngeal AdCC varies from 2% to 43%, with the lower rates pertaining to palatal AdCC and the higher rates to base of the tongue. Neck node recurrence may happen after treatment in 0–14% of AdCC, is highly dependent on the extent of the treatment and is very rare in patients who have been treated with therapeutic or elective neck dissections, or elective neck irradiation. Lymph node involvement with or without extracapsular extension in AdCC has been shown in most reports to be independently associated with decreased overall and cause-specific survival, probably because lymph node involvement is a risk factor for subsequent distant metastasis. The overall rate of occult neck metastasis in patients with head and neck AdCC ranges from 15% to 44%, but occult neck metastasis from oral cavity and/or oropharynx seems to occur more frequently than from other locations such as the sinonasal tract and major salivary glands. Nevertheless, the benefit of elective neck dissection (END) in AdCC is not comparable to that of squamous cell carcinoma, because the main cause of failure is not related to neck or local recurrence, but rather, to distant failure. Therefore, END should be considered in patients with a cN0 neck with AdCC in some high risk oral and oropharyngeal locations when postoperative RT is not planned, or the rare AdCC-high grade transformation. PMID:27017314

  8. Detection, genotyping and quantitation of multiple hpv infections in south African women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lebelo, Ramokone L; Bogers, Johannes J; Thys, Sofie; Depuydt, Christophe; Benoy, Ina; Selabe, S Gloria; Bida, Meshack N; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    In Africa, data is limited on quantitation of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with multiple infections. This study applied a real time PCR (qPCR) assay for detection, genotyping and quantitation of multiple HPV infections in 90 tissue blocks of South African women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma. One sample with multiple HPV types was subjected to laser micro-dissection and qPCR. Four samples were negative for β-globin and these were excluded from the analysis. The HPV DNA positivity rate was 93.0% (80/86). All 80 positives showed the presence of HR HPV types; HPV 68 was the only type negative in all the samples. Overall, HPV 16 was positive in most of the samples (88.8%), followed by HPV 56 (28.7%), HPV 18 (20.0%) and HPV 39 (18.7%). More than half of the samples (65.0%) had multiple infections. HPV 16 was present in majority of single (85.7%) and multiple infections (90.4%). HPV 16 showed higher viral loads in 70.3% of the HPV 16 co-infected samples. In one multiple infected sample laser micro-dissection and qPCR identified HPV 18 with higher viral load as the most likely cause of the invasive lesion. There is large number of multiple HPV infections in South African women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma. HPV 16 is the most frequently detected type and often presents with higher viral load, suggesting it could be responsible for pathogenesis of the lesions in the majority of cases.

  9. SU-E-T-580: Comparison of Cervical Carcinoma IMRT Plans From Four Commercial Treatment Planning Systems (TPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Y; Li, R; Chi, Z; Zhu, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Different treatment planning systems (TPS) use different treatment optimization and leaf sequencing algorithms. This work compares cervical carcinoma IMRT plans optimized with four commercial TPSs to investigate the plan quality in terms of target conformity and delivery efficiency. Methods: Five cervical carcinoma cases were planned with the Corvus, Monaco, Pinnacle and Xio TPSs by experienced planners using appropriate optimization parameters and dose constraints to meet the clinical acceptance criteria. Plans were normalized for at least 95% of PTV to receive the prescription dose (Dp). Dose-volume histograms and isodose distributions were compared. Other quantities such as Dmin(the minimum dose received by 99% of GTV/PTV), Dmax(the maximum dose received by 1% of GTV/PTV), D100, D95, D90, V110%, V105%, V100% (the volume of GTV/PTV receiving 110%, 105%, 100% of Dp), conformity index(CI), homogeneity index (HI), the volume of receiving 40Gy and 50 Gy to rectum (V40,V50) ; the volume of receiving 30Gy and 50 Gy to bladder (V30,V50) were evaluated. Total segments and MUs were also compared. Results: While all plans meet target dose specifications and normal tissue constraints, the maximum GTVCI of Pinnacle plans was up to 0.74 and the minimum of Corvus plans was only 0.21, these four TPSs PTVCI had significant difference. The GTVHI and PTVHI of Pinnacle plans are all very low and show a very good dose distribution. Corvus plans received the higer dose of normal tissue. The Monaco plans require significantly less segments and MUs to deliver than the other plans. Conclusion: To deliver on a Varian linear-accelerator, the Pinnacle plans show a very good dose distribution. Corvus plans received the higer dose of normal tissue. The Monaco plans have faster beam delivery.

  10. Raman chemical mapping reveals site of action of HIV protease inhibitors in HPV16 E6 expressing cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jarvis, Roger M; Allwood, J William; Batman, Gavin; Moore, Rowan E; Marsden-Edwards, Emma; Hampson, Lynne; Hampson, Ian N; Goodacre, Royston

    2010-12-01

    It has been shown that the HIV protease inhibitors indinavir and lopinavir may have activity against the human papilloma virus (HPV) type 16 inhibiting HPV E6-mediated proteasomal degradation of p53 in cultured cervical carcinoma cells. However, their mode and site of action is unknown. HPV-negative C33A cervical carcinoma cells and the same cells stably transfected with E6 (C33AE6) were exposed to indinavir and lopinavir at concentrations of 1 mM and 30 μM, respectively. The intracellular distribution of metabolites and metabolic changes induced by these treatments were investigated by Raman microspectroscopic imaging combined with the analysis of cell fractionation products by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A uniform cellular distribution of proteins was found in drug-treated cells irrespective of cell type. Indinavir was observed to co-localise with nucleic acid in the nucleus, but only in E6 expressing cells. Principal components analysis (PCA) score maps generated on the full Raman hypercube and the corresponding PCA loadings plots revealed that the majority of metabolic variations influenced by the drug exposure within the cells were associated with changes in nucleic acids. Analysis of cell fractionation products by LC-MS confirmed that the level of indinavir in nuclear extracts was approximately eight-fold greater than in the cytoplasm. These data demonstrate that indinavir undergoes enhanced nuclear accumulation in E6-expressing cells, which suggests that this is the most likely site of action for this compound against HPV.

  11. Molecular Heterogeneity in Primary Breast Carcinomas and Axillary Lymph Node Metastases Assessed by Genomic Fingerprinting Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ellsworth, Rachel E; Toro, Allyson L; Blackburn, Heather L; Decewicz, Alisha; Deyarmin, Brenda; Mamula, Kimberly A; Costantino, Nicholas S; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Shriver, Craig D; Ellsworth, Darrell L

    2015-01-01

    Molecular heterogeneity within primary breast carcinomas and among axillary lymph node (LN) metastases may impact diagnosis and confound treatment. In this study, we used short tandem repeated sequences to assess genomic heterogeneity and to determine hereditary relationships among primary tumor areas and regional metastases from 30 breast cancer patients. We found that primary carcinomas were genetically heterogeneous and sampling multiple areas was necessary to adequately assess genomic variability. LN metastases appeared to originate at different time periods during disease progression from different sites of the primary tumor and the extent of genomic divergence among regional metastases was associated with a less favorable patient outcome (P = 0.009). In conclusion, metastasis is a complex process influenced by primary tumor heterogeneity and variability in the timing of dissemination. Genomic variation in primary breast tumors and regional metastases may negatively impact clinical diagnostics and contribute to therapeutic resistance. PMID:26279627

  12. Clinical characteristics of women diagnosed with carcinoma who tested positive for cervical and anal high-risk human papillomavirus DNA and E6 RNA.

    PubMed

    Veo, Carlos A R; Saad, Sarhan S; Fregnani, José Humberto T G; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Tsunoda, Audrey Tieko; Resende, Júlio César Possati; Lorenzi, Adriana Tarlá; Mafra, Allini; Cinti, Claudia; Cotrim, Ismael Dale; Rosa, Luciana Albina Reis; de Oliveira, Cristina Mendes; Martins, Toni Ricardo; Centrone, Cristiane; Levi, José Eduardo; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar

    2015-07-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is an essential cause of cervical carcinoma and is also strongly related to anal cancer development. The hrHPV E6 oncoprotein plays a major role in carcinogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of hrHPV DNA and E6 oncoprotein in the anuses of women with cervical carcinoma. We analyzed 117 women with cervical cancer and 103 controls for hrHPV and the E6 oncogene. Positive test results for a cervical carcinoma included 66.7 % with hrHPV-16 and 7.7 % with hrHPV-18. One case tested positive for both HPV variants (0.9 %). The samples from the anal canal were positive for HPV-16 in 59.8 % of the cases. Simultaneous presence of HPV in the cervix and anal canal was found in 53.8 % of the cases. Regarding expression of E6 RNA, positivity for HPV-16 in the anal canal was found in 21.2 % of the cases, positivity for HPV-16 in the cervix was found in 75.0 %, and positivity for HPV-18 in the cervix was found in 1.9 %. E6 expression in both the cervix and anal canal was found in 19.2 % of the cases. In the controls, 1 % tested positive for HPV-16 and 0 % for HPV-18. Anal samples from the controls showed a hrHPV frequency of 4.9 % (only HPV16). The presence of hrHPV in the anal canal of women with cervical cancer was detected at a high frequency. We also detected E6 RNA expression in the anal canal of women with cervical cancer, suggesting that these women are at risk for anal hrHPV infection.

  13. Antibody levels against alpha-galactosyl epitopes in sera of patients with squamous intraepithelial lesions and early invasive cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tremont-Lukats, I W; Avila, J L; Hernández, D; Vásquez, J; Teixeira, G M; Rojas, M

    1997-02-01

    We measured serum levels of anti-Gal(alpha 1-->3)Gal and anti-Gal(alpha 1-->2)Gal antibodies in 89 and 91 women, respectively, by using ELISA. These patients had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 1 to 3 and early invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC). Our objective was to compare anti-alpha-galactosyl antibody levels among them and with those of normal controls. High levels of anti-Gal(alpha 1-->2)Gal antibodies were detected in 22% of patients (P = 0.006). The mean level was 1.6 times greater than that of controls, without difference among subgroups. Thirty percent of patients had abnormally high anti-Gal levels (P = 0.001). Mean levels were twofold greater than the mean control value. Subsets with human papillomavirus/CIN 1 and CIN 2-3 had high immunoreactivity (P = 0.004). Both antibodies showed a significant correlation (r = 0.53, P < 0.00001). We conclude that 22 to 30% of patients with CIN 1-3 showed significantly high levels of anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies. This seroreactivity might be related to the abnormal expression of alpha-galactosyl residues at some point of the natural history of human papillomavirus infection of the uterine cervix, suggesting an active immune response by natural antibodies against this virus. Further studies are needed to determine whether anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies confer protection in human papillomavirus infection.

  14. Asperlin induces G{sub 2}/M arrest through ROS generation and ATM pathway in human cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    He, Long; Nan, Mei-Hua; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Young Ho; Jang, Jae Hyuk; Erikson, Raymond Leo; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Bo Yeon

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} A new anti-cancer effect of an antibiotics, asperlin, is exploited. {yields} Asperlin induced human cervical cancer cell apoptosis through ROS generation. {yields} Asperlin activated DNA-damage related ATM protein and cell cycle associated proteins. {yields} Asperlin could be developed as a new anti-cancer therapeutics. -- Abstract: We exploited the biological activity of an antibiotic agent asperlin isolated from Aspergillus nidulans against human cervical carcinoma cells. We found that asperlin dramatically increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation accompanied by a significant reduction in cell proliferation. Cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP and reduction of Bcl-2 could also be detected after asperlin treatment to the cells. An anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), however, blocked all the apoptotic effects of asperlin. The involvement of oxidative stress in asperlin induced apoptosis could be supported by the findings that ROS- and DNA damage-associated G2/M phase arrest and ATM phosphorylation were increased by asperlin. In addition, expression and phosphorylation of cell cycle proteins as well as G2/M phase arrest in response to asperlin were significantly blocked by NAC or an ATM inhibitor KU-55933 pretreatment. Collectively, our study proved for the first time that asperlin could be developed as a potential anti-cancer therapeutics through ROS generation in HeLa cells.

  15. Identification of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-associated genes in early stage cervical squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Liu, Y; Liu, C-B; Ling, Z-Q

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective study investigated gene expression in tumour samples from 38 patients with early stage human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of viral markers of HPV16 or HPV18 infection. Gene expression profiles of tumour samples and the corresponding normal cervical epithelium were analysed using cDNA microarrays. Several genes showed differential expression between the two groups of HPV-infected CSCC patients, although seven genes showed similar changes in both groups. The four genes encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, matrix metallopeptidase 9, laminin γ-1, and epidermal growth factor receptor were up-regulated, and the three genes encoding transforming growth factor β receptor 1, interleukin-1α and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6 were down-regulated, in both HPV16(+) and HPV18(+) CSCC. These proteins are involved in cell proliferation, cell structure and cell attachment, so their expression might be involved in the mechanism of HPV-induced carcino genesis. A clearer understanding of HPV type-specific gene expression might aid diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Human papillomavirus distribution in invasive cervical carcinoma in sub-Saharan Africa: could HIV explain the differences?

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Cathy; Alemany, Laia; Ndiaye, Nafissatou; Kamaté, Bakarou; Diop, Yankhoba; Odida, Michael; Banjo, Kunbi; Tous, Sara; Klaustermeier, Jo Ellen; Clavero, Omar; Castellsagué, Xavier; Bosch, F Xavier; Trottier, Helen; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    To describe human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution in invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) from Mali and Senegal and to compare type-specific relative contribution among sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. A multicentric study was conducted to collect paraffin-embedded blocks of ICC. Polymerase chain reaction, DNA enzyme immunoassay and line probe assay were performed for HPV detection and genotyping. Data from SSA (Mozambique, Nigeria and Uganda) and 35 other countries were compared. One hundred and sixty-four ICC cases from Mali and Senegal were tested from which 138 were positive (adjusted prevalence = 86.8%; 95% CI = 79.7-91.7%). HPV16 and HPV18 accounted for 57.2% of infections and HPV45 for 16.7%. In SSA countries, HPV16 was less frequent than in the rest of the world (49.4%vs. 62.6%; P < 0.0001) but HPV18 and HPV45 were two times more frequent (19.3%vs. 9.4%; P < 0.0001 and 10.3%vs. 5.6%; P < 0.0001, respectively). There was an ecological correlation between HIV prevalence and the increase of HPV18 and the decrease of HPV45 in ICC in SSA (P = 0.037 for both). HPV16/18/45 accounted for two-thirds of the HPV types found in invasive cervical cancer in Mali and Senegal. Our results suggest that HIV may play a role in the underlying HPV18 and HPV45 contribution to cervical cancer, but further studies are needed to confirm this correlation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Del Sordo, Rachele; Bellezza, Guido; Colella, Renato; Mameli, Maria Grazia; Sidoni, Angelo; Cavaliere, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare histologic variant of adenocarcinoma. Generally, this neoplasm occurs in middle age and the clinical presentation does not differ from the most frequent transitional cell carcinomas. The prognosis is frequently poor as at diagnosis it is often in an advanced phase. It is essential to distinguish this carcinoma from metastases, as different therapeutic strategies are often necessary. We present 5 cases of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and we used a panel of histochemical and immunohistochemical markers for differential diagnosis from secondary carcinoma in an attempt to elucidate the histogenetic derivation of this neoplasia.

  18. Primary pure squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Graur, Florin; Mois, Emil; Al Hajjar, Nadim

    2014-09-01

    Primary pure squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum is a very rare type of duodenal neoplasm and is more likely to be presented as a metastatic tumor. The literature offers little information on this subject and includes very few articles and case reports. Laboratory tests, CT and ultrasound examinations, x-rays and immunohistochemical markers assisted us in making this rare diagnosis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum in a 47 year old female patient, who presented with weight loss and melena. The 8 cm duodenal tumor with pancreas invasion was resected by a cephalic duodenopancreatectomy. The pathology examination revealed a primary duodenal squamous cell carcinoma moderately differentiated (G2), invasive in the head of the pancreas, with keratinization, stage II B (pT4N0MxL0V0R0). Positive outcome after surgery was highlighted, no recurrence being registered at the 6 month CT scan follow-up.

  19. Supraclavicular lymph node metastasis as the initial presentation of primary fallopian tube carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Tateoka, Kazuhiro; Fukaya, Kazumasa; Terada, Tadashi; Kubushiro, Kaneyuki

    2010-06-01

    Supraclavicular lymph node metastasis is a rare presentation of primary fallopian tube carcinoma. A 76-year-old woman presented with an enlarged supraclavicular lymph node. A biopsy was performed, and its findings confirmed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Subsequent exploratory laparotomy revealed right fallopian tube carcinoma as the primary lesion; consequently, right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. After adjuvant chemotherapy, she underwent a laparotomy with total abdominal hysterectomy, left salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node sampling, and omentectomy. Supraclavicular lymph node metastasis was thought to be, although rarely, the first manifestation of primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC). When supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of an unknown origin is encountered, the possibility of PFTC should be considered.

  20. Primary malignant melanoma of uterine cervix with probable origin from benign cervical melanosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nilanchali; Tripathi, Reva; Mala, Yedla Manikya

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of cervix which is a rare malignancy with only around 60 cases being reported. This patient presented with bleeding per vaginum. A large exophytic growth from cervix with black discolouration was seen. International Federation of Gynaecology and Obsterics (FIGO) staging was stage IIa. Histoimmunocytology confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma of cervix. S-100 and HMB-45 are reliable markers for cervical melanomas. We attempted Wertheim's hysterectomy; but, due to extensive disease, paravescical and pararectal fossae could not be dissected and we had to perform type I hysterectomy. The patient was started on adjuvant chemotherapy with dacarbazine. Despite counselling, she refused a complete course of chemotherapy and died after 6 months. Radical surgery, chemotherapy and immunotherapy are the therapeutic modalities used. In bulky disease, neoadjuvant chemotherapy should be considered to reduce the tumour bulk and facilitate required surgery. Prognosis is poor and unpredictable. PMID:23737592

  1. Detection of primary breast cancer presenting as metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary origin by 111In-pentetreotide scan.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, R; Kim, E E; Raber, M N; Abbruzzese, J L

    1998-02-01

    Women with isolated metastatic carcinoma or adenocarcinoma involving axillary lymph nodes are a well-recognized group of unknown primary carcinoma (UPC) patients with a favorable prognosis. This group of patients are generally treated based on the assumption that they have occult breast cancer. However, to facilitate patient access to the whole spectrum of therapies available for patients with breast cancer, including strategies involving the use of high-dose chemotherapy, a precise diagnosis is increasingly important. In this clinical case we report the detection of a primary breast cancer by 111In-pentetreotide scanning in a woman who presented with metastatic carcinoma in axillary nodes, no palpable breast lesion, a nondiagnostic mammogram, and negative breast ultrasonography. Previous outcomes analysis of patients with UPC have emphasized the value of identifying women with breast cancer. This report suggests that the 111In-pentetreotide scan can contribute specific, clinically useful information in the evaluation of women presenting with metastatic carcinoma in axillary nodes and an occult primary and deserves prospective study in women with UPC presenting with isolated axillary metastases.

  2. A Rare Cause of the Cough: Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of Esophagus—Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yekeler, Erdal; Koca, Timur; Vural, Semra

    2012-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a relatively rare malignancy. It is highly progressive and poorly prognostic in untreated conditions. In the western populations, the rate of primary small cell carcinoma in all esophageal cancer types is between 0.05% and 2.4%, while it is endemically increasing up to 7.6% in the eastern populations. Most of the cases are in extensive stage at the time of diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice in limited stages, but treatment must be multimodal in primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus. A 47-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with gradually increasing severe dry cough and slight difficulty in swallowing for 20 days. Chest X-ray graphy was normal, and computed tomography of the chest showed multiple mediastinal lymph nodes and hepatic metastases. Her endoscopic examination revealed an endoluminal vegetative mass between 20 cm and 23 cm of her esophagus. The case was reported as small cell carcinoma of the esophagus on histopathological examination. The case was assumed inoperable, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy were planned. We presented a rare cause of the cough and primary esophageal small cell carcinoma in this paper. PMID:22461794

  3. CYP1A1 MspI Polymorphism and Cervical Carcinoma Risk in the Multi-Ethnic Population of Malaysia: a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yee Hock; Sidik, Shiran Mohd; Syed Husain, Sharifah Noor Akmal; Lye, Munn Sann; Chong, Pei Pei

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is considered a risk factor for cervical cancer development due to the presence of tobacco based carcinogenic metabolites in cervical cells of female smokers. In this study, we investigated the role of the T3801C (MspI) polymorphism of CYP1A1, a gene encoding an enzyme necessary for the initiation of tobacco based carcinogen metabolism, on cervical cancer risk. The T to C substitution may alter CYP1A1 activities, potentially elevating cervical cancer risk. Since results of gene-disease association studies vary according to the study population, the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia provides an excellent representative cohort for identifying and comparing the cervical cancer risk among the 3 major ethnics in Southeast Asia in relation to CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism. A total of 195 Thin Prep Pap smear samples from HPV negative and cancer free females were randomly selected as controls while 106 formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples from females with invasive cervical cancer were randomly selected for the cases group. The polymorphisms were identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) PCR. We found no significant associations between CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism and cervical cancer in the general Malaysian female population. However, upon ethnic stratification, the variant C/C genotype was significantly associated with a 4.66-fold increase in cervical cancer risk in Malay females (95% CI= 1.21-17.9; p=0.03). No significant association was observed in the Chinese and Indian females. Additionally, there were no significant associations in the dominant model and allele frequency model analysis in both the general and ethnically stratified female population of Malaysia. Our findings suggest that the C/C genotype of CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism is associated with the development of cervical carcinoma in the Malay females of Malaysia.

  4. Primary gastric adenosquamous carcinoma in an Indian male.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Rinkesh Kumar; Sharma, Praveen; Kaur, Ramneet; Arora, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the stomach is a very rare tumor comprising less than 0.5% of all stomach malignancies. Here, we report a case of a 37-year-old male, who presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the form of hematemesis and malena. A subtotal gastrectomy was done in view of massive uncontrolled bleed. Histology showed evidence of ASC of the body and antrum with metastasis to the liver, perigastric lymph nodes and peritoneal and pleural cavity.

  5. Triapine With Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With IB2-IVA Cervical or Vulvar Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-12

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Vulvar Adenocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. Prediction of thyroid extracapsular extension with cervical lymph node metastases (ECE-LN) by CEUS and BRAF expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xi; Li, Ying; Zhang, Sheng; Gao, Ming

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our study was to find a specific imaging